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Sample records for cancer prevention study

  1. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural...... history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe....

  2. Cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    1999-01-01

    Over 70% of human cancers are associated with lifestyle and about half of cancer deaths could be prevented by relatively simple individual actions: no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoidance of sunbathing, obesity and a too high consumption of saturated lipids. Most of these efforts would also markedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, the concept of prevention is currently neither well accepted nor understood by the medical community and the general public. It is often felt that it restricts freedom, imposes a choice between pleasure and duty, and that passing judgement on lifestyle is a form of intolerance. The case of tobacco illustrates the difficulties encountered by prevention, notably among adolescents. The fight against smoking requires information, a societal approach (ban on advertising, increase in price), and a reduction of the example given by adult smoking (parents, peers, teachers, physicians, TV presenters, movie stars, have a great influence on adolescents), while tobacco cessation programs must be promoted. The various approaches should be integrated into a global program of health prevention, including health education at school from 5 to 12 years of age. The efficacy of each of the global program's components should be evaluated. Misconceptions such as overestimation of the impact of pollution on health should also be corrected. Health is created and experienced by people within the setting of their daily lives, in particular during childhood. Prevention is the responsibility of individual members of the community but also of the community as a whole.

  3. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  4. Alcohol intake and mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer: The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baiyu; Gapstur, Susan M; Newton, Christina C; Jacobs, Eric J; Campbell, Peter T

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer, but to the authors' knowledge its influence on survival after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer is unclear. The authors investigated associations between prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol intake with mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer. The authors identified 2458 men and women who were diagnosed with invasive, nonmetastatic colorectal cancer between 1992 (enrollment into the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort) and 2011. Alcohol consumption was self-reported at baseline and updated in 1997, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Postdiagnosis alcohol data were available for 1599 participants. Of the 2458 participants diagnosed with colorectal cancer, 1156 died during follow-up through 2012. Prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol consumption were not found to be associated with all-cause mortality, except for an association between prediagnosis consumption of colorectal cancer-specific mortality, although there was some suggestion of increased colorectal cancer-specific mortality with postdiagnosis drinking (RR, 1.27 [95% CI, 0.87-1.86] for current drinking of colorectal cancer. The association between postdiagnosis drinking and colorectal cancer-specific mortality should be examined in larger studies of individuals diagnosed with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer 2017;123:2006-2013. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  5. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  6. Associations of Coffee Drinking and Cancer Mortality in the Cancer Prevention Study-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapstur, Susan M; Anderson, Rebecca L; Campbell, Peter T; Jacobs, Eric J; Hartman, Terryl J; Hildebrand, Janet S; Wang, Ying; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2017-10-01

    Background: Associations of coffee consumption with cancer mortality are inconsistent for many types of cancer, and confounding by smoking is an important concern. Methods: Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs for coffee consumption associated with death from all cancers combined and from specific cancer types among 922,896 Cancer Prevention Study-II participants ages 28-94 years who completed a four-page questionnaire and were cancer free at baseline in 1982. Results: During follow-up through 2012, there were 118,738 cancer-related deaths. There was a nonlinear association between coffee consumption and all-cancer death among current smokers and former smokers and no association among never smokers. Among nonsmokers, a 2 cup/day increase in coffee consumption was inversely associated with death from colorectal [HR = 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95-0.99], liver [HR = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88-0.96], and female breast (HR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99) cancers, and positively associated with esophageal cancer-related death (HR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.12). For head and neck cancer, a nonlinear inverse association was observed starting at 2-3 cups per day (HR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55-0.95), with similar associations observed at higher levels of consumption. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with many other studies that suggest coffee drinking is associated with a lower risk of colorectal, liver, female breast, and head and neck cancer. The association of coffee consumption with higher risk of esophageal cancer among nonsmokers in our study should be confirmed. Impact: These results underscore the importance of assessing associations between coffee consumption and cancer mortality by smoking status. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(10); 1477-86. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Graphic Narratives and Cancer Prevention: A Case Study of an American Cancer Society Comic Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Melinda

    2017-05-01

    As the interest in graphic medicine grows, health communicators have started engaging readers with compelling visual and textual accounts of health and illness, including via comic books. One context where comics have shown promise is cancer communication. This brief report presents an early example of graphic medicine developed by the American Cancer Society. "Ladies … Wouldn't It Be Better to Know?" is a comic book produced in the 1960s to provide the public with lay information about the Pap test for cervical cancer prevention and detection. An analysis of a key narrative attribute, plot development, illustrates the central role that perceived barriers played in this midcentury public health message, a component that remains a consideration of cancer communication design today. This case study of an early graphic narrative identifies promising cancer message features that can be used to address and refute barriers to cervical cancer screening and connects contemporary research with historical efforts in public health communication.

  8. [Application of cohort study in cancer prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Min; Bai, Yana; Pu, Hongquan; Cheng, Ning; Li, Haiyan; He, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Cancer control is a long-term work. Cancer research and intervention really need the support of cohort study. In the recent years, more and more cohort studies on cancer control were conducted in China along with the increased ability of scientific research in China. Since 2010, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, collaborated with Lanzhou University and the Worker' s Hospital of Jinchuan Group Company Limited, have carried out a large-scale cohort study on cancer, which covered a population of more than 50 000 called " Jinchang cohort". Since 2012, a National Key Public Health Project, "cancer screening in urban China" , has been conducted in Jinchang, which strengthened the Jinchang cohort study. Based on the Jinchang cohort study, historical cohort study, cross-sectional study and prospective cohort study have been conducted, which would provide a lot of evidence for the cancer control in China.

  9. Knowledge and perceptions of cancer and cancer prevention among Malaysian traditional healers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan A; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Abdulghani, Mahfoudh Al-Musali Mohammed; Rammohan, Subramanian; Al-Jashamy, Karim

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge and perceptions of Malaysian tradition healers towards cancer and cancer prevention. A total of 25 participants agreed to participate in this qualitative study during the period from 20th July 2011 until 24th of September 2011. The proposal of this study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Management and Science University (MSU). Once the participant agreed to be interviewed, date, time and place of the interviews were determined. Consent form was obtained from participants before the interview began. Participants were briefed about the study and its purpose, and after asking their permission, their replies were recorded. The data was organized into themes and analyzed manually. Twenty-five Malaysian traditional healers participated in this qualitative study. The age of participants ranged between 26 to 78 years old. The majority were in the age group of 31-60 years old, male, Chinese, degree holders with a monthly income ranging from 1,000-5,000 Ringgit Malaysia (RM) and were married (56%, 80%, 48%, 52%, 68%, 84% respectively). The majority defined cancer as having high cholesterol or abscess accumulation. A few of them defined cancer as a type of cell growth. The majority mentioned that food and unhealthy lifestyles are the primary causes of cancer. Surprisingly some of them mentioned that cancer is caused by interference by ghosts. Regarding the diagnosis of cancer, the majority mentioned that they refer their patients to modern physicians' medical report when it comes to diagnosing or treating patients with cancer. The most common cancers that many patients came to seek treatment were breast cancers, followed by colon cancers, liver and lung cancers. Despite good knowledge about the causes of cancer among traditional healers, misconceptions still exist. Insufficient knowledge about the definition of cancer was noted among the traditional healers. This urges immediate action by the Ministry of Health

  10. Chapter 8. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiologic studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans. PMID:21419224

  11. Dietary Energy Density and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Incidence in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Terryl J; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Shah, Roma; Flanders, W Dana; Wang, Ying; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2016-10-01

    Dietary energy density (ED) is a measure of diet quality that estimates the amount of energy per unit of food (kilocalories per gram) consumed. Low-ED diets are generally high in fiber and fruits and vegetables and low in fat. Dietary ED has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and other risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. We evaluated the associations of total dietary ED and energy-dense (high-ED) foods with postmenopausal breast cancer incidence. Analyses included 56,795 postmenopausal women from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort with no previous history of breast or other cancers and who provided information on diet, lifestyle, and medical history in 1999. Multivariable-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate ratios (RRs and 95% CIs) were estimated for quintiles of total dietary ED and for the consumption of high-ED foods in Cox proportional hazards regression models. During a median follow-up of 11.7 y, 2509 invasive breast cancer cases were identified, including 1857 estrogen receptor-positive and 277 estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Median dietary ED was 1.5 kcal/g (IQR: 1.3-1.7 kcal/g). After adjusting for age, race, education, reproductive characteristics, and family history, high compared with low dietary ED was associated with a statistically significantly higher risk of breast cancer (RR for fifth quintile compared with first quintile: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.36; P-trend = 0.03). The association between the amount of high-ED foods consumed and breast cancer risk was not statistically significant. We observed no differences by estrogen receptor status or effect modification by BMI, age, or physical activity. These results suggest a modest positive association between total dietary ED and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Plasma carotenoids and breast cancer risk in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Furtado, Jeremy D; Campos, Hannia; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2015-09-01

    Several circulating carotenoids have been inversely associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk in large cohort studies and a pooled analysis. Whether associations differ by tumor or participant characteristics remains unclear. We investigated the associations of plasma carotenoids with postmenopausal breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor (ER) status, tumor stage, smoking status, and body mass index, in a case-control study nested in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. A total of 496 invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed between blood draw in 1998-2001 and June 30, 2007 and matched 1:1 with controls on race, birth date, and blood draw date were included. Multivariable-adjusted conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Plasma α-carotene above the lowest quartile was associated with significant 40-43% lower risk of invasive breast cancer risk (fourth vs. first quartile OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.87, P-trend = 0.037) after adjustment for multiple covariates. This inverse association was strengthened after further adjustment for other plasma carotenoids and total fruit and vegetable intake (fourth vs. first quartile OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.29-0.85, P-trend = 0.041). Other plasma carotenoids or total carotenoids were not associated with breast cancer risk. The inverse association of α-carotene with breast cancer remained for ER+, but not for ER- tumors, although test for heterogeneity was not statistically significant (P-heterogeneity = 0.49). These results suggest that higher plasma α-carotene is associated with lower risk of invasive breast cancer.

  13. Cancer treatment - preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation - preventing infection; Bone marrow transplant - preventing infection; Cancer treatment - immunosuppression ... this is a short-lived side effect of cancer treatment. Your provider may give you medicines to help ...

  14. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional printing [PDF-1.5MB] Cancer Home “Prevent Cervical Cancer” Infographic Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time ...

  15. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Dennert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a and randomised controlled trials (RCTs to answer research question (b. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91 and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83 with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05 than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77. These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS

  16. Resveratrol: A review of preclinical studies for human cancer prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athar, Mohammad; Back, Jung Ho; Tang Xiuwei; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kopelovich, Levy; Bickers, David R.; Kim, Arianna L.

    2007-01-01

    The search for novel and effective cancer chemopreventive agents has led to the identification of various naturally occurring compounds one of which is resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a phytoalexin derived from the skin of grapes and other fruits. Resveratrol is known to have potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and to inhibit platelet aggregation and the growth of a variety of cancer cells. Its potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities have been demonstrated in all three stages of carcinogenesis (initiation, promotion, and progression), in both chemically and UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice, as well as in various murine models of human cancers. Evidence from numerous in vitro and in vivo studies has confirmed its ability to modulate various targets and signaling pathways. This review discusses the current preclinical and mechanistic data available and assesses resveratrol's anticancer effects to support its potential as an anticancer agent in human populations

  17. Cancer risks and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessey, M.P.; Gray, M.

    1985-01-01

    A series of essays in honour of Sir Richard Doll is presented. Chapters cover the preventability of cancer, geography, smoking, diet, occupation, radiation, infections and immune impairment, exogenous and endogenous hormones, other drugs, prevention through legislation and by education and cancer risks and prevention in the Third World. The chapter on radiation has been indexed separately. (UK)

  18. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Dennert, Gabriele; Crespi, Catherine M; Zwahlen, Marcel; Brinkman, Maree; Zeegers, Maurice PA; Horneber, Markus; D'Amico, Roberto; Del Giovane, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Background This review is an update of the first Cochrane publication on selenium for preventing cancer (Dennert 2011). Selenium is a metalloid with both nutritional and toxicological properties. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. Objectives Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: an aetiological relation between selenium exposure and cancer risk in humans? andthe efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in humans? Search methods We conducted electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2013, Issue 1), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1966 to February 2013 week 1), EMBASE (1980 to 2013 week 6), CancerLit (February 2004) and CCMed (February 2011). As MEDLINE now includes the journals indexed in CancerLit, no further searches were conducted in this database after 2004. Selection criteria We included prospective observational studies (cohort studies including sub-cohort controlled studies and nested case-control studies) and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with healthy adult participants (18 years of age and older). Data collection and analysis For observational studies, we conducted random effects meta-analyses when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. For RCTs, we performed random effects meta-analyses when two or more studies were available. The risk of bias in observational studies was assessed using forms adapted from the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort and case-control studies; the criteria specified in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions were used to evaluate the risk of bias in RCTs. Main results We included 55 prospective observational studies (including more than 1,100,000 participants) and eight RCTs (with a total of 44,743 participants). For the observational studies, we found lower cancer incidence (summary odds ratio (OR) 0

  19. Selenium for preventing cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Filippini, Tommaso; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Dennert, Gabriele; Zwahlen, Marcel; Brinkman, Maree; Zeegers, Maurice Pa; Horneber, Markus; D'Amico, Roberto; Crespi, Catherine M

    2018-01-29

    This review is the third update of the Cochrane review "Selenium for preventing cancer". Selenium is a naturally occurring element with both nutritional and toxicological properties. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancer. To gather and present evidence needed to address two research questions:1. What is the aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in humans?2. Describe the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in humans. We updated electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE (Ovid, 2013 to January 2017, week 4), and Embase (2013 to 2017, week 6), as well as searches of clinical trial registries. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and longitudinal observational studies that enrolled adult participants. We performed random-effects (RE) meta-analyses when two or more RCTs were available for a specific outcome. We conducted RE meta-analyses when five or more observational studies were available for a specific outcome. We assessed risk of bias in RCTs and in observational studies using Cochrane's risk assessment tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, respectively. We considered in the primary analysis data pooled from RCTs with low risk of bias. We assessed the certainty of evidence by using the GRADE approach. We included 83 studies in this updated review: two additional RCTs (10 in total) and a few additional trial reports for previously included studies. RCTs involved 27,232 participants allocated to either selenium supplements or placebo. For analyses of RCTs with low risk of bias, the summary risk ratio (RR) for any cancer incidence was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 1.10; 3 studies, 19,475 participants; high-certainty evidence). The RR for estimated cancer mortality was 1.02 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.30; 1 study, 17,444 participants). For the most frequently

  20. Tomato Lycopene and Lung Cancer Prevention: From Experimental to Human Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palozza, Paola; Simone, Rossella E.; Catalano, Assunta; Mele, Maria Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that tomato lycopene may be preventive against the formation and the development of lung cancer. Experimental studies demonstrated that lycopene may inhibit the growth of several cultured lung cancer cells and prevent lung tumorigenesis in animal models through various mechanisms, including a modulation of redox status, cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induction, a regulation of growth factor signaling, changes in cell growth-related enzymes, an enhancement of gap junction communication and a prevention of smoke-induced inflammation. In addition, lycopene also inhibited cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Several lycopene metabolites have been identified, raising the question as to whether the preventive effects of lycopene on cancer risk is, at least in part, due to its metabolites. Despite these promising reports, it is difficult at the moment to directly relate available experimental data to human pathophysiology. More well controlled clinical intervention trials are needed to further clarify the exact role of lycopene in the prevention of lung cancer cell growth. Such studies should take into consideration subject selection, specific markers of analysis, the levels of carotenoids being tested, metabolism and isomerization of lycopene, interaction with other bioactive food components. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of lycopene, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between lycopene consumption and human cancer risk

  1. Tomato Lycopene and Lung Cancer Prevention: From Experimental to Human Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palozza, Paola, E-mail: p.palozza@rm.unicatt.it; Simone, Rossella E.; Catalano, Assunta [Institute of General Pathology, School of Medicine, Catholic University, L. Go F. Vito, Rome 1 00168 (Italy); Mele, Maria Cristina [Institute of Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Catholic University, L. Go F. Vito, Rome 1 00168 (Italy)

    2011-05-11

    Increasing evidence suggests that tomato lycopene may be preventive against the formation and the development of lung cancer. Experimental studies demonstrated that lycopene may inhibit the growth of several cultured lung cancer cells and prevent lung tumorigenesis in animal models through various mechanisms, including a modulation of redox status, cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induction, a regulation of growth factor signaling, changes in cell growth-related enzymes, an enhancement of gap junction communication and a prevention of smoke-induced inflammation. In addition, lycopene also inhibited cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Several lycopene metabolites have been identified, raising the question as to whether the preventive effects of lycopene on cancer risk is, at least in part, due to its metabolites. Despite these promising reports, it is difficult at the moment to directly relate available experimental data to human pathophysiology. More well controlled clinical intervention trials are needed to further clarify the exact role of lycopene in the prevention of lung cancer cell growth. Such studies should take into consideration subject selection, specific markers of analysis, the levels of carotenoids being tested, metabolism and isomerization of lycopene, interaction with other bioactive food components. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of lycopene, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between lycopene consumption and human cancer risk.

  2. Tomato Lycopene and Lung Cancer Prevention: From Experimental to Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunta Catalano

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that tomato lycopene may be preventive against the formation and the development of lung cancer. Experimental studies demonstrated that lycopene may inhibit the growth of several cultured lung cancer cells and prevent lung tumorigenesis in animal models through various mechanisms, including a modulation of redox status, cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induction, a regulation of growth factor signaling, changes in cell growth-related enzymes, an enhancement of gap junction communication and a prevention of smoke-induced inflammation. In addition, lycopene also inhibited cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Several lycopene metabolites have been identified, raising the question as to whether the preventive effects of lycopene on cancer risk is, at least in part, due to its metabolites. Despite these promising reports, it is difficult at the moment to directly relate available experimental data to human pathophysiology. More well controlled clinical intervention trials are needed to further clarify the exact role of lycopene in the prevention of lung cancer cell growth. Such studies should take into consideration subject selection, specific markers of analysis, the levels of carotenoids being tested, metabolism and isomerization of lycopene, interaction with other bioactive food components. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of lycopene, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between lycopene consumption and human cancer risk.

  3. 14. Breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, A K; Fentiman, I S

    2002-05-01

    Increased risk of breast cancer may result from potentially modifiable causes such as endogenous hormone levels, obesity, HRT, and non-lactation, or non-modifiable factors including genetic susceptibility and increasing age. The Gail model, based on known factors, may be useful for estimating lifetime risk in some individuals, but those risk factors that are easier to modify may have a limited impact on the totality of breast cancer. Tamoxifen prevention still remains contentious, with a significant reduction in risk of breast cancer in women given tamoxifen in the NSABP P1 study but no effect in the Italian and Royal Marsden trials. Raloxifene, tested in the MORE trial, reduced the incidence of breast cancer by 65% but this was restricted to oestrogen receptor positive tumours. Lifestyle factors such as diet, obesity, exercise and age at first full term pregnancy and number of pregnancies have a mild to moderate impact on risk, so may have little effect on the incidence of breast cancer. Reduction of alcohol intake could lead to a modest reduction in the risk of breast cancer but possibly adversely affect other diseases. Fat reduction and GnRH analogue reduce mammographic density but have not yet been shown to affect risk. For women with BRCA1/2 mutation, options include unproven surveillance and prophylactic mastectomy with an unquantified risk reduction. Interesting new candidates for chemoprevention include aromatase inhibitors, new generation SERMs, demethylating agents, non-selective COX inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and polyamine synthetic inhibitors.

  4. Natural Products and Dietary Prevention of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of cancer prevention was first introduced in studies using the natural form of vitamin A in the prevention of epithelial cancers. Ever since, research on cancer prevention has grown and become a rather specialized field study. Cancer is a multistage process, and takes several years for...

  5. Vietnamese American women’s beliefs and perceptions on cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening, and cancer prevention vaccines: A community-based participatory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Kim Yen Nguyen-Truong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer remains commonly diagnosed in Vietnamese American women. Despite efforts to increase cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese American women, participation rates are persistently lower than the national goal. The objective of this study is to explore beliefs of Vietnamese American women about cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening, and cancer prevention vaccines. A qualitative descriptive investigation captured group perceptions about meaning and beliefs of cervical cancer, screening, and cancer prevention vaccines, and participants’ stories using a community-based participatory research approach. Forty Vietnamese American women were recruited from the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area into four focus groups. Using a process of directed content analysis, focus group transcripts were coded for themes. We found that cervical cancer continues to be a difficult topic to discuss, and Vietnamese American women may not bring the topic up themselves to their health care providers. Some women experienced intense emotions of fear or shame of having their cervix examined. Women delayed seeking cervical cancer screening and needed to have early warning signs, which guided them as to when to seek health care. Women focused on cleanliness through vaginal and/or perineal washing as primary prevention for cervical cancer. There were limited awareness and knowledge about cancer prevention vaccines, specifically the human papillomavirus. Some women relied heavily on their informal social networks of family, friends, or community for health knowledge. Fear and misunderstanding dominated the beliefs of Vietnamese American women about cervical cancer screening and prevention. These findings underscored the importance of having culturally-specific findings, which will inform a multicomponent intervention to promote cervical cancer screening and cancer prevention vaccine uptake within this population.

  6. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  7. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  8. Endometrial Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  9. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  10. Esophageal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  11. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  12. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  13. Statins and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... opposed to the use of another type of lipid-lowering drug, fibrates). [Statins and the risk of colorectal cancer. Poynter, JN., et al. New England Journal of Medicine , May 26, 2005, (352:2184–92]. Is NCI supporting research with statins to prevent other types of cancer? ...

  14. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  15. Prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Ian N

    2016-11-21

    Modifiable lifestyle factors may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. Obesity is associated particularly with post-menopausal breast cancer. Diet is important, and exercise equivalent to running for up to 8 hours each week reduces the risk of breast cancer, both in its own right and through reducing obesity. Alcohol consumption may be responsible for 5.8% of breast cancers in Australia and it is recommended to reduce this to two standard drinks per day. Drinking alcohol and smoking increases the risk for breast cancer and, therefore, it is important to quit tobacco smoking. Prolonged use of combined oestrogen and progesterone hormone replacement therapy and oral contraceptives may increase breast cancer risk and this must be factored into individual decisions about their use. Ionising radiation, either from diagnostic or therapeutic radiation or through occupational exposure, is associated with a high incidence of breast cancer and exposure may be reduced in some cases. Tamoxifen chemoprevention may reduce the incidence of oestrogen receptor positive cancer in 51% of women with high risk of breast cancer. Uncommon but serious side effects include thromboembolism and uterine cancer. Raloxifene, which can also reduce osteoporosis, can be used in post-menopausal women and is not associated with the development of uterine cancer. Surgical prophylaxis with bilateral mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy can reduce the risk of breast cancer in patients carrying BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. For preventive treatments, mammographic screening can identify other women at high risk.

  16. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Casari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  17. Cancer Prevention Recommendations: Impact of Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresso, Karen Colbert; Hawk, Ernest

    2016-08-01

    To review the relationship between adherence to cancer prevention guidelines published by the American Cancer Society and the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research and reductions in cancer incidence, cancer mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and overall mortality. Current cancer prevention guidelines published by the American Cancer Society and the American Institute for Cancer Research, journal articles published between 2004 and 2016, and internet resources. Evidence from a number of large observational studies indicates that following current cancer prevention recommendations in a comprehensive manner results in significant reductions in both cancer risk and cancer mortality, as well as in cardiovascular mortality and overall mortality. Nurses can take the lead in familiarizing patients and families with established cancer prevention recommendations and resources that may assist patients in implementing them comprehensively in their daily lives, as well as in discussing the substantial health benefits of adhering to the recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevention of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kuroczycki-Saniutycz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA accounts for 95% of all pancreatic cancers. About 230,000 PDA cases are diagnosed worldwide each year. PDA has the lowest five-year survival rate as compared to others cancers. PDA in Poland is the fifth leading cause of death after lung, stomach, colon and breast cancer. In our paper we have analysed the newest epidemiological research, some of it controversial, to establish the best practical solution for pancreatic cancer prevention in the healthy population as well as treatment for patients already diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. We found that PDA occurs quite frequently but is usually diagnosed too late, at its advanced stage. Screening for PDA is not very well defined except in subgroups of high-risk individuals with genetic disorders or with chronic pancreatitis. We present convincing, probable, and suggestive risk factors associated with pancreatic cancer, many of which are modifiable and should be introduced and implemented in our society.

  19. Cancer Prevention Overview (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that fruits and nonstarchy vegetables may protect against cancers of the mouth, esophagus , and stomach . Fruits may also protect against lung cancer . Some studies have shown that a diet high ...

  20. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Screening Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  1. The Science of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The science of cancer prevention is described by Dr. Barnett S. Kramer, M.D., M.P.H., director of the Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute (NCI). The Division of Cancer Prevention administers a broad spectrum of research that spans basic pre-clinical, laboratory research, supportive and palliative care research, early detection, and randomized controlled clinical trials. The Division also supports the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program and is devoted to the balanced communication of scientific results.

  2. Guidelines for a cancer prevention smartphone application: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Nuno; Moreira, Luís; Barros, Ana; Almeida, Ana Margarida; Santos-Silva, Filipe

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to explore the views and experiences of healthy young adults concerning the fundamental features of a cancer prevention smartphone app that seeks behaviour change. Three focus groups were conducted with 16 healthy young adults that explored prior experiences, points of view and opinions about currently available health-related smartphone apps. Then, an online questionnaire was designed and applied to a larger sample of healthy young adults. Focus group and online questionnaire data were analysed and confronted. Study results identified behaviour tracking, goal setting, tailored information and use of reminders as the most desired features in a cancer prevention app. Participants highlighted the importance of privacy and were reluctant to share personal health information with other users. The results also point out important dimensions to be considered for long-term use of health promotion apps related with usability and perceived usefulness. Participants didn't consider gamification features as important dimensions for long-term use of apps. This study allowed the definition of a guideline set for the development of a cancer prevention app. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevention of nausea and vomiting in cancer patients undergoing chemo and radiotherapy: an investigational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonse, Mohammed Raees; Ravi, Rithin; Pais, Saira; Jayachander, Dipika; Hasib, A.G.; Vidyasagar, M.S.; Baliga, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy and radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting remains both a feared side effect of cancer treatment and a primary focus of many supportive care initiatives/guidelines. It is associated with severe morbidity and causes significant deterioration in quality of life of the cancer patients. The emetogenic potential of the chemotherapeutic agents, repeated chemotherapy cycles, the radiation dose, the site of tumor, and patient risk factors like female gender, younger age, alcohol consumption and history of motion sickness are the major risk factors. A combination of dexamethasone, serotonin receptor antagonists and H2 blockers has been used with success in the prevention of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting from both moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy. The present study addresses the experience of our hospital in the reduction of chemotherapy and radiotherapy induced nausea and vomiting among cancer patients. (author)

  4. Type II diabetes mellitus and the incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer in the cancer prevention study-II nutrition cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapstur, Susan M; Patel, Alpa V; Diver, W Ryan; Hildebrand, Janet S; Gaudet, Mia M; Jacobs, Eric J; Campbell, Peter T

    2012-11-01

    Despite consistent associations of type II diabetes mellitus with hormonally related cancers such as breast and endometrium, the relation between type II diabetes mellitus and ovarian cancer risk is unclear. Associations of type II diabetes mellitus status, duration, and insulin use with epithelial ovarian cancer overall, and with serous and nonserous histologic subtypes were examined in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort, a prospective study of U.S. men and women predominantly aged 50 years and older. Between 1992 and 2007, 524 incident epithelial ovarian cancer cases were identified among 63,440 postmenopausal women. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using extended Cox regression to update diabetes status and bilateral oophorectomy status during follow-up. Type II diabetes mellitus status (RR = 1.05; 95% CI, 0.75-1.46) and duration were not associated with epithelial ovarian cancer risk. Although not statistically significantly different (P(difference) = 0.39), the RR was higher for type II diabetes mellitus with insulin use (RR = 1.28; 95% CI, 0.74-2.24) than for type II diabetes mellitus without insulin use (RR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.64-1.43). Diabetes seemed to be more strongly associated with nonserous (RR = 1.41; 95% CI, 0.70-2.85) than serous (RR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.41-1.23) histologic subtypes. Type II diabetes mellitus was not associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer, although higher risks with nonserous subtypes and among insulin users cannot be ruled out. Larger studies are needed to clarify associations of type II diabetes mellitus with or without insulin use with risk of ovarian cancer overall and by histologic subtypes. ©2012 AACR.

  5. The Peru cervical cancer prevention study (PERCAPS): community-based participatory research in Manchay, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Kimberly L; Abuelo, Carolina; Chyung, Eunice; Salmeron, Jorge; Belinson, Suzanne E; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Ortiz, Carlos Santos; Vallejos, Maria Jose; Belinson, Jerome L

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a preventable disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. Although technology for early detection continues to improve, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers. Community-based participatory research is an approach to research which focuses on collaboration with the community to surmount these barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of community-based participatory research techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for cervical cancer prevention in Manchay, Peru. Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling and cryotherapy were used for the screen/treat intervention, and the Gardasil vaccine was used for the vaccine intervention. Community health workers from Manchay participated in a 3-day educational course, designed by the research team. The community health workers then decided how to implement the interventions in their community. The success of the program was measured by (1) the ability of the community health workers to determine an implementation plan, (2) the successful use of research forms provided, (3) participation and retention rates, and (4) satisfaction of the participants. (1) The community health workers used a door-to-door approach through which participants were successfully registered and both interventions were successfully carried out; (2) registration forms, consent forms, and result forms were used correctly with minimal error; (3) screen/treat intervention: 97% of registered participants gave an HPV sample, 94% of HPV-positive women were treated, and 90% returned for 6-month follow-up; vaccine intervention: 95% of registered girls received the first vaccine, 97% of those received the second vaccine, and 93% the third; (4) 96% of participants in the screen/treat intervention reported high satisfaction. Community-based participatory research techniques successfully helped to implement a screen/treat and vaccinate

  6. STUDY ON STUDENTS’ AWARENESS CONCERNING ENVIRONMENTAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDOUS AGENTS OF CANCER RISK AND PREVENTION METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Cebulska-Wasilewska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of our study was to assess the level of awareness and knowledge on environmental and occupational risk of cancer and its prevention among Polish students. We were interested also in their sources of knowledge. Methods. Survey, using the questionnaire, was conducted among 1080 respondents, who are or probably will be in their future work, exposed to harmful agents, due to study profile. Results. Students rated their knowledge on environmental and occupational cancer agents and cancer prevention mostly as limited (over 77%. Participation in “Safety Work and Environment” courses did not differentiate their level of cancer risk awareness. 901 students (84% responded to question about specific substances, which may cause cancer. Almost 2% of students indicated none from 10 given agents as carcinogenic. About 34% of respondents pointed all given agents, 39% pointed on 8–9 of them, 5–7 agents 13.2% of surveyed and 9% of them indicated on 1–4 agents. Students were aware of carcinogenic features of radiation, asbestos, cigarettes smoking (93.2–93.8%, benzene, benzo[?]pirene and pesticides (79,2 –83,6%. Less of them declared carcinogenic features of PAHs (75.4%, heavy metals (73.9%, electromagnetic field (64.8% and infections (60.8%. Only 48% of respondents specified possible lowering of the cancer by risk intervention practices. Medical and engineering profile, as well as attendance in courses covering the issues of health safety at work or environment (SWE significantly decreased percentage of respondents who didn’t specified any procedure (but it was still high: 48–62%. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that most students, only to some extent, are aware of the most well known cancer-causing substances occurrence. Their knowledge is mostly limited and they do not know prevention procedures and ways to lower or eliminate the risk. Therefore the modernization of educational programs and development of more efficient

  7. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  8. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition

  9. [Cervical and breast cancer prevention among underprivileged women in France: an epidemiological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappuis, Marielle; Antonielli, Alilla Brossard; Laurence, Sophie; Rochefort, Jeanine; Giboin, Catherine; Corty, Jean François

    2014-01-01

    If cervical cancer and breast cancer screening are frequent practices in general population, studies indicate that these practices are less common among underprivileged women. Doctors of the World conducted a study to measure cancer prevention and screening among women attending medical consultation in their health care centers (Caso) in France. The survey was conducted in 5 Caso. A questionnaire was proposed to all women (aged 14 years and older) attending medical consultation. 203 women participated in the survey. Only 33.1% of women aged 25-65 declared that they have ever realized a cervical smear in their lives. More than a third of the concerned women did not know cervical smear and 72% of the women under 35 years old do not know the HPV vaccine. 70.8% of women aged 50-74 said they had never realized a mammogram. The survey highlights less use of cancer screening among underprivileged women compared to the general population, underlines the need for appropriate actions for these populations and the need to facilitate health coverage access for women facing multiple vulnerability factors.

