WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer preventive peptide

  1. Insect antimicrobial peptides: potential tools for the prevention of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonk, Miray; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Rahnamaeian, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Antimicrobial peptides/proteins (AMPs) are biologically active molecules with diverse structural properties that are produced by mammals, plants, insects, ticks, and microorganisms. They have a range of antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and even anticancer activities, and their biological properties could therefore be exploited for therapeutic and prophylactic applications. Cancer and cancer drug resistance are significant current health challenges, so the development of innovative cancer drugs with minimal toxicity toward normal cells and novel modes of action that can evade resistance may provide a new direction for anticancer therapy. The skin is the first line of defense against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection, and skin cancer is thus the most common type of cancer. The skin that has been exposed to sunlight is particularly susceptible, but lesions can occur anywhere on the body. Skin cancer awareness and self-efficacy are necessary to improve sun protection behavior, but more effective preventative approaches are also required. AMPs may offer a new prophylactic approach against skin cancer. In this mini review, we draw attention to the potential use of insect AMPs for the prevention and treatment of skin cancer. PMID:27418360

  2. A role for milk proteins and their peptides in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, P W

    2007-01-01

    A role for the amount and type of dietary protein in the etiology of cancer has not been studied extensively. Nevertheless, there is no compelling evidence from epidemiological studies to indicate that protein, at levels usually consumed, is a risk factor for cancer. On the other hand, animal studies suggest that certain peptides and amino acids derived from dietary proteins may influence carcinogenesis. The predominant protein in milk, casein, its peptides, but not liberated amino acids, have antimutagenic properties. Animal models, usually for colon and mammary tumorigenesis, nearly always show that whey protein is superior to other dietary proteins for suppression of tumour development. This benefit is attributed to its high content of cystine/cysteine and gamma-glutamylcyst(e)ine dipeptides, which are efficient substrates for the synthesis of glutathione. Glutathione is an ubiquitous cellular antioxidant that directly or through its associated enzymes destroys reactive oxygen species, detoxifies carcinogens, maintains proteins in a reduced state and ensures a competent immune system. Various experiments showed that tumour prevention by dietary whey protein was accompanied by increased glutathione levels in serum and tissues as well as enhanced splenic lymphocyte proliferation, phagocytosis and natural killer, T helper and cytotoxic T cell activity. Whey protein components, beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin and serum albumin were studied infrequently, but results suggest they have anticancer potential. The minor component lactoferrin has received the most attention; it inhibits intestinal tumours and perhaps tumours at other sites. Lactoferrin acts by induction of apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis, modulation of carcinogen metabolising enzymes and perhaps acting as an iron scavenger. Supplementing cows with selenium increases the content of selenoproteins in milk, which on isolation inhibited colon tumorigenesis in rats. PMID:17430183

  3. A peptide derived from α-fetoprotein prevents the growth of estrogen-dependent human breast cancers sensitive and resistant to tamoxifen

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Bennett; Mesfin, Fassil B.; Andersen, Thomas T.; Gierthy, John F.; Jacobson, Herbert I.

    2002-01-01

    An 8-mer peptide (EMTOVNOG) derived from α-fetoprotein was compared with tamoxifen for activity against growth of human breast cancer xenografts implanted in immune-deficient mice. Both peptide and tamoxifen prevented growth of estrogen-receptor-positive MCF-7 and T47D human breast cancer xenografts. A subline of MCF-7, made resistant to tamoxifen by a 6-month exposure to this drug in culture, was found to be resistant to tamoxifen in vivo. Peptide completely prevented the xenograft growth of...

  4. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  5. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Cancer ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  6. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Stomach Cancer Key Points Stomach (gastric) cancer is a ...

  7. Cancer prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction A 44 year old woman attends your surgery,distressed by the fact that her closest friend has just been given a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. She wants to know how to minimise her risk of developing cancer.

  8. Targeting cancer with peptide aptamers

    OpenAIRE

    Seigneuric, Renaud; Gobbo, Jessica; Colas, Pierre; Garrido, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    A major endeavour in cancer chemotherapy is to develop agents that specifically target a biomolecule of interest. There are two main classes of targeting agents: small molecules and biologics. Among biologics (e.g.: antibodies), DNA, RNA but also peptide aptamers are relatively recent agents. Peptide aptamers are seldom described but represent attractive agents that can inhibit a growing panel of oncotargets including Heat Shock Proteins. Potential pitfalls and coming challenges towards succe...

  9. Statins and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCI Division of Cancer Prevention Web site at http://prevention.cancer.gov on the Internet. More information on cholesterol-lowering drugs can be obtained from the FDA Web site at http://www.fda.gov on the Internet. Related Resources Causes and Prevention Posted: June 2, ...

  10. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. CANCER CAN BE PREVENTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Life style factors are contributing significantly in cancer prevention. With the intake of proper and balanced diet ,cancer prevention is possible. Many foods are associated either with incidence or prevention of cancer. Plant based foods like fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains rich in fiber, b-carotene, vitamins and antioxidants can prevent cancer. Fiber rich foods increase bowel movement, decreasing the absorption of cholesterol. Pumpkin, carrots contain b-carotenes. Leafy vegetables, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, peas and beans are rich in fiber and stimulate cancer preventing enzyme induction. Vitamin C rich citrus fruits can stimulate immune system. Garlic and onions can stimulate enzymes that can suppress tumor growth. Turmeric used in cooking can prevent colorectal cancer. Topical application of turmeric can prevent breast cancer in women. On the other hand, certain foods can cause cancer. Refined foods, high fat foods, deep fried foods, processed foods and low fiber foods increase cancer risk. Red meat, processed meat and barbeques contain a carcinogen called acrylamide. Foods prepared with hydrogenated fats contain transfats which increase risk for breast, ovarian, cervical and lung cancer. Consumption of alcohol increasing the risk for cancers of digestive system. LET US EAT RIGHT FOODS AND AVOID WRONG FOODS.

  12. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  13. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship provides a strong foundation for scientists and clinicians to train in the field of cancer prevention and control. This structured, multidisciplinary program offers early career scientists from different health disciplines a variety of postdoctoral training opportunities . | Training to form a strong foundation in cancer prevention and control for scientists and clinicians.

  14. Biorepositories | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carefully collected and controlled high-quality human biospecimens, annotated with clinical data and properly consented for investigational use, are available through the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories listed in the charts below. Biorepositories Managed by the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories Supported by the Division of Cancer Prevention Related Biorepositories | Information about accessing biospecimens collected from DCP-supported clinical trials and projects.

  15. Can Ovarian Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Can ovarian cancer be found early? Can ovarian cancer be prevented? Most women have one or ... strategies for women with a family history of ovarian cancer or BRCA mutation If your family history ...

  16. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  17. Prevention strategies in prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Trottier, Greg; Lawrentschuk, N.; Fleshner, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer (pca) prevention has been an exciting and controversial topic since the results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (pcpt) were published. With the recently published results of the reduce (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) trial, interest in this topic is at a peak. Primary pca prevention will be unlikely to affect mortality significantly, but the reduction in overtreatment and the effect on quality of life from the avoidance of a cancer diagnosis are im...

  18. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quit General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are diseases in ... about how you might lower your risk of cancer. Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are two different ...

  19. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  1. News | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    News about scientific advances in cancer prevention, program activities, and new projects are included here in NCI press releases and fact sheets, articles from the NCI Cancer Bulletin, and Clinical Trial News from the NCI website.

  2. Home | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Research The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into cancer. |

  3. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. This one-week intense learning session provides specialized instruction in the role of diet and bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer incidence and tumor behavior. |

  4. Cancer Prevention Overview (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large amount of arsenic has been linked to skin , bladder, and lung cancers. Studies have been done ...

  5. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate cancer increases as men get older. Family history of prostate cancer A man whose father, brother, ... some foods, such as green vegetables, beans and orange juice. Folic acid is a man-made form ...

  6. Future directions in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Asad; Dunn, Barbara K; Greenwald, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Prevention of cancer remains the most promising strategy for reducing both its incidence and the mortality due to this disease. For more than four decades, findings from epidemiology, basic research and clinical trials have informed the development of lifestyle and medical approaches to cancer prevention. These include selective oestrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer, the 5-α-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride for prostate cancer, and the development of vaccines for viruses that are associated with specific cancers. Future directions include genetic, proteomic and other molecular approaches for identifying pathways that are associated with cancer initiation and development, as well as refining the search for immunologically modifiable causes of cancer. PMID:23151603

  7. Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or other cancers, including lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma, and cancers of the lung, bladder, pancreas, and colon and rectum ( 26 ). Overall, these nine ... the incidence and mortality of carcinoma of the pancreas in a randomized, controlled trial. Cancer 1999; 86(1):37-42. [PubMed Abstract] Virtamo ...

  8. Annual Advances in Cancer Prevention Lecture | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015 Keynote Lecture HPV Vaccination: Preventing More with Less A special keynote lecture became part of the NCI summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention in 2000. This lecture will be held on Thursday, July 23, 2015 at 3:00pm at Masur Auditorium, Building 10, NIH Main Campus, Bethesda, MD. This year’s keynote speaker is Dr. Douglas Lowy, NCI Acting Director. |

  9. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Casari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  10. Cancer Treatment Using Peptides: Current Therapies and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Jyothi Thundimadathil

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of peptides in cancer therapy with special emphasis on peptide drugs which are already approved and those in clinical trials. The potential of peptides in cancer treatment is evident from a variety of different strategies that are available to address the progression of tumor growth and propagation of the disease. Use of peptides that can directly target cancer cells without affecting normal cells (targeted therapy) is evolving as an alternate strategy to convent...

  11. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... linking the development of this disease, in many cases, with exposure to the hormone estrogen. The focus of recent breast cancer prevention studies has been on testing the effectiveness of drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). SERMs are ...

  12. Can Vulvar Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as the skin on the genital or anal area. Still, condoms do provide some protection against HPV, and they also protect against HIV and some ... cancers. They are also approved to help prevent anal and genital warts, as well ... cancers. More HPV vaccines are being developed and tested. For more ...

  13. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This may lead to liver cancer. Blood banks test all donated blood for hepatitis B, which greatly lowers the risk of getting the ... This may lead to liver cancer. Blood banks test all donated blood for hepatitis C, which ... infected with hepatitis B. It is caused by hepatitis D virus (HDV) ...

  14. Prevention strategies for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz-Dräger, B J; Lümmen, G; Bismarck, E; Fischer, C

    2012-12-01

    Through the last decade consideration of the role of vitamins and minerals in primary prevention of genitourinary tumors has dramatically changed. Despite all efforts efficacy of a specific compound has not been proven, so far. In consequence, recommendations for a use of vitamins or other supplements with the intention of prostate cancer prevention should be avoided today. In contrast, there is some evidence that life style modification might be helpful: recent investigations suggest that smoking may be involved in prostate cancer carcinogenesis. In addition, there is evidence that moderate food consumption, reduction of dairy products and an Asian or Mediterranean diet might not only prevent prostate cancer but also harbors additional beneficial effects on general health. This move from single compounds to more complex diets can be considered as a change of paradigm in prostate cancer prevention and could be the starting point of future epidemiological research. Disappointing findings with regards to nutritional cancer prevention contrast with a solid evidence concerning the efficacy of chemoprevention using 5a-reductase inhibitors: Long-term use of Finasteride and Dutasteride significantly reduces prostate cancer detection. Further candidate drugs are under investigation. However, translation of these findings into urological practice remains a matter of controversial discussion. PMID:23288209

  15. Hyaluronic Acid Binding Peptides Prevent Experimental Staphylococcal Wound Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Zaleski, Kathleen J. ; Kolodka, Tadeusz; Cywes-Bentley, Colette; McLoughlin, Rachel M.; Mary L. Delaney; Charlton, Bernard T.; Johnson, Wendy; Tzianabos, Arthur O.

    2006-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of surgical wound infections. The development of mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance by this and other bacterial pathogens has prompted the search for new approaches to treat infectious diseases. Hyaluronic acid binding peptides have been shown to modulate cellular trafficking during host responses and were assessed for their ability to treat and possibly prevent experimental surgical wound infections caused by S. aureus. Treatment with these peptides...

  16. Endometrial Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnant. This increases the risk of endometrial cancer. Tamoxifen Tamoxifen is one of a group of drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators , or SERMs. Tamoxifen acts like estrogen on some tissues in the ...

  17. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the risk of breast cancer: Having an abortion. Making diet changes such as eating less fat or more ... does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care. Reviewers and Updates Editorial Boards ...

  18. About DCP | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is the primary unit of the National Cancer Institute devoted to cancer prevention research. DCP provides funding and administrative support to clinical and laboratory researchers, community and multidisciplinary teams, and collaborative scientific networks. |

  19. Preventing Infections During Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Angela; Tai, Eric; Nielsen, Danielle Beauchesne; Shropshire, Sonya; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in oncology care, infections from both community and healthcare settings remain a major cause of hospitalization and death among patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Neutropenia (low white blood cell count) is a common and potentially dangerous side effect in patients receiving chemotherapy treatments and may lead to higher risk of infection. Preventing infection during treatment can result in significant decreases in morbidity and mortality for patients with cancer. As part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients public health campaign, a public-private partnership was formed between the CDC Foundation and Amgen, Inc. The CDC’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control developed and launched an interactive website, www.PreventCancerInfections.org, designed for patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. The site encourages patients to complete a risk assessment for developing neutropenia during their treatment. After completing the assessment, patients receive information about how to lower the risk for infection and keep themselves healthy while receiving chemotherapy. PMID:25095295

  20. Cancer treatment: preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are safe. DO NOT eat fish, eggs, or meat that is raw or undercooked. And DO NOT ... During or right after cancer treatment, call your health care provider right away if you have any of the signs of infection mentioned above. Getting ...

  1. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk? What Are the Symptoms? What Should I Know About Screening? Statistics Related Links Inside Knowledge Campaign What CDC Is Doing Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Printable Versions Standard quality PDF [PDF-877KB] High-quality PDF for professional ...

  2. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  3. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Ilaria Casari; Marco Falasca

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and d...

  4. Annual Advances in Cancer Prevention Lecture | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016 Keynote Lecture Polyvalent Vaccines Targeting Oncogenic Driver Pathways A special keynote lecture became part of the NCI Summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention in 2000. This lecture will be held on Thursday, July 21, 2016 at 1:30pm at Masur Auditorium, Building 10, NIH Main Campus, Bethesda, MD. This year’s keynote speaker is Dr. Mary L. (Nora) Disis, MD. |

  5. Peptides for radiotherapy of neuroendocrine cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade there has been a resurgence of interest in therapeutic nuclear medicine, due to the limitation of conventional or external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of secondary or metastatic cancer sites outside of the primary treatment area. Some of the human tumours that produce metastases express high levels of somatostatin receptors. In order to make possible the diagnostic and radiotherapeutic treatment of these kind of tumours, various somatostatin analogue peptides have been developed in recent years. Peptides have become an important class of radiopharmaceuticals,due to its unique ability to detect specific sites as receptors or enzymes. This paper describes the work with 99m Tc to establish the labelling and analytical conditions for a somatostatin analogue as a precursor, to undertake a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical labelled with 188 Re for treatment of somatostatin receptor positive tumours. (Author)

  6. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... look for the gene mutations found in familial medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Because of this, most of the familial cases of MTC can be prevented or treated early by removing the thyroid gland. Once the disease is discovered in a family, the rest of ...

  7. CPFP Summer Curriculum: Molecular Prevention Course | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) one-week course on molecular aspects of cancer prevention follows the Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course. It provides a strong background about molecular biology and genetics of cancer, and an overview of cutting-edge research and techniques in the fields of molecular epidemiology, biomarkers, multi-omic, and translational research. The following topics will be typically presented: |

  8. Preventing Vomiting Caused by Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Cancer Treatment Request Permissions Print to PDF Preventing Vomiting Caused by Cancer Treatment November 2, 2015 ... Torisel) Topotecan (Hycamtin, Brakiva) Trastuzumab (Herceptin) Recommendations for preventing vomiting caused by chemotherapy and targeted therapy The ...

  9. Clinical Trials Management | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials. Protocol Information Office The central clearinghouse for clinical trials management within the Division of Cancer Prevention.Read more about the Protocol Information Office. | Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials.

  10. Survival in prostate cancer prevention trial detailed

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the NCI-sponsored Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, initial findings from a decade ago showed that the drug finasteride significantly reduced the risk of prostate cancer, but among those who did develop prostate cancer, paradoxically, the drug was asso

  11. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G; Nikolova, D; Simonetti, R G;

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  12. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G;

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  13. Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. 预防肿瘤术后复发和转移的最新疗法 :热休克蛋白 /肽复合物疫苗的研究与应用%A new strategy to prevent cancer recurrence and metastasis after operation:research and application of heat shock protein/peptides complex vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈继营; 袁玫; 卢世璧

    2002-01-01

    Deepened understanding of the mechanism involved in the activation of T cells and improved molecular biology techniques have brought a promising strategy to active a patient's immune system to prevent tumor recurrence and metastasis. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are chaperones of peptides,It can elicit array of immune responses,such as:present tumor antigens to T cells, stimulate antigen presenting cells to secrete cytokines,mediate maturation of dentritic cells,active NK cells and/T cells.Extract HSP/peptides complex from tumor cells can be used as a polyvalent vaccine for treatment of cancers,The elicited antigen specific immune response is restricted to the tumor from which the HSPs are purified.HSP/peptides complex vaccine has been started in third clinical trials.The rationale,feasibility,advantages and safety of this new approach were discussed.

  15. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Harris, MD, MPH, MBA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network is a national network recently established to focus on developing new interventions and disseminating and translating proven interventions into practice to reduce cancer burden and disparities, especially among minority and medically underserved populations. Jointly funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network consists of sites administered through Prevention Research Centers funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The five sites are located in Kentucky, Massachusetts, South Carolina, Texas, Washington State, and West Virginia. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network’s intervention areas include primary prevention of cancer through healthy eating, physical activity, sun avoidance, tobacco control, and early detection of cancer through screening. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network uses the methods of community-based participatory research and seeks to build on the cancer-relevant systematic reviews of the Guide to Community Preventive Services. Initial foci for the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network’s research work groups include projects to increase screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers; to promote informed decision making for prostate cancer screening; and to validate educational materials developed for low-literacy populations.

  16. Prostate and Urologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of prostate and bladder cancer. | Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of prostate, bladder, and skin cancers.

  17. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV | Prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers and their precursors.

  18. Molecular imaging of cancer with radiolabeled peptides and PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vāvere, Amy L; Rossin, Raffaella

    2012-06-01

    Radiolabeled peptides hold promise for diagnosis and therapy of cancer as well as for early monitoring of therapy outcomes, patient stratification, etc. This manuscript focuses on the development of peptides labeled with 18F, 64Cu, 68Ga and other positron-emitting radionuclides for PET imaging. The major techniques for radionuclide incorporation are briefly discussed. Then, examples of positron-emitting peptides targeting somatostatin receptors, integrins, gastrin-releasing peptide receptors, vasointestinal peptide receptors, melanocortin 1 receptors and others are reviewed. PMID:22292762

  19. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WHEELER COSETTE M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.

  20. Friday's Agenda | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    TimeAgenda8:00 am - 8:10 amWelcome and Opening RemarksLeslie Ford, MDAssociate Director for Clinical ResearchDivision of Cancer Prevention, NCIEva Szabo, MD Chief, Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research GroupDivision of Cancer Prevention, NCI8:10 am - 8:40 amClinical Trials Statistical Concepts for Non-Statisticians |

  1. Growth hormone releasing peptide 2 reverses anorexia associated with chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil in colon cancer cell-bearing mice

    OpenAIRE

    Perboni, Simona; Bowers, Cyril; Kojima, Shinya; Asakawa, Akihiro; Inui, Akio

    2008-01-01

    The cancer-associated anorexia-cachexia syndrome is observed in 80% of patients with advanced-stage cancer, and is one of the major obstacles in chemotherapy. Ghrelin is a orexigenic hormone that has been proposed to prevent anorexia. Aim of the study was to determine whether the addition of the ghrelin agonist growth hormone releasing peptide 2 (GHRP-2) to cytotoxic therapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) prevents the anorexia associated with chemotherapy in cancer cachectic mice. Thirty-three BA...

  2. Gastric cancer: prevention, risk factors and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zali, Hakimeh; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Azodi, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Cancer starts with a change in one single cell. This change may be initiated by external agents and genetic factors. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and accounts for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year. In this review, different aspects of gastric cancer; including clinical, pathological characteristic of gastric cancer, etiology, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatme...

  3. Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

  4. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevention. No woman should die of cervical cancer. Doctors, nurses, and health systems can: Help women understand what ... Cancer Early Detection Program , Title X Family Planning Doctors, nurses, and health systems can Help women understand which ...

  5. Prevention program of cervical cancer - Enrique Pouey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the first basic objectives in the prevention of cervical cancer in Uruguay. The Papanicolaou test, the biopsia, and the colposcopy are important studies for the early cervical cancer detection

  6. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  7. OSTP as a novel peptide specifically targeting human ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; He, Xiaojuan; Liu, Xiaomin; Tang, Zheng; Liang, Xiaoqiu

    2015-08-01

    Ovarian cancer is a disease that seriously threatens the health of women and results in a high mortality rate. The present study aimed to investigate the novel peptide OSTP (peptide for specifically targeting ovarian cancer) to provide new methods for the effective diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer. The nude mouse ovarian cancer model was established. With the use of phage peptide display in vivo, a novel 7-amino peptide for specific binding to ovarian cancer was screened from the FliTrx bacterial peptide display system. OSTP was compounded and labeled with fluorescent pigment 5-FAM. The specificity and affinity of OSTP were tested in the ovarian cancer cell line A2780 in vitro. The tumor-targeting assays of OSTP were performed in vivo by injecting 5-FAM-OSTP into tumor-bearing mice. Clinical tissue specimens were tested by fluorescence staining following the addition of 5-FAM-OSTP. We found that the peptide specifically bound to ovarian cancer A2780 cells. Cell fluorescence staining showed that 5-FAM-OSTP obviously and specifically bound to ovarian cancer A2780 cells, particularly to the cell membrane. One hour after i.v. peptide injection, 5-FAM-OSTP specifically targeted the tumor tissues in the tumor-bearing mice. In the human pathological sections, 5-FAM-OSTP exhibited strong specific binding to ovarian cancer tissues. The cell membrane and cytoplasm of the cells exhibited a fluorescent signal. This signal was more evident on the cell membrane. The present results suggest that OSTP is a potential strategy for the development of new diagnostic strategies and drug-targeted therapies for ovarian cancer. PMID:26081347

  8. 2014 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. 2015 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. 2013 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. 2016 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Biometry Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Clinical Trials Node | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. News Archives | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Active Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Meetings and Events | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Nutritional Science Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Major Programs | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations, research networks, investigator-initiated grants, postdoctoral training, and specialized resources across the United States. |

  19. Perspectives for Cancer Prevention With Natural Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, A. R. M. Ruhul; KUCUK, Omer; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Dong M Shin

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Despite the estimated 565,650 deaths in 2008 of Americans as a result of cancer, it is mostly a preventable disease. Simply by modification of diet, maintenance of optimum body weight, and regular physical activity, 30% to 40% of all instances of cancer could be prevented. Modification of diet alone by increasing vegetable and fruit intake could prevent 20% or more of all cases of cancer and may potentially prevent approximatel...

  20. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  1. Optimizing mouse models for precision cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Magnen, Clémentine; Dutta, Aditya; Abate-Shen, Cory

    2016-03-01

    As cancer has become increasingly prevalent, cancer prevention research has evolved towards placing a greater emphasis on reducing cancer deaths and minimizing the adverse consequences of having cancer. 'Precision cancer prevention' takes into account the collaboration of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in influencing cancer incidence and aggressiveness in the context of the individual, as well as recognizing that such knowledge can improve early detection and enable more accurate discrimination of cancerous lesions. However, mouse models, and particularly genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models, have yet to be fully integrated into prevention research. In this Opinion article, we discuss opportunities and challenges for precision mouse modelling, including the essential criteria of mouse models for prevention research, representative success stories and opportunities for more refined analyses in future studies. PMID:26893066

  2. Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program (Consortia) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five cancer research centers lead multiple collaborative networks to assess potential cancer preventive agents and to conduct early clinical development of promising preventive agents. Also called the Consortia for Early Phase Prevention Trials, the studies require extensive biomarker analysis, investigation of the biologic effects of the cancer preventive agents on their intended molecular targets and on multiple endpoints associated with carcinogenesis, and correlation with clinically relevant endpoints.  | Systematic early clinical development of promising preventive agents through five major medical research centers.

  3. Lifestyle changes for prevention of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Seyed Hesam Bani; Karimi, Samieh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer among women. Lifestyle changes are shown to be important in the prevention of breast cancer. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and vitamin and mineral use are key factors influencing the risk of breast cancer among women. Because these factors are related to each other, it is difficult to assess their individual roles in breast cancer. Some of these factors are alterable, meaning that women can decrease their risk...

  4. Research Networks Map | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.  Five Major Programs' sites are shown on this map. | The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.

  5. Prostate and Urologic Cancer Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Prostate and Urologic Cancer Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Active Prostate and Urologic Cancer Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Pancreatic Cancer Chemoprevention Translational Workshop | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursday, September 10th (6:00 to 9:30 PM) Welcome Barnett Kramer, MD, MPH (6:00 to 6:10 PM) Director of the Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI Introduction – Goals of the Workshop: ABCs of Cancer Prevention (Agents, Biomarkers, Cohorts) Mark Miller, PhD (6:10 to 6:25 PM) Program Director Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI |

  10. C-type natriuretic peptide in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Soeren Junge; Iversen, Peter; Rehfeld, Jens F.;

    2009-01-01

    CNP-derived peptides were quantitated in plasma from patients with prostate cancer. Blood was collected from healthy controls and patients before surgery for localized prostate cancer. Tissue extracts were prepared from tissue biopsies obtained from radical prostatectomy surgery. N-terminal proCNP, proCNP (1-50) and...

  11. Cervical cancer: Can it be prevented?

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Pakhee

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer prevention requires a multipronged approach involving primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The key element under primary prevention is human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. So far, only prophylactic HPV vaccines which prevent HPV infection by one or more subtypes are commercially available. Therapeutic HPV vaccines which aid in clearing established infection are still under trial. Secondary prevention entails early detection of precancerous lesions and its success is...

  12. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  13. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  14. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus ( ... can do to decrease your chance of having cervical cancer. Also, tests done by your health care provider ...

  15. PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PREVENT program provides a structure for the introduction of new agents, drugs and vaccines to inhibit, retard or reverse the cancer process. The program was designed to optimize translational opportunities from discovery to the clinic, and provide a mechanism to identify and study efficacy and pharmacodynamics biomarkers that will help in phase II trials to evaluate drug effects.  | Research pipeline for new prevention interventions and biomarkers headed toward clinical trials.

  16. Overview of gastrointestinal cancer prevention in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Lee, Ho-Jae; Yoo, Jun Hwan; Ko, Weon Jin; Cho, Joo Young; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2015-12-01

    "War on cancer" was declared through the National Cancer Act by President Richard Nixon in 1971, but cancer statistics from the American Cancer Society and other sources indicated the failure of this war, suggesting instead focus on the message that a "prevention strategy" might be much more effective than cancer treatment. While cancer statistics notoriously showed sharp increases in incidence as well as in mortality concurrent with economic growth in Asia, fortunately Asian countries benefit from plentiful resources of natural compounds, which can prevent cancer. Just like cancer chemotherapeutics targeted to kill cancer cells in Western countries, natural agents activating molecular mechanisms for cancer prevention, reversion of premalignant tumors, and even ablation of cancer stem cells, are very abundant in Asia. Currently, these natural agents are under very active investigations targeting the hallmarks of cancer prevention, including selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells, suppression of growth factors or their signaling, suppression of cell proliferation and of cancer-promoting angiogenesis, induction of mesenchymal-epithelial transition, and disruption of the tumor microenvironment, developing promising cancer preventive agents. However, Asia is the most populous continent in the world and some Asian countries do not have the resources to implement cancer screening programs for early detection or treatment. In addition, despite the excellent cancer preventive screening strategies in some Asian countries, well-designed clinical trials for cancer prevention are somewhat delayed compared to Western countries. In this review article, several phytochemicals/phytoceuticals produced and studied in different Asian countries will be introduced, including Korean red ginseng (pride of Korea), curcumin (Indian spice for life), black or green tea (popular in Japan/Sri Lanka), genistein from tofu (famous Chinese food), diallylsulfide or S-allylcysteine (garlic

  17. Possibilities for the prevention of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of evidence suggest that the prevention of cancer is a practical possibility: first, our increasing knowledge of the causes of cancer, many of which can be avoided without difficulty, and second, evidence that all common cancers whose causes are still unknown vary in incidence with place, time or social group. Many known causes still exist, however, and are responsible for hundreds of thousands of cases annually throughout the world. Practical possibilities for prevention now and in the near future include changes in personal habits (tobacco, alcohol, diet), control of exposure to known cancer-producing substances (carcinogens) in both industry and the general environment, and immunization against viruses causing cancer. (author)

  18. Pancreatic cancer: Pathogenesis, prevention and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States with a very low survival rate of 5 years. To better design new preventive and/or therapeutic strategies for the fight against pancreatic cancer, the knowledge of the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer at the molecular level is very important. It has been known that the development and the progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways among which the EGFR, Akt, and NF-κB pathways appear to be most relevant. Therefore, the strategies targeting EGFR, Akt, NF-κB, and their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and/or treatment of pancreatic cancer. In this brief review, we will summarize the current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of pancreatic cancer

  19. Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, researc...

  20. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approac | Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers.

  1. Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about actively enrolling, ongoing, and completed clinical trials of cancer prevention, early detection, and supportive care, including phase I, II, and III agent and action trials and clinical trials management. |

  2. Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Kara Smigel Croker | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara Smigel Croker is the Communications Manager for the National Cancer Institute Division of Cancer Prevention. She coordinates and supports all aspects of communication, including media contacts, writing and editing of reports and responses, divisional websites, and social media. |

  4. Immunosuppressants in cancer prevention and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2013-01-01

    Rapalogs such as rapamycin (sirolimus), everolimus, temserolimus, and deforolimus are indicated for the treatment of some malignancies. Rapamycin is the most effective cancer-preventive agent currently known, at least in mice, dramatically delaying carcinogenesis in both normal and cancer-prone murine strains. In addition, rapamycin and everolimus decrease the risk of cancer in patients receiving these drugs in the context of immunosuppressive regimens. In general, the main concern about the ...

  5. Preventing Second Cancers in Colon Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this phase III trial, people who have had curative surgery for colon cancer will be randomly assigned to take sulindac and a placebo, eflornithine and a placebo, both sulindac and eflornithine, or two placebo pills for 36 months.

  6. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277

  7. Cervical cancer: Can it be prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pakhee

    2014-10-10

    Cervical cancer prevention requires a multipronged approach involving primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The key element under primary prevention is human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. So far, only prophylactic HPV vaccines which prevent HPV infection by one or more subtypes are commercially available. Therapeutic HPV vaccines which aid in clearing established infection are still under trial. Secondary prevention entails early detection of precancerous lesions and its success is determined by the population coverage and the efficacy of the screening technique. A number of techniques are in use, including cytology, visual inspection (using the naked eye, magnivisualizer, acetic acid and Lugol's iodine), HPV testing and a combination of these methods. Updated screening guidelines have been advocated by the American Cancer Society in light of the role of HPV on cervical carcinogenesis. Recent research has also focussed on novel biomarkers that can predict progression to cancer in screen positive women and help to differentiate those who need treatment from those who can be left for follow-up. Last but not the least, effective treatment of precancerous lesions can help to reduce the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and this constitutes tertiary prevention. A combination of these approaches can help to prevent the burden of cervical cancer and its antecedent morbidity and mortality, but all of these are not feasible in all settings due to resource and allocation constraints. Thus, all countries, especially low and middle income ones, have to determine their own cocktail of approaches that work before we can say with certainty that yes, cervical cancer can be prevented. PMID:25302177

  8. Hereditary colon Cancer: Recommendations for prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevention in individuals with hereditary risk of colon cancer, is subject to clinical and molecular facts because their behavior differs to sporadic cancer. Hereditary cancer diseases affecting the colon in particular linked to other locations or that are associated with pre-cancer (polyps, osteoma s, lentigines) phenotypic markers represent a dissimilar to those who present directly in colorectal cancer status or associated conditions. In the first, the presence of previous injury (phenotypes) allows us to identify, while the latter is essential to have other diagnostic pathway (genotypes) .The location of genomic alterations manages to delve into the problem and identify those who will develop disease. The perspective will be different in the general population and those who do not carry mutations in terms suggestions for prevention, both primary and secondary. Not always the mutation is detected and in these high-risk situations, the clinic is sovereign and agrees to keep all members of these events surveillance strict about not being able to characterize those who are carriers of alterations and our condition is different in the proposition of preventive attitudes: set from when control about which organs and often starts, suffer because of accelerated carcinogenesis. The presentation is focused on populations at increased risk of cancer colorectal, regarding the management of the suggestions for primary prevention, secondary prevention while analyzing the early diagnosis of the disease and the suggestion of treatment, compared to the general population management. Primary prevention, including chemo prevention are described. While in secondary prevention is emphasized to management time tracking, optimization diagnostics according to the pathology suspected, the most common therapeutic approaches and findings relating prophylactic surgery

  9. Scientific Scope | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of developing cancer and to find ways to reduce that risk. Through laboratory, clinical, and epidemiologic research, scientists have shown that the diseases of cancer occur not as single, catastrophic events, but rather as the result of a complex and long-evolving molecular process that can take decades. This long-term process of carcinogenesis provides time and opportunities to slow down, stop, or reverse the cellular changes that can become cancer. | DCP research spans the initiation of cancer and the occurrence of invasive disease in major organ sites. The overall goal is to detect changes and intervene early to prevent symptomatic disease and death.

  10. New Cancer Prevention and Control Central Institutional Review Board Established | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative announced the establishment of the Cancer Prevention and Control (CPC) CIRB January 14, extending the benefits of centralized review to investigators participating in clinical trials sponsored by the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). |

  11. CPFP Summer Curriculum: Principles and Practices of Cancer Prevention and Control Course | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program four-week summer course provides specialized instruction in the principles and practice of cancer prevention and control. Participants will gain a broad-based perspective on concepts, issues, and applications related to this field. The course typically covers the following topics: |

  12. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the US Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  13. Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that naturally contain vitamin D, such as fatty fish, fish liver oil, and eggs. However, most dietary vitamin ... prostate cancer. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2005; 97(1–2):31–36. [PubMed Abstract] ...

  14. Adhesion between peptides/antibodies and breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, J.; Paetzell, E.; Bogorad, A.; Soboyejo, W. O.

    2010-06-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were used to measure the adhesion forces between the receptors on breast cancer cells specific to human luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) peptides and antibodies specific to the EphA2 receptor. The adhesion forces between LHRH-coated AFM tips and human MDA-MB-231 cells (breast cancer cells) were shown to be about five times greater than those between LHRH-coated AFM tips and normal Hs578Bst breast cells. Similarly, those between EphA2 antibody-coated AFM tips and breast cancer cells were over five times greater than those between EphA2 antibody-coated AFM tips and normal breast cells. The results suggest that AFM can be used for the detection of breast cancer cells in biopsies. The implications of the results are also discussed for the early detection and localized treatment of cancer.

  15. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Pan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin.

  16. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in preventing gastrointestinal...... Database from inception to October 2007. We scanned reference lists and contacted pharmaceutical companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing antioxidant supplements to placebo/no intervention examining occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors (GB and...... high. Heterogeneity was low to moderate. Antioxidant supplements were without significant effects on gastrointestinal cancers (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.06). However, there was significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 54.0%, P = 0.003). The heterogeneity may have been explained by bias risk (low-bias risk...

  17. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanjiang Pan; Cuirong Sun; Shan He

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been ...

  18. Prostate Cancer: Current Treatment and Prevention Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fang-zhi; Zhao, Xiao-kun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Prostate cancer is one of the life threatening disorders of male. Although, over the last two decades, a high rate of overdiagnosis, and overtreatment has lowered the incidence rate of prostate cancer, the treatment or prevention strategies are not enough to control the high rate of disease related mortality. Current medical treatment approaches include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, cryosurgery and other methods. These approaches are more or less effecti...

  19. Flavin-Dependent Enzymes in Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Wojcieszyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistical studies have demonstrated that various agents may reduce the risk of cancer’s development. One of them is activity of flavin-dependent enzymes such as flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOGS-OX1, FAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and flavin-dependent monoamine oxidase. In the last decade, many papers concerning their structure, reaction mechanism and role in the cancer prevention were published. In our work, we provide a more in-depth analysis of flavin-dependent enzymes and their contribution to the cancer prevention. We present the actual knowledge about the glucosinolate synthesized by flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOGS-OX1 and its role in cancer prevention, discuss the influence of mutations in FAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase on the cancer risk, and describe FAD as an important cofactor for the demethylation of histons. We also present our views on the role of riboflavin supplements in the prevention against cancer.

  20. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted. PMID:22583406

  1. Peptide based platforms for cancer drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Perillo, Emiliana

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains one of main causes of death in humans, accounting for 8.2 milion deaths worldwide in 2012. Chemotherapy, the most widely used cancer therapy, is the most effective and potent strategy to treat malignant tumors, but has the disadvantage of not delivering the therapeutic agents only to tumor sites. Nanomedicine may allow the controlled release of drugs by biodegradation and self-regulation of nanomaterials in vitro and in vivo. The goal of this PhD project was to create a del...

  2. Preventing aggressive prostate cancer with proven cardiovascular disease preventive methods

    OpenAIRE

    Moyad, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the number one cause of death in the U.S. for 114 of the last 115 years. Risk factors for prostate cancer have primarily mirrored risk proven risk factors for CVD, especially aggressive disease. Obesity, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, metabolic syndrome, unhealthy dietary habits or caloric excess, lack of physical activity, and inflammation are just some of these shared risk factors. The evidence also suggests proven CVD preventive measures are identi...

  3. Two Outstanding Investigator Awards Go to Division of Cancer Prevention Grantees | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI's Outstanding Investigator Award supports accomplished leaders in cancer research, who are providing significant contributions toward understanding cancer and developing applications that may lead to a breakthrough in biomedical, behavioral, or clinical cancer research. The Award provides up to $600,000 in direct costs per year for 7 years, allowing substantial time for funded investigators to take greater risks and be more adventurous in their research. Two of these awards have been made to Division of Cancer Prevention investigators: |

  4. Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention: Insights from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT)

    OpenAIRE

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Dunn, Barbara K

    2013-01-01

    The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) was conducted to assess the efficacy of selenium and vitamin E alone, and in combination, on the incidence of prostate cancer. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial found that neither selenium nor vitamin E reduced the incidence of prostate cancer after seven years and that vitamin E was associated with a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer compared to placebo. The null result was ...

  5. BRCA1: a movement toward cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alli, Elizabeth; Ford, James M

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) was first identified in 1994 and has since been shown to encode a tumor suppressor protein that maintains genetic stability through DNA damage response pathways. Carriers of mutations in BRCA1 are predisposed to breast and ovarian cancer; however, their cancers lack the targets for existing anticancer drugs. We describe a novel chemoprevention approach that uses DNA repair-activating agents to enhance the repair of oxidative DNA damage and, in turn, prevent tumorigenesis in the presence of mutant BRCA1. PMID:27308455

  6. Peptide screening to knockdown Bcl-2's anti-apoptotic activity: implications in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Pawan Kumar; Verma, Yogesh Kumar; Gangenahalli, Gurudutta U

    2012-04-01

    Bcl-2 (B cell lymphoma-2) is an anti-apoptotic member of Bcl-2 family and its overexpression causes development of several types of cancer. The BH3 domain of pro-apoptotic and BH3-only proteins is capable of binding to Bcl-2 protein to induce apoptosis. This binding is the basis for the development of novel anticancer drug which would likely antagonize Bcl-2 overexpression. In this study we have identified BH3 domain of Bax (Bax BH3) as potentially the best Bcl-2 antagonist by performing docking of BH3 peptides (peptides representing BH3 domain of pro-apoptotic and BH3-only proteins) into the Bcl-2 hydrophobic groove formed by BH3, BH1 and BH2 domains (also referred as BH3 cleft). To predict the best small antagonist for Bcl-2, three groups of small peptides (pentapeptide, tetrapeptide and tripeptide) were designed and screened against Bcl-2 which revealed the structural importance of a set of residues playing a vital role in interaction with Bcl-2. The docking and scoring function identified KRIG and KRI as specific peptides among the screened small peptides responsible for Bcl-2 neutralization and would induce apoptosis. The applied pharmacokinetic and pharmacological filters to all small peptides signify that only IGD has drug-like properties and displayed good oral bioavailability. However, the obtained binding affinity of IGD to Bcl-2 was diminutive. Hence deprotonation, amidation, acetylation, benzoylation, benzylation, and addition of phenyl, deoxyglucose and glucose fragments were performed to increase the binding affinity and to prevent its rapid degradation. Benzoylated IGD tripeptide (IGD(bzo)) was observed to have increased binding affinity than IGD with acceptable pharmacokinetic filters. In addition, stability of Bcl-2/IGD(bzo) complex was validated by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations revealing improved binding energy, salt bridges and strong interaction energies. This study suggests a new molecule that inhibits Bcl-2 associated cancer

  7. Preventive Care in Older Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Lisa M.; Ouellet, Jennifer Andreozzi; Dale, William; Fan, Lin; Mohile, Supriya Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study factors that influence receipt of preventive care in older cancer survivors. Methods We analyzed a nationally representative sample of 12,458 older adults from the 2003 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Factors associated with non-receipt of preventive care were explored among cancer and non-cancer survivors, using logistic regression. Results Among cancer survivors, 1,883 were diagnosed >one year at survey completion. A cancer history was independently associated with receipt of mammogram (AOR=1.57, 95%CI=1.34–1.85), flu shot (AOR=1.33, 95%CI=1.16–1.53), measurement of total cholesterol in the previous six months (AOR=1.20, 95%CI=1.07–1.34), pneumonia vaccination (AOR=1.33, 95%CI=1.18–1.49), bone mineral density (BMD) testing (AOR=1.38, 95%CI=1.21–1.56) and lower endoscopy (AOR=1.46, 95%CI=1.29–1.65). However, receipt of preventive care was not optimal among older cancer survivors with only 51.2% of female cancer survivors received a mammogram, 63.8% of all cancer survivors received colonoscopy, and 42.5% had BMD testing. Among cancer survivors, factors associated with non-receipt of mammogram included age ≥85 years (AOR=0.43, 95%CI=0.26–0.74) and scoring ≥three points on the Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (AOR=0.94, 95%CI=0.80–1.00). Factors associated with non-receipt of colonoscopy included low education (AOR=0.43, 95%CI=0.27–0.68) and rural residence (AOR=0.51, 95%CI=0.34–0.77). Factors associated with non-receipt of BMD testing included age ≥70 (AOR=0.59, 95%CI=0.39–0.90), African American race (AOR=0.51, 95%CI=0.27–0.95), low education (AOR=0.23, 95%CI=0.14–0.38) and rural residence (AOR=0.43, 95%CI=0.27–0.70). Conclusion Although older cancer survivors are more likely to receive preventive care services than other older adults, the prevalence of receipt of preventive care services is low. PMID:25547206

  8. Protocol Information Office | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIO Instructions and ToolsFind instructions, forms, and templates for the management of all types of Division of Cancer Prevention clinical trials.Clinical Trials Reference MaterialsModel clinical agreements, human subject protection and informed consent models, gender and minority inclusion information, and monitoring policy and guidelines. |

  9. Steps You Can Take to Prevent Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-02

    This podcast discusses the main steps people can take to reduce their risk of getting cancer.  Created: 2/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/2/2012.

  10. Imaging oncogene expression in breast cancer with receptor specific peptides and peptide nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This year, breast cancer (BC) will attack approximately 210, 000 and will take the lives of 40,000 women in the U.S. Standard screening with breast self-examination and mammography, recommended to minimize BC morbidity, miss 10-20% (up to 40% in young women) of breast cancer. Moreover, if an abnormality is found, an invasive diagnostic procedure is required to determine if the breast contains hyperplasia, atypia, or cancer. Approximately 80% of invasive procedures detect a benign pathology. BC cells express a gene product, cell surface receptor VPAC1, so named because the endogenous growth hormones Vasoctive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) and Pituitary Adenylate Cylcase Activating Peptide (PACAP) bind to VPAC1 receptors with high affinity. VPAC1 receptors are overexpressed on 100% of human breast cancer cells. Cyclin D1 is a key regulator of the cell cycle and overexpressed in 50% to 80% of breast cells, whereas it is low or absent in normal breast tissues. The human breast cancer cell line MCF7 displays elevated levels of CCND1 mRNA, encoding cyclin D1, and an elevated level of IGF1R mRNA, encoding insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor. We hypothesed that 99mTc or 64Cu labeled VIP analogues, or a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) chimera specific for IGFI receptor and CCND1 mRNA, will permit us to early image breast cancer by planar, SPECT or PET imaging. We synthesized, characterized and administered i.v. 99mTc-AcGly-D (Ala)-Gly-Glyaminobutanoyl- VIP (TP3654), 64Cu diaminodithiol-aminobutanoyl-VIP (TP3982), 99mTc- AcGly-D(Ala)-Gly-Gly-PNA-D(Cys-ser-lys-Cys) chimera (WT4185) and Cu-64-DOTAPNA- D(cys-ser-lys-cys) (WT4348). A 12mer, CTGGTGTTCCAT nucleic acid sequence served as the PNA and 3 or 4 mer mismatched PNAs as negative controls. Using 99mTc-TP3654 we have successfully imaged human breast cancers not detectable by current modalities. In athymic, nude mice bearing MCF-7 human breast cancer xenographs, Cu-64-TP3982 tumour uptake was 85 times greater than 99m

  11. Probiotics, prebiotics and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambalam, Padma; Raman, Maya; Purama, Ravi Kiran; Doble, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third major cause of mortality among various cancer types in United States, has been increasing in developing countries due to varying diet and dietary habits and occupational hazards. Recent evidences showed that composition of gut microbiota could be associated with the development of CRC and other gut dysbiosis. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics, either alone or in combination could positively influence the cross-talk between immune system and microbiota, would be beneficial in preventing inflammation and CRC. In this review, role of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention of CRC has been discussed. Various epidemiological and experimental studies, specifically gut microbiome research has effectively improved the understanding about the role of probiotics and microbial treatment as anticarcinogenic agents. A few human studies support the beneficial effect of probiotics and prebiotics; hence, comprehensive understanding is urgent to realize the clinical applications of probiotics and prebiotics in CRC prevention. PMID:27048903

  12. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program Application Period is Open until August 25 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application period for the NCI Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) is open. Since 1987, CPFP has provided funding support for post-doctoral Fellows to train the next generation of researchers and leaders in the field. |

  13. C-type natriuretic peptide in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Soeren Junge; Iversen, Peter; Rehfeld, Jens F.;

    2009-01-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is expressed in the male reproductive organs in pigs. To examine whether the human prostate also expresses the CNP gene, we measured CNP and N-terminal proCNP in prostate cancer tissue extracts and performed immunohistochemical biopsy staining. Additionally, pro......CNP-derived peptides were quantitated in plasma from patients with prostate cancer. Blood was collected from healthy controls and patients before surgery for localized prostate cancer. Tissue extracts were prepared from tissue biopsies obtained from radical prostatectomy surgery. N-terminal proCNP, proCNP (1-50) and...... CNP were measured in plasma and tissue extracts. Biopsies were stained for CNP-22 and N-terminal proCNP. Tissue extracts from human prostate cancer contained mostly N-terminal proCNP [median 5.3 pmol/g tissue (range 1.0-12.9)] and less CNP [0.14 pmol/g tissue (0.01-1.34)]. Immunohistochemistry...

  14. [Primary prevention of urologic tumors: prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz-Dräger, B J; Lümmen, G; Bismarck, E; Fischer, C

    2011-10-01

    Assessment of the role of vitamins and micronutrients in the primary prevention of prostate cancer has changed dramatically in the past 10 years. Efforts to confirm the efficacy of a single substance have not yet succeeded. Therefore, such recommendations should at present no longer be given. Consideration could even be given to discussing whether additional large-scale interventional studies are expedient in this regard. There is still solid evidence that a well-balanced moderate diet, reduced consumption of milk products, and an Asian or Mediterranean diet are not only beneficial for general good health but can also prevent the development of prostate cancer. This should be the focus of further epidemiological studies. Thus, one can certainly speak of a paradigm shift in the prevention of prostate cancer. In contrast, available data on chemoprevention with 5α-reductase inhibitors is unequivocal: intake of finasteride as well as dutasteride correlates with significantly decreased evidence for prostate cancer. Converting this result into urologic practice remains the topic of extensive controversy. PMID:21927877

  15. Rosemary and cancer prevention: preclinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Suong N T; Williams, Desmond B; Head, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in Australia. Nutrition, particularly intake of vegetables and certain plant components, has been reported to have a major role in cancer risk reduction. Recently, there has been a growing research interest in rosemary, a common household plant grown in many parts of the world. This study aims to review scientific evidence from all studies, published from 1996 to March 2010 that examined the protective effects of rosemary on colorectal cancer and other types of cancer. Literature evidence from animal and cell culture studies demonstrates the anticancer potential of rosemary extract, carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid. No evidence for other rosemary constituents was found. The reported anticancer properties were found to arise through the molecular changes in the multiple-stage process of cancer development, which are dose related and not tissue or species specific. This is evidenced by the ability of rosemary to suppress the development of tumors in several organs including the colon, breast, liver, stomach, as well as melanoma and leukemia cells. The results suggested that the different molecular targets modulated by rosemary and its active constituents are useful indicators of success in clinical cancer chemo-prevention trials. PMID:21955093

  16. Cancer preventive role of selected dietary factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Amitabha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary behavior seems to be an important modifiable determinant for the risk of cancer. The evidences from several epidemiological studies suggest that higher intakes of fruits and vegetables have been associated with lower risk of cancer. Dietary phenolic and polyphenolic substances, terpenoids, dietary fibers, fish oils, some micronutrients present in foods of both plant and animal origin, and a reduction of caloric intake appear to inhibit the process of cancer development. Many dietary factors possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and cause induction of phase II enzymes like glutathione-S-transferases. It has been suggested that cruciferous vegetables play an important role in cancer prevention, and their chemopreventive effects are due to high glucosinolate content which under enzymatic hydrolysis produces bioactive compound isothiocyanates. Further, isothiocyanates of a wide variety of cruciferous vegetables are powerful inhibitors of carcinogenesis in experimental animal models. Several flavonoids present in fruits, tea, soya beans, etc. may be useful as cancer preventive agents. Similarly, ellagic acid, perillyl alcohol and resveratrol found in various fruits may have chemoprotective effect. Moreover, different vanilloids such as curcumin and gingerol have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. Nevertheless, in spite of several studies, still the effects of various ingredients are not clearly distinguished. In human, little convincing evidence has been established for the proposed protective effects of dietary constituents. It is an important future research goal to provide necessary evidences to support the chemopreventive role of different dietary factors, and also to clarify misunderstandings in this perplexing area.

  17. The Role of Antimicrobial Peptides in Preventing Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Infections and Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Soo Hahm

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, decreasing effectiveness of conventional antimicrobial-drugs has caused serious problems due to the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Furthermore, biofilms, which are microbial communities that cause serious chronic infections and dental plaque, form environments that enhance antimicrobial resistance. As a result, there is a continuous search to overcome or control such problems, which has resulted in antimicrobial peptides being considered as an alternative to conventional drugs. Antimicrobial peptides are ancient host defense effector molecules in living organisms. These peptides have been identified in diverse organisms and synthetically developed by using peptidomimic techniques. This review was conducted to demonstrate the mode of action by which antimicrobial peptides combat multidrug-resistant bacteria and prevent biofilm formation and to introduce clinical uses of these compounds for chronic disease, medical devices, and oral health. In addition, combinations of antimicrobial peptides and conventional drugs were considered due to their synergetic effects and low cost for therapeutic treatment.

  18. A novel peptide, selected from phage display library of random peptides, can efficiently target into human breast cancer cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Jian; LIU WeiQing; JIANG AiMei; ZHANG KeJian; CHEN MingQing

    2008-01-01

    To develop a targeting vector for breast cancer biotherapy, MDA-MB-231 cell, a human breast cancer cell line, was co-cultured with pC89 (9 aa) phage display library of random peptides. In multiple inde-pendent peptide-presenting phage screening trials, subtilisin was used as a protease to inactivate ex-tra-cellular phages. The internalized phages were collected by cell lysising and amplified in E. coli XLI-Blue. Through five rounds of selection, the peptide-presenting phages which could be internalized in MDA-MB-231 cells were isolated. A comparison was made between internalization capacities of pep-tide-presenting phages isolated from MDA-MB-231 cells and RGD-integrin binding phage by cocultur-ing them with other human tumor cell lines and normal cells. The nucleotide sequences of isolated peptide-presenting phages were then determined by DNA sequencing. To uncover whether phage coat protein or amino acid order was required for the character of the peptide to MDA-MB-231 cells, three peptides were synthesized. They are CASPSGALRSC, ASPSGALRS and CGVIFDHSVPC (the shifted sequence of CASPSGALRSC), and after coculturing them with different cell lines, their targeting ca-pacities to MDA-MB-231 cells were detected. These data suggested that the internalization process was highly selective, and capable of capturing a specific peptide from parent peptide variants. Moreover, the targeting internalization event of peptides was an amino acid sequence dependent manner. The results demonstrated the feasibility of using phage display library of random peptides to develop new targeting system for intracellular delivery of macromolecules, and the peptide we obtained might be modified as a targeting vector for breast cancer gene therapy.

  19. Peptide imprinted receptors for the determination of the small cell lung cancer associated biomarker progastrin releasing peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qader, A. A.; Urraca, J.; Torsetnes, S. B.;

    2014-01-01

    prior to LCMS based quantification. Peptide imprinted polymers with the best affinity characteristics were first identified from a 96-polymer combinatorial library. The effects of functional monomers, crosslinker, porogen, and template on adsorption capacity and selectivity for NLLGLIEAK were......Peptide imprinted polymers were developed for detection of progastrin releasing peptide (ProGRP); a low abundant blood based biomarker for small cell lung cancer. The polymers targeted the proteotypic nona-peptide sequence NLLGLIEAK and were used for selective enrichment of the proteotypic peptide...... investigated and optimized. Ultimately, a solid phase extraction method was developed for highly selective enrichment of the target peptide from tryptic digests. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  20. Potential Targets for Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamseddine

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I. Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the “proof of principle” that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research.

  1. Should Male Circumcision be Advocated for Genital Cancer Prevention?

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Brian J.; Mindel, Adrian; Tobian, Aaron AR; Hankins, Catherine A.; Ronald H Gray; Bailey, Robert C.; Bosch, Xavier; Wodak, Alex D

    2012-01-01

    The recent policy statement by the Cancer Council of Australia on infant circumcision and cancer prevention and the announcement that the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine will be made available for boys in Australia prompted us to provide an assessment of genital cancer prevention. While HPV vaccination of boys should help reduce anal cancer in homosexual men and cervical cancer in women, it will have little or no impact on penile or prostate cancer. Male circumcision can reduc...

  2. Personalizing Lung Cancer Prevention Through a Reverse Migration Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Kathryn A.; Kim, Edward S.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Hong, Waun K.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer in the United States and worldwide. Tobacco use is the one of the primary causes of lung cancer and smoking cessation is an important step towards prevention, but patients who have quit smoking remain at risk for lung cancer. Finding pharmacologic agents to prevent lung cancer could potentially save many lives. Unfortunately, despite extensive research, there are no known effective chemoprevention agents for lung cancer. Clinical trials in the past, using a...

  3. A multifaceted perspective on skin cancer prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Reinau, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation has been acknowledged as the main culprit for the three major types of skin cancer which are among the most numerous (basal cell carcinoma [BCC], squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]) and most dangerous (cutaneous malignant melanoma) malignancies in Caucasian populations. The present thesis comprises six individual projects providing a multifaceted perspective on the prevention of these tumours. Project I evaluated a school-based sun safety educat...

  4. About the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention.Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials ProgramThe group jointly administers the Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program evaluating new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and technologies to identify premalignant lesions, and related cancers.  |

  5. ROLE OF LYCOPENE IN PREVENTING PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Tami Budirejeki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer in the United States in 2003. Prostate cancer is the second cause of death after lung cancer. The possibility of a man suffering from prostate cancer is about 3 %. Increasing age is the main risk factor for this disease. Eighty percent of prostate cancer patients aged over 65 years. Prostate cancer occurs due to accumulation of DNA damage. There are various mechanisms that cause DNA damage, one of them is due to oxidative stress. Imbalance levels of free radicals and antioxidant in tissues causes oxidative stress. Antioxidants are substance that has ability to neutralize free radicals. One of the powerful antioxidant is lycopene. It is belived have ability to prevent prostate cancer. Various studies and reviews have been conducted to determine the role of lycopene in the prevention of prostate cancer. Although most studies have found an association between the consumption of foods that contain lycopene with a reduced risk of prostate cancer, but few studies have found no such relationship. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  6. Cancer precursors epidemiology, detection, and prevention

    CERN Document Server

    Rohan, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic advances in our understanding of cancer causation have come from epidemiologic and laboratory research, particularly over the past two decades. These developments have included a broadening interest in the critical events that take place during the early stages of the dynamic multistep process leading to - vasive cancer. Increasingly, cancer epidemiologists are pursuing research into the origins and natural history of premalignant lesions, including intermediate or surrogate endpoints, a trend - celerated by the development of molecular technologies that are revolutionizing our understanding of the transformation of normal to malignant cells. There seems little doubt that this emerging knowledge will provide further insights not only into carcinogenic processes, but also into more sensitive methods of early detection and more effective means of prevention. In this book, Drs. Franco and Rohan have succeeded in prep- ing a comprehensive, timely, and critical review of the substantial progress that has ...

  7. Photocarcinogenesis and Skin Cancer Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebode, Christina; Lehmann, Janin; Emmert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    In this review the basic principles of UV-induced carcinogenesis are summarized and the state of the art diagnosis and therapeutic strategies are discussed. The prevalent keratinocyte-derived neoplasms of the skin are basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Cutaneous melanoma is less frequent but associated with high mortality. Common risk factors for all three tumor entities include sun exposure and DNA-repair deficiencies. Photocarcinogenesis follows a multistep model of cancer development in which ultraviolet-induced DNA damage leads to mutations resulting in activation of oncogenes or silencing of tumor-suppressor genes. This ends in a cellular mutator phenotype even more prone to mutation acquisition. DNA repair, especially the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, counteracts mutation formation and skin cancer development. This is vividly demonstrated by the NER-defective disorder xeroderma pigmentosum. Primary skin cancer preventative strategies, therefore, include reduction of DNA photodamage by protection from the sun. Secondary preventative strategies include skin cancer screening. This implies standard examination techniques with the naked eye, an epiluminescence microscope, or digital epiluminescence microscopy. More advanced techniques include confocal laser scan microscopy. PMID:26977038

  8. Dance as a therapy for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Gurbuz; Ogce, Filiz

    2005-01-01

    Even though the field of medicine has developed tremendously, the wide variety of cancer is still among chronic and life threatening disease today. Therefore, the specialists constantly research and try every possible way to find cure or preventive ways to stop its further development. For this reason, studies concerning the chronic disease such as cancer have been spread to many different fields. In this regard, many other alternative ways besides medicine, are used in prevention of cancer. Nutritional therapy, herbal therapy, sportive activities, art therapy, music therapy, dance therapy, imagery, yoga and acupuncture can be given as examples. Among these, dance/movement therapy which deals with individuals physical, emotional, cognitive as well as social integration is widely used as a popular form of physical activity. The physical benefits of dance therapy as exercise are well documented. Studies have shown that physical activity is known to increase special neurotransmitter substances in the brain (endorphins), which create a state of well-being. And total body movement such as dance enhances the functions of other body systems, such as circulatory, respiratory, skeletal, and muscular systems. Regarding its unique connection to the field of medicine, many researches have been undertaken on the effects of dance/movement therapy in special settings with physical problems such as amputations, traumatic brain injury, and stroke, chronic illnesses such as anorexia, bulimia, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, asthma, AIDS, and arthritis. Today dance/movement therapy is a well recognized form of complementary therapy used in hospitals as well as at the comprehensive clinical cancer centres. PMID:16236009

  9. Cancer Prevention and Interception: A New Era for Chemopreventive Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, Adriana; DeCensi, Andrea; Cavalli, Franco; Costa, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    At several recent, internationally attended scientific meetings, including the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR)'s "Shaping the Future of Cancer Prevention: A Roadmap for Integrative Cancer Science and Public Health" summit in Leesburg (VA) and the AACR Annual Meeting in New Orleans, the focus on cancer prevention to reduce cancer-related deaths was extensively discussed with renewed attention and emphasis. Cancer prevention should be actively proposed even to healthy individuals, and not just to individuals with high cancer risk. We discuss evaluation of a high cancer risk versus the relatively low risk for side effects of chemopreventive agents. The concept of cancer interception, which is halting transformed cells from becoming malignant cancers, should be adopted for cancer prevention. Potential prevention/interception actions include adopting healthy life style and avoiding carcinogens, repressing inflammation and pathologic angiogenesis, controlling metabolism, correcting insulin resistance and other metabolic alterations. Current drugs with limited toxicity can be repurposed to reduce cancer incidence. Aspirin is now being recommended for the prevention of colorectal cancer and it prevents other neoplasms as well. Metformin and β-blockers could be valuable for reducing pancreatic and breast cancer onset. On the basis of the evaluation of cancer risk, we here call for personalized approaches for cancer prevention and preventive interception and we envisage a list of measures and potential guidelines for preventive and interceptive strategies to reduce cancer burden. Investment into translational research to bring these approaches into public health policies and in the clinic is urgently needed. Clin Cancer Res; 22(17); 4322-7. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27220959

  10. Peptide-conjugated nanoparticles for targeted imaging and therapy of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chen-Yun; Hsiao, Jong-Kai; Wang, Yi-Ping; Lan, Chun-Hsin; Wu, Han-Chung

    2016-08-01

    While there has been extensive development of anti-cancer drugs for treatment of prostate cancer, the therapeutic efficacy of such drugs remains inadequate in many cases. Here, we performed in vitro biopanning of the PC3 human prostate carcinoma cell line to select prostate cancer-specific peptides by phage display. We successfully identified specific peptides targeting prostate cancer cells, and their specificity was confirmed by cellular ELISA and flow cytometry. Moreover, we found that the phage clones also recognize other prostate cancer cell lines and surgical specimens from prostate cancer patients. The tumor targeting ability of these phages was validated in a xenograft model, in which high accumulation of targeting phage was observed. To investigate whether selected peptides are able to target tumors and enhance drug delivery into cancer cells, we synthesized peptide-PEGylated lipids and post-inserted them into preformed liposomal doxorubicin and vinorelbine. The results of our cellular uptake and MTT assays indicate that peptide-conjugated liposomes exhibit enhanced drug intracellular delivery and cytotoxicity. The conjugation of targeting peptide to imaging agents, such as quantum dots (QDs) and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), results in more precise delivery of these agents to tumor sites. Furthermore, administration of liposomal doxorubicin and vinorelbine conjugated with targeting peptides was found to markedly increase the inhibition of human prostate tumor growth in mouse xenograft and orthotopic models. These results indicate that targeting peptide, SP204, has significant potential for targeted therapy and molecular imaging in prostate cancer. PMID:27209258

  11. Peptide-Targeted Nanoglobular Gd-DOTA Monoamide Conjugates for Magnetic Resonance Cancer Molecular Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Mingqian; Wu, Xueming; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Chen, Qianjin; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2010-01-01

    Effective imaging of cancer molecular biomarker is critical for accurate cancer diagnosis and prognosis. CLT1 peptide was observed to specifically bind to the fibrin-fibronectin complexes presented in tumor extracellular matrix. In this study, we synthesized and evaluated CLT1 peptide-targeted nanoglobular Gd-DOTA monoamide conjugates for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the fibrin-fibronectin complexes in tumor. The targeted nanoglobular contrast agents were prepared by conjugating peptide...

  12. [Experience of stroke prevention-Enlightenment for cancer research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Weicheng

    2015-08-01

    Cancer, stroke and heart diseases are most common causes of death. This paper summarized the experience of stroke prevention, which is an enlightenment for cancer research. In addition, this paper also described the progress of cancer epidemiological research, particular the primary and second preventions in China. PMID:26733022

  13. "Cancer--Educate to Prevent"--high-school teachers, the new promoters of cancer prevention education campaigns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Barros

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and thus represents a priority for national public health programs. Prevention has been assumed as the best strategy to reduce cancer burden, however most cancer prevention programs are implemented by healthcare professionals, which constrain range and educational impacts. We developed an innovative approach for cancer prevention education focused on high-school biology teachers, considered privileged mediators in the socialization processes. A training program, "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" was applied, so that the teachers were able to independently develop and implement prevention campaigns focused on students and school-related communities. The program encompassed different educational modules, ranging from cancer biology to prevention campaigns design. Fifty-four teachers were empowered to develop and implement their own cancer prevention campaigns in a population up to five thousands students. The success of the training program was assessed through quantitative evaluation--questionnaires focused on teachers' cancer knowledge and perceptions, before the intervention (pre-test and immediately after (post-test. The projects developed and implemented by teachers were also evaluated regarding the intervention design, educational contents and impact on the students' knowledge about cancer. This study presents and discusses the results concerning the training program "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" and clearly shows a significant increase in teacher's cancer literacy (knowledge and perceptions and teachers' acquired proficiency to develop and deliver cancer prevention campaigns with direct impact on students' knowledge about cancer. This pilot study reinforces the potential of high-school teachers and schools as cancer prevention promoters and opens a new perspective for the development and validation of cancer prevention education strategies, based upon focused interventions in restricted

  14. Computational Framework for Prediction of Peptide Sequences That May Mediate Multiple Protein Interactions in Cancer-Associated Hub Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasree Sarkar

    Full Text Available A considerable proportion of protein-protein interactions (PPIs in the cell are estimated to be mediated by very short peptide segments that approximately conform to specific sequence patterns known as linear motifs (LMs, often present in the disordered regions in the eukaryotic proteins. These peptides have been found to interact with low affinity and are able bind to multiple interactors, thus playing an important role in the PPI networks involving date hubs. In this work, PPI data and de novo motif identification based method (MEME were used to identify such peptides in three cancer-associated hub proteins-MYC, APC and MDM2. The peptides corresponding to the significant LMs identified for each hub protein were aligned, the overlapping regions across these peptides being termed as overlapping linear peptides (OLPs. These OLPs were thus predicted to be responsible for multiple PPIs of the corresponding hub proteins and a scoring system was developed to rank them. We predicted six OLPs in MYC and five OLPs in MDM2 that scored higher than OLP predictions from randomly generated protein sets. Two OLP sequences from the C-terminal of MYC were predicted to bind with FBXW7, component of an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex involved in proteasomal degradation of MYC. Similarly, we identified peptides in the C-terminal of MDM2 interacting with FKBP3, which has a specific role in auto-ubiquitinylation of MDM2. The peptide sequences predicted in MYC and MDM2 look promising for designing orthosteric inhibitors against possible disease-associated PPIs. Since these OLPs can interact with other proteins as well, these inhibitors should be specific to the targeted interactor to prevent undesired side-effects. This computational framework has been designed to predict and rank the peptide regions that may mediate multiple PPIs and can be applied to other disease-associated date hub proteins for prediction of novel therapeutic targets of small molecule PPI

  15. Antibacterial Peptides: Opportunities for the Prevention and Treatment of Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepperney, Adam; Chikindas, Michael L

    2011-06-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that is a growing and costly global health concern. The onset of disease is a consequence of an ecological imbalance within the dental plaque biofilm that favors specific acidogenic and aciduric caries pathogens, namely Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. It is now recognized by the scientific and medical community that it is neither possible nor desirable to totally eliminate dental plaque. Conversely, the chemical biocides most commonly used for caries prevention and treatment indiscriminately attack all plaque microorganisms. These treatments also suffer from other drawbacks such as bad taste, irritability, and staining. Furthermore, the public demand for safe and natural personal hygiene products continues to rise. Therefore, there are opportunities that exist to develop new strategies for the treatment of this disease. As an alternative to conventional antibiotics, antibacterial peptides have been explored greatly over the last three decades for many different therapeutic uses. There are currently tens of hundreds of antibacterial peptides characterized across the evolutionary spectrum, and among these, many demonstrate physical and/or biological properties that may be suitable for a more targeted approach to the selective control or elimination of putative caries pathogens. Additionally, many peptides, such as nisin, are odorless, colorless, and tasteless and do not cause irritation or staining. This review focuses on antibacterial peptides for their potential role in the treatment and prevention of dental caries and suggests candidates that need to be explored further. Practical considerations for the development of antibacterial peptides as oral treatments are also discussed. PMID:26781572

  16. [Significance of precision medicine in pancreatic cancer prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C F

    2016-03-23

    The morbidity and mortality of pancreatic cancer has been increasing year by year, however, the treatment progress and prevention effect were minimal. With the development of basic research, especially the advances of gene sequencing technology, it was possible to clarify the etiology and pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer, and achieve the first stage prevention. The discovery of pancreatic cancer exosomes of high sensitivity and specificity made early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (the second stage prevention) no longer a worldwide problem. The build of pancreatic cancer genotyping with clinical applicability made the precision treatment of pancreatic cancer (the third stage prevention) possible. Thus, the precision medicine which is based on advances of gene sequencing, popularity of the Internet and the big data technology has brought a ray of hope for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26988819

  17. WT1 Peptide Cancer Vaccine for Patients with Hematopoietic Malignancies and Solid Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Oka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wild-type Wilms' tumor gene WT1 is expressed at a high level in hematopoietic malignancies including acute leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes, as well as in various kinds of solid cancers. Human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs, which could specifically lyse WT1-expressing tumor cells with HLA class I restriction, were generated in vitro. It was also demonstrated that mice immunized with the WT1 peptide rejected challenges by WT1-expressing cancer cells and survived with no signs of autoaggression to normal organs that physiologically expressed WT1. Furthermore, we and others detected IgM and IgG WT1 antibodies in patients with hematopoietic malignancies, indicating that the WT1 protein was highly immunogenic, and that immunoglobulin class-switch-inducing, WT1-specific, cellular immune responses were elicited in these patients. CD8+ WT1-specific CTLs were also detected in peripheral blood or tumor-draining lymph nodes of cancer patients. These results provided us with the rationale for elicitation of CTL responses targeting the WT1 product for cancer immunotherapy. On the basis of these findings, we performed a phase I clinical trial of a WT1 peptide cancer vaccine for the patients with malignant neoplasms. These results strongly suggested that the WT1 peptide cancer vaccine had efficacy in the clinical setting because clinical responses, including reduction of leukemic blast cells or regression of tumor masses, were observed after the WT1 vaccination in patients with hematopoietic malignancies or solid cancers. The power of a tumor-associated-antigen (TAA-derived cancer vaccine may be enhanced in combination with stronger adjuvants, helper peptide, molecular-target-based drugs, or some chemotherapy drugs, such as gemcitabine, which has been revealed to suppress regulartory T-cell function. In contrast, reduction of WT1 peptide dose may be needed for the treatment of patients with hematological stem cell diseases

  18. Study Hints At HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159696.html Study Hints at HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise Fewer ... that can lead to cervical cancer, a new study shows. Canadian researchers found that young women who ...

  19. Biometry Meetings and Events | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Nutritional Science Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Diet and Cancer Prevention: Separating Fact from Myth

    OpenAIRE

    Bright-See, Elizabeth

    1985-01-01

    Public belief about the role of diet in cancer ranges from the opinion that cancer is genetically determined through to the idea that a specific diet will prevent all cancer. This article examines current knowledge about food additives, vitamins and nutritional pharmacology in relation to present knowledge of cancer incidence.

  2. Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE SURGEON GENERAL’S CALL TO ACTION TO PREVENT SKIN CANCER From the Surgeon General Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer the ... be disfiguring and even deadly. Medical treatment for skin cancer is costly for individuals, families, and the nation. ...

  3. Grant R01NS046606 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA138800 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA107408 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R21CA184788 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant U01DK048375 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA161534 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R21CA182111 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R03CA121827 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01NR014068 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant U01DK048377 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant U01DK048349 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R21CA185460 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01EB019337 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Active Nutritional Science Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Nutritional Science Meetings and Events | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Nutritional Science Funding Opportunities | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Towards research-tested smartphone applications for preventing breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Steven S; Thind, Herpreet; Liu, Benyuan; Wilson, Lt Col Candy

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to prevent breast cancer and other chronic illnesses have focused on promoting physical activity, healthy diet and nutrition, and avoidance of excessive alcohol consumption. Smartphone applications (apps) offer a low-cost, effective strategy for breast cancer prevention in women through behavioral change. However, there are currently no research-tested smartphone apps for breast cancer prevention that are suitable for women with varying levels of health literacy and eHealth literacy. ...

  20. Biokinetics and dosimetry of several radiolabelled peptides in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cortés, J.; Ferro-Flores, G.; de Murphy, C. Arteaga; Pedraza-López, M.; Ramírez-Iglesias, M. A. T.

    Radiolabelled peptides have been used as target-specific radiopharmaceuticals. The goal of this research was the in vitro assessment of the uptake, internalization, externalization, and efflux of five radiolabelled peptides in cancer cells to estimate radiation-absorbed doses from experimental biokinetic data. 177Lu-DOTA-octreotate, 188Re-lanreotide, and 99mTc-HYNIC-octreotide were studied in the AR42J cell line. The PC3 and NCIH69 cells were used for 99mTc-HYNIC-bombesin and 177Lu-DOTA-minigastrin, respectively. The cumulated activities in the membrane and cytoplasm were calculated by integration of the experimental time-activity curves and used for dosimetry calculations according to the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) cellular methodology. The mean absorbed dose to the cell nucleus were 0.69±0.09, 0.11±0.08, 0.55±0.09, 3.45±0.48, and 3.30±0.65 Gy/Bq for 99mTc-HYNIC-bombesin, 99mTc-HYNIC-octreotide, 177Lu-DOTA-minigastrin, 177Lu-DOTA-octreotate, and 188Re-lanreotide, respectively. If radiopharmaceutical cell kinetics were not used and only uptake data were considered, the calculated doses would be overestimated up to 25 times.

  1. Cancer Prevention Health Services Research: An Emerging Field

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hui; Tektiridis, Jennifer H.; Zhang, Ning; Chamberlain, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    In October 2009, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center hosted a symposium, “Future Directions in Cancer Prevention and Control: Workforce Implications for Training, Practice, and Policy.” This article summarizes discussions and an Internet and literature review by the symposium's Health Services Infrastructure Working Group. We agree on the need for the recognition of Cancer Prevention Health Services Research (CP-HSR) as a unified research field. With advances in cancer screening...

  2. CANCER IS PREVENTABLE- LET US TRY OUR LEVEL BEST

    OpenAIRE

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a chronic disease and the prevalence is increasing at a faster rate in recent years. Most of the cancers are incurable, treatment is very expensive and is not affordable even for above middle-class people. A strong correlation is observed between lifestyle factors and cancer incidence or prevention. Let us know about cancer prevention lifestyle focussing mainly on the role of physical activity and diet. Most of the people leading sedentary life style. There is an overall decline in ...

  3. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  4. Lay Representations of Cancer Prevention and Early Detection: Associations With Prevention Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen W. Sullivan, PhD, MPH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe Common Sense Model of illness representations posits that how people think about an illness affects how they try to prevent the illness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prevention representations vary by cancer type (colon, lung, and skin cancer and whether representations are associated with relevant behaviors.MethodsWe analyzed data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 2005, a nationally representative survey of American adults (N = 5,586 conducted by telephone interview.ResultsRespondents reported that all 3 types of cancer can be prevented through healthy behaviors; however, fewer did so for colon cancer. More respondents reported screening as a prevention strategy for colon cancer than did so for lung or skin cancer. Representations were associated with colon cancer screening, smoking status, and sunscreen use.ConclusionRepresentations of cancer were associated with relevant health behaviors, providing a target for health messages and interventions.

  5. Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Funding Opportunities | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Active Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Expression and potential role of the peptide orexin-A in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valiante, Salvatore [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II (Italy); Liguori, Giovanna; Tafuri, Simona [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, University of Naples Federico II (Italy); Pavone, Luigi Michele [Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II (Italy); Campese, Roberto [Department of Urology, “A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Naples (Italy); Monaco, Roberto [Department of Pathology, “A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Naples (Italy); Iachetta, Giuseppina; Assisi, Loredana [Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II (Italy); Mirabella, Nicola [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, University of Naples Federico II (Italy); Forte, Maurizio [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “A. Buzzati-Traverso”, CNR, Naples (Italy); Costagliola, Anna [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, University of Naples Federico II (Italy); Vittoria, Alfredo, E-mail: avittori@unina.it [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, University of Naples Federico II (Italy)

    2015-09-04

    The peptides orexin-A and orexin-B and their G protein-coupled OX1 and OX2 receptors are involved in multiple physiological processes in the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Altered expression or signaling dysregulation of orexins and their receptors have been associated with a wide range of human diseases including narcolepsy, obesity, drug addiction, and cancer. Although orexin-A, its precursor molecule prepro-orexin and OX1 receptor have been detected in the human normal and hyperplastic prostate tissues, their expression and function in the prostate cancer (PCa) remains to be addressed. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the immunohistochemical localization of orexin-A in human PCa specimens, and the expression of prepro-orexin and OX1 receptor at both protein and mRNA levels in these tissues. Orexin-A administration to the human androgen-dependent prostate carcinoma cells LNCaP up-regulates OX1 receptor expression resulting in a decrease of cell survival. Noteworthy, nanomolar concentrations of the peptide counteract the testosterone-induced nuclear translocation of the androgen receptor in the cells: the orexin-A action is prevented by the addition of the OX1 receptor antagonist SB-408124 to the test system. These findings indicate that orexin-A/OX1 receptor interaction interferes with the activity of the androgen receptor which regulates PCa onset and progression, thus suggesting that orexin-A and its receptor might represent novel therapeutic targets to challenge this aggressive cancer. - Highlights: • Orexin-A and OX1 receptor are present in human cancer prostate tissues. • Orexin-A up-regulates OX1 receptor expression in LNCaP cells. • Orexin-A inhibits testosterone-induced nuclear translocation of androgen receptor.

  9. Expression and potential role of the peptide orexin-A in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peptides orexin-A and orexin-B and their G protein-coupled OX1 and OX2 receptors are involved in multiple physiological processes in the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Altered expression or signaling dysregulation of orexins and their receptors have been associated with a wide range of human diseases including narcolepsy, obesity, drug addiction, and cancer. Although orexin-A, its precursor molecule prepro-orexin and OX1 receptor have been detected in the human normal and hyperplastic prostate tissues, their expression and function in the prostate cancer (PCa) remains to be addressed. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the immunohistochemical localization of orexin-A in human PCa specimens, and the expression of prepro-orexin and OX1 receptor at both protein and mRNA levels in these tissues. Orexin-A administration to the human androgen-dependent prostate carcinoma cells LNCaP up-regulates OX1 receptor expression resulting in a decrease of cell survival. Noteworthy, nanomolar concentrations of the peptide counteract the testosterone-induced nuclear translocation of the androgen receptor in the cells: the orexin-A action is prevented by the addition of the OX1 receptor antagonist SB-408124 to the test system. These findings indicate that orexin-A/OX1 receptor interaction interferes with the activity of the androgen receptor which regulates PCa onset and progression, thus suggesting that orexin-A and its receptor might represent novel therapeutic targets to challenge this aggressive cancer. - Highlights: • Orexin-A and OX1 receptor are present in human cancer prostate tissues. • Orexin-A up-regulates OX1 receptor expression in LNCaP cells. • Orexin-A inhibits testosterone-induced nuclear translocation of androgen receptor

  10. Significant cancer prevention factor extraction: an association rule discovery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Jesmin; Tickle, Kevin S; Ali, A B M Shawkat; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe

    2011-06-01

    Cancer is increasing the total number of unexpected deaths around the world. Until now, cancer research could not significantly contribute to a proper solution for the cancer patient, and as a result, the high death rate is uncontrolled. The present research aim is to extract the significant prevention factors for particular types of cancer. To find out the prevention factors, we first constructed a prevention factor data set with an extensive literature review on bladder, breast, cervical, lung, prostate and skin cancer. We subsequently employed three association rule mining algorithms, Apriori, Predictive apriori and Tertius algorithms in order to discover most of the significant prevention factors against these specific types of cancer. Experimental results illustrate that Apriori is the most useful association rule-mining algorithm to be used in the discovery of prevention factors. PMID:20703554

  11. Peptide-induced de novo bone formation after tooth extraction prevents alveolar bone loss in a murine tooth extraction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Yuki; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Ono, Takashi; Murali, Ramachandran; Mise-Omata, Setsuko; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2016-07-01

    Tooth extraction causes bone resorption of the alveolar bone volume. Although recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) markedly promotes de novo bone formation after tooth extraction, the application of high-dose rhBMP-2 may induce side effects, such as swelling, seroma, and an increased cancer risk. Therefore, reduction of the necessary dose of rhBMP-2 which can still obtain sufficient bone mass is necessary by developing a new osteogenic reagent. Recently, we showed that the systemic administration of OP3-4 peptide, which was originally designed as a bone resorption inhibitor, had osteogenic ability both in vitro and in vivo. This study evaluated the ability of the local application of OP3-4 peptide to promote bone formation in a murine tooth extraction model with a very low-dose of BMP. The mandibular incisor was extracted from 10-week-old C57BL6/J male mice and a gelatin hydrogel containing rhBMP-2 with or without OP3-4 peptide (BMP/OP3-4) was applied to the socket of the incisor. Bone formation inside the socket was examined radiologically and histologically at 21 days after the extraction. The BMP/OP3-4-group showed significant bone formation inside the mandibular extraction socket compared to the gelatin-hydrogel-carrier-control group or rhBMP-2-applied group. The BMP/OP3-4-applied mice showed a lower reduction of alveolar bone and fewer osteoclast numbers, suggesting that the newly formed bone inside the socket may prevent resorption of the cortical bone around the extraction socket. Our data revealed that OP3-4 peptide promotes BMP-mediated bone formation inside the extraction socket of mandibular bone, resulting in preservation from the loss of alveolar bone. PMID:27118173

  12. Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention: Insights from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Nicastro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT was conducted to assess the efficacy of selenium and vitamin E alone, and in combination, on the incidence of prostate cancer. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial found that neither selenium nor vitamin E reduced the incidence of prostate cancer after seven years and that vitamin E was associated with a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer compared to placebo. The null result was surprising given the strong preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting chemopreventive activity of selenium. Potential explanations for the null findings include the agent formulation and dose, the characteristics of the cohort, and the study design. It is likely that only specific subpopulations may benefit from selenium supplementation; therefore, future studies should consider the baseline selenium status of the participants, age of the cohort, and genotype of specific selenoproteins, among other characteristics, in order to determine the activity of selenium in cancer prevention.

  13. Vitamin D and prevention of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JoEllen WELSH

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic data have demonstrated that breast cancer incidence is inversely correlated with indices of vitamin D status, including ultraviolet exposure, which enhances epidermal vitamin D synthesis. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is ex-pressed in mammary epithelial cells, suggesting that vitamin D may directly influ-ence sensitivity of the gland to transformation. Consistent with this concept, in vitro studies have demonstrated that the VDR ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), exerts negative growth regulatory effects on mammary epithelial ceils that contribute to maintenance of the differentiated phenotype. Furthermore, deletion of the VDR gene in mice alters the balance between proliferation and apoptosis in the mammary gland, which ultimately enhances its susceptibility to carcinogenesis.In addition, dietary supplementation with vitamin D, or chronic treatment with synthetic VDR agonists, reduces the incidence of carcinogen-induced mammary tumors in rodents. Collectively, these observations have reinforced the need to further define the human requirement for vitamin D and the molecular actions of the VDR in relation to prevention of breast cancer.

  14. Nutrition Frontiers E-Newsletter | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change. |

  15. Immunogenicity of the hTERT540-548 peptide in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenandy, L.; Sorensen, R.B.; Sengelov, L.;

    2008-01-01

    Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), the catalytic subunit of telomerase, is an attractive target antigen for cancer immunotherapy due to its expression in the vast majority of human tumors. The first immunogenic peptide described from hTERT was the HLA-A2-restricted peptide hTERT540...

  16. The Prevention of Liver Cancer by HBV Vaccine Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Xiong

    2002-01-01

    Objective To recognize the HBV vaccine program for prevention of the hepatic cancer.Methods To discuss the relation between the HBV and hepatic cancer arising, and to discuss the immunology respond of the HBV vaccine (HBV surface antigen protein) in our patient group. Result Our data indicates that the predisposing of the HBV infection is required for the hepatic cancer arising and for the high expression of the AFP gene, and our data indicates that the HBV vaccine can induce highly immuno respond in about 78.8 % of the adult for achieving the HBV prevention status and the hepatic cancer prevention status.

  17. Educating Cancer Prevention Researchers in Emerging Biobehavioral Models: Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Davila, Marivel; Kamrudin, Samira A.; Li, Dennis H.; Noor, Syed W.; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Chang, Shine; Cameron, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    To increase the adoption of transdisciplinary research methods among future cancer prevention investigators, faculty members from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a graduate-level course in biobehavioral methods in cancer prevention research. Two instructors paired by topic and area of expertise offered an hour-long lecture-based seminar every week for 15 weeks during the spring semester of 2010. Students and presenters both evaluated the overall course content and ...

  18. Preventing and Treating Prostate Cancer Spread to Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... options Preventing and treating prostate cancer spread to bones If prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it ... a vein and settle in areas of damaged bones (like those containing cancer spread). Once there, they give off radiation that ...

  19. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Approved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    On June 24, 2013, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Board of Scientific Advisors approved the creation of the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP). NCORP will bring state-of-the art cancer prevention, control, treatment and imaging clinical trials, cancer care delivery research, and disparities studies to individuals in their own communities. |

  20. The Complexities of Epidemiology and Prevention of Gastrointestinal Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Saba Haq; Shadan Ali; Fazlul H Sarkar; Ramzi Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Cancer epidemiology and prevention is one of the most well studied fields today. The more we can understand about the incidence and pathogenesis of this disease, the better we will be able to prevent it. Effective prevention strategies can decrease the mortality rate of cancer significantly; this is why it is important to delineate the underlying causes. It has been well recognized that genetic mutations, sporadic or hereditary, may lead to increased chance of tumorigenesis. Detecting genetic...