  10. Study on Effects and Mechanisms of Phytochemicals in Vegetables and Fruits 
in Preventing and Treating Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiantian GUO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether in the world or China, lung cancer is a malignant tumor which is harmful to human health. There were studies showed that lung cancer is tightly related to the environment factors and life style. The epidemiology study found that eating more fruits and vegetables can prevent lung cancer. Vegetables and fruits are rich in phytochemicals such as isothiocyanates, indoles, flavonoids and so on. These phytochemicals reduce the risk of lung cancer by modulating antitumor-related pathways such as inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and the like. The aim of this review is to summarize the mechanisms of phytochemicals in vegetables and fruits in the pathogenesis and progression of lung cancer, so as to provide theoretical basis and direction for the prevention and treatment of lung cancer.

  11. Ionizing radiation and cancer prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiation long has been recognized as a cause of cancer. Among environmental cancer risks, radiation in unique in the variety of organs and tissues that it can affect. Numerous epidemiological studies with good dosimetry provide the basis for cancer risk estimation, including quantitative information derived from observed dose-response relationships. The amount of cancer attributable to ionizing radiation is difficult to estimate, but numbers such as 1 to 3% have been suggested. Some radiation-induced cancers attributable to ionizing radiation is difficult to estimate, but numbers such as 1 to 3% have been suggested. Some radiation-induced cancers attributable to naturally occurring exposures, such as cosmic and terrestrial radiation, are not preventable. The major natural radiation exposure, radon, can often be reduced, especially in the home, but not entirely eliminated. Medical use of radiation constitutes the other main category of exposure, radon, can often be reduced, especially in the home, but not entirely eliminated. Medical use of radiation constitutes the other main category of exposure; because of the importance of its benefits to one's health, the appropriate prevention strategy is to simply work to minimize exposures. 9 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  12. Home | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Research The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into cancer. |

  13. Clinical Cancer Genetics and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufunmilayo F. Olopade MD, FACP, Professor of Medicine and Human Genetics and Director of the Cancer Risk Clinic Department of Medicine, BSD Section of Hematology/Oncology University of Chicago, presented "Clinical Cancer Genetics and Prevention".

  14. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  15. Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protect: Know the Signs and Symptoms of Infection Neutropenia and Risk for Infection Health Care Providers Educational Materials Cancer and Flu How to Prevent Flu from Spreading Flu Symptoms Information for Families and Caregivers Flu Treatment for Cancer Patients and ...

  16. Targeted Therapy for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Petra; Savage, Michelle I.; Brown, Powel H.

    2013-01-01

    With a better understanding of the etiology of breast cancer, molecularly targeted drugs have been developed and are being testing for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Targeted drugs that inhibit the estrogen receptor (ER) or estrogen-activated pathways include the selective ER modulators (tamoxifen, raloxifene, and lasofoxifene) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) (anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane) have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies. Tamoxifen and raloxifene have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer and promising results of AIs in breast cancer trials, suggest that AIs might be even more effective in the prevention of ER-positive breast cancer. However, these agents only prevent ER-positive breast cancer. Therefore, current research is focused on identifying preventive therapies for other forms of breast cancer such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, breast cancer that does express ER, progesterone receptor, or HER2). HER2-positive breast cancers are currently treated with anti-HER2 therapies including trastuzumab and lapatinib, and preclinical and clinical studies are now being conducted to test these drugs for the prevention of HER2-positive breast cancers. Several promising agents currently being tested in cancer prevention trials for the prevention of TNBC include poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, vitamin D, and rexinoids, both of which activate nuclear hormone receptors (the vitamin D and retinoid X receptors). This review discusses currently used breast cancer preventive drugs, and describes the progress of research striving to identify and develop more effective preventive agents for all forms of breast cancer. PMID:24069582

  17. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2010-06-01

    Colorectal cancer has been strongly associated with a Western lifestyle. In the past several decades, much has been learned about the dietary, lifestyle, and medication risk factors for this malignancy. Although there is controversy about the role of specific nutritional factors, consideration of dietary pattern as a whole appears useful for formulating recommendations. For example, several studies have shown that high intake of red and processed meats, highly refined grains and starches, and sugars is related to increased risk of colorectal cancer. Replacing these factors with poultry, fish, and plant sources as the primary source of protein; unsaturated fats as the primary source of fat; and unrefined grains, legumes and fruits as the primary source of carbohydrates is likely to lower risk of colorectal cancer. Although a role for supplements, including vitamin D, folate, and vitamin B6, remains uncertain, calcium supplementation is likely to be at least modestly beneficial. With respect to lifestyle, compelling evidence indicates that avoidance of smoking and heavy alcohol use, prevention of weight gain, and maintenance of a reasonable level of physical activity are associated with markedly lower risks of colorectal cancer. Medications such as aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and postmenopausal hormones for women are associated with substantial reductions in colorectal cancer risk, though their utility is affected by associated risks. Taken together, modifications in diet and lifestyle should substantially reduce the risk of colorectal cancer and could complement screening in reducing colorectal cancer incidence.

  18. Preventing cervical cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (HPV) will hopefully reduce cervical cancer rates globally even ... active people will get HPV at some time in their lives', making it ... cells due to HPV infection of the cervix are the first step in a series ..... A randomised controlled study of purified air administered to the 'breathing zone' at night to people with allergic asthma ...

  19. The possible prevention of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, John

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The prevention of the infectious diseases was accomplished long before there was any understanding of the molecular biology of bacteria and viruses. As for cancer, the sharp drop in frequency of the once-commonest lethal cancer, stomach cancer, was achieved without any contribution from biological research, and the current drop in lung cancer is the end-result of the observation by epidemiologists that most lung cancer is caused by smoking. So the basis for both these triumphs was es...

  20. Primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Agnieszka; Kamińska, Marzena; Sygit, Katarzyna; Budny, Agnieszka; Surdyka, Dariusz; Kukiełka-Budny, Bożena; Burdan, Franciszek

    2017-12-23

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and is the second cancer frequently occurring worldwide of newly-diagnosed cancers. There is much evidence showing the influence of life style and environmental factors on the development of mammary gland cancer (high-fat diet, alcohol consumption, lack of physical exercise), the elimination of which (primary prevention) may contribute to a decrease in morbidity and mortality. Secondary prevention, comprising diagnostic tests (e.g. mammography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, breast self-examination, as well as modern and more precise imaging methods) help the early detection of tumours or lesions predisposing to tumours. The aim of this study paper is to review current knowledge and reports regarding primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer. It is estimated that nearly 70% of malign tumours are caused by environmental factors, whereas in breast cancer this percentage reaches 90-95%. There are national programmes established in many countries to fight cancer, where both types of prevention are stressed as serving to decrease morbidity and mortality due to cancers. Cancer prevention is currently playing a key role in the fight against the disease. Behaviour modification, as well as greater awareness among women regarding breast cancer, may significantly contribute towards reducing the incidence of this cancer. Another important aspect is the number of women undergoing diagnostic tests, which still remains at an unsatisfactory level.

  1. Adherence to nutrition-based cancer prevention guidelines and breast, prostate and colorectal cancer risk in the MCC-Spain case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, Dora; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Molinuevo, Amaia; de Batlle, Jordi; Mendez, Michelle; Moreno, Victor; Vidal, Carmen; Castelló, Adela; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Martín, Vicente; Molina, Antonio J; Dávila-Batista, Verónica; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Llorca, Javier; Guevara, Marcela; Castilla, Jesús; Urtiaga, Carmen; Llorens-Ivorra, Cristóbal; Fernández-Tardón, Guillermo; Tardón, Adonina; Lorca, José Andrés; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Huerta, José María; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Jimenez-Moleon, José Juan; Altzibar, Jone; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Pollán, Marina; Aragonés, Núria; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Amiano, Pilar

    2017-07-01

    Prostate, breast and colorectal cancer are the most common tumours in Spain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between adherence to nutrition-based guidelines for cancer prevention and prostate, breast and colorectal cancer, in the MCC-Spain case-control study. A total of 1,718 colorectal, 1,343 breast and 864 prostate cancer cases and 3,431 population-based controls recruited between 2007 and 2012, were included in the present study. The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRC/AICR) score based on six recommendations for cancer prevention (on body fatness, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods and alcoholic drinks; score range 0-6) was constructed. We used unconditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. One-point increment in the WCRF/AICR score was associated with 25% (95% CI 19-30%) lower risk of colorectal, and 15% (95% CI 7-22%) lower risk of breast cancer; no association with prostate cancer was detected, except for cases with a Gleason score ≥7 (poorly differentiated/undifferentiated tumours) (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-0.99). These results add to the wealth of evidence indicating that a great proportion of common cancer cases could be avoided by adopting healthy lifestyle habits. © 2017 UICC.

  2. The sunless study: a beach randomized trial of a skin cancer prevention intervention promoting sunless tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry L; Schneider, Kristin L; Oleski, Jessica; Bodenlos, Jamie S; Ma, Yunsheng

    2010-09-01

    To examine the impact of a skin cancer prevention intervention that promoted sunless tanning as a substitute for sunbathing. Randomized controlled trial. Public beaches in Massachusetts. Women (N = 250) were recruited to participate in the study during their visit to a public beach. Intervention The intervention included motivational messages to use sunless tanning as an alternative to UV tanning, instructions for proper use of sunless tanning products, attractive images of women with sunless tans, a free trial of a sunless tanning product, skin cancer education, and UV imaging. The control participants completed surveys. The primary outcome was sunbathing 2 months and 1 year after the intervention. Secondary outcomes included sunburns, sun protection use, and sunless tanning. At 2 months, intervention participants reduced their sunbathing significantly more than did controls and reported significantly fewer sunburns and greater use of protective clothing. At 1 year, intervention participants reported significant decreases in sunbathing and increases in sunless tanning relative to control participants but no differences in the other outcomes. This intervention, which promoted sunless tanning as an alternative to UV tanning, had a short-term effect on sunbathing, sunburns, and use of protective clothing and a longer-term effect on sunbathing and sunless tanning. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00403377.

  3. Lycopene, tomato products and prostate cancer-specific mortality among men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Jacobs, Eric J; Newton, Christina C; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2016-06-15

    While dietary lycopene and tomato products have been inversely associated with prostate cancer incidence, there is limited evidence for an association between consumption of lycopene and tomato products and prostate-cancer specific mortality (PCSM). We examined the associations of prediagnosis and postdiagnosis dietary lycopene and tomato product intake with PCSM in a large prospective cohort. This analysis included men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between enrollment in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort in 1992 or 1993 and June 2011. Prediagnosis dietary data, collected at baseline, were available for 8,898 men, of whom 526 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Postdiagnosis dietary data, collected on follow-up surveys in 1999 and/or 2003, were available for 5,643 men, of whom 363 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PCSM. Neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis dietary lycopene intake was associated with PCSM (fourth vs. first quartile HR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.78-1.28; HR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.91-1.64, respectively). Similarly, neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis consumption of tomato products was associated with PCSM. Among men with high-risk cancers (T3-T4 or Gleason score 8-10, or nodal involvement), consistently reporting lycopene intake ≥ median on both postdiagnosis surveys was associated with lower PCSM (HR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-0.99, based on ten PCSM cases consistently ≥ median intake) compared to consistently reporting intake lycopene intake with PCSM among men with high-risk prostate cancers. © 2016 UICC.

  4. Overview of gastrointestinal cancer prevention in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Lee, Ho-Jae; Yoo, Jun Hwan; Ko, Weon Jin; Cho, Joo Young; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2015-12-01

    "War on cancer" was declared through the National Cancer Act by President Richard Nixon in 1971, but cancer statistics from the American Cancer Society and other sources indicated the failure of this war, suggesting instead focus on the message that a "prevention strategy" might be much more effective than cancer treatment. While cancer statistics notoriously showed sharp increases in incidence as well as in mortality concurrent with economic growth in Asia, fortunately Asian countries benefit from plentiful resources of natural compounds, which can prevent cancer. Just like cancer chemotherapeutics targeted to kill cancer cells in Western countries, natural agents activating molecular mechanisms for cancer prevention, reversion of premalignant tumors, and even ablation of cancer stem cells, are very abundant in Asia. Currently, these natural agents are under very active investigations targeting the hallmarks of cancer prevention, including selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells, suppression of growth factors or their signaling, suppression of cell proliferation and of cancer-promoting angiogenesis, induction of mesenchymal-epithelial transition, and disruption of the tumor microenvironment, developing promising cancer preventive agents. However, Asia is the most populous continent in the world and some Asian countries do not have the resources to implement cancer screening programs for early detection or treatment. In addition, despite the excellent cancer preventive screening strategies in some Asian countries, well-designed clinical trials for cancer prevention are somewhat delayed compared to Western countries. In this review article, several phytochemicals/phytoceuticals produced and studied in different Asian countries will be introduced, including Korean red ginseng (pride of Korea), curcumin (Indian spice for life), black or green tea (popular in Japan/Sri Lanka), genistein from tofu (famous Chinese food), diallylsulfide or S-allylcysteine (garlic

  5. Towards prevention of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2018-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death of all gynaecological cancers. To date, there is no reliable, specific screening procedure for detecting ovarian cancer. The risk factors of ovarian cancer include modifiable and non-modifiable factors. The main goal of the ovarian cancer prevention program is to significantly reduce the risk of development of ovarian cancer and other cancers such as breast and/or peritoneal cancer. The application of non-surgical preventive approaches such as oral contraceptives, parity and breastfeeding has been shown to be highly protective against ovarian cancer development. Targeting inflammation has been also reported to be associated with a protective trend against ovarian cancer and can be achieved through either non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin or lifestyle modifications or both. Lifestyle modification that includes regular exercise, healthy diet supplemented with anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatory elements reduces the risk of the disease even further. Surgical protective approaches include; tubal ligation, hysterectomy and prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and the former is the most effective approach to protect against ovarian cancer. A better understanding of the risk factors of ovarian cancer and the current approaches to prevent it may increase the awareness and help to decrease the incidence of ovarian cancer, increase the five-year survival rate and decrease the mortality rate significantly in the general population especially among those at high risk for ovarian cancer. This review is an attempt to outline a potential program of ovarian cancer prevention and the potential challenges. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Association between cervical screening and prevention of invasive cervical cancer in Ontario: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicus, Danielle; Sutradhar, Rinku; Lu, Yan; Kupets, Rachel; Paszat, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of cervical screening in the prevention of invasive cervical cancer among age groups, using a population-based case-control study in the province of Ontario, Canada. Exposure was defined as cervical cytology history greater than 3 months before the diagnosis date of cervical cancer (index date). Cases were women who were diagnosed with cervical cancer between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2008. Controls were women without a diagnosis of cervical cancer on, or before, December 31, 2008. Two controls were matched to each case on year of birth and income quintile, as of the index date. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio for having been screened among those with cervical cancer. Cervical cancer screening performed between 3 and 36 months before the index date was protective against invasive cervical cancer in women aged 40 through 69 years. In women younger than 40 years, cervical cancer screening performed 3 to 36 months before the index date was not protective. Cervical screening is associated with a reduced risk for invasive cervical cancer among women older than 40 years. Cervical cancer resources should be focused on maximizing the risk reduction.

  7. The Study of Factors Relevant to Skin Cancer Preventive Behavior in Female High School Students in Yazd Based on Protection Motivation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    mohammad hosein baghiyanimoghadam; soheila mohammadi; mohammad taghi norbala; seed saeed mazlomi

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Skin cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer in Yazd, and childhood and adolescence are particularly important time for preventing later skin cancer risk. The goal of this study is to assess the factors relevant to skin cancer preventive behavior in female high school students in Yazd based on protection motivation theory. Methods: Participants in this cross- sectional study were 360 female students from 4 high schools in Yazd. Data were gathered through a self- report quest...

  8. Breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euhus, David M; Diaz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women with 232,670 new cases estimated in the USA for 2014. Approaches for reducing breast cancer risk include lifestyle modification, chemoprevention, and prophylactic surgery. Lifestyle modification has a variety of health benefits with few associated risks and is appropriate for all women regardless of breast cancer risk. Chemoprevention options have expanded rapidly, but most are directed at estrogen receptor positive breast cancer and uptake is low. Prophylactic surgery introduces significant additional risks of its own and is generally reserved for the highest risk women. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Can weight gain be prevented in women receiving treatment for breast cancer? A systematic review of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Z O; Reeves, M M

    2017-11-01

    Obesity and weight gain have been associated with poor disease-specific and health-related outcomes in women with breast cancer. This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of weight gain prevention interventions among women with breast cancer. Completed and ongoing trials evaluating a behaviourally based dietary intervention with or without physical activity and with a focus on weight gain prevention during treatment for breast cancer were reviewed. Weight change and body composition data were extracted. Within-group weight change of ±1 kg and between-group (intervention versus control) weight difference of ≥2 kg were defined as successful weight gain prevention. Five completed trials (seven intervention arms) and five ongoing trials were identified. Completed trials exclusively recruited premenopausal or premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Within-group weight gain was prevented in two intervention arms, two arms achieved weight loss and three arms reported weight gain. Of the five comparisons with control groups, two reported significant differences in weight change between groups. Ongoing trials will provide further evidence on longer-term outcomes, cost-effectiveness and blood markers. This small but growing number of studies provides preliminary and promising evidence that weight gain can be prevented in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  10. Social Media as a Tool to Promote Health Awareness: Results from an Online Cervical Cancer Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyson, Helena C; Le, Gem M; Zhang, Jingwen; Rivadeneira, Natalie; Lyles, Courtney; Radcliffe, Kate; Pasick, Rena J; Sawaya, George; Sarkar, Urmimala; Centola, Damon

    2018-06-11

    Online social media platforms represent a promising opportunity for public health promotion. Research is limited, however, on the effectiveness of social media at improving knowledge and awareness of health topics and motivating healthy behavior change. Therefore, we investigated whether participation in an online social media platform and receipt of brief, tailored messages is effective at increasing knowledge, awareness, and prevention behaviors related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. We conducted an online study in which 782 recruited participants were consecutively assigned to nine-person groups on a social media platform. Participants were shown a unique random set of 20 tailored messages per day over five days. Participants completed a baseline and post survey to assess their knowledge, awareness, and prevention behaviors related to HPV and cervical cancer. There were no statistically significant changes in knowledge and prevention behaviors from the baseline to the post survey among study participants. There was a modest, statistically significant change in response to whether participants had ever heard of HPV, increasing from 90 to 94% (p = 0.003). Our findings suggest that most study participants had substantial knowledge, awareness, and engagement in positive behaviors related to cervical cancer prevention at the start of the study. Nevertheless, we found that HPV awareness can be increased through brief participation in an online social media platform and receipt of tailored health messages. Further investigation that explores how social media can be used to improve knowledge and adoption of healthy behaviors related to cervical cancer is warranted.

  11. Cancer Prevention by Tocopherols and Tea Polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S.; Li, Guangxun; Yang, Zhihong; Guan, Fei; Chen, Amber; Ju, Jihyeung

    2013-01-01

    Tocopherols (vitamin E) and tea polyphenols have been reported to have cancer preventive activities. Large-scale human trials with high doses of alpha-tocopherol, however, have produced disappointing results. This review presents data showing that γ- and δ-tocopherols inhibit colon, lung, mammary and prostate carcinogenesis in animal models, whereas α-tocopherol is ineffective in animal and human studies. Possible mechanisms of action are discussed. A broad cancer preventive activity of green tea polyphenols has been demonstrated in animal models, and many mechanisms have been proposed. The cancer preventive activity of green tea in humans, however, has not been conclusively demonstrated and remains to be further investigated. PMID:23403075

  12. Radiodermatitis prevention with sucralfate in breast cancer: fundamental and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, Sabrina; Trouillas, Patrick; Duroux, Jean-Luc; Bonnetblanc, Jean-Marie; Clavère, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Acute radiodermatitis induced by radiotherapy may affect the quality of life and in some cases requires withholding treatment. The present study concerns the protective effect of a 1% sucralfate lotion. We propose joint fundamental and clinical points of view. The free radical scavenging capacity of sucralfate was measured with electron spin resonance and was supported by theoretical calculations. The clinical effects of sucralfate lotion were evaluated on 21 women treated for breast cancer. Breast skin response was evaluated at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy, according to (1) the radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) acute toxicity scale and (2) spectrophotometry data obtained with X-Rite SP60. Sucralfate appeared as a relatively poor free radical scavenger (compared to reference compounds such as vitamin E). The sucralfate-containing lotion used in the present study did not provide systematic radiodermatitis prevention. Spectrophotometric evaluation of the skin response to irradiation appeared to be a very effective and more sensitive technique than the RTOG scale. Its use should be recommended to study cutaneous radioprotective action.

  13. Prevention of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Louise; Adams, Malcolm

    2006-04-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancy. The incidence is high in the Western world. The incidence of ovarian cancer is reduced by pregnancy, lactation, the oral contraceptive pill and tubal ligation. Lifestyle factors are important in the aetiology of ovarian cancer and current evidence suggests the risk can be reduced by eating a diet rich in fruit and vegetables, taking regular exercise, avoiding smoking, avoiding being overweight and avoiding long-term use of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). Familial ovarian cancer is responsible for about 10% of ovarian cancer cases. Strategies available to high-risk women include screening (covered elsewhere) and prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. The precise role of chemoprevention for high-risk women in the form of the oral contraceptive pill is unclear.

  14. The Effects of Prostate Cancer Treatment on the Sexual Behavior of Gay and Bisexual Men: Key Results from the "Restore" Study | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker | "The Effects of Prostate Cancer Treatment on the Sexual Behavior of Gay and Bisexual Men: Key Results from the 'Restore' Study" will be presented by B.R. Simon Rosser, PhD, MPH, Professor of the Division of Epidemiology & Community Health and Director of HIV/STI Intervention & Prevention Studies at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health in Minneapolis,

  15. Advances in breast cancer treatment and prevention: preclinical studies on aromatase inhibitors and new selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiff, Rachel; Chamness, Gary C; Brown, Powel H

    2003-01-01

    Intensive basic and clinical research over the past 20 years has yielded crucial molecular understanding into how estrogen and the estrogen receptor act to regulate breast cancer and has led to the development of more effective, less toxic, and safer hormonal therapy agents for breast cancer management and prevention. Selective potent aromatase inhibitors are now challenging the hitherto gold standard of hormonal therapy, the selective estrogen-receptor modulator tamoxifen. Furthermore, new selective estrogen-receptor modulators such as arzoxifene, currently under clinical development, offer the possibility of selecting one with a more ideal pharmacological profile for treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Two recent studies in preclinical model systems that evaluate mechanisms of action of these new drugs and suggestions about their optimal clinical use are discussed

  16. A survey of Australian cancer nurses: The prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (CanPaC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There is global imperative to reduce the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCD′s. NCD′s are the leading cause of death and disability globally. In Australia, 2010, the World Health Organization estimated cancer deaths attributable to NCD′s accounted for approximately 29% of all deaths and most are preventable by modifying lifestyle associated risk factors. The International Council of Nurses (2010 identified nurses are ideally placed to contribute to prevention and control of NCD′s through evidence based strategies (EBS. The aim of this study was to explore the Australian cancer nurses role, knowledge, and skills to prevent and control NCD′s. Methods: We used nonprobability snowball sampling to collect data from an online survey distributed to 899 members of the Cancer Nurses Society of Australia. Results: Two hundred and fifty-seven nurses responded; >90% found it is within the scope of their role to contribute to prevention and control of NCDs, >70% assess for modifiable risk factors, >85% refer to support services, and 70% were interested in spending more time addressing prevention. Over 60% indicated they had adequate resources, appropriate personal skills, and adequate knowledge; however 73% felt they had inadequate time to incorporate strategies within their existing workload, 56% believed their physical environment was inadequate, and 48% felt a lack of culturally appropriate resources were identified as barrier to contributing to the prevention and control of NCDs. Conclusions: Australian cancer nurses want to contribute to the prevention and control of NCD′s although workload, physical environment, and culturally inadequate resources hinder the implementation of EBS to combat NCD′s.

  17. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... following are risk factors for stomach cancer: Certain medical conditions Having any of the following medical conditions ...

  18. Cancer prevention strategies: use of cancer prevention research registries.

    OpenAIRE

    Anton-Culver, H

    1995-01-01

    We present a model to plan a rational strategy for cancer prevention that has two main functions--assessment and intervention. The assessment function includes three main components: to identify populations at high cancer risk, which may be due to their ethnic group, occupational and environmental exposures, family history, cigarette smoking, or other risk factors; to assess exposure to known carcinogens through the general and occupational environments, lifestyle factors, and the home as wel...

  19. Garlic and onions: Their cancer prevention properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Ross, Sharon A.; Milner, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiological studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biological processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps. PMID:25586902

  20. Cancer prevention in Africa: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busolo, David S; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is an emerging crisis in Africa. Cancer was the seventh leading cause of death in 2004. If not controlled, cancer incidence in Africa is expected to reach 1.28 million cases annually and claim 970,000 lives yearly by 2030. This paper presents a review of the literature on current cancer prevention approaches in Africa, and consists of cancer prevention studies conducted in African countries (e.g. South Africa and Nigeria) from PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL databases. Common female cancers in Africa are breast and cervical cancer while prostate cancer is the most common neoplasm among African males. Other common cancers are liver, colorectal, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Mortality related to these cancers comes as a result of delays in screening and treatment, unfamiliarity with cancer and cancer prevention, inaccessibility and unaffordability of care, and inefficiency of healthcare systems. Cancer prevention efforts are deficient because many governments lack cancer prevention and control policies. Also contributing to the lack of cancer prevention and control policies are low levels of awareness, scarce human and financial resources, and inadequacy of cancer registries. Overall, governments grapple with limited funds and competing healthcare priorities. As cancer continues to increase in Africa, the need for rigorous interdisciplinary research on cancer etiology and monitoring in Africa has never been timelier. Cost-effective cancer prevention programs, coordination of donor funding, advocacy, and education should be aggressively pursued. The call for more collaborative approaches in research and policy is urgently needed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Multicentric randomised study of Helicobacter pylori eradication and pepsinogen testing for prevention of gastric cancer mortality: the GISTAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leja, Marcis; Park, Jin Young; Murillo, Raul; Liepniece-Karele, Inta; Isajevs, Sergejs; Kikuste, Ilze; Rudzite, Dace; Krike, Petra; Parshutin, Sergei; Polaka, Inese; Kirsners, Arnis; Santare, Daiga; Folkmanis, Valdis; Daugule, Ilva; Plummer, Martyn; Herrero, Rolando

    2017-08-11

    Population-based eradication of Helicobacter pylori has been suggested to be cost-effective and is recommended by international guidelines. However, the potential adverse effects of widespread antibiotic use that this would entail have not been sufficiently studied. An alternative way to decrease gastric cancer mortality is by non-invasive search for precancerous lesions, in particular gastric atrophy; pepsinogen tests are the best currently available alternative. The primary objective of GISTAR is to determine whether H pylori eradication combined with pepsinogen testing reduces mortality from gastric cancer among 40-64-year-old individuals. The secondary objectives include evaluation of H pylori eradication effectiveness in gastric cancer prevention in patients with precancerous lesions and evaluation of the potential adverse events, including effects on microbiome. Individuals are recruited from general population (50% men) in areas with high gastric cancer risk in Europe and undergo detailed lifestyle and medical history questionnaire before being randomly allocated to intervention or control groups. The intervention group undergoes H pylori testing and is offered eradication therapy if positive; in addition, pepsinogen levels are detected in plasma and those with decreased levels are referred for upper endoscopy. All participants are offered faecal occult blood testing as an incentive for study participation. Effectiveness of eradication and the spectrum of adverse events are evaluated in study subpopulations. A 35% difference in gastric cancer mortality between the groups is expected to be detectable at 90% power after 15 years if 30 000 individuals are recruited. Biological materials are biobanked for the main and ancillary studies. The study procedure and assumptions will be tested during the pilot phase. The study was approved by the respective ethics committees. An independent Data Safety and Monitoring Board has been established. The findings will be

  2. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-12

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action.

  3. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277

  4. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  5. Residential radon exposure and risk of incident hematologic malignancies in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teras, Lauren R., E-mail: lauren.teras@cancer.org [Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Diver, W. Ryan [Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Turner, Michelle C. [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa, Ottawa (Canada); Krewski, Daniel [McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa, Ottawa (Canada); School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Disease Prevention, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Sahar, Liora [Statistics and Evaluation Center, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ward, Elizabeth [Intramural Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gapstur, Susan M. [Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Dosimetric models show that radon, an established cause of lung cancer, delivers a non-negligible dose of alpha radiation to the bone marrow, as well as to lymphocytes in the tracheobronchial epithelium, and therefore could be related to risk of hematologic cancers. Studies of radon and hematologic cancer risk, however, have produced inconsistent results. To date there is no published prospective, population-based study of residential radon exposure and hematologic malignancy incidence. We used data from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort established in 1992, to examine the association between county-level residential radon exposure and risk of hematologic cancer. The analytic cohort included 140,652 participants (66,572 men, 74,080 women) among which 3019 incident hematologic cancer cases (1711 men, 1308 women) were identified during 19 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radon exposure and hematologic cancer risk. Women living in counties with the highest mean radon concentrations (>148 Bq/m{sup 3}) had a statistically significant higher risk of hematologic cancer compared to those living in counties with the lowest (<74 Bq/m{sup 3}) radon levels (HR=1.63, 95% CI:1.23–2.18), and there was evidence of a dose-response relationship (HR{sub continuous}=1.38, 95% CI:1.15–1.65 per 100 Bq/m{sup 3}; p-trend=0.001). There was no association between county-level radon and hematologic cancer risk among men. The findings of this large, prospective study suggest residential radon may be a risk factor for lymphoid malignancies among women. Further study is needed to confirm these findings. - Highlights: • This is the first prospective, general population study of residential radon and risk of hematologic cancer. • Findings from this study suggest that residential radon exposure may be a risk factor

  6. Residential radon exposure and risk of incident hematologic malignancies in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teras, Lauren R.; Diver, W. Ryan; Turner, Michelle C.; Krewski, Daniel; Sahar, Liora; Ward, Elizabeth; Gapstur, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Dosimetric models show that radon, an established cause of lung cancer, delivers a non-negligible dose of alpha radiation to the bone marrow, as well as to lymphocytes in the tracheobronchial epithelium, and therefore could be related to risk of hematologic cancers. Studies of radon and hematologic cancer risk, however, have produced inconsistent results. To date there is no published prospective, population-based study of residential radon exposure and hematologic malignancy incidence. We used data from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort established in 1992, to examine the association between county-level residential radon exposure and risk of hematologic cancer. The analytic cohort included 140,652 participants (66,572 men, 74,080 women) among which 3019 incident hematologic cancer cases (1711 men, 1308 women) were identified during 19 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radon exposure and hematologic cancer risk. Women living in counties with the highest mean radon concentrations (>148 Bq/m 3 ) had a statistically significant higher risk of hematologic cancer compared to those living in counties with the lowest (<74 Bq/m 3 ) radon levels (HR=1.63, 95% CI:1.23–2.18), and there was evidence of a dose-response relationship (HR continuous =1.38, 95% CI:1.15–1.65 per 100 Bq/m 3 ; p-trend=0.001). There was no association between county-level radon and hematologic cancer risk among men. The findings of this large, prospective study suggest residential radon may be a risk factor for lymphoid malignancies among women. Further study is needed to confirm these findings. - Highlights: • This is the first prospective, general population study of residential radon and risk of hematologic cancer. • Findings from this study suggest that residential radon exposure may be a risk factor for lymphoid

  7. Innovative agents in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Margaret M; Farmer, Peter B; Gescher, Andreas; Steward, William P

    2005-01-01

    There are many facets to cancer prevention: a good diet, weight control and physical activity, a healthy environment, avoidance of carcinogens such as those in tobacco smoke, and screening of populations at risk to allow early detection. But there is also the possibility of using drugs or naturally occurring compounds to prevent initiation of, or to suppress, tumour growth. Only a few such agents have been used to date in the clinic with any success, and these include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for colon, finasteride for prostate and tamoxifen or raloxifene for breast tumours. An ideal chemopreventive agent would restore normal growth control to a preneoplastic or cancerous cell population by modifying aberrant signalling pathways or inducing apoptosis (or both) in cells beyond repair. Characteristics for such an agent include selectivity for damaged or transformed cells, good bioavailability and more than one mechanism of action to foil redundancy or crosstalk in signalling pathways. As more research effort is being targeted towards this area, the distinction between chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agents is blurring. Chemotherapeutic drugs are now being designed to target over- or under-active signalling molecules within cancer cells, a philosophy which is just as relevant in chemoprevention. Development of dietary agents is particularly attractive because of our long-standing exposure to them, their relative lack of toxicity, and encouraging indications from epidemiology. The carcinogenic process relies on the cell's ability to proliferate abnormally, evade apoptosis, induce angiogenesis and metastasise to distant sites. In vitro studies with a number of different diet-derived compounds suggest that there are molecules capable of modulating each of these aspects of tumour growth. However, on the negative side many of them have rather poor bioavailability. The challenge is to uncover their multiple mechanisms of action in order to predict their

  8. Optimized NSAIDS for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A

    2005-01-01

    ...) develop breast cancer less frequently. However, these drugs have side effects toward the stomach, liver and kidneys, particularly at the high doses potentially required to prevent breast cancer...

  9. Cancer in Nigerian Women: A Critical Need for Prevention Strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer in Nigeria is assuming an alarming proportion. Recent public awareness on common female cancer such as breast, cervix, liver etc has shown an upsurge of cancer in women. This study aims to describe common cancers in Nigerian women and highlight strategy for cancer prevention. All records of histologically ...

  10. CAPRELA (Cancer Prevention for Latinas): findings of a pilot study in Winston-Salem, Forsyth County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Alejandra E; Riganti, Alicia Alemán; Foley, Kristie Long

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate knowledge and attitudes that affect cervical and breast cancer screening among uninsured Hispanic women. Cross-sectional, descriptive study of uninsured Latino women in Forsyth County, North Carolina. A convenience sample of Hispanic women who immigrated to the United States within the last ten years, primarily from Mexico (N = 70). Two trained lay health advisors (promotoras) administered in-person, structured surveys to 70 women in the community. All interviews were conducted in Spanish. Additionally two focus groups were conducted in Spanish to elucidate cultural beliefs and barriers to cancer screening not otherwise captured in the standardized surveys. Quantitative data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Qualitative data were transcribed and analyzed using a multi-step framework approach to identify and validate themes. Of 70 women, 42 (60%) reported a Pap smear within the last year; 26 (37%) reported two exams within the past three years. Among women aged 40 and older, 10 of 18 (56%) reported ever having a mammogram. Being married (OR = 4.05, CI 1.07-15.25) and having the same healthcare provider (OR 5.64, CI 1.04-30.56) predicted better Pap smear screening in multivariate analyses. Limited knowledge about breast cancer and needing an interpreter to communicate reduced the likelihood that women received a mammogram. Qualitative results indicated that women had poor prior experiences with Pap smears, held several misconceptions about cancer etiology and risk factors, and expressed distinct gender roles for Latina women and men that may affect healthcare utilization. Screening rates for cervical and breast cancer are low among uninsured Latina women. Therefore, community and clinic-based interventions are needed to improve underutilization of and satisfaction with cancer screening practices among uninsured Latina women.

  11. Optimized NSAIDS for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A

    2005-01-01

    .... Also, how these agents prevent breast cancer is not understood. This project will develop an optimized NSAID for breast cancer prevention that can be taken safely at high doses, and will determine its mechanisms of action...

  12. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin. PMID:19325788

  13. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Pan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin.

  14. Pancreatic cancer: any prospects for prevention?

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, A.

    1999-01-01

    Primary prevention of pancreatic cancer and public health measures to reduce its incidence are dependent on data from epidemiological studies. Currently, the only definite risk factor is smoking, although a diet rich in fruit and vegetables may be protective. The K-ras mutation may have a role in diagnosis and screening.


Keywords: pancreatic cancer; epidemiology; risk factors; smoking; diet; alcohol

  15. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.

  16. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.

  17. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G; Nikolova, D; Simonetti, R G

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  18. Preventive evolutionary medicine of cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Michael E; Thomas, Frédéric; Assenat, Eric; Hibner, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that once an individual reaches an age of sufficiently low Darwinian fitness, (s)he will have reduced chances of keeping cancerous lesions in check. While we clearly need to better understand the emergence of precursor states and early malignancies as well as their mitigation by the microenvironment and tissue architecture, we argue that lifestyle changes and preventive therapies based in an evolutionary framework, applied to identified high-risk populations before incipient neoplasms become clinically detectable and chemoresistant lineages emerge, are currently the most reliable way to control or eliminate early tumours. Specifically, the relatively low levels of (epi)genetic heterogeneity characteristic of many if not most incipient lesions will mean a relatively limited set of possible adaptive traits and associated costs compared to more advanced cancers, and thus a more complete and predictable understanding of treatment options and outcomes. We propose a conceptual model for preventive treatments and discuss the many associated challenges.

  19. Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 years of vitamin E supplementation Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) Study, France ( 19 – 22 ) Daily supplementation with vitamin C (120 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), beta-carotene ( ...

  20. Toward optimal implementation of cancer prevention and control programs in public health: a study protocol on mis-implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padek, Margaret; Allen, Peg; Erwin, Paul C; Franco, Melissa; Hammond, Ross A; Heuberger, Benjamin; Kasman, Matt; Luke, Doug A; Mazzucca, Stephanie; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Brownson, Ross C

    2018-03-23

    Much of the cancer burden in the USA is preventable, through application of existing knowledge. State-level funders and public health practitioners are in ideal positions to affect programs and policies related to cancer control. Mis-implementation refers to ending effective programs and policies prematurely or continuing ineffective ones. Greater attention to mis-implementation should lead to use of effective interventions and more efficient expenditure of resources, which in the long term, will lead to more positive cancer outcomes. This is a three-phase study that takes a comprehensive approach, leading to the elucidation of tactics for addressing mis-implementation. Phase 1: We assess the extent to which mis-implementation is occurring among state cancer control programs in public health. This initial phase will involve a survey of 800 practitioners representing all states. The programs represented will span the full continuum of cancer control, from primary prevention to survivorship. Phase 2: Using data from phase 1 to identify organizations in which mis-implementation is particularly high or low, the team will conduct eight comparative case studies to get a richer understanding of mis-implementation and to understand contextual differences. These case studies will highlight lessons learned about mis-implementation and identify hypothesized drivers. Phase 3: Agent-based modeling will be used to identify dynamic interactions between individual capacity, organizational capacity, use of evidence, funding, and external factors driving mis-implementation. The team will then translate and disseminate findings from phases 1 to 3 to practitioners and practice-related stakeholders to support the reduction of mis-implementation. This study is innovative and significant because it will (1) be the first to refine and further develop reliable and valid measures of mis-implementation of public health programs; (2) bring together a strong, transdisciplinary team with

  1. Leslie Ford, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Leslie Ford built clinical cancer prevention research as a scientific field when few people were considering the possibility of prevention, and is recognized as a national and international leader in cancer prevention research. She has a passion for prevention and strong belief that all clinical science must, to the fullest extent possible, derive as a translation of basic

  2. Cancer Prevention in the Precision Medicine Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Rebbeck’s research focuses on the etiology and prevention of cancer, with an emphasis on cancers with a genetic etiology and those that are associated with disparities in incidence or mortality by race. He has directed multiple large molecular epidemiologic studies and international consortia that have been used to identify and characterize genes involved in cancer etiology, understand the relationship of allelic variation with biochemical or physiological traits, explore interactions of inherited and somatic genomic variation with epidemiological risk factors. His research also focuses on the roles of biological and social factors on prostate cancer disparities and prostate cancer in Africa through the Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP) consortium. He has also led a number of consortia that study carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations to understand breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer risk and precision prevention interventions that may reduce that risk. In addition to his research activities, Dr. Rebbeck leads a number of initiatives on the Harvard Campus. He serves as Associate Director for Equity and Engagement in the Dana-Farber / Harvard Cancer Center and Co-Director for the Collective Impact Program of Harvard Catalyst. In this role, he prioritizes the cancer research agenda to maximize disease prevention and risk reduction in Massachusetts. He also oversees a team charged with ensuring that this research engages with and positively impacts communities with the greatest disease burden.  As Director of Global Oncology at the Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Dr. Rebbeck oversees formal and informal training and research partnerships between Dana Farber investigators and trainees with international partners.

  3. Flavin-Dependent Enzymes in Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Wojcieszyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistical studies have demonstrated that various agents may reduce the risk of cancer’s development. One of them is activity of flavin-dependent enzymes such as flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOGS-OX1, FAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and flavin-dependent monoamine oxidase. In the last decade, many papers concerning their structure, reaction mechanism and role in the cancer prevention were published. In our work, we provide a more in-depth analysis of flavin-dependent enzymes and their contribution to the cancer prevention. We present the actual knowledge about the glucosinolate synthesized by flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOGS-OX1 and its role in cancer prevention, discuss the influence of mutations in FAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase on the cancer risk, and describe FAD as an important cofactor for the demethylation of histons. We also present our views on the role of riboflavin supplements in the prevention against cancer.

  4. Effects of a Cancer Prevention Advertisement on Beliefs and Knowledge about Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye, Su Yeon; Yoo, Jisu; Lee, Min Hee; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Outcome-expectation beliefs and knowledge may ultimately influence behavior for cancer prevention. The aims of this study were to measure changes in knowledge and beliefs about cancer prevention before and after viewing a television advertisement and identify the factors affecting receptivity to its messages. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used in this study of 1,000 individuals aged 20 to 65 years who were recruited online in November 2014. The outcome variables included cancer prevention beliefs based on the Health Belief Model (five items) and knowledge about risk factors for cancer (seven items). Perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and self-efficacy increased significantly and their perceived severity and perceived barriers decreased significantly, after participants viewed the television advertisement. Correct responses to questions about risk factors also increased significantly, except for smoking. The main factors affecting changes in the outcome variables were age, interest in cancer prevention, social network, satisfaction with the ad, and pretest scores. Television advertisements with positive frameworks can be an efficient channel of improving beliefs and knowledge about cancer prevention in a short period. The continuous development of intervention materials that consider the demographics, needs, and satisfaction of the target group will be necessary for future studies.

  5. Breast cancer: the importance of prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Breast cancer currently accounts for 14% of new cancers in women in developing countries. As urbanization accelerates and more Third World women adopt Western diets and reproductive patterns, this rate can be expected to increase. Researchers have accumulated a significant knowledge base of the risk factors associated with breast cancer. Early 1st menstruation, having a 1st fullterm pregnancy after age 30 years, and going through menopause after age 50 years are all believed to increase this risk. Although studies have failed to reveal any consistent association between oral contraceptive (OC) use and breast cancer, there is some evidence of an increased risk among women under age 45 years who started OC use early or used this contraceptive method for a long time. Obesity, and the diet prevalent in developed countries--high in fat, low in fiber, and high in calories--are other risk factors for breast cancer. Several studies have shown that women who moved to the US from countries such as Japan with low breast cancer rates approached the risk levels of US women within 1 generation as a result of the adoption of a Western lifestyle. Of particular concern in developing countries is the fact that most breast cancers go undiagnosed or are not detected early enough to allow for effective treatment, if treatment is even available. Cultural taboos often prevent both women and physicians from examining the breasts for lumps. Both developed and developing countries must begin devoting more attention to the prevention of breast cancer. An important preventive step is for mothers to breastfeed their infants for at least 1 years.

  6. Probiotics, prebiotics and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambalam, Padma; Raman, Maya; Purama, Ravi Kiran; Doble, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third major cause of mortality among various cancer types in United States, has been increasing in developing countries due to varying diet and dietary habits and occupational hazards. Recent evidences showed that composition of gut microbiota could be associated with the development of CRC and other gut dysbiosis. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics, either alone or in combination could positively influence the cross-talk between immune system and microbiota, would be beneficial in preventing inflammation and CRC. In this review, role of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention of CRC has been discussed. Various epidemiological and experimental studies, specifically gut microbiome research has effectively improved the understanding about the role of probiotics and microbial treatment as anticarcinogenic agents. A few human studies support the beneficial effect of probiotics and prebiotics; hence, comprehensive understanding is urgent to realize the clinical applications of probiotics and prebiotics in CRC prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. "Cancer--Educate to Prevent"--high-school teachers, the new promoters of cancer prevention education campaigns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Barros

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and thus represents a priority for national public health programs. Prevention has been assumed as the best strategy to reduce cancer burden, however most cancer prevention programs are implemented by healthcare professionals, which constrain range and educational impacts. We developed an innovative approach for cancer prevention education focused on high-school biology teachers, considered privileged mediators in the socialization processes. A training program, "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" was applied, so that the teachers were able to independently develop and implement prevention campaigns focused on students and school-related communities. The program encompassed different educational modules, ranging from cancer biology to prevention campaigns design. Fifty-four teachers were empowered to develop and implement their own cancer prevention campaigns in a population up to five thousands students. The success of the training program was assessed through quantitative evaluation--questionnaires focused on teachers' cancer knowledge and perceptions, before the intervention (pre-test and immediately after (post-test. The projects developed and implemented by teachers were also evaluated regarding the intervention design, educational contents and impact on the students' knowledge about cancer. This study presents and discusses the results concerning the training program "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" and clearly shows a significant increase in teacher's cancer literacy (knowledge and perceptions and teachers' acquired proficiency to develop and deliver cancer prevention campaigns with direct impact on students' knowledge about cancer. This pilot study reinforces the potential of high-school teachers and schools as cancer prevention promoters and opens a new perspective for the development and validation of cancer prevention education strategies, based upon focused interventions in restricted

  8. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WHEELER COSETTE M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.

  9. Culture, attitude and knowledge about breast cancer and preventive measures: a qualitative study of South Asian breast cancer patients in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbani, Gulshan; Lim, Jennifer N W; Hewison, Jenny; Atkin, Karl; Horgan, Kieran; Lansdown, Mark; Chu, Carol E

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of culture and beliefs about breast cancer, and its implications on preventive health behaviour among South Asian people in the UK. Using a qualitative approach, 24 South Asian breast cancer patients and their significant others were interviewed. Most patients were unfamiliar with the subject of cancer; they expressed lack of knowledge of cancer as a disease and its symptoms. They identified a painless lump in the breast as sign of abnormality, but not cancer. They also did not know any non-lump breast symptoms. Over half participated in breast screening after encouragement from daughters or relatives. Most did not practise breast self-examination. Perceptions of cancer and health behaviour were influenced by cultural beliefs. Common themes were cancer is a taboo subject and cancer is a stigma. Patients also expressed misunderstandings about the cause of cancer. Cancer in the family had ramifications on children' s marriage prospects and may cause marital breakdown. Terminology used also caused communication problems with healthcare professionals and within the family: the use of ' chest' to substitute ' breast' changed the meaning of the message conveyed. Cultural beliefs and practices accentuate difficulties in understanding breast cancer, breast screening and breast self-examination, and can prevent South Asian women from adopting preventive health practices.

  10. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  11. Preventive Effect of Rebamipide Gargle on Chemoradiotherpy-Induced Oral Mucositis in Patients with Oral Cancer: a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yasuda

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of rebamipide in preventing chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients with oral cancer.Material and Methods: Patients with oral cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy (daily radiotherapy plus docetaxel hydrate once a week were enrolled for this study. They were assigned in a double-blind fashion to receive either rebamipide gargle or placebo on the days of chemoradiotherapy. Oral mucositis was assessed using the WHO grading system. The primary endpoint of this study was the incidence of grade 3 - 4 mucositis after exposure to 40 Gy radiation (4 weeks. The secondary endpoint was the effect of rebamipide gargle on tumour response to chemoradiotherapy.Results: Twenty-four patients were randomly assigned to receive rebamipide gargle (n = 12 or placebo-gargle (n = 12 during chemoradiotherapy. The number of patients with severe mucositis (WHO ≥ 3 was higher in the placebo group than in the rebamipide group (83.3% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.036. In addition, no effect of rebamipide gargle on tumour response to chemoradiotherapy was recognized compared with the placebo group.Conclusions: For patients with oral cancer undergoing chemoradiotherapy, rebamipide gargle may contribute to decrease the severity of oral mucositis.

  12. Cancer Prevention and Health Promotion for People with Intellectual Disabilities: An Exploratory Study of Staff Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, L. M.; Taggart, L.; Cousins, W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: As people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are living longer, their chances of developing cancer also increases. However, recognising the early signs and symptoms of cancer in a population with cognitive impairment and communication difficulties poses difficulties for both family carers and professional care staff. Engagement in…

  13. Public education in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Parijs, L G

    1986-01-01

    Life-style is now recognized as a main determinant of cancer risk. Public education is an important component of cancer control programmes and has been shown to be effective in leading to life-style changes. Four basic types of education programmes are reviewed: for increasing the public's awareness of cancer, for changing specific risk behaviour (such as stopping smoking), for learning self-examination skills (such as breast self-examination), and for promoting early cancer detection in the community.To change human behaviour it is best to approach the risk habit through the same forces that develop and sustain the habit. Simply giving information of an association between specific habits and cancer, even if repeated several times, will lead to increased public awareness and encourage some to make a minimal effort to change their behaviour, but in general the new habit does not persist and continuing and intensifying this approach are ineffective. An alternative strategy utilizes socially active forces to support the prevention practice and remove possible barriers to action. For example, an antismoking programme should create a favourable social image of the non-smoker. Although a culturally and socially relevant mass media campaign can influence knowledge and beliefs and induce people to participate in a screening activity, this needs to be supplemented over a period of time by personal contact methods, such as group discussions, telephone conversations and home visits, in order to promote a regular screening habit. Contrary to popular opinion, mass communication methods can be expensive on a per person cost-effectiveness basis because of low participation rates and weakness in sustaining healthy behaviour.

  14. 2014 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. 2018 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. 2013 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Nutritional Science Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Cervical Cancer is Preventable Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... 000 More than 4,000 women die of cervical cancer each year. 93% As many as 93% of ...

  19. Cancer-preventive activities of tocopherols and tocotrienols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jihyeung; Picinich, Sonia C; Yang, Zhihong; Zhao, Yang; Suh, Nanjoo; Kong, Ah-Ng; Yang, Chung S

    2010-04-01

    The cancer-preventive activity of vitamin E has been studied. Whereas some epidemiological studies have suggested a protective effect of vitamin E against cancer formation, many large-scale intervention studies with alpha-tocopherol (usually large doses) have not demonstrated a cancer-preventive effect. Studies on alpha-tocopherol in animal models also have not demonstrated robust cancer prevention effects. One possible explanation for the lack of demonstrable cancer-preventive effects is that high doses of alpha-tocopherol decrease the blood and tissue levels of delta-tocopherols. It has been suggested that gamma-tocopherol, due to its strong anti-inflammatory and other activities, may be the more effective form of vitamin E in cancer prevention. Our recent results have demonstrated that a gamma-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols inhibits colon, prostate, mammary and lung tumorigenesis in animal models, suggesting that this mixture may have a high potential for applications in the prevention of human cancer. In this review, we discuss biochemical properties of tocopherols, results of possible cancer-preventive effects in humans and animal models and possible mechanisms involved in the inhibition of carcinogenesis. Based on this information, we propose that a gamma-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols is a very promising cancer-preventive agent and warrants extensive future research.

  20. Calcium and Cancer Prevention: Strengths and Limits of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 30 percent lower risk of colorectal cancer among women ( 13 ). Findings from two large randomized , placebo-controlled clinical trials , the Calcium Polyp Prevention Study ( 14 , 15 ) and the European Cancer Prevention Organisation Intervention Study ( 16 ) showed that daily supplementation with ...

  1. 30 years of preventive studies of uterine cervical cancer 1982-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido JL

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To show and describe the clinical evolution of cervical cancer screening patients following the protocol established by the University of Padua. Methods: 12,679 patients were examined using Pap smear, colposcopy and biopsy in cases it was required. Results: From these large group of patients, 6,411 were diagnosed as patients at risk of developing cancer, from which 4,257 only had HPV infection, 1,150 had dysplastic lesions, 210 had cervical cancer and 794 cases were classified as simple oncogenic risk.

  2. A Community-Engaged Approach to Developing a Mobile Cancer Prevention App: The mCPA Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid growth of mobile technologies has resulted in a proliferation of lifestyle-oriented mobile phone apps. However, most do not have a theoretical framework and few have been developed using a community-based participatory research approach. A community academic team will develop a theory-based, culturally tailored, mobile-enabled, Web-based app—the Mobile Cancer Prevention App (mCPA)—to promote adherence to dietary and physical activity guidelines. Objective The aim of this study is to develop mCPA content with input from breast cancer survivors. Methods Members of SISTAAH (Survivors Involving Supporters to Take Action in Advancing Health) Talk (N=12), treated for Stages I-IIIc breast cancer for less than 1 year, 75 years of age or younger, and English-speaking and writing, will be recruited to participate in the study. To develop the app content, breast cancer survivors will engage with researchers in videotaped and audiotaped sessions, including (1) didactic instructions with goals for, benefits of, and strategies to enhance dietary intake and physical activity, (2) guided discussions for setting individualized goals, monitoring progress, and providing or receiving feedback, (3) experiential nutrition education through cooking demonstrations, and (4) interactive physical activity focused on walking, yoga, and strength training. Qualitative (focus group discussions and key informant interviews) and quantitative (sensory evaluation) methods will be used to evaluate the participatory process and outcomes. Results Investigators and participants anticipate development of an acceptable (frequency and duration of usage) feasible (structure, ease of use, features), and accessible mobile app available for intervention testing in early 2017. Conclusions Depending on the availability of research funding, mCPA testing, which will be initiated in Miami, will be extended to Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, and Los Angeles. PMID:26935995

  3. A Community-Engaged Approach to Developing a Mobile Cancer Prevention App: The mCPA Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Selina Ann; Whitehead, Mary Smith; Sheats, Joyce; Mastromonico, Jeff; Yoo, Wonsuk; Coughlin, Steven Scott

    2016-03-02

    Rapid growth of mobile technologies has resulted in a proliferation of lifestyle-oriented mobile phone apps. However, most do not have a theoretical framework and few have been developed using a community-based participatory research approach. A community academic team will develop a theory-based, culturally tailored, mobile-enabled, Web-based app-the Mobile Cancer Prevention App (mCPA)-to promote adherence to dietary and physical activity guidelines. The aim of this study is to develop mCPA content with input from breast cancer survivors. Members of SISTAAH (Survivors Involving Supporters to Take Action in Advancing Health) Talk (N=12), treated for Stages I-IIIc breast cancer for less than 1 year, 75 years of age or younger, and English-speaking and writing, will be recruited to participate in the study. To develop the app content, breast cancer survivors will engage with researchers in videotaped and audiotaped sessions, including (1) didactic instructions with goals for, benefits of, and strategies to enhance dietary intake and physical activity, (2) guided discussions for setting individualized goals, monitoring progress, and providing or receiving feedback, (3) experiential nutrition education through cooking demonstrations, and (4) interactive physical activity focused on walking, yoga, and strength training. Qualitative (focus group discussions and key informant interviews) and quantitative (sensory evaluation) methods will be used to evaluate the participatory process and outcomes. Investigators and participants anticipate development of an acceptable (frequency and duration of usage) feasible (structure, ease of use, features), and accessible mobile app available for intervention testing in early 2017. Depending on the availability of research funding, mCPA testing, which will be initiated in Miami, will be extended to Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, and Los Angeles.

  4. Optimized NSAIDs for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A

    2006-01-01

    .... Also, how these agents prevent breastcancer is not understood. This project will develop an optimized NSAID for breast cancer prevention that can betaken safely at high doses, and will determine its mechanisms of action...

  5. The Peru Cervical Cancer Prevention Study (PERCAPS): the technology to make screening accessible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Kimberly L; Abuelo, Carolina; Salmeron, Jorge; Chyung, Eunice; Zou, Jing; Belinson, Suzanne E; Wang, Guixiang; Ortiz, Carlos Santos; Vallejos, Carlos Santiago; Belinson, Jerome L

    2013-05-01

    This study utilized a combination of HPV self-sampling, iFTA elute specimen cards, and long distance transport for centralized processing of specimens to determine the feasibility of large-scale screening in remote and transient populations. This study was performed in two locations in Peru (Manchay and Iquitos). The "Just For Me" cervico-vaginal brush and iFTA elute cards were used for the collection and transport of specimens. Samples were shipped via FedEx to China and tested for 14 types of high-risk HPV using PCR based MALDI-TOF. HPV positive women were treated with cryotherapy after VIA triage, and followed-up with colposcopy, biopsy, ECC, and repeat HPV testing at 6 months. Six hundred and forty three women registered, and 632 returned a sample over a 10 day period. Within 2 weeks, specimens were shipped, samples tested, and results received by study staff. Sixty-eight women (10.8%) tested positive, and these results were delivered over 4 days. Fifty-nine HPV positive women (87%) returned for evaluation and treatment, and 2 had large lesions not suitable for cryotherapy. At 6 months, 42 women (74%) returned for follow-up, and 3 had CIN 2 (all positive samples from the endocervical canal). Ninety eight percent of participants reported that they would participate in this type of program again. Utilizing HPV self-sampling, solid media specimen cards for long distance transport, and centralized high throughput processing, we achieved rapid delivery of results, high satisfaction levels, and low loss to follow-up for cervical cancer screening in remote and transient populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Measuring financial well-being in cancer prevention research: Results from the Money-Health Connection Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Reginald Tucker-Seeley joined the faculty at the University of Southern California (USC) Leonard Davis School of Gerontology in June 2017. Prior to joining USC, Dr. Tucker-Seeley was an Assistant Professor at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (HSPH). He completed master and doctoral degrees at HSPH and a postdoctoral fellowship in cancer prevention and control at HSPH and DFCI. Dr. Tucker-Seeley’s research focuses primarily on social determinants of health, such as the association between the neighborhood environment and health behavior; and on individual-level socioeconomic determinants of multi-morbidity, mortality, self-rated health, and health self-efficacy. His current work focuses on financial well-being across the cancer continuum, from prevention to end-of-life care. He has received R21 and K01 grants from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to develop measures of financial well-being at two points along the cancer continuum: prevention and following diagnosis. He was also funded by the Academy Health/Aetna Foundation Scholars in Residence Fellowship Program to develop measures of neighborhood economic well-being. Dr. Tucker-Seeley’s research has been published in journals such as the American Journal of Public Health, Preventive Medicine, Journal of National Cancer Institute, Cancer Causes and Control, and the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Dr. Tucker-Seeley is also committed to community service that targets the elimination of health disparities. He served for three years on the Rhode Island Commission for Health Advocacy and Equity. Based on his experience on this Commission, Dr. Tucker-Seeley developed a new course at HSPH called “Measuring and Reporting Health Disparities;” and in 2016, he received the HSPH teaching award for this course.

  7. Treating High-grade Lesions to Prevent Anal Cancer in HIV-infected People

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study, called the ANCHOR trial, will investigate whether screening and prevention methods similar to those used to prevent cervical cancer can help prevent anal cancer in HIV-infected men and women.

  8. Lifestyle changes for prevention of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Seyed Hesam Bani; Karimi, Samieh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer among women. Lifestyle changes are shown to be important in the prevention of breast cancer. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and vitamin and mineral use are key factors influencing the risk of breast cancer among women. Because these factors are related to each other, it is difficult to assess their individual roles in breast cancer. Some of these factors are alterable, meaning that women can decrease their risk...

  9. Application Deadlines - CPFP Summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention Courses 2016 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) is now accepting applications for the Summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention until February 26, 2016 for international applicants and March 15, 2016 for domestic applicants. For more information and to apply, please visit: https://cpfp.cancer.gov/summer-curriculum. |

  10. Breast cancer prevention information seeking behavior and interest on cell phone and text use: a cross-sectional study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtari-Zavare, Mehrnoosh; Ghanbari-Baghestan, Abbas; Latiff, Latiffah A; Khaniki, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second principal cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide, including Malaysia. This study focused on media choice and attempted to determine the communication channels mostly used and preferred by women in seeking information and knowledge about breast cancer. A cross sectional study was carried out to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behavior among 450 students at one private university in Malaysia. The mean age of respondents was 25±4.3 years. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, friends, and nurses and common channel information sources were television, brochure, and internet. Overall, 89.9% used cell phones, 46.1% had an interest in receiving cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 73.9% used text messaging, and 36.7% had an interest in receiving text breast cancer prevention messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences among age, eduation, nationality and use of cell phones. Assessment of health information seeking behavior is important for community health educators to target populations for program development.

  11. Risk determination and prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Anthony; Anderson, Annie S; Clarke, Robert B; Duffy, Stephen W; Evans, D Gareth; Garcia-Closas, Montserat; Gescher, Andy J; Key, Timothy J; Saxton, John M; Harvie, Michelle N

    2014-09-28

    Breast cancer is an increasing public health problem. Substantial advances have been made in the treatment of breast cancer, but the introduction of methods to predict women at elevated risk and prevent the disease has been less successful. Here, we summarize recent data on newer approaches to risk prediction, available approaches to prevention, how new approaches may be made, and the difficult problem of using what we already know to prevent breast cancer in populations. During 2012, the Breast Cancer Campaign facilitated a series of workshops, each covering a specialty area of breast cancer to identify gaps in our knowledge. The risk-and-prevention panel involved in this exercise was asked to expand and update its report and review recent relevant peer-reviewed literature. The enlarged position paper presented here highlights the key gaps in risk-and-prevention research that were identified, together with recommendations for action. The panel estimated from the relevant literature that potentially 50% of breast cancer could be prevented in the subgroup of women at high and moderate risk of breast cancer by using current chemoprevention (tamoxifen, raloxifene, exemestane, and anastrozole) and that, in all women, lifestyle measures, including weight control, exercise, and moderating alcohol intake, could reduce breast cancer risk by about 30%. Risk may be estimated by standard models potentially with the addition of, for example, mammographic density and appropriate single-nucleotide polymorphisms. This review expands on four areas: (a) the prediction of breast cancer risk, (b) the evidence for the effectiveness of preventive therapy and lifestyle approaches to prevention, (c) how understanding the biology of the breast may lead to new targets for prevention, and (d) a summary of published guidelines for preventive approaches and measures required for their implementation. We hope that efforts to fill these and other gaps will lead to considerable advances in our

  12. Clinical Trials Management | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials. Protocol Information Office The central clearinghouse for clinical trials management within the Division of Cancer Prevention.Read more about the Protocol Information Office. | Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded

  13. Breast cancer prevention across the cancer care continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemp, Jennifer R

    2015-05-01

    To review the current state of breast cancer prevention from primary prevention through survivorship, highlight cross-cutting issues, and discuss strategies for clinical integration and future research. Published articles between 1985 and 2015 and original research. Cancer risk persists across the lifespan. Interprofessional strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality from cancer include primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention (survivorship). Prevention strategies across the cancer care continuum are cross-cutting and focus on measures to: prevent the onset of disease, identify and treat asymptomatic persons who have already developed risk factors or preclinical disease, and restore function, minimize the negative effects of disease, and prevent disease-related complications. Oncology nurses and advanced practice nurses are vital in the delivery of breast cancer prevention strategies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Molecular Cancer Prevention: Current Status & Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresso, Karen Colbert; Tsai, Kenneth Y.; Brown, Powel H.; Szabo, Eva; Lippman, Scott; Hawk, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneity and complexity of advanced cancers strongly supports the rationale for an enhanced focus on molecular prevention as a priority strategy to reduce the burden of cancer. Molecular prevention encompasses traditional chemopreventive agents as well as vaccinations and therapeutic approaches to cancer-predisposing conditions. Despite challenges to the field, we now have refined insights into cancer etiology and early pathogenesis; successful risk assessment and new risk models; agents with broad preventive efficacy (e.g., aspirin) in common chronic diseases, including cancer; and a successful track record of more than 10 agents approved by the FDA for the treatment of precancerous lesions or cancer risk reduction. The development of molecular preventive agents does not differ significantly from the development of therapies for advanced cancers, yet has unique challenges and special considerations given that it most often involves healthy or asymptomatic individuals. Agents, biomarkers, cohorts, overall design, and endpoints are key determinants of molecular preventive trials, as with therapeutic trials, although distinctions exist for each within the preventive setting. Progress in the development and evolution of molecular preventive agents has been steadier in some organ systems, such as breast and skin, than in others. In order for molecular prevention to be fully realized as an effective strategy, a number of challenges to the field must be addressed. Here we provide a brief overview of the context for and special considerations of molecular prevention along with a discussion of the results of major randomized controlled trials. PMID:26284997

  15. Cervical cancer prevention-related knowledge and attitudes among female undergraduate students from different ethnic groups within China, a survey-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Enqi; Tiggelaar, Sarah M; Jiang, Tao; Zhao, Huanhu; Wu, Ritu; Wu, Rilige; Xu, Fangmei

    2017-05-22

    The purpose of this study was to understand cervical cancer prevention-related knowledge and attitudes among female undergraduate students from different ethnic groups within China. We conducted a survey among ethnically diverse female students from the Minzu University of China, in Beijing in October, 2014. Questionnaires from 493 participants aged from 16 to 26 years were included in the final database. The seven ethnic groups included in the final analysis were Han, Korean, Mongolian, Uyghur, Tibetan, Hui, and Tujia. Compared to the Han Chinese, the members of the other six ethnic groups had lower cervical cancer knowledge levels. The knowledge scores of Mongolian and Korean students were significantly lower than those of the Han Chinese. The willingness to accept cervical cancer prevention efforts also differed across different ethnic groups. After adjusting for age and place of residence, the acceptance of cervical cancer screening among the Tibetan, Uyghur, and Korean groups was significantly lower than among the Han Chinese, with different related decision-making factors in each group. Cervical cancer prevention-related public education is an urgent need in China. Extra consideration of ethnic differences should be taken into account when designing and improving new current cervical cancer prevention programs.