  1. Structure-based optimization of GRP78-binding peptides that enhances efficacy in cancer imaging and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Hung; Lee, Andy Chi-Lung; Chen, I-Ju; Chang, Nai-Chuan; Wu, Han-Chung; Yu, Hui-Ming; Chang, Ya-Jen; Lee, Te-Wei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Yu, Alice L; Yu, John

    2016-07-01

    It is more challenging to design peptide drugs than small molecules through molecular docking and in silico analysis. Here, we developed a structure-based approach with various computational and analytical techniques to optimize cancer-targeting peptides for molecular imaging and therapy. We first utilized a peptide-binding protein database to identify GRP78, a specific cancer cell-surface marker, as a target protein for the lead, L-peptide. Subsequently, we used homologous modeling and molecular docking to identify a peptide-binding domain within GRP78 and optimized a series of peptides with a new protein-ligand scoring program, HotLig. Binding of these peptides to GRP78 was confirmed using an oriented immobilization technique for the Biacore system. We further examined the ability of the peptides to target cancer cells through in vitro binding studies with cell lines and clinical cancer specimens, and in vivo tumor imaging and targeted chemotherapeutic studies. MicroSPECT/CT imaging revealed significantly greater uptake of (188)Re-liposomes linked to these peptides as compared with non-targeting (188)Re-liposomes. Conjugation with these peptides also significantly increased the therapeutic efficacy of Lipo-Dox. Notably, peptide-conjugated Lipo-Dox significantly reduced stem-cell subpopulation in xenografts of breast cancer. The structure-based optimization strategy for peptides described here may be useful for developing peptide drugs for cancer imaging and therapy. PMID:27088408

  2. The zebrafish embryo as a tool for screening and characterizing pleurocidin host-defense peptides as anti-cancer agents

    OpenAIRE

    Michael G. Morash; Douglas, Susan E.; Anna Robotham; Ridley, Christina M.; Gallant, Jeffrey W.; Soanes, Kelly H.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The emergence of multidrug-resistant cancers and the lack of targeted therapies for many cancers underscore an unmet need for new therapeutics with novel modes of action towards cancer cells. Host-defense peptides often exhibit selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells and show potential as anti-cancer therapeutics. Here, we screen 26 naturally occurring variants of the peptide pleurocidin for cytotoxic and anti-cancer activities, and investigate the underlying mechanism of action. ...

  3. The zebrafish embryo as a tool for screening and characterizing pleurocidin host-defense peptides as anti-cancer agents

    OpenAIRE

    Morash, Michael G.; Douglas, Susan E.; Anna Robotham; Ridley, Christina M.; Gallant, Jeffrey W.; Soanes, Kelly H.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The emergence of multidrug-resistant cancers and the lack of targeted therapies for many cancers underscore an unmet need for new therapeutics with novel modes of action towards cancer cells. Host-defense peptides often exhibit selective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells and show potential as anti-cancer therapeutics. Here, we screen 26 naturally occurring variants of the peptide pleurocidin for cytotoxic and anti-cancer activities, and investigate the underlying mechanism of actio...

  4. Primary and Secondary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tárraga López, Pedro J; Juan Solera Albero; José Antonio Rodríguez-Montes

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cancer is a worldwide problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cancer in men, after lung and prostate cancer, and is the second most frequent cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the third cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most frequent cause of death by cancer if both genders are considered together. CRC represents approximately 10% of deaths b...

  5. Affinity peptide developed by phage display selection for targeting gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Jie Zhang; Yan-Xia Sui; Arun Budha; Jian-Bao Zheng; Xue-Jun Sun; Ying-Chun Hou; Thomas D Wang; Shao-Ying Lu

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To develop an affinity peptide that binds to gastric cancer used for the detection of early gastric cancer.METHODS:A peptide screen was performed by biopanning the PhD-12 phage display library,clearing non-specific binders against tumor-adjacent normal appearing gastric mucosa and obtaining selective binding against freshly harvested gastric cancer tissues.Tumortargeted binding of selected peptides was confirmed by bound phage counts,enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,competitive inhibition,fluorescence microscopy and semi-quantitative analysis on immunohistochemistry using different types of cancer tissues.RESULTS:Approximately 92.8% of the non-specific phage clones were subtracted from the original phage library after two rounds of biopanning against normalappearing gastric mucosa.After the third round of positive screening,the peptide sequence AADNAKTKSFPV (AAD) appeared in 25% (12/48) of the analyzed phages.For the control peptide,these values were 6.8 ± 2.3,5.1 ± 1.7,3.5 ± 2.1,4.6 ± 1.9 and 1.1 ± 0.5,respectively.The values for AAD peptide were statistically significant (P < 0.01) for gastric cancer as compared with other histological classifications and control peptide.CONCLUSION:A novel peptide is discovered to have a specific binding activity to gastric cancer,and can be used to distinguish neoplastic from normal gastric mucosa,demonstrating the potential for early cancer detection on endoscopy.

  6. Peptides Targeting the Desmoglein 3 Adhesive Interface Prevent Autoantibody-induced Acantholysis in Pemphigus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupel, Wolfgang-Moritz; Müller, Thomas; Efthymiadis, Athina; Schmidt, Enno; Drenckhahn, Detlev; Waschke, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) autoantibodies directly inhibit desmoglein (Dsg) 3-mediated transinteraction. Because cellular signaling also seems to be required for PV pathogenesis, it is important to characterize the role of direct inhibition in pemphigus acantholysis to allow establishment of new therapeutic approaches. Therefore, we modeled the Dsg1 and Dsg3 sequences into resolved cadherin structures and predicted peptides targeting the adhesive interface of both Dsg3 and Dsg1. In atomic force microscopy single molecule experiments, the self-designed cyclic single peptide specifically blocked homophilic Dsg3 and Dsg1 transinteraction, whereas a tandem peptide (TP) consisting of two combined single peptides did not. TP did not directly block binding of pemphigus IgG to their target Dsg antigens but prevented PV-IgG-induced inhibition of Dsg3 transinteraction in cell-free (atomic force microscopy) and cell-based (laser tweezer) experiments, indicating stabilization of Dsg3 bonds. Similarly, PV-IgG-mediated acantholysis and disruption of Dsg3 localization in HaCaT keratinocytes was partially blocked by TP. This is the first evidence that direct inhibition of Dsg3 binding is important for PV pathogenesis and that peptidomimetics stabilizing Dsg transinteraction may provide a novel approach for PV treatment. PMID:19164289

  7. Detection of cancer cells using a peptide nanotube–folic acid modified graphene electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, John J.; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Rozlosnik, Noemi;

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the preparation of a graphene electrode modified with a new conjugate of peptide nanotubes and folic acid for the selective detection of human cervical cancer cells over-expressing folate receptors. The functionalization of peptide nanotubes with folic acid was confirmed by...... fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The peptide nanotube–folic acid modified graphene electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The modification of the graphene electrode with peptide nanotube–folic acid led to an increase in the current signal. The......–folic acid modified electrode lowered the electron transfer resulting in a decrease in the measured current. A detection limit of 250 human cervical cancer cells per mL was obtained. Control experiments confirmed that the peptide nanotube–folic acid electrode specifically recognized folate receptors. The...

  8. Green tea compounds in breast cancer prevention and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Min-Jing; Yin, Yan-Cun; Wang, Jiao; Jiang, Yang-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. In recent years, many in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that green tea possesses anti-cancer effects. The epidemiological studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. Likewise, results from animal models about the preventive or therapeutic effects of green tea components are inconclusive. The mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence the risk of breast cancer in humans remain elusive mechanisms by which green...

  9. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  10. Preventive Effects of Cocoa and Cocoa Antioxidants in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angeles Martín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related mortality in the developed world. Carcinogenesis is a multistage process conventionally defined by the initiation, promotion and progression stages. Natural polyphenolic compounds can act as highly effective antioxidant and chemo-preventive agents able to interfere at the three stages of cancer. Cocoa has been demonstrated to counteract oxidative stress and to have a potential capacity to interact with multiple carcinogenic pathways involved in inflammation, proliferation and apoptosis of initiated and malignant cells. Therefore, restriction of oxidative stress and/or prevention or delayed progression of cancer stages by cocoa antioxidant compounds has gained interest as an effective approach in colorectal cancer prevention. In this review, we look over different in vitro and in vivo studies that have identified potential targets and mechanisms whereby cocoa and their flavonoids could interfere with colonic cancer. In addition, evidence from human studies is also illustrated.

  11. Heat shock protein-peptide complex-96 (Vitespen for the treatment of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Amato

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs are the most abundant and ubiquitous soluble intracellular proteins. Members of the HSP family bind peptides, they include antigenic peptides generated within cells. HSPs also interact with antigen-presenting cells (APCs through CD91 and other receptors, eliciting a cascade of events that includes re-presentation of HSP-chaperoned peptides by major histocompatability complex (MHC, translocation of nuclear factorkappaB (NFkB into the nuclei, and maturation of dendritic cells (DCs. These consequences point to a key role of heat shock proteins in fundamental immunological phenomena such as activation of APCs, indirect presentation (or crosspriming of antigenic peptides, and chaperoning of peptides during antigen presentation. The properties of HSPs also allow them to be used for immunotherapy of cancers and infections in novel ways. This paper reviews the development and clinical trial progress of vitespen, an HSP peptide complex vaccine based on tumor-derived glycoprotein 96.

  12. Employing the Church as a Marketer of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Coffey, Candice R.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church. PMID:23718957

  13. Review article about nutrition and primary prevention of oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Atena Shiva; Shahin Arab

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a worldwide problem that is caused by a variety of different factors increasing over a number of years. Oral cancer is a very prevalent disease and one of the most 10 common causes of death. It is important that the risk factors can be controlled. Selecting the correct health behaviors and preventing exposure to convinced environmental risk factors can help to prevent the expansion of cancer. Scientists guess that as many as 30-40 percent of all cancer-related deaths are caused by h...

  14. PEPTIDE TARGETING OF PLATINUM ANTI-CANCER DRUGS

    OpenAIRE

    Ndinguri, Margaret W.; Solipuram, Rajasree; Gambrell, Robert P.; Aggarwal, Sita; Hansel, William; Hammer, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Besides various side effects caused by platinum anticancer drugs, they are not efficiently absorbed by the tumor cells. Two Pt-peptide conjugates; cyclic mPeg-CNGRC-Pt (7) and cyclic mPeg-CNGRC-Pten (8) bearing the Asn-Gly-Arg (NGR) targeting sequence, a malonoyl linker and low molecular weight miniPEG groups have been synthesized. The platinum ligand was attached to the peptide via the carboxylic end of the malonate group at the end of the peptide. The pegylated peptide is non toxic and high...

  15. A novel transferrin receptor-targeted hybrid peptide disintegrates cancer cell membrane to induce rapid killing of cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transferrin receptor (TfR) is a cell membrane-associated glycoprotein involved in the cellular uptake of iron and the regulation of cell growth. Recent studies have shown the elevated expression levels of TfR on cancer cells compared with normal cells. The elevated expression levels of this receptor in malignancies, which is the accessible extracellular protein, can be a fascinating target for the treatment of cancer. We have recently designed novel type of immunotoxin, termed 'hybrid peptide', which is chemically synthesized and is composed of target-binding peptide and lytic peptide containing cationic-rich amino acids components that disintegrates the cell membrane for the cancer cell killing. The lytic peptide is newly designed to induce rapid killing of cancer cells due to conformational change. In this study, we designed TfR binding peptide connected with this novel lytic peptide and assessed the cytotoxic activity in vitro and in vivo. In vitro: We assessed the cytotoxicity of TfR-lytic hybrid peptide for 12 cancer and 2 normal cell lines. The specificity for TfR is demonstrated by competitive assay using TfR antibody and siRNA. In addition, we performed analysis of confocal fluorescence microscopy and apoptosis assay by Annexin-V binding, caspase activity, and JC-1 staining to assess the change in mitochondria membrane potential. In vivo: TfR-lytic was administered intravenously in an athymic mice model with MDA-MB-231 cells. After three weeks tumor sections were histologically analyzed. The TfR-lytic hybrid peptide showed cytotoxic activity in 12 cancer cell lines, with IC50 values as low as 4.0-9.3 μM. Normal cells were less sensitive to this molecule, with IC50 values > 50 μM. Competition assay using TfR antibody and knockdown of this receptor by siRNA confirmed the specificity of the TfR-lytic hybrid peptide. In addition, it was revealed that this molecule can disintegrate the cell membrane of T47D cancer cells just in 10 min, to effectively

  16. Health initiatives for the prevention of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinert, Rüdiger; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Mohr, Peter; Volkmer, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in white population worldwide. However, because the most prominent risk factor-solar UV-radiation and/or artificial UV from sunbeds-is known, skin cancer is highly preventable be primary prevention. This prevention needs, that the public is informed by simple and balanced messages about the possible harms and benefits of UV-exposure and how a person should behave under certain conditions of UV-exposure. For this purpose information and recommendations for the public must be age- and target-group specific to cover all periods of life and to reach all sub-groups of a population, continuously. There is a need that political institutions together with Health Institutions and Societies (e.g., European Commission, WHO, EUROSKIN, ICNIRP, etc.), which are responsible for primary prevention of skin cancer, find a common language to inform the public, in order not to confuse it. This is especially important in connection with the ongoing Vitamin D debate, where possible positive effects of UV have to be balanced with the well known skin cancer risk of UV. A continuously ongoing evaluation of interventions and programs in primary prevention is a pre-requisite to assess the effectiveness of strategies. There is surely no "no message fits all" approach, but balanced information in health initiatives for prevention of skin cancer, which use evidence-base strategies, will further be needed in the future to reduce the incidence, morbidity and mortality skin cancer. PMID:25207383

  17. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude;

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural...... history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe....

  18. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuzick, J.; Thorat, M.A.; Andriole, G.; Brawley, O.W.; Brown, P.H.; Culig, Z.; Eeles, R.A.; Ford, L.G.; Hamdy, F.C.; Holmberg, L.; Ilic, D.; Key, T.J.; Vecchia, C. La; Lilja, H.; Marberger, M.; Meyskens, F.L.; Minasian, L.M.; Parker, C.; Parnes, H.L.; Perner, S.; Rittenhouse, H.; Schalken, J.A.; Schmid, H.P.; Schmitz-Drager, B.J.; Schroder, F.H.; Stenzl, A.; Tombal, B.; Wilt, T.J.; Wolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by prostate-speci

  19. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude; Teillac, Pierre; Iversen, Peter; Boccon Gibod, Laurent; Bartsch, Georg; Marberger, Michael

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural...... history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe....

  20. Cancer prevention: take charge of your lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitting smoking has a direct affect on your risk of cancer. Tobacco contains harmful chemicals that damage your cells and cause cancer growth. Harming your lungs is not the only concern. Smoking and tobacco use cause many types of cancer, such as: Lung ...

  1. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Cuzick (Jack); M.A. Thorat (Mangesh A); G. Andriole (Gerald); O.W. Brawley (Otis W); P.H. Brown (Powel H); Z. Culig (Zoran); R. Eeles (Rosalind); L.G. Ford (Leslie G); F. Hamdy (Freddie); L. Holmberg (Lars); D. Ilic (Dragan); T.J. Key (Timothy J); C.L. Vecchia (Carlo La); H. Lilja (Hans); M. Marberger (Michael); F.L. Meyskens (Frank L); L.M. Minasian (Lori M); C. Parker (C.); H.L. Parnes (Howard L); S. Perner (Sven); H. Rittenhouse (Harry); J.A. Schalken (J.); H.-P. Schmid (Hans-Peter); B.J. Schmitz-Dräger (Bernd J); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A. Stenzl (Arnulf); B. Tombal (Bertrand); T.J. Wilt (Timothy J.); K. Wolk (Kerstin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by pr

  2. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world. One out of three new cancers is a skin cancer. More than 1 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell cancers [SCC]) occur annually. While the incidence rates for non-melanoma skin cancers continue to rise, there continues to be a substantial impact on morbidity, health and health care costs. |

  3. Screening of specific binding peptide targeting blood vessel of human esophageal cancer in vivo in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHI Min; WU Kai-chun; HAO Zhi-ming; GUO Chang-cun; YAO Jia-yin

    2011-01-01

    Background Cancer of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction remains a virulent malignancy with poor prognosis. Rapid progresses were made in chemotherapeutic agents and the development of molecular markers allowed better identification of candidates for targeted therapy. This study aimed to identify the candidate peptides used for anti-angiogenic therapy of esophageal cancer by in vivo screening C7C peptide library for peptides binding specifically to blood vessels of human esophageal cancer.Methods The phage displayed C7C peptide library was injected intravenously into mice bearing human esophageal tumor xenografts under renal capsule. After 5 rounds of screening, 13 clones were picked up individually and sequenced.During each round of screening, titers of phage recovery were calculated from tumor xenograft and control tissues.Homing of these 9 peptides to tumor vessel was detected by calculating phage titers in the tumor xenograft and control tissues (lung and spleen) after each phage was injected into mice model, and compared with the distribution of phage M13 and Ⅷ-related antigen in tumor xenograft by immunohistochemical staining. Comparisons among groups of data were made using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Bonferroni multiple comparisons test.Results The number of phage recovered from tumor tissue of each round increased gradually in tumor group while decreased in control groups (P <0.01 in tumor and spleen, P <0.05 in lung). Immunohistochemical staining showed similar staining pattern with M13 antibody or Ⅷ-related antigen antibody, suggesting that phages displaying the selected peptides could home to blood vessel of human esophageal cancer. According to their DNA, 9 corresponding peptide sequences were deduced. And the homing ability to blood vessel of phages displaying the selected peptides was confirmed by comparing with their recovery in tumor and control tissues. Two motifs, YSXNXW and PXNXXN, were also obtained by

  4. Active Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Active Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Models for prevention and treatment of cancer: problems vs promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B; Danda, Divya; Gupta, Shan; Gehlot, Prashasnika

    2009-11-01

    Current estimates from the American Cancer Society and from the International Union Against Cancer indicate that 12 million cases of cancer were diagnosed last year, with 7 million deaths worldwide; these numbers are expected to double by 2030 (27 million cases with 17 million deaths). Despite tremendous technological developments in all areas, and President Richard Nixon's initiative in the 1974 "War against Cancer", the US cancer incidence is the highest in the world and the cancer death rate has not significantly changed in the last 50 years (193.9 per 100,000 in 1950 vs 193.4 per 100,000 in 2002). Extensive research during the same time, however, has revealed that cancer is a preventable disease that requires major changes in life style; with one third of all cancers assigned to Tobacco, one third to diet, and remaining one third to the environment. Approximately 20 billion dollars are spent annually to find a cure for cancer. We propose that our inability to find a cure to cancer lies in the models used. Whether cell culture or animal studies, no model has yet been found that can reproduce the pathogenesis of the disease in the laboratory. Mono-targeted therapies, till know in most cases, have done a little to make a difference in cancer treatment. Similarly, molecular signatures/predictors of the diagnosis of the disease and response are also lacking. This review discusses the pros and cons of current cancer models based on cancer genetics, cell culture, animal models, cancer biomarkers/signature, cancer stem cells, cancer cell signaling, targeted therapies, therapeutic targets, clinical trials, cancer prevention, personalized medicine, and off-label uses to find a cure for cancer and demonstrates an urgent need for "out of the box" approaches. PMID:19481061

  8. Time-Frequency Analysis of Peptide Microarray Data: Application to Brain Cancer Immunosignatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Brian; Maurer, Alexander; Papandreou-Suppappola, Antonia; Stafford, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    One of the gravest dangers facing cancer patients is an extended symptom-free lull between tumor initiation and the first diagnosis. Detection of tumors is critical for effective intervention. Using the body's immune system to detect and amplify tumor-specific signals may enable detection of cancer using an inexpensive immunoassay. Immunosignatures are one such assay: they provide a map of antibody interactions with random-sequence peptides. They enable detection of disease-specific patterns using classic train/test methods. However, to date, very little effort has gone into extracting information from the sequence of peptides that interact with disease-specific antibodies. Because it is difficult to represent all possible antigen peptides in a microarray format, we chose to synthesize only 330,000 peptides on a single immunosignature microarray. The 330,000 random-sequence peptides on the microarray represent 83% of all tetramers and 27% of all pentamers, creating an unbiased but substantial gap in the coverage of total sequence space. We therefore chose to examine many relatively short motifs from these random-sequence peptides. Time-variant analysis of recurrent subsequences provided a means to dissect amino acid sequences from the peptides while simultaneously retaining the antibody-peptide binding intensities. We first used a simple experiment in which monoclonal antibodies with known linear epitopes were exposed to these random-sequence peptides, and their binding intensities were used to create our algorithm. We then demonstrated the performance of the proposed algorithm by examining immunosignatures from patients with Glioblastoma multiformae (GBM), an aggressive form of brain cancer. Eight different frameshift targets were identified from the random-sequence peptides using this technique. If immune-reactive antigens can be identified using a relatively simple immune assay, it might enable a diagnostic test with sufficient sensitivity to detect tumors in a

  9. Protein found to promote DNA repair, prevent cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ An abundant chromosomal protein that binds to damaged DNA prevents cancer development by enhancing DNA repair, researchers at University of Texas reported on-line in the Proceedings of the National Academies of Science.

  10. Insurance, Distance Often Prevent Breast Reconstruction After Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160210.html Insurance, Distance Often Prevent Breast Reconstruction After Cancer Obstacles ... 2, 2016 TUESDAY, Aug. 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Insurance coverage and the distance to a doctor's office ...

  11. Molecular epidemiology, prenatal exposure and prevention of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Molecular Epidemiology was originally conceived as a preventive approach, providing a valuable tool for investigating risk factors for cancer in vulnerable populations. Biomarkers can be used as early indicators of risk for preventative purposes and risk assessment. The present contribution mainly refers to in utero exposures to carcinogens, since humans are especially vulnerable during fetal development. Environmental exposures in utero can increase risks for both childhood and adult cancers...

  12. Cancer Preventive Mechanismsof the Green Tea Polyphenol (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Yu Zhang; Lei Chen

    2007-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that consumption of tea, especially green tea, is good for preventing cancer. To elucidate the cancer preventive mechanisms of green tea, much effort has been devoted to investigating the anticancer effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major component of green tea. It has been revealed that EGCG restrained carcinogenesis in a variety of tissues through inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), growth factor-related cell signaling,...

  13. A peptide against soluble guanylyl cyclase α1: a new approach to treating prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Gao

    Full Text Available Among the many identified androgen-regulated genes, sGCα1 (soluble guanylyl cyclase α1 appears to play a pivotal role in mediating the pro-cancer effects of androgens and androgen receptor. The classical role for sGCα1 is to heterodimerize with the sGCβ1 subunit, forming sGC, the enzyme that mediates nitric oxide signaling by catalyzing the synthesis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate. Our published data show that sGCα1 can drive prostate cancer cell proliferation independent of hormone and provide cancer cells a pro-survival function, via a novel mechanism for p53 inhibition, both of which are independent of sGCβ1, NO, and cGMP. All of these properties make sGCα1 an important novel target for prostate cancer therapy. Thus, peptides were designed targeting sGCα1 with the aim of disrupting this protein's pro-cancer activities. One peptide (A-8R was determined to be strongly cytotoxic to prostate cancer cells, rapidly inducing apoptosis. Cytotoxicity was observed in both hormone-dependent and, significantly, hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells, opening the possibility that this peptide can be used to treat the usually lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer. In mouse xenograft studies, Peptide A-8R was able to stop tumor growth of not only hormone-dependent cells, but most importantly from hormone-independent cells. In addition, the mechanism of Peptide A cytotoxicity is generation of reactive oxygen species, which recently have been recognized as a major mode of action of important cancer drugs. Thus, this paper provides strong evidence that targeting an important AR-regulated gene is a new paradigm for effective prostate cancer therapy.

  14. EGFR Transactivation by Peptide G Protein-Coupled Receptors in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Terry W; Nuche-Berenguer, Bernardo; Nakamura, Taichi; Jensen, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer kills approximately 1.3 million citizens in the world annually. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) erlotinib and gefitinib are effective anti-tumor agents especially in lung cancer patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. The goal is to increase the potency of TKI in lung cancer patients with wild type EGFR. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) transactivate the wild type EGFR in lung cancer cells. The GPCR can be activated by peptide agonists causing phosphatidylinositol turnover or stimulation of adenylylcyclase. Recently, nonpeptide antagonists were found to inhibit the EGFR transactivation caused by peptides. Nonpeptide antagonists for bombesin (BB), neurotensin (NTS) and cholecystokinin (CCK) inhibit lung cancer growth and increase the cytotoxicity of gefitinib. The results suggest that GPCR transactivation of the EGFR may play an important role in cancer cell proliferation. PMID:25563590

  15. Nutrients, foods, and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S; Chan, Andrew T

    2015-05-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigations have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grains have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat have been associated with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, folate, fruits, and vegetables. Nutrients and foods also may interact, as a dietary pattern, to influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet likely influences colorectal carcinogenesis through several interacting mechanisms. These include the direct effects on immune responsiveness and inflammation, and the indirect effects of overnutrition and obesity-risk factors for colorectal cancer. Emerging evidence also implicates the gut microbiota as an important effector in the relationship between diet and cancer. Dietary modification therefore has the promise of reducing colorectal cancer incidence. PMID:25575572

  16. Role of phytochemicals in colon cancer prevention. A nutrigenomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, van M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Specific food compounds, especially from fruits and vegetables, may protect against development of colon cancer. In this thesis effects and mechanisms of various phytochemicals in relation to colon cancer prevention were studied through application of large-scale gene expression profiling. Expressio

  17. Opportunities and Challenges for Nutritional Proteomics in Cancer Prevention12

    OpenAIRE

    Romagnolo, Donato F.; Milner, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge gaps persist about the efficacy of cancer prevention strategies based on dietary food components. Adaptations to nutrient supply are executed through tuning of multiple protein networks that include transcription factors, histones, modifying enzymes, translation factors, membrane and nuclear receptors, and secreted proteins. However, the simultaneous quantitative and qualitative measurement of all proteins that regulate cancer processes is not practical using traditional protein met...

  18. Screening and prevention in women at increased breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.S. de

    2015-01-01

    The most frequent cancer among women in the Western world arises in the breast accounting for over 1.7 million new cases in 2012, a number which is still rising. Much attention is paid to the discovery of new ways to prevent breast cancer, as is the search for new treatment modalities with a minimum

  19. Lay Representations of Cancer Prevention and Early Detection: Associations With Prevention Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Helen W. Sullivan, PhD, MPH; Lila J. Finney Rutten, PhD, MPH; Bradford W. Hesse, PhD; Richard P. Moser, PhD; Alexander J. Rothman, PhD; Kevin D. McCaul, PhD

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The Common Sense Model of illness representations posits that how people think about an illness affects how they try to prevent the illness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prevention representations vary by cancer type (colon, lung, and skin cancer) and whether representations are associated with relevant behaviors. Methods We analyzed data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 2005), a nationally representative survey of American adults (N...

  20. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Majidi; Reza Ghiasvand; Maryam Hadji; Azin Nahvijou; Azam-Sadat Mousavi; Minoo Pakgohar; Nahid Khodakarami; Mehrandokht Abedini; Farnaz Amouzegar Hashemi; Marjan Rahnamaye Farzami; Reza Shahsiah; Sima Sajedinejhad; Mohammad Ali Mohagheghi; Fatemeh Nadali; Arash Rashidian

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV) have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor progn...

  1. Gastric Cancer: Descriptive Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Screening, and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Parisa; Islami, Farhad; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Neal D Freedman; Kamangar, Farin

    2014-01-01

    Less than a century ago, gastric cancer (GC) was the most common cancer in the United States and perhaps throughout the world. Despite its worldwide decline in incidence over the past century, GC remains a major killer across the globe. This article reviews the epidemiology, screening, and prevention of gastric cancer. We first discuss the descriptive epidemiology of GC, including its incidence, survival, and mortality, including trends over time. Next, we characterize the risk factors for ga...

  2. Rapalogs in cancer prevention: Anti-aging or anticancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2012-01-01

    Common cancer is an age-related disease. Slow aging is associated with reduced and delayed carcinogenesis. Calorie restriction (CR), the most studied anti-aging intervention, prevents cancer by slowing down the aging process. Evidence is emerging that CR decelerates aging by deactivating MTOR (Target of Rapamycin). Rapamycin and other rapalogs suppress cellular senescence, slow down aging and postpone age-related diseases including cancer. At the same time, rapalogs are approved for certain c...

  3. Dietary Polyphenols in Prevention and Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul K. Lall; Syed, Deeba N.; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Mohammad Imran Khan; Hasan Mukhtar

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent disease affecting males in many Western countries, with an estimated 29,480 deaths in 2014 in the US alone. Incidence rates for prostate cancer deaths have been decreasing since the early 1990s in men of all races/ethnicities, though they remain about 60% higher in African Americans than in any other group. The relationship between dietary polyphenols and the prevention of prostate cancer has been examined previously. Although results are sometimes incons...

  4. Elaine Trujillo, MS, RD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaine Trujillo is a Nutritionist with the NSRG, where she promotes the translation of information about bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer. She plans and directs nutritional programs such as the annual week-long Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum, and the lectureship program Stars in Nutrition and Cancer. She collaborates with other federal agencies, and is currently serving on the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Management Team. Ms. |

  5. Health beliefs and cancer prevention practices of Filipino American women

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Celine M

    2006-01-01

    Cancer is the number one cause of death among Asian Americans, and Filipino Americans are the second largest Asian American group in number. Filipino American women have relatively low rates of breast and colorectal cancer screening compared to their White counterparts; however, they experience higher numbers of late-stage diagnoses and mortality rates. Thus, early detection of cancer and maintenance of healthy prevention behaviors are very important. Little is known about this community's pr...

  6. A favorable view: progress in cancer prevention and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Clifton Leaf, in his article "Why We're Losing the War on Cancer," presents criticisms of past research approaches and the small impact of this research thus far on producing cures or substantially extending the life of many cancer patients. It is true that gains in long-term survival for people with advanced cancers have been modest, hindered in part by the heterogeneity of tumors, which allows the cancers to persist using alternate molecular pathways and so evade many cancer therapeutics. In contrast, clinical trials have demonstrated that it is possible to reduce the incidence or improve cancer survival through prevention and early detection. Strides have been made in preventing or detecting early the four deadliest cancers in the United States (i.e., lung, breast, prostate, and colorectal). For example, 7-year follow-up data from the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) provides evidence that tamoxifen reduces the occurrence of invasive breast tumors by more than 40%; recent studies using aromatase inhibitors and raloxifene are also promising. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) showed that finasteride reduced prostate cancer incidence by 25%, and the ongoing Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) is investigating selenium and vitamin E for prostate cancer prevention based on encouraging results from earlier studies. Living a healthy lifestyle, including regular physical activity, avoiding obesity, and eating primarily a plant-based diet has been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer. In addition, noninvasive stool DNA tests for early detection are being studied, which may lessen the reluctance of people to be screened for colorectal polyps and cancer. Behavioral and medical approaches for smoking prevention are ways to reduce the incidence of lung cancer, with antinicotine vaccines on the horizon that may help former smokers to avoid relapse. The US National Lung Screening Trial is testing whether early detection via

  7. Nutritional Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to | Establishing a comprehensive understanding of diet and food components in cancer risk and tumor cell behavior.

  8. Serum Oxidized Protein and Prostate Cancer Risk within the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, Ashraful; Ambrosone, Christine B; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Tangen, Cathy; Kristal, Alan; Lucia, Scott; Wang, Qiao; Kappil, Maya; Thompson, Ian; Hsing, Ann W.; Parnes, Howard; Lippman, Scott M.; Santella, Regina M.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the role of oxidative stress in prostate cancer risk, we analyzed serum levels of protein carbonyl groups in 1808 prostate cancer cases and 1805 controls, nested in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, a randomized, placebo-control trial that found finasteride decreased prostate cancer risk. There were no significant differences in protein carbonyl levels in baseline samples between those later diagnosed with prostate cancer and those without at the end of study biopsy. Adjusted ...

  9. Finasteride Concentrations and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Cindy H.; Price, Douglas K.; Cathee Till; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Xiaohong Chen; Leach, Robin J; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L.; Hsing, Ann W.; Ashraful Hoque; Tangen, Catherine M.; Lisa Chu; Parnes, Howard L.; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Reichardt, Juergen K. V.; Thompson, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying dru...

  10. Cancer therapeutic approach based on conformational stabilization of mutant p53 protein by small peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Perry; Eizenberger, Shay; Cohen, Elad; Goldfinger, Naomi; Pietrokovski, Shmuel; Oren, Moshe; Rotter, Varda

    2016-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor serves as a major barrier against malignant transformation. Over 50% of tumors inactivate p53 by point mutations in its DNA binding domain. Most mutations destabilize p53 protein folding, causing its partial denaturation at physiological temperature. Thus a high proportion of human tumors overexpress a potential potent tumor suppressor in a non-functional, misfolded form. The equilibrium between the properly folded and misfolded states of p53 may be affected by molecules that interact with p53, stabilizing its native folding and restoring wild type p53 activity to cancer cells. To select for mutant p53 (mutp53) reactivating peptides, we adopted the phage display technology, allowing interactions between mutp53 and random peptide libraries presented on phages and enriching for phage that favor the correctly folded p53 conformation. We obtained a large database of potential reactivating peptides. Lead peptides were synthesized and analyzed for their ability to restore proper p53 folding and activity. Remarkably, many enriched peptides corresponded to known p53-binding proteins, including RAD9. Importantly, lead peptides elicited dramatic regression of aggressive tumors in mouse xenograft models. Such peptides might serve as novel agents for human cancer therapy. PMID:26943582

  11. Preparation of radiolabeling small molecular peptide probe for specific targeting lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish a radiolabelling method of specific small molecule peptide for lung cancer targeting with 99mTc by means of NHS-MAG3 as bifunctional chelating agents. Methods: The combinatorial library technique was used for screening small molecule peptide specific binding to non-small cell lung cancer cell (A549). Peptide sequence of cNGQGEQc was identified. Chelant NHS-NAG3 was directly conjugated with peptide cNGQGEQc during the synthesis of cNGQGEQc. The optimal labeling conditions and stability in vitro were investigated. Labeling rates was determined by paper chromatography. Results: The couple method of NHS-MAG3 with peptide cNGQGEQc by solid-phase synthesis was simplified and improved the couple efficiency. Peptide cNGQGEQc was successfully radiolabeled with 99mTc and the labeling ratio of 85% was obtained. The radiochemical purity was higher than 95% by HPLC purification. The labeled compounds of 99mTc-MAG3-cNGQGEQc was stable in vitro at room temperature. Conclusion: It is feasible for coupling of NHS-MAG3 to peptide cNGQGEQc and its radiolabeling with high efficiency and better stability in vitro. It appears to be suitable for further experiments requirement in vivo and in vitro application. (authors)

  12. Cancer therapeutic approach based on conformational stabilization of mutant p53 protein by small peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Perry; Eizenberger, Shay; Cohen, Elad; Goldfinger, Naomi; Pietrokovski, Shmuel; Oren, Moshe; Rotter, Varda

    2016-03-15

    The p53 tumor suppressor serves as a major barrier against malignant transformation. Over 50% of tumors inactivate p53 by point mutations in its DNA binding domain. Most mutations destabilize p53 protein folding, causing its partial denaturation at physiological temperature. Thus a high proportion of human tumors overexpress a potential potent tumor suppressor in a non-functional, misfolded form. The equilibrium between the properly folded and misfolded states of p53 may be affected by molecules that interact with p53, stabilizing its native folding and restoring wild type p53 activity to cancer cells. To select for mutant p53 (mutp53) reactivating peptides, we adopted the phage display technology, allowing interactions between mutp53 and random peptide libraries presented on phages and enriching for phage that favor the correctly folded p53 conformation. We obtained a large database of potential reactivating peptides. Lead peptides were synthesized and analyzed for their ability to restore proper p53 folding and activity. Remarkably, many enriched peptides corresponded to known p53-binding proteins, including RAD9. Importantly, lead peptides elicited dramatic regression of aggressive tumors in mouse xenograft models. Such peptides might serve as novel agents for human cancer therapy. PMID:26943582

  13. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  14. Biorepositories for the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) and the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) has a serum and lymphocyte bank with specimens on more than 90% of the 33,000 women in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) and Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR). They also have tumor blocks on the majority of the breast cancers that have occurred in women on these studies. |

  15. Lorenzo Tomatis and primary prevention of environmental cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huff James

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The leading 20th century proponent for primary prevention of environmental cancer was Dr. Lorenzo Tomatis, the former Director of the International Agency for Research on Cancer and founder of the IARC Monographs program. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Tomatis – eminent scientist, scholar, teacher, humanitarian, and public health champion - and includes many perspectives that he promoted throughout his career, with original quotations from some of his scientific writings on primary prevention of environmental cancer. Any attempt by us to simply summarize his views would only detract from the power and logic of his language. “Cancer still remains a mainly lethal disease. Primary prevention remains the most relevant approach to reduce mortality through a reduction in incidence”1.

  16. Targeting of follicle stimulating hormone peptide-conjugated dendrimers to ovarian cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Dimple A.; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Bugno, Jason; Lantvit, Daniel D.; Hong, Seungpyo; Burdette, Joanna E.

    2014-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Current treatment modalities include a combination of surgery and chemotherapy, which often lead to loss of fertility in premenopausal women and a myriad of systemic side effects. To address these issues, we have designed poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers to selectively target the follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), which is overexpressed by tumorigenic ovarian cancer cells but not by immature primordial follicles and other non-tumorigenic cells. Fluorescein-labeled generation 5 (G5) PAMAM dendrimers were conjugated with the binding peptide domain of FSH (FSH33) that has a high affinity to FSHR. The targeted dendrimers exhibited high receptor selectivity to FSHR-expressing OVCAR-3 cells, resulting in significant uptake and downregulation of an anti-apoptotic protein survivin, while showing minimal interactions with SKOV-3 cells that do not express FSHR. The selectivity of the FSH33-targeted dendrimers was further validated in 3D organ cultures of normal mouse ovaries. Immunostaining of the conjugates revealed their selective binding and uptake by ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) cells that express FSHR, while sparing the immature primordial follicles. In addition, an in vivo study monitoring tissue accumulation following a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the conjugates showed significantly higher accumulation of FSH33-targeted dendrimers in the ovary and oviduct compared to the non-targeted conjugates. These proof-of-concept findings highlight the potential of these FSH33-targeted dendrimers to serve as a delivery platform for anti-ovarian cancer drugs, while reducing their systemic side effects by preventing nonspecific uptake by the primordial follicles.Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Current treatment modalities include a combination of surgery and chemotherapy, which often lead to loss of fertility in premenopausal women and a myriad of systemic side

  17. Core-shell nanoparticle-based peptide therapeutics and combined hyperthermia for enhanced cancer cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Birju P; Pasquale, Nicholas; De, Gejing; Tan, Tao; Ma, Jianjie; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2014-09-23

    Mitochondria-targeting peptides have garnered immense interest as potential chemotherapeutics in recent years. However, there is a clear need to develop strategies to overcome the critical limitations of peptides, such as poor solubility and the lack of target specificity, which impede their clinical applications. To this end, we report magnetic core-shell nanoparticle (MCNP)-mediated delivery of a mitochondria-targeting pro-apoptotic amphipathic tail-anchoring peptide (ATAP) to malignant brain and metastatic breast cancer cells. Conjugation of ATAP to the MCNPs significantly enhanced the chemotherapeutic efficacy of ATAP, while the presence of targeting ligands afforded selective delivery to cancer cells. Induction of MCNP-mediated hyperthermia further potentiated the efficacy of ATAP. In summary, a combination of MCNP-mediated ATAP delivery and subsequent hyperthermia resulted in an enhanced effect on mitochondrial dysfunction, thus resulting in increased cancer cell apoptosis. PMID:25133971

  18. Governance Structure | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing the importance of an integrated approach to preventative drug development, there is a unified Governance Structure for the PREVENT Program responsible for coordinating and integrating available resources. With the goal of reaching go/no-go decisions as efficiently as possible, the purpose is to ensure a pragmatic approach to drug development and a clear path to market. |

  19. Cancer screening, prevention, and treatment in people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lara C; Stefancic, Ana; Cunningham, Amy T; Hurley, Katelyn E; Cabassa, Leopodo J; Wender, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE People with mental illness die decades earlier in the United States compared with the general population. Most of this disparity is related to preventable and treatable chronic conditions, with many studies finding cancer as the second leading cause of death. Individual lifestyle factors, such as smoking or limited adherence to treatment, are often cited as highly significant issues in shaping risk among persons with mental illness. However, many contextual or systems-level factors exacerbate these individual factors and may fundamentally drive health disparities among people with mental illness. The authors conducted an integrative review to summarize the empirical literature on cancer prevention, screening, and treatment for people with mental illness. Although multiple interventions are being developed and tested to address tobacco dependence and obesity in these populations, the evidence for effectiveness is quite limited, and essentially all prevention interventions focus at the individual level. This review identified only one published article describing evidence-based interventions to promote cancer screening and improve cancer treatment in people with mental illness. On the basis of a literature review and the experience and expertise of the authors, each section in this article concludes with suggestions at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy levels that may improve cancer prevention, screening, and treatment in people with mental illness. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:133-151. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26663383

  20. Cancer Stem Cell Hypothesis: Implication for Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Meiliana; Nurrani Mustika Dewi; Andi Wijaya

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer is a disease of genomic instability, evasion of immune cells, and adaptation of the tumor cells to the changing environment. Genetic heterogeneity caused by tumors and tumor microenvironmental factors forms the basis of aggressive behavior of some cancer cell populations. CONTENT: Cancers arise in self-renewing cell populations and that the resulting cancers, like their normal organ counterparts, are composed of hierarchically organized cell populations. Self–renewing “...

  1. Moving Toward Bioadjuvant Approaches to Head and Neck Cancer Prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma affects >45,000 Americans annually. Patients who are successfully treated for their primary tumor are at high risk of developing a second primary tumor, making effective preventive strategies highly desirable for this disease. Although a landmark study in 1990 suggested some benefit of high-dose retinoids in head and neck cancer prevention, subsequent trials using more tolerable doses have shown limited clinical success. Newer preventive strategies have included bioadjuvant therapy combining retinoids with interferon and α-tocopherol, combinations of molecularly targeted agents, and oncolytic viruses. Furthermore, considerable evidence has supported a cancer protective role for several nutrients, including green tea and curcumin analogs. Natural compounds such as these with favorable long-term safety profiles might be particularly suited to the cancer prevention setting, in which patients will usually tolerate only moderate risk and toxicity

  2. Prevention of gastric cancer: diet modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Karagianni

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the available evidence a probable protective role of vegetables, especially allium vegetables, and fruit consumption against gastric cancer risk probably exist. It also seems probable that high salt intake increases gastric cancer risk. Furthermore, the available evidence, though limited, is suggestive of a protective role of pulses and foods containing selenium. Limited, but still suggestive evidence exists concerning an inverse association between chilli, processed meat, smoked foods and grilled or barbecued animal foods with gastric cancer risk. A great number of other dietary factors are being investigated, but it is still not safe to reach any conclusions concerning them.

  3. How to permanently build up the prevention of occupational cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As about 2 millions of workers are exposed to carcinogenic agents in different industrial sectors, this expert opinion proposes a presentation of the state of the art of the prevention of carcinogenic risks. The different parts address the contribution of experimental and epidemiologic studies to the knowledge and prevention of occupational cancers (sure and possible factors, classifications and regulations), the knowledge of exposures in working environments (exposure modalities and principle of assessment of exposures, traceability and retrospective assessment), the risk management within a company (identification, suppression and substitution, design of work equipment, prevention of exposure for the personnel of subcontracting companies and in the waste and recycling sectors), the evolution from risk perception to risk prevention, the various strategies for action and professional sectors (general regime, prevention policy of the French national fund of prevention for territorial and hospital public services, the taking into charge of cancers as occupational disease by agriculture regimes of social protection), and the taking into care and restorative actions (medical and legal follow up and remedy, taking inequities into account, acknowledgement of occupational cancers in Europe, critical discussion of the European policy on occupational cancer prevention, lessons learned from Giscop93 inquiry)

  4. Knowledge, attitude and preventive practices for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of the breast cancer in medical community. The study was carried out in the Department of Oncology, Service Hospital, Lahore and completed in one month. Subjects and Methods: About 200 female doctors and nurses of the Hospital were involved. Each subject was asked to fill up a pro forma designed to assess knowledge, risk factors and preventive practices of the breast cancer. Using non-probability convenience sampling technique, breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography was performed as screening of breast cancer. Results: A majority had good knowledge of the risk factors and screening method for the early detection of breast cancer. Majority had the consensus on the benefit of mammography. Conclusions: The study shows that although medical professionals had fairly good knowledge about screening methods and risk factors of breast cancer. Their preventive practices were scanty in high risk population and, therefore, physicians and nurses need proper training. (author)

  5. Apigenin: A Promising Molecule for Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Sanjeev; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Apigenin, a naturally occurring plant flavone, abundantly present in common fruits and vegetables is recognized as a bioactive flavonoid shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer properties. Epidemiologic studies suggest that a diet rich in flavones is related to a decreased risk of certain cancers, particularly cancers of the breast, digestive tract, skin, prostate and certain hematological malignancies. It has been suggested that apigenin may be protective in other dise...