  16. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  17. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  18. Possibilities for the prevention of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Two types of evidence suggest that the prevention of cancer is a practical possibility: first, our increasing knowledge of the causes of cancer, many of which can be avoided without difficulty, and second, evidence that all common cancers whose causes are still unknown vary in incidence with place, time or social group. Many known causes still exist, however, and are responsible for hundreds of thousands of cases annually throughout the world. Practical possibilities for prevention now and in the near future include changes in personal habits (tobacco, alcohol, diet), control of exposure to known cancer-producing substances (carcinogens) in both industry and the general environment, and immunization against viruses causing cancer. (author)

  19. Coffee consumption, gender, and Parkinson's disease mortality in the cancer prevention study II cohort: the modifying effects of estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G; O'Reilly, Eilis J; McCullough, Marjorie L; Calle, Eugenia E; Rodriguez, Carmen; Thun, Michael J

    2004-11-15

    Caffeine consumption is associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease in men but not in women. This gender difference may be due to an interaction between caffeine and use of postmenopausal estrogens. The authors prospectively assessed the relation between coffee consumption and Parkinson's disease mortality among participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II, a cohort of over 1 million people enrolled in 1982. Causes of deaths were ascertained through death certificates from January 1, 1989, through 1998. Parkinson's disease was listed as a cause of death in 909 men and 340 women. After adjustment for age, smoking, and alcohol intake, coffee consumption was inversely associated with Parkinson's disease mortality in men (p(trend) = 0.01) but not in women (p = 0.6). In women, this association was dependent on postmenopausal estrogen use; the relative risk for women drinking 4 or more cups (600 ml) of coffee per day compared with nondrinkers was 0.47 (95% confidence interval: 0.27, 0.80; p = 0.006) among never users and 1.31 (95% confidence interval: 0.75, 2.30; p = 0.34) among users. These results suggest that caffeine reduces the risk of Parkinson's disease but that this hypothetical beneficial effect may be prevented by use of estrogen replacement therapy.

  20. Sandalwood Oil and Turmeric-Based Cream Prevents Ionizing Radiation-Induced Dermatitis in Breast Cancer Patients: Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Rao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary objective of this study was to ascertain the benefit of Vicco turmeric Ayurvedic cream (VTC; Vicco Laboratories, Mumbai, India sandalwood oil and turmeric-based cream in preventing radiodermatitis in women undergoing curative radiotherapy for their breast cancer. Methods and Materials: The study was an investigator-blinded randomized study with Johnsons Baby Oil (JBO; Johnson & Johnson Ltd., Baddi, India as a comparator, administered daily from the start of radiation therapy for 5 weeks in women receiving breast radiation therapy, 50 Gy in 2 Gy fractions daily for 5 weeks. The endpoints were to ascertain the delay in the appearance and the degree of severity of dermatitis throughout the study period in accordance to the Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG score. Results: The results indicated that the topical application of VTC delayed and mitigated the radiodermatitis. When compared to the Johnson’s Baby Oil, a significant decrease (p = 0.025 in the incidence of grade 1 was seen at week two, and also in grade 2 and 3 at week 3 (p = 0.003 and week 4 (p = 0.02, respectively, in the VTC cohort. A concomitant decrease in the average severity was also observed at week 2 (p = 0.02, week 3 (p = 0.05 and week 4 (p = 0.03. Conclusions: The results indicate that VTC cream significantly reduces radiation dermatitis when applied to the breast during and after radiation therapy. The result of this study indicates the beneficial effects. Double blind randomized control studies are required to further confirm the beneficial effects of VTC in mitigating radiodermatitis is people undergoing radiation treatment for their cancer.

  1. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  2. Preventive study of gastric cancer peritoneal micrometastasis in nude mice with 188Re-labelled monoclonal antibody 3H11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhi; Zhang Meiying; Lin Baohe; Zhao Changying; Han Yan; Mou Aping; Ma Yunxia

    2001-01-01

    In advanced gastric cancer, especially when the serosa is invaded, the implantation of cancer cells in the peritoneum is common, and it affects patients' survival time severely. Based on successfully labelled monoclonal antibody 3H11 with 188 Re, we investigated the effect of RIT (radioimmunotherapy) with 188 Re-3H11 on preventing the establishment of gastric cancer cell peritoneal micrometastasis in nude mice. After 1x10 6 BGC-823, gastric cancer cells were injected into the peritoneal cavity of each mouse, 45 BABL/C nude mice were divided into 9 groups. Each group received the various doses of 188 Re-3H11 or 188 Re-IgG or saline I.P.16 hours postoperation. The injected volume of each mouse was 1.0 mL. The results showed that the survival time depended on injected doses from 0 to 37MBq. The survival time was 170 ± 25.3 days after 37MBq 188 Re-3H11 were treated . It was over 5 times that of the saline group and about 3 times that of the 74MBq 188 Re-IgG group (p 188 Re-3H11 I.P. is effective and safe in the prevention of intra-peritoneally injected gastric cancer cells from surviving, growing and disseminating in nude mice. (author)

  3. Topical use of a silymarin-based preparation to prevent radiodermatitis. Results of a prospective study in breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker-Schiebe, Martina; Hoffmann, Wolfgang [Klinikum Braunschweig (Germany). Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie; Mengs, Ulrich; Schaefer, Margitta [Rottapharm/Madaus, Koeln (Germany). Research and Development; Bulitta, Michael [CRM Biometrics GmbH, Rheinbach (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    More than 80% of patients with breast cancer undergoing postsurgical radiotherapy (RT) will develop radiodermatitis and approximately 10% of these patients show grade 3 lesions. Side effects may reduce the patient's compliance and can be limiting factors to follow RT protocols. Therefore, there is a high need for more effective prophylactic treatments. In this study, a silymarin-based cream (Leviaderm {sup registered}) was tested in comparison to our standard of care (SOC) at the involved site. A total of 101 patients were evaluated after breast-conserving surgery followed by RT with 50.4 Gy plus boost 9-16 Gy. Of these, 51 patients were treated with the silymarin-based cream. In addition, 50 patients were documented receiving a panthenol-containing cream interventionally, if local skin lesions occurred. The acute skin reactions were classified according to the RTOG and VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) scores. The median time to toxicity was prolonged significantly with silymarin-based cream (45 vs. 29 days (SOC), p < 0.0001). Only 9.8% of patients using silymarin-based cream showed grade 2 toxicity in week 5 of RT in comparison to 52% with SOC. At the end of RT, 23.5% of patients in the silymarin-based study group developed no skin reactions vs. 2% with SOC, while grade 3 toxicity occurred only in 2% in the silymarin-based arm compared to 28% (SOC). Silymarin-based cream Leviaderm {sup registered} may be a promising and effective treatment for the prevention of acute skin lesions caused by RT of breast cancer patients. To confirm the results of this nonrandomized, observational trial, this component should be tested in larger multicenter studies in this setting. (orig.)

  4. Testosterone and breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, R; Dimitrakakis, C

    2015-11-01

    Testosterone (T) is the most abundant biologically active hormone in women. Androgen receptors (AR) are located throughout the body including the breast where T decreases tissue proliferation. However, T can be aromatized to estradiol (E2), which increases proliferation and hence, breast cancer (BCA) risk. Increased aromatase expression and an imbalance in the ratio of stimulatory estrogens to protective androgens impacts breast homeostasis. Recent clinical data supports a role for T in BCA prevention. Women with symptoms of hormone deficiency treated with pharmacological doses of T alone or in combination with anastrozole (A), delivered by subcutaneous implants, had a reduced incidence of BCA. In addition, T combined with A effectively treated symptoms of hormone deficiency in BCA survivors and was not associated with recurrent disease. Most notably, T+A implants placed in breast tissue surrounding malignant tumors significantly reduced BCA tumor size, further supporting T direct antiproliferative, protective and therapeutic effect. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Andrographolide and analogues in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Siddhartha Kumar; Tripathi, Swati; Shukla, Archana; Oh, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal plant traditionally used for treatment of cough and cold, fever, laryngitis, and several infectious diseases. Extracts of A. paniculata have shown versatile potency against various diseases including cancer. The active biomolecules of A. paniculata mainly are lactone and diterpene. Andrographolide and analogues have been widely used for prevention of different diseases. Andrographolides have shown potent antiinflammatory and anticancer activities. It showed potentials as chemopreventive agents by suppressing growth of cancer cells by inhibiting NF-kappaB, PI3K/AKT and other kinase pathways and by inducing apoptosis. Andrographolide induced both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathway in different cancer cells via expression of different anti-apoptotic protein like Bax, p53, and activated caspases. Andrographolide was successfully used as an antineoplastic drug in cancer chemotherapy. Andrographolide inhibited the growth of human breast, prostate, and hepatoma tumors. Andrographolide and analogues need to be subjected to further clinical and biomedical studies in cancer chemoprevention. Andrographolide could be potent anticancer agent when used in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents.

  6. Preventing invasive breast cancer using endocrine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorat, Mangesh A; Cuzick, Jack

    2017-08-01

    Developments in breast cancer treatment have resulted in reduction in breast cancer mortality in the developed world. However incidence continues to rise and greater use of preventive interventions including the use of therapeutic agents is needed to control this burden. High quality evidence from 9 major trials involving more than 83000 participants shows that selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) reduce breast cancer incidence by 38%. Combined results from 2 large trials with 8424 participants show that aromatase inhibitors (AIs) reduce breast cancer incidence by 53%. These benefits are restricted to prevention of ER positive breast cancers. Restricting preventive therapy to high-risk women improves the benefit-harm balance and many guidelines now encourage healthcare professionals to discuss preventive therapy in these women. Further research is needed to improve our risk-prediction models for the identification of high risk women for preventive therapy with greater accuracy and to develop surrogate biomarkers of response. Long-term follow-up of the IBIS-I trial has provided valuable insights into the durability of benefits from preventive therapy, and underscores the need for such follow up to fully evaluate other agents. Full utilisation of preventive therapy also requires greater knowledge and awareness among both doctors and patients about benefits, harms and risk factors. Healthcare professionals should routinely discuss preventive therapy with women at high-risk of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dance as a therapy for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Gurbuz; Ogce, Filiz

    2005-01-01

    Even though the field of medicine has developed tremendously, the wide variety of cancer is still among chronic and life threatening disease today. Therefore, the specialists constantly research and try every possible way to find cure or preventive ways to stop its further development. For this reason, studies concerning the chronic disease such as cancer have been spread to many different fields. In this regard, many other alternative ways besides medicine, are used in prevention of cancer. Nutritional therapy, herbal therapy, sportive activities, art therapy, music therapy, dance therapy, imagery, yoga and acupuncture can be given as examples. Among these, dance/movement therapy which deals with individuals physical, emotional, cognitive as well as social integration is widely used as a popular form of physical activity. The physical benefits of dance therapy as exercise are well documented. Studies have shown that physical activity is known to increase special neurotransmitter substances in the brain (endorphins), which create a state of well-being. And total body movement such as dance enhances the functions of other body systems, such as circulatory, respiratory, skeletal, and muscular systems. Regarding its unique connection to the field of medicine, many researches have been undertaken on the effects of dance/movement therapy in special settings with physical problems such as amputations, traumatic brain injury, and stroke, chronic illnesses such as anorexia, bulimia, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, asthma, AIDS, and arthritis. Today dance/movement therapy is a well recognized form of complementary therapy used in hospitals as well as at the comprehensive clinical cancer centres.

  8. Biorepository for Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the largest prostate cancer prevention trial ever undertaken, the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) has assembled a substantial biorepository of specimens. To help make SELECT resources available to a wider research community, NCI and the Southwest Oncology Group are developing a plan for prostate cancer biology and nutritional science and

  9. Aromatase inhibitors and breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Jennifer Keating; Arun, Banu K; Brown, Powel H; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N

    2012-02-01

    Endocrine therapy with selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) has been the mainstay of breast cancer prevention trials to date. The aromatase inhibitors, which inhibit the final chemical conversion of androgens to estrogens, have shown increased disease-free survival benefit over tamoxifen in patients with primary hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, as well as reducing the risk of developing contralateral breast cancers. The aromatase inhibitors are being actively evaluated as prevention agents for women with a history of ductal carcinoma in situ as well as for women who are considered to be at high risk for developing primary invasive breast cancer. This review evaluates the available prevention data, as evidenced by the decrease in contralateral breast cancers, when aromatase inhibitors are used in the adjuvant setting, as well as the emerging data of the aromatase inhibitors specifically tested in the prevention setting for women at high risk. Exemestane is a viable option for breast cancer prevention. We continue to await further follow-up on exemestane as well as other aromatase inhibitors in the prevention setting for women at high risk of developing breast cancer or with a history of ductal carcinoma in situ.

  10. Endotoxin and cancer chemo-prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Fadda, Emanuela; Cegolon, Luca

    2013-10-01

    Reduced rates of lung cancer have been observed in several occupational groups exposed to high levels of organic dusts contaminated by endotoxin. The underlying anti-neoplastic mechanism of endotoxin may be an increased secretion of endogenous anti-neoplastic mediators and activation of the toll-like receptors (TLR). A detoxified endotoxin derivative, Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPL(®)) is marketed in Europe since 1999 as part of the adjuvant systems in allergy vaccines for treatment of allergic rhino-conjunctivitis and allergic asthma. Over 200,000 patients have used them to date (nearly 70% in Germany). Since detailed exposure (MPL(®) dose and timing of administration) and individual data are potentially available, an observational follow-up study could be conducted in Germany to investigate the protective effect of MPL(®) against cancer, comparing cancer incidence in two groups of patients with allergic rhinitis: those treated with allergoids plus MPL(®) and those treated with a vaccine including the same allergoids but not MPL(®). The protective effect of MPL(®) could be quantified in ever and never smokers. If this proposed observational study provides evidence of protective effects, MPL(®) could be immediately used as a chemo-preventive agent since it is already in use as adjuvant in human vaccines against cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Employing the Church as a Marketer of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Coffey, Candice R.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church. PMID:23718957

  12. Diet and Cancer Prevention: Chewing on the Human Complexities | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker Johanna W. Lampe, PhD, RD Research Professor University of Washington Full Member and Associate Division Director Cancer Prevention Program Public Health Sciences Division Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Seattle, WA |

  13. Predictors of Online Cancer Prevention Information Seeking Among Patients and Caregivers Across the Digital Divide: A Cross-Sectional, Correlational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginossar, Tamar

    2016-03-09

    The digital divide is a recognized public health problem caused by social determinants that exacerbate health disparities. Despite the "tectonic shift" in how most of the public obtains cancer information, underserved communities are at increased risk of being digitally marginalized. However, research that examines factors underlying eHealth information seeking in diverse health contexts is lacking. The aim of this paper is to explore preferences and use of eHealth cancer prevention information (CPI) among patients and caregivers attending a minority-serving oncology clinic using the comprehensive model of information seeking as a theoretical framework. Specifically, the study examined the role of social determinants and prevention orientation in differences in preference and use of the Internet for CPI seeking among this diverse sample. Survey methodology was used to identify social determinants and behavioral factors, including prevention orientation as correlates and predictors of respondents' (n=252) preferences and use of eHealth for CPI seeking. Less than half (112/252, 44.4%) of respondents said that if faced with the need to seek CPI, they would seek this information online. In the final logistic regression model, education, ethnicity, age, and prevention orientation made significant contributions to the model (Pdigitally underserved racial/ethnic group. Finally, additional factors underlying these differences should be explored to better tailor CPI eHealth information to diverse communities' information needs. ©Tamar Ginossar. Originally published in JMIR Cancer (http://cancer.jmir.org), 09.03.2016.

  14. Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention: Insights from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Nicastro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT was conducted to assess the efficacy of selenium and vitamin E alone, and in combination, on the incidence of prostate cancer. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial found that neither selenium nor vitamin E reduced the incidence of prostate cancer after seven years and that vitamin E was associated with a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer compared to placebo. The null result was surprising given the strong preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting chemopreventive activity of selenium. Potential explanations for the null findings include the agent formulation and dose, the characteristics of the cohort, and the study design. It is likely that only specific subpopulations may benefit from selenium supplementation; therefore, future studies should consider the baseline selenium status of the participants, age of the cohort, and genotype of specific selenoproteins, among other characteristics, in order to determine the activity of selenium in cancer prevention.

  15. Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention: Insights from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Dunn, Barbara K.

    2013-01-01

    The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) was conducted to assess the efficacy of selenium and vitamin E alone, and in combination, on the incidence of prostate cancer. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial found that neither selenium nor vitamin E reduced the incidence of prostate cancer after seven years and that vitamin E was associated with a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer compared to placebo. The null result was surprising given the strong preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting chemopreventive activity of selenium. Potential explanations for the null findings include the agent formulation and dose, the characteristics of the cohort, and the study design. It is likely that only specific subpopulations may benefit from selenium supplementation; therefore, future studies should consider the baseline selenium status of the participants, age of the cohort, and genotype of specific selenoproteins, among other characteristics, in order to determine the activity of selenium in cancer prevention. PMID:23552052

  16. Application of the Carolina Framework for Cervical Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jennifer L; McCarthy, Schatzi H; Gilkey, Melissa B; Brewer, Noel T

    2014-03-01

    The Carolina Framework for Cervical Cancer Prevention describes 4 main causes of cervical cancer incidence: human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, lack of screening, screening errors, and not receiving follow-up care. We present 2 applications of the Carolina Framework in which we identify high-need counties in North Carolina and generate recommendations for improving prevention efforts. We created a cervical cancer prevention need index (CCPNI) that ranked counties on cervical cancer mortality, HPV vaccine initiation and completion, Pap smear screening, and provision of Pap tests to rarely- or never-screened women. In addition, we conducted in-depth interviews with 19 key informants from programs and agencies involved in cervical cancer prevention in North Carolina. North Carolina's 100 counties varied widely on individual CCPNI components, including annual cervical cancer mortality (median 2.7/100,000 women; range 0.0-8.0), adolescent girls' HPV vaccine initiation (median 42%; range 15%-62%), and Pap testing in the previous 3 years among Medicaid-insured adult women (median 59%; range 40%-83%). Counties with the greatest prevention needs formed 2 distinct clusters in the northeast and south-central regions of the state. Interviews generated 9 recommendations to improve cervical cancer prevention in North Carolina, identifying applications to specific programs and policies in the state. This study found striking geographic disparities in cervical cancer prevention need in North Carolina. Future prevention efforts in the state should prioritize high-need regions as well as recommended strategies and applications in existing programs. Other states can use the Carolina Framework to increase the impact of their cervical cancer prevention efforts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Targeting Epigenetics to Prevent Obesity Promoted Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Nathan A; Scacheri, Peter C

    2018-03-01

    Epigenetic changes in DNA and associated chromatin proteins are increasingly being considered as important mediators of the linkage between obesity and cancer. Although multiple agents, targeted at epigenetic changes, are being tested for therapy of established cancers, this issue of Cancer Prevention Research carries two articles demonstrating that the bromodomain inhibitor I-BET-762 can attenuate adipose tissue-promoted cancers. Although I-BET-762 significantly delayed, rather than completely prevented, the onset of adiposity-promoted transformation and malignancy, these experiments provide important proof of principle for the strategies of targeting epigenetic changes to disrupt the obesity-cancer linkage. Because bromodomain proteins represent only one of multiple epigenetic mediators, it is probable that targeting other epigenetic processes, alone or in combination, may serve to even more effectively disrupt the obesity promotion of cancer. Given the magnitude of the current obesity pandemic and its impact on cancer, preventive measures to disrupt this linkage are critically important. Cancer Prev Res; 11(3); 125-8. ©2018 AACR See related article by Chakraborty et al., p. 129 . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Preventing Second Cancers in Colon Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this phase III trial, people who have had curative surgery for colon cancer will be randomly assigned to take sulindac and a placebo, eflornithine and a placebo, both sulindac and eflornithine, or two placebo pills for 36 months.

  19. Can a single dose of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine prevent cervical cancer? Early findings from an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Joshi, Smita; Muwonge, Richard; Esmy, Pulikottil Okkuru; Basu, Partha; Prabhu, Priya; Bhatla, Neerja; Nene, Bhagwan M; Shaw, Janmesh; Poli, Usha Rani Reddy; Verma, Yogesh; Zomawia, Eric; Pimple, Sharmila; Tommasino, Massimo; Pawlita, Michael; Gheit, Tarik; Waterboer, Tim; Sehr, Peter; Pillai, Madhavan Radhakrishna

    2018-03-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is a major strategy for preventing cervical and other ano-genital cancers. Worldwide HPV vaccination introduction and coverage will be facilitated if a single dose of vaccine is as effective as two or three doses or demonstrates significant protective effect compared to 'no vaccination'. In a multi-centre cluster randomized trial of two vs three doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccination (Gardasil™) in India, suspension of the vaccination due to events unrelated to the study led to per protocol and partial vaccination of unmarried 10-18 year old girls leading to four study groups, two by design and two by default. They were followed up for the primary outcomes of immunogenicity in terms of L1 genotype-specific binding antibody titres, neutralising antibody titres, and antibody avidity for the vaccine-targeted HPV types and HPV infections. Analysis was per actual number of vaccine doses received. This study is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN98283094; and with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00923702. Of the 17,729 vaccinated girls, 4348 (25%) received three doses on days 1, 60, 180 or later, 4979 (28%) received two doses on days 1 and 180 or later, 3452 (19%) received two doses on days 1 and 60, and 4950 (28%) received one dose. One dose recipients demonstrated a robust and sustained immune response against HPV 16 and 18, albeit inferior to that of 3- or 2-doses and the antibody levels were stable over a 4 year period. The frequencies of cumulative incident and persistent HPV 16 and 18 infections up to 7 years of follow-up were similar and uniformly low in all the vaccinated study groups; the frequency of HPV 16 and 18 infections were significantly higher in unvaccinated age-matched control women than among vaccine recipients. The frequency of vaccine non-targeted HPV types was similar in the vaccinated groups but higher in the unvaccinated control women. Our results indicate that a single dose of quadrivalent HPV

  20. Food systems approach to cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanamala, Jairam

    2017-08-13

    New cancer cases are expected to surge 57% worldwide in the next two decades. The greatest burden will be in low- and middle-income countries that are ill equipped to face this epidemic. Similarly, in the United States, low-income populations are at greater risk for cancer. As most cancers contain over 50 genetic alterations, and as these alterations define dysregulation of over 10 different critical cellular signaling pathways, a "silver bullet" treatment is not effective against most cancers. Instead, the latest World Cancer Report (2012) suggests a research shift toward developing prevention strategies for cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that a diet high in plant-based foods is preventive of a variety of chronic diseases, including cancer. A plethora of bioactive compounds-such as polyphenols, glucosinolates and carotenoids in fruits, vegetables, grains, and legumes-are shown to suppress a variety of biological capabilities required for tumor growth. While much research has shown that plant bioactive compounds can suppress sustained proliferative signaling, angiogenesis, and metastasis, as well as promote cancer stem cell apoptosis, public health campaigns to increase fruit and vegetable consumption have, overall, been less effective than desired. Thus, there is a need for innovative strategies to support increased consumption of bioactive compounds for cancer prevention particularly in vulnerable populations. Many practices of the farm-to-fork continuum, including preharvest practices, postharvest storage, and processing and consumer practices, affect a food's bioactive compound content, composition, and chemopreventive bioactivity. Food system practices may be adjusted to reduce the toxic compound levels (e.g., glycoalkaloids in potatoes) and improve the bioactive compound profile, thus, elevate the cancer fighting properties of fruits, vegetables, and other food products. This review presents current scientific evidence outlining farm-to-fork effects

  1. Global cancer patterns: causes and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineis, Paolo; Wild, Christopher P

    2014-02-08

    Cancer is a global and growing, but not uniform, problem. An increasing proportion of the burden is falling on low-income and middle-income countries because of not only demographic change but also a transition in risk factors, whereby the consequences of the globalisation of economies and behaviours are adding to an existing burden of cancers of infectious origin. We argue that primary prevention is a particularly effective way to fight cancer, with between a third and a half of cancers being preventable on the basis of present knowledge of risk factors. Primary prevention has several advantages: the effectiveness could have benefits for people other than those directly targeted, avoidance of exposure to carcinogenic agents is likely to prevent other non-communicable diseases, and the cause could be removed or reduced in the long term--eg, through regulatory measures against occupational or environmental exposures (ie, the preventive effort does not need to be renewed with every generation, which is especially important when resources are in short supply). Primary prevention must therefore be prioritised as an integral part of global cancer control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of phytochemicals in colon cancer prevention. A nutrigenomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, van M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Specific food compounds, especially from fruits and vegetables, may protect against development of colon cancer. In this thesis effects and mechanisms of various phytochemicals in relation to colon cancer prevention were studied through application of large-scale gene expression profiling.

  3. Diet, genes, and microbes: complexities of colon cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Diane F; Phillips, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and generally, as countries climb the economic ladder, their rates of colon cancer increase. Colon cancer was an early disease where key genetic mutations were identified as important in disease progression, and there is considerable interest in determining whether specific mutations sensitize the colon to cancer prevention strategies. Epidemiological studies have revealed that fiber- and vegetable-rich diets and physical activity are associated with reduced rates of colon cancer, while consumption of red and processed meat, or alcoholic beverages, and overconsumption as reflected in obesity are associated with increased rates. Animal studies have probed these effects and suggested directions for further refinement of diet in colon cancer prevention. Recently a central role for the microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract in colon cancer development is being probed, and it is hypothesized that the microbes may integrate diet and host genetics in the etiology of the disease. This review provides background on dietary, genetic, and microbial impacts on colon cancer and describes an ongoing project using rodent models to assess the ability of digestion-resistant starch in the integration of these factors with the goal of furthering colon cancer prevention.

  4. [Evaluation of knowledge about colon cancer prevention versus other tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, José María; Henry, Nicolás; Ocaña, Domingo; Polesel, Julio Lotero

    2015-06-01

    In Argentina almost 7% of deaths are due to different cancers with screening strategies. Evaluate knowledge about cancer prevention compared with other tumors. Materials. A descriptive and comparative study. A survey between April and June 2013 in Salta City, province of Salta, Argentina. Correct answers were considered. Statistical analysis: Descriptive (mean and percentage), comparative Chi square Test (significance level Pmama and cervix. 20% (CI 0,13-0,28) knew that colon cancer has a genetic predisposition and 58% (CI 0,48-0,67) about mama. 73% (CI 0,63-0,8) received information about cancer prevention. The main source of information was the physician. 46% (CI 0,36-0,55) received medical care in private institutions. Those who had social security, higher educational levels and medical care in private institutions had better knowledge about cancer prevention except in colon cancer. The global results showed levels below 70% in general but extremely low in colon cancer. Not having social security, receiving medical care in public institutions and having a low educational level are related with poor knowledge about cancer prevention except for colon and prostate cancer.

  5. Bethanechol chloride for the prevention of bladder dysfunction after radical hysterectomy in gynecologic cancer patients: a randomized controlled trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchana, Tarinee; Prasartsakulchai, Chalisa

    2011-05-01

    Bethanechol chloride is considered as a treatment in patients with high postvoid residual urine (PVR). It enhances detrusor muscle contraction, resulting in higher maximum flow rate, higher detrusor pressure at maximum flow, and lower PVR. The efficacy of this agent in patients after radical hysterectomy is unclear. We aim to evaluate the efficacy of bethanechol chloride compared with placebo for the prevention of bladder dysfunction after type III radical hysterectomy. Gynecologic cancer patients who underwent type III radical hysterectomy were randomized by computer-generated schedule to assign patients in a 1:1 ratio into 2 groups. The treatment group received bethanechol chloride (Ucholine 20 mg 3 times a day on the third to seventh postoperative day), and the control group received placebo. Patients and physicians were masked to treatment allocation. The primary end point was the rate of urethral catheter removal at 1 week postoperatively. If PVR was more than 30% of voided volume, the urethral catheter was reinserted, and medication would be continued but not for more than 1 month. This study was registered as ISRCTN92687416. There were 31 patients in each group without significant difference in baseline characteristics. Twenty-one patients (67.7%) in the treatment group and 12 patients (38.7%) in the control group had the urethral catheter removed at 1 week postoperatively (P = 0.04). Median duration of urethral catheterization was shorter in the treatment group (7 and 14 days, P = 0.03). However, the PVR and the incidence of urinary tract infection at 1 month postoperatively were not significantly different. Nine patients (29%) in the treatment group had adverse events such as nausea, abdominal distension, and abdominal cramping, which was higher than the control group (1 patient, 3.2%; P = 0.01). However, no patients required any medical treatments. Bethanechol chloride decreases the duration of urethral catheterization in patients who underwent type III

  6. Penile cancer: epidemiology, pathogenesis and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, M C G; Heideman, D A M; Snijders, P J F; Horenblas, S; Dillner, J; Meijer, C J L M

    2009-04-01

    Penile cancer is a disease with a high morbidity and mortality. Its prevalence is relatively rare, but the highest in some developing countries. Insight into its precursor lesions, pathogenesis and risk factors offers options to prevent this potentially mutilating disease. This review presents an overview of the different histologically and clinically identified precursor lesions of penile cancer and discusses the molecular pathogenesis, including the role of HPV in penile cancer development. A systematic review of the literature evaluating penile carcinogenesis, risk factors and molecular mechanisms involved. Careful monitoring of men with lichen sclerosis, genital Bowen's disease, erythroplasia of Queyrat and bowenoid papulosis seems useful, thereby offering early recognition of penile cancer and, subsequently, conservative therapeutic options. Special attention is given to flat penile lesions, which contain high numbers of HPV. Their role in HPV transmission to sexual partners is highlighted, but their potential to transform as a precursor lesion into penile cancer has been unsatisfactorily explored. Further research should not only focus on HPV mediated pathogenic pathways but also on the non-HPV related molecular and genetic factors that play a role in penile cancer development. Options for prevention of penile cancer include (neonatal) circumcision, limitation of penile HPV infections (either by prophylactic vaccination or condom use), prevention of phimosis, treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions, limiting PUVA treatment, smoking cessation and hygienic measures.

  7. Can the Mediterranean diet prevent prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Hodge, Allison; Kaimakamis, Mary

    2009-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Despite the global importance of this cancer, until recently little was known about risk factors apart from the well-established factors: age, family history and country of birth. The large worldwide variation in prostate cancer risk and increased risk in migrants moving from low to high risk countries provides strong support for modifiable environmental factors. We have based our review on the findings of a systematic review undertaken by an expert panel on behalf of the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research, and new data since then, linking identified foods and nutrients with prostate cancer. Evidence indicates that foods containing lycopene, as well as selenium and foods containing it, probably protect against prostate cancer, and excess consumption of foods or supplements containing calcium are a probable cause of this cancer. The expert panel also concluded that it is unlikely that beta-carotene (whether from foods or supplements) has a substantial effect on the risk of this cancer. A recent review on environmental factors in human prostate cancer also found that there were protective effects of vitamin E, pulses, soy foods and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. The Mediterranean diet is abundant in foods that may protect against prostate cancer and is associated with longevity and reduced cardiovascular and cancer mortality. Compared with many Western countries Greece has lower prostate cancer mortality and Greek migrant men in Australia have retained their low risk for prostate cancer. Consumption of a traditional Mediterranean diet, rich in bioactive nutrients, may confer protection to Greek migrant men, and this dietary pattern offers a palatable alternative for prevention of this disease.

  8. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one-week educational opportunity in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  9. The selective estrogen receptor modulators in breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangxuan; Dou, Jinli; Wei, Lijuan; Li, Shixia; Liu, Juntian

    2016-05-01

    Persistently increased blood levels of estrogens are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a class of compounds that act on the estrogen receptor (ER). Several clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of its prophylactic administration. Incidence of invasive ER-positive breast cancer was reduced by SERMs treatment, especially for those women with high risk of developing breast cancer. In this study, we reviewed the clinical application of SERMs in breast cancer prevention. To date, four prospective randomized clinical trials had been performed to test the efficacy of tamoxifen for this purpose. Concerning on the benefit and cost of tamoxifen, various studies from different countries demonstrated that chemoprevention with tamoxifen seemed to be cost-effective for women with a high risk of invasive breast cancer. Based above, tamoxifen was approved for breast cancer prevention by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1998. Raloxifene was also approved for postmenopausal women in 2007 for breast cancer prevention which reduces the risk of invasive breast cancer with a lower risk of unwanted stimulation of endometrium. Thus, raloxifene is considered to have a better clinical possesses as prophylactic agent. Several other agents, such as arzoxifene and lasofoxifene, are currently being investigated in clinic. The American Society of Clinical Oncology and National Comprehensive Cancer Network had published guidelines on breast cancer chemoprevention by SERMs. However, use of tamoxifen and raloxifene for primary breast cancer prevention was still low. A broader educational effort is needed to alert women and primary care physicians that SERMs are available to reduce breast cancer risk.

  10. New perspectives of curcumin in cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wungki; Amin, A.R.M Ruhul; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Shin, Dong M.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous natural compounds have been extensively investigated for their potential for cancer prevention over decades. Curcumin, from Curcuma longa, is a highly promising natural compound that can be potentially used for chemoprevention of multiple cancers. Curcumin modulates multiple molecular pathways involved in the lengthy carcinogenesis process to exert its chemopreventive effects through several mechanisms: promoting apoptosis, inhibiting survival signals, scavenging reactive oxidative species (ROS), and reducing the inflammatory cancer microenvironment. Curcumin fulfills the characteristics for an ideal chemopreventive agent with its low toxicity, affordability, and easy accessibility. Nevertheless, the clinical application of curcumin is currently compromised by its poor bioavailability. Here we review the potential of curcumin in cancer prevention, its molecular targets, and action mechanisms. Finally, we suggest specific recommendations to improve its efficacy and bioavailability for clinical applications. PMID:23466484

  11. Soyfood intake in the prevention of breast cancer risk in women: a meta-analysis of observational epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Li-Qiang; Xu, Jia-Ying; Wang, Pei-Yu; Hoshi, Kazuhiko

    2006-12-01

    Many studies have suggested that the intake of soy products may protect against the occurrence of breast cancer because of the considerable amount of isoflavones they contain. To review the results of the observational studies, we performed this meta-analysis of the relevant literature. We searched Medline for reports that examined the association between soyfood consumption (or isoflavone intake) and breast cancer risk from January 1966 to April 2006. The random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled relative risk (RR). Twenty-one independent studies (14 case-control studies and 7 cohort studies) were included in the final analysis. The pooled RR of breast cancer for soyfood intake was 0.75 with a 95% CI of 0.59-0.95. As the main types of soyfood in Japan and China, tofu and miso showed clear protective effects. Isoflavone intake resulted in a 20% decrease in risk (RR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.67-0.99). The pooled RR varied little according to study stratification. When the studies published in Japanese and Chinese were added, the inverse associations between soyfood, tofu and breast cancer risk became slightly stronger. The weak association of miso was possibly due to the high concentration of salt in miso soup. In the present analysis, we did not find strong evidence for publication bias in the combination of the studies. This meta-analysis supported the hypotheses that soyfood intake may be associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer due to the isoflavones. Further epidemiological studies need to be conducted with more comprehensive information about the soyfood, and more accurate assessment of the isoflavones.

  12. A Skin Cancer Prevention Facial-Aging Mobile App for Secondary Schools in Brazil: Appearance-Focused Interventional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckl, Marlene; Gatzka, Martina; Heppt, Markus V; Resende Rodrigues, Henrique; Schneider, Sven; Sondermann, Wiebke; de Almeida e Silva, Carolina; Kirchberger, Michael C; Klode, Joachim; Enk, Alexander H; Knispel, Sarah; von Kalle, Christof; Stoffels, Ingo; Schadendorf, Dirk; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Esser, Stefan; Assis, Aisllan; Bernardes-Souza, Breno

    2018-01-01

    Background The incidence of melanoma is increasing faster than any other major cancer both in Brazil and worldwide. Southeast Brazil has especially high incidences of melanoma, and early detection is low. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a primary risk factor for developing melanoma. Increasing attractiveness is a major motivation among adolescents for tanning. A medical student-delivered intervention that takes advantage of the broad availability of mobile phones and adolescents’ interest in their appearance indicated effectiveness in a recent study from Germany. However, the effect in a high-UV index country with a high melanoma prevalence and the capability of medical students to implement such an intervention remain unknown. Objective In this pilot study, our objective was to investigate the preliminary success and implementability of a photoaging intervention to prevent skin cancer in Brazilian adolescents. Methods We implemented a free photoaging mobile phone app (Sunface) in 15 secondary school classes in southeast Brazil. Medical students “mirrored” the pupils’ altered 3-dimensional (3D) selfies reacting to touch on tablets via a projector in front of their whole grade accompanied by a brief discussion of means of UV protection. An anonymous questionnaire capturing sociodemographic data and risk factors for melanoma measured the perceptions of the intervention on 5-point Likert scales among 356 pupils of both sexes (13-19 years old; median age 16 years) in grades 8 to 12 of 2 secondary schools in Brazil. Results We measured more than 90% agreement in both items that measured motivation to reduce UV exposure and only 5.6% disagreement: 322 (90.5%) agreed or strongly agreed that their 3D selfie motivated them to avoid using a tanning bed, and 321 (90.2%) that it motivated them to improve their sun protection; 20 pupils (5.6%) disagreed with both items. The perceived effect on motivation was higher in female pupils in both tanning bed

  13. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    He, Shan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been ...

  14. Cultural Effects on Cancer Prevention Behaviors: Fatalistic Cancer Beliefs and Risk Optimism Among Asians in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Lwin, May O

    2017-10-01

    Although culture is acknowledged as an important factor that influences health, little is known about cultural differences pertaining to cancer-related beliefs and prevention behaviors. This study examines two culturally influenced beliefs-fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention, and optimistic beliefs about cancer risk-to identify reasons for cultural disparity in the engagement of cancer prevention behaviors. We utilized data from national surveys of European Americans in the United States (Health Information National Trends Survey 4, Cycle3; N = 1,139) and Asians in Singapore (N = 1,200) to make cultural comparisons. The odds of an Asian adhering to prevention recommendations were less than half the odds of a European American, with the exception of smoking avoidance. Compared to European Americans, Asians were more optimistic about their cancer risk both in an absolute and a comparative sense, and held stronger fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention. Mediation analyses revealed that fatalistic beliefs and absolute risk optimism among Asians partially explain their lower engagement in prevention behaviors, whereas comparative risk optimism increases their likelihood of adhering to prevention behaviors. Our findings underscore the need for developing culturally targeted interventions in communicating cancer causes and prevention.

  15. Knowledge, attitude and preventive practices for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, T.; Anwar, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of the breast cancer in medical community. The study was carried out in the Department of Oncology, Service Hospital, Lahore and completed in one month. Subjects and Methods: About 200 female doctors and nurses of the Hospital were involved. Each subject was asked to fill up a pro forma designed to assess knowledge, risk factors and preventive practices of the breast cancer. Using non-probability convenience sampling technique, breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography was performed as screening of breast cancer. Results: A majority had good knowledge of the risk factors and screening method for the early detection of breast cancer. Majority had the consensus on the benefit of mammography. Conclusions: The study shows that although medical professionals had fairly good knowledge about screening methods and risk factors of breast cancer. Their preventive practices were scanty in high risk population and, therefore, physicians and nurses need proper training. (author)

  16. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research cancer prevention recommendations and breast cancer risk in the Cancer de Màma (CAMA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanidi, Anouar; Ferrari, Pietro; Biessy, Carine; Ortega, Carolina; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Torres-Mejia, Gabriella; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the association between adherence to the recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) and breast cancer (BC) risk in the Cancer de Màma (CAMA) study in a Mexican population. Population-based case-control study. Incident BC cases (n 1000) and controls (n 1074) matched on age, region and health-care system were recruited. In-person interviews were conducted to assess BC risk factors and habitual diet was assessed with an FFQ. Conformity to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was evaluated through a score incorporating seven WCRF/AICR components (body fatness, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks and breast-feeding), with high scores indicating adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations. No statistically significant associations between WCRF/AICR score and risk of BC were observed. After excluding BMI from the WCRF/AICR score, the top quartile was associated with a decreased BC risk overall, with ORQ4-Q1=0.68 (95% CI 0.49, 0.92, P trend=0.03), and among postmenopausal women, with ORQ4-Q1=0.60 (95% CI 0.39, 0.94, P trend=0.03). Inverse associations were observed between BMI and risk of BC overall and among premenopausal women, with OR=0.57 (95% CI 0.42, 0.76, P trend <0.01) and 0.48 (95% CI 0.31, 0.73, P trend<0.01), respectively. Physical activity level was inversely associated with BC risk. The WCRF/AICR index was not related with BC risk in the CAMA study. A combination of six components excluding BMI showed strong protective associations, particularly in postmenopausal women. Further prospective studies are required to clarify the role of adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations, particularly with respect to BMI, in the Mexican population.

  17. Gastric cancer: epidemiology, prevention, classification, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitarz R

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Robert Sitarz,1–3 Małgorzata Skierucha,1,2 Jerzy Mielko,1 G Johan A Offerhaus,3 Ryszard Maciejewski,2 Wojciech P Polkowski1 1Department of Surgical Oncology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland; 2Department of Human Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland; 3Department of Pathology, University Medical Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands Abstract: Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world, the epidemiology of which has changed within last decades. A trend of steady decline in gastric cancer incidence rates is the effect of the increased standards of hygiene, conscious nutrition, and Helicobacter pylori eradication, which together constitute primary prevention. Avoidance of gastric cancer remains a priority. However, patients with higher risk should be screened for early detection and chemoprevention. Surgical resection enhanced by standardized lymphadenectomy remains the gold standard in gastric cancer therapy. This review briefly summarizes the most important aspects of gastric cancers, which include epidemiology, risk factors, classification, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. The paper is mostly addressed to physicians who are interested in updating the state of art concerning gastric carcinoma from easily accessible and credible source. Keywords: gastric cancer, epidemiology, classification, risk factors, treatment

  18. Helicobacter pylori eradication: gastric cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontiadis, Grigorios I; Ford, Alexander Charles

    2015-12-01

    The principal effect of Helicobacter pylori infection is lifelong chronic gastritis, affecting up to 20% of younger adults but 50% to 80% of adults born in resource-rich countries before 1950. We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of H pylori eradication treatment on the risk of developing gastric cancer? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 208 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 166 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 124 studies and the further review of 42 full publications. Of the 42 full articles evaluated, one systematic review was added at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for two PICO combinations. In this systematic overview, we categorised the efficacy for one intervention based on information about the effectiveness and safety of H pylori eradication treatment for the prevention of gastric cancer.

  19. CALCIUM AND THE PREVENTION OF COLON CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WELBERG, JWM; KLEIBEUKER, JH; VANDERMEER, R; MULDER, NH; DEVRIES, EGE

    1991-01-01

    Diet is a major determinant of colon cancer risk. Calcium may protect against colon cancer, presumably by binding cytotoxic bile acids and fatty acids. Numerous studies support this proposition. In subjects at risk for colon cancer oral calcium supplementation has been shown to reduce rectal

  20. Moving Toward Bioadjuvant Approaches to Head and Neck Cancer Prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, Nabil F.; Hammond, Anthea; Shin, Dong M.; Khuri, Fadlo R.

    2007-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma affects >45,000 Americans annually. Patients who are successfully treated for their primary tumor are at high risk of developing a second primary tumor, making effective preventive strategies highly desirable for this disease. Although a landmark study in 1990 suggested some benefit of high-dose retinoids in head and neck cancer prevention, subsequent trials using more tolerable doses have shown limited clinical success. Newer preventive strategies have included bioadjuvant therapy combining retinoids with interferon and α-tocopherol, combinations of molecularly targeted agents, and oncolytic viruses. Furthermore, considerable evidence has supported a cancer protective role for several nutrients, including green tea and curcumin analogs. Natural compounds such as these with favorable long-term safety profiles might be particularly suited to the cancer prevention setting, in which patients will usually tolerate only moderate risk and toxicity

  1. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Micah G; Selmin, Ornella I; Doetschman, Tom C; Romagnolo, Donato F

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern.

  2. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Micah G.; Selmin, Ornella I.; Doetschman, Tom C.; Romagnolo, Donato F.

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern. PMID:29259973

  3. Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Months Subtask 1 IACUC approval -3 Complete Initial Comments Subtask 2 Pre-engage CRO for drug synthesis -2 Complete Subtask 3 Pre...publications, we showed that AFPep prevents mammary cancer in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats exposed to a harsh carcinogen (methyl nitroso urea , MNU). The purpose...behavior Stool consistency Rearing Urination Alertness Body tone Gait Overall animal reactivity Piloerection Body Weights

  4. Application Guidelines | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personal Statement of Research Goals In narrative form, describe your research interests and goals and how these relate to cancer prevention and control. Please also provide insight into your short- and long-term career goals, and explain how the CPFP will help you achieve those goals.

  5. Staff Directory | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program values the contributions of its fellows and works to provide relevant and useful experiences in research and education in return. Our staff is here to provide unwavering support and guidance to each fellow as they progress through the program.

  6. Steps You Can Take to Prevent Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-02

    This podcast discusses the main steps people can take to reduce their risk of getting cancer.  Created: 2/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/2/2012.

  7. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah G. Donovan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern.

  8. Comparison of tai chi vs. strength training for fall prevention among female cancer survivors: study protocol for the GET FIT trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters-Stone, Kerri M; Li, Fuzhong; Horak, Fay; Luoh, Shiuh-Wen; Bennett, Jill A; Nail, Lillian; Dieckmann, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Women with cancer are significantly more likely to fall than women without cancer placing them at higher risk of fall-related fractures, other injuries and disability. Currently, no evidence-based fall prevention strategies exist that specifically target female cancer survivors. The purpose of the GET FIT (Group Exercise Training for Functional Improvement after Treatment) trial is to compare the efficacy of two distinct types of exercise, tai chi versus strength training, to prevent falls in women who have completed treatment for cancer. The specific aims of this study are to: 1) Determine and compare the efficacy of both tai chi training and strength training to reduce falls in older female cancer survivors, 2) Determine the mechanism(s) by which tai chi and strength training each reduces falls and, 3) Determine whether or not the benefits of each intervention last after structured training stops. We will conduct a three-group, single-blind, parallel design, randomized controlled trial in women, aged 50–75 years old, who have completed chemotherapy for cancer comparing 1) tai chi 2) strength training and 3) a placebo control group of seated stretching exercise. Women will participate in supervised study programs twice per week for six months and will be followed for an additional six months after formal training stops. The primary outcome in this study is falls, which will be prospectively tracked by monthly self-report. Secondary outcomes are maximal leg strength measured by isokinetic dynamometry, postural stability measured by computerized dynamic posturography and physical function measured by the Physical Performance Battery, all measured at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. The sample for this trial (N=429, assuming 25% attrition) will provide adequate statistical power to detect at least a 47% reduction in the fall rate over 1 year by being in either of the 2 exercise groups versus the control group. The GET FIT trial will provide important new knowledge

  9. Opportunities and Challenges for Nutritional Proteomics in Cancer Prevention12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnolo, Donato F.; Milner, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge gaps persist about the efficacy of cancer prevention strategies based on dietary food components. Adaptations to nutrient supply are executed through tuning of multiple protein networks that include transcription factors, histones, modifying enzymes, translation factors, membrane and nuclear receptors, and secreted proteins. However, the simultaneous quantitative and qualitative measurement of all proteins that regulate cancer processes is not practical using traditional protein methodologies. Proteomics offers an attractive opportunity to fill this knowledge gap and unravel the effects of dietary components on protein networks that impinge on cancer. The articles presented in this supplement are from talks proffered in the “Nutrition Proteomics and Cancer Prevention” session at the American Institute for Cancer Research Annual Research Conference on Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Cancer held in Washington, DC on October 21 and 22, 2010. Recent advances in MS technologies suggest that studies in nutrition and cancer prevention may benefit from the adoption of proteomic tools to elucidate the impact on biological processes that govern the transition from normal to malignant phenotype; to identify protein changes that determine both positive and negative responses to food components; to assess how protein networks mediate dose-, time-, and tissue-dependent responses to food components; and, finally, for predicting responders and nonresponders. However, both the limited accessibility to proteomic technologies and research funding appear to be hampering the routine adoption of proteomic tools in nutrition and cancer prevention research. PMID:22649262

  10. How to permanently build up the prevention of occupational cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hery, Michel; Goutet, Pierre; Calvez, Olivier; Fontaine, Bernard; Bastos, Henri; Guseva-Canu, Irina; Telle-Lamberton, Maylis; Pourquet, Michel; Fontaine, Jean-Raymond; Silvente, Eric; Malenfer, Marc; Risse-Fleury, Mathilde; Lepocreau, Antoine; Guimon, Michele; Laine, Patrick; Fares, Nadim; Hermouet, Christine; Chauvet, Claire; Haeflinger, Raphael; Vogel, Laurent; Counil, Emilie; Bertin, Melanie; Thebaud-Mony, Annie; Certin, Jean-Francois; Goutet, Pierre; Brixi, Omar

    2015-01-01

    As about 2 millions of workers are exposed to carcinogenic agents in different industrial sectors, this expert opinion proposes a presentation of the state of the art of the prevention of carcinogenic risks. The different parts address the contribution of experimental and epidemiologic studies to the knowledge and prevention of occupational cancers (sure and possible factors, classifications and regulations), the knowledge of exposures in working environments (exposure modalities and principle of assessment of exposures, traceability and retrospective assessment), the risk management within a company (identification, suppression and substitution, design of work equipment, prevention of exposure for the personnel of subcontracting companies and in the waste and recycling sectors), the evolution from risk perception to risk prevention, the various strategies for action and professional sectors (general regime, prevention policy of the French national fund of prevention for territorial and hospital public services, the taking into charge of cancers as occupational disease by agriculture regimes of social protection), and the taking into care and restorative actions (medical and legal follow up and remedy, taking inequities into account, acknowledgement of occupational cancers in Europe, critical discussion of the European policy on occupational cancer prevention, lessons learned from Giscop93 inquiry)

  11. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Meng, Xiao; Gan, Ren-You; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-07-08

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. Several epidemiological studies suggested the inverse correlation between the intake of vegetables and fruits and the incidence of breast cancer. Substantial experimental studies indicated that many dietary natural products could affect the development and progression of breast cancer, such as soy, pomegranate, mangosteen, citrus fruits, apple, grape, mango, cruciferous vegetables, ginger, garlic, black cumin, edible macro-fungi, and cereals. Their anti-breast cancer effects involve various mechanisms of action, such as downregulating ER-α expression and activity, inhibiting proliferation, migration, metastasis and angiogenesis of breast tumor cells, inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and sensitizing breast tumor cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarizes the potential role of dietary natural products and their major bioactive components in prevention and treatment of breast cancer, and special attention was paid to the mechanisms of action.

  12. Household ventilation may reduce effects of indoor air pollutants for prevention of lung cancer: a case-control study in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Yi Jin

    Full Text Available Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk.To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer.A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj and their 95% confidence intervals (CI.Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98, bedroom (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03, and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00. Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00, secondhand smokers at home (ORadj = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94, and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99. Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources.A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation.

  13. Household Ventilation May Reduce Effects of Indoor Air Pollutants for Prevention of Lung Cancer: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ren-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Xu-Shan; Liu, Ai-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Lu, Qing-Yi; Kim, Claire H.; Mu, Lina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zhao, Jin-Kou

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk. Objectives To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98), bedroom (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03), and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00). Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00), secondhand smokers at home (ORadj = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94), and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources. Conclusions A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation. PMID:25019554

  14. Household ventilation may reduce effects of indoor air pollutants for prevention of lung cancer: a case-control study in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zi-Yi; Wu, Ming; Han, Ren-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Xu-Shan; Liu, Ai-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Yi; Lu, Qing-Yi; Kim, Claire H; Mu, Lina; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zhao, Jin-Kou

    2014-01-01

    Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified various indoor air pollutants as carcinogenic to humans, few studies evaluated the role of household ventilation in reducing the impact of indoor air pollutants on lung cancer risk. To explore the association between household ventilation and lung cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in a Chinese population from 2003 to 2010. Epidemiologic and household ventilation data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was employed to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Among 1,424 lung cancer cases and 4,543 healthy controls, inverse associations were observed for good ventilation in the kitchen (ORadj = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.98), bedroom (ORadj = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79, 1.03), and both kitchen and bedroom (ORadj = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00). Stratified analyses showed lung cancer inversely associated with good ventilation among active smokers (ORadj = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.00), secondhand smokers at home (ORadj = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94), and those exposed to high-temperature cooking oil fumes (ORadj = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Additive interactions were found between household ventilation and secondhand smoke at home as well as number of household pollutant sources. A protective association was observed between good ventilation of households and lung cancer, most likely through the reduction of exposure to indoor air pollutants, indicating ventilation may serve as one of the preventive measures for lung cancer, in addition to tobacco cessation.

  15. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attendee Testimonial Plenty of Food for Thought Served Up at the John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum by Julia Tobacyk Media Folder: research_groupView the Testimonial (PDF, 790 KB) Date: March 12-16, 2018 |

  16. Cancer Prevention in the Precision Medicine Era | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker | Timothy R. Rebbeck, PhD will present "Cancer Prevention in the Precision Medicine Era" on March 20, 2018, from 11:00 am - 12:00 pm at the NCI Shady Grove Campus. Learn more about this lecture.

  17. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program Application Period is Open until August 25 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application period for the NCI Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) is open. Since 1987, CPFP has provided funding support for post-doctoral Fellows to train the next generation of researchers and leaders in the field. |

  18. Patients' Awareness Of The Prevention And Treatment Of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziki, Łukasz; Puła, Anna; Stawiski, Konrad; Mudza, Barbara; Włodarczyk, Marcin; Dziki, Adam

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess patients' awareness of the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer. Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, hospitalised at the Department of General and Colorectal Surgery of the Medical University in Łódź during the period from January 2015 to April 2015, were asked to complete a questionnaire concerning their families' medical case record, factors predisposing them to the development of colorectal cancer, the tests applied in diagnostics, and the treatment process. The questionnaire comprised 42 closed-ended questions with one correct answer. A statistical analysis of all answers was carried out. The study group consisted of 30 men and 20 women aged 27-94 years old. A strong, statistically significant negative correlation between a patient's age and his/her awareness of the prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer was noted (pcancer (p=0.008), and the awareness of the prevention programme. The women's group was characterised by statistically significantly greater awareness of colonoscopy as a screening examination (p=0.004). Patients need more information on colorectal cancer, its risk factors, prevention, the treatment process, and postoperative care. Lack of awareness of the colorectal cancer issue can be one of the major factors contributing to the high incidence of this disease.

  19. Chinese Anti-Cancer Association as a non-governmental organization undertakes systematic cancer prevention work in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has become the first leading cause of death in the world, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Facing the increasing trend of cancer incidence and mortality, China issued and implemented “three-early (early prevention, early diagnosis and early treatment)” national cancer prevention plan. As the main body and dependence of social governance, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) take over the role of government in the field of cancer prevention and treatment. American Cancer Society (ACS) made a research on cancer NGOs and civil society in cancer control and found that cancer NGOs in developing countries mobilize civil society to work together and advocate governments in their countries to develop policies to address the growing cancer burden. Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), Cancer Council Australia (CCA), and Malaysian cancer NGOs are the representatives of cancer NGOs in promoting cancer control. Selecting Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (CACA) as an example in China, this article is to investigate how NGOs undertake systematic cancer prevention work in China. By conducting real case study, we found that, as a NGO, CACA plays a significant role in intensifying the leading role of government in cancer control, optimizing cancer outcomes, decreasing cancer incidence and mortality rates and improving public health. PMID:26361412

  20. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer: are we closer to reality?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Qasim, Asghar

    2012-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An early detection of colorectal cancer determines therapeutic outcomes, while primary prevention remains a challenge. Our aim was to review the dietary, geographical and genetic factors in the causation and their possible role in the primary prevention of colorectal cancer. Data from experimental and clinical studies and population screening programmes were analysed to determine the factors responsible for causation of colorectal cancer. The role of dietary constituents, including the consumption of fat, red meat, fibre content, alcohol consumption, and other lifestyle issues, including obesity, lack of exercise and geographical variations in cancer prevalence were reviewed. The role of genetic and lifestyle factors in causation of colorectal cancer is evident from the experimental, clinical and population-based studies. Dietary factors, including the consumption of fat, fibre, red meat and alcohol, seem to have a significant influence in this regard. The role of micronutrients, vitamins, calcium may be relevant but remain largely unclear. In conclusion, there is ample evidence favouring the role of various dietary and lifestyle factors in the aetiology of colorectal cancer. Modification of these factors is an attractive option, which is likely to help in the primary prevention and reduced disease burden.

  1. Vitamins and cancer prevention: issues and dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, V R; Newberne, P M

    1981-03-01

    Vitamins are a class of organic compounds that are components of an adequate diet. They or their derivatives function as coenzymes, cellular antioxidants, and/or regulators of gene expression. Fourteen vitamins are recognized in human nutrition (Vitamins A, D, E, K, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, niacin, folacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline), with deficiencies or excesses in intake leading to changes in protein, nucleic acid, carbohydrates, fat and/or mineral metabolism. Thus, the integrity of physiological systems, including those associated with detoxification, cellular repair, immune processes, and neural and endocrine function, depends upon the nutritional and vitamin status of the host. For these reasons, it may be anticipated that the adequacy of the vitamin supply to cells and tissues would affect the development, progress, and outcome of cancers. In this review, the definition and functions of and requirements and recommended allowance for vitamins are discussed briefly before exploring the evidence, largely from studies in experimental animals, that indicates the nature of the link between vitamins and cancer. Although evidence based on studies in animal systems reveals that vitamin intake and status can modulate the outcome of experimental carcinogenesis, the findings are often conflicting and difficult to interpret. Furthermore, it is not yet possible to develop a suitable prediction of the role of the individual vitamins in tumor development. The significance of these observations for human nutrition and cancer prevention, particularly in reference to ascorbic acid (vitamin C), vitamin E, and B-complex vitamins is considered. Vitamin A and retinoid compounds are discussed elsewhere in the symposium. The many popular misconceptions and unsound advice concerning vitamins and health, including "fake" vitamins-pangamic acid ("vitamin B15") and laetrile ("vitamin B17")-are also discussed. On the basis of current evidence, it would be inappropriate to recommend

  2. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer prevention strategies can include avoiding known risk factors, having a healthy lifestyle, taking aspirin, and removing polyps. Learn more about preventing colorectal cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  3. Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer prevention strategies include quitting or avoiding exposure to smoking, occupational carcinogens, and radon. Get detailed information about risk factors and lung cancer prevention in this summary for clinicians.

  4. Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer prevention approaches include avoiding exposure to risk factors like tobacco smoke, radon, radiation, asbestos, and other substances. Learn more about preventing lung cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  5. Efficacy and safety of fosaprepitant for the prevention of nausea and emesis during 5 weeks of chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer (the GAND-emesis study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhlmann, Christina H; Christensen, Thomas Broe; Dohn, Line Hammer

    2016-01-01

    and dexamethasone in the prevention of nausea and vomiting during 5 weeks of fractionated radiotherapy and concomitant weekly cisplatin in patients with cervical cancer. METHODS: This investigator initiated, multinational, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial, included women with cervical...... weeks of treatment. The modified intention-to-treat population (all patients who received study medication) was used for the statistical analyses. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01074697. FINDINGS: Between June 15, 2010, and March 8, 2015, 246 patients from four countries...

  6. Primary and Secondary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cancer is a worldwide problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most frequent cancer in men, after lung and prostate cancer, and is the second most frequent cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the third cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most frequent cause of death by cancer if both genders are considered together. CRC represents approximately 10% of deaths by cancer. Modifiable risk factors of CRC include smoking, physical inactivity, being overweight and obesity, eating processed meat, and drinking alcohol excessively. CRC screening programs are possible only in economically developed countries. However, attention should be paid in the future to geographical areas with ageing populations and a western lifestyle. 19 , 20 Sigmoidoscopy screening done with people aged 55-64 years has been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of CRC by 33% and mortality by CRC by 43%. Objective To assess the effect on the incidence and mortality of CRC diet and lifestyle and to determine the effect of secondary prevention through early diagnosis of CRC. Methodology A comprehensive search of Medline and Pubmed articles related to primary and secondary prevention of CRC and subsequently, a meta-analysis of the same blocks are performed. Results 225 articles related to primary or secondary prevention of CRC were retrieved. Of these 145 were considered valid on meta-analysis: 12 on epidemiology, 56 on diet and lifestyle, and over 77 different screenings for early detection of CRC. Cancer is a worldwide problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. There is no doubt whatsoever which environmental factors, probably diet, may account for these cancer rates. Excessive alcohol consumption and cholesterol-rich diet are associated with a high risk of colon cancer. A diet poor in folic acid and vitamin

  7. Online Series presents Cancer Prevention Through Immunomodulation. Does Diet Play a Role? | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists are increasingly harnessing the power of the immune system to prevent cancer. Nutrition provides an opportunity for a generalized immune activation and reduction of cancer risk in certain populations. Research on several foods and bioactive food components as immunologic modulators is showing promising results. |

  8. Priority Setting for Occupational Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl E. Peters

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Selecting priority occupational carcinogens is important for cancer prevention efforts; however, standardized selection methods are not available. The objective of this paper was to describe the methods used by CAREX Canada in 2015 to establish priorities for preventing occupational cancer, with a focus on exposure estimation and descriptive profiles. Methods: Four criteria were used in an expert assessment process to guide carcinogen prioritization: (1 the likelihood of presence and/or use in Canadian workplaces; (2 toxicity of the substance (strength of evidence for carcinogenicity and other health effects; (3 feasibility of producing a carcinogen profile and/or an occupational estimate; and (4 special interest from the public/scientific community. Carcinogens were ranked as high, medium or low priority based on specific conditions regarding these criteria, and stakeholder input was incorporated. Priorities were set separately for the creation of new carcinogen profiles and for new occupational exposure estimates. Results: Overall, 246 agents were reviewed for inclusion in the occupational priorities list. For carcinogen profile generation, 103 were prioritized (11 high, 33 medium, and 59 low priority, and 36 carcinogens were deemed priorities for occupational exposure estimation (13 high, 17 medium, and 6 low priority. Conclusion: Prioritizing and ranking occupational carcinogens is required for a variety of purposes, including research, resource allocation at different jurisdictional levels, calculations of occupational cancer burden, and planning of CAREX-type projects in different countries. This paper outlines how this process was achieved in Canada; this may provide a model for other countries and jurisdictions as a part of occupational cancer prevention efforts. Keywords: cancer prevention, carcinogen exposure, occupational health

  9. Complementary roles in cancer prevention: protease inhibitor makes the cancer preventive peptide lunasin bioavailable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chien Hsieh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The lower incidence of breast cancer among Asian women compared with Western countries has been partly attributed to soy in the Asian diet, leading to efforts to identify the bioactive components that are responsible. Soy Bowman Birk Inhibitor Concentrate (BBIC is a known cancer preventive agent now in human clinical trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objectives of this work are to establish the presence and delineate the in vitro activity of lunasin and BBI found in BBIC, and study their bioavailability after oral administration to mice and rats. We report that lunasin and BBI are the two main bioactive ingredients of BBIC based on inhibition of foci formation, lunasin being more efficacious than BBI on an equimolar basis. BBI and soy Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor protect lunasin from in vitro digestion with pancreatin. Oral administration of (3H-labeled lunasin with lunasin-enriched soy results in 30% of the peptide reaching target tissues in an intact and bioactive form. In a xenograft model of nude mice transplanted with human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, intraperitoneal injections of lunasin, at 20 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg body weight, decrease tumor incidence by 49% and 33%, respectively, compared with the vehicle-treated group. In contrast, injection with BBI at 20 mg/kg body weight shows no effect on tumor incidence. Tumor generation is significantly reduced with the two doses of lunasin, while BBI is ineffective. Lunasin inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death in the breast tumor sections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that lunasin is actually the bioactive cancer preventive agent in BBIC, and BBI simply protects lunasin from digestion when soybean and other seed foods are eaten by humans.

  10. The Prevention of Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer: A Personal View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narod Steven

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Options for the prevention of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer include screening, preventive surgery and chemoprevention. Screening studies with magnetic resonance imaging of the breast are promising but the technology is not widespread and MRI is unlikely to be available as a screening tool in the near future. Prophylactic oophorectomy and mastectomy are effective preventive measures and are gaining in acceptance by patients and physicians. Preventive mastectomy is effective against both primary and contralateral breast cancer. Oophorectomy prevents ovarian cancer, and if done prior to menopause, will prevent breast cancer as well. Tamoxifen has been shown to prevent contralateral breast cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers but is not widely accepted as a means of primary prevention. Oral contraceptives and tubal ligation will reduce the risk of hereditary ovarian cancer and should be considered in women who wish to retain ovarian function.

  11. Stomach Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach (gastric) cancer risk factors include smoking and H. pylori. Learn about these and other risk factors for stomach cancer and how to prevent stomach cancer in this expert-reviewed and evidence-based summary.