  6. Garlic and onions: Their cancer prevention properties

    OpenAIRE

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Ross, Sharon A.; Milner, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiological studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majo...

  7. Nutrients, Foods, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S.; Andrew T Chan

    2015-01-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigation have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grain have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, fo...

  8. Treating High-grade Lesions to Prevent Anal Cancer in HIV-infected People

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study, called the ANCHOR trial, will investigate whether screening and prevention methods similar to those used to prevent cervical cancer can help prevent anal cancer in HIV-infected men and women.

  9. Adherence to Diet and Physical Activity Cancer Prevention Guidelines and Cancer Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Lindsay N; Garcia, David O; Harris, Robin B; Oren, Eyal; Roe, Denise J; Jacobs, Elizabeth T

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have reported that adherence to health promotion guidelines for diet, physical activity, and maintenance of healthy body weight may decrease cancer incidence and mortality. A systematic review was performed to examine associations between adherence to established cancer prevention guidelines for diet and physical activity and overall cancer incidence and mortality. PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Reviews databases were searched following the current recommendations of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis Approach (PRISMA). Twelve studies met inclusion criteria for this review. High versus low adherence to established nutrition and physical activity cancer prevention guidelines was consistently and significantly associated with decreases of 10% to 61% in overall cancer incidence and mortality. Consistent significant reductions were also shown for breast cancer incidence (19%-60%), endometrial cancer incidence (23%-60%), and colorectal cancer incidence in both men and women (27%-52%). Findings for lung cancer incidence were equivocal, and no significant relationships were found between adherence and ovarian or prostate cancers. Adhering to cancer prevention guidelines for diet and physical activity is consistently associated with lower risks of overall cancer incidence and mortality, including for some site-specific cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(7); 1018-28. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27340121

  10. Future possibilities in the prevention of breast cancer: Fat and fiber and breast cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Prentice, Ross L.

    2000-01-01

    The potential for a reduction in dietary fat or for an increase in dietary fiber to reduce breast cancer risk has been debated for some years. It is argued here that available research data, even though extensive, leave open hypotheses ranging from little or no potential to major public health potential for breast cancer prevention by means of these dietary maneuvers. Some elements of a research strategy for testing these and other dietary breast cancer prevention hypotheses are described.

  11. Diet and Skin Cancer: The Potential Role of Dietary Antioxidants in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Rajani Katta; Danielle Nicole Brown

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Americans. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is the major risk factor for the development of NMSC. Dietary AOs may prevent free radical-mediated DNA damage and tumorigenesis secondary to UV radiation. Numerous laboratory studies have found that certain dietary AOs show significant promise in skin cancer prevention. These results have been substantiated by animal studies. In human studies, researchers have evaluated both oral AO...

  12. Prevention of cancer and non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Geoffrey; Gupta, Prakash; Gomes, Fabio; Kerner, Jon; Parra, William; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kim, Jeongseon; Moore, Malcolm; Sutcliffe, Catherine; Sutcliffe, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for approximately 7.6 million deaths (13% of all deaths) in 2008. Cancer mortality is projected to increase to 11 million deaths in 2030, with the majority occurring in regions of the world with the least capacity to respond. However, cancer is not only a personal, societal and economic burden but also a potential societal opportunity in the context of functional life - the years gained through effective prevention and treatment, and strategies to enhance survivorship. The United Nations General Assembly Special Session in 2011 has served to focus attention on key aspects of cancer prevention and control. Firstly, cancer is largely preventable, by feasible means. Secondly, cancer is one of a number of chronic, non- communicable diseases that share common risk factors whose prevention and control would benefit a majority of the world's population. Thirdly, a proportion of cancers can be attributed to infectious, communicable causal factors (e.g., HPV, HBV, H.pylori, parasites, flukes) and that strategies to control the burden of infectious diseases have relevance to the control of cancer. Fourthly, that the natural history of non-communicable diseases, including cancer, from primary prevention through diagnosis, treatment and care, is underwritten by the impact of social, economic and environmental determinants of health (e.g., poverty, illiteracy, gender inequality, social isolation, stigma, socio-economic status). Session 1 of the 4th International Cancer Control Congress (ICCC-4) focused on the social, economic and environmental, as well as biological and behavioural, modifiers of the risk of cancer through one plenary presentation and four interactive workshop discussions. The workshop sessions concerned 1) the Global Adult Tobacco Survey and social determinants of tobacco use in high burden low- and middle-income countries; 2) the role of diet, including alcohol, and physical activity in modifying the

  13. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer: are we closer to reality?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Qasim, Asghar

    2012-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An early detection of colorectal cancer determines therapeutic outcomes, while primary prevention remains a challenge. Our aim was to review the dietary, geographical and genetic factors in the causation and their possible role in the primary prevention of colorectal cancer. Data from experimental and clinical studies and population screening programmes were analysed to determine the factors responsible for causation of colorectal cancer. The role of dietary constituents, including the consumption of fat, red meat, fibre content, alcohol consumption, and other lifestyle issues, including obesity, lack of exercise and geographical variations in cancer prevalence were reviewed. The role of genetic and lifestyle factors in causation of colorectal cancer is evident from the experimental, clinical and population-based studies. Dietary factors, including the consumption of fat, fibre, red meat and alcohol, seem to have a significant influence in this regard. The role of micronutrients, vitamins, calcium may be relevant but remain largely unclear. In conclusion, there is ample evidence favouring the role of various dietary and lifestyle factors in the aetiology of colorectal cancer. Modification of these factors is an attractive option, which is likely to help in the primary prevention and reduced disease burden.

  14. Instructions for Applying | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is NOT a grant application - if successful, funds will not be transferred to your institution to support your project. Rather, this is an application to access the scientific capabilities and resources of the NCI with the goal of moving promising cancer chemopreventive agents into clinical testing. If successful, you will partner with the NCI in developing a drug development pipeline. | Apply to access the scientific capabilities and resources of the NCI with the goal of moving promising cancer chemopreventive agents into clinical testing.

  15. Prostate cancer: a serious disease suitable for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, John M; Schulman, Claude; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Schröder, Fritz H

    2009-04-01

    Prostate cancer is among the most common causes of death from cancer in men, and accounts for 10% of all new male cancers worldwide. The diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer place a substantial physical and emotional burden on patients and their families, and have considerable financial implications for healthcare providers and society. Given that the risk of prostate cancer continues to increase with age, the burden of the disease is likely to increase in line with population life-expectancy. Reducing the risk of prostate cancer has gained increasing coverage in recent years, with proof of principle shown in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial with the type 2 5alpha-reductase (5AR) inhibitor, finasteride. The long latency period, high disease prevalence, and significant associated morbidity and mortality make prostate cancer a suitable target for a risk-reduction approach. Several agents are under investigation for reducing the risk of prostate cancer, including selenium/vitamin E and selective oestrogen receptors modulators (e.g. toremifene). In addition, the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events trial, involving >8000 men, is evaluating the effect of the dual 5AR inhibitor, dutasteride, on the risk of developing prostate cancer. A successful risk-reduction strategy might decrease the incidence of the disease, as well as the anxiety, cost and morbidity associated with its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:19302133

  16. Nutrition in the prevention of gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Diet has been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of gastrointestinal cancer for a long time. Initially, strong evidence of such effects was found in retrospective epidemiological studies. Dietary habits, in particular those from the distant past, are difficult to measure, however. Results f

  17. A national agenda for Latino cancer prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Gallion, Kipling J; Suarez, Lucina; Giachello, Aida L; Marti, Jose R; Medrano, Martha A; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Talavera, Gregory A; Trapido, Edward J

    2005-06-01

    Although cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and premature death among Latinos, there is limited knowledge of cancer-related issues and priorities of greatest significance to the Latino population, the largest minority group in the nation. This information is vital in helping to guide Latino cancer research, training, and awareness efforts at national, regional, and local levels. To help identify cancer issues of greatest relevance to Latinos, Redes En Accion, The National Hispanic/Latino Cancer Network, a major network among the National Cancer Institute's Special Populations Networks, conducted a survey of 624 key opinion leaders from around the country. Respondents were asked to rank the three cancer sites most important to Latinos in their region and the five issues of greatest significance for this population's cancer prevention and control. Recommendations were prioritized for three specific areas: 1) research, 2) training and/or professional education, and 3) awareness and/or public education. Among cancers, breast carcinoma was ranked number one, followed in order by cervical and lung carcinomas. The issues of greatest significance to Latinos were 1) access to cancer screening and care, 2) tobacco use, 3) patient-doctor communication, 4) nutrition, and 5) risk communication. This survey solicited information from scientists, health care professionals, leaders of government agencies, professional and community-based organizations, and other stakeholders in Latino health. The results laid the foundation for a national Redes En Accion Latino cancer agenda, thus providing a useful tool for individuals and organizations engaged in cancer prevention and control efforts among the Hispanic-Latino population. PMID:15822119

  18. Informationist support for a study of the role of proteases and peptides in cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Surkis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Two supplements were awarded to the New York University Health Sciences Libraries from the National Library of Medicine's informationist grant program. These supplements funded research support in a number of areas, including data management and bioinformatics, two fields that the library had recently begun to explore. As such, the supplements were of particular value to the library as a testing ground for these newer services.This paper will discuss a supplement received in support of a grant from the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (PI: Brian Schmidt on the role of proteases and peptides in cancer pain. A number of barriers were preventing the research team from maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of their work. A critical component of the research was to identify which proteins, from among hundreds identified in collected samples, to include in preclinical testing. This selection involved laborious and prohibitively time-consuming manual searching of the literature on protein function. Additionally, the research team encompassed ten investigators working in two different cities, which led to issues around the sharing and tracking of both data and citations.The supplement outlined three areas in which the informationists would assist the researchers in overcoming these barriers: 1 creating an automated literature searching system for protein function discovery, 2 introducing tools and associated workflows for sharing citations, and 3 introducing tools and workflows for sharing data and specimens.

  19. RXP-E: a connexin43-binding peptide that prevents action potential propagation block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewandowski, Rebecca; Procida, Kristina; Vaidyanathan, Ravi;

    2008-01-01

    . Separately, RXP-E was concatenated to a cytoplasmic transduction peptide (CTP) for cytoplasmic translocation (CTP-RXP-E). The effect of RXP-E on action potential propagation was assessed by high-resolution optical mapping in monolayers of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, containing approximately 20% of...... randomly distributed myofibroblasts. In contrast to control experiments, when heptanol (2 mmol/L) was added to the superfusate of monolayers loaded with CTP-RXP-E, action potential propagation was maintained, albeit at a slower velocity. Similarly, intracellular acidification (pH(i) 6.2) caused a loss of...... action potential propagation in control monolayers; however, propagation was maintained in CTP-RXP-E-treated cells, although at a slower rate. Patch-clamp experiments revealed that RXP-E did not prevent heptanol-induced block of sodium currents, nor did it alter voltage dependence or amplitude of Kir2...

  20. Antimicrobial peptides on calcium phosphate-coated titanium for the prevention of implant-associated infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Kindrachuk, Jason; Duan, Ke;

    2010-01-01

    ) bacteria with 106-fold reductions of both bacterial strains within 30 min as assessed by measuring colony-forming units (CFU). Repeated CFU assays on the same CaP-Tet213 specimen demonstrated retention of antimicrobial activity by the CaP-Tet213 surfaces through four test cycles. The susceptibility of......Prevention of implant-associated infections has been one of the main challenges in orthopaedic surgery. This challenge is further complicated by the concern over the development of antibiotic resistance as a result of using traditional antibiotics for infection prophylaxis. The objective of this...... study was to develop a technique that enables the loading and local delivery of a unique group of cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMP) through implant surfaces. A thin layer of micro-porous calcium phosphate (CaP) coating was processed by electrolytic deposition onto the surface of titanium as the drug...

  1. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  2. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

  3. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-03-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  4. TRICHOMONOSIS AND SUBSEQUENT RISK OF PROSTATE CANCER IN THE PROSTATE CANCER PREVENTION TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Alderete, John F.; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Hsing, Ann W.; Zenilman, Jonathan M; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    We previously observed a positive association between a history of trichomonosis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the protozoan, Trichomonas vaginalis, and prostate cancer risk in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. To determine the reproducibility of this finding, we conducted a second, prospective investigation of trichomonosis and prostate cancer in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Participants were men ≥55 years of age with no evidence of prostate cancer at enrollmen...

  5. Serum Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results From the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Brasky, Theodore M.; Till, Cathee; White, Emily; Neuhouser, Marian L; Song, Xiaoling; Goodman, Phyllis; Thompson, Ian M; King, Irena B.; Albanes, Demetrius; Kristal, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation may be involved in prostate cancer development and progression. This study examined the associations between inflammation-related phospholipid fatty acids and the 7-year-period prevalence of prostate cancer in a nested case-control analysis of participants, aged 55–84 years, in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial during 1994–2003. Cases (n = 1,658) were frequency matched to controls (n = 1,803) on age, treatment, and prostate cancer family history. Phospholipid fatty acids were ...

  6. Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers ... of prostate cancer mean to men who take vitamin E but who were not SELECT participants? The ...

  7. Pomegranate Extracts and Cancer Prevention: Molecular and Cellular Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Syed, Deeba N.; Chamcheu, Jean-Christopher; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    There is increased appreciation by the scientific community that dietary phytochemicals can be potential weapons in the fight against cancer. Emerging data has provided new insights into the molecular and cellular framework needed to establish novel mechanism-based strategies for cancer prevention by selective bioactive food components. The unique chemical composition of the pomegranate fruit, rich in antioxidant tannins and flavonoids has drawn the attention of many investigators. Polyphenol...

  8. Antioxidants Meet Molecular Targets for Cancer Prevention and Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Nihal; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    A fine balance between oxidants and antioxidants is required for the normal functioning of living systems. A deregulation of this balance has been implicated in many adverse effects and diseases, including cancer. Extensive research has been done in the area of cancer prevention and therapeutics by a wide range of antioxidants, especially naturally occurring and diet-based agents. However, additional efforts are still needed toward clinical development of the most promising antioxidant agents...

  9. Breast cancer prevention and theory of planned behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tsounis A.; Sarafis P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction:Breast cancer is considered to be one of the highest of all forms of cancer among women.Understanding the factors that influence the adoption of preventive behaviors in this particular area is very important. Aim:the aim of the present study is to identify the factors associated with mammography screening, according to the theory of the Planned Behavior framework. Method: the methodology which was used included a literature review of Greek and international bibliograp...

  10. Nutrition Frontiers - Summer 2016 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 7, Issue 3 The summer issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases the combined effects of ursolic acid and resveratrol for skin cancer, the potential chemopreventive effects of the dietary supplement 4-MU, and a method to monitor a heterocyclic aromatic amine in dyed hair. Learn about our spotlight investigators, Drs. Michael Caligiuri and Jianhua Yu, and their research on dietary components for cancer prevention, upcoming announcements and more. |

  11. Extending Cancer Prevention to Improve Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, Darcy A.; Peña-Purcell, Ninfa; Friedman, Daniela B.; Ory, Marcia; Flocke, Susan; Barni, Marie T.; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Consuming a diet that is rich in fruits and vegetables is critical for preventing cancer and cancer-related disparities. Food systems approaches that increase spatial-temporal, economic, and social access to fruits and vegetables may ultimately result in improved consumption patterns among Americans. Engaging the triad of Cooperative Extension Services, public health systems, and community health centers may yield maximal public health benefits from food systems interventions. These entities ...

  12. Impact of Soy Isoflavones on the Epigenome in Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pudenz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones (IF such as genistein are cancer preventive phytochemicals found in soy and other legumes. Epidemiological studies point to a reduced risk for hormone‑dependent cancers in populations following a typical Asian diet rich in soy products. IF act as phytoestrogens and prevent tumorigenesis in rodent models by a broad spectrum of bioactivities. During the past 10 years, IF were shown to target all major epigenetic mechanisms regulating gene expression, including DNA methylation, histone modifications controlling chromatin accessibility, and non-coding RNAs. These effects have been suggested to contribute to cancer preventive potential in in vitro and in vivo studies, affecting several key processes such as DNA repair, cell signaling cascades including Wnt-signaling, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, migration and invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, metastasis formation and development of drug-resistance. We here summarize the state-of-the-art of IF affecting the epigenome in major hormone-dependent, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tumor types and in in vivo studies on anti-cancer treatment or developmental aspects, and short-term intervention studies in adults. These data, while often requiring replication, suggest that epigenetic gene regulation represents an important novel target of IF and should be taken into consideration when evaluating the cancer preventive potential of IF in humans.

  13. Using implementation science to advance cancer prevention in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Sivaram, Sudha; Anderson, Benjamin O; Basu, Partha; Belinson, Jerome L; Bhatla, Neerja; D'Cruz, Anil; Dhillon, Preet K; Gupta, Prakash C; Joshi, Niranjan; Jhulka, P K; Kailash, Uma; Kapambwe, Sharon; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Kaur, Tanvir; Mathur, Prashant; Prakash, Anshu; Sankaranarayanan, R; Selvam, Jerard M; Seth, Tulika; Shah, Keerti V; Shastri, Surendra; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Srivastava, Anurag; Trimble, Edward; Rajaraman, Preetha; Mehrotra, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Oral, cervical and breast cancers, which are either preventable and/or amenable to early detection and treatment, are the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in India. In this paper, we describe implementation science research priorities to catalyze the prevention and control of these cancers in India. Research priorities were organized using a framework based on the implementation science literature and the World Health Organization's definition of health systems. They addressed both community-level as well as health systems-level issues. Community-level or "pull" priorities included the need to identify effective strategies to raise public awareness and understanding of cancer prevention, monitor knowledge levels, and address fear and stigma. Health systems-level or "push" and "infrastructure" priorities included dissemination of evidence- based practices, testing of point-of-care technologies for screening and diagnosis, identification of appropriate service delivery and financing models, and assessment of strategies to enhance the health workforce. Given the extent of available evidence, it is critical that cancer prevention and treatment efforts in India are accelerated. Implementation science research can generate critical insights and evidence to inform this acceleration. PMID:25987015

  14. ANTI-TUMOR ACTIVITY AND IMMUNE RESPONSES INDUCED BY HUMAN CANCER-ASSOCIATED MUCIN CORE PEPTIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Yunguo; Yuan Mei; Fei Lihua; Li Li

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the immune responses induced by apomucin which is a mixture of mucin core peptide, in mice for elucidating the role of mucin core peptide in the modulation of cancers. Methods:Apomucin was isolated from human pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990. The mice were immunized with this apomucin (10μg/time×6) plus DETOX. Results: When immunized, all mice developed delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) after challenged with apomucin or synthetic peptide MUC-2 or MUC-3, while the mice immunized with apomucin alone did not develop DTH.No antibodies were detected by ELISA after immunization. When the spleen cells of vaccinated mice were cocultured with this apomucin (10-50μg/ml) and rhIL-2(50U/ml) in vitro, the proliferated lymphocytes showed cytotoxicity against human cancer cells, including colon cancer, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer and leukemia as measured by Cr-51 release assay. Antibodies against MUC-2 and MUC-3 could block the cytotoxicity. Conclusion: It was identified that a vaccine combined of apomucin and immune adjuvant DETOX can induce cellular immune response and anti-tumor cytotoxicity in mice.

  15. Radiolabeled antibodies and RGD-peptides for the treatment of ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.L.H.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, preclinical studies on new treatment modalities for ovarian cancer are descibed, applying radiolabeled antibodies and radiolabeled RGD-peptides. In chapter 2 a study is described comparing the therapeutic efficacy of the antibody HMFG1 radiolabeled with several beta-emitting radionuc

  16. Antimicrobial peptide incorporated poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogels for the prevention of Staphylococcus epidermidis-associated biomaterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P; Gilmore, Brendan F

    2012-07-01

    The effectiveness of the antimicrobial peptide maximin-4, the ultrashort peptide H-Orn-Orn-Trp-Trp-NH(2), and the lipopeptide C(12)-Orn-Orn-Trp-Trp-NH(2) in preventing adherence of pathogens to a candidate biomaterial were tested utilizing both matrix- and immersion-loaded poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly(HEMA)) hydrogels. Antiadherent properties correlated to both the concentration released and the relative antimicrobial concentrations of each compound against Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984, at each time point. Immersion-loaded samples containing C(12)-Orn-Orn-Trp-Trp-NH(2) exhibited the lowest adherence profile for all peptides studied over 1, 4, and 24 h. The results outlined in this article show that antimicrobial peptides have the potential to serve as an important weapon against biomaterial associated infections. PMID:22489028

  17. Sponsoring Organization | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) project officers are responsible for the design and oversight of all aspects of the PLCO trial. These NCI components work directly with the Coordinating Center which provides support for development and implementation of the study protocol; and with the Principal Investigators from each of the Screening Centers to ensure that the technical aspects of the trial are carried out under rigorous scientific standards. |

  18. Cancer-associated thrombosis: prevention and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Brose, K.M.J.; Lee, A.Y.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with cancer are at high risk to develop venous thromboembolism, and they are also more likely to develop complications from anticoagulant treatment. Because little research has focused on the oncology population to date, the optimal methods of prophylaxis and treatment remain uncertain in some clinical situations. Currently, low molecular weight heparin and warfarin are the most frequently used pharmacologic agents; however, they have their limitations. Other therapeutic options, suc...

  19. Anorexia in cancer: role of feeding-regulatory peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Perboni, Simona; Inui, Akio

    2006-01-01

    Anorexia is one of the most common symptoms in advanced cancer and is a frequent cause of discomfort for cancer patients and their families. The pathogenesis of cancer anorexia is multi-factorial and involves most of the hypothalamic neuronal signalling pathways modulating energy homeostasis. It is considered to be the result of a failure of usual appetite and satiety signals. Loss of appetite can arise from decreased taste and smell of food, as well as from dysfunctional hypothalamic signall...

  20. Transforming Cancer Prevention through Precision Medicine and Immune-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensler, Thomas W; Spira, Avrum; Garber, Judy E; Szabo, Eva; Lee, J Jack; Dong, Zigang; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Hait, William N; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Davidson, Nancy E; Foti, Margaret; Lippman, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    We have entered a transformative period in cancer prevention (including early detection). Remarkable progress in precision medicine and immune-oncology, driven by extraordinary recent advances in genome-wide sequencing, big-data analytics, blood-based technologies, and deep understanding of the tumor immune microenvironment (TME), has provided unprecedented possibilities to study the biology of premalignancy. The pace of research and discovery in precision medicine and immunoprevention has been astonishing and includes the following clinical firsts reported in 2015: driver mutations detected in circulating cell-free DNA in patients with premalignant lesions (lung); clonal hematopoiesis shown to be a premalignant state; molecular selection in chemoprevention randomized controlled trial (RCT; oral); striking efficacy in RCT of combination chemoprevention targeting signaling pathway alterations mechanistically linked to germline mutation (duodenum); molecular markers for early detection validated for lung cancer and showing promise for pancreatic, liver, and ovarian cancer. Identification of HPV as the essential cause of a major global cancer burden, including HPV16 as the single driver of an epidemic of oropharyngeal cancer in men, provides unique opportunities for the dissemination and implementation of public health interventions. Important to immunoprevention beyond viral vaccines, genetic drivers of premalignant progression were associated with increasing immunosuppressive TME; and Kras vaccine efficacy in pancreas genetically engineered mouse (GEM) model required an inhibitory adjuvant (Treg depletion). In addition to developing new (e.g., epigenetic) TME regulators, recent mechanistic studies of repurposed drugs (aspirin, metformin, and tamoxifen) have identified potent immune activity. Just as precision medicine and immune-oncology are revolutionizing cancer therapy, these approaches are transforming cancer prevention. Here, we set out a brief agenda for the

  1. In Vitro and In Vivo Imaging of Peptide-Encapsulated Polymer Nanoparticles for Cancer Biomarker Activated Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Kulsharova, Gulsim K.; Lee, Matthew B; Cheng, Felice; Haque, Munima; Choi, Hyungsoo; Kim, Kyekyoon; O’Brien, William D.; Liu, G. Logan

    2013-01-01

    Gelatin nanoparticles coated with Cathepsin D-specific peptides were developed as a vehicle for the targeted delivery of the cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) to treat breast malignancy. Cathepsin D, a breast cancer cell secretion enzyme, triggered the release of DOX by digesting the protective peptide-coating layer of nanoparticles. Fabricated nanoparticles were successfully detected with ultrasound imaging in both in vitro conditions and in vivo mouse cancer models. Cell viability experiments w...

  2. Review article about nutrition and primary prevention of oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atena Shiva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a worldwide problem that is caused by a variety of different factors increasing over a number of years. Oral cancer is a very prevalent disease and one of the most 10 common causes of death. It is important that the risk factors can be controlled. Selecting the correct health behaviors and preventing exposure to convinced environmental risk factors can help to prevent the expansion of cancer. Scientists guess that as many as 30-40 percent of all cancer-related deaths are caused by human behaviors such as smoking, consumption of alcohol, poor diet quality and physical inactivity. This result explains the tendency in the following behaviors that can influence the possibility of getting cancer, especially oral cancer in addition to providing information and classes about healthy eating habits and a subsequent healthy lifestyle at home. In fact, a diet rich in fresh fruits, whole grains and vegetables can decrease the risk of the oral cancer because of certain compounds such as vitamin C, E, carotenoids and lycopene. Moreover, limit consumption of meat, particularly processed meat, and replace it with vegetable proteins and fish (rich of omega 3 are helpful and effective.

  3. Fasting and Caloric Restriction in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Longo, Valter D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and among the leading major diseases in the world. It is anticipated to continue to increase because of the growth of the aging population and prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and/or poor dietary habits. Cancer treatment has remained relatively similar during the past 30 years with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery remaining the standard therapies although novel therapies are slowly replacing or complementing the standard ones. According to the American Cancer Society, the dietary recommendation for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is to increase calorie and protein intake. In addition, there are no clear guidelines on the type of nutrition that could have a major impact on cancer incidence. Yet, various forms of reduced caloric intake such as calorie restriction (CR) or fasting demonstrate a wide range of beneficial effects able to help prevent malignancies and increase the efficacy of cancer therapies. Whereas chronic CR provides both beneficial and detrimental effects as well as major compliance challenges, periodic fasting (PF), fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs), and dietary restriction (DR) without a reduction in calories are emerging as interventions with the potential to be widely used to prevent and treat cancer. Here, we review preclinical and preliminary clinical studies on dietary restriction and fasting and their role in inducing cellular protection and chemotherapy resistance. PMID:27557543

  4. Metformin: On Ongoing Journey across Diabetes, Cancer Therapy and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Strano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metabolism is the focus of intense research, which witnesses its key role in human tumors. Diabetic patients treated with metformin exhibit a reduced incidence of cancer and cancer-related mortality. This highlights the possibility that the tackling of metabolic alterations might also hold promising value for treating cancer patients. Here, we review the emerging role of metformin as a paradigmatic example of an old drug used worldwide to treat patients with type II diabetes which to date is gaining strong in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities to be included in clinical trials. Metformin is also becoming the focus of intense basic and clinical research on chemoprevention, thus suggesting that metabolic alteration is an early lesion along cancer transformation. Metabolic reprogramming might be a very efficient prevention strategy with a profound impact on public health worldwide.

  5. External Link Policy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following graphic notice means that you are leaving the DCP Web site: (link is external)This external link provides additional information that is consistent with the intended purpose of DCP.The National Cancer Institute (NCI) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal site.Linking to a non-federal site does not constitute an endorsement by HHS or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the site.You will be subject to the destination site |

  6. 1. HUMAN POPULATION MONITORING FOR CANCER PREVENTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Most of the chemicals classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as human carcinogens are mutagenic across test systems, cf. [www.epa.gov/gapdb ] and induce tumors at multiple sites in rodent species. They are therefore readity detected in short term tests for gene-tic and related effects (GRE), in animal carcinogenesis bioassays and in human monitoring studies. Carcinogens that are not genotoxic may be studied using new toxicogenomic approaches as will be discussed. A Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS) database is planned by the National Center for Toxicogenomics to contain information on such compounds. The 1992 Preamble to the IARC Monographs

  7. Primary Cancer Prevention by Green Tea, and Tertiary Cancer Prevention by the Combination of Green Tea Catechins and Anticancer Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiki, Hirota; Sueoka, Eisaburo; Watanabe, Tatsuro; Suganuma, Masami

    2015-01-01

    Green tea is a daily beverage, a non-oxidized non-fermented product containing at least four green tea catechins. Considering our first results when repeated applications of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) prevented tumor promotion in mouse skin, we have continued to look at green tea as a possible cancer preventive agent. 1) The 10-year prospective cohort study by Drs. K. Nakachi and K. Imai revealed that drinking 10 Japanese-size cups (120 mL/cup) of green tea per day delayed cancer ons...

  8. Current strategies for the prevention of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Advani P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pooja Advani, Alvaro Moreno-AspitiaDepartment of Hematology and Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USAAbstract: Due to the high incidence of breast cancer in the United States, optimal strategies for its prevention are imperative. This entails identification of women who are at an increased risk for breast cancer and an integrative approach that includes effective screening methods as well as nutritional, pharmacologic, and surgical management. Several breast cancer risk-assessment tools, such as the Gail and Claus models, can help clinicians determine the quantitative risk of breast cancer. The role of selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, for the prevention of breast cancer has been well established. Several other agents, such as aromatase inhibitors, are currently being investigated. The potential adverse effects of these chemopreventive agents, which include an impact on the quality of life, must be discussed with the patient before deciding on this approach. Additionally, breast cancer risk factors have been identified over the years; some of them are modifiable, but others are not. Although there is no conclusive evidence to suggest the protective role of specific dietary components, alcohol consumption and obesity are associated with an increased breast cancer risk; thus lifestyle changes can lead to a lower risk of developing breast cancer. Surgical approaches, including bilateral risk-reduction mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, are usually limited to women with a hereditary predisposition to development of breast cancer. The objective of this review is to summarize the various approaches directed at reducing the incidence of breast cancer.Keywords: chemoprevention, tamoxifen, raloxifene, prophylactic surgery

  9. Nutrition Frontiers - Spring 2016 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 7, Issue 2 The spring issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases green tea's effect on human metabolism, fish oil — as a chemopreventive agent in myeloid leukemia and, with pectin, how they affect microRNA expression in the colon. Learn about our spotlight investigator, Dr. Richard Eckert, and his research on skin cancer prevention, upcoming announcements and more. |

  10. Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripamonti Carla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In breast cancer patients, bone is the most common site of metastases. Medical therapies are the basic therapy to prevent distant metastases and recurrence and to cure them. Radiotherapy has a primary role in pain relief, recalcification and stabilization of the bone, as well as the reduction of the risk of complications (e.g., bone fractures, spinal cord compression. Bisphosphonates, as potent inhibitors of osteoclastic-mediated bone resorption are a well-established, standard-of-care treatment option to reduce the frequency, severity and time of onset of the skeletal related events in breast cancer patients with bone metastases. Moreover bisphosphonates prevent cancer treatment-induced bone loss. Recent data shows the anti-tumor activity of bisphosphonates, in particular, in postmenopausal women and in older premenopausal women with hormone-sensitive disease treated with ovarian suppression. Pain is the most frequent symptom reported in patients with bone metastases, and its prevention and treatment must be considered at any stage of the disease. The prevention and treatment of bone metastases in breast cancer must consider an integrated multidisciplinary approach.

  11. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which mod...

  12. Tea Polyphenols and Their Roles in Cancer Prevention and Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Ping Dou

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Many plant-derived, dietary polyphenols have been studied for their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against human cancers, including green tea polyphenols, genistein (found in soy, apigenin (celery, parsley, luteolin (broccoli, quercetin (onions, kaempferol (broccoli, grapefruits, curcumin (turmeric, etc. The more we understand their involved molecular mechanisms and cellular targets, the better we could utilize these “natural gifts” for the prevention and treatment of human cancer. Furthermore, better understanding of their structure-activity relationships will guide synthesis of analog compounds with improved bio-availability, stability, potency and specificity. This review focuses on green tea polyphenols and seeks to summarize several reported biological effects of tea polyphenols in human cancer systems, highlight the molecular targets and pathways identified, and discuss the role of tea polyphenols in the prevention and treatment of human cancer. The review also briefly describes several other dietary polyphenols and their biological effects on cancer prevention and chemotherapy.

  13. Dutasteride May Slow the Growth of Early-Stage Prostate Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    For men who are undergoing active surveillance for early-stage prostate cancer, the drug dutasteride (Avodart) could help control the disease and prevent the need for more aggressive treatments. |

  14. Breast cancer prevention and control programs in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlui, Maznah; Ramli, Sofea; Bulgiba, Awang M

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Malaysian females. The National Cancer Registry in 2003 and 2006 reported that the age standardized incidence of breast cancer was 46.2 and 39.3 per 100,000 populations, respectively. With the cumulative risk at 5.0; a woman in Malaysia had a 1 in 20 chance of developing breast cancer in her lifetime. The incidence of cancer in general, and for breast cancer specifically was highest in the Chinese, followed by Indians and Malays. Most of the patients with breast cancers presented at late stages (stage I: 15.45%, stage II: 46.9%, stage III: 22.2% and stage IV: 15.5%). The Healthy Lifestyles Campaign which started in the early nineties had created awareness on breast cancer and after a decade the effort was enhanced with the Breast Health Awareness program to promote breast self examination (BSE) to all women, to perform annual clinical breast examination (CBE) on women above 40 and mammogram on women above 50. The National Health Morbidity Survey in 2006 showed that the prevalence rate of 70.35% by any of three methods of breast screening; 57.1% by BSE, 51.8% by CBE and 7.6% by mammogram. The current screening policy for breast cancer focuses on CBE whereby all women at the age of 20 years and above must undergo breast examination by trained health care providers every 3 years for age between 20-39 years, and annually for age 40 and above. Several breast cancer preventive programs had been developed by various ministries in Malaysia; among which are the RM50 subsidy for mammogram by the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development and the SIPPS program (a call-recall system for women to do PAP smear and CBE) by the Ministry of Health. Measures to increase uptake of breast cancer screening and factors as to why women with breast cancer present late should be studied to assist in more development of policy on the prevention of breast cancer in Malaysia. PMID:22126511

  15. Behaviour among women in the scope of cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Słopiecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cytological examination is a simple and inexpensive method used in the prevention of cervical cancer. In Poland, too low proportions of women still have the test. Aim of the research : To analyse the attitudes towards cervical cancer prevention. Material and methods : Two hundred and ten hospitalized women were invited to take part in the investigation. The research used the diagnostic poll method, using the author’s original questionnaire form. The research was carried out in four gynaecological wards. Results : Of the women who participated in the research, 16.2% by the time of diagnosis had never received a Pap test. In the analysed group, 88.2% of women were not referred to a specialist for a Pap test. Among all respondents, only 35.7% underwent cervix cytology regularly, i.e. once a year or once every 2 years. Conclusions : The effort made by the women towards the attitudes of cervical cancer prevention was insufficient; still too many women had not reported to the specialist for taking material from the cervix, or did not do so regularly. A significant relation in the behaviour of women was found depending on their level of education and place of residence. Greater activity of nurses, midwives and family physicians in stimulating Polish women to participate in prevention programmes for cervical cancer is advisable. To increase the health awareness of girls and women, it is important to include in the curriculum, especially in secondary schools, the issues of prevention of female reproductive system cancer.

  16. Neurotransmission and cancer: implications for prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Hildegard M

    2008-08-01

    Published evidence compiled in this review supports the hypothesis that the development, progression, and responsiveness to prevention and therapy of the most common human cancers is strongly influenced, if not entirely orchestrated, by an imbalance in stimulatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. The neurotransmitters acetylcholine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline of the autonomic nervous system act as powerful upstream regulators that orchestrate numerous cell and tissue functions, by releasing growth factors, angiogenesis factors and metastasis factors, arachidonic acid, proinflammatory cytokines, and local neurotransmitters from cancer cells and their microenvironment. In addition, they modulate proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis of cancer directly by intracellular signaling downstream of neurotransmitter receptors. Nicotine and the tobacco-specific nitrosamines have the documented ability to hyperstimulate neurotransmission by both branches of the autonomic nervous system. The expression and function of these neurotransmitter pathways are cell type specific. Lifestyle, diet, diseases, stress, and pharmacological treatments modulate the expression and responsiveness of neurotransmitter pathways. Current preclinical testing systems fail to incorporate the modulating effects of neurotransmission on the responsiveness to anticancer agents and should be amended accordingly. The neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid has a strong inhibitory function on sympathicus-driven cancers whereas stimulators of cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A signaling have strong inhibitory function on parasympathicus-driven cancers. Marker-guided restoration of the physiological balance in stimulatory and inhibitory neurotransmission represents a promising and hitherto neglected strategy for the prevention and therapy of neurotransmitter-responsive cancers. PMID:18594207

  17. Eradication of H pylori for the prevention of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karolin Trautmann; Manfred Stolte; Stephan Miehlke

    2006-01-01

    Tnfection with H pylori is the most important known etiological factor associated with gastric cancer. While colonization of the gastric mucosa with H pylori results in active and chronic gastritis in virtually all individuals infected, the likelihood of developing gastric cancer depends on environmental, bacterial virulence and host specific factors. The majority of all gastric cancer cases are attributable to H pylori infection and therefore theoretically preventable. There is evidence from animal models that eradication of H pylori at an early time point can prevent gastric cancer development. However, randomized clinical trials exploring the prophylactic effect of H pylori eradication on the incidence of gastric cancer in humans remain sparse and have yielded conflicting results. Better markers for the identification of patientsat risk for H pylori induced gastric malignancy are needed to allow the development of a more efficient public eradication strategy. Meanwhile, screening and treatment of H pylori in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients as well as certain high-risk populations might be beneficial.

  18. Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task ...

  19. Knowledge of medical school students on breast cancer and cervical cancer, and their prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Liszcz; Badowska-Kozakiewicz, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer and cervical cancer are the most common cancers in women. Early diagnosis of the disease can reduce mortality, so it plays an important role in the field of prevention measures. An important aspect is education, the aim of which is to provide information on the risk factors for cervical cancer and breast cancer, as well as the possibility of eliminating them from the life of women, but also shaping women’s need to perform regular diagnostics. Aim of the resea...

  20. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Azam; Ghiasvand, Reza; Hadji, Maryam; Nahvijou, Azin; Mousavi, Azam-Sadat; Pakgohar, Minoo; Khodakarami, Nahid; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Amouzegar Hashemi, Farnaz; Rahnamaye Farzami, Marjan; Shahsiah, Reza; Sajedinejhad, Sima; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali; Nadali, Fatemeh; Rashidian, Arash; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Mogensen, Ole; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV) have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods: We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results: From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion: A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran.

  1. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Majidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC. Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran.

  2. Law 16.097 Prevention program of uterine cervix cancer in Uruguay: Uterine cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every year in Uruguay, is diagnosed around 600 new cases of cancer of uterine cervix. Next important information was related on this cancer and the evolution that will have the carrying of this illness, it was informed about the prevention, symptoms, I diagnose and treatment of the same one

  3. Cathelicidin peptide sheep myeloid antimicrobial peptide-29 prevents endotoxin-induced mortality in rat models of septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Andrea; Cirioni, Oscar; Ghiselli, Roberto; Mocchegiani, Federico; D'Amato, Giuseppina; Circo, Raffaella; Orlando, Fiorenza; Skerlavaj, Barbara; Silvestri, Carmela; Saba, Vittorio; Zanetti, Margherita; Scalise, Giorgio

    2004-01-15

    The present study was designed to investigate the antiendotoxin activity and therapeutic efficacy of sheep myeloid antimicrobial peptide (SMAP)-29, a cathelicidin-derived peptide. The in vitro ability of SMAP-29 to bind LPS from Escherichia coli 0111:B4 was determined using a sensitive limulus chromogenic assay. Two rat models of septic shock were performed: (1) rats were injected intraperitoneally with 1 mg E. coli 0111:B4 LPS and (2) intraabdominal sepsis was induced via cecal ligation and single puncture. All animals were randomized to receive parenterally isotonic sodium chloride solution, 1 mg/kg SMAP-29, 1 mg/kg polymyxin B or 20 mg/kg imipenem. The main outcome measures were: abdominal exudate and plasma bacterial growth, plasma endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations, and lethality. The in vitro study showed that SMAP-29 completely inhibited the LPS procoagulant activity at approximately 10 microM peptide concentration. The in vivo experiments showed that all compounds reduced the lethality when compared with control animals. SMAP-29 achieved a substantial decrease in endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha plasma concentrations when compared with imipenem and saline treatment and exhibited a slightly lower antimicrobial activity than imipenem. No statistically significant differences were noted between SMAP-29 and polymyxin B. SMAP-29, because of its double antiendotoxin and antimicrobial activities, could be an interesting compound for septic shock treatment. PMID:14563656

  4. Diet, Supplement Use, and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results From the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kristal, Alan R.; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Neuhouser, Marian L; Goodman, Phyllis; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Albanes, Demetrius; Thompson, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined nutritional risk factors for prostate cancer among 9,559 participants in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (United States and Canada, 1994–2003). The presence or absence of cancer was determined by prostate biopsy, which was recommended during the trial because of an elevated prostate-specific antigen level or an abnormal digital rectal examination and was offered to all men at the trial's end. Nutrient intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and a str...

  5. The promise of omics-based approaches to cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerzaman, Daoud; Dunn, Barbara K; Lee, Maxwell; Chen, Qingrong; Yan, Chunhua; Ross, Sharon

    2016-02-01

    Cancer is a complex category of diseases caused in large part by genetic or genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic or epigenomic alterations in affected cells and the surrounding microenvironment. Carcinogenesis reflects the clonal expansion of cells that progressively acquire these genetic and epigenetic alterations-changes that, in turn, lead to modifications at the RNA level. Gradually advancing technology and most recently, the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS), combined with bioinformatics analytic tools, have revolutionized our ability to interrogate cancer cells. The ultimate goal is to apply these high-throughput technologies to the various aspects of clinical cancer care: cancer-risk assessment, diagnosis, as well as target identification for treatment and prevention. In this article, we emphasize how the knowledge gained through large-scale omics-oriented approaches, with a focus on variations at the level of nucleic acids, can inform the field of chemoprevention. PMID:26970123

  6. Annual Fasting; the Early Calories Restriction for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solat Eslami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Essentially, people’s diet and nutritional status has been changed substantially worldwide and several lines of evidence suggest that these changes are to the detriment of their health. Additionally, it has been well documented that unhealthy diet especially the fast foods, untraditional foods or bad-eating-habits influence the human gut microbiome. The gut microbiota shapes immune responses during human life and affects his/her metabolomic profiles. Furthermore, many studies highlight the molecular pathways that mediate host and symbiont interactions that regulate proper immune function and prevention of cancer in the body. Intriguingly, if cancer forms in a human body due to the weakness of immune system in detriment of microbiome, the removal of cancer stem cells can be carried out through early Calories Restriction with Annual Fasting (AF before tumor development or progress. Besides, fasting can b balance the gut microbiome for enhancement of immune system against cancer formation.

  7. Role of prevention and screening in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddireddi Reddi Rani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is a disease with poor prognosis and high mortality among gynaecological cancers due to inaccessibility of ovary for inspection or sampling and lack of proper screening methods. Strategies to detect early ovarian cancer include estimation of serum CA-125 and transvaginal ultrasound (TVS for morphological index. Studies have shown that screening of asymptomatic average risk post-menopausal women did not show any benefit and are associated with false positive results which may lead to unnecessary surgery and resultant morbidity. The risks outweigh benefits. Present recommendation is to screen high risk women especially hereditary cancers and offer risk reducing surgery when needed. Prophylactic salpingectomy/oophorectomy may offer the opportunity to prevent ovarian cancer. More trials and more research in newer biomarkers are needed. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 941-946

  8. RGD Peptides-Conjugated Pluronic Triblock Copolymers Encapsulated with AP-2α Expression Plasmid for Targeting Gastric Cancer Therapy in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer, a high-risk malignancy, is a genetic disease developing from a cooperation of multiple gene mutations and a multistep process. Gene therapy is a novel treatment method for treating gastric cancer. Here, we developed a novel Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD peptides conjugated copolymers nanoparticles-based gene delivery system in order to actively targeting inhibit the growth of gastric cancer cells. These transcription factor (AP-2α expression plasmids were also encapsulated into pluronic triblock copolymers nanoparticles which was constituted of poly(ethylene glycol-block-poly(propylene glycol- block-poly(ethylene glycol (PEO-block-PPO-block-PEO, P123. The size, morphology and composition of prepared nanocomposites were further characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS. In MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide analysis, these nanocomposites have minor effects on the proliferation of GES-1 cells but significantly decreased the viability of MGC-803, suggesting they own low cytotoxicity but good antitumor activity. The following in vivo evaluation experiments confirmed that these nanocomposites could prevent the growth of gastric cancer cells in the tumor xenograft mice model. In conclusion, these unique RGD peptides conjugated P123 encapsulated AP-2α nanocomposites could selectively and continually kill gastric cancer cells by over-expression of AP-2α in vitro and in vivo; this exhibits huge promising applications in clinical gastric cancer therapy.

  9. Blood Type Influences Pancreatic Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variation in the gene that determines ABO blood type influences the risk of pancreatic cancer, according to the results of the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) for this highly lethal disease. The genetic variation, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), was discovered in a region of chromosome 9 that harbors the gene that determines blood type, the researchers reported August 2 online in Nature Genetics. |

  10. Exogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) prevents chemotherapy-induced mucositis in rat small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kissow, Hannelouise; Viby, Niels-Erik; Hartmann, Bolette;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Gastrointestinal mucositis is an unwanted and often dose-limiting side effect to most cancer treatments. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a peptide secreted from intestinal L-cells in response to nutrient intake. The peptide is involved in the regulation of apoptosis and proliferation in...... the intestine. We aimed to investigate the role of GLP-2 in experimental chemotherapy-induced mucositis. METHODS STUDY 1: Rats were given a single injection with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and killed in groups of five each day for 5 days. Blood samples were analysed for GLP-2 concentrations. The intestine...... was analysed for weight loss, morphometric estimates and proliferation. Study 2 Rats were treated with GLP-2 or control vehicle 2 days before a single injection of 5-FU or saline. The treatments continued until kill 2 days after. The intestine was investigated for influx of myeloperoxidase (MPO...

  11. Educating cancer prevention researchers in emerging biobehavioral models: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Davila, Marivel; Kamrudin, Samira A; Li, Dennis H; Noor, Syed W; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Chang, Shine; Cameron, Carrie

    2011-12-01

    To increase the adoption of transdisciplinary research methods among future cancer prevention investigators, faculty members from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a graduate-level course in biobehavioral methods in cancer prevention research. Two instructors paired by topic and area of expertise offered an hour-long lecture-based seminar every week for 15 weeks during the spring semester of 2010. Students and presenters both evaluated the overall course content and delivery method, as well as each session. A total of 11 students and 22 presenters participated in the course. In each class session, one presenter was from a behavioral science background,and the other was from a biological sciences background. Both presenters and students expressed overall satisfaction with the content and format of the course. The presentation of topics from a transdisciplinary perspective and interaction with presenters from both biological and behavioral sciences are valuable and can help junior researchers prepare to meet the emerging challenges in cancer prevention research. PMID:21720937

  12. Molecular Link between Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Grant

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as calcitriol, is a biologically active molecule required to maintain the physiological functions of several target tissues in the human body from conception to adulthood. Its molecular mode of action ranges from immediate nongenomic responses to longer term mechanisms that exert persistent genomic effects. The genomic mechanisms of vitamin D action rely on cross talk between 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 signaling pathways and that of other growth factors or hormones that collectively regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and cell survival. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate a role for vitamin D (calcitriol in modulating cellular growth and development. Vitamin D (calcitriol acts as an antiproliferative agent in many tissues and significantly slows malignant cellular growth. Moreover, epidemiological studies have suggested that ultraviolet-B exposure can help reduce cancer risk and prevalence, indicating a potential role for vitamin D as a feasible agent to prevent cancer incidence and recurrence. With the preventive potential of this biologically active agent, we suggest that countries where cancer is on the rise—yet where sunlight and, hence, vitamin D may be easily acquired—adopt awareness, education and implementation strategies to increase supplementation with vitamin D in all age groups as a preventive measure to reduce cancer risk and prevalence.

  13. In Vivo Selection of Phage Sequences and Characterization of Peptide-specific Binding to Breast Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Wang; Ruifang Niu; Lin Zhang; Hongkai Zhang; Xiyin Wei; Yi Yang; Shiwu Zhang; Jing Wu; Min Wu; Youjia Cao

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To screen specific polypeptide target binding to breast cancer xenografts in vivo from a phage-displayed peptide library in order to provide peptide sequences for breast cancer tumor-targeting diagnosis and therapy.METHODS A mouse model for carrying breast cancer xenografts was established using Tientsin Albinao Ⅱ mice (TAII). A 12-peptide library was biopanned through 4 rounds.Phages were recovered and titrated from tumor xenografts and control tissue (liver). The distribution of phages was detected by immunohistochemical staining.RESULTS Phage homing to breast cancer was enriched through 4 rounds of biopanning, being 14-fold of that recovered from liver tissue. A peptide sequence, ASANPFPTKALL was characterized by randomly picked-up clones which appeared most frequently.Immunohistochemical staining revealed phage localization in cancer xenografts 40 min after injection of the enriched phages.When a specific phage was tested individually, the phage reclaimed from breast cancer xenografts was 14 times as those from control tissues.CONCLUSION Tumor-specific homing peptides may provide an effective tool for breast cancer target therapy. The in vivo phage display selection technique employed in this study was feasible and applicable to screening peptides that home to.breast cells.

  14. A biomimetic collagen derived peptide exhibits anti-angiogenic activity in triple negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V Rosca

    Full Text Available We investigated the application of a mimetic 20 amino acid peptide derived from type IV collagen for treatment of breast cancer. We showed that the peptide induced a decrease of proliferation, adhesion, and migration of endothelial and tumor cells in vitro. We also observed an inhibition of triple negative MDA-MB-231 xenograft growth by 75% relative to control when administered intraperitoneally for 27 days at 10 mg/kg. We monitored in vivo the changes in vascular properties throughout the treatment using MRI and found that the vascular volume and permeability surface area product decreased significantly. The treatment also resulted in an increase of caspase-3 activity and in a reduction of microvascular density. The multiple mode of action of this peptide, i.e., anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumorigenic, makes it a viable candidate as a therapeutic agent as a monotherapy or in combination with other compounds.

  15. Continuing education in oral cancer prevention for dentists in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Juan; Varela-Centelles, Pablo; Tomás, Inmaculada; Seoane-Romero, Juan; Diz, Pedro; Takkouche, Bahi

    2012-09-01

    Continuing education (CE) can have a large impact on dentists' oral cancer attitudes, knowledge, and behavior. Reading scientific journals is a key component of CE. The objective of this study was to assess preventive and clinical attitudes of the participants in an educational intervention on oral cancer in Spain based on scientific journals. Members of the Spanish Board of Dentists and Stomatologists participated in an online, cross-sectional study, using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. There were 791 general dental practitioners (GDPs) invited to participate in the study. The large majority reported that they deliver tobacco-cessation counseling (93.6 percent) as well as advice on alcohol consumption (66.6 percent), but advice on vegetable intake was less frequently provided (42.4 percent). Alcohol intake advice, routine mucosa exploration, and biopsy performance on lesions suspicious of malignancy are preventive attitudes related to training. Compared with those who did not benefit from CE courses or did so only once, the GDPs who took four or more CE courses showed a doubling in the odds of giving alcohol advice to their patients and a tenfold increased odds of performing mucosa check on a routine basis; they were 3.5 times as likely to take biopsies of suspicious lesions. A longer experience as a GDP did not increase the probability of adopting preventive attitudes. In addition to presenting the results of this study, the article also discusses the general usefulness of other preventive measures in oral cancer. PMID:22942420

  16. G3-C12 Peptide Reverses Galectin-3 from Foe to Friend for Active Targeting Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Li, Lian; Yang, Qingqing; Shan, Wei; Zhang, Zhirong; Huang, Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Galectin-3 is overexpressed by numerous carcinomas and is a potential target for active tumor treatments. On the other hand, galectin-3 also plays a key role in cancer progression and prevents cells from undergoing apoptosis, thereby offsetting the benefits of active targeting drugs. However, the relative contribution of the protective antiapoptotic effects of galectin-3 and the proapoptotic effects of galectin-3-targeted therapies has remained yet unrevealed. Here, we show that a galectin-3-binding peptide G3-C12 could reverse galectin-3 from foe to friend for active targeting delivery system. Results showed G3-C12 modified N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer doxorubicin conjugates (G3-C12-HPMA-Dox) could internalize into galectin-3 overexpressed PC-3 cells via a highly specific ligand-receptor pathway (2.2 times higher cellular internalization than HPMA-Dox). The internalized Dox stimulated the translocation of galectin-3 to the mitochondria to prevent from apoptosis. In turn, this caused G3-C12-HPMA-Dox to concentrate into the mitochondria after binding to galectin-3 intracellularly. Initially, mitochondrial galectin-3 weakened Dox-induced mitochondrial damage; however, as time progressed, G3-C12 active-mediation allowed increasing amounts of Dox to be delivered to the mitochondria, which eventually induced higher level of apoptosis than nontargeted copolymers. In addition, G3-C12 downregulates galectin-3 expression, 0.43 times lower than control cells, which could possibly be responsible for the suppressed cell migration. Thus, G3-C12 peptide exerts sequential targeting to both cell membrane and mitochondria via regulating galectin-3, and eventually reverses and overcomes the protective effects of galectin-3; therefore, it could be a promising agent for the treatment of galectin-3-overexpressing cancers. PMID:26393405

  17. A Peptide mimicking a region in proliferating cell nuclear antigen specific to key protein interactions is cytotoxic to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shanna J; Gu, Long; Phipps, Elizabeth A; Dobrolecki, Lacey E; Mabrey, Karla S; Gulley, Pattie; Dillehay, Kelsey L; Dong, Zhongyun; Fields, Gregg B; Chen, Yun-Ru; Ann, David; Hickey, Robert J; Malkas, Linda H

    2015-02-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a highly conserved protein necessary for proper component loading during the DNA replication and repair process. Proteins make a connection within the interdomain connector loop of PCNA, and much of the regulation is a result of the inherent competition for this docking site. If this target region of PCNA is modified, the DNA replication and repair process in cancer cells is potentially altered. Exploitation of this cancer-associated region has implications for targeted breast cancer therapy. In the present communication, we characterize a novel peptide (caPeptide) that has been synthesized to mimic the sequence identified as critical to the cancer-associated isoform of PCNA. This peptide is delivered into cells using a nine-arginine linking mechanism, and the resulting peptide (R9-cc-caPeptide) exhibits cytotoxicity in a triple-negative breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-436, while having less of an effect on the normal counterparts (MCF10A and primary breast epithelial cells). The novel peptide was then evaluated for cytotoxicity using various in vivo techniques, including ATP activity assays, flow cytometry, and clonogenetic assays. This cytotoxicity has been observed in other breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and HCC1937) and other forms of cancer (pancreatic and lymphoma). R9-cc-caPeptide has also been shown to block the association of PCNA with chromatin. Alanine scanning of the peptide sequence, combined with preliminary in silico modeling, gives insight to the disruptive ability and the molecular mechanism of action of the therapeutic peptide in vivo. PMID:25480843

  18. Mitochondria-acting hexokinase II peptides carried by short-length carbon nanotubes with increased cellular uptake, endosomal evasion, and enhanced bioactivity against cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, Sia Lee; Lau, Wei Liang; Liu, Ang Yu; Prendergast, D'arcy; Ho, Han Kiat; Yu, Victor Chun Kong; Lee, Chengkuo; Ang, Wee Han; Pastorin, Giorgia

    2015-08-01

    Type II hexokinase (HKII) has emerged as a viable therapeutic target due to its involvement in metabolic reprogramming and also apoptosis prevention. The peptide derived from the fifteen amino acid sequence in the HKII N-terminal region [HKII(pep)] can compete with endogenous proteins for binding on mitochondria and trigger apoptosis. However, this peptide is not cell-permeable. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used to effectively deliver HKII(pep) across cellular barriers without compromising their bioactivity. The peptide was conjugated on either oxidized MWCNTs or 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine)-functionalized MWCNTs, yielding MWCNT-HKII(pep) and MWCNT-TEG-HKII(pep), respectively. Both conjugates were shown to be internalized by breast cancer MCF-7 cells using confocal microscopy. Moreover, these nanoconjugates seemed to have escaped from endosomes and be in the vicinity of mitochondria. The WST-1 cytotoxicity assay conducted on MCF-7 and colon carcinoma HCT116 cells revealed that MWCNT-peptide conjugates were significantly more effective in curbing cancer cell growth compared to a commercially available cell permeable HKII fusion peptide. In addition, both nanoconjugates displayed an enhanced ability in eliciting apoptosis and depleting the ATP level in HCT116 cells compared to the mere HKII peptide. Importantly, hexokinase II release from mitochondria was demonstrated in MWCNT-HKII(pep) and MWCNT-TEG-HKII(pep) treated cells, highlighting that the structure and bioactivity of HKII(pep) were not compromised after covalent conjugation to MWCNTs.Type II hexokinase (HKII) has emerged as a viable therapeutic target due to its involvement in metabolic reprogramming and also apoptosis prevention. The peptide derived from the fifteen amino acid sequence in the HKII N-terminal region [HKII(pep)] can compete with endogenous proteins for binding on mitochondria and trigger apoptosis. However, this peptide is not cell-permeable. In this study

  19. Association of myelin peptide with vitamin D prevents autoimmune encephalomyelitis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, L A N; Chiuso-Minicucci, F; Fraga-Silva, T F C; Zorzella-Pezavento, S F G; França, T G D; Ishikawa, L L W; Penitenti, M; Ikoma, M R V; Sartori, A

    2016-03-11

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). As there is no cure for this disease, new therapeutic strategies and prophylactic measures are necessary. We recently described the therapeutic activity of the association between myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG) and active vitamin D3 (VitD) against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The objective of this work was to evaluate the prophylactic potential of this association in EAE. C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with MOG in the presence of VitD and then subjected to EAE induction. Animals were euthanized 7 and 19days after disease induction and the following parameters were evaluated: body weight, clinical score, inflammatory process in the CNS, amount of dendritic cells (DCs) and regulatory T cells in the spleen and cytokine production by spleen and CNS cell cultures. Vaccination with MOG associated with VitD determined a drastic reduction in clinical score, body weight loss, CNS inflammation, DCs maturation and also in the production of cytokines by CNS and spleen cell cultures. Collectively, our data indicate that this association prevents EAE development. A similar effect from specific self-antigens associated with VitD is expected in other autoimmune conditions and deserves to be experimentally appraised. PMID:26762804

  20. Opportunity for Collaboration: A Conceptual Model of Success in Tobacco Control and Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Frances A Stillman; Schmitt, Carol L.; Rosas, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Collaborations between cancer prevention and tobacco control programs can leverage scarce resources to address noncommunicable diseases globally, but barriers to cooperation and actual collaboration are substantial. To foster collaboration between cancer prevention and tobacco control programs, the Global Health Partnership conducted research to identify similarities and differences in how the 2 programs viewed program success. Methods Using concept mapping, cancer prevention and...

  1. Selection of Novel Peptides Homing the 4T1 CELL Line: Exploring Alternative Targets for Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vera L; Ferreira, Debora; Nobrega, Franklin L; Martins, Ivone M; Kluskens, Leon D; Rodrigues, Ligia R

    2016-01-01

    The use of bacteriophages to select novel ligands has been widely explored for cancer therapy. Their application is most warranted in cancer subtypes lacking knowledge on how to target the cancer cells in question, such as the triple negative breast cancer, eventually leading to the development of alternative nanomedicines for cancer therapeutics. Therefore, the following study aimed to select and characterize novel peptides for a triple negative breast cancer murine mammary carcinoma cell line- 4T1. Using phage display, 7 and 12 amino acid random peptide libraries were screened against the 4T1 cell line. A total of four rounds, plus a counter-selection round using the 3T3 murine fibroblast cell line, was performed. The enriched selective peptides were characterized and their binding capacity towards 4T1 tissue samples was confirmed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analysis. The selected peptides (4T1pep1 -CPTASNTSC and 4T1pep2-EVQSSKFPAHVS) were enriched over few rounds of selection and exhibited specific binding to the 4T1 cell line. Interestingly, affinity to the human MDA-MB-231 cell line was also observed for both peptides, promoting the translational application of these novel ligands between species. Additionally, bioinformatics analysis suggested that both peptides target human Mucin-16. This protein has been implicated in different types of cancer, as it is involved in many important cellular functions. This study strongly supports the need of finding alternative targeting systems for TNBC and the peptides herein selected exhibit promising future application as novel homing peptides for breast cancer therapy. PMID:27548261

  2. Growth hormone releasing peptide 2 reverses anorexia associated with chemotherapy with 5-fluoruracil in colon cancer cell-bearing mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simona Perboni; Cyril Bowers; Shinya Kojima; Akihiro Asakawa; Akio Inui

    2008-01-01

    The cancer-associated anorexia-cachexia syndrome is observed in 80% of patients with advanced-stage cancer, and is one of the major obstacles in chemo-therapy. Ghrelin is a orexigenic hormone that has been proposed to prevent anorexia. Aim of the study was to determine whether the addition of the ghrelin ago-nist growth hormone releasing peptide 2 (GHRP-2) to cytotoxic therapy with 5-fluoruracil (5-FU) prevents the anorexia associated with chemotherapy in cancer cachectic mice. Thirty-three BALB/c female tumour-bearing mice were randomized to receive a solution containing: (a) placebo; (b) GHRP-2; (c) 5-FU; or (d) 5-FU + GHRP-2. Ten BALB/c no tumour-bearing mice received placebo solution. Food intake and survival were checked. Six hours after the drug injection the cumulative food intake was significantly increased in mice treated with the combination of 5-FU + GHRP-2 versus the 5-FU alone (P = 0.0096). On day 3, the cumulative food intake of mice treated with GHRP-2, 5-FU and 5-FU + GHRP-2 significantly increased com-pared with naive and vehicle groups (P = 0.0007, P = 0.0038 and P = 0.0166, respectively). The median survival time was longer in 5-FU + GHRP-2 treated mice than in those with 5-FU, although it was not significant (18 d versus 15.5 d, P = 0.7). For the first time, we demonstrated that the addition of GHRP-2 to cytotoxic therapy with 5-FU improved appetite in tumour-bearing mice with anorexia/cachexia syndrome in early stage. These data suggest that GHRP-2 may improve the efficacy of therapy and the quality of life of cancer patients thank to the amelioration of their nutritional state.

  3. In silico design and performance of peptide microarrays for breast cancer tumour-auto-antibody testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Weinhäusel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The simplicity and potential of minimally invasive testing using sera from patients makes auto-antibody based biomarkers a very promising tool for use in cancer diagnostics. Protein microarrays have been used for the identification of such auto-antibody signatures. Because high throughput protein expression and purification is laborious, synthetic peptides might be a good alternative for microarray generation and multiplexed analyses. In this study, we designed 1185 antigenic peptides, deduced from proteins expressed by 642 cDNA expression clones found to be sero-reactive in both breast tumour patients and controls. The sero-reactive proteins and the corresponding peptides were used for the production of protein and peptide microarrays. Serum samples from females with benign and malignant breast tumours and healthy control sera (n=16 per group were then analysed. Correct classification of the serum samples on peptide microarrays were 78% for discrimination of ‘malignant versus healthy controls’, 72% for ‘benign versus malignant’ and 94% for ‘benign versus controls’. On protein arrays, correct classification for these contrasts was 69%, 59% and 59%, respectively. The over-representation analysis of the classifiers derived from class prediction showed enrichment of genes associated with ribosomes, spliceosomes, endocytosis and the pentose phosphate pathway. Sequence analyses of the peptides with the highest sero-reactivity demonstrated enrichment of the zinc-finger domain. Peptides’ sero-reactivities were found negatively correlated with hydrophobicity and positively correlated with positive charge, high inter-residue protein contact energies and a secondary structure propensity bias. This study hints at the possibility of using in silico designed antigenic peptide microarrays as an alternative to protein microarrays for the improvement of tumour auto-antibody based diagnostics.

  4. Cialis (Tadalafil) Does Not Prevent Erectile Dysfunction in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prostate Cancer Study: Cialis (Tadalafil) Does Not Prevent Erectile Dysfunction in Prostate Cancer Patients Article date: April 4, ... that Cialis (tadalafil) does not help men avoid erectile dysfunction after radiation therapy for prostate cancer . Erection problems ...

  5. Cancer – Educate to Prevent” – High-School Teachers, the New Promoters of Cancer Prevention Education Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Ana; Moreira, Luís; Santos, Helena; Ribeiro, Nuno; Carvalho, Luís; Santos-Silva, Filipe

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and thus represents a priority for national public health programs. Prevention has been assumed as the best strategy to reduce cancer burden, however most cancer prevention programs are implemented by healthcare professionals, which constrain range and educational impacts. We developed an innovative approach for cancer prevention education focused on high-school biology teachers, considered privileged mediators in the socialization proce...

  6. Chinese Anti-Cancer Association as a non-governmental organization undertakes systematic cancer prevention work in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Tingting

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has become the first leading cause of death in the world, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Facing the increasing trend of cancer incidence and mortality, China issued and implemented “three-early (early prevention, early diagnosis and early treatment)” national cancer prevention plan. As the main body and dependence of social governance, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) take over the role of government in the field of cancer prevention and treatment. American Canc...

  7. Radiolabeled antibodies and RGD-peptides for the treatment of ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, M.L.H.

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, preclinical studies on new treatment modalities for ovarian cancer are descibed, applying radiolabeled antibodies and radiolabeled RGD-peptides. In chapter 2 a study is described comparing the therapeutic efficacy of the antibody HMFG1 radiolabeled with several beta-emitting radionuclides in mice with intraperitoneal ovarian carcinoma. Mice were injected with the radiopharmaceuticals 90Y-HMFG1, 186Re-HMFG1 or 131I-HMFG1. Each of the i.p. administered radiolabeled antibody prep...

  8. Anticancer activity of bovine lactoferricin and a cytolytic 9-mer peptide : from milk to cancer vaccine?

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) are found in many diverse species playing a part in the innate immune system. CAPs are important as antimicrobial agents in most organisms, being able to kill a wide range of bacteria as well as fungi, enveloped viruses and protozoa. Certain CAPs also exhibit direct cytotoxic activity against many different types of human cancer cells. Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) derived from the protein bovine lactoferrin found in cow milk has been the starting point ...

  9. From Stealthy Polymersomes and Filomicelles to “Self” Peptide-Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Oltra, Núria Sancho; Nair, Praful; Discher, Dennis E.

    2014-01-01

    Polymersome vesicles and wormlike filomicelles self-assembled with amphiphilic, degradable block copolymers have recently shown promise in application to cancer therapy. In the case of filomicelles, dense, hydrophilic brushes of poly(ethylene glycol) on these nanoparticles combine with flexibility to nonspecifically delay clearance by phagocytes in vivo, which has motivated the development of “self” peptides that inhibit nanoparticle clearance through specific interactions. Delayed clearance,...

  10. Risk Factors, Preventive Practices, and Health Care Among Breast Cancer Survivors, United States, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Homan, Sherri G.; Kayani, Noaman; Yun, Shumei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We compared behavioral risk factors and preventive measures among female breast cancer survivors, female survivors of other types of cancers, and women without a history of cancer. Survivorship health care indicators for the 2 groups of cancer survivors were compared. Methods Using data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we calculated the proportion of women with risk factors and their engagement in preventive practices, stratified by cancer status (cancer ...

  11. A novel Indium-111-labeled gonadotropin-releasing hormone peptide for human prostate cancer imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Haixun; Gallazzi, Fabio; Sklar, Larry A.; Miao, Yubin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tumor targeting and imaging properties of a novel 111In-labeled gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) peptide {1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-Ahx-(d-Lys6-GnRH1)} for human prostate cancer. The biodistribution and tumor imaging properties of 111In-DOTA-Ahx-(d-Lys6-GnRH1) were determined in DU145 human prostate cancer-xenografted nude mice. 111In-DOTA-Ahx-(d-Lys6-GnRH1) exhibited rapid tumor uptake (1.27 ± 0.40 %ID/g...

  12. PREVENTION OF DYSURIA AFTER HIFU THERAPY FOR PROSTATE CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yu. Shestaev; V. V. Protoshchak; L. M. Sinelnikov; V. A. Kardinalova; R. A. Yeloev

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to identify factors for the development of dysuria and its prevention in patients with prostate cancer (PC) after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy.Subjects and methods. In September 2008 to June 2013, the Clinic of Urology, S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy, treated 98 patients, by performing HIFU sessions on an Ablatherm apparatus (EDAP, France). All the patients underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) to reduce the volume of the ablated tissue. ...

  13. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Huawei; Lazarova, Darina L.; Bordonaro, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which modifies the host’s metabolism in various ways. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which dietary fiber-dependent changes in gut microbiota enhance bile acid deconjugation, produce short chain fatty acid...

  14. Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ripamonti Carla; Trippa Fabio; Barone Gloria; Maranzano Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    In breast cancer patients, bone is the most common site of metastases. Medical therapies are the basic therapy to prevent distant metastases and recurrence and to cure them. Radiotherapy has a primary role in pain relief, recalcification and stabilization of the bone, as well as the reduction of the risk of complications (e.g., bone fractures, spinal cord compression). Bisphosphonates, as potent inhibitors of osteoclastic-mediated bone resorption are a well-established, standard-of-care treat...

  15. Recent Progress in Cancer-Related Lymphedema Treatment and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Shaitelman, Simona F; Cromwell, Kate D.; Rasmussen, John C.; Stout, Nicole L; Armer, Jane M.; Lasinski, Bonnie B.; Cormier, Janice N

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the recent developments in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer-related lymphedema. Lymphedema incidence by tumor site is evaluated. Measurement techniques and trends in patient education and treatment are also summarized to include current trends in therapeutic and surgical treatment options as well as longer-term management. Finally, an overview of the policies related to insurance coverage and reimbursement will give the clinician an overv...

  16. Evaluating Bioactive Food Components in Obesity and Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, Kristi M.; Allison, David

    2015-01-01

    Research into bioactive food compounds (BFC) continues to evolve albeit with shared challenges among scientists in the fields of obesity and cancer treatment and prevention. Given the diversity of scientific disciplines involved in evaluating BFC, multi-disciplinary conferences provide opportunities to update the state of the science and critically discuss conceptual and methodological challenges encountered in studying BFC in both pre-clinical and clinical trials. This overview is an introdu...

  17. Prevention and Treatment of Atelectasis after Thoracotomy for Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yi; Zhao, Honglin; Xiaoming QIU; Wei, Sen; Li, Mei; Li, Zhigang; Chen, Gang; Daxing ZHU; Chen, Jun; Yongbo YANG; Zhou, Qinghua

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective Atelectasis is a common complication after thoracotomy, and it may threaten patients’ life if it was not treated correctly and properly. The aim of this article is to explore and discuss the prevention and treatment for atelectasis during the perioperative period, and also to explore new methods for reducing the perioperative mortality due to atelectasis after thoracotomy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 374 lung cancer patients who underwen...

  18. Inhibitory effects of small molecular peptides from Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis on cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xuewu

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the whole proteins of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis were extracted, hydrolysis with three proteases (trypsin, alcalase and papain) was performed, and gel filtration chromatography was employed to separate hydrolysates. Totally, 15 polypeptides were isolated, which showed anti-proliferation activities on five cancer cells (HepG-2, MCF-7, SGC-7901, A549 and HT-29), with the IC50 values between <31.25 and 336.57 μg mL(-1). Moreover, a new peptide YGFVMPRSGLWFR was identified from papain-digested hydrolysates. It also exhibited inhibitory activities on cancer cells, and the best activity was observed on A549 cancer cells (IC50 values 104.05 μg mL(-1)). In other words, these polypeptides exhibited anti-proliferation activities on cancer cells, and low toxicity or stimulatory activity on normal cells, suggesting that they are promising ingredients in food and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:26584028

  19. Mechanism of Cancer Growth Suppression of Alpha-Fetoprotein Derived Growth Inhibitory Peptides (GIP): Comparison of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 (AFPep). Updates and Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizejewski, Gerald J. [Division of Translational Medicine, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201 (United States)

    2011-06-20

    The Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) derived Growth Inhibitory Peptide (GIP) is a 34-amino acid segment of the full-length human AFP molecule that inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. The GIP-34 and its carboxy-terminal 8-mer segment, termed GIP-8, were found to be effective as anti-cancer therapeutic peptides against nine different human cancer types. Following the uptake of GIP-34 and GIP-8 into the cell cytoplasm, each follows slightly different signal transduction cascades en route to inhibitory pathways of tumor cell growth and proliferation. The parallel mechanisms of action of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 are demonstrated to involve interference of signaling transduction cascades that ultimately result in: (1) cell cycle S-phase/G2-phase arrest; (2) prevention of cyclin inhibitor degradation; (3) protection of p53 from inactivation by phosphorylation; and (4) blockage of K{sup +} ion channels opened by estradiol and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The overall mechanisms of action of both peptides are discussed in light of their differing modes of cell attachment and uptake fortified by RNA microarray analysis and electrophysiologic measurements of cell membrane conductance and resistance. As a chemotherapeutic adjunct, the GIPs could potentially aid in alleviating the negative side effects of: (1) tamoxifen resistance, uterine hyperplasia/cancer, and blood clotting; (2) Herceptin antibody resistance and cardiac (arrest) arrhythmias; and (3) doxorubicin's bystander cell toxicity.

  20. Mechanism of Cancer Growth Suppression of Alpha-Fetoprotein Derived Growth Inhibitory Peptides (GIP): Comparison of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 (AFPep). Updates and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) derived Growth Inhibitory Peptide (GIP) is a 34-amino acid segment of the full-length human AFP molecule that inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. The GIP-34 and its carboxy-terminal 8-mer segment, termed GIP-8, were found to be effective as anti-cancer therapeutic peptides against nine different human cancer types. Following the uptake of GIP-34 and GIP-8 into the cell cytoplasm, each follows slightly different signal transduction cascades en route to inhibitory pathways of tumor cell growth and proliferation. The parallel mechanisms of action of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 are demonstrated to involve interference of signaling transduction cascades that ultimately result in: (1) cell cycle S-phase/G2-phase arrest; (2) prevention of cyclin inhibitor degradation; (3) protection of p53 from inactivation by phosphorylation; and (4) blockage of K+ ion channels opened by estradiol and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The overall mechanisms of action of both peptides are discussed in light of their differing modes of cell attachment and uptake fortified by RNA microarray analysis and electrophysiologic measurements of cell membrane conductance and resistance. As a chemotherapeutic adjunct, the GIPs could potentially aid in alleviating the negative side effects of: (1) tamoxifen resistance, uterine hyperplasia/cancer, and blood clotting; (2) Herceptin antibody resistance and cardiac (arrest) arrhythmias; and (3) doxorubicin's bystander cell toxicity

  1. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka;

    2014-01-01

    predominantly elderly community-dwelling women. Vitamin D₃ supplementation decreased cancer mortality and vitamin D supplementation decreased all-cause mortality, but these estimates are at risk of type I errors due to the fact that too few participants were examined, and to risks of attrition bias originating......BACKGROUND: The evidence on whether vitamin D supplementation is effective in decreasing cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of...... provided data for the analyses. All trials came from high-income countries. Most of the trials had a high risk of bias, mainly for-profit bias. Most trials included elderly community-dwelling women (aged 47 to 97 years). Vitamin D was administered for a weighted mean of six years. Fourteen trials tested...

  2. Behaviors, beliefs, and intentions in skin cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, R; Lee, C

    1990-08-01

    This study investigated knowledge, behaviors, and health beliefs of Australian university students (n = 312) regarding skin cancers and evaluated the effects of videotaped presentations. Students' knowledge and health beliefs were assessed, and they then viewed either an informational video, an emotionally involving video, or a control video. Knowledge and beliefs were assessed immediately and 10 weeks later. Postvideo skin protection intentions increased significantly from prevideo assessment among the two intervention groups compared to the controls. Maintenance of skin protection intentions was higher with the emotional video. Health belief variables, particularly perceived barriers, were significant predictors of knowledge, intention, and behavior. However, other variables such as skin type and previous experience with skin cancer were more important. Females had greater knowledge and stronger intentions to prevent skin cancer than males but reported fewer high-risk behaviors. PMID:2246784

  3. Potential role of probiotics on colorectal cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uccello Mario

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer represents the most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract. Owing to differences in dietary habits and lifestyle, this neoplasm is more common in industrialized countries than in developing ones. Evidence from a wide range of sources supports the assumption that the link between diet and colorectal cancer may be due to an imbalance of the intestinal microflora. Discussion Probiotic bacteria are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a healthy benefit on the host, and they have been investigated for their protective anti-tumor effects. In vivo and molecular studies have displayed encouraging findings that support a role of probiotics in colorectal cancer prevention. Summary Several mechanisms could explain the preventive action of probiotics against colorectal cancer onset. They include: alteration of the intestinal microflora; inactivation of cancerogenic compounds; competition with putrefactive and pathogenic microbiota; improvement of the host’s immune response; anti-proliferative effects via regulation of apoptosis and cell differentiation; fermentation of undigested food; inhibition of tyrosine kinase signaling pathways.

  4. Prospective cohort study of comprehensive prevention to gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Qiang Guo; Peng Guan; Hai-Long Shi; Xuan Zhang; Bao-Sen Zhou; Yuan Yuan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the preliminary effects of comprehensive prevention of gastric cancer in Zhuanghe County epidemiologically.METHODS: Stratified sampling and cluster sampling were applied to define the intervention group and the control group. The prospective cohort study was used for evaluating the effect of preventing gastric cancer. The relative risk (RR)and attributable risk percent (AR %) of intervention on gastric cancer death were calculated. Potential years of life lost (PLYY) of the disease was analyzed, and the RR and AR %of PYLL were calculated. Survival analysis was applied among the screened patients.RESULTS: In the first 4 years after intervening, the relative risk (RR) of intervention on death was 0.5059 (95 % CI:0.3462~0.7392,P<0.05) with significance statistically. AR %of the intervention on death was 49.41%. The RR of intervention on cumulative PYLL was 0.6778 (95 % CI:0.5604~0.8198,P<0.05) with statistic significance. AR %of the intervention on cumulative PYLL was 30.32 %. The four-year survival rate of the screened patients was 0.6751(95 % CI: 0.5298~0.9047).CONCLUSION: The initiative intervention results showed that the intervention approach used in the trial was effective, it reduced mortality and increased survival rate, and alleviated the adverse effect of gastric cancer on the health and life of screened population.

  5. Hepatoma targeting peptide conjugated bio-reducible polymer complexed with oncolytic adenovirus for cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Joung-Woo; Kim, Hyun Ah; Nam, Kihoon; Na, Youjin; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kim, SungWan

    2015-12-28

    Despite adenovirus (Ad) vector's numerous advantages for cancer gene therapy, such as high ability of endosomal escape, efficient nuclear entry mechanism, and high transduction, and therapeutic efficacy, tumor specific targeting and antiviral immune response still remain as a critical challenge in clinical setting. To overcome these obstacles and achieve cancer-specific targeting, we constructed tumor targeting bioreducible polymer, an arginine grafted bio-reducible polymer (ABP)-PEG-HCBP1, by conjugating PEGylated ABP with HCBP1 peptides which has high affinity and selectivity towards hepatoma. The ABP-PEG-HCBP1-conjugated replication incompetent GFP-expressing ad, (Ad/GFP)-ABP-PEG-HCBP1, showed a hepatoma cancer specific uptake and transduction compared to either naked Ad/GFP or Ad/GFP-ABP. Competition assays demonstrated that Ad/GFP-ABP-PEG-HCBP1-mediated transduction was specifically inhibited by HCBP1 peptide rather than coxsackie and adenovirus receptor specific antibody. In addition, ABP-PEG-HCBP1 can protect biological activity of Ad against serum, and considerably reduced both innate and adaptive immune response against Ad. shMet-expressing oncolytic Ad (oAd; RdB/shMet) complexed with ABP-PEG-HCBP1 delivered oAd efficiently into hepatoma cancer cells. The oAd/ABP-PEG-HCBP1 demonstrated enhanced cancer cell killing efficacy in comparison to oAd/ABP complex. Furthermore, Huh7 and HT1080 cancer cells treated with oAd/shMet-ABP-PEG-HCBP1 complex had significantly decreased Met and VEGF expression in hepatoma cancer, but not in non-hepatoma cancer. In sum, these results suggest that HCBP1-conjugated bioreducible polymer could be used to deliver oncolytic Ad safely and efficiently to treat hepatoma. PMID:26437261

  6. Identification and Characterization of a Suite of Tumor Targeting Peptides for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Michael J.; Gray, Bethany Powell; Li, Shunzi; Cupka, Dorothy; Byers, Lauren Averett; Wu, Lei; Rezaie, Shaghayegh; Liu, Ying-Horng; Pattisapu, Naveen; Issac, James; Oyama, Tsukasa; Diao, Lixia; Heymach, John V.; Xie, Xian-Jin; Minna, John D.; Brown, Kathlynn C.

    2014-03-01

    Tumor targeting ligands are emerging components in cancer therapies. Widespread use of targeted therapies and molecular imaging is dependent on increasing the number of high affinity, tumor-specific ligands. Towards this goal, we biopanned three phage-displayed peptide libraries on a series of well-defined human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, isolating 11 novel peptides. The peptides show distinct binding profiles across 40 NSCLC cell lines and do not bind normal bronchial epithelial cell lines. Binding of specific peptides correlates with onco-genotypes and activation of particular pathways, such as EGFR signaling, suggesting the peptides may serve as surrogate markers. Multimerization of the peptides results in cell binding affinities between 0.0071-40 nM. The peptides home to tumors in vivo and bind to patient tumor samples. This is the first comprehensive biopanning for isolation of high affinity peptidic ligands for a single cancer type and expands the diversity of NSCLC targeting ligands.

  7. Helicobacter pylori eradication as a preventive tool against gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Goto, Yasuyuki; Nishio, Kazuko; Tanaka, Daisuke; Kawai, Sayo; Sakakibara, Hisataka; Kondo, Takaaki

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which increases the risk of gastric diseases, including digestive ulcers and gastric cancer, is highly prevalent in Asian countries. There is no doubt that eradication of the bacterium is effective as a treatment of digestive ulcer, but eradication aiming to reduce the gastric cancer risk is still controversial. Observational studies in Japan demonstrated that the eradication decreased the gastric cancer risk among 132 stomach cancer patients undergoing endoscopical resection (65 treated with omeprazol and antibiotics and 67 untreated). In Columbia, 976 participants were randomized into eight groups in a three-treatment factorial design including H. pylori eradication, resulting in significant regression in the H. pylori eradication group. A recent randomized study in China also showed a significant reduction of gastric cancer risk among those without any gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. Efficacy of eradication may vary in extent among countries with different incidence rates of gastric cancer. Since the lifetime cumulative risk (0 to 84 years old) of gastric cancer in Japan is reported to be 12.7% for males and 4.8% for females (Inoue and Tominaga, 2003), the corresponding values for H. pylori infected Japanese can be estimated at 21.2% in males and 8.0% in females under the assumptions that the relative risk for infected relative to uninfected is 5 and the proportion of those infected is 0.5. Both the fact that not all individuals are infected among those exposed and the knowledge that only a small percentage of individuals infected with the bacterium develop gastric cancer, indicate the importance of gene-environment interactions. Studies on such interactions should provide useful information for anti-H. pylori preventive strategies. PMID:15373702

  8. Knowledge, attitude, and behavior among Saudis toward cancer preventive practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandasamy Ravichandran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine self-reported knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices on cancer among Saudis. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from Saudis aged 15 years or more, who attended one of the randomly selected 20 Primary Health Centers (PHC or the four major private hospitals located in the Riyadh region, either as patients or their escorts. The association between the variables was evaluated by the Chi square test. Results: The study population consisted of 618 males and 719 females. Among the female respondents 23.1% reported that they practiced breast self-examination (BSE; 14.2 and 8.1%, respectively, had clinical breast examination (CBE and mammography. However, 10.0 and 16.1% of the females, aged 40 years and older, reported having had mammograms and CBE, respectively. The BSE performers were more educated, knew someone with cancer, and had heard of the cancer warning signal. Both educational level and ′heard of cancer warning signal′ were significantly related to CBE. Cancer information was received from television / radio by 65.1% and from the physician by 29.4%. Even though 69.4% believed that cancer could be detected early, a vast majority (95.8% felt early detection of cancer was extremely desirable and 55.1% said their participation was definite in any screening program. A majority of the respondents (92.6% insisted on the need for physician recommendation to participate and 78.1% expected that any such program should be conducted in the existing hospitals / clinics. Conclusion: Culturally sensitive health education messages should be tailored to fulfill the knowledge gap among all population strata. Saudis will benefit from partnerships between public health educators and media to speed up the dissemination of cancer information.