  12. Transforming Cancer Prevention through Precision Medicine and Immune-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensler, Thomas W; Spira, Avrum; Garber, Judy E; Szabo, Eva; Lee, J Jack; Dong, Zigang; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Hait, William N; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Davidson, Nancy E; Foti, Margaret; Lippman, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    We have entered a transformative period in cancer prevention (including early detection). Remarkable progress in precision medicine and immune-oncology, driven by extraordinary recent advances in genome-wide sequencing, big-data analytics, blood-based technologies, and deep understanding of the tumor immune microenvironment (TME), has provided unprecedented possibilities to study the biology of premalignancy. The pace of research and discovery in precision medicine and immunoprevention has been astonishing and includes the following clinical firsts reported in 2015: driver mutations detected in circulating cell-free DNA in patients with premalignant lesions (lung); clonal hematopoiesis shown to be a premalignant state; molecular selection in chemoprevention randomized controlled trial (RCT; oral); striking efficacy in RCT of combination chemoprevention targeting signaling pathway alterations mechanistically linked to germline mutation (duodenum); molecular markers for early detection validated for lung cancer and showing promise for pancreatic, liver, and ovarian cancer. Identification of HPV as the essential cause of a major global cancer burden, including HPV16 as the single driver of an epidemic of oropharyngeal cancer in men, provides unique opportunities for the dissemination and implementation of public health interventions. Important to immunoprevention beyond viral vaccines, genetic drivers of premalignant progression were associated with increasing immunosuppressive TME; and Kras vaccine efficacy in pancreas genetically engineered mouse (GEM) model required an inhibitory adjuvant (Treg depletion). In addition to developing new (e.g., epigenetic) TME regulators, recent mechanistic studies of repurposed drugs (aspirin, metformin, and tamoxifen) have identified potent immune activity. Just as precision medicine and immune-oncology are revolutionizing cancer therapy, these approaches are transforming cancer prevention. Here, we set out a brief agenda for the

  13. Effect of perioperative oral care on prevention of postoperative pneumonia associated with esophageal cancer surgery: A multicenter case-control study with propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutome, Sakiko; Yanamoto, Souichi; Funahara, Madoka; Hasegawa, Takumi; Komori, Takahide; Yamada, Shin-Ichi; Kurita, Hiroshi; Yamauchi, Chika; Shibuya, Yasuyuki; Kojima, Yuka; Nakahara, Hirokazu; Oho, Takahiko; Umeda, Masahiro

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of oral care in prevention of postoperative pneumonia associated with esophageal cancer surgery.Postoperative pneumonia is a severe adverse event associated with esophageal cancer surgery. It is thought to be caused by aspiration of oropharyngeal fluid containing pathogens. However, the relationship between oral health status and postoperative pneumonia has not been well investigated.This study included 539 patients with esophageal cancer undergoing surgery at 1 of 7 university hospitals. While 306 patients received perioperative oral care, 233 did not. Various clinical factors as well as occurrence of postoperative pneumonia were retrospectively evaluated. Propensity-score matching was performed to minimize selection biases associated with comparison of retrospective data between the oral care and control groups. Factors related to postoperative pneumonia were analyzed by logistic regression analysis.Of the original 539 patients, 103 (19.1%) experienced postoperative pneumonia. The results of multivariate analysis of the 420 propensity score-matched patients revealed longer operation time, postoperative dysphagia, and lack of oral care intervention to be significantly correlated with postoperative pneumonia.The present findings demonstrate that perioperative oral care can reduce the risk of postoperative pneumonia in patients undergoing esophageal cancer surgery.

  14. Overview and Prevention of Cervical Cancer | Ogu | Nigerian Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer though a preventable disease, still has an estimated mortality of 80% from invasive cervical cancer in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of cervical cancer and the various modalities available for screening and prevention of cervical cancer. Methodology: ...

  15. Cruciferous Vegetables and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... case-control studies have found that people who ate greater amounts of cruciferous vegetables had a lower ... Professionals’ Follow-up Study—showed that women who ate more than 5 servings of cruciferous vegetables per ...

  16. [Cervix uteri cancer: a critical approach to its prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Michele Mandagara; da Silva, Emilia Nalva Ferreira; Pinto, Ione Carvalho; Coimbra, Valéria Cristina Christello

    2004-08-01

    This article is a pilot study of one of the authors master dissertation about problems related to the preventive measures of cervix cancer. Four women with cancer that were hospitalized at the gynecological ward or under chemotherapy treatment at a hospital in the city of Pelotas, RS, Brazil, were interviewed. Data were collected from April to June 2001, and of the women interviewed only one was examined preventively according to the guidelines of the Ministry of Health. Therefore, health professionals should be urged to promote care as well as health education.

  17. Potential targets for colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temraz, Sally; Mukherji, Deborah; Shamseddine, Ali

    2013-08-22

    The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the "proof of principle" that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research.

  18. Potential Targets for Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamseddine

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I. Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the “proof of principle” that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research.

  19. Cancer precursors epidemiology, detection, and prevention

    CERN Document Server

    Rohan, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic advances in our understanding of cancer causation have come from epidemiologic and laboratory research, particularly over the past two decades. These developments have included a broadening interest in the critical events that take place during the early stages of the dynamic multistep process leading to - vasive cancer. Increasingly, cancer epidemiologists are pursuing research into the origins and natural history of premalignant lesions, including intermediate or surrogate endpoints, a trend - celerated by the development of molecular technologies that are revolutionizing our understanding of the transformation of normal to malignant cells. There seems little doubt that this emerging knowledge will provide further insights not only into carcinogenic processes, but also into more sensitive methods of early detection and more effective means of prevention. In this book, Drs. Franco and Rohan have succeeded in prep- ing a comprehensive, timely, and critical review of the substantial progress that has ...

  20. Pomegranate Extracts and Cancer Prevention: Molecular and Cellular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Deeba N.; Chamcheu, Jean-Christopher; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    There is increased appreciation by the scientific community that dietary phytochemicals can be potential weapons in the fight against cancer. Emerging data has provided new insights into the molecular and cellular framework needed to establish novel mechanism-based strategies for cancer prevention by selective bioactive food components. The unique chemical composition of the pomegranate fruit, rich in antioxidant tannins and flavonoids has drawn the attention of many investigators. Polyphenol rich fractions derived from the pomegranate fruit have been studied for their potential chemopreventive and/or cancer therapeutic effects in several animal models. Although data from in vitro and in vivo studies look convincing, well designed clinical trials in humans are needed to ascertain whether pomegranate can become part of our armamentarium against cancer. This review summarizes the available literature on the effects of pomegranate against various cancers. PMID:23094914

  1. Photocarcinogenesis and Skin Cancer Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebode, Christina; Lehmann, Janin; Emmert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    In this review the basic principles of UV-induced carcinogenesis are summarized and the state of the art diagnosis and therapeutic strategies are discussed. The prevalent keratinocyte-derived neoplasms of the skin are basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Cutaneous melanoma is less frequent but associated with high mortality. Common risk factors for all three tumor entities include sun exposure and DNA-repair deficiencies. Photocarcinogenesis follows a multistep model of cancer development in which ultraviolet-induced DNA damage leads to mutations resulting in activation of oncogenes or silencing of tumor-suppressor genes. This ends in a cellular mutator phenotype even more prone to mutation acquisition. DNA repair, especially the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, counteracts mutation formation and skin cancer development. This is vividly demonstrated by the NER-defective disorder xeroderma pigmentosum. Primary skin cancer preventative strategies, therefore, include reduction of DNA photodamage by protection from the sun. Secondary preventative strategies include skin cancer screening. This implies standard examination techniques with the naked eye, an epiluminescence microscope, or digital epiluminescence microscopy. More advanced techniques include confocal laser scan microscopy. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Zare, Maryam; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Naghshineh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive corre...

  3. Cancer in numbers: Do preventive measures for colorectal cancer apply?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common cancer in men, after lung cancer, and is the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the second leading cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most common cause of cancer death if both genders are considered together. CRC accounts for approximately 10% of cancer deaths. Modifiable risk factors for CRC include smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity, processed meat consumption, and excessive alcohol consumption. CRC screening programs are possible in economically developed countries. However, attention should be paid in the future to geographically populated areas and western lifestyles. Objective: To evaluate the effect on the incidence and mortality of diet and lifestyle of CRC and to determine the effect of secondary prevention through the early diagnosis of CRC. Methodology: An exhaustive search of Medline and Pubmed articles related to primary and secondary prevention of CRC is carried out and a meta-analysis of the same blocks is carried out. Results: 301 items related to primary or secondary prevention of CRC were recovered. Of these, 177 were considered valid in the meta-analysis: 12 in epidemiology, 56 in diet and lifestyle, and over 77 different projections for the early detection of CRC. Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. There is no question of which environmental factors, probably diet, may explain these cancer rates. Excessive consumption of alcohol and high cholesterol diet are associated with a high risk of colon cancer. A diet low in folic acid and vitamin B6 is also associated with an increased risk of developing colon cancer with overexpression of p53. Eating pulses at least three times a week reduces the risk of

  4. Retention of black and white participants in the selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial (SWOG-coordinated intergroup study S0000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathryn B; Hermos, John A; Anderson, Karen B; Minasian, Lori; Tangen, Catherine M; Probstfield, Jeffrey F; Cook, Elise D

    2014-12-01

    Disproportionally low retention of minority populations can adversely affect the generalizability of clinical research trials. We determine the overall retention rates for White and Black participants from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) and explore participant and site characteristics associated with retention failure (study disengagement) for these groups. A secondary analysis of 28,118 White (age ≥55), and 4,322 Black (age ≥ 50) SELECT participants used multivariate Cox regression to estimate overall retention rates and to calculate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Blacks had higher age-adjusted risk of disengagement than Whites (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.77-2.08). Among Black participants, those ages 50 to 54 were at three times the risk of disengagement than those ≥65 years of age (HR, 3.61; 95% CI, 2.41-5.41). Blacks age ≥65 had 1.6 times the risk of disengagement than Whites age ≥65 (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.38-1.87). By 6 years after randomization, 84% of Whites and 69% of Blacks remained engaged in the study. Current smoking status was an independent risk factor for study disengagement for both White and Black participants. For both groups, sites whose staffs missed SELECT training sessions or who received SELECT Retention and Adherence grants were associated with increased and decreased disengagement risks, respectively. SELECT retention was disproportionately lower for Blacks than for Whites. The observed difference in retention rates for Blacks and Whites and factors identified by race for study disengagement in SELECT may inform retention efforts for future long-term, cancer prevention trials. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Epigenetic Biomarkers of Breast Cancer Risk: Across the Breast Cancer Prevention Continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Mary Beth; McDonald, Jasmine A; Wu, Hui Chen; Eng, Sybil; Santella, Regina M

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic biomarkers, such as DNA methylation, can increase cancer risk through altering gene expression. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network has demonstrated breast cancer-specific DNA methylation signatures. DNA methylation signatures measured at the time of diagnosis may prove important for treatment options and in predicting disease-free and overall survival (tertiary prevention). DNA methylation measurement in cell free DNA may also be useful in improving early detection by measuring tumor DNA released into the blood (secondary prevention). Most evidence evaluating the use of DNA methylation markers in tertiary and secondary prevention efforts for breast cancer comes from studies that are cross-sectional or retrospective with limited corresponding epidemiologic data, raising concerns about temporality. Few prospective studies exist that are large enough to address whether DNA methylation markers add to the prediction of tertiary and secondary outcomes over and beyond standard clinical measures. Determining the role of epigenetic biomarkers in primary prevention can help in identifying modifiable pathways for targeting interventions and reducing disease incidence. The potential is great for DNA methylation markers to improve cancer outcomes across the prevention continuum. Large, prospective epidemiological studies will provide essential evidence of the overall utility of adding these markers to primary prevention efforts, screening, and clinical care.

  6. Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it might mean for you. What is skin cancer? Skin cancer is cancer that occurs in different kinds ... squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Facts About Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer ...

  7. Triphala, Ayurvedic formulation for treating and preventing cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2010-12-01

    Triphala (Sanskrit tri = three and phala = fruits), composed of the three medicinal fruits Phyllanthus emblica L. or Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Terminalia chebula Retz., and Terminalia belerica Retz. is an important herbal preparation in the traditional Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda. Triphala is an antioxidant-rich herbal formulation and possesses diverse beneficial properties. It is a widely prescribed Ayurvedic drug and is used as a colon cleanser, digestive, diuretic, and laxative. Cancer is a major cause of death, and globally studies are being conducted to prevent cancer or to develop effective nontoxic therapeutic agents. Experimental studies in the past decade have shown that Triphala is useful in the prevention of cancer and that it also possesses antineoplastic, radioprotective and chemoprotective effects. This review for the first time summarizes these results, with emphasis on published observations. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects and lacunas in the existing knowledge that need to be bridged are also discussed.

  8. Nutritional Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and fo | Establishing a comprehensive understanding of diet and food components in cancer risk and tumor cell behavior.

  9. Genetic variation in candidate obesity genes ADRB2, ADRB3, GHRL, HSD11B1, IRS1, IRS2, and SHC1 and risk for breast cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Teras, Lauren R; Diver, W Ryan; Tang, Weining; Patel, Alpa V; Stevens, Victoria L; Calle, Eugenia E; Thun, Michael J; Bouzyk, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Obesity has consistently been associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Proteins that are secreted by adipose tissue or are involved in regulating body mass may play a role in breast tumor development. We conducted a nested case-control study among postmenopausal women from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort to determine whether genes associated with obesity increase risk for breast cancer. Tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected to capture common variation across seven candidate genes that encode adipose-related proteins: ADRB2, ADRB3, GHRL, HSD11B1, IRS1, IRS2, and SHC1. Thirty-nine SNPs were genotyped in 648 cases and 659 controls. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between each tagging SNP and risk for breast cancer while adjusting for matching factors and potential confounders. We also examined whether these SNPs were associated with measures of adult adiposity. Two out of five tagging SNPs in HSD11B1 were associated with breast cancer (rs11807619, P = 0.006; rs932335, P = 0.0001). rs11807619 and rs932335 were highly correlated (r2 = 0.74) and, when modeled as a haplotype, only haplotypes containing the rs932335 C allele were associated with breast cancer. The rs932335 C allele was associated with a nearly twofold increased risk for breast cancer (odds ratio = 1.83, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-3.33 for C/C versus G/G). Three of the 11 SNPs for IRS2 were associated with breast cancer (rs4773082, P = 0.007; rs2289046, P = 0.016; rs754204, P = 0.03). When these three SNPs were examined as a haplotype, only the haplotype that included the G allele of rs2289046 was associated with breast cancer (odds ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval = 0.63-0.92 for TGC versus CAT). IRS2 rs2289046, rs754204, and rs12584136 were also associated with adult weight gain but only among cases. None of the other SNPs in any gene investigated were associated with breast cancer or

  10. Omega-3 fatty acids for breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-05-04

    Women with evidence of high intake ratios of the marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) relative to the omega-6 arachidonic acid have been found to have a reduced risk of breast cancer compared with those with low ratios in some but not all case-control and cohort studies. If increasing EPA and DHA relative to arachidonic acid is effective in reducing breast cancer risk, likely mechanisms include reduction in proinflammatory lipid derivatives, inhibition of nuclear factor-κB-induced cytokine production, and decreased growth factor receptor signaling as a result of alteration in membrane lipid rafts. Primary prevention trials with either risk biomarkers or cancer incidence as endpoints are underway but final results of these trials are currently unavailable. EPA and DHA supplementation is also being explored in an effort to help prevent or alleviate common problems after a breast cancer diagnosis, including cardiac and cognitive dysfunction and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. The insulin-sensitizing and anabolic properties of EPA and DHA also suggest supplementation studies to determine whether these omega-3 fatty acids might reduce chemotherapy-associated loss of muscle mass and weight gain. We will briefly review relevant omega-3 fatty acid metabolism, and early investigations in breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

  11. Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk factors for breast cancer are female sex and advancing age, inherited risk, breast density, obesity, alcohol consumption, and exposure to ionizing radiation. Interventions to prevent breast cancer include chemoprevention (e.g. SERMs, AIs), risk-reducing surgery (e.g. mastectomy, oophorectomy). Review the evidence on risk factors and interventions to prevent breast cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  12. Cancer prevention knowledge of people with profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazove, Philip; Meador, Helen E; Reed, Barbara D; Sen, Ananda; Gorenflo, Daniel W

    2009-03-01

    Deaf persons, a documented minority population, have low reading levels and difficulty communicating with physicians. The effect of these on their knowledge of cancer prevention recommendations is unknown. A cross-sectional study of 222 d/Deaf persons in Michigan, age 18 and older, chose one of four ways (voice, video of a certified American Sign Language interpreter, captions, or printed English) to complete a self-administered computer video questionnaire about demographics, hearing loss, language history, health-care utilization, and health-care information sources, as well as family and social variables. Twelve questions tested their knowledge of cancer prevention recommendations. The outcome measures were the percentage of correct answers to the questions and the association of multiple variables with these responses. Participants averaged 22.9% correct answers with no gender difference. Univariate analysis revealed that smoking history, types of medical problems, last physician visit, and women having previous cancer preventive tests did not affect scores. Improved scores occurred with computer use (p = 0.05), higher education (p internet (p = 0.02), and believing that smoking is bad (p bad (p = 0.05) were associated with improved scores. Persons with profound hearing loss have poor knowledge of recommended cancer prevention interventions. English use in multiple settings was strongly associated with increased knowledge.

  13. Breast cancer risk accumulation starts early: prevention must also.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Graham A; Bohlke, Kari; Berkey, Catherine S

    2014-06-01

    Nearly one in four breast cancers is diagnosed before the age of 50, and many early-stage premalignant lesions are present but not yet diagnosed. Therefore, we review evidence to support the strategy that breast cancer prevention efforts must begin early in life. This study follows the literature review methods and format. Exposures during childhood and adolescence affect a woman's long-term risk of breast cancer, but have received far less research attention than exposures that occur later in life. Breast tissue undergoes rapid cellular proliferation between menarche and first full-term pregnancy, and risk accumulates rapidly until the terminal differentiation that accompanies first pregnancy. Evidence on childhood diet and growth in height, and adolescent alcohol intake, among other adolescent factors is related to breast cancer risk and risk of premalignant proliferative benign lesions. Breast cancer prevention efforts will have the greatest effect when initiated at an early age and continued over a lifetime. Gaps in knowledge are identified and deserve increase attention to inform prevention.

  14. Radiation induced cancer: risk assessment and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A number of factors have to be considered in defining the cancer risk from ionizing radiation. These include the radiation sensitivity of the target tissue(s), the temporal pattern of risk, the shape of the dose-incidence curve, the effects of low dose rates, host susceptibility factors, and synergism with other environmental exposures. For the population as a whole the largest sources of radiation exposure are natural background radiation and medical/dental radiation. Radiation exposures in the medical field make up the largest volume of occupational exposures as well. Although new technologies offer opportunities to lower exposures, worker training, careful exposure monitoring with remedial feedback, and monitoring to prevent unnecessary radiodiagnostic procedures may be even more important means of reducing radiation exposure. Screening of irradiated populations can serve a useful preventive function, but only for those who have received very high doses

  15. [A multicenter, randomized, controlled, phase Ⅳ clinical study of PEG-rhG-CSF for preventing chemotherapy induced neutropenia in patients with breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z F; Xu, F R; Fan, J; Li, B J; Gao, J N; Hu, J W; Wang, X J; Zhang, Y Q; Wang, J H; Li, F; Liu, Q; Liu, Y H; Wang, S; Wang, Y S; Ouyang, Q C; Hu, B; Sun, G P; Zhang, Y; Zang, A M; Fan, P Z; Wu, C P; Liu, J; Zhang, H W; Wang, W; Hu, X C; Tang, L L; Zhang, J; Bao, Y Y; Geng, C Z; Sun, Q; Zhang, F; Yin, Y M; Jiang, H C; An, Y H

    2018-04-24

    Objective: To explore the efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycal recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (PEG-rhG-CSF) in preventing chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in patiens with breast cancer. Methods: There were two parts in the present phase Ⅳ clinical study. One was a randomized, controlled clinical study. Patients in this study received PEG-rhG-CSF or rhG-CSF in the first cycle and followed with both PEG-rhG-CSF in the rest of 3 cycles. The other one was a single arm study. Patients who developed Ⅲ/Ⅳ grade neutropenia in the screening cycle received PEG-rhG-CSF in the rest of 3 cycles chemotherapy. Results: In the first cycle of randomized, controlled study, the incidence of Ⅳ grade neutropenia are 31.48% and 35.58% respectively in PEG-rhG-CSF and rhG-CSF group, with no statistically significant differences ( P =0.527 6). The duration of Ⅳ grade neutropenia respectively are 2.22±1.58 and 3.00±1.59 days, with a statistically significant difference ( P =0.016 6). In the single arm study, the incidence of Ⅳ grade neutropenia was 57.76% in screening cycle. And the incidence decreased to 16.35%, 10%, and 8.57% in the followed 3 cycle after the use of PEG-rhG-CSF. The incidence of adverse effects was 5.06%, and the major adverse effect was bone pain which with an incidence of 2.8%. Conclusion: The fixed 6mg dose of PEG-rhG-CSF can effectively prevent neutropenia in patients with breast cancer in multicycle chemotherapy and it has a low incidence of adverse events and mild adverse reaction.

  16. Identification of cancer risk and associated behaviour: implications for social marketing campaigns for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippen, Rebecca; James, Erica; Ward, Bernadette; Buykx, Penny; Shamsullah, Ardel; Watson, Wendy; Chapman, Kathy

    2017-08-17

    Community misconception of what causes cancer is an important consideration when devising communication strategies around cancer prevention, while those initiating social marketing campaigns must decide whether to target the general population or to tailor messages for different audiences. This paper investigates the relationships between demographic characteristics, identification of selected cancer risk factors, and associated protective behaviours, to inform audience segmentation for cancer prevention social marketing. Data for this cross-sectional study (n = 3301) are derived from Cancer Council New South Wales' 2013 Cancer Prevention Survey. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between respondent demographic characteristics and identification of each of seven cancer risk factors; demographic characteristics and practice of the seven 'protective' behaviours associated with the seven cancer risk factors; and identification of cancer risk factors and practising the associated protective behaviours, controlling for demographic characteristics. More than 90% of respondents across demographic groups identified sun exposure and smoking cigarettes as moderate or large cancer risk factors. Around 80% identified passive smoking as a moderate/large risk factor, and 40-60% identified being overweight or obese, drinking alcohol, not eating enough vegetables and not eating enough fruit. Women and older respondents were more likely to identify most cancer risk factors as moderate/large, and to practise associated protective behaviours. Education was correlated with identification of smoking as a moderate/large cancer risk factor, and with four of the seven protective behaviours. Location (metropolitan/regional) and country of birth (Australia/other) were weak predictors of identification and of protective behaviours. Identification of a cancer risk factor as moderate/large was a significant predictor for five out

  17. Towards Prevention of Breast Cancer: What Are the Clinical Challenges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgquist, Signe; Hall, Per; Lipkus, Isaac; Garber, Judy E

    2018-05-01

    The dramatic increase in breast cancer incidence compels a paradigm shift in our preventive efforts. There are several barriers to overcome before prevention becomes an established part of breast cancer management. The objective of this review is to identify the clinical challenges for improved breast cancer prevention and discuss current knowledge on breast cancer risk assessment methods, risk communication, ethics, and interventional efforts with the aim of covering the aspects relevant for a breast cancer prevention trial. Herein, the following five areas are discussed: (i) Adequate tools for identification of women at high risk of breast cancer suggestively entitled Prevent! Online. (ii) Consensus on the definition of high risk, which is regarded as mandatory for all risk communication and potential prophylactic interventions. (iii) Risk perception and communication regarding risk information. (iv) Potential ethical concerns relevant for future breast cancer prevention programs. (v) Risk-reducing programs involving multileveled prevention depending on identified risk. Taken together, devoted efforts from both policy makers and health care providers are warranted to improve risk assessment and risk counseling in women at risk for breast cancer to optimize the prevention of breast cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 11(5); 255-64. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Annual Fasting; the Early Calories Restriction for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solat Eslami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Essentially, people’s diet and nutritional status has been changed substantially worldwide and several lines of evidence suggest that these changes are to the detriment of their health. Additionally, it has been well documented that unhealthy diet especially the fast foods, untraditional foods or bad-eating-habits influence the human gut microbiome. The gut microbiota shapes immune responses during human life and affects his/her metabolomic profiles. Furthermore, many studies highlight the molecular pathways that mediate host and symbiont interactions that regulate proper immune function and prevention of cancer in the body. Intriguingly, if cancer forms in a human body due to the weakness of immune system in detriment of microbiome, the removal of cancer stem cells can be carried out through early Calories Restriction with Annual Fasting (AF before tumor development or progress. Besides, fasting can b balance the gut microbiome for enhancement of immune system against cancer formation.

  19. [China faces a challenge of breast cancer prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B N; Chen, W Q; Zhang, X; Qiao, Y L

    2016-10-23

    The incidence and mortality of breast cancer is in an increasing trend. In contrast to the global breast cancer situation, the prevention and control is challenging in China. Some suggestions are presented to the project of breast cancer prevention and control in China. Combining the global screening experiences with the epidemiological features of Chinese female breast cancer, aims to improve the population screening and early detection rate. Standardizing clinical diagnosis and treatment practice, aims to increase the efficacy and decrease the mortality. Intervening lifestyle and dietary behaviors, and intends to reduce risk exposure and incidence. Building national breast cancer registry provides preventive strategies. Great efforts should be made to carry out large sample multicenter clinical trails and translational research on the prevention and cotrol of breast cancer coordiated by health care service and science and technology administrations. Breast cancer prevention and control has a long way to go in China.

  20. David Nelson, MD, MPH | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Nutritional Science Funding Opportunities | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Nutritional Science Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Nutritional Science Meetings and Events | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Active Nutritional Science Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Fulfilling the potential of cancer prevention and early detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curry, Susan J; Byers, Tim; Hewitt, Maria Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    .... The National Cancer Policy Board, part of the Institute of Medicine, outlines a national strategy to realize the promise of cancer prevention and early detection, including specific and wide-ranging recommendations...

  6. Diet and physical activity in the prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Mamta; Shike, Moshe

    2014-12-01

    Diet has been linked to the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) and may explain some of the differences in incidence and mortality among various populations. Evidence suggests that a high intake of red and processed meats is associated with an increased risk of CRC. The protective benefits of fiber are unclear, although in some studies fiber is associated with reduced CRC risk. The role of supplements, such as calcium, vitamin D, and folic acid, remains uncertain, and these nutrients cannot be currently recommended for chemoprevention. Obesity and sedentary lifestyle have been associated with an increased risk for colon cancer. Because of the inherent difficulty in studying the effects of specific nutrients, dietary pattern analysis may be a preferable approach to the investigation of the relationship between diet and risk for human diseases. Lifestyle modifications, such as increasing physical activity and consumption of a diet rich in fiber, fruits, vegetables, fish, and poultry and low in red and processed meats, have been advocated for primary prevention of several chronic diseases, and may in fact be beneficial for cancer prevention, particularly CRC. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  7. Pomegranate for Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, and those who survive cancer may experience lasting difficulties, including treatment side effects, as well as physical, cognitive, and psychosocial struggles. Naturally-occurring agents from dietary fruits and vegetables have received considerable attention for the prevention and treatment of cancers. These natural agents are safe and cost efficient in contrast to expensive chemotherapeutic agents, which may induce significant side effects. The pomegranate (Punica granatum L. fruit has been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of diseases and ailments for centuries in ancient cultures. Pomegranate exhibits strong antioxidant activity and is a rich source of anthocyanins, ellagitannins, and hydrolysable tannins. Studies have shown that the pomegranate fruit as well as its juice, extract, and oil exert anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-tumorigenic properties by modulating multiple signaling pathways, which suggest its use as a promising chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical studies highlighting the role of pomegranate in prevention and treatment of skin, breast, prostate, lung, and colon cancers.

  8. Molecular Link between Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Grant

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as calcitriol, is a biologically active molecule required to maintain the physiological functions of several target tissues in the human body from conception to adulthood. Its molecular mode of action ranges from immediate nongenomic responses to longer term mechanisms that exert persistent genomic effects. The genomic mechanisms of vitamin D action rely on cross talk between 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 signaling pathways and that of other growth factors or hormones that collectively regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and cell survival. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate a role for vitamin D (calcitriol in modulating cellular growth and development. Vitamin D (calcitriol acts as an antiproliferative agent in many tissues and significantly slows malignant cellular growth. Moreover, epidemiological studies have suggested that ultraviolet-B exposure can help reduce cancer risk and prevalence, indicating a potential role for vitamin D as a feasible agent to prevent cancer incidence and recurrence. With the preventive potential of this biologically active agent, we suggest that countries where cancer is on the rise—yet where sunlight and, hence, vitamin D may be easily acquired—adopt awareness, education and implementation strategies to increase supplementation with vitamin D in all age groups as a preventive measure to reduce cancer risk and prevalence.

  9. Pomegranate for Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pooja; McClees, Sarah F; Afaq, Farrukh

    2017-01-24

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, and those who survive cancer may experience lasting difficulties, including treatment side effects, as well as physical, cognitive, and psychosocial struggles. Naturally-occurring agents from dietary fruits and vegetables have received considerable attention for the prevention and treatment of cancers. These natural agents are safe and cost efficient in contrast to expensive chemotherapeutic agents, which may induce significant side effects. The pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) fruit has been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of diseases and ailments for centuries in ancient cultures. Pomegranate exhibits strong antioxidant activity and is a rich source of anthocyanins, ellagitannins, and hydrolysable tannins. Studies have shown that the pomegranate fruit as well as its juice, extract, and oil exert anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-tumorigenic properties by modulating multiple signaling pathways, which suggest its use as a promising chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical studies highlighting the role of pomegranate in prevention and treatment of skin, breast, prostate, lung, and colon cancers.

  10. Modeling Cervical Cancer Prevention in Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jane J.; Brisson, Marc; Edmunds, W. John; Goldie, Sue J.

    2009-01-01

    Cytology-based screening has reduced cervical cancer mortality in countries able to implement, sustain and financially support organized programs that achieve broad coverage. These ongoing secondary prevention efforts considerably complicate the question of whether vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types -16 and 18 should be introduced. Policy questions focus primarily on the target ages of vaccination, appropriate ages for a temporary “catch-up” program, possible revisions in screening policies to optimize synergies with vaccination, including the increased used of HPV DNA testing, and the inclusion of boys in the vaccination program. Decision-analytic models are increasingly being developed to simulate disease burden and interventions in different settings in order to evaluate the benefits and cost-effectiveness of primary and secondary interventions for informed decision-making. This article is a focused review on existing mathematical models that have been used to evaluate HPV vaccination in the context of developed countries with existing screening programs. Despite variations in model assumptions and uncertainty in existing data, pre-adolescent vaccination of girls is consistently found to be attractive in the context of current screening practices, provided there is complete and lifelong vaccine protection and widespread vaccination coverage. Questions related to catch-up vaccination programs, potential benefits of other non-cervical cancer outcomes and inclusion of boys are subject to far more uncertainty, and results from these analyses have reached conflicting conclusions. Most analyses find that some catch-up vaccination is warranted but becomes increasingly unattractive as the catch-up age is extended, and vaccination of boys is unlikely to be cost-effective if reasonable levels of coverage are achieved in girls or coverage among girls can be improved. The objective of the review is to highlight points of consensus and qualitative

  11. Strategies for cancer prevention: the role of diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, J A

    2002-05-01

    Linkages between diet habits and cancer risk have surfaced from a multitude of epidemiological and preclinical studies. Collectively these studies provide rather compelling evidence that dietary components modify the incidence and biological behavior of tumors. While the risk of breast, prostate, colon, lung and liver cancers are frequently associated with dietary patterns, inconsistencies are not uncommon. These inconsistencies likely reflect the multi-factorial and complex nature of cancer and the specificity that individual dietary constituents have in modifying cancer related genetic pathways. The complexity of defining the role of diet is underscored by the numerous and diverse essential and non-essential components that may alter one or more phases of the cancer process. The explosive increase in the recognition of genes and pathways for regulating cell growth and development, and evaluating the response to hormones and other chemicals synthesized by the body, offers exciting opportunities for unraveling the molecular targets by which dietary components influence cancer prevention. It is recognized that all cells have unique 'signatures' that are characterized by active and inactive genes and cellular products. It is certainly plausible that bridging knowledge about these unique cellular characteristics with the molecular targets for nutrients can be used to assist in optimizing nutrition and minimizing cancer risk.