  9. Fasciola gigantica cathepsin L proteinase-based synthetic peptide for immunodiagnosis and prevention of sheep fasciolosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Jan; El Ridi, R.; Salah, M.; Wagih, A.; Aziz, H. W.; Tallima, H.; El Shafie, M. H.; Khalek, T. A.; Ammou, F. F. A.; Strongylis, C.; Moussis, V.; Tsikaris, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 3 (2008), s. 349-357. ISSN 0006-3525 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cathepsin L proteinase * peptides * sequential oligopeptide carriers * synthetic peptide vaccine * Fasciiola gigantica Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.823, year: 2008

  10. Correcting common errors in identifying cancer-specific serum peptide signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Josep; Philip, John; Chaparro, Carlos A; Li, Yongbiao; Toledo-Crow, Ricardo; DeNoyer, Lin; Fleisher, Martin; Robbins, Richard J; Tempst, Paul

    2005-01-01

    "Molecular signatures" are the qualitative and quantitative patterns of groups of biomolecules (e.g., mRNA, proteins, peptides, or metabolites) in a cell, tissue, biological fluid, or an entire organism. To apply this concept to biomarker discovery, the measurements should ideally be noninvasive and performed in a single read-out. We have therefore developed a peptidomics platform that couples magnetics-based, automated solid-phase extraction of small peptides with a high-resolution MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric readout (Villanueva, J.; Philip, J.; Entenberg, D.; Chaparro, C. A.; Tanwar, M. K.; Holland, E. C.; Tempst, P. Anal. Chem. 2004, 76, 1560-1570). Since hundreds of peptides can be detected in microliter volumes of serum, it allows to search for disease signatures, for instance in the presence of cancer. We have now evaluated, optimized, and standardized a number of clinical and analytical chemistry variables that are major sources of bias; ranging from blood collection and clotting, to serum storage and handling, automated peptide extraction, crystallization, spectral acquisition, and signal processing. In addition, proper alignment of spectra and user-friendly visualization tools are essential for meaningful, certifiable data mining. We introduce a minimal entropy algorithm, "Entropycal", that simplifies alignment and subsequent statistical analysis and increases the percentage of the highly distinguishing spectral information being retained after feature selection of the datasets. Using the improved analytical platform and tools, and a commercial statistics program, we found that sera from thyroid cancer patients can be distinguished from healthy controls based on an array of 98 discriminant peptides. With adequate technological and computational methods in place, and using rigorously standardized conditions, potential sources of patient related bias (e.g., gender, age, genetics, environmental, dietary, and other factors) may now be addressed. PMID:16083255

  11. Targeting NK-1 Receptors to Prevent and Treat Pancreatic Cancer: A New Therapeutic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer related-deaths in both men and women, and the 1- and 5-year relative survival rates are 25% and 6%, respectively. It is known that smoking, alcoholism and psychological stress are risk factors that can promote PC and increase PC progression. To date, the prevention of PC is crucial because there is no curative treatment. After binding to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor (a receptor coupled to the stimulatory G-protein Gαs that activates adenylate cyclase), the peptide substance P (SP)—at high concentrations—is involved in many pathophysiological functions, such as depression, smoking, alcoholism, chronic inflammation and cancer. It is known that PC cells and samples express NK-1 receptors; that the NK-1 receptor is overexpressed in PC cells in comparison with non-tumor cells, and that nanomolar concentrations of SP induce PC cell proliferation. By contrast, NK-1 receptor antagonists exert antidepressive, anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory effects and anti-alcohol addiction. These antagonists also exert an antitumor action since in vitro they inhibit PC cell proliferation (PC cells death by apoptosis), and in a xenograft PC mouse model they exert both antitumor and anti-angiogenic actions. NK-1 receptor antagonists could be used for the treatment of PC and hence the NK-1 receptor could be a new promising therapeutic target in PC

  12. Targeting NK-1 Receptors to Prevent and Treat Pancreatic Cancer: A New Therapeutic Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Miguel, E-mail: mmunoz@cica.es [Research Laboratory on Neuropeptides (IBIS), Virgen del Rocío University Hospital, 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Coveñas, Rafael [Laboratory of Neuroanatomy of the Peptidergic System (Lab. 14), Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla y León (INCYL), University of Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2015-07-06

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer related-deaths in both men and women, and the 1- and 5-year relative survival rates are 25% and 6%, respectively. It is known that smoking, alcoholism and psychological stress are risk factors that can promote PC and increase PC progression. To date, the prevention of PC is crucial because there is no curative treatment. After binding to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor (a receptor coupled to the stimulatory G-protein Gαs that activates adenylate cyclase), the peptide substance P (SP)—at high concentrations—is involved in many pathophysiological functions, such as depression, smoking, alcoholism, chronic inflammation and cancer. It is known that PC cells and samples express NK-1 receptors; that the NK-1 receptor is overexpressed in PC cells in comparison with non-tumor cells, and that nanomolar concentrations of SP induce PC cell proliferation. By contrast, NK-1 receptor antagonists exert antidepressive, anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory effects and anti-alcohol addiction. These antagonists also exert an antitumor action since in vitro they inhibit PC cell proliferation (PC cells death by apoptosis), and in a xenograft PC mouse model they exert both antitumor and anti-angiogenic actions. NK-1 receptor antagonists could be used for the treatment of PC and hence the NK-1 receptor could be a new promising therapeutic target in PC.

  13. Circadian clock manipulation for cancer prevention and control and the relief of cancer symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrushesky, William J M; Grutsch, James; Wood, Patricia; Yang, Xiaoming; Oh, Eun-Young; Ansell, Christine; Kidder, Stephanie; Ferrans, Carol; Quiton, Dinah Faith T; Reynolds, Justin; Du-Quiton, Jovelyn; Levin, Robert; Lis, Christopher; Braun, Donald

    2009-12-01

    organization, which in turn is likely to help prevent and control human cancer. These drugs and strategies can, in turn, be used to make cancer patients with advanced disease feel and function more normally. PMID:19926611

  14. PACE4-Based Molecular Targeting of Prostate Cancer Using an Engineered 64Cu-Radiolabeled Peptide Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Couture

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential of PACE4 as a pharmacological target in prostate cancer has been demonstrated as this proprotein convertase is strongly overexpressed in human prostate cancer tissues and its inhibition, using molecular or pharmacological approaches, results in reduced cell proliferation and tumor progression in mouse tumor xenograft models. We developed a PACE4 high-affinity peptide inhibitor, namely, the multi-leucine (ML, and sought to determine whether this peptide could be exploited for the targeting of prostate cancer for diagnostic or molecular imaging purposes. We conjugated a bifunctional chelator 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7- triacetic acid (NOTA to the ML peptide for copper-64 (64Cu labeling and positron emission tomography (PET– based prostate cancer detection. Enzyme kinetic assays against recombinant PACE4 showed that the NOTA-modified ML peptide displays identical inhibitory properties compared to the unmodified peptide. In vivo biodistribution of the 64Cu/NOTA-ML peptide evaluated in athymic nude mice bearing xenografts of two human prostate carcinoma cell lines showed a rapid and high uptake in PACE4-expressing LNCaP tumor at an early time point and in PACE4-rich organs. Co-injection of unlabeled peptide confirmed that tumor uptake was target-specific. PACE4-negative tumors displayed no tracer uptake 15 minutes after injection, while the kidneys, demonstrated high uptake due to rapid renal clearance of the peptide. The present study supports the feasibility of using a 64Cu/NOTA-ML peptide for PACE4-targeted prostate cancer detection and PACE4 status determination by PET imaging but also provides evidence that ML inhibitor–based drugs would readily reach tumor sites under in vivo conditions for pharmacological intervention or targeted radiation therapy.

  15. Pentastatin-1, a collagen IV derived 20-mer peptide, suppresses tumor growth in a small cell lung cancer xenograft model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angiogenesis is the formation of neovasculature from a pre-existing vascular network. Progression of solid tumors including lung cancer is angiogenesis-dependent. We previously introduced a bioinformatics-based methodology to identify endogenous anti-angiogenic peptide sequences, and validated these predictions in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and migration assays. One family of peptides with high activity is derived from the α-fibrils of type IV collagen. Based on the results from the in vitro screening, we have evaluated the ability of a 20 amino acid peptide derived from the α5 fibril of type IV collagen, pentastatin-1, to suppress vessel growth in an angioreactor-based directed in vivo angiogenesis assay (DIVAA). In addition, pentastatin-1 suppressed tumor growth with intraperitoneal peptide administration in a small cell lung cancer (SCLC) xenograft model in nude mice using the NCI-H82 human cancer cell line. Pentastatin-1 decreased the invasion of vessels into angioreactors in vivo in a dose dependent manner. The peptide also decreased the rate of tumor growth and microvascular density in vivo in a small cell lung cancer xenograft model. The peptide treatment significantly decreased the invasion of microvessels in angioreactors and the rate of tumor growth in the xenograft model, indicating potential treatment for angiogenesis-dependent disease, and for translational development as a therapeutic agent for lung cancer

  16. Proteogenomic strategies for identification of aberrant cancer peptides using large-scale Next Generation Sequencing data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Sunghee; Cha, Seong Won; Na, Seungjin; Guest, Clark; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D.; Rodland, Karin D.; Payne, Samuel H.; Bafna, Vineet

    2014-11-17

    Cancer is driven by the acquisition of somatic DNA lesions. Distinguishing the early driver mutations from subsequent passenger mutations is key to molecular sub-typing of cancers, and the discovery of novel biomarkers. The availability of genomics technologies (mainly wholegenome and exome sequencing, and transcript sampling via RNA-seq, collectively referred to as NGS) have fueled recent studies on somatic mutation discovery. However, the vision is challenged by the complexity, redundancy, and errors in genomic data, and the difficulty of investigating the proteome using only genomic approaches. Recently, combination of proteomic and genomic technologies are increasingly employed. However, the complexity and redundancy of NGS data remains a challenge for proteogenomics, and various trade-offs must be made to allow for the searches to take place. This paperprovides a discussion of two such trade-offs, relating to large database search, and FDR calculations, and their implication to cancer proteogenomics. Moreover, it extends and develops the idea of a unified genomic variant database that can be searched by any mass spectrometry sample. A total of 879 BAM files downloaded from TCGA repository were used to create a 4.34 GB unified FASTA database which contained 2,787,062 novel splice junctions, 38,464 deletions, 1105 insertions, and 182,302 substitutions. Proteomic data from a single ovarian carcinoma sample (439,858 spectra) was searched against the database. By applying the most conservative FDR measure, we have identified 524 novel peptides and 65,578 known peptides at 1% FDR threshold. The novel peptides include interesting examples of doubly mutated peptides, frame-shifts, and non-sample-recruited mutations, which emphasize the strength of our approach.

  17. Molecular markers and targets for colorectal cancer prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveena B JANAKIRAM; Chinthalapally V RAO

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. If detected at an early stage, treatment often might lead to cure. As prevention is better than cure, epidemiological studies reveal that having a healthy diet often protects from pro-moting/developing cancer. An important consideration in evaluating new drugs and devices is determining whether a product can effectively treat a targeted disease. There are quite a number of biomarkers making their way into clinical trials and few are awaiting the preclinical efficacy and safety results to enter into clinical trials. Researchers are facing challenges in modifying trial design and defining the right control population, validating biomarker assays from the bio-logical and analytical perspective and using biomarker data as a guideline for decision making. In spite of following all guidelines, the results are disappointing from many of the large clinical trials. To avoid these disappointments, selection of biomarkers and its target drug needs to be evaluated in appropriate animal models for its toxicities and efficacies. The focus of this review is on the few of the potential molecular targets and their biomarkers in colorectal cancers. Strengths and limitations of biomarkers/surrogate endpoints are also discussed. Various pathways involved in tumor cells and the specific agents to target the altered molecular biomarkerin biomolecular pathwayare elucidated. Importance of emerging new platforms siRNAs and miRNAs technology for colorectal cancer therapeutics is reviewed.

  18. The Prevention of Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer: A Personal View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narod Steven

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Options for the prevention of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer include screening, preventive surgery and chemoprevention. Screening studies with magnetic resonance imaging of the breast are promising but the technology is not widespread and MRI is unlikely to be available as a screening tool in the near future. Prophylactic oophorectomy and mastectomy are effective preventive measures and are gaining in acceptance by patients and physicians. Preventive mastectomy is effective against both primary and contralateral breast cancer. Oophorectomy prevents ovarian cancer, and if done prior to menopause, will prevent breast cancer as well. Tamoxifen has been shown to prevent contralateral breast cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers but is not widely accepted as a means of primary prevention. Oral contraceptives and tubal ligation will reduce the risk of hereditary ovarian cancer and should be considered in women who wish to retain ovarian function.

  19. Reduction in the risk of prostate cancer: future directions after the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, E David; Andriole, Gerald L; Marberger, Michael; Rittmaster, Roger S

    2010-03-01

    The landmark Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) generated interest in the potential health benefits and cost of reducing prostate cancer risk--specifically, the potential role of 5alpha-reductase inhibitors. However, the PCPT raised several unanswered questions, including the cause and significance of the increased incidence of high-grade tumors associated with finasteride. In the present study, we review the PCPT findings and unanswered questions, next steps in this field, and ongoing prostate cancer prevention trials addressing these unanswered questions. Particular emphasis is placed on the design of the second large-scale trial of a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, the REduction by DUtasteride of prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial. PMID:20035983

  20. Spider peptide Phα1β induces analgesic effect in a model of cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Flavia Karine; Trevisan, Gabriela; Rosa, Fernanda; Dalmolin, Gerusa D; Otuki, Michel Fleith; Cueto, Ana Paula; de Castro Junior, Célio José; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurelio; Cordeiro, Marta do N; Richardson, Michael; Ferreira, Juliano; Gomez, Marcus V

    2013-09-01

    The marine snail peptide ziconotide (ω-conotoxin MVIIA) is used as an analgesic in cancer patients refractory to opioids, but may induce severe adverse effects. Animal venoms represent a rich source of novel drugs, so we investigated the analgesic effects and the side-effects of spider peptide Phα1β in a model of cancer pain in mice with or without tolerance to morphine analgesia. Cancer pain was induced by the inoculation of melanoma B16-F10 cells into the hind paw of C57BL/6 mice. After 14 days, painful hypersensitivity was detected and Phα1β or ω-conotoxin MVIIA (10-100 pmol/site) was intrathecally injected to evaluate the development of antinociception and side-effects in control and morphine-tolerant mice. The treatment with Phα1β or ω-conotoxin MVIIA fully reversed cancer-related painful hypersensitivity, with long-lasting results, at effective doses 50% of 48 (32-72) or 33 (21-53) pmol/site, respectively. Phα1β produced only mild adverse effects, whereas ω-conotoxin MVIIA induced dose-related side-effects in mice at analgesic doses (estimated toxic dose 50% of 30 pmol/site). In addition, we observed that Phα1β was capable of controlling cancer-related pain even in mice tolerant to morphine antinociception (100% of inhibition) and was able to partially restore morphine analgesia in such animals (56 ± 5% of inhibition). In this study, Phα1β was as efficacious as ω-conotoxin MVIIA in inducing analgesia in a model of cancer pain without producing severe adverse effects or losing efficacy in opioid-tolerant mice, indicating that Phα1β has a good profile for the treatment of cancer pain in patients. PMID:23718272

  1. Prevention of Prostate Cancer: Outcomes of Clinical Trials and Future Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Ian; Kristal, Alan; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is an excellent target for prevention, to reduce both mortality and the burden of overdetection of potential inconsequential disease whose diagnosis increases cost, morbidity, and anxiety. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial has demonstrated that finasteride significantly reduces the risk of prostate cancer but only low-grade disease; overall survival is unaffected. In the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) clinical trial, selenium had no effect on prosta...

  2. Enhancing a Cancer Prevention and Control Curriculum through Interactive Group Discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, L.P.; Gadalla, S M; Hamilton, J. G.; Heckman-Stoddard, B.M.; Kent, E.E.; Lai, G Y; Lin, S. W.; Luhn, P.; Faupel-Badger, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course (Principles course) is offered annually by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program. This four-week post-graduate course covers the spectrum of cancer prevention and control research (e.g. epidemiology, laboratory, clinical, social, and behavioral sciences) and is open to attendees from medical, academic, government, and related institutions across the world. In this report, we describe a new additio...

  3. Online Series presents The Impact of Obesity on Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is a critical public health problem which is worsening over time. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than one third (34.9% or 78.6 million) of U.S. adults are obese. Growing obesity incidence is associated with detrimental health consequences including cancer. Experts in the field of nutrition and cancer will present the latest data and future directions of research for this important topic. |

  4. Tool Weighs Benefits, Risks of Raloxifene or Tamoxifen to Prevent Breast Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have developed a benefit-risk index to help guide decisions on whether postmenopausal women at increased risk of developing breast cancer should take raloxifene or tamoxifen to reduce that risk. |

  5. Biorepository for Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PCPT biorepository and extended data was used to further explore the initial suggestion that some men taking finasteride were at risk of developing high-grade prostate cancers, and to look at the value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for early detection. Researchers showed that: |

  6. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) response to enteral intake in children during anti-cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, B U; Paerregaard, A; Schmiegelow, K;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal dysfunction is frequent in cancer and during anti-cancer treatment. Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is secreted in a nutrition-dependent manner from the intestinal enteroendocrine L-cells. It accelerates crypt cell proliferation and nutrient absorption, inhibits enterocyte...

  7. Levels of circulating peptide and steroid hormones in men with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of circulating peptide (FSH, LH, prolactin, ACTH, calcitonin, gastrin and insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1]) and steroid (estradiol, progesterone, DHEA-S and testosterone)hormones were estimated by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in male patients with lung cancer (n=37) pre-therapeutically and compared with 25 age matched healthy controls. In this retrospective study, FSH, LH, prolactin, ACTH, calcitonin, gastrin and IGF-1 were significantly higher with concomitant lower levels of DHEA-S and testosterone, while the difference was statistically non-significant for estradiol and progesterone in patients with lung cancer when compared with controls. Early stage patients (Stage II) exhibited higher levels of gastrin as compared to advanced stage patients (Stages III and IV). It is suggested that hormonal imbalance might play an important role in the development and progression in male patients with lung cancer. (author)

  8. Association of Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostate Cancer: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Jeannette M.; Kristal, Alan R.; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Tangen, Catherine M.; Neuhouser, Marian L; Lin, Daniel W; White, Emily; Thompson, Ian M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer risk in 5,068 placebo-arm participants enrolled in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (1993–2003). These data include 1,225 men whose cancer was detected during the 7-year trial—556 detected for cause (following abnormal prostate-specific antigen or digital rectal examination) and 669 detected not for cause (without indication), as well as 3,843 men who had biopsy-proven absence of...

  9. Epidemiological study on cancer prevention by ginseng: are all kinds of cancers preventable by ginseng?

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, T K; Choi, S. Y.(Department of Physics, Chonbuk National University, 561-756, Jeonju, Republic of Korea); Yun, H Y

    2001-01-01

    In the light of experimental results, two case-control studies and one cohort study in a population of ginseng cultivation area were conducted to confirm whether ginseng has any anticarcinogenic effect on human cancers. All participants were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire to obtain the information on demographics, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and ginseng intake. In 905 pairs case-control study, 62% had a history of ginseng intake compared to 75% of the controls, a st...

  10. The dawn of a revolution in personalized lung cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri, Fadlo R

    2011-07-01

    Lung cancer prevention and early detection, which have fallen on hard times for more than the past 20 years, seem to have turned a corner toward better times ahead. Exciting new results of randomized controlled trials that targeted the arachidonic acid pathway, including a celecoxib trial reported by Mao and colleagues in this issue of the journal (beginning on page 984) and a trial of the prostacyclin analog iloprost, complement recently reported 20%-30% lung cancer mortality reductions, either with aspirin in targeting the arachidonic acid pathway or with computed tomography screening. The new results show encouraging activity personalized to former smokers and/or people expressing predictive biomarkers. These trials and technological advances in molecular profiling and imaging herald substantial clinical advances on the horizon of this field. PMID:21733817

  11. Prevention of erectile dysfunction after radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izak Faiena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing scrutiny of prostate cancer (PCa diagnosis and treatment, much attention has been given to the morbidity caused by radical prostatectomy (RP and/or radiotherapy (RT. One of the most common side-effects of either treatment is erectile dysfunction (ED. [1] Approximately, 40% of patients will experience ED after RT for PCa. The post-RT ED causes significant patient dissatisfaction with cancer treatment as well as decrease in patient and partner psychosocial function. [2] To address this issue in patients undergoing RT, Pisansky et al. [3] conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of a phosphodiesterase enzyme-5 inhibitor (PDE5i, tadalafil, as a preventive measure for patients undergoing RT for PCa and found no difference in erectile function between the control and treatment groups.

  12. Biomarkers for diet and cancer prevention research: potentials and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cindy D DAVIS; John A MILNER

    2007-01-01

    As cancer incidence is projected to increase for decades there is a need for effec-tive preventive strategies. Fortunately, evidence continues to mount that altering dietary habits is an effective and cost-efficient approach for reducing cancer risk and for modifying the biological behavior of tumors. Predictive, validated and sensitive biomarkers, including those that reliably evaluate "intake" or exposure to a specific food or bioactive component, that assess one or more specific bio-logical "effects" that are linked to cancer, and that effectively predict individual "susceptibility" as a function of nutrient-nutrient interactions and genetics, are fundamental to evaluating who will benefit most from dietary interventions. These biomarkers must be readily accessible, easily and reliably assayed, and predictive of a key process(es) involved in cancer. The response to a food is determined not only by the effective concentration of the bioactive food component(s) reaching the target tissue, but also by the amount of the target requiring modification.Thus, this threshold response to foods and their components will vary from indi-vidual to individual. The key to understanding a personalized response is a greater knowledge of nutrigenomics, proteomics and metabolomics.

  13. The microbiome and its potential as a cancer preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultman, Scott J

    2016-02-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that microbiota inhabiting our bodies influence cancer predisposition and etiology. In addition to pathogens with oncogenic properties, commensal and symbiotic microbiota have tumor-suppressive properties. Diet and other environmental factors can modulate the abundance of certain members of microbial communities within the gastrointestinal tract and at other anatomical sites. Furthermore, some dietary factors are metabolized by commensal/symbiotic gut microbiota into bioactive food components believed to prevent cancer. For example, dietary fiber undergoes bacterial fermentation in the colon to yield butyrate, which is a short-chain fatty acid and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that suppresses the viability and growth of colorectal cancer cell lines. A recent study using gnotobiotic mouse models demonstrates that fiber can protect against colorectal tumorigenesis in a microbiota- and butyrate-dependent manner that involves the Warburg effect. This and other examples suggest that some of the inter-individual variation observed in epidemiology and intervention studies that have investigated associations between diet and cancer risk might be explained by differences in microbiota among the participants. Data from basic research studies also support the idea that probiotics and prebiotics could be plausible chemoprevention strategies that may be utilized to a greater extent in the future. PMID:26970128

  14. Sensitizing basal-like breast cancer to chemotherapy using nanoparticles conjugated with interference peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorolla, A.; Ho, D.; Wang, E.; Evans, C. W.; Ormonde, C. F. G.; Rashwan, R.; Singh, R.; Iyer, K. Swaminathan; Blancafort, P.

    2016-04-01

    Basal-like breast cancers are highly aggressive malignancies associated with very poor prognosis. Although these cancers may initially respond to first-line treatment, they become highly resistant to standard chemotherapy in the metastatic setting. Chemotherapy resistance in basal-like breast cancers is associated with highly selective overexpression of the homeobox transcription factor Engrailed 1 (EN1). Herein, we propose a novel therapeutic strategy using poly(glycidyl methacrylate) nanoparticles decorated with poly(acrylic acid) that enable dual delivery of docetaxel and interference peptides designed to block or inhibit EN1 (EN1-iPep). We demonstrate that EN1-iPep is highly selective in inducing apoptotic cell death in basal-like cancer cells with negligible effects in a non-neoplastic human mammary epithelial cell line. Furthermore, we show that treatment with EN1-iPep results in a highly synergistic pharmacological interaction with docetaxel in inhibiting cancer cell growth. The incorporation of these two agents in a single nanoformulation results in greater anticancer efficacy than current nanoparticle-based treatments used in the clinical setting.Basal-like breast cancers are highly aggressive malignancies associated with very poor prognosis. Although these cancers may initially respond to first-line treatment, they become highly resistant to standard chemotherapy in the metastatic setting. Chemotherapy resistance in basal-like breast cancers is associated with highly selective overexpression of the homeobox transcription factor Engrailed 1 (EN1). Herein, we propose a novel therapeutic strategy using poly(glycidyl methacrylate) nanoparticles decorated with poly(acrylic acid) that enable dual delivery of docetaxel and interference peptides designed to block or inhibit EN1 (EN1-iPep). We demonstrate that EN1-iPep is highly selective in inducing apoptotic cell death in basal-like cancer cells with negligible effects in a non-neoplastic human mammary

  15. Research policy and review 16. Geographical disparities in state cancer-prevention policies: the need for strong federal intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, M.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of changes in cancer mortality rates and cancer prevention programs shows that the states that experienced the sharpest increase in cancer mortality during the last thirty years have the weakest cancer-prevention programs. The federal government should intervene to increase cancer prevention, especially in these laggard states.

  16. Opportunities for Cancer Prevention Using Employee Wellness Programs: The Case of Kansas State Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Siu-kuen Azor; Engelman, Kimberly; Shireman, Theresa I.; Hunt, Suzanne; Ellerbeck, Edward F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The utility of employee wellness programs (EWPs) in cancer prevention and control is not well established. Purpose: This project is to determine the potential value of EWPs in preventing cancer by examining the characteristics of EWP participants and their prevalence of cancer risk factors. Methods: A secondary data analysis of health…

  17. Prevention of breast cancer in women with diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Dinah Sá Rezende Neta; Tailane Maria Araújo Fontenele; Grazielle Roberta Freitas da Silva; Kamila Cristiane de Oliveira Silva; Judite Oliveira Lima Albuquerque

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine the preventive actions of women with diabetes mellitus in the fight against breast cancer. It is a descriptive and exploratory study, with a quantitative approach, carried out in a Health Centre located in Teresina-PI, with 45 diabetic women. The results revealed an average age of 61 years. Characterized in different groups, such as mulatto (51.1%), retired (35.6%) or housewives (35.6%), with up to three years of study (64.4%) married / stable uni...

  18. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi; Maryam Zare; Mehrdad Mostaghaci; Amir Houshang Mehrparvar; Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad; Elham Naghshineh

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive corre...

  19. CT/FMT dual-model imaging of breast cancer based on peptide-lipid nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoqiang; Lin, Qiaoya; Lian, Lichao; Qian, Yuan; Lu, Lisen; Zhang, Zhihong

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most harmful cancers in human. Its early diagnosis is expected to improve the patients' survival rate. X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been widely used in tumor detection for obtaining three-dimentional information. Fluorescence Molecular Tomography (FMT) imaging combined with near-infrared fluorescent dyes provides a powerful tool for the acquisition of molecular biodistribution information in deep tissues. Thus, the combination of CT and FMT imaging modalities allows us to better differentiate diseased tissues from normal tissues. Here we developed a tumor-targeting nanoparticle for dual-modality imaging based on a biocompatible HDL-mimicking peptide-phospholipid scaffold (HPPS) nanocarrier. By incorporation of CT contrast agents (iodinated oil) and far-infrared fluorescent dyes (DiR-BOA) into the hydrophobic core of HPPS, we obtained the FMT and CT signals simultaneously. Increased accumulation of the nanoparticles in the tumor lesions was achieved through the effect of the tumor-targeting peptide on the surface of nanoparticle. It resulted in excellent contrast between lesions and normal tissues. Together, the abilities to sensitively separate the lesions from adjacent normal tissues with the aid of a FMT/CT dual-model imaging approach make the targeting nanoparticles a useful tool for the diagnostics of breast cancer.

  20. Depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts, generators of cancer initiation: their minimization leads to cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, Ercole L; Rogan, Eleanor G

    2016-12-01

    Estrogens can initiate cancer by reacting with DNA. Specific metabolites of endogenous estrogens, the catechol estrogen-3,4-quinones, react with DNA to form depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts. Loss of these adducts leaves apurinic sites in the DNA, generating mutations that can lead to the initiation of cancer. A variety of endogenous and exogenous factors can disrupt estrogen homeostasis, which is the normal balance between estrogen activating and protective enzymes. In fact, if estrogen metabolism becomes unbalanced and generates excessive catechol estrogen 3,4-quinones, formation of depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts increases and the risk of initiating cancer is greater. The levels of depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts are high in women diagnosed with breast cancer and those at high risk for the disease. High levels of depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts before the presence of breast cancer indicates that adduct formation is a critical factor in breast cancer initiation. Women with thyroid or ovarian cancer also have high levels of estrogen-DNA adducts, as do men with prostate cancer or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts are initiators of many prevalent types of human cancer. These findings and other discoveries led to the recognition that reducing the levels of estrogen-DNA adducts could prevent the initiation of human cancer. The dietary supplements N-acetylcysteine and resveratrol inhibit formation of estrogen-DNA adducts in cultured human breast cells and in women. These results suggest that the two supplements offer an approach to reducing the risk of developing various prevalent types of human cancer. Graphical abstract Major metabolic pathway in cancer initiation by estrogens. PMID:26979321

  1. Implications of climate change for skin cancer prevention in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, Jen

    2011-12-01

    It is estimated that nearly 450,000 Australians get skin cancer every year. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight has been identified as the cause of more than 95% of skin cancers in Australia. Accordingly, the focus of skin cancer prevention programs is reducing exposure to UV radiation. In Victoria, improvements in sun protection behaviours and reductions in sunburn and melanoma incidence rates among younger people have been observed since the SunSmart program was established in 1988. However, climate change has the potential to undermine these successes. First, surface UVB radiation is dependent on stratospheric total ozone amounts. While signs of impact of international restrictions on the production of ozone-depleting substances have been observed, improvements have not yet returned ozone to pre-1970s levels. Interactions between ozone depletion and climate change may slow the recovery of the ozone layer and compound increases in UV radiation at some latitudes. Before recovery, it is expected that higher levels of UV radiation will continue in most Australian regions, with an associated higher risk of skin cancer. Indeed, recent data show increases in surface UV radiation throughout Australia since the 1970s. Second, mean temperatures in Australia have increased over the past 30 years and are projected to rise further by 2030. Australian data shows that with higher temperatures, adults spend more time outdoors, are less likely to wear covering clothing and more likely to be sunburnt. Hence, rising temperatures can be expected to result in increases in sun exposure, sunburn and correspondingly, skin cancer risk. PMID:22518918

  2. Dietary peptides from the non-digestible fraction of Phaseolus vulgaris L. decrease angiotensin II-dependent proliferation in HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells through the blockade of the renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vital, Diego A; Liang, Katie; González de Mejía, Elvira; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe

    2016-05-18

    This study aimed to determine the ability of peptides present in the non-digestible fraction (NDF) of common beans to decrease angiotensin II (AngII) through the blockade of RAS and its effect on the proliferation of HCT116 human colorectal cancer cells. Pure synthesized peptides GLTSK and GEGSGA and the peptide fractions (PF) of cultivars Azufrado Higuera and Bayo Madero were used. The cells were pretreated with pure peptides, PF or AGT at their IC50 or IC25 values, in comparison with the simultaneous treatment of peptides and AGT. For western blot and microscopy analysis, 100 μM and 0.5 mg mL(-1) were used for pure peptides and PF treatments, respectively. According to the ELISA tests, GLTSK and GEGSGA decreased (p < 0.05) the conversion rate of AGT to angiotensin I (AngI) by 38 and 28%, respectively. All the peptides tested reduced (p < 0.05) the conversion rate of AngI to AngII from 38 to 50%. When the cells were pretreated with both pure peptides and PF before exposure to AGT, the effectiveness inhibiting cell proliferation was higher than the simultaneous treatment suggesting their preventive effects. GLTSK and GEGSGA interacted with the catalytic site of renin, the angiotensin-I converting enzyme, and the AngII receptor, mainly through hydrogen bonds, polar, hydrophobic and cation-π interactions according to molecular docking. Through confocal microscopy, it was determined that GLTSK and GEGSGA caused the decrease (p < 0.05) of AngII-dependent STAT3 nuclear activation in HCT116 cells by 66 and 23%, respectively. The results suggest that peptides present in the common bean NDF could potentially ameliorate the effects of RAS overexpression in colorectal cancer. PMID:27156533

  3. Prevention and treatment of cancers by immune modulating nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Mohammed, Altaf; Madka, Venkateshwar; Kumar, Gaurav; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological and laboratory data support the protective effects of bioactive nutrients in our diets for various diseases. Along with various factors, such as genetic history, alcohol, smoking, exercise, and dietary choices play a vital role in affecting an individual's immune responses toward a transforming cell, by either preventing or accelerating a neoplastic transformation. Ample evidence suggests that dietary nutrients control the inflammatory and protumorigenic responses in immune cells. Immunoprevention is usually associated with the modulation of immune responses that help in resolving the inflammation, thus improving clinical outcome. Various metabolic pathway-related nutrients, including glutamine, arginine, vitamins, minerals, and long-chain fatty acids, are important components of immunonutrient mixes. Epidemiological studies related to these substances have reported different results, with no or minimal effects. However, several studies suggest that these nutrients may have immune-modulating effects that may lower cancer risk. Preclinical studies submit that most of these components may provide beneficial effects. The present review discusses the available data, the immune-modulating functions of these nutrients, and how these substances could be used to study immune modulation in a neoplastic environment. Further research will help to determine whether the mechanistic signaling pathways in immune cells altered by nutrients can be exploited for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:26833775

  4. Finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy H Chau

    Full Text Available In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT, finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying drug concentrations.Data for this nested case-control study are from the PCPT. Cases were drawn from men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer and matched controls. Finasteride concentrations were measured using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry validated assay. The association of serum finasteride concentrations with prostate cancer risk was determined by logistic regression. We also examine whether polymorphisms in the enzyme target and metabolism genes of finasteride are related to drug concentrations using linear regression.Among men with detectable finasteride concentrations, there was no association between finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk, low-grade or high-grade, when finasteride concentration was analyzed as a continuous variable or categorized by cutoff points. Since there was no concentration-dependent effect on prostate cancer, any exposure to finasteride intake may reduce prostate cancer risk. Of the twenty-seven SNPs assessed in the enzyme target and metabolism pathway, five SNPs in two genes, CYP3A4 (rs2242480; rs4646437; rs4986910, and CYP3A5 (rs15524; rs776746 were significantly associated with modifying finasteride concentrations. These results suggest that finasteride exposure may reduce prostate cancer risk and finasteride concentrations are affected by genetic variations in genes responsible for altering its metabolism pathway.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00288106.

  5. Prevention of filtering surgery failure by subconjunctival injection of a novel peptide hydrogel into rabbit eyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Liang [Department of Ophthalmology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Wuhan 430014 (China); Xu Xiaoding; Zhang Xianzheng [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Polymers of Ministry of Education and Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Feng Mei; Peng Chong; Jiang Fagang [Department of Ophthalmology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China)

    2010-08-01

    A novel biocompatible hydrogel was prepared based on the supramolecular self-assembly of a peptide containing a bioactive RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) sequence and a hydrophobic N-fluorenyl-9-methoxycarbonyl (FMOC) tail. When the self-assembled peptide hydrogel was administered after the filtering surgery of rabbit eyes, the level of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNA as well as the mean intraocular pressure (IOP) was significantly lower than that of the control eyes during the 21 postoperative days. The filtration bleb and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) images showed that a patent bleb and a filtration fistula could be found in the surgical site of a rabbit eye during the whole experimental period. Histological analysis further evidenced that the filtering surgical wound healing was a normal healing process without scar formation. This new approach, making use of a self-assembled peptide hydrogel to normalize filtering surgical wound healing, may have potential for glaucoma filtering surgery.

  6. Prevention of filtering surgery failure by subconjunctival injection of a novel peptide hydrogel into rabbit eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel biocompatible hydrogel was prepared based on the supramolecular self-assembly of a peptide containing a bioactive RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) sequence and a hydrophobic N-fluorenyl-9-methoxycarbonyl (FMOC) tail. When the self-assembled peptide hydrogel was administered after the filtering surgery of rabbit eyes, the level of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) mRNA as well as the mean intraocular pressure (IOP) was significantly lower than that of the control eyes during the 21 postoperative days. The filtration bleb and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) images showed that a patent bleb and a filtration fistula could be found in the surgical site of a rabbit eye during the whole experimental period. Histological analysis further evidenced that the filtering surgical wound healing was a normal healing process without scar formation. This new approach, making use of a self-assembled peptide hydrogel to normalize filtering surgical wound healing, may have potential for glaucoma filtering surgery.

  7. Gastrin releasing peptide GRP(14-27) in human breast cancer cells and in small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, A J; Andersen, E V; Nedergaard, L;

    1991-01-01

    Immunoreactivity related to the gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) precursor was detected in four different human breast cancer cell lines. The amounts and the characteristics in extracts from different breast carcinoma cells were compared with cell extracts from small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells....... Two different radioimmunoassays were employed, directed against the amino acid sequence 14-27 of GRP (IR-GRP) or the 42-53 amino acid sequence at the C-terminal end of the GRP precursor (GRP precursor fragment). In extracts from T47D cells cultured under serum free conditions, IR-GRP coeluted with GRP......(14-27) or GRP(18-27) in Sephadex G-50 chromatography. No immunoreactivity was detected in the fractions containing high molecular weight components. In a total of 41 human breast carcinoma biopsies from different postmenopausal patients, IR-GRP was detected by immunohistological staining in 39% of...

  8. Human endogenous retroviruses and cancer prevention: evidence and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cegolon Luca

    2013-01-01

    as other tumors like sarcoma, lymphoma, bladder and breast cancer. An amino acid sequence similar to HERV-K-MEL, recognized to cause a significant protective effect against melanoma, is shared by the antigenic determinants expressed by some vaccines such as BCG, vaccinia virus and the yellow fever virus. HERV-K are also reactivated in the majority of human breast cancers. Monoclonal and single-chain antibodies against the HERV-K Env protein recently proved capable of blocking the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro, inhibiting tumor growth in mice bearing xenograft tumors. Summary A recent epidemiological study provided provisional evidence of how melanoma risk could possibly be reduced if the yellow fever virus vaccine (YFV were received at least 10 years before, possibly preventing tumor initiation rather than culling melanoma cells already compromised. Further research is recommended to confirm the temporal pattern of this protection and eliminate/attenuate the potential role of relevant confounders as socio-economic status and other vaccinations. It appears also appropriate to examine the potential protective effect of YFV against other malignancies expressing high levels of HERV-K antigens, namely breast cancer, sarcoma, lymphoma and bladder cancer. Tumor immune-therapy, as described for the monoclonal antibodies against breast cancer, is indeed considered more complex and less advantageous than immune-prevention. Cellular immunity possibly triggered by vaccines as for YFV might also be involved in anti-cancer response, in addition to humoral immunity.

  9. Human endogenous retroviruses and cancer prevention: evidence and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and breast cancer. An amino acid sequence similar to HERV-K-MEL, recognized to cause a significant protective effect against melanoma, is shared by the antigenic determinants expressed by some vaccines such as BCG, vaccinia virus and the yellow fever virus. HERV-K are also reactivated in the majority of human breast cancers. Monoclonal and single-chain antibodies against the HERV-K Env protein recently proved capable of blocking the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro, inhibiting tumor growth in mice bearing xenograft tumors. A recent epidemiological study provided provisional evidence of how melanoma risk could possibly be reduced if the yellow fever virus vaccine (YFV) were received at least 10 years before, possibly preventing tumor initiation rather than culling melanoma cells already compromised. Further research is recommended to confirm the temporal pattern of this protection and eliminate/attenuate the potential role of relevant confounders as socio-economic status and other vaccinations. It appears also appropriate to examine the potential protective effect of YFV against other malignancies expressing high levels of HERV-K antigens, namely breast cancer, sarcoma, lymphoma and bladder cancer. Tumor immune-therapy, as described for the monoclonal antibodies against breast cancer, is indeed considered more complex and less advantageous than immune-prevention. Cellular immunity possibly triggered by vaccines as for YFV might also be involved in anti-cancer response, in addition to humoral immunity

  10. Active NCI Community Oncology Research Program Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Introducing Students to Cancer Prevention Careers through Programmed Summer Research Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Carrie; Collie, Candice L.; Chang, Shine

    2012-01-01

    Training programs in cancer prevention research play an important role in addressing impending shortages in the cancer prevention workforce. Published reports on the effectiveness of these programs, however, often focus on a program’s success in recruiting and retaining a demographically diverse trainee population or on academic successes of the trainees, in general. Little has been reported about programs’ success in stimulating long-term interest in cancer prevention per se, whether in rese...

  13. Cancers prevented in Australia in 2010 through the consumption of aspirin

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Louise F.; Green, Adele C.; Kendall, Bradley J; Jordan, Susan J.; Nagle, Christina M; Bain, Christopher J; Neale, Rachel E; Whiteman, David C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the proportion and number of cancers in Australia in 2010 that may have been prevented from occurring due to daily use of aspirin in the population. Methods We calculated the Prevented Fraction (PF) of colorectal and oesophageal cancers using standard formulae. The PF is the proportion of the hypothetical total load of cancer in the population that was prevented by exposure to aspirin. The formula incorporates estimates of the prevalence of aspirin use in Australian adu...

  14. Environmental carcinogenic agents and cancer prevention. Risk assessment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many agents in our environment have been established as being carcinogenic, and in most cases, the carcinogenic properties of these agents were identified because of high-dose occupational or accidental exposure. Risk characterization, taking into account the dose-response relationship, and exposure assessment are essential for risk assessment and subsequent cancer prevention. Based on scientific risk assessment, risk management should be conducted practically by considering the economic, social, political, and other technical issues and by balancing the risks and benefits. Asbestos and environmental tobacco smoke are typical examples of established carcinogenic agents in the general environment, contributing to low-dose exposure. Further epidemiological studies are required to investigate the carcinogenicity of low-dose exposure to known carcinogenic agents such as arsenic and cadmium through dietary intake, radiation via medical and natural exposure, and air pollution due to diesel exhaust. In contrast, occupational chemical exposure to 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane, whose carcinogenicity had not been established, was suggested to cause cholangiocarcinoma among workers involved in offset color proof-printing only after a rare situation of high-dose exposure was unveiled. Continuous monitoring of unusual cancer occurrences in target populations such as workers in occupational and regional settings as well as exposure reduction to suspected carcinogenic agents to levels as low as reasonably achievable is essential for reducing the risk of cancer due to environmental carcinogens. (author)

  15. Implications of Helicobacter pylori infection for stomach cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Karen J.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has implicated Helicobacter pylori, an established cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer, in the etiology of gastric cancer. Control of this infection would reduce the occurrence of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and might substantially lower the risk of stomach cancer as well. The public health impact of this infectious agent warrants efforts to identify preventive measures. This paper reviews the evidence linking H. pylori infection to gastric cancer and evaluates the potential for control in high-risk populations. Current obstacles to H. pylori control are discussed, including the link to poor socioeconomic conditions, difficulty in identifying incident cases, lack of natural immunity to reinfection, limited effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in high-prevalence populations, and incomplete knowledge regarding the reservoir of infection, mode of transmission, host susceptibility factors, and the potential for developing an effective vaccine. Worthwhile avenues of research include studies designed to identify modifiable risk factors for acquisition of the infection, modifiable host factors that may increase resistance to chronic infection, more effective antibiotic therapies, and effective vaccines.

  16. Prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Agnes Y Y

    2014-12-01

    Robust evidence remains scarce in guiding best practice in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients living with cancer. Recommendations from major consensus guidelines are largely based on extrapolated data from trials performed mostly in noncancer patients, observational studies and registries, studies using surrogate outcomes, and underpowered randomized controlled trials. Nonetheless, a personalized approach based on individual risk assessment is uniformly recommended for inpatient and outpatient thromboprophylaxis and there is consensus that anticoagulant prophylaxis is warranted in selected patients with a high risk of thrombosis. Prediction tools for estimating the risk of thrombosis in the hospital setting have not been validated, but the use of prophylaxis in the ambulatory setting in those with a high Khorana score is under active investigation. Symptomatic and incidental thrombosis should be treated with anticoagulant therapy, but little is known about the optimal duration. Pharmacologic options for prophylaxis and treatment are still restricted to unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparin, and vitamin K antagonists because there is currently insufficient evidence to support the use of target-specific, non-vitamin K-antagonist oral anticoagulants. Although these agents offer practical advantages over traditional anticoagulants, potential drug interaction with chemotherapeutic agents, gastrointestinal problems, hepatic and renal impairment, and the lack of rapid reversal agents are important limitations that may reduce the efficacy and safety of these drugs in patients with active cancer. Clinicians and patients are encouraged to participate in clinical trials to advance the care of patients with cancer-associated thrombosis. PMID:25696871

  17. Synthesis and in vitro anti-cancer evaluation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-conjugated peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xin; Qiu, Qianqian; Ma, Ke; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2015-11-01

    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) is a decapeptide hormone released from the hypothalamus and shows high affinity binding to the LHRH receptors. It is reported that several cancer cells also express LHRH receptors such as breast, ovarian, prostatic, bladder and others. In this study, we linked B1, an anti-cancer peptide, to LHRH and its analogs to improve the activity against cancer cells with LHRH receptor. Biological evaluation revealed that TB1, the peptide contains triptorelin sequence, present favorable anti-cancer activity as well as plasma stability. Further investigations disclosed that TB1 trigger apoptosis by activating the mitochondria-cytochrome c-caspase apoptotic pathway, it also exhibited the anti-migratory effect on cancer cells. PMID:26058357

  18. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  19. Dietary compound isoliquiritigenin prevents mammary carcinogenesis by inhibiting breast cancer stem cells through WIF1 demethylation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Neng; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Yu; Xie, Xiaoming; Shen, Jiangang; Peng, Cheng; You, Jieshu; Peng, Fu; Tang, Hailin; Guan, Xinyuan; Chen, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered as the root of mammary tumorigenesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that ISL efficiently limited the activities of breast CSCs. However, the cancer prevention activities of ISL and its precise molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we report a novel function of ISL as a natural demethylation agent targeting WIF1 to prevent breast cancer. ISL administration suppressed in vivo breast cancer initiation and progression, accompanied b...