  12. Acupuncture Reduces Breast Cancer Joint Pain | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the largest, most rigorous study of its kind, acupuncture was found to significantly reduce the debilitating joint pain experienced by tens of thousands of women each year while being treated for early stage breast cancer with aromatase inhibitors (AIs). |

  13. Status of selenium in cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    An abundance of data indicate that selenium (Se) can be antitumorigenic. Those data, mostly from controlled studies using animal tumor models and some from clinical studies in free-living people, indicate that treatment with Se in the absence of nutritional Se-deficiency, can reduce cancer risk. T...

  14. Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer (EPOC study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of exercise versus stretching in males with Barrett's oesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeves Marina M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and excessive body fat are considered principal causes of Barrett's oesophagus (a metaplastic change in the cells lining the oesophagus and its neoplastic progression, oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Metabolic disturbances including altered levels of obesity-related cytokines, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance have also been associated with oesophageal cancer development, especially in males. Physical activity may have the potential to abrogate metabolic disturbances in males with Barrett's oesophagus and elicit beneficial reductions in body fat and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Thus, exercise may be an effective intervention in reducing oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk. However, to date this hypothesis remains untested. The 'Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer Study' will determine whether 24 weeks of exercise training will lead to alterations in risk factors or biomarkers for oesophageal adenocarcinoma in males with Barrett's oesophagus. Our primary outcomes are serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 as well as insulin resistance. Body composition, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms, cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength will also be assessed as secondary outcomes. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial of 80 overweight or obese, inactive males with Barrett's oesophagus will be conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Participants will be randomized to an intervention arm (60 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance training, five days per week or a control arm (45 minutes of stretching, five days per week for 24 weeks. Primary and secondary endpoints will be measured at baseline (week 0, midpoint (week 12 and at the end of the intervention (week 24. Discussion Due to the increasing incidence and very high mortality associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma

  15. Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer (EPOC) study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of exercise versus stretching in males with Barrett's oesophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winzer, Brooke M; Paratz, Jennifer D; Reeves, Marina M; Whiteman, David C

    2010-01-01

    Chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and excessive body fat are considered principal causes of Barrett's oesophagus (a metaplastic change in the cells lining the oesophagus) and its neoplastic progression, oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Metabolic disturbances including altered levels of obesity-related cytokines, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance have also been associated with oesophageal cancer development, especially in males. Physical activity may have the potential to abrogate metabolic disturbances in males with Barrett's oesophagus and elicit beneficial reductions in body fat and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Thus, exercise may be an effective intervention in reducing oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk. However, to date this hypothesis remains untested. The 'Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer Study' will determine whether 24 weeks of exercise training will lead to alterations in risk factors or biomarkers for oesophageal adenocarcinoma in males with Barrett's oesophagus. Our primary outcomes are serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 as well as insulin resistance. Body composition, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms, cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength will also be assessed as secondary outcomes. A randomized controlled trial of 80 overweight or obese, inactive males with Barrett's oesophagus will be conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Participants will be randomized to an intervention arm (60 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance training, five days per week) or a control arm (45 minutes of stretching, five days per week) for 24 weeks. Primary and secondary endpoints will be measured at baseline (week 0), midpoint (week 12) and at the end of the intervention (week 24). Due to the increasing incidence and very high mortality associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, interventions effective in

  16. Priorities for the primary prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Graham A; Bohlke, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent calls to intensify the search for new risk factors for breast cancer, acting on information that we already have could prevent thousands of cases each year. This article reviews breast cancer primary prevention strategies that are applicable to all women, discusses the underutilization of chemoprevention in high-risk women, highlights the additional advances that could be made by including young women in prevention efforts, and comments on how the molecular heterogeneity of breast cancer affects prevention research and strategies. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  17. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention strategies include avoiding known risk factors, adopting a healthy lifestyle, polyp removal, and aspirin. Get detailed information about risk factors for CRC and potential interventions for prevention in this summary for clinicians.

  18. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Lazarova, Darina L; Bordonaro, Michael

    2014-02-15

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which modifies the host's metabolism in various ways. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which dietary fiber-dependent changes in gut microbiota enhance bile acid deconjugation, produce short chain fatty acids, and modulate inflammatory bioactive substances can lead to a better understanding of the beneficial role of dietary fiber. This article reviews the current knowledge concerning the mechanisms via which dietary fiber protects against colon cancer.

  19. Punica granatum (Pomegranate activity in health promotion and cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahindokht Bassiri-Jahromi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has become one of the most fatal diseases in most countries. In spite of the medical care developing, cancer still remains a significant problem. The majority of the cancers are resistant to treatment. Thus, the research for novel, more efficient and less side effect treatment methods continues. Pomegranate contains strong antioxidant activity, with potential health interests. Research concern in pomegranate is increasing because of their anticancer potential due to possess rich in polyphenols. We highlight the pomegranate potential health benefits and mechanism of cancer progression inhibition. Pomegranate has indicated antiproliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-invasive effects on different cancer cell line in vitro, in vivo and clinical trial. The aim of this review is to evaluate functional properties and the medical benifits of pomegranate against various cancer diseases. In addition, pomegranate properties in in vitro and in vivo experimental human and animal clinical trials and its future use are explored. The available data suggest that Punica granatum (pomegranate might be used in the control and potential therapeutic for some disease conditions and benefits human health status. This review summarizes in vitro, in vivo and clinical trial studies highlighting the pomegranate role in prevent and treatment of breast, prostate, lung, colon, skin and hepatocellular cell cancers.

  20. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) activity in health promotion and cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Cancer has become one of the most fatal diseases in most countries. In spite of the medical care developing, cancer still remains a significant problem. The majority of the cancers are resistant to treatment. Thus, the research for novel, more efficient and less side effect treatment methods continues. Pomegranate contains strong antioxidant activity, with potential health interests. Research concern in pomegranate is increasing because of their anticancer potential due to possess rich in polyphenols. We highlight the pomegranate potential health benefits and mechanism of cancer progression inhibition. Pomegranate has indicated antiproliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-invasive effects on different cancer cell line in vitro, in vivo and clinical trial. The aim of this review is to evaluate functional properties and the medical benifits of pomegranate against various cancer diseases. In addition, pomegranate properties in in vitro and in vivo experimental human and animal clinical trials and its future use are explored. The available data suggest that Punica granatum (pomegranate) might be used in the control and potential therapeutic for some disease conditions and benefits human health status. This review summarizes in vitro, in vivo and clinical trial studies highlighting the pomegranate role in prevent and treatment of breast, prostate, lung, colon, skin and hepatocellular cell cancers. PMID:29441150

  1. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) activity in health promotion and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiri-Jahromi, Shahindokht

    2018-01-30

    Cancer has become one of the most fatal diseases in most countries. In spite of the medical care developing, cancer still remains a significant problem. The majority of the cancers are resistant to treatment. Thus, the research for novel, more efficient and less side effect treatment methods continues. Pomegranate contains strong antioxidant activity, with potential health interests. Research concern in pomegranate is increasing because of their anticancer potential due to possess rich in polyphenols. We highlight the pomegranate potential health benefits and mechanism of cancer progression inhibition. Pomegranate has indicated antiproliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-invasive effects on different cancer cell line in vitro , in vivo and clinical trial. The aim of this review is to evaluate functional properties and the medical benifits of pomegranate against various cancer diseases. In addition, pomegranate properties in in vitro and in vivo experimental human and animal clinical trials and its future use are explored. The available data suggest that Punica granatum (pomegranate) might be used in the control and potential therapeutic for some disease conditions and benefits human health status. This review summarizes in vitro , in vivo and clinical trial studies highlighting the pomegranate role in prevent and treatment of breast, prostate, lung, colon, skin and hepatocellular cell cancers.

  2. The hallmarks of premalignant conditions: a molecular basis for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Bríd M; Faupel-Badger, Jessica M

    2016-02-01

    The hallmarks of premalignant lesions were first described in the 1970s, a time when relatively little was known about the molecular underpinnings of cancer. Yet it was clear there must be opportunities to intervene early in carcinogenesis. A vast array of molecular information has since been uncovered, with much of this stemming from studies of existing cancer or cancer models. Here, examples of how an understanding of cancer biology has informed cancer prevention studies are highlighted and emerging areas that may have implications for the field of cancer prevention research are described. A note of caution accompanies these examples, in that while there are similarities, there are also fundamental differences between the biology of premalignant lesions or premalignant conditions and invasive cancer. These differences must be kept in mind, and indeed leveraged, when exploring potential cancer prevention measures. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Multimodal Guided Self-Help Exercise Program to Prevent Speech, Swallowing, and Shoulder Problems Among Head and Neck Cancer Patients : A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnossen, Ingrid C.; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F.; Rinkel, Rico N. P. M.; Aalders, IJke J.; de Goede, Cees J. T.; de Bree, Remco; Doornaert, Patricia; Rietveld, Derek H. F.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Witte, Birgit I.; Leemans, C. Rene; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.

    Background: During a 6-week course of (chemo) radiation many head and neck cancer patients have to endure radiotherapy-induced toxicity, negatively affecting patients' quality of life. Pretreatment counseling combined with self-help exercises could be provided to inform patients and possibly prevent

  4. Multimodal guided self-help exercise program to prevent speech, swallowing, and shoulder problems among head and neck cancer patients: a feasibility study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cnossen, I.C.; van Uden-Kraan, C.F.; Rinkel, R.N.; Aalders, I.J.; de Goede, C.J.T.; de Bree, R.; Doornaert, P.; Rietveld, D.H.F.; Langendijk, J.A.; Witte, B.I.; Leemans, C.R.; de Leeuw, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: During a 6-week course of (chemo)radiation many head and neck cancer patients have to endure radiotherapy-induced toxicity, negatively affecting patients' quality of life. Pretreatment counseling combined with self-help exercises could be provided to inform patients and possibly prevent

  5. Design and methods for a cluster randomized trial of the Sunless Study: A skin cancer prevention intervention promoting sunless tanning among beach visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merriam Philip

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancer is the most prevalent yet most preventable cancer in the US. While protecting oneself from ultraviolet radiation (UVR can largely reduce risk, rates of unprotected sun exposure remain high. Because the desire to be tan often outweighs health concerns among sunbathers, very few interventions have been successful at reducing sunbathing behavior. Sunless tanning (self-tanners and spray tans, a method of achieving the suntanned look without UVR exposure, might be an effective supplement to prevention interventions. Methods and Design This cluster randomized trial will examine whether a beach-based intervention that promotes sunless tanning as a substitute for sunbathing and includes sun damage imaging and sun safety recommendations is superior to a questionnaire only control group in reducing sunbathing frequency. Female beach visitors (N = 250 will be recruited from 2 public beaches in eastern Massachusetts. Beach site will be the unit of randomization. Follow-up assessment will occur at the end of the summer (1-month following intervention and 1 year later. The primary outcome is average sunbathing time per week. The study was designed to provide 90% power for detecting a difference of .70 hours between conditions (standard deviation of 2.0 at 1-year with an intra-cluster correlation coefficient of 0.01 and assuming a 25% rate of loss to follow-up. Secondary outcomes include frequency of sunburns, use of sunless tanning products, and sun protection behavior. Discussion Interventions might be improved by promoting behavioral substitutes for sun exposure, such as sunless tanners, that create a tanned look without exposure to UVR. Trial registration NCT00403377

  6. Nutrigenomics, Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Cindy D.; Milner, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Although there is growing epidemiological, preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting that low vitamin D intake, exposure and/or status is associated with an increased risk of various types of cancer, the optimum amount needed remains controversial. Furthermore, there is evidence that a U- or J-shaped response curve exist between 25(OH)D and certain cancers. Increasing information about the impact of genetic variation, especially polymorphisms that influence absorption, transport, metabolism and associated molecular targets, should help clarify inconsistencies in the data regarding vitamin D's effect on cancer risk. Rather than focusing on the main effects of a few variants of these genes alone, future studies need to consider gene-nutrient or environmental interactions. Nutrigenomics should clarify who might benefit and be placed at risk because of vitamin D exposure. PMID:21430387

  7. SAFE trial: an ongoing randomized clinical study to assess the role of cardiotoxicity prevention in breast cancer patients treated with anthracyclines with or without trastuzumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meattini, Icro; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Terziani, Francesca; Becherini, Carlotta; Airoldi, Mario; Allegrini, Giacomo; Amoroso, Domenico; Barni, Sandro; Bengala, Carmelo; Guarneri, Valentina; Marchetti, Paolo; Martella, Francesca; Piovano, Pierluigi; Vannini, Agnese; Desideri, Isacco; Tarquini, Roberto; Galanti, Giorgio; Barletta, Giuseppe; Livi, Lorenzo

    2017-05-01

    Over the years, thanks to the addition of new generation systemic agents, as well as the use of more advanced and precise radiotherapy techniques, it was able to obtain a high curability rate for breast cancer. Anthracyclines play a key role in the treatment of breast disease, with a well-known benefit on disease-free survival of patients with positive nodal status. Trastuzumab have shown a significant outcome advantage after 1-year administration in case of HER2-positive disease. Unfortunately, significant increase in cardiotoxicity has been observed after anthracyclines and trastuzumab therapies. Even though the cardiology and oncology community strongly recommend a cardiotoxicity prevention strategy for this subset of patients, there is still no consensus on the optimal patient's approach. We aimed to review the published and ongoing researches on cardioprevention strategies and to present the SAFE trial (CT registry ID: NCT2236806; EudraCT number: 2015-000914-23). It is a randomized phase 3, four-arm, single-blind, placebo-controlled study that aims to evaluate the effect of bisoprolol, ramipril or both drugs, compared to placebo, on subclinical heart damage evaluated by speckle tracking cardiac ultrasound in non-metastatic breast cancer patients.

  8. Nutrition in the prevention of gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Diet has been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of gastrointestinal cancer for a long time. Initially, strong evidence of such effects was found in retrospective epidemiological studies. Dietary habits, in particular those from the distant past, are difficult to measure, however. Results

  9. Sponsoring Organization | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) project officers are responsible for the design and oversight of all aspects of the PLCO trial. These NCI components work directly with the Coordinating Center which provides support for development and implementation of the study protocol; and with the Principal Investigators from each of the Screening Centers to ensure that the technical

  10. The influence of health disparities on targeting cancer prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonderman, Alan B; Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer; Evans, Michele K

    2014-03-01

    Despite the advances in cancer medicine and the resultant 20% decline in cancer death rates for Americans since 1991, there remain distinct cancer health disparities among African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and the those living in poverty. Minorities and the poor continue to bear the disproportionate burden of cancer, especially in terms of stage at diagnosis, incidence, and mortality. Cancer health disparities are persistent reminders that state-of-the-art cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are not equally effective for and accessible to all Americans. The cancer prevention model must take into account the phenotype of accelerated aging associated with health disparities as well as the important interplay of biological and sociocultural factors that lead to disparate health outcomes. The building blocks of this prevention model will include interdisciplinary prevention modalities that encourage partnerships across medical and nonmedical entities, community-based participatory research, development of ethnically and racially diverse research cohorts, and full actualization of the prevention benefits outlined in the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. However, the most essential facet should be a thoughtful integration of cancer prevention and screening into prevention, screening, and disease management activities for hypertension and diabetes mellitus because these chronic medical illnesses have a substantial prevalence in populations at risk for cancer disparities and cause considerable comorbidity and likely complicate effective treatment and contribute to disproportionate cancer death rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Social Media and Mobile Technology for Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Coughlin, Steven S.; Lyons, Elizabeth J.

    2018-01-01

    OVERVIEW Given the number of lives affected by cancer and the great potential for optimizing well-being via lifestyle changes, patients, providers, health care systems, advocacy groups, and entrepreneurs are looking to digital solutions to enhance patient care and broaden prevention efforts. Thousands of health-oriented mobile websites and apps have been developed, with a majority focused upon lifestyle behaviors (e.g., exercise, diet, smoking). In this review, we consider the use and potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention, cancer treatment, and survivorship. We identify key principles in research and practice, summarize prior reviews, and highlight notable case studies and patient resources. Further, with the potential for scaled delivery and broad reach, we consider application of social media and mHealth technologies in low-resource settings. With clear advantages for reach, social media and mHealth technologies offer the ability to scale and engage entire populations at low cost, develop supportive social networks, connect patients and providers, encourage adherence with cancer care, and collect vast quantities of data for advancing cancer research. Development efforts have been rapid and numerous, yet evaluation of intervention effects on behavior change and health outcomes are sorely needed, and regulation around data security issues is notably lacking. Attention to broader audiences is also needed, with targeted development for culturally diverse groups and non-English speakers. Further investment in research to build the evidence base and identify best practices will help delineate and actualize the potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:28561647

  12. Social Media and Mobile Technology for Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Coughlin, Steven S; Lyons, Elizabeth J

    2017-01-01

    Given the number of lives affected by cancer and the great potential for optimizing well-being via lifestyle changes, patients, providers, health care systems, advocacy groups, and entrepreneurs are looking to digital solutions to enhance patient care and broaden prevention efforts. Thousands of health-oriented mobile websites and apps have been developed, with a majority focused upon lifestyle behaviors (e.g., exercise, diet, smoking). In this review, we consider the use and potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention, cancer treatment, and survivorship. We identify key principles in research and practice, summarize prior reviews, and highlight notable case studies and patient resources. Further, with the potential for scaled delivery and broad reach, we consider application of social media and mHealth technologies in low-resource settings. With clear advantages for reach, social media and mHealth technologies offer the ability to scale and engage entire populations at low cost, develop supportive social networks, connect patients and providers, encourage adherence with cancer care, and collect vast quantities of data for advancing cancer research. Development efforts have been rapid and numerous, yet evaluation of intervention effects on behavior change and health outcomes are sorely needed, and regulation around data security issues is notably lacking. Attention to broader audiences is also needed, with targeted development for culturally diverse groups and non-English speakers. Further investment in research to build the evidence base and identify best practices will help delineate and actualize the potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention and treatment.

  13. School Programs To Prevent Smoking: The National Cancer Institute Guide to Strategies That Succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Thomas J.

    This guide to school-based smoking prevention programs for educators is the product of five years of work to prevent cancer. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is currently funding 23 coordinated intervention trials directed at youth. Although not all the studies are complete, sufficient results are available to recommend the most effective…

  14. Effectiveness of an Ongoing, Community-Based Breast Cancer Prevention Program for Korean American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun; Choi, Ga-Young; Cho, Ji Young

    2016-02-01

    The study evaluates the effectiveness of an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program offered by a local social services agency in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Korean American women who participated in this breast cancer prevention program were compared with those who did not participate in their knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors. The study found that the intervention group was more knowledgeable on breast cancer and related services and reported more positive attitudes toward breast cancer screening services than the comparison group. The participants in the intervention group were also more likely to plan to receive a mammogram than those in the comparison group. However, significant differences were not observed in the two groups in their intention to receive a clinical breast examination. The study findings suggest that an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program can be an effective method of addressing breast cancer prevention disparities observed among Korean American women.

  15. Awareness of preventive medication among women at high risk for breast cancer and their willingness to consider transdermal or oral tamoxifen: a focus group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavites, Lindsey C.; Allu, Subhashini; Khan, Seema A.; Kaiser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Despite demonstrated efficacy, acceptance of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen, for breast cancer risk reduction remains low. Delivering SERMs via local transdermal therapy (LTT) could significantly reduce systemic effects and therefore may increase acceptance. We aim to assess women’s knowledge of breast cancer prevention medications and views on LTT of SERMs. Focus groups were conducted with healthy women identified through the comprehensive breast center of a large urban cancer institution. Group discussions covered risk perceptions, knowledge of and concerns about risk reducing medications. Participants reported their perceived risk for breast cancer (average, below/above average), preference for SERMs in a pill or gel form, risk factors, and prior physician recommendations regarding risk-reducing medicines. Participants’ breast cancer risk was estimated using tools based on the Gail Model. Trained personnel examined all qualitative results systematically; risk perceptions and preferred method of medication delivery were tallied quantitatively. Four focus groups (N = 32) were conducted. Most participants had at least a college degree (78.2 %) and were of European (50 %) or African ancestry (31 %). The majority (72 %) were at elevated risk for breast cancer; approximately half of these women perceived themselves to be at elevated risk. Few participants had prior knowledge of preventive medications. The women noted a number of concerns about LTT, including dosage, impact on day-to-day life, and side effects; nonetheless, over 90 % of the women stated they would prefer LTT to a pill. Awareness of preventive medications was low even in a highly educated sample of high-risk women. If given a choice in the route of administration, most women preferred a gel to a pill, anticipating fewer side effects. Future work should focus on demonstrating equivalent efficacy and reduced toxicity of topical over oral medications and on raising

  16. Awareness of preventive medication among women at high risk for breast cancer and their willingness to consider transdermal or oral tamoxifen: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavites, Lindsey C; Allu, Subhashini; Khan, Seema A; Kaiser, Karen

    2015-11-09

    Despite demonstrated efficacy, acceptance of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen, for breast cancer risk reduction remains low. Delivering SERMs via local transdermal therapy (LTT) could significantly reduce systemic effects and therefore may increase acceptance. We aim to assess women's knowledge of breast cancer prevention medications and views on LTT of SERMs. Focus groups were conducted with healthy women identified through the comprehensive breast center of a large urban cancer institution. Group discussions covered risk perceptions, knowledge of and concerns about risk reducing medications. Participants reported their perceived risk for breast cancer (average, below/above average), preference for SERMs in a pill or gel form, risk factors, and prior physician recommendations regarding risk-reducing medicines. Participants' breast cancer risk was estimated using tools based on the Gail Model. Trained personnel examined all qualitative results systematically; risk perceptions and preferred method of medication delivery were tallied quantitatively. Four focus groups (N = 32) were conducted. Most participants had at least a college degree (78.2 %) and were of European (50 %) or African ancestry (31 %). The majority (72 %) were at elevated risk for breast cancer; approximately half of these women perceived themselves to be at elevated risk. Few participants had prior knowledge of preventive medications. The women noted a number of concerns about LTT, including dosage, impact on day-to-day life, and side effects; nonetheless, over 90 % of the women stated they would prefer LTT to a pill. Awareness of preventive medications was low even in a highly educated sample of high-risk women. If given a choice in the route of administration, most women preferred a gel to a pill, anticipating fewer side effects. Future work should focus on demonstrating equivalent efficacy and reduced toxicity of topical over oral medications and on raising

  17. [Strengthen the cancer surveillance to promote cancer prevention and control in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J

    2018-01-23

    Cancer is a major chronic disease threatening the people's health in China. We reviewed the latest advances on cancer surveillance, prevention and control in our country, which may provide important clues for future cancer control. We used data from the National Central Cancer Registry, to describe and analyze the latest cancer statistics in China. We summarized updated informations on cancer control policies, conducting network, as well as programs in the country. We provided important suggestions on the future strategies of cancer prevention and control. The overall cancer burden in China has been increasing during the past decades. In 2014, there were about 3 804 000 new cancer cases and 2 296 000 cancer deaths in China. The age-standardized cancer incidence and mortality rates were 190.63/100 000 and 106.98/100 000, respectively. China has formed a comprehensive network on cancer prevention and control. Nationwide population-based cancer surveillance has been built up. The population coverage of cancer surveillance has been expanded, and the data quality has been improved. As the aging population is increasing and unhealthy life styles persist in our country, there will be an unnegligible cancer burden in China. Based on the comprehensive rationale of cancer control and prevention, National Cancer Center of China will perform its duty for future precise cancer control and prevention, based on cancer surveillance statistics.

  18. Increasing awareness and knowledge of lifestyle recommendations for cancer prevention in Lynch syndrome carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Visser, A.; Hoedjes, Meeke; Hurks, H.M.H.; Gómez García, E.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Kampman, E.

    2018-01-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) mutation carriers may reduce their cancer risk by adhering to lifestyle recommendations for cancer prevention. This study tested the effect of providing LS mutation carriers with World Cancer Research Fund-the Netherlands (WCRF-NL) health promotion materials on awareness and

  19. Nutrition Frontiers E-Newsletter | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change. |

  20. Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer prevention strategies include avoiding known risks, having a healthy lifestyle, and medications or surgery for those at high risk. Learn more about breast cancer prevention, risks and protective factors, and how to estimate risk in this expert-reviewed summary.

  1. Oral cancer preventive campaigns: are we reaching the real target?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Paladino Nemoto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral cavity malignant neoplasms have a high mortality rate. For this reason, preventive campaigns have been developed, both to educate the population and to diagnose lesions at an early stage. However, there are studies that contest the validity of these endeavors, principally because the target audience of the campaigns may not conform to the group at highest risk for oral malignancy. Objective: To describe the profile of patients who avail themselves of the preventive campaign, identify the presence of oral lesions in that population, and compare that data with the epidemiological profile of patients with oral cancer. Methods: Cross-sectional historical cohort study performed by analysis of epidemiological data of the campaign "Abra a Boca para a Saúde" collected in the years from 2008 to 2013. Results: In the years analyzed, 11,965 people were treated and 859 lesions were diagnosed, all benign. There was a female predominance (52.7%, with mean age of 44 years (±15.4 years; 26% were smokers and 29% reported alcohol consumption. It is known that the group at highest risk to develop oral cancer is 60to 70-year-old men, who are alcoholic smokers. Conclusion: The population that seeks preventive campaigns is not the main risk group for the disease. This fact explains the low number of lesions and the lack of cancer detection.

  2. Interventions Using Social Media for Cancer Prevention and Management: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Claire Jungyoun; Lee, Young Ji; Demiris, George

    2017-07-27

    Regarding cancer awareness, social media effectively promotes health and supports self-management. Given the diverse study designs, methodologies, and approaches of social media interventions in oncology, it is difficult to determine the effects of social media on cancer prevention and management. We aim to systematically review intervention studies using social media for cancer care. A systematic search, using 7 electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Scopus, EMBASE, and PsycINFO), was conducted to identify surveys and interventions using contemporary social media tools with a focus on cancer. Of the 18 selected studies, 7 were randomized controlled trials. Most studies were conducted for all types of cancer, and some were conducted for breast cancer in the United States, with mostly white female participants. Facebook was the most frequently used platform. Most studies targeted healthy participants providing cancer prevention education. With social media platforms as part of a larger intervention, or the main component of interventions, interventions were overall feasible and showed a significant improvement in cancer prevention and management. Social media tools have the potential to be effective in delivering interventions for cancer prevention and management. However, there was a dearth of studies with rigorous study methodologies to test social media effects on various cancer-related clinical outcomes. Social media use in cancer care will facilitate improved communication and support among patients, caregivers, and clinicians and, ultimately, improved patient care. Clinicians need to carefully harness social media to enhance patient care and clinical outcomes.

  3. "A Somali girl is Muslim and does not have premarital sex. Is vaccination really necessary?" A qualitative study into the perceptions of Somali women in the Netherlands about the prevention of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salad, Jihan; Verdonk, Petra; de Boer, Fijgje; Abma, Tineke A

    2015-08-21

    Participation in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and Papanicolaou Screening (Pap smears) is low among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands and hardly any information is available about the cervical cancer prevention methods of Somali women living in the diaspora. This qualitative study, based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) and an intersectionality-based framework, explores the perceptions of Somali women living in the Netherlands regarding measures to prevent cervical cancer. Semi-structured interviews have been conducted with young Somali women aged 17-21 years (n = 14) and Somali mothers aged 30-46 years (n = 6). Two natural group discussions have been conducted with 12 and 14 Somali mothers aged 23-66 years. The collected data has been analyzed thematically for content. In this study, we have identified perceived barriers to the use of preventive measures across three major themes: (1) Somali women and preventive healthcare; (2) Language, knowledge, and negotiating decisions; and (3) Sexual standards, culture, and religion. Many issues have been identified across these themes, e.g., distrust of the Dutch health care system or being embarrassed to get Pap smears due to Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and having a Dutch, male practitioner; or a perceived low susceptibility to HPV and cancer because of the religious norms that prohibit sex before marriage. Current measures in the Netherlands to prevent women from developing cervical cancer hardly reach Somali women because these women perceive these kinds of preventative measures as not personally relevant. Dutch education strategies about cervical cancer deviate from ways of exchanging information within the Somali community. Teachers can provide culturally sensitive information to young Somali women in schools. For Somali mothers, oral education (e.g., poetry or theater) about the Dutch health care system and men's roles in HPV transmission may be useful. An intersectional approach, grounded in

  4. Viruses and human cancers: challenges for preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de The, G

    1995-01-01

    Virus-associated human cancers provide unique opportunities for preventive strategies. The role of human papilloma viruses (HPV 16 and 18), hepatitis B virus (HBV), Epstein-Barr herpes virus (EBV), and retroviruses (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus [HTLV]) in the development of common carcinomas and lymphomas represents a major cancer threat, particularly among individuals residing in developing countries, which account for 80% of the world's population. Even though these viruses are not the sole etiological agents of these cancers (as would be the case for infectious diseases), different approaches can be implemented to significantly decrease the incidence of virus-associated malignancies. The first approach is vaccination, which is available for HBV and possibly soon for EBV. The long delay between primary viral infection and development of associated tumors as well as the cost involved with administering vaccinations detracts from the feasibility of such an approach within developing countries. The second approach is to increase efforts to detect pre-cancerous lesions or early tumors using immunovirological means. This would allow early diagnosis and better treatment. The third strategy is linked to the existence of disease susceptibility genes, and suggests that counseling be provided for individuals carrying these genes to encourage them to modify their lifestyles and other conditions associated with increased cancer risks (predictive oncology). Specific recommendations include: a) increase international studies that explore the causes of the large variations in prevalence of common cancers throughout the world; b) conduct interdisciplinary studies involving laboratory investigation and social sciences, which may suggest hypotheses that may then be tested experimentally; and c) promote more preventive and health enhancement strategies in addition to curative and replacement therapies. PMID:8741797

  5. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver cancer risk factors include hepatitis B and C, cirrhosis, and aflatoxin (poison from certain foods). Learn about these and other risk factors for liver cancer and how to prevent liver cancer in this expert-reviewed and evidence-based summary.

  6. HDACis (class I), cancer stem cell, and phytochemicals: Cancer therapy and prevention implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Sahar; Shekari Khaniani, Mahmoud; Choupani, Jalal; Alivand, Mohammad Reza; Mansoori Derakhshan, Sima

    2018-01-01

    Epigenetics is independent of the sequence events that physically affect the condensing of chromatin and genes expression. The unique epigenetic memories of various cells trigger exclusive gene expression profiling. According to different studies, the aberrant epigenetic signatures and impaired gene expression profiles are master occurrences in cancer cells in which oncogene and tumor suppressor genes are affected. Owing to the facts that epigenetic modifications are performed earlier than expression and are reversible, the epigenetic reprogramming of cancer cells could be applied potentially for their prevention, control, and therapy. The disruption of the acetylation signature, as a master epigenetic change in cancers, is related to the expression and the activity of HDACs. In this context, class I HDACs play a significant role in the regulation of cell proliferation and cancer. More recently, cancer stem cell (CSC) has been introduced as a minority population of tumor that is responsible for invasiveness, drug resistance, and relapse of cancers. It is now believed that controlling CSC via epigenetic reprogramming such as targeting HDACs could be helpful in regulating the acetylation pattern of chromatin. Recently, a number of reports have introduced some phytochemicals as HDAC inhibitors. The use of phytochemicals with the HDAC inhibition property could be potentially efficient in overcoming the mentioned problems of CSCs. This review presents a perspective concerning HDAC-targeted phytochemicals to control CSC in tumors. Hopefully, this new route would have more advantages in therapeutic applications and prevention against cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Prospective clinical study on long-term swallowing function and voice quality in advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and preventive swallowing exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijenga, Sophie A C; van der Molen, Lisette; Jacobi, Irene; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Hilgers, Frans J M; van den Brekel, Michiel W M

    2015-11-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for advanced head and neck cancer (HNC) is associated with substantial early and late side effects, most notably regarding swallowing function, but also regarding voice quality and quality of life (QoL). Despite increased awareness/knowledge on acute dysphagia in HNC survivors, long-term (i.e., beyond 5 years) prospectively collected data on objective and subjective treatment-induced functional outcomes (and their impact on QoL) still are scarce. The objective of this study was the assessment of long-term CCRT-induced results on swallowing function and voice quality in advanced HNC patients. The study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial on preventive swallowing rehabilitation (2006-2008) in a tertiary comprehensive HNC center with twenty-two disease-free and evaluable HNC patients as participants. Multidimensional assessment of functional sequels was performed with videofluoroscopy, mouth opening measurements, Functional Oral Intake Scale, acoustic voice parameters, and (study specific, SWAL-QoL, and VHI) questionnaires. Outcome measures at 6 years post-treatment were compared with results at baseline and at 2 years post-treatment. At a mean follow-up of 6.1 years most initial tumor-, and treatment-related problems remained similarly low to those observed after 2 years follow-up, except increased xerostomia (68%) and increased (mild) pain (32%). Acoustic voice analysis showed less voicedness, increased fundamental frequency, and more vocal effort for the tumors located below the hyoid bone (n = 12), without recovery to baseline values. Patients' subjective vocal function (VHI score) was good. Functional swallowing and voice problems at 6 years post-treatment are minimal in this patient cohort, originating from preventive and continued post-treatment rehabilitation programs.