  20. Diet Modulation is an Effective Complementary Agent in Preventing and Treating Breast Cancer Lung Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xiangmin; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Wang, Dezhi; Siegal, Gene P.; Hardy, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    A significant percentage of breast cancer victims will suffer from metastases indicating that new approaches to preventing breast cancer metastasis are thus needed. Dietary stearate and chemotherapy have been shown to reduce breast cancer metastasis. We tested the complementary use of dietary stearate with a taxol-based chemotherapy which work through separate mechanisms to reduce breast cancer metastasis. We therefore carried out a prevention study in which diets were initiated prior to huma...

  1. Geocoding and Social Marketing in Alabama’s Cancer Prevention Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Julianna W. Miner, MPH; Arica White, MPH; Anne E. Lubenow, MPH; Sally Palmer

    2005-01-01

    The Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH) is collaborating with the National Cancer Institute to develop detailed profiles of underserved Alabama communities most at risk for cancer. These profiles will be combined with geocoded data to create a pilot project, Cancer Prevention for Alabama’s Underserved Populations: A Focused Approach. The project's objectives are to provide the ADPH's cancer prevention programs with a more accurate and cost-effective means of planning, implementing, and...

  2. Preventative therapies for healthy women at high risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sestak I

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ivana Sestak Centre for Cancer Prevention, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, UKAbstract: Tamoxifen has been shown to reduce the risk of developing estrogen receptor (ER-positive breast cancer by at least 50%, in both pre- and postmenopausal women. The current challenge is to find new agents with fewer side effects and to find agents that are specifically suitable for premenopausal women with ER-negative breast cancer. Other selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs, such as raloxifene, arzoxifene, and lasofoxifene, have been shown to reduce the incidence of breast cancer by 50%–80%. SERMs are interesting agents for the prevention of breast cancer, but longer follow-up is needed for some of them for a complete risk–benefit profile of these drugs. Aromatase inhibitors have emerged as new drugs in the prevention setting for postmenopausal women. In the Mammary Prevention 3 (MAP3 trial, a 65% reduction in invasive breast cancer with exemestane was observed, and the Breast Cancer Intervention Study-II trial, which compared anastrozole with placebo, reported a 60% reduction in those cancers. Although SERMs and aromatase inhibitors have been proven to be excellent agents in the preventive setting specifically for postmenopausal women and ER-positive breast cancer, newer agents have to be found specifically for ER-negative breast cancers, which mostly occur in premenopausal women. Keywords: breast cancer, preventive therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, aromatase inhibitors, high-risk women

  3. The chain length of biologically produced (R)-3-hydroxyalkanoic acid affects biological activity and structure of anti-cancer peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwej, Emilia; Devocelle, Marc; Kenny, Shane; Guzik, Maciej; O'Connor, Stephen; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Radivojevic, Jelena; Maslak, Veselin; Byrne, Annete T; Gallagher, William M; Zulian, Qun Ren; Zinn, Manfred; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2015-06-20

    Conjugation of DP18L peptide with (R)-3-hydroxydecanoic acid, derived from the biopolymer polyhydroxyalkanoate, enhances its anti-cancer activity (O'Connor et al., 2013. Biomaterials 34, 2710-2718). However, it is unknown if other (R)-3-hydroxyalkanoic acids (R3HAs) can enhance peptide activity, if chain length affects enhancement, and what effect R3HAs have on peptide structure. Here we show that the degree of enhancement of peptide (DP18L) anti-cancer activity by R3HAs is carbon chain length dependent. In all but one example the R3HA conjugated peptides were more active against cancer cells than the unconjugated peptides. However, R3HAs with 9 and 10 carbons were most effective at improving DP18L activity. DP18L peptide variant DP17L, missing a hydrophobic amino acid (leucine residue 4) exhibited lower efficacy against MiaPaCa cells. Circular dichroism analysis showed DP17L had a lower alpha helix content and the conjugation of any R3HA ((R)-3-hydroxyhexanoic acid to (R)-3-hydroxydodecanoic acid) to DP17L returned the helix content back to levels of DP18L. However (R)-3-hydroxyhexanoic did not enhance the anti-cancer activity of DP17L and at least 7 carbons were needed in the R3HA to enhance activity of D17L. DP17L needs a longer chain R3HA to achieve the same activity as DP18L conjugated to an R3HA. As a first step to assess the synthetic potential of polyhydroxyalkanoate derived R3HAs, (R)-3-hydroxydecanoic acid was synthetically converted to (±)3-chlorodecanoic acid, which when conjugated to DP18L improved its antiproliferative activity against MiaPaCa cells. PMID:25820126

  4. Truncation, modification, and optimization of MIG6(segment 2) peptide to target lung cancer-related EGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Rui; Leng, Chang-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a central role in the pathological progression and metastasis of lung cancer; the development and clinical application of therapeutic agents that target the receptor provide important insights for new lung cancer therapies. The tumor-suppressor protein MIG6 is a negative regulator of EGFR, which can bind at the activation interface of asymmetric dimer of EGFR kinase domains to disrupt dimerization and then inactivate the kinase (Zhang X. et al. Nature 2007, 450: 741-744). The protein adopts two separated segments, i.e. MIG6(segment 1) and MIG6(segment 2), to directly interact with EGFR. Here, computational modeling and analysis of the intermolecular interaction between EGFR kinase domain and MIG6(segment 2) peptide revealed that the peptide is folded into a two-stranded β-sheet composed of β-strand 1 and β-strand 2; only the β-strand 2 can directly interact with EGFR activation loop, while leaving β-strand 1 apart from the kinase. A C-terminal island within the β-strand 2 is primarily responsible for peptide binding, which was truncated from the MIG6(segment 2) and exhibited weak affinity to EGFR kinase domain. Structural and energetic analysis suggested that phosphorylation at residues Tyr394 and Tyr395 of truncated peptide can considerably improve EGFR affinity, and mutation of other residues can further optimize the peptide binding capability. Subsequently, three derivative versions of the truncated peptide, including phosphorylated and dephosphorylated peptides as well as a double-point mutant were synthesized and purified, and their affinities to the recombinant protein of human EGFR kinase domain were determined by fluorescence anisotropy titration. As expected theoretically, the dephosphorylated peptide has no observable binding to the kinase, and phosphorylation and mutation can confer low and moderate affinities to the peptide, respectively, suggesting a good consistence between the computational

  5. Development of a prosaposin-derived therapeutic cyclic peptide that targets ovarian cancer via the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Suming; Blois, Anna; El Rayes, Tina; Liu, Joyce F; Hirsch, Michelle S; Gravdal, Karsten; Palakurthi, Sangeetha; Bielenberg, Diane R; Akslen, Lars A; Drapkin, Ronny; Mittal, Vivek; Watnick, Randolph S

    2016-03-01

    The vast majority of ovarian cancer-related deaths are caused by metastatic dissemination of tumor cells, resulting in subsequent organ failure. However, despite our increased understanding of the physiological processes involved in tumor metastasis, there are no clinically approved drugs that have made a major impact in increasing the overall survival of patients with advanced, metastatic ovarian cancer. We identified prosaposin (psap) as a potent inhibitor of tumor metastasis, which acts via stimulation of p53 and the antitumorigenic protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) in bone marrow-derived cells that are recruited to metastatic sites. We report that more than 97% of human serous ovarian tumors tested express CD36, the receptor that mediates the proapoptotic activity of TSP-1. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether a peptide derived from psap would be effective in treating this form of ovarian cancer. To that end, we developed a cyclic peptide with drug-like properties derived from the active sequence in psap. The cyclic psap peptide promoted tumor regression in a patient-derived tumor xenograft model of metastatic ovarian cancer. Thus, we hypothesize that a therapeutic agent based on this psap peptide would have efficacy in treating patients with metastatic ovarian cancer. PMID:26962158

  6. CopA3 Peptide Prevents Ultraviolet-Induced Inhibition of Type-I Procollagen and Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in Human Skin Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hee Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV exposure is well-known to induce premature aging, which is mediated by matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1 activity. A 9-mer peptide, CopA3 (CopA3 was synthesized from a natural peptide, coprisin, which is isolated from the dung beetle Copris tripartitus. As part of our continuing search for novel bioactive natural products, CopA3 was investigated for its in vitro anti-skin photoaging activity. UV-induced inhibition of type-I procollagen and induction of MMP-1 were partially prevented in human skin fibroblasts by CopA3 peptide in a dose-dependent manner. At a concentration of 25 μM, CopA3 nearly completely inhibited MMP-1 expression. These results suggest that CopA3, an insect peptide, is a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of skin aging.

  7. Anti-Tumor Effects of Peptide Therapeutic and Peptide Vaccine Antibody Co-targeting HER-1 and HER-2 in Esophageal Cancer (EC) and HER-1 and IGF-1R in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC)

    OpenAIRE

    Jay Overholser; Kristen Henkins Ambegaokar; Eze, Siobhan M.; Eduardo Sanabria-Figueroa; Rita Nahta; Tanios Bekaii-Saab; Kaumaya, Pravin T. P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the promise of targeted therapies, there remains an urgent need for effective treatment for esophageal cancer (EC) and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Current FDA-approved drugs have significant problems of toxicity, safety, selectivity, efficacy and development of resistance. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that rationally designed peptide vaccines/mimics are a viable therapeutic strategy for blocking aberrant molecular signaling pathways with high affinity, specificity, pot...

  8. Co-ordination and ecology in practical cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M A; Tsuda, H

    1998-10-01

    A great deal of information is already available regarding modifiable factors affecting cancer development in a negative or positive fashion. Thus, avoidance of harmful agents like tobacco, vaccination against virus infections, prompt treatment of inflammatory conditions and increased exposure to beneficial influences hold great promise for the achievement of effective prevention. However, this requires a co-ordinated strategy and an integration of efforts in epidemiological and biological research, medical practice and education, and is essential for optimal use of the resources available. In addition, more stress needs to be placed on community approaches. Concentration of particular attention on the 'ecological' interactions among a triad of the major areas of action: (1) information generation; (2) intervention efforts; (3) government policy, appears warranted. PMID:9884888

  9. Cancer preventive properties of ginger: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Yogeshwer; Singh, Madhulika

    2007-05-01

    Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinalis, one of the most widely used species of the ginger family, is a common condiment for various foods and beverages. Ginger has a long history of medicinal use dating back 2500 years. Ginger has been traditionally used from time immemorial for varied human ailments in different parts of the globe, to aid digestion and treat stomach upset, diarrhoea, and nausea. Some pungent constituents present in ginger and other zingiberaceous plants have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and some of them exhibit cancer preventive activity in experimental carcinogenesis. The anticancer properties of ginger are attributed to the presence of certain pungent vallinoids, viz. [6]-gingerol and [6]-paradol, as well as some other constituents like shogaols, zingerone etc. A number of mechanisms that may be involved in the chemopreventive effects of ginger and its components have been reported from the laboratory studies in a wide range of experimental models. PMID:17175086

  10. Genital HPV: links to cervical cancer, treatment, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, L A

    2001-01-01

    Human papillomavirus is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted viruses. It consists of over 230 different subtypes and infects the squamous epithelial cells in humans producing cutaneous, mucosal, and epidermodysplasia verruciformis type infections. There are several risk factors for human papillomavirus infections. These include a sexually active life-style beginning at a young age, having multiple lifetime sex partners, having sex with a partner with genital warts, and long term oral contraceptive use. Approximately 80% of sexually active individuals acquire the virus in their lifetime. Clinical and laboratory detection of the virus consists of macroscopic, serologic, and molecular techniques. Although removal of the lesions is preferable, treatment of human papillomavirus infections may include cryotherapy, loop electrosurgical excision procedure, laser surgery, and drug therapy. Certain human papillomavirus subtypes, particularly human papillomavirus 16, have been linked to cervical cancer, therefore, prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines are currently being developed to prevent or fight the virus. PMID:11517629

  11. Retinoids and rexinoids in cancer prevention: from laboratory to clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uray, Iván P; Dmitrovsky, Ethan; Brown, Powel H

    2016-02-01

    Early in the age of modern medicine the consequences of vitamin A deficiency drew attention to the fundamental link between retinoid-dependent homeostatic regulation and malignant hyperproliferative diseases. The term "retinoid" includes a handful of endogenous and a large group of synthetic derivatives of vitamin A. These multifunctional lipid-soluble compounds directly regulate target genes of specific biological functions and critical signaling pathways to orchestrate complex functions from vision to development, metabolism, and inflammation. Many of the retinoid activities on the cellular level have been well characterized and translated to the regulation of processes like differentiation and cell death, which play critical roles in the outcome of malignant transformation of tissues. In fact, retinoid-based differentiation therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia was one of the first successful examples of molecularly targeted treatment strategies. The selectivity, high receptor binding affinity and the ability of retinoids to directly modulate gene expression programs present a distinct pharmacological opportunity for cancer treatment and prevention. However, to fully exploit their potential, the adverse effects of retinoids must be averted. In this review we provide an overview of the biology of retinoid (activated by nuclear retinoic acid receptors [RARs]) and rexinoid (engaged by nuclear retinoid X receptors [RXRs]) action concluded from a long line of preclinical studies, in relation to normal and transformed states of cells. We will also discuss the past and current uses of retinoids in the treatment of malignancies, the potential of rexinoids in the cancer prevention setting, both as single agents and in combinations. PMID:26970124

  12. Peptides Targeting the Desmoglein 3 Adhesive Interface Prevent Autoantibody-induced Acantholysis in Pemphigus*

    OpenAIRE

    Heupel, Wolfgang-Moritz; Müller, Thomas; Efthymiadis, Athina; Schmidt, Enno; Drenckhahn, Detlev; Waschke, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) autoantibodies directly inhibit desmoglein (Dsg) 3-mediated transinteraction. Because cellular signaling also seems to be required for PV pathogenesis, it is important to characterize the role of direct inhibition in pemphigus acantholysis to allow establishment of new therapeutic approaches. Therefore, we modeled the Dsg1 and Dsg3 sequences into resolved cadherin structures and predicted peptides targeting the adhesive interface of both Dsg3 an...

  13. Preventing skin cancer: findings of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services On reducing Exposure to Ultraviolet Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiya, Mona; Glanz, Karen; Briss, Peter; Nichols, Phyllis; White, Cornelia; Das, Debjani

    2003-10-17

    Rates of skin cancer, the most common cancer in the United States, are increasing. The most preventable risk factor for skin cancer is unprotected ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Seeking to identify effective approaches to reducing the incidence of skin cancer by improving individual and community efforts to reduce unprotected UV exposure, the Task Force on Community Preventive Services conducted systematic reviews of community interventions to reduce exposure to ultraviolet light and increase protective behaviors. The Task Force found sufficient evidence to recommend two interventions that are based on improvements in sun protective or "covering-up" behavior (wearing protective clothing including long-sleeved clothing or hats): educational and policy approaches in two settings--primary schools and recreational or tourism sites. They found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of a range of other population-based interventions and recommended additional research in these areas: educational and policy approaches in child care centers, secondary schools and colleges, recreational or tourism sites for children, and workplaces; interventions conducted in health-care settings and targeted to both providers and children's parents or caregivers; media campaigns alone; and community wide multicomponent interventions. This report also presents additional information regarding the recommended community interventions, briefly describes how the reviews were conducted, provides resources for further information, and provides information that can help in applying the interventions locally. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force conducted a systematic review of counseling by primary care clinicians to prevent skin cancer (CDC. Counseling to prevent skin cancer: recommendation and rationale of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. MMWR 2003;52[No. RR-15]:13-17), which is also included in this issue, the first jointly released findings from the Task Force on Community

  14. Identification of carboxyl terminal peptide of Fibrinogen as a potential serum biomarker for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng; Luo, Zhiwen; Tang, Dan; Liu, Lijie; Yao, Dingkang; Zhu, Liang; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a very common disease worldwide where new serum biomarkers are urgently needed to improve their early diagnosis. In this study, we aim to search for the potential serum protein/peptide biomarkers of GC by using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). We first obtained the serum protein/peptide profiles from a training dataset including 30 patients with GC, 16 cases with chronic benign gastric disease (CGD), and 30 normal controls (CON) where 15 protein peaks were identified to exhibit the obvious deviation (P CGD, and CON analyzed by Biomarker Wizard 3.1 software with three protein peaks with mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio 5910, 5342, and 6439 further confirmed in the validation dataset. Among the three protein peaks, peak 5910 displayed the most significantly different which could distinguish GC patients from CGD and CON with a sensitivity of 86.3 %, a specificity of 91.3 %, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.89 by using the optimal cutoff value of 17.3. We further identified peak 5910 as the carboxyl terminal fraction of Fibrinogen α by LC-MS and validated its identity by antiserum-mediated SELDI-based immunodepletion assays. In sum, SELDI-TOF-MS method could effectively generate serum peptidome in cancer patients and provide a new approach to identify potentially diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for cancer. The carboxyl terminal fraction of Fibrinogen α may be a potential serological biomarker for GC diagnosis. PMID:26662807

  15. Phase I trial of thymidylate synthase poly-epitope peptide (TSPP) vaccine in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusi, Maria Grazia; Botta, Cirino; Pastina, Pierpaolo; Rossetti, Maria Grazia; Dreassi, Elena; Guidelli, Giacomo Maria; Fioravanti, Antonella; Martino, Elodia Claudia; Gandolfo, Claudia; Pagliuchi, Marco; Basile, Assunta; Carbone, Salvatore Francesco; Ricci, Veronica; Micheli, Lucia; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Pirtoli, Luigi; Correale, Pierpaolo

    2015-09-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) poly-epitope peptide (TSPP) is a 27-mer peptide vaccine containing the amino acidic sequences of three epitopes with HLA-A2.1-binding motifs of TS, an enzyme overexpressed in cancer cells, which plays a crucial role in DNA repair and replication. Based on the results of preclinical studies, we designed a phase Ib trial (TSPP/VAC1) to investigate, in a dose escalation setting, the safety and the biological activity of TSPP vaccination alone (arm A) or in combination with GM-CSF and IL-2 (arm B) in cancer patients. Twenty-one pretreated metastatic cancer patients, with a good performance status (ECOG ≤ 1) and no severe organ failure or immunological disease, were enrolled in the study (12 in arm A, nine in arm B) between April 2011 and January 2012, with a median follow-up of 28 months. TSPP resulted safe, and its maximal tolerated dose was not achieved. No grade 4 toxicity was observed. The most common adverse events were grade 2 dermatological reactions to the vaccine injection, cough, rhinitis, fever, poly-arthralgia, gastro-enteric symptoms and, to a lesser extent, moderate hypertension and hypothyroidism. We detected a significant rise in auto-antibodies and TS-epitope-specific CTL precursors. Furthermore, TSPP showed antitumor activity in this group of pretreated patients; indeed, we recorded one partial response and seven disease stabilizations (SD) in arm A, and three SD in arm B. Taken together, our findings provide the framework for the evaluation of the TSPP anti-tumor activity in further disease-oriented clinical trials. PMID:26031574

  16. Cyclin E Transgenic Mice: Discovery Tools for Lung Cancer Biology, Therapy, and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Freemantle, Sarah J.; Dmitrovsky, Ethan

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States and many other countries. This fact underscores the need for clinically relevant models to increase our understanding of lung cancer biology and to help design and implement preventive and more-effective therapeutic interventions for lung cancer. New murine transgenic models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been engineered for this purpose. In one such model, overexpression of the cell-cycle regulator ...

  17. Use of noninsulin anti diabetics for prevention and treatment of cancer- narrative review article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Raana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence shows that cancer and diabetes are major causes of death in the world. Type2 diabetes increases the risk of cancer-specific mortality. This review relates diabetic therapies, diabetes and cancer.All published papers in this field were searched, looking into such databases as Science Direct, ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed and Scopus.In cancer patients, metformin improves patient outcome and reduces cancer risk. Sulfonylureas may increase risk of cancer, but decreased risk of cancer is associated with thiazolidinediones in type 2 diabetic subjects. Metformin lowers circulating insulin and it may be important for treatment of hyperinsulinemia-associated cancers, such as colon and breast cancer.However, laboratory investigations and large-scale population based studies are required for further investigation of association of cancer-preventive, anti-cancer and cancer-mortality of noninsulin antidiabetics.

  18. The antiarrhythmic peptide analog ZP123 prevents atrial conduction slowing during metabolic stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugan, Ketil; Olsen, Kristine Boisen; Hartvig, Line;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As atrial conduction slowing is important in the pathogenesis of atrial reentry arrhythmias, a drug that increases atrial conduction or prevents atrial conduction slowing could serve to prevent atrial reentry arrhythmias. In this study, we investigated whether the novel stable antiarrh...

  19. Cancer prevention as part of precision medicine: 'plenty to be done'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bernard W; Bray, Freddie; Forman, David; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Straif, Kurt; Ullrich, Andreas; Wild, Christopher P

    2016-01-01

    Cancer burden worldwide is projected to rise from 14 million new cases in 2012 to 24 million in 2035. Although the greatest increases will be in developing countries, where cancer services are already hard pressed, even the richest nations will struggle to meet demands of increasing patient numbers and spiralling treatment costs. No country can treat its way out of the cancer problem. Consequently, cancer control must combine improvements in treatment with greater emphasis on prevention and early detection. Cancer prevention is founded on describing the burden of cancer, identifying the causes and evaluating and implementing preventive interventions. Around 40-50% of cancers could be prevented if current knowledge about risk factors was translated into effective public health strategies. The benefits of prevention are attested to by major successes, for example, in tobacco control, vaccination against oncogenic viruses, reduced exposure to environmental and occupational carcinogens, and screening. Progress is still needed in areas such as weight control and physical activity. Fresh impetus for prevention and early detection will come through interdisciplinary approaches, encompassing knowledge and tools from advances in cancer biology. Examples include mutation profiles giving clues about aetiology and biomarkers for early detection, to stratify individuals for screening or for prognosis. However, cancer prevention requires a broad perspective stretching from the submicroscopic to the macropolitical, recognizing the importance of molecular profiling and multisectoral engagement across urban planning, transport, environment, agriculture, economics, etc., and applying interventions that may just as easily rely on a legislative measure as on a molecule. PMID:26590901

  20. Screening for Ovarian Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Screening for Ovarian Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement The full report is titled “Screening for Ovarian Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement.” ...

  1. Serum estrogen levels and prostate cancer risk in the prostate cancer prevention trial: a nested case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Song; Till, Cathee; Kristal, Alan R.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Hsing, Ann W.; Tangen, Catherine M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Reichardt, Juergen K. V.; Tang, Li; Neuhouser, Marian L; Santella, Regina M.; William D Figg; Price, Douglas K.; Parnes, Howard L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Finasteride reduces prostate cancer risk by blocking the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. However, whether finasteride affects estrogens levels or change in estrogens affects prostate cancer risk is unknown. Methods These questions were investigated in a case–control study nested within the prostate cancer prevention trial (PCPT) with 1,798 biopsy-proven prostate cancer cases and 1,798 matched controls. Results Among men on placebo, no relationship of serum estroge...

  2. HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPES 16, 18 AND 31 SEROSTATUS AND PROSTATE CANCER RISK IN THE PROSTATE CANCER PREVENTION TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Hoque, Ashraful M.; Hsing, Ann W.; Thompson, Ian M; Zenilman, Jonathan M; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Since human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was first identified as a risk factor for cervical cancer, several seroepidemiologic and tissue-based studies have investigated HPV in relation to prostate cancer, another common genitourinary malignancy, with mixed results. To further inform this potential association, we conducted a large, prospective investigation of HPV types 16, 18, and 31 in relation to risk of prostate cancer in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT). Cases were a sample ...

  3. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin carboxy-terminal fragment is a novel tumor-homing peptide for human ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of innovative, effective therapies against recurrent/chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer remains a high priority. Using high-throughput technologies to analyze genetic fingerprints of ovarian cancer, we have discovered extremely high expression of the genes encoding the proteins claudin-3 and claudin-4. Because claudin-3 and -4 are the epithelial receptors for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), and are sufficient to mediate CPE binding, in this study we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of the carboxy-terminal fragment of CPE (i.e., CPE290-319 binding peptide) as a carrier for tumor imaging agents and intracellular delivery of therapeutic drugs. Claudin-3 and -4 expression was examined with rt-PCR and flow cytometry in multiple primary ovarian carcinoma cell lines. Cell binding assays were used to assess the accuracy and specificity of the CPE peptide in vitro against primary chemotherapy-resistant ovarian carcinoma cell lines. Confocal microscopy and biodistribution assays were performed to evaluate the localization and uptake of the FITC-conjugated CPE peptide in established tumor tissue. Using a FITC-conjugated CPE peptide we show specific in vitro and in vivo binding to multiple primary chemotherapy resistant ovarian cancer cell lines. Bio-distribution studies in SCID mice harboring clinically relevant animal models of chemotherapy resistant ovarian carcinoma showed higher uptake of the peptide in tumor cells than in normal organs. Imunofluorescence was detectable within discrete accumulations (i.e., tumor spheroids) or even single chemotherapy resistant ovarian cancer cells floating in the ascites of xenografted animals while a time-dependent internalization of the FITC-conjugated CPE peptide was consistently noted in chemotherapy-resistant ovarian tumor cells by confocal microscopy. Based on the high levels of claudin-3 and -4 expression in chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer and other highly aggressive human epithelial

  4. Inhibition of discoidin domain receptor 2-mediated lung cancer cells progression by gold nanoparticle-aptamer-assisted delivery of peptides containing transmembrane-juxtamembrane 1/2 domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Daehwan; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Boeun; Lee, Kangseok [Department of Life Science, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jeehyeon, E-mail: jeehyeon@cau.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Sangmyung, E-mail: sangmyung.rhee@cau.ac.kr [Department of Life Science, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    The delivery of biologically functional peptides into mammalian cells can be a direct and effective method for cancer therapy and treatment of other diseases. Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is a collagen-induced receptor tyrosine kinase recently identified as a novel therapeutic target in lung cancer. In this study, we report that peptides containing the functional domain of DDR2 can be efficiently delivered into lung malignant cancer cells via a gold nanoparticle-DNA aptamer conjugate (AuNP-Apt)-based system. Peptide delivery resulted in the abrogation of DDR2 activation triggered by collagen. Moreover, the peptide delivered by the AuNP-Apt system inhibited cancer cell proliferation and invasion mediated by DDR2 activation. Thus, these results suggest that peptide loaded onto AuNP-Apt conjugates can be used for the development of peptide-based biomedical applications for the treatment of DDR2-positive cancer. - Highlights: • TM-JM1/2 peptides are efficiently delivered into cells by AuNP-Apt-conjugates. • TM-JM1/2 peptides loaded onto AuNP-Apt conjugates inhibit DDR2 activation. • Inhibition of DDR2 activation by TM-JM1/2 peptides decreases tumor progression.

  5. Inhibition of discoidin domain receptor 2-mediated lung cancer cells progression by gold nanoparticle-aptamer-assisted delivery of peptides containing transmembrane-juxtamembrane 1/2 domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The delivery of biologically functional peptides into mammalian cells can be a direct and effective method for cancer therapy and treatment of other diseases. Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is a collagen-induced receptor tyrosine kinase recently identified as a novel therapeutic target in lung cancer. In this study, we report that peptides containing the functional domain of DDR2 can be efficiently delivered into lung malignant cancer cells via a gold nanoparticle-DNA aptamer conjugate (AuNP-Apt)-based system. Peptide delivery resulted in the abrogation of DDR2 activation triggered by collagen. Moreover, the peptide delivered by the AuNP-Apt system inhibited cancer cell proliferation and invasion mediated by DDR2 activation. Thus, these results suggest that peptide loaded onto AuNP-Apt conjugates can be used for the development of peptide-based biomedical applications for the treatment of DDR2-positive cancer. - Highlights: • TM-JM1/2 peptides are efficiently delivered into cells by AuNP-Apt-conjugates. • TM-JM1/2 peptides loaded onto AuNP-Apt conjugates inhibit DDR2 activation. • Inhibition of DDR2 activation by TM-JM1/2 peptides decreases tumor progression

  6. Broad targeting of angiogenesis for cancer prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongwei; Dabrosin, Charlotta; Yin, Xin; Fuster, Mark M; Arreola, Alexandra; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Generali, Daniele; Nagaraju, Ganji P; El-Rayes, Bassel; Ribatti, Domenico; Chen, Yi Charlie; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Nowsheen, Somaira; Amedei, Amedeo; Niccolai, Elena; Amin, Amr; Ashraf, S Salman; Helferich, Bill; Yang, Xujuan; Guha, Gunjan; Bhakta, Dipita; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Aquilano, Katia; Chen, Sophie; Halicka, Dorota; Mohammed, Sulma I; Azmi, Asfar S; Bilsland, Alan; Keith, W Nicol; Jensen, Lasse D

    2015-12-01

    pathological tumor vasculature which would be well suited as targets for anti-angiogenic therapy: (1) endothelial cell migration/tip cell formation, (2) structural abnormalities of tumor vessels, (3) hypoxia, (4) lymphangiogenesis, (5) elevated interstitial fluid pressure, (6) poor perfusion, (7) disrupted circadian rhythms, (8) tumor promoting inflammation, (9) tumor promoting fibroblasts and (10) tumor cell metabolism/acidosis. Following this analysis, we scrutinized the available literature on broadly acting anti-angiogenic natural products, with a focus on finding qualitative information on phytochemicals which could inhibit these targets and came up with 10 prototypical phytochemical compounds: (1) oleanolic acid, (2) tripterine, (3) silibinin, (4) curcumin, (5) epigallocatechin-gallate, (6) kaempferol, (7) melatonin, (8) enterolactone, (9) withaferin A and (10) resveratrol. We suggest that these plant-derived compounds could be combined to constitute a broader acting and more effective inhibitory cocktail at doses that would not be likely to cause excessive toxicity. All the targets and phytochemical approaches were further cross-validated against their effects on other essential tumorigenic pathways (based on the "hallmarks" of cancer) in order to discover possible synergies or potentially harmful interactions, and were found to generally also have positive involvement in/effects on these other aspects of tumor biology. The aim is that this discussion could lead to the selection of combinations of such anti-angiogenic compounds which could be used in potent anti-tumor cocktails, for enhanced therapeutic efficacy, reduced toxicity and circumvention of single-agent anti-angiogenic resistance, as well as for possible use in primary or secondary cancer prevention strategies. PMID:25600295

  7. Toxicity study of antimicrobial peptides from wild bee venom and their analogs toward mammalian normal and cancer cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slaninová, Jiřina; Mlsová, V.; Kroupová, H.; Alán, Lukáš; Tůmová, Tereza; Monincová, Lenka; Borovičková, Lenka; Fučík, Vladimír; Čeřovský, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 1 (2012), s. 18-26. ISSN 0196-9781 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : antimicrobial peptides * venom * hymenoptera * cancer cells * toxicity * confocal microscopy Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.522, year: 2012

  8. Antiemetic Therapy With or Without Olanzapine in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients With Cancer Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase III trial studies antiemetic therapy with olanzapine to see how well they work compared to antiemetic therapy alone in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with cancer receiving highly emetogenic (causes vomiting) chemotherapy. Antiemetic drugs, such as palonosetron hydrochloride, ondansetron, and granisetron hydrochloride, may help lessen or prevent nausea and vomiting in patients treated with chemotherapy. |

  9. Co-expressed peptide receptors in breast cancer as a molecular basis for in vivo multireceptor tumour targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancers can express different types of peptide receptors such as somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and NPY(Y1) receptors. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate which is the most appropriate peptide receptor or peptide receptor combination for in vivo diagnostic and therapeutic targeting of breast cancers. Seventy-seven primary breast cancers and 15 breast cancer lymph node metastases were investigated in vitro for their expression of somatostatin, VPAC1, GRP and NPY(Y1) receptors using in vitro receptor autoradiography on successive tissue sections with 125I-[Tyr3]-octreotide, 125I-VIP, 125I-[Tyr4]-bombesin and 125I-[Leu31,Pro34]-PYY respectively. This study identified two groups of tumours: a group of 68 tumours (88%) with at least one receptor expressed at high density (>2,000 dpm/mg tissue) that may provide a strong predictive value for successful in vivo targeting, and a group of nine tumours (12%) with no receptors or only a low density of them (1) receptors, 25 (37%) expressed VPAC1 receptors and 14 (21%) expressed somatostatin receptors. Mean density was 9,819±530 dpm/mg tissue for GRP receptors, 9,135±579 dpm/mg for NPY(Y1) receptors, 4,337±528 dpm/mg for somatostatin receptors and 3,437±306 dpm/mg for VPAC1 receptors. It is of note that tumours expressing NPY(Y1) or GRP receptors, or both, were found in 63/68 (93%) cases. Lymph node metastases showed a similar receptor profile to the corresponding primary tumour. This in vitro study strongly suggests that the combination of radiolabelled GRP and Y1 analogues should allow targeting of breast carcinomas and their lymph node metastases for in vivo peptide receptor scintigraphy and radiotherapy. (orig.)

  10. Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Derived from Crocodylus siamensis Leukocyte Extract, Revealing Anticancer Activity and Apoptotic Induction on Human Cervical Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theansungnoen, Tinnakorn; Maijaroen, Surachai; Jangpromma, Nisachon; Yaraksa, Nualyai; Daduang, Sakda; Temsiripong, Theeranan; Daduang, Jureerut; Klaynongsruang, Sompong

    2016-06-01

    Known antimicrobial peptides KT2 and RT2 as well as the novel RP9 derived from the leukocyte extract of the freshwater crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) were used to evaluate the ability in killing human cervical cancer cells. RP9 in the extract was purified by a combination of anion exchange column and reversed-phase HPLC, and its sequence was analyzed by mass spectrometry. The novel peptide could inhibit Gram-negative Vibrio cholerae (clinical isolation) and Gram-positive Bacillus pumilus TISTR 905, and its MIC values were 61.2 µM. From scanning electron microscopy, the peptide was seen to affect bacterial surfaces directly. KT2 and RT2, which are designed antimicrobial peptides using the C. siamensis Leucrocin I template, as well as RP9 were chemically synthesized for investigation of anticancer activity. By Sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay, these antimicrobial peptides could inhibit both HeLa and CaSki cancer cell lines. The IC50 values of KT2 and RT2 for HeLa and CaSki cells showed 28.7-53.4 and 17.3-30.8 µM, while those of RP9 were 126.2 and 168.3 µM, respectively. Additionally, the best candidate peptides KT2 and RT2 were used to determine the apoptotic induction on cancer cells by human apoptosis array assay. As a result, KT2 and RT2 were observed to induce apoptotic cell death in HeLa cells. Therefore, these results indicate that KT2 and RT2 with antimicrobial activity have a highly potent ability to kill human cervical cancer cells. PMID:27129462

  11. Cancer chemoprevention by phytochemicals. Expectation for phytochemicals as preventive agents against radiation-induced carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is growing evidence from the studies using animal models that phytochemicals in plants have preventive effect on cancer induction, which is mediated by polyphenol anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory functions. Some phytochemicals such as curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate have been moved onto clinical trials. These phytochemicals are also expected to reduce the deleterious effect of radiation, and to be a powerful tool for the prevention of radiation carcinogenesis. In this review, we summarized the general concept of cancer chemoprevention and usefulness of phytochemicals as cancer preventive agents, and pointed out their possibilities for prevention of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. (author)

  12. Effectiveness of an Ongoing, Community-Based Breast Cancer Prevention Program for Korean American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun; Choi, Ga-Young; Cho, Ji Young

    2016-02-01

    The study evaluates the effectiveness of an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program offered by a local social services agency in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Korean American women who participated in this breast cancer prevention program were compared with those who did not participate in their knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors. The study found that the intervention group was more knowledgeable on breast cancer and related services and reported more positive attitudes toward breast cancer screening services than the comparison group. The participants in the intervention group were also more likely to plan to receive a mammogram than those in the comparison group. However, significant differences were not observed in the two groups in their intention to receive a clinical breast examination. The study findings suggest that an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program can be an effective method of addressing breast cancer prevention disparities observed among Korean American women. PMID:26946886

  13. Transformable Peptide Nanocarriers for Expeditious Drug Release and Effective Cancer Therapy via Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Tianjiao; Zhao, Ying; Ding, Yanping; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Ruifang; Lang, Jiayan; Qin, Hao; Liu, Xiaoman; Shi, Jian; Tao, Ning; Qin, Zhihai; Nie, Guangjun; Zhao, Yuliang

    2016-01-18

    A novel cleavable amphiphilic peptide (CAP) was designed to be specifically responsive to fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP-α), a protease specifically expressed on the surface of cancer-associated fibroblasts. The CAP self-assembled into fiber-like nanostructures in solution, while the presence of hydrophobic chemotherapeutic drugs readily transformed the assemblies into drug-loaded spherical nanoparticles. The disassembly of these nanoparticles (CAP-NPs) upon FAP-α cleavage resulted in rapid and efficient release of the encapsulated drugs specifically at tumor sites. This Transformers-like drug delivery strategy could allow them to disrupt the stromal barrier and enhance local drug accumulation. Therapeutic results suggested that drug-loaded CAP-NPs hold promising tumor specificity and therapeutic efficacy for various solid tumor models, confirming its potential utility and versatility in antitumor therapy. PMID:26283097

  14. Radiolabeling and evaluation of 64Cu-DOTA-F56 peptide targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 in the molecular imaging of gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hua; Zhao, Chuanke; Liu, Fei; Wang, Lixin; Feng, Junnan; Zhou, Zheng; Qu, Like; Shou, Chengchao; Yang, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) remains a great challenge in early diagnosis of gastric cancer. Here we reported the synthesis, radiolabeling, and evaluation of a novel 64Cu-radiolabeled peptide for noninvasive positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of VEGFR1 positive gastric cancer. The binding of modified peptide WHSDMEWWYLLG (termed as F56) to VEGER-1 expressed in gastric cancer cell BCG823 has been confirmed by immune-fluorescence overlap....

  15. A new peptide ligand for colon cancer targeted delivery of micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yachao; Mu, Yu; Song, Yanping; Xie, Jinxin; Yu, Hui; Gao, Sainan; Li, Sen; Peng, Haisheng; Zhou, Yulong; Lu, Weiyue

    2016-06-01

    Ligands are an imperative part of targeted drug delivery systems, and choosing a ligand with high affinity is a subject of considerable interest. In this study, we first synthesized a 12-residue peptide (TK) that interacts with integrin α6β1 overexpressed on colonic cancer cells. The molecular binding affinity assay indicated that TK had a high binding affinity for integrin α6β1. The results of cellular and tumor spheroid uptake suggested that TK peptide not only increases Caco-2 cells uptake, but also effectively increases penetration of the tumor spheroids. TK-conjugated PEG-PLA was synthesized to prepare a novel PEG-PLA micelles loading DOX or coumarin-6 (TK-MS/DOX or TK-MS/C6). The obtained TK-MS/DOX exhibited uniform, spherical shape with a size of 23.80 ± 0.32 nm and zeta potential of 12.21 ± 0.31 mV. The release behavior of DOX from micelles were observed no significant changes after TK modification, however, the release profile exhibited pH-sensitive properties. Compared with MS/DOX, TK-MS/DOX exhibited significantly stronger cytotoxicity for Caco-2. Confocal laser microscopy and flow cytometry data further indicated that the targeting micelles not only had higher uptake by Caco-2 cells, but also more effectively penetrated the tumor spheroids. Therefore, TK peptide appears to be suitable as a targeting ligand with potential applications in colonic targeted therapy. PMID:26289214

  16. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention.

  17. Fusion of cell-penetrating peptides to thermally responsive biopolymer improves tumor accumulation of p21 peptide in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker LR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leslie R Walker,1 Jung Su Ryu,1 Eddie Perkins,2 Lacey R McNally,3 Drazen Raucher1 1Department of Biochemistry, 2Department of Neurosurgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA; 3Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USAAbstract: Current therapies for the treatment of pancreatic cancer are limited. The limitations of this type of treatment are abundant. The majority of chemotherapeutic agents used in clinics are highly toxic to both tumor cells and normal tissues due to the lack of specificity. Resistance can develop due to overexposure of these agents. To address these issues, these agents must be made more exclusive toward the tumor site. We have developed a macromolecular carrier based on the sequence of the biopolymer elastin-like polypeptide (ELP that is able to aggregate upon reaching the externally heated tumor environment. This carrier is specific to the tumor as it only aggregates at the heated tumor site. ELP is soluble below its transition temperature but will aggregate when the temperature is raised above its transition temperature. ELP was modified by p21, a cell cycle inhibitory peptide, and the addition of Bac, a cell-penetrating peptide with nuclear localization capabilities. In this study, p21-ELP-Bac and its control, ELP-p21, were used in cell proliferation studies using the pancreatic cancer cell lines Panc-1, MiaPaca-2, and S2013. ELP-p21 had little effect on proliferation, while the half maximal inhibitory concentration of p21-ELP-Bac was ~30 µM. As translocation across the plasma membrane is a limiting step for delivery of macromolecules, these polypeptides were utilized in a pancreatic xenograft model to study the plasma clearance, biodistribution, tumor accumulation, and tumor reduction capabilities of the polypeptide with and without a cell-penetrating peptide.Keywords: elastin-like polypeptide, peptide, targeted drug delivery, macromolecule

  18. Long-term survival of participants in the prostate cancer prevention trial

    OpenAIRE

    Silberstein, Jonathan L.; Sartor, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) is a seminal study in the field of urology. More than 10 years after its initial publication, updated data from this trial continue to shape our understanding of prostate cancer. Among the major findings from the PCPT has been the demonstration that prostate cancer is common in men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) once thought to be in the normal range,1 finasteride prevents the development of benign prostatic hypertrophy,2 it increases the sens...

  19. Measuring Health Belief Model components in adopting preventive behaviors of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Namdar; Shiva Bigizadeh; Mohammad Mehdi Naghizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Background & Objective: Cervical cancer is the second prevalent women cancer in the world. This cancer is found preventable because of having the prolong time before the appearance, its complications and the available proper screening program and possibility of the primary lesion treatment. Since the Health Belief Model is one of the applicable praxeology model in health education to prevent and control of diseases. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the Health Belief Model componen...

  20. A NATURAL WAY TO CANCER PREVENTION AND THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Anupama Sharma; Renu Bist; Poonam

    2013-01-01

    In economically developing countries, the global burden of cancer persists to increase chiefly because of the aging and growth of the world population along with an increasing implementation of cancercausing behaviors, particularly smoking, physical inactivity and fast food. Cancer group accounts approximately 13% of all deaths each year with the most common being: lung cancer (1.3 million deaths), stomach cancer (803,000 deaths), colorectal cancer (639,000 deaths), liver cancer (610,000 deat...

  1. Oral Mucositis Prevention and Management by Therapeutic Laser in Head and Neck Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Fekrazad, Reza; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Oral mucositis is considered a severe complication in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy for head and neck cancer. The aim of this review study was to assess the effect of low level laser therapy for prevention and management of oral mucositis in cancer patients.

  2. American Society of Clinical Oncology Statement: Human Papillomavirus Vaccination for Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Howard H; Chuang, Linus T; duPont, Nefertiti C; Eng, Cathy; Foxhall, Lewis E; Merrill, Janette K; Wollins, Dana S; Blanke, Charles D

    2016-05-20

    American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the leading medical professional oncology society, is committed to lessening the burden of cancer and as such will promote underused interventions that have the potential to save millions of lives through cancer prevention. As the main providers of cancer care worldwide, our patients, their families, and our communities look to us for guidance regarding all things cancer related, including cancer prevention. Through this statement and accompanying recommendations, ASCO hopes to increase awareness of the tremendous global impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) -caused cancers, refocus the discussion of HPV vaccination on its likely ability to prevent millions of cancer deaths, and increase HPV vaccination uptake via greater involvement of oncology professionals in ensuring accurate public discourse about HPV vaccination and calling for the implementation of concrete strategies to address barriers to vaccine access and acceptance. PMID:27069078

  3. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor overexpression in cancer and its impact on clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike eKörner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptide hormones of the glucagon-like peptide (GLP family play an increasing clinical role, such as GLP-1 in diabetes therapy. Moreover, GLP receptors are over-expressed in various human tumor types and therefore represent molecular targets for important clinical applications. In particular, virtually all benign insulinomas highly over-express GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R. Targeting GLP-1R with the stable GLP-1 analogs 111In-DOTA/ DPTA-exendin-4 offers a new approach to successfully localize these small tumors. This non-invasive technique has the potential to replace the invasive localization of insulinomas by selective arterial stimulation and venous sampling. Malignant insulinomas, in contrast to their benign counterparts, express GLP-1R in only one third of the cases, while they more often express the somatostatin type 2 receptors. Importantly, one of the two receptors appears to be always expressed in malignant insulinomas. The GLP-1R overexpression in selected cancers is worth to be kept in mind with regard to the increasing use of GLP-1 analogs for diabetes therapy. While the functional role of GLP-1R in neoplasia is not known yet, it may be safe to monitore patients undergoing GLP-1 therapy carefully.

  4. The art of casting nets: fishing for the prize of personalized cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, David J; Chiang, Emily C; Bostwick, David G

    2008-01-01

    Now, more than ever, there is great need for personalized cancer prevention. We define personalized cancer prevention as a strategy that will enable each person to reduce his or her risk for lethal cancer by matching the dose, duration, and timing of an intervention with their own cancer risk profile. Most research studies provide us with data on the average person. But who is the average person anyway? The central tenet of personalized cancer prevention is that average is overrated. In this article, we frame what are the major obstacles to developing personalized cancer-reducing interventions: the lack of validated, non-invasive stratifiers of risk; the U-shaped dose response between cancer-fighting nutrients (e.g., selenium) and DNA damage, meaning that more of a good thing is not necessarily a good thing; the relatively brief duration of interventions evaluated in human prevention trials; the challenge of finding populations in which the impact of early life interventions on the incidence of cancers affecting older adults can be studied; and the interindividual differences in gene expression that may influence a person's response to a particular nutrient. Moreover, we contend that those who study personalized cancer prevention will need a unique constellation of expertise, including an understanding of cancer and aging, a passion for prevention, and proven health communication skills. We propose that becoming cross-trained in cancer and aging and taking more responsibility for communicating health-related research to the public in the proper context are two of the most important ways scientists can move us all closer to the goal of personalized cancer prevention. Every fisherman knows that where he casts his net determines his catch. Now, we ask: When it comes to solving the cancer problem, where should we be casting our nets? PMID:18444129

  5. Disparity in cancer prevention and screening in aboriginal populations: recommendations for action

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, S; Shahid, R.K; Episkenew, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, cancer has occurred at a lower rate in aboriginal populations; however, it is now dramatically increasing. Unless preventive measures are taken, cancer rates among aboriginal peoples are expected to soon surpass those in non-aboriginal populations. Because a large proportion of malignant disorders are preventable, primary prevention through socioeconomic interventions, environmental changes, and lifestyle modification might provide the best option for reducing the increasing bur...

  6. Health-related knowledge of primary prevention of cancer in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana Rute; Silva, Susana; Moura-Ferreira, Pedro; Villaverde-Cabral, Manuel; Santos, Osvaldo; do Carmo, Isabel; Barros, Henrique; Lunet, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of new cases of cancer highlights the relevance of primary prevention for cancer control, which is influenced, among other factors, by the population's health-related knowledge. Therefore, we aimed to describe cancer-related knowledge in Portugal, including perception of risk, awareness of cancer causes and preventive behaviours. We evaluated 1624 Portuguese-speaking dwellers, aged between 16 and 79 years, through face-to-face interviews conducted using a structured questionnaire. We computed adjusted (sex, age, education) regression coefficients and prevalence ratios, using linear and Poisson regression, respectively, to quantify associations with cancer-specific knowledge. The proportions of nonresponse ranged from 13.4 to 63.5% for the most frequent cancer in Portugal and the leading cause of cancer, respectively. The mean of the estimated lifetime risk of cancer in the Portuguese population was 37.0%. A total of 47.5% of the respondents identified breast cancer as the most frequent in Portugal, 72.0% named lifestyles as the leading cause of cancer and 40.2% selected not smoking as the most important preventive behaviour. Lower levels of education were associated with higher proportions of nonresponse, but not consistently with inaccurate knowledge. Men provided lower estimates of the lifetime risk of cancer, indicated breast cancer less frequently and more often lung cancer as the most frequent, and were more likely to select not smoking as the most important preventive behaviour. The present study provides relevant data on knowledge of cancer prevention, which may be used for the planning and evaluation of awareness-raising and primary prevention interventions in Portugal. PMID:25642793

  7. A NATURAL WAY TO CANCER PREVENTION AND THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Sharma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In economically developing countries, the global burden of cancer persists to increase chiefly because of the aging and growth of the world population along with an increasing implementation of cancercausing behaviors, particularly smoking, physical inactivity and fast food. Cancer group accounts approximately 13% of all deaths each year with the most common being: lung cancer (1.3 million deaths, stomach cancer (803,000 deaths, colorectal cancer (639,000 deaths, liver cancer (610,000 deaths, and breast cancer (519,000 deaths. In India, the rate of oral, oesophagus and cervical cancers are some highest in the world according to 2011 Statistics. Various treatments are used to cure some cancers, but the battle against this disease is ongoing. The source of biologically active compounds originally isolated from plants. These natural compounds can acts as anti cancerous agents. Hence, the current study focuses on the use of 15 different natural products in the treatment of cancer.

  8. Association of serum C-peptide concentrations with cancer mortality risk in pre-diabetes or undiagnosed diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Neng Hsu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Known associations between diabetes and cancer could logically be attributed to hyperglycemia, hypersecretion of insulin, and/or insulin resistance. This study examined the relationship between initial glycemic biomarkers among men and women with impaired fasting glucose or undiagnosed diabetes and cancer mortality during follow up. METHODS: The cohort included subjects aged 40 years and above from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III with fasted serum glucose >100 mg/dl without the aid of pharmaceutical intervention (insulin or oral hypoglycemics. Cancer mortality was obtained from the NHANES III-linked follow-up database (up to December 31, 2006. A Cox regression model was applied to test for the associations between cancer mortality and fasting serum glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, C-peptide, insulin like growth factor (IGF-1, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3 and estimated insulin resistance. RESULTS: A total of 158 and 100 cancer deaths were recorded respectively from 1,348 men and 1,161 women during the mean 134-month follow-up. After adjusting for the effect of age and smoking in women, all-cause cancer deaths (HR: 1.96 per pmol/ml, 95% CI: 1.02-3.77 and lung cancer deaths (HR: 2.65 per pmol/ml, 95% CI: 1.31-5.36 were specifically associated with serum C-peptide concentrations. Similar associations in men were not statistically significant. Serum glucose, HbA1c, IGF-1, IGFBP3 and HOMA were not independently related to long-term cancer mortality. CONCLUSION: C-peptide analyses suggest a modest association with both all-cause and lung cancer mortality in women but not in men. Further studies will be required to explore the mechanisms.

  9. Estrogens and Prostate Cancer: Etiology, Mediators, Prevention, and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shuk-Mei; Lee, Ming-tsung; Lam, Hung-Ming; Leung, Yuet-Kin

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between hormones and the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa) has been studied extensively. All the mainstay targets for hormonal PCa therapies are based on negating androgen action. Recent epidemiologic and experimental data have clearly pinpointed the key roles of estrogens in PCa development and progression. Racial and geographical differences, as well as age-associated changes, in estrogen synthesis and metabolism contribute significantly to the etiology by increasing the ratio of circulating estrogen to androgen, sex hormone binding globulin synthesis, and aromatase activity and reducing androgen glucuronidation and tissue bioactivation. Promotion of aberrant cell growth, evasion of apoptosis, increased oxidative stress and inflammation, and gains in adiposity and bioactivation to genotoxic carcinogens during adulthood are probable mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenicity, while “estrogen imprinting” via epigenetics in early-life also determines PCa risk. Although the effects of estrogens are known to be mediated by genomic actions of the two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes (ERα and ERβ), other non-canonical mediators, including the different ERβ isoforms, membrane and mitochondrial ERs, and G protein-coupled receptor 30, may have major actions diverging from classical ER actions. These new discoveries have led to renewed interest among the public and the medicinal field in estrogens and antiestrogens as singular and adjuvant PCa treatment and prevention regimens. This review summarizes current knowledge on how different estrogens/antiestrogens/estrogen mimics contribute to prostate carcinogenesis, the roles of the different mediators of estrogen in the process, and the potentials of new estrogenic/antiestrogenic compounds as targeted therapies for prevention and treatment of PCa. PMID:21889723

  10. Emerging roles of the host defense peptide LL-37 in human cancer and its potential therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, William K K; Wang, Guangshun; Coffelt, Seth B; Betancourt, Aline M; Lee, Chung W; Fan, Daiming; Wu, Kaichun; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph J Y; Cho, Chi H

    2010-10-15

    Human cathelicidin LL-37, a host defense peptide derived from leukocytes and epithelial cells, plays a crucial role in innate and adaptive immunity. Not only does LL-37 eliminate pathogenic microbes directly but also modulates host immune responses. Emerging evidence from tumor biology studies indicates that LL-37 plays a prominent and complex role in carcinogenesis. Although overexpression of LL-37 has been implicated in the development or progression of many human malignancies, including breast, ovarian and lung cancers, LL-37 suppresses tumorigenesis in gastric cancer. These data are beginning to unveil the intricate and contradictory functions of LL-37. The reasons for the tissue-specific function of LL-37 in carcinogenesis remain to be elucidated. Here, we review the relationship between LL-37, its fragments and cancer progression as well as discuss the potential therapeutic implications of targeting this peptide. PMID:20521250

  11. Radio-peptides targeting g-protein coupled receptors in cancer: from bench to bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. In the development of targeted imaging and therapy agents the most important challenge and prerequisite is to identify and validate the molecular targets of any disease. The targets should be specific, relevant, easily accessible and highly expressed. In addition they should have no or at least very low expression in normal tissue. Among the many drug targets is the large family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). It is the most important family of marketed drugs and the basic accomplishments in the field were recognised by the award of the recent Nobel price in chemistry. GPCRs also play a role in cancer. Several of these receptors are massively over-expressed in different human tumors such as neuroendocrine tumors (over-expression of the somatostatin receptor family), prostate and breast tumors (bombesin receptor family), brain tumors (NK1 receptor) etc.. This allows to develop (nuclear, MRI, optical) probes for imaging and potentially targeted therapy (theragnostics). Natural ligands targeting GPCRs are often peptides. They need to be modified for metabolic stability, modified for labeling with radio-metals (conjugation of bifunctional chelators) or radio-halogens (prosthetic groups). Preserved biological integrity after modification and labeling needs to be assured, long retention times in the tumor is important, conferred by internalisation. Radio-metal labeling in particular needs to be reasonably fast and the radio metal complexes have to show high stability with regard to radio-metal release. These prerequisites will be discussed for somatostatin receptor based radio-peptides in particular. For a successful clinical application preclinical imaging and biodistribution in adequate animal models are mandatory. New tracers for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) will be presented for neuroendocrine tumors and prostate cancer. In particular radiolabeled antagonists will

  12. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of gastrointestinal cancers (Letter)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G;

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress can cause cancer. Our aim was to establish whether antioxidant supplements reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer and mortality.......Oxidative stress can cause cancer. Our aim was to establish whether antioxidant supplements reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer and mortality....

  13. Geocoding and Social Marketing in Alabama’s Cancer Prevention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianna W. Miner, MPH

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH is collaborating with the National Cancer Institute to develop detailed profiles of underserved Alabama communities most at risk for cancer. These profiles will be combined with geocoded data to create a pilot project, Cancer Prevention for Alabama’s Underserved Populations: A Focused Approach. The project's objectives are to provide the ADPH's cancer prevention programs with a more accurate and cost-effective means of planning, implementing, and evaluating its prevention activities in an outcomes-oriented and population-appropriate manner. The project links geocoded data from the Alabama Statewide Cancer Registry with profiles generated by the National Cancer Institute’s cancer profiling system, Consumer Health Profiles. These profiles have been successfully applied to market-focused cancer prevention messages across the United States. The ADPH and the National Cancer Institute will evaluate the efficacy of using geocoded data and lifestyle segmentation information in strategy development and program implementation. Alabama is the first state in the nation not only to link geocoded cancer registry data with lifestyle segmentation data but also to use the National Cancer Institute’s profiles and methodology in combination with actual state data.

  14. Minimizing the cancer-promotional activity of cox-2 as a central strategy in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    factors such as IGF-I increase cox-2 expression by several complementary mechanisms; hence, decreased cox-2 activity may play a role in the remarkably low mortality from "Western" cancers enjoyed by Third World cultures in which systemic growth factor activity was minimized by quasi-vegan diets complemented by leanness and excellent muscle insulin sensitivity. Practical strategies for achieving a modest degree of calorie restriction may also have potential for down-regulating cox-2 expression while decreasing cancer risk. Soy isoflavones, linked to reduced cancer risk in Asian epidemiology, may suppress cox-2 induction by activating ERbeta. In aggregate, these considerations suggest that a comprehensive lifestyle strategy targeting cox-2 expression and bioactivity may have tremendous potential for cancer prevention. PMID:22001128

  15. Spontaneous T-cell responses against peptides derived from the Taxol resistance-associated gene-3 (TRAG-3) protein in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Anders; Hadrup, Sine Reker; Svane, Inge Marie;

    2005-01-01

    Expression of the cancer-testis antigen Taxol resistance - associated gene-3 (TRAG-3) protein is associated with acquired paclitaxel ( Taxol) resistance, and is expressed in various cancer types; e. g., breast cancer, leukemia, and melanoma. Thus, TRAG-3 represents an attractive target for...... immunotherapy of cancer. To identify HLA-A* 02.01 - restricted epitopes from TRAG-3, we screened cancer patients for spontaneous cytotoxic T-cell responses against TRAG-3 - derived peptides. The TRAG-3 protein sequence was screened for 9mer and 10mer peptides possessing HLA-A* 02.01 - binding motifs. Of 12...... potential binders, 9 peptides were indeed capable of binding to the HLA-A* 02.01 molecule, with binding affinities ranging from strong to weak binders. Subsequently, lymphocytes from cancer patients ( 9 breast cancer patients, 12 melanoma patients, and 13 patients with hematopoietic malignancies) were...

  16. Models For Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: Problems vs Promises

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Danda, Divya; Gupta, Shan; Gehlot, Prashasnika

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates from the American Cancer Society and from the International Union Against Cancer indicate that 12 million cases of cancer were diagnosed last year, with 7 million deaths worldwide; these numbers are expected to double by 2030 (27 million cases with 17 million deaths). Despite tremendous technological developments in all areas, and President Richard Nixon’s initiative in the 1974 “War against Cancer”, the US cancer incidence is the highest in the world and the cancer death ra...

  17. Effect of Carrot Intake in the Prevention of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Jalali, Ali; MOMAYYEZI, MAHDIEH; Bazm, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality, with the incidence and mortality being higher in men than in women. Various studies have shown that eating carrots may play a major role in the prevention of gastric cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the relationship between carrot consumption and gastric cancer. Materials and Methods We searched multiple databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Persian databases like...

  18. Vitamin D: Are We Ready to Supplement for Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment?

    OpenAIRE

    Crew, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a potentially modifiable risk factor that may be targeted for breast cancer prevention and treatment. Preclinical studies support various antitumor effects of vitamin D in breast cancer. Numerous observational studies have reported an inverse association between vitamin D status, including circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, and breast cancer risk. The relationship between vitamin D and mammographic density, a strong predictor of breast cancer risk, remai...

  19. Targeting Cyclin-Dependent Kinases in Human Cancers: From Small Molecules to Peptide Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Peyressatre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK/Cyclins form a family of heterodimeric kinases that play central roles in regulation of cell cycle progression, transcription and other major biological processes including neuronal differentiation and metabolism. Constitutive or deregulated hyperactivity of these kinases due to amplification, overexpression or mutation of cyclins or CDK, contributes to proliferation of cancer cells, and aberrant activity of these kinases has been reported in a wide variety of human cancers. These kinases therefore constitute biomarkers of proliferation and attractive pharmacological targets for development of anticancer therapeutics. The structural features of several of these kinases have been elucidated and their molecular mechanisms of regulation characterized in depth, providing clues for development of drugs and inhibitors to disrupt their function. However, like most other kinases, they constitute a challenging class of therapeutic targets due to their highly conserved structural features and ATP-binding pocket. Notwithstanding, several classes of inhibitors have been discovered from natural sources, and small molecule derivatives have been synthesized through rational, structure-guided approaches or identified in high throughput screens. The larger part of these inhibitors target ATP pockets, but a growing number of peptides targeting protein/protein interfaces are being proposed, and a small number of compounds targeting allosteric sites have been reported.

  20. The BRCA1/2 pathway prevents hematologic cancers in addition to breast and ovarian cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that inactivation of virtually any component within the pathway containing the BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins would increase the risks for lymphomas and leukemias. In people who do not have BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations, the encoded proteins prevent breast/ovarian cancer. However BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins have multiple functions including participating in a pathway that mediates repair of DNA double strand breaks by error-free methods. Inactivation of BRCA1, BRCA2 or any other critical protein within this 'BRCA pathway' due to a gene mutation should inactivate this error-free repair process. DNA fragments produced by double strand breaks are then left to non-specific processes that rejoin them without regard for preserving normal gene regulation or function, so rearrangements of DNA segments are more likely. These kinds of rearrangements are typically associated with some lymphomas and leukemias. Literature searches produced about 2500 epidemiology and basic science articles related to the BRCA pathway. These articles were reviewed and copied to a database to facilitate access. Meta-analyses of statistical information compared risks for hematologic cancers vs. mutations for the components in a model pathway containing BRCA1/2 gene products. Deleterious mutations of genes encoding proteins virtually anywhere within the BRCA pathway increased risks up to nearly 2000 fold for certain leukemias and lymphomas. Cancers with large increases in risk included mantle cell lymphoma, acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and prolymphocytic leukemia. Mantle cell lymphoma is defined by a characteristic rearrangement of DNA fragments interchanged between chromosomes 11 and 14. DNA translocations or rearrangements also occur in significant percentages of the other cancers. An important function of the BRCA pathway is to prevent a subgroup of human leukemias and lymphomas that may

  1. In Vivo Stabilization of a Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Antagonist Enhances PET Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy of Prostate Cancer in Preclinical Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Chatalic, Kristell L.S.; Konijnenberg, Mark; Nonnekens, Julie; de Blois, Erik; Hoeben, Sander; Ridder, Corrina; Brunel, Luc; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Martinez, Jean; van Gent, Dik C.; Nock, Berthold A; Maina, Theodosia; van Weerden, Wytske M.; de Jong, Marion

    2016-01-01

    A single tool for early detection, accurate staging, and personalized treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) would be a major breakthrough in the field of PCa. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) targeting peptides are promising probes for a theranostic approach for PCa overexpressing GRPR. However, the successful application of small peptides in a theranostic approach is often hampered by their fast in vivo degradation by proteolytic enzymes, such as neutral endopeptidase (NEP). Here we sh...

  2. Evaluation of changes in the attitudes and behaviors of relatives of lung cancer patients toward cancer prevention and screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Koca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer diagnosis affects all the relatives living with the patient; however, whether the behavior of family members changes or not is unknown. To end this we evaluated the relatives of lung cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Forty-one questions were used to collect data from the relatives of lung cancer patients who had been living with them for at least one year, to evaluate changes in their attitudes and behaviors related to cancer prevention. Results: The study included 246 lung cancer patients′ relatives, of them 172 (69.9% were women and 74 (30.1% were men. The median age was 46 years (range: 20-83 years. Patients and their relatives had been living together for an average of 28 years (range: 1-68 years, and 88 (35.7% of the patients′ relatives were their children. We found changes in the attitudes and behaviors toward prevention and screening for cancer in 92 (37.4% of the relatives. Fifty-two (21.1% of them changed their smoking habits, 34 (13.8% altered their eating habits, 25 (10.2% changed their exercise habits, 13 (5.3% visited a doctor due to a suspicion of having cancer, 12 (4.9% changed their lifestyles, seven (2.8% underwent cancer screening tests, three (1.2% started using alternative medicines, and three (1.2% started using vitamins for cancer prevention. Conclusions: Important changes occur in the attitudes and behaviors of patients′ relatives toward cancer prevention and screening after the patients are diagnosed with lung cancer. Being aware of how patients′ relatives react to a family member′s cancer diagnosis may provide healthcare professionals with more incentive to address the relatives′ special needs.

  3. Histone deacetylase inhibition prevents the impairing effects of hippocampal gastrin-releasing peptide receptor antagonism on memory consolidation and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Fernanda S; Dornelles, Arethuza S; Lichtenfels, Martina; Valiati, Fernanda E; de Farias, Caroline Brunetto; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Parent, Marise B; Roesler, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    Hippocampal gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) regulate memory formation and extinction, and disturbances in GRPR signaling may contribute to cognitive impairment associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Histone acetylation is an important epigenetic mechanism that regulates gene expression involved in memory formation, and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) rescue memory deficits in several models. The present study determined whether inhibiting histone deacetylation would prevent memory impairments produced by GRPR blockade in the hippocampus. Male Wistar rats were given an intrahippocampal infusion of saline (SAL) or the HDACi sodium butyrate (NaB) shortly before inhibitory avoidance (IA) training, followed by an infusion of either SAL or the selective GRPR antagonist RC-3095 immediately after training. In a second experiment, the infusions were administered before and after a retention test trial that served as extinction training. As expected, RC-3095 significantly impaired consolidation and extinction of IA memory. More importantly, pretraining administration of NaB, at a dose that had no effect when given alone, prevented the effects of RC-3095. In addition, the combination of NaB and RC-3095 increased hippocampal levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These findings indicate that HDAC inhibition can protect against memory impairment caused by GRPR blockade. PMID:27025446

  4. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide peptide prevents renal ischemia reperfusion injury via counteracting oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dandan; Wang, Hongkai; Liu, Ming; Li, Xuechen; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Hong; Lin, Shuqian; Lin, Zhibin; Yang, Baoxue

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide peptide (GLPP) scavenges oxygen free radicals that are a key factor in the pathogenesis of renal ischemia reperfusion injury (RIRI). The aim of this study was to determine whether GLPP could attenuate RIRI by counteracting the oxidative stress. The mechanism involved was assessed by an in vivo mouse RIRI model and an in vitro hypoxia/reoxygenation model, and tunicamycin-stimulated NRK-52E cells were used to explore the GLPP-mediated alleviation of ER stress. Experimental results showed that renal dysfunction and morphological damage were reduced in GLPP-treated group. The imbalance of redox status was reversed and production of ROS was reduced by GLPP. RIRI-induced mitochondrial- and ER stress-dependent apoptosis were dramatically inhibited in GLPP-treated group. Intriguingly, JNK activation in the kidney with RIRI or hypoxia/reoxygenation was inhibited by GLPP. These results suggest that the protective effect of GLPP against RIRI may be due to reducing oxidative stress, alleviating the mitochondrial and ER stress-dependent apoptosis caused by excessive ROS. PMID:26603550

  5. Global epidemiology, risk factors and prevention of oral cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Newell Johnson

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Globacan [2002] database from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, shows 400,318 cases of oral and pharyngeal [excluding nasopharynx] cancer in the world annually, and 221,917 deaths.

  6. Estrogen receptor prevents p53-dependent apoptosis in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Shannon T.; Shin, Hyunjin; Westerling, Thomas; Liu, Xiaole Shirley; Brown, Myles

    2012-01-01

    More than two-thirds of breast cancers express the estrogen receptor (ER) and depend on estrogen for growth and survival. Therapies targeting ER function, including aromatase inhibitors that block the production of estrogens and ER antagonists that alter ER transcriptional activity, play a central role in the treatment of ER+ breast cancers of all stages. In contrast to ER− breast cancers, which frequently harbor mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor, ER+ breast cancers are predominantly wild...

  7. Inhibition of Stat3 by peptide aptamer rS3-PA enhances growth suppressive effects of irinotecan on colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Axel; Borghouts, Corina; Delis, Natalia; Mack, Laura; Brill, Boris; Bernard, Anne-Charlotte; Coqueret, Olivier; Groner, Bernd

    2012-06-01

    Abstract Cytotoxic agents, alone or in combination, are being used in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Despite progress in the therapeutic regimes, this common malignancy is still the cause of considerable morbidity and mortality, and further improvements are required. Cancer cells often exhibit intrinsic resistance against chemotherapeutic agents or they develop resistance over the time of treatment. Several mechanisms have been made responsible, e.g., drugs may fail to reach tumor cells or drugs may fail to elicit cytotoxicity. The molecular characterization of drug resistance in cancer cells may lead to strategies to overcome it and enhance the sensitivity to chemotherapy. Irinotecan is one of the main treatments of colorectal cancer; it is converted into its active metabolite SN38 and acts as a topoisomerase I inhibitor. Inhibition of this enzyme prevents DNA relegation following uncoiling. Irinotecan has been used as a chemotherapeutic agent either as a single agent or in combination with 5-fluorouracil and targeted therapies directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor, such as cetuximab. The transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is a member of the signal transducer and activator of transcription protein family. Its persistent activation is found in tumor cells and has been associated with drug and radiation resistance. The treatment of colorectal cancer cells with irinotecan leads to senescence or apoptosis following DNA double-strand break induction. This process is impaired by the activation of Stat3. We have derived a Stat3 specific peptide aptamer [recombinant Stat3 inhibitory peptide aptamer (rS3-PA)] that recognizes the dimerization domain of Stat3 and effectively inhibits its function. The delivery of rS3-PA into colon cancer cells and the resulting inhibition of Stat3 strongly enhanced the cytotoxic action of SN38. These data show that the targeted inhibition of Stat3 decreases drug resistance and

  8. The Effect of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide with iRGD Peptide on the Labeling of Pancreatic Cancer Cells In Vitro: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Dong Zuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The iRGD peptide loaded with iron oxide nanoparticles for tumor targeting and tissue penetration was developed for targeted tumor therapy and ultrasensitive MR imaging. Binding of iRGD, a tumor homing peptide, is mediated by integrins, which are widely expressed on the surface of cells. Several types of small molecular drugs and nanoparticles can be transfected into cells with the help of iRGD peptide. Thus, we postulate that SPIO nanoparticles, which have good biocompatibility, can also be transfected into cells using iRGD. Despite the many kinds of cell labeling studies that have been performed with SPIO nanoparticles and RGD peptide or its analogues, only a few have applied SPIO nanoparticles with iRGD peptide in pancreatic cancer cells. This paper reports our preliminary findings regarding the effect of iRGD peptide (CRGDK/RGPD/EC combined with SPIO on the labeling of pancreatic cancer cells. The results suggest that SPIO with iRGD peptide can enhance the positive labeling rate of cells and the uptake of SPIO. Optimal functionalization was achieved with the appropriate concentration or concentration range of SPIO and iRGD peptide. This study describes a simple and economical protocol to label panc-1 cells using SPIO in combination with iRGD peptide and may provide a useful method to improve the sensitivity of pancreatic cancer imaging.

  9. Independent Association of Postdoctoral Training with Subsequent Careers in Cancer Prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Faupel-Badger

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the career paths of alumni from the National Cancer Institute (NCI Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP, a structured in-house postdoctoral training program of 3-4 years duration, and specifically what proportion of the alumni were currently performing cancer prevention-related activities. The analyses here included 119 CPFP alumni and 85 unsuccessful CPFP applicants, all of whom completed postdoctoral training between 1987-2011 and are currently employed. Postdoctoral training experiences and current career outcomes data were collected via online surveys. Differences between groups were assessed using chi-square and Fisher's exact test p-values and subsequent regression analyses adjusted for differences between the groups. Compared to 15.3% of unsuccessful CPFP applicants, 52.1% of CPFP alumni (odds ratio [OR] = 4.99, 95% confidence interval [95% CI: 1.91-13.0 were currently spending the majority of their time working in cancer prevention. Among those doing any cancer prevention-focused work, 54.3% of CPFP alumni spent the majority of their time performing cancer prevention research activities when compared to 25.5% of unsuccessful applicants (OR = 4.26, 95% CI: 1.38-13.2. In addition to the independent effect of the NCI CPFP, scientific discipline, and employment sector were also associated with currently working in cancer prevention and involvement in cancer prevention research-related activities. These results from a structured postdoctoral training program are relevant not only to the cancer prevention community but also to those interested in evaluating alignment of postdoctoral training programs with available and desired career paths more broadly.

  10. Independent Association of Postdoctoral Training with Subsequent Careers in Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica M.; Nelson, David E.; Izmirlian, Grant; Ross, Katherine H.; Raue, Kimberley; Tsakraklides, Sophia; Miyaoka, Atsushi; Spiegelman, Maura

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the career paths of alumni from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP), a structured in-house postdoctoral training program of 3–4 years duration, and specifically what proportion of the alumni were currently performing cancer prevention-related activities. The analyses here included 119 CPFP alumni and 85 unsuccessful CPFP applicants, all of whom completed postdoctoral training between 1987–2011 and are currently employed. Postdoctoral training experiences and current career outcomes data were collected via online surveys. Differences between groups were assessed using chi-square and Fisher’s exact test p-values and subsequent regression analyses adjusted for differences between the groups. Compared to 15.3% of unsuccessful CPFP applicants, 52.1% of CPFP alumni (odds ratio [OR] = 4.99, 95% confidence interval [95% CI): 1.91–13.0) were currently spending the majority of their time working in cancer prevention. Among those doing any cancer prevention-focused work, 54.3% of CPFP alumni spent the majority of their time performing cancer prevention research activities when compared to 25.5% of unsuccessful applicants (OR = 4.26, 95% CI: 1.38–13.2). In addition to the independent effect of the NCI CPFP, scientific discipline, and employment sector were also associated with currently working in cancer prevention and involvement in cancer prevention research-related activities. These results from a structured postdoctoral training program are relevant not only to the cancer prevention community but also to those interested in evaluating alignment of postdoctoral training programs with available and desired career paths more broadly. PMID:26659381

  11. Knowledge and views of secondary school students in Kuala Lumpur on cervical cancer and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashwan, Hesham; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Sawalludin, Nurhidayah

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in women worldwide. Persistent infection with a human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause for cervical cancer. Vaccination and Pap smear screening are the best methods for prevention of the disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge and views of upper secondary school female students in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, toward prevention of cervical cancer. This study was conducted from April 2009 to September 2009 in 8 schools in Kuala Lumpur area using pre-tested and validated questionnaires. Results indicated that the respondents had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention although the majority of students (80.4%) had heard about the disease. The level of knowledge of cervical cancr and its prevention was significantly higher among students from the science stream (pstudents from the art stream. Most students (69.3%) agreed to take the vaccination if the service was available in schools. A high percentage of students (82.2%) agreed that the vaccination should be compulsory to the students. In conclusion, most students had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention but they had positive attitude toward vaccination and agreed that vaccination should be compulsory. Therefore, suitable educational programmes should be developed to improve the knowledge of secondary school students on the prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:23725172

  12. Aspirin, lysine, mifepristone and doxycycline combined can effectively and safely prevent and treat cancer metastasis: prevent seeds from gemmating on soil

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Liyuan; Dong, Haiyan; Xu, Huo; Ma, Ji; Zhu, Yewei; Lu, Yusheng; Wang, Jichuang; Zhang, Ting; Li, Tao; Xie, Jingjing; Xu, Bo; Xie, Fangwei; Gao, Yu; Shao, Jingwei; Tu, Xiaohuang

    2015-01-01

    Recent scientific advances have increased our understanding of the cancer metastatic complexities and provided further impetus for new combination therapies to prevent cancer metastasis. Here, we demonstrated that a combination (HAMPT) of aspirin, lysine, mifepristone and doxycycline can effectively and safely prevent cancer metastasis. The pharmaceutically-formulated HAMPT inhibited adhesion of cancer cells to either endothelial cells or extracellular matrix via down-regulating cell adhesion...

  13. Cancers in Australia attributable to exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation and prevented by regular sunscreen use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Wilson, Louise F; Green, Adele C; Bain, Christopher J; Fritschi, Lin; Neale, Rachel E; Whiteman, David C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the proportion and numbers of cancers occurring in Australia attributable to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and the proportion and numbers prevented by regular sun protection factor (SPF) 15+ sunscreen use. Methods We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and numbers of melanomas and keratinocyte cancers (i.e. basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas) due to exposure to ambient UVR resulting from residing in Australia versus residing in the UK (for melanoma) or Scandinavia (for keratinocyte cancers). We also estimated the prevented fraction (PF): the proportion of cancers that would have occurred but were likely prevented by regular sunscreen use. Results An estimated 7,220 melanomas (PAF 63%) and essentially all keratinocyte cancers occurring in Australia were attributable to high ambient UVR levels in Australia. We estimated that regular sunscreen use prevented around 14,190 (PF 9.3%) and 1,730 (PF 14%) people from developing SCC and melanoma, respectively. Conclusions Although our approach was conservative, a high proportion of skin cancers in Australia are attributable to high ambient levels of UVR. Prevailing levels of sunscreen use probably reduced skin cancer incidence by 10–15%. Implications Most skin cancers are preventable. Sunscreen should be a component of a comprehensive sun protection strategy. PMID:26437734

  14. Challenges in Prevention and Care Delivery for Women with Cervical Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Thomas C.; Ghebre, Rahel

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all cases of invasive cervical cancer are associated with infection by high-risk strains of human papilloma virus. Effective primary and secondary prevention programs, as well as effective treatment for early-stage invasive cancer have dramatically reduced the burden of cervical cancer in high-income countries; 85% of the mortality from cervical cancer now occurs in low- and middle-income countries. This article provides an overview of challenges to cervical cancer care in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and identifies areas for programmatic development to meet the global development goal to reduce cancer-related mortality. Advanced stage at presentation and gaps in prevention, screening, diagnostic, and treatment capacities contribute to reduced cervical cancer survival. Cost-effective cervical cancer screening strategies implemented in low resource settings can reduce cervical cancer mortality. Patient- and system-based barriers need to be addressed as part of any cervical cancer control program. Limited human capacity and infrastructure in SSA are major barriers to comprehensive cervical cancer care. Management of early-stage, locally advanced or metastatic cervical cancer involves multispecialty care, including gynecology oncology, medical oncology, radiology, pathology, radiation oncology, and palliative care. Investment in cervical cancer care programs in low- and middle-income countries will need to include effective recruitment programs to engage women in the community to access cancer screening and diagnosis services. Though cervical cancer is a preventable and treatable cancer, the challenges to cervical control in SSA are great and will require a broadly integrated and sustained effort by multiple stakeholders before meaningful progress can be achieved. PMID:27446806

  15. Challenges in Prevention and Care Delivery for Women with Cervical Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Thomas C; Ghebre, Rahel

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all cases of invasive cervical cancer are associated with infection by high-risk strains of human papilloma virus. Effective primary and secondary prevention programs, as well as effective treatment for early-stage invasive cancer have dramatically reduced the burden of cervical cancer in high-income countries; 85% of the mortality from cervical cancer now occurs in low- and middle-income countries. This article provides an overview of challenges to cervical cancer care in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and identifies areas for programmatic development to meet the global development goal to reduce cancer-related mortality. Advanced stage at presentation and gaps in prevention, screening, diagnostic, and treatment capacities contribute to reduced cervical cancer survival. Cost-effective cervical cancer screening strategies implemented in low resource settings can reduce cervical cancer mortality. Patient- and system-based barriers need to be addressed as part of any cervical cancer control program. Limited human capacity and infrastructure in SSA are major barriers to comprehensive cervical cancer care. Management of early-stage, locally advanced or metastatic cervical cancer involves multispecialty care, including gynecology oncology, medical oncology, radiology, pathology, radiation oncology, and palliative care. Investment in cervical cancer care programs in low- and middle-income countries will need to include effective recruitment programs to engage women in the community to access cancer screening and diagnosis services. Though cervical cancer is a preventable and treatable cancer, the challenges to cervical control in SSA are great and will require a broadly integrated and sustained effort by multiple stakeholders before meaningful progress can be achieved. PMID:27446806

  16. 20-years of population-based cancer registration in hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention in the Gambia, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrima Bah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS was designed as a randomised control trial of infant hepatitis B vaccination applied to public health policy, with the main goal of preventing primary liver cancer later in adult life in The Gambia. To that effect, the National Cancer Registry of The Gambia (NCR, a population-based cancer registry (PBCR, was established in 1986 to actively collect data on all cancer diagnosis nation-wide. We extracted 20-years (1990-2009 of data to assess for the first time, the evolution of the most common cancers, also describe and demonstrate the role of the PBCR in a hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention programme in this population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimated Age-Standardised Incidence Rates (ASR (W of the most common cancers registered during the period by gender. The registration period was divided into four 5-year intervals and incidence rates were estimated for each interval. The most common cancers in males were liver, prostate, lung plus bronchus, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and stomach, accounting for 60%, 5%, 4%, 5% and 3%, respectively. Similarly, cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, breast and NHL, were the most common in females, accounting for 33%, 24%, 11% and 4% of the female cancers, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer incidence has remained relatively stable over time, but as shown elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa the disease is a threat in The Gambia. The infection related cancers which are mostly preventable (HBV in men and HPV/HIV in women were the most common. At the moment the data is not enough to detect an effect of hepatitis B vaccination on liver cancer incidence in The Gambia. However, we observed that monitoring case occurrence through PBCR is a key public health pre-requisite for rational planning and implementation of targeted interventions for improving the health of the population.

  17. A Novel Peptide for Simultaneously Enhanced Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer and Mitigation of Oral Mucositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peili; Mancini, Maria; Sonis, Stephen T.; Fernandez-Martinez, Juan; Liu, Jing; Cohen, Ezra E. W.; Toback, F. Gary

    2016-01-01

    We have characterized a novel 21 amino acid-peptide derived from Antrum Mucosal Protein (AMP)-18 that mediates growth promotion of cultured normal epithelial cells and mitigates radiation-induced oral mucositis in animal models, while suppressing in vitro function of cancer cells. The objective of this study was to evaluate these dual potential therapeutic effects of AMP peptide in a clinically relevant animal model of head and neck cancer (HNC) by simultaneously assessing its effect on tumor growth and radiation-induced oral mucositis in an orthotopic model of HNC. Bioluminescent SCC-25 HNC cells were injected into the anterior tongue and tumors that formed were then subjected to focal radiation treatment. Tumor size was assessed using an in vivo imaging system, and the extent of oral mucositis was compared between animals treated with AMP peptide or vehicle (controls). Synergism between AMP peptide and radiation therapy was suggested by the finding that tumors in the AMP peptide/radiation therapy cohort demonstrated inhibited growth vs. radiation therapy-only treated tumors, while AMP peptide-treatment delayed the onset and reduced the severity of radiation therapy-induced oral mucositis. A differential effect on apoptosis appears to be one mechanism by which AMP-18 can stimulate growth and repair of injured mucosal epithelial cells while inhibiting proliferation of HNC cells. RNA microarray analysis identified pathways that are differentially targeted by AMP-18 in HNC vs. nontransformed cells. These observations confirm the notion that normal cells and tumor cells may respond differently to common biological stimuli, and that leveraging this finding in the case of AMP-18 may provide a clinically relevant opportunity. PMID:27049860

  18. The National Cancer Institute's PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program: overview, current projects, animal models, agent development strategies, and molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Robert H; Suen, Chen S; Holmes, Cathy A; Fay, Judith R; Steele, Vernon E

    2016-02-01

    The PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) is a National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention (NCI, DCP)-supported program whose primary goal is to bring new cancer preventive interventions (small molecules and vaccines) and biomarkers through preclinical development towards clinical trials by creating partnerships between the public sector (eg, academia, industry) and DCP. PREVENT has a formalized structure for moving interventions forward in the prevention pipeline using a stage-gate process with go/no go decision points along the critical path for development. This review describes the structure of the program, its focus areas, and provides examples of projects currently in the pipeline. PMID:26970137

  19. PREVENTION OF DYSURIA AFTER HIFU THERAPY FOR PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Shestaev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify factors for the development of dysuria and its prevention in patients with prostate cancer (PC after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy.Subjects and methods. In September 2008 to June 2013, the Clinic of Urology, S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy, treated 98 patients, by performing HIFU sessions on an Ablatherm apparatus (EDAP, France. All the patients underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP to reduce the volume of the ablated tissue. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 29 patients underwent TURP 3 days before HIFU therapy; 2 69 did this 1 month before major surgery. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups: 1 after ultrasound ablation, a urethral catheter was inserted for 10 days; 2 epicystostoma was applied, followed by its overlapping on day 3 postablation and spontaneous urination. The postoperative incidence of dysuria was estimated from subjective (complaints, voiding diary, and Inter-national Prostate Symptom Score and objective (uroflowmetry, small pelvic ultrasonography with determination of residual urine volume criteria.Results. In the patients who had undergone TURP one month before HIFU therapy, grades I–II urinary incontinence and urethral pros-tatic stricture occurred much less infrequently than in those who had undergone this maneuver 3 days prior to major surgery. Urinary in-continence and urethral prostatic stricture occurred 2-fold more frequently after TURP being carried out 3 days before HIFU therapy than after the urethral catheter being inserted. TURP performed one month before HIFU therapy showed no great difference in the incidence complications regardless of the type of bladder drainage.Conclusion. The short interval between TURP and HIFU therapy for PC increases the risk of postoperative dysuric events. The optimal time to perform TURP prior to HIFU therapy is 1 month.

  20. PREVENTION OF DYSURIA AFTER HIFU THERAPY FOR PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Shestaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify factors for the development of dysuria and its prevention in patients with prostate cancer (PC after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy.Subjects and methods. In September 2008 to June 2013, the Clinic of Urology, S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy, treated 98 patients, by performing HIFU sessions on an Ablatherm apparatus (EDAP, France. All the patients underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP to reduce the volume of the ablated tissue. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 29 patients underwent TURP 3 days before HIFU therapy; 2 69 did this 1 month before major surgery. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups: 1 after ultrasound ablation, a urethral catheter was inserted for 10 days; 2 epicystostoma was applied, followed by its overlapping on day 3 postablation and spontaneous urination. The postoperative incidence of dysuria was estimated from subjective (complaints, voiding diary, and Inter-national Prostate Symptom Score and objective (uroflowmetry, small pelvic ultrasonography with determination of residual urine volume criteria.Results. In the patients who had undergone TURP one month before HIFU therapy, grades I–II urinary incontinence and urethral pros-tatic stricture occurred much less infrequently than in those who had undergone this maneuver 3 days prior to major surgery. Urinary in-continence and urethral prostatic stricture occurred 2-fold more frequently after TURP being carried out 3 days before HIFU therapy than after the urethral catheter being inserted. TURP performed one month before HIFU therapy showed no great difference in the incidence complications regardless of the type of bladder drainage.Conclusion. The short interval between TURP and HIFU therapy for PC increases the risk of postoperative dysuric events. The optimal time to perform TURP prior to HIFU therapy is 1 month.