  8. Potential role of probiotics on colorectal cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uccello Mario

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer represents the most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract. Owing to differences in dietary habits and lifestyle, this neoplasm is more common in industrialized countries than in developing ones. Evidence from a wide range of sources supports the assumption that the link between diet and colorectal cancer may be due to an imbalance of the intestinal microflora. Discussion Probiotic bacteria are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a healthy benefit on the host, and they have been investigated for their protective anti-tumor effects. In vivo and molecular studies have displayed encouraging findings that support a role of probiotics in colorectal cancer prevention. Summary Several mechanisms could explain the preventive action of probiotics against colorectal cancer onset. They include: alteration of the intestinal microflora; inactivation of cancerogenic compounds; competition with putrefactive and pathogenic microbiota; improvement of the host’s immune response; anti-proliferative effects via regulation of apoptosis and cell differentiation; fermentation of undigested food; inhibition of tyrosine kinase signaling pathways.

  9. Prevention of lymphocele by using gelatin-thrombin matrix as a tissue sealant after pelvic lymphadenectomy in patients with gynecologic cancers: a prospective randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Hwan; Shin, Hyun Joo; Ju, Woong; Kim, Seung Cheol

    2017-05-01

    This prospective randomized controlled pilot study aimed to find whether gelatin-thrombin matrix used as a tissue sealant (FloSeal) can prevent the occurrence of pelvic lymphocele in patients with gynecologic cancer who has undergone pelvic lymphadenectomy. Each patient, who undergo a laparotomic pelvic lymph node dissection on both sides, was randomly assigned for FloSeal application on 1 side of the pelvis. The other side of the pelvis without any product application being the control side. The amount of lymph drainage at each side of the pelvis was measured for 3 days, and computed tomography scans were obtained 7 days and 6 months after surgery for detection of pelvic lymphocele. Among 37 cases, the median amount of lymph drainage was significantly decreased in the hemi-pelvis treated with FloSeal compared to the control hemi-pelvis (p=0.025). The occurrence of lymphocele was considerably reduced in treated hemi-pelvis (8/37, 21.6%) compared with control hemi-pelvis (12/37, 32.4%) after 7 post-operative days (p=0.219), and more decreased in the treated hemi-pelvis (5/37, 13.5%) compared with control hemi-pelvis (9/37, 24.3%) after postoperative 6 months (p=0.344). The application of FloSeal as a tissue sealant in lymph nodes resected tissues can reduce the incidence of pelvic lymphocele in gynecologic cancer patients. A large randomized controlled study could confirm these preliminary results. Copyright © 2017. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology

  10. Dosimetric planning study for the prevention of anal complications after post-operative whole pelvic radiotherapy in cervical cancer patients with hemorrhoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, J G; Kim, E C; Kim, S K; Jang, H

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced anal toxicity can be induced by low radiation doses in patients with haemorrhoids. The object of this study was to determine the dosimetric benefits of different whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) techniques in terms of dose delivered to the anal canal in post-operative patients with cervical cancer. The planning CT images of 10 patients with cervical cancer undergoing postoperative radiotherapy were used for comparison of three different plans. All patients had been treated using the conventional box technique WPRT (CV-WPRT), and we tried low-margin-modified WPRT (LM-WPRT), three-dimensional conformal techniques WPRT (CF-WPRT) and intensity-modulated WPRT (IM-WPRT) planning for dosimetric comparison of the anal canal, retrospectively. Mean anal canal doses of the IM-WPRT were significantly lower (p 99%, and the proportion that received ≥108% of the prescribed dose for IM-WPRT was <2%. Volumes of bladders and rectums that received ≥30 or ≥40 Gy were significantly lower for IM-WPRT than for three of the four-field WPRT plans (p = 0.000). IM-WPRT can significantly reduce radiation dose delivered to the anal canal and does not compromise PTV coverage. In patients with haemorrhoids, IM-WPRT may be of value for the prevention of anal complications. Although tolerance of the anal canal tends to be ignored in patients undergoing post-operative WPRT, patients with haemorrhoids may suffer complications at low radiation doses. The present study shows IM-WPRT can be meaningful in these patients.

  11. California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives: Setting a research agenda for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, P; Kavanaugh-Lynch, M H E; Plumb, M; Yen, I H; Sarantis, H; Thomsen, C L; Campleman, S; Galpern, E; Dickenson, C; Woodruff, T J

    2015-07-01

    The environment is an underutilized pathway to breast cancer prevention. Current research approaches and funding streams related to breast cancer and the environment are unequal to the task at hand. We undertook the California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives, a four-year comprehensive effort to set a research agenda related to breast cancer, the environment, disparities and prevention. We identified 20 topics for Concept Proposals reflecting a life-course approach and the complex etiology of breast cancer; considering the environment as chemical, physical and socially constructed exposures that are experienced concurrently: at home, in the community and at work; and addressing how we should be modifying the world around us to promote a less carcinogenic environment. Redirecting breast cancer research toward prevention-oriented discovery could significantly reduce the incidence and associated disparities of the disease among future generations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The causes and prevention of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, B.N. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gold, L.S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Willett, W.C. [Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women`s Hospital, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-06-06

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that avoidance of smoking, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, and control of infections will have a major effect on reducing rates of cancer. Other factors include avoidance of intense sun exposure, increases in physical activity, and reduction of alcohol consumption and possibly red meat. A substantial reduction in breast cancer is likely to require modification of sex hormone levels, and development of practical methods for doing so is a high research priority. Resolution of the potential protective roles of specific antioxidants and other constituents of fruits and vegetables deserves major attention. Mechanistic studies of carcinogenesis indicate an important role of endogenous oxidative damage to DNA that is balanced by elaborate defense and repair processes. Also key is the rate of cell division, which is influenced by hormones, growth, cytotoxicity, and inflammation, as this determines the probability of converting DNA lesions to mutations. These mechanisms may underlie many epidemiologic observations. 155 refs.

  13. Dietary flavonoid fisetin for cancer prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Rahul K; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2016-06-01

    Cancer remains a major public health concern and a significant cause of death worldwide. Identification of bioactive molecules that have the potential to inhibit carcinogenesis continues to garner interest among the scientific community. In particular, flavonoids from dietary sources are the most sought after because of their safety, cost-effectiveness, and feasibility of oral administration. Emerging data have provided newer insights into understanding the molecular mechanisms that are essential to identify novel mechanism-based strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. Dietary flavonoid fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) found in many fruits and vegetables has been shown in preclinical studies to inhibit cancer growth through alteration of cell cycle, inducing apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis without causing any toxicity to normal cells. Although data from in-vitro and in-vivo studies look convincing, well-designed clinical trials in humans are needed to conclusively determine the efficacy across various cancers. This review highlights the chemopreventive and therapeutic effects, molecular targets, and mechanisms that contribute to the observed anticancer activity of fisetin against various cancers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention.

  15. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Zare, Maryam; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Naghshineh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention.

  16. Content and effects of news stories about uncertain cancer causes and preventive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Lee, Theodore; Robbins, Rebecca; Kim, Hye Kyung; Kresovich, Alex; Kirshenblat, Danielle; Standridge, Kimberly; Clarke, Christopher E; Jensen, Jakob; Fowler, Erika Franklin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from two studies that describe news portrayals of cancer causes and prevention in local TV and test the effects of typical aspects of this coverage on cancer-related fatalism and overload. Study 1 analyzed the content of stories focused on cancer causes and prevention from an October 2002 national sample of local TV and newspaper cancer coverage (n = 122 television stations; n = 60 newspapers). Informed by results from the content analysis, Study 2 describes results from a randomized experiment testing effects of the volume and content of news stories about cancer causes and prevention (n = 601). Study 1 indicates that local TV news stories describe cancer causes and prevention as comparatively more certain than newspapers but include less information about how to reduce cancer risk. Study 2 reveals that the combination of stories conveying an emerging cancer cause and prevention behavior as moderately certain leads to an increased sense of overload, while a short summary of well-established preventive behaviors mitigates these potentially harmful beliefs. We conclude with a series of recommendations for health communication and health journalism practice.

  17. Antibiotic protocol for the prevention of osteoradionecrosis following dental extractions in irradiated head and neck cancer patients: A 10 years prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A Al-Bazie

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, perioperative oral antibiotics in combination with antibacterial mouthwashes are effective in preventing ORN following dental extractions in irradiated patients.

  18. Predictors of Sustained Smoking Cessation: A Prospective Analysis of Chronic Smokers From the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustson, Erik M.; Wanke, Kay L.; Rogers, Scott; Bergen, Andrew W.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Synder, Kirk; Albanes, Demetrius; Taylor, Phil R.; Caporaso, Neil E.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. Because US smoking rates have not declined during the past decade, there is a renewed need to identify factors associated with smoking cessation. Using a nested case–control design, we explored the association between ability to sustain cessation over an extended period and demographic, smoking, medical, and behavioral variables. Methods. We selected a sample of 1379 sustained quitters (abstinent from smoking for at least 40 months) and 1388 relapsers (abstinent for more than 8 months before relapse) from participants in the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, a nutritional intervention study involving Finnish men aged 50 to 69 years at baseline. Contingency table and multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate potential differences between the 2 groups on baseline variables. Results. Compared with sustained quitters, relapsers were more likely to report symptoms of emotional distress and higher levels of nicotine dependence, to drink more alcohol, and to report more medical conditions. Conclusions. Factors associated with both tobacco use and comorbid conditions impact an individual’s ability to maintain long-term smoking cessation. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of action and potential common pathways among these factors may help to improve smoking cessation therapies. PMID:17600267

  19. Oral Mucositis Prevention By Low-Level Laser Therapy in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy: A Phase III Randomized Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouvêa de Lima, Aline; Villar, Rosângela Correa; Castro, Gilberto de; Antequera, Reynaldo; Gil, Erlon; Rosalmeida, Mauro Cabral; Federico, Miriam Hatsue Honda; Snitcovsky, Igor Moisés Longo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Oral mucositis is a major complication of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in head-and-neck cancer patients. Low-level laser (LLL) therapy is a promising preventive therapy. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of LLL therapy to decrease severe oral mucositis and its effect on RT interruptions. Methods and Materials: In the present randomized, double-blind, Phase III study, patients received either gallium-aluminum-arsenide LLL therapy 2.5 J/cm 2 or placebo laser, before each radiation fraction. Eligible patients had to have been diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, or metastases to the neck with an unknown primary site. They were treated with adjuvant or definitive CRT, consisting of conventional RT 60–70 Gy (range, 1.8–2.0 Gy/d, 5 times/wk) and concurrent cisplatin. The primary endpoints were the oral mucositis severity in Weeks 2, 4, and 6 and the number of RT interruptions because of mucositis. The secondary endpoints included patient-reported pain scores. To detect a decrease in the incidence of Grade 3 or 4 oral mucositis from 80% to 50%, we planned to enroll 74 patients. Results: A total of 75 patients were included, and 37 patients received preventive LLL therapy. The mean delivered radiation dose was greater in the patients treated with LLL (69.4 vs. 67.9 Gy, p = .03). During CRT, the number of patients diagnosed with Grade 3 or 4 oral mucositis treated with LLL vs. placebo was 4 vs. 5 (Week 2, p = 1.0), 4 vs. 12 (Week 4, p = .08), and 8 vs. 9 (Week 6, p = 1.0), respectively. More of the patients treated with placebo had RT interruptions because of mucositis (6 vs. 0, p = .02). No difference was detected between the treatment arms in the incidence of severe pain. Conclusions: LLL therapy was not effective in reducing severe oral mucositis, although a marginal benefit could not be excluded. It reduced RT interruptions in these head-and-neck cancer patients, which might

  20. Oral Mucositis Prevention By Low-Level Laser Therapy in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy: A Phase III Randomized Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouvea de Lima, Aline [Departamento de Radiologia, Disciplina de Oncologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Villar, Rosangela Correa [Instituto de Radiologia, Servico de Radioterapia, Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Castro, Gilberto de, E-mail: gilberto.castro@usp.br [Department of Clinical Oncology, Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Antequera, Reynaldo [Divisao de Odontologia, Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gil, Erlon; Rosalmeida, Mauro Cabral [Instituto de Radiologia, Servico de Radioterapia, Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Federico, Miriam Hatsue Honda; Snitcovsky, Igor Moises Longo [Departamento de Radiologia, Disciplina de Oncologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Oral mucositis is a major complication of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in head-and-neck cancer patients. Low-level laser (LLL) therapy is a promising preventive therapy. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of LLL therapy to decrease severe oral mucositis and its effect on RT interruptions. Methods and Materials: In the present randomized, double-blind, Phase III study, patients received either gallium-aluminum-arsenide LLL therapy 2.5 J/cm{sup 2} or placebo laser, before each radiation fraction. Eligible patients had to have been diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, or metastases to the neck with an unknown primary site. They were treated with adjuvant or definitive CRT, consisting of conventional RT 60-70 Gy (range, 1.8-2.0 Gy/d, 5 times/wk) and concurrent cisplatin. The primary endpoints were the oral mucositis severity in Weeks 2, 4, and 6 and the number of RT interruptions because of mucositis. The secondary endpoints included patient-reported pain scores. To detect a decrease in the incidence of Grade 3 or 4 oral mucositis from 80% to 50%, we planned to enroll 74 patients. Results: A total of 75 patients were included, and 37 patients received preventive LLL therapy. The mean delivered radiation dose was greater in the patients treated with LLL (69.4 vs. 67.9 Gy, p = .03). During CRT, the number of patients diagnosed with Grade 3 or 4 oral mucositis treated with LLL vs. placebo was 4 vs. 5 (Week 2, p = 1.0), 4 vs. 12 (Week 4, p = .08), and 8 vs. 9 (Week 6, p = 1.0), respectively. More of the patients treated with placebo had RT interruptions because of mucositis (6 vs. 0, p = .02). No difference was detected between the treatment arms in the incidence of severe pain. Conclusions: LLL therapy was not effective in reducing severe oral mucositis, although a marginal benefit could not be excluded. It reduced RT interruptions in these head-and-neck cancer patients, which might

  1. Radiotherapy for prevention and therapy of gynecomastia due to antiandrogen treatment in prostate cancer patients. A patterns-of-care-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neu, Burkhard; Sautter, Verena; Melcher, Ute; Sautter-Bihl, Marie-Luise [Klinik fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Karlsruhe (Germany); Momm, Felix [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany); Seegenschmiedt, Heinrich [Strahlenzentrum Hamburg (Germany); Micke, Oliver [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Gynecomastia is a frequent side effect of antiandrogen therapy for prostate cancer and may compromise quality of life. Although it has been successfully treated with radiotherapy (RT) for decades, the priority of RT as a preferred treatment option has recently been disputed as tamoxifen was also demonstrated to be effective. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of indications, frequency, and technique of RT in daily practice in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. On behalf of the DEGRO-AG GCG-BD (German Cooperative Group on Radiotherapy of Benign Diseases) a standardized questionnaire was sent to 294 RT institutions. The questionnaires inquired about patient numbers, indications, RT technique, dose, and - if available - treatment results. Moreover, the participants were asked whether they were interested in participating in a prospective study. From a total of 294 institutions, 146 replies were received, of which 141 offered RT for gynecomastia. Seven of those reported prophylactic RT only, whereas 129 perform both preventive and symptomatic RT. In 110 of 137departments, a maximum of 20 patients were treated per year. Electron beams (76%) were used most often, while 24% of patients received photon beams or orthovolt x-rays. Total doses were up to 20 Gy for prophylactic and up to 40 Gy for therapeutic RT. Results were reported by 19 departments: prevention of gynecomastia was observed in 60-100% of patients. Only 13 institutions observed side effects. Prophylactic and symptomatic RT is widely used in the German-speaking countries, but patient numbers are small. The clinical results indicate that RT is a highly effective and well-tolerated treatment.

  2. Strengthening cancer biology research, prevention, and control while reducing cancer disparities: student perceptions of a collaborative master's degree program in cancer biology, preventions, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillson, I A; Cousin, C E; Blancato, J K

    2013-09-01

    This article provides the findings of a survey of previous and current students in the UDC/GU-LCCC master's degree program. This master's degree program, Cancer Biology, Prevention, and Control is administered and taught jointly by faculty of a Minority Serving Institution, the University of the District of Columbia, and the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center to incorporate the strengths of a community-based school with a research intensive medical center. The program was initiated in 2008 through agreements with both University administrations and funding from the National Cancer Institute. The master's degree program is 36 credits with a focus on coursework in biostatistics, epidemiology, tumor biology, cancer prevention, medical ethics, and cancer outreach program design. For two semesters during the second year, students work full-time with a faculty person on a laboratory or outreach project that is a requirement for graduation. Students are supported and encouraged to transition to a doctoral degree after they obtain the master's and many of them are currently in doctorate programs. Since the inception of the program, 45 students have initiated the course of study, 28 have completed the program, and 13 are currently enrolled in the program. The survey was designed to track the students in their current activities, as well as determine which courses, program enhancements, and research experiences were the least and most useful, and to discern students' perceptions of knowledge acquired on various aspects of Cancer Biology Prevention, and Control Master's Program. Thirty of the 35 individuals to whom email requests were sent responded to the survey, for a response rate of 85.7%. The results of this study will inform the strengthening of the Cancer Biology program by the Education Advisory Committee. They can also be used in the development of comparable collaborative master's degree programs designed to address the significant disparities in prevalence of

  3. Convergence of nanotechnology and cancer prevention: are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menter, David G; Patterson, Sherri L; Logsdon, Craig D; Kopetz, Scott; Sood, Anil K; Hawk, Ernest T

    2014-10-01

    Nanotechnology is emerging as a promising modality for cancer treatment; however, in the realm of cancer prevention, its full utility has yet to be determined. Here, we discuss the potential of integrating nanotechnology in cancer prevention to augment early diagnosis, precision targeting, and controlled release of chemopreventive agents, reduced toxicity, risk/response assessment, and personalized point-of-care monitoring. Cancer is a multistep, progressive disease; the functional and acquired characteristics of the early precancer phenotype are intrinsically different from those of a more advanced anaplastic or invasive malignancy. Therefore, applying nanotechnology to precancers is likely to be far more challenging than applying it to established disease. Frank cancers are more readily identifiable through imaging and biomarker and histopathologic assessment than their precancerous precursors. In addition, prevention subjects routinely have more rigorous intervention criteria than therapy subjects. Any nanopreventive agent developed to prevent sporadic cancers found in the general population must exhibit a very low risk of serious side effects. In contrast, a greater risk of side effects might be more acceptable in subjects at high risk for cancer. Using nanotechnology to prevent cancer is an aspirational goal, but clearly identifying the intermediate objectives and potential barriers is an essential first step in this exciting journey. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Cancer preventive services, socioeconomic status, and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gregory S; Kou, Tzuyung Doug; Dor, Avi; Koroukian, Siran M; Schluchter, Mark D

    2017-05-01

    Out-of-pocket expenditures are thought to be an important barrier to the receipt of cancer preventive services, especially for those of a lower socioeconomic status (SES). The Affordable Care Act (ACA) eliminated out-of-pocket expenditures for recommended services, including mammography and colonoscopy. The objective of this study was to determine changes in the uptake of mammography and colonoscopy among fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries before and after ACA implementation. Using Medicare claims data, this study identified women who were 70 years old or older and had not undergone mammography in the previous 2 years and men and women who were 70 years old or older, were at increased risk for colorectal cancer, and had not undergone colonoscopy in the past 5 years. The receipt of procedures in the 2-year period before the ACA's implementation (2009-2010) and after its implementation (2011 to September 2012) was also identified. Multivariate generalized estimating equation models were used to determine the independent association and county-level quartile of median income and education with the receipt of testing. For mammography, a lower SES quartile was associated with less uptake, but the post-ACA disparities were smaller than those in the pre-ACA period. In addition, mammography rates increased from the pre-ACA period to the post-ACA period in all SES quartiles. For colonoscopy, in both the pre- and post-ACA periods, there was an association between uptake and educational level and, to some extent, income. However, there were no appreciable changes in colonoscopy and SES after implementation of the ACA. The removal of out-of-pocket expenditures may overcome a barrier to the receipt of recommended preventive services, but for colonoscopy, other procedural factors may remain as deterrents. Cancer 2017;123:1585-1589. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  5. The causes and prevention of cancer: gaining perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, B N; Gold, L S

    1997-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified several factors that are likely to have a major effect on reducing rates of cancer: reduction of smoking, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, and control of infections. Other factors include avoidance of intense sun exposure, increased physical activity, and reduced consumption of alcohol and possibly red meat. Risks of many types of cancer can already be reduced, and the potential for further reductions is great. In the United States, cancer death rates for all cancers combined are decreasing, if lung cancer (90% of which is due to smoking), is excluded from the analysis. We review the research on causes of cancer and show why much cancer is preventable. The idea that traces of synthetic chemicals, such as DDT, are major contributors to human cancer is not supported by the evidence, yet public concern and resource allocation for reduction of chemical pollution are very high, in part because standard risk assessment uses linear extrapolation from limited data in high-dose animal cancer tests. These tests are done at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and are typically misinterpreted to mean that low doses of synthetic chemicals and industrial pollutants are relevant to human cancer. About half the chemicals tested, whether synthetic or natural, are carcinogenic to rodents at such high doses. Almost all chemicals in the human diet are natural. For example, 99.99% of the pesticides we eat are naturally present in plants to ward off insects and other predators. Half of the natural pesticides that have been tested at the MTD are rodent carcinogens. Cooking food produces large numbers of natural dietary chemicals. Roasted coffee, for example, contains more than 1000 chemicals: of 27 tested, 19 are rodent carcinogens. Increasing evidence supports the idea that the high frequency of positive results in rodent bioassays is due to testing at the MTD, which frequently can cause chronic cell killing and consequent cell

  6. Environmental and occupational interventions for primary prevention of cancer: a cross-sectorial policy framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Carolina; Porta, Miquel; Schüz, Joachim; Aguado, Ildefonso Hernández; Percival, Robert V; Dora, Carlos; Slevin, Terry; Guzman, Julietta Rodriguez; Meredith, Tim; Landrigan, Philip J; Neira, Maria

    2013-04-01

    Nearly 13 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur worldwide each year; 63% of cancer deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. A substantial proportion of all cancers are attributable to carcinogenic exposures in the environment and the workplace. We aimed to develop an evidence-based global vision and strategy for the primary prevention of environmental and occupational cancer. We identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms "environmental," "occupational," "exposure," "cancer," "primary prevention," and "interventions." To supplement the literature review, we convened an international conference titled "Environmental and Occupational Determinants of Cancer: Interventions for Primary Prevention" under the auspices of the World Health Organization, in Asturias, Spain, on 17-18 March 2011. Many cancers of environmental and occupational origin could be prevented. Prevention is most effectively achieved through primary prevention policies that reduce or eliminate involuntary exposures to proven and probable carcinogens. Such strategies can be implemented in a straightforward and cost-effective way based on current knowledge, and they have the added benefit of synergistically reducing risks for other noncommunicable diseases by reducing exposures to shared risk factors. Opportunities exist to revitalize comprehensive global cancer control policies by incorporating primary interventions against environmental and occupational carcinogens.

  7. Diet and Skin Cancer: The Potential Role of Dietary Antioxidants in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Katta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC is the most common cancer among Americans. Ultraviolet (UV radiation exposure is the major risk factor for the development of NMSC. Dietary AOs may prevent free radical-mediated DNA damage and tumorigenesis secondary to UV radiation. Numerous laboratory studies have found that certain dietary AOs show significant promise in skin cancer prevention. These results have been substantiated by animal studies. In human studies, researchers have evaluated both oral AO supplements and dietary intake of AOs via whole foods. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of AOs in preventing tumorigenesis and outline four targeted dietary AOs. We review the results of research evaluating oral AOs supplements as compared to dietary AOs intake via whole foods. While these specific supplements have not shown efficacy, intake of AOs via consumption of whole foods has shown some promise. Lessons learned from the field of hypertension research may provide important guidance in future study design. Further research on the role of dietary AOs in the prevention of NMSC is warranted and should focus on intake via whole food consumption.

  8. Physical Activity and Gastrointestinal Cancers: Primary and Tertiary Preventive Effects and Possible Biological Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Steindorf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal cancers account for 37% of all cancer deaths worldwide, underlining the need to further investigate modifiable factors for gastrointestinal cancer risk and prognosis. This review summarizes the corresponding evidence for physical activity (PA, including, briefly, possible biological mechanisms. Despite high public health relevance, there is still a scarcity of studies, especially for tertiary prevention. Besides the convincing evidence of beneficial effects of PA on colon cancer risk, clear risk reduction for gastroesophageal cancer was identified, as well as weak indications for pancreatic cancer. Inverse associations were observed for liver cancer, yet based on few studies. Only for rectal cancer, PA appeared to be not associated with cancer risk. With regard to cancer-specific mortality of the general population, published data were rare but indicated suggestive evidence of protective effects for colon and liver cancer, and to a lesser extent for rectal and gastroesophageal cancer. Studies in cancer patients on cancer-specific and total mortality were published for colorectal cancer only, providing good evidence of inverse associations with post-diagnosis PA. Overall, evidence of associations of PA with gastrointestinal cancer risk and progression is promising but still limited. However, the already available knowledge further underlines the importance of PA to combat cancer.

  9. A phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of misoprostol rectal suppositories to prevent acute radiation proctitis in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, Andrea; Schmidberger, Heinz; Hermann, Robert M.; Christiansen, Hans; Saile, Bernhard; Pradier, Olivier; Hess, Clemens F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation proctitis is the most relevant complication of pelvic radiation and is still mainly treated supportively. Considering the negative impact of acute proctitis symptoms on patients' daily activities and the potential relationship between the severity of acute radiation injury and late damage, misoprostol was tested in the prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 100 patients who underwent radiotherapy for prostate cancer were entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. Radiation-induced toxicity was evaluated weekly during radiotherapy using the Common Toxicity Criteria. Results: Between the placebo and the misoprostol groups, no significant differences in proctitis symptoms occurred: 76% of patients in each group had Grade 1 toxicity, and 26% in the placebo group and 36% in the misoprostol group had Grade 2 toxicity. No differences were found in onset or symptom duration. Comparing the peak incidence of patients' toxicity symptoms, significantly more patients experienced rectal bleeding in the misoprostol group (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Misoprostol given as a once-daily suppository did not decrease the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute proctitis and may increase the incidence of acute bleeding

  10. Awareness of cervical cancer prevention among mothers of adolescent daughters in Korea: qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Won; Kim, Duck Hee

    2015-05-14

    Korean adolescent girls are unprepared for cervical cancer prevention due to the lack of a mandatory policy regarding human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and school health education regarding cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine how aware mothers are about cervical cancer prevention in their adolescent daughters, with a view to developing strategies for expanding primary cervical cancer prevention for adolescent girls through the mothers' involvement. A qualitative design was employed. Nine mothers with adolescent daughters participated in this study and were interviewed using open-ended questions. The themes were extracted by content analysis. A general living area in Seoul, South Korea. The snowball method was used to select mothers. Five themes emerged. In general, the mothers' awareness of cervical cancer was not clear, and they exhibited a lack of awareness of the importance of having a regular Papanicolaou screening test. The mothers recognised that they were role models for their daughters, and realised and accepted the necessity of educating their daughters regarding cervical cancer; however, they perceived barriers related to the prevention of cervical cancer in their daughters. The mothers recommended enforcing sex education in schools and the provision of financial support for HPV vaccination. The mothers' awareness and preparedness with respect to the prevention of cervical cancer in their adolescent daughters were low and inadequate. Mothers should be informed and motivated to play a role in the education of their daughters regarding cervical cancer prevention. Strategies for disseminating information regarding early cervical cancer prevention for adolescent girls are recommended by communicating with both the girls and their mothers and providing them with education regarding cervical cancer prevention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  11. Human cancer stem cells are a target for cancer prevention using (-)-epigallocatechin gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Hirota; Sueoka, Eisaburo; Rawangkan, Anchalee; Suganuma, Masami

    2017-12-01

    Our previous experiments show that the main constituent of green-tea catechins, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), completely prevents tumor promotion on mouse skin initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene followed by okadaic acid and that EGCG and green tea extract prevent cancer development in a wide range of target organs in rodents. Therefore, we focused our attention on human cancer stem cells (CSCs) as targets of cancer prevention and treatment with EGCG. The numerous reports concerning anticancer activity of EGCG against human CSCs enriched from cancer cell lines were gathered from a search of PubMed, and we hope our review of the literatures will provide a broad selection for the effects of EGCG on various human CSCs. Based on our theoretical study, we discuss the findings as follows: (1) Compared with the parental cells, human CSCs express increased levels of the stemness markers Nanog, Oct4, Sox2, CD44, CD133, as well as the EMT markers, Twist, Snail, vimentin, and also aldehyde dehydrogenase. They showed decreased levels of E-cadherin and cyclin D1. (2) EGCG inhibits the transcription and translation of genes encoding stemness markers, indicating that EGCG generally inhibits the self-renewal of CSCs. (3) EGCG inhibits the expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotypes of human CSCs. (4) The inhibition of EGCG of the stemness of CSCs was weaker compared with parental cells. (5) The weak inhibitory activity of EGCG increased synergistically in combination with anticancer drugs. Green tea prevents human cancer, and the combination of EGCG and anticancer drugs confers cancer treatment with tissue-agnostic efficacy.

  12. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world. One out of three new cancers is a skin cancer. More than 1 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell cancers [SCC]) occur annually. While the incidence rates for non-melanoma skin cancers continue to rise, there continues to be a

  13. Update on breast cancer risk prediction and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Ivana; Cuzick, Jack

    2015-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. This review will focus on current prevention strategies for women at high risk. The identification of women who are at high risk of developing breast cancer is key to breast cancer prevention. Recent findings have shown that the inclusion of breast density and a panel of low-penetrance genetic polymorphisms can improve risk estimation compared with previous models. Preventive therapy with aromatase inhibitors has produced large reductions in breast cancer incidence in postmenopausal women. Tamoxifen confers long-term protection and is the only proven preventive treatment for premenopausal women. Several other agents, including metformin, bisphosphonates, aspirin and statins, have been found to be effective in nonrandomized settings. There are many options for the prevention of oestrogen-positive breast cancer, in postmenopausal women who can be given a selective oestrogen receptor modulator or an aromatase inhibitor. It still remains unclear how to prevent oestrogen-negative breast cancer, which occurs more often in premenopausal women. Identification of women at high risk of the disease is crucial, and the inclusion of breast density and a panel of genetic polymorphisms, which individually have low penetrance, can improve risk assessment.

  14. Health initiatives for the prevention of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinert, Rüdiger; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Mohr, Peter; Volkmer, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in white population worldwide. However, because the most prominent risk factor-solar UV-radiation and/or artificial UV from sunbeds-is known, skin cancer is highly preventable be primary prevention. This prevention needs, that the public is informed by simple and balanced messages about the possible harms and benefits of UV-exposure and how a person should behave under certain conditions of UV-exposure. For this purpose information and recommendations for the public must be age- and target-group specific to cover all periods of life and to reach all sub-groups of a population, continuously. There is a need that political institutions together with Health Institutions and Societies (e.g., European Commission, WHO, EUROSKIN, ICNIRP, etc.), which are responsible for primary prevention of skin cancer, find a common language to inform the public, in order not to confuse it. This is especially important in connection with the ongoing Vitamin D debate, where possible positive effects of UV have to be balanced with the well known skin cancer risk of UV. A continuously ongoing evaluation of interventions and programs in primary prevention is a pre-requisite to assess the effectiveness of strategies. There is surely no "no message fits all" approach, but balanced information in health initiatives for prevention of skin cancer, which use evidence-base strategies, will further be needed in the future to reduce the incidence, morbidity and mortality skin cancer.

  15. Environmental exposures, breast development and cancer risk: Through the looking glass of breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Michele R; Winn, Deborah M; Collman, Gwen W; Rizzo, Jeanne; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2015-07-01

    This review summarizes the report entitled: Breast Cancer and the Environment: Prioritizing Prevention, highlights research gaps and the importance of focusing on early life exposures for breast development and breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Exercise in Breast Cancer Prevention: Identifying Common Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma A. Abdelmagid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet and exercise are recognized as important lifestyle factors that significantly influence breast cancer risk. In particular, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer prevention. Growing evidence also demonstrates a role for exercise in cancer and chronic disease prevention. However, the potential synergistic effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise is yet to be determined. This review explores targets for breast cancer prevention that are common between n-3 PUFA intake and exercise and that may be important study outcomes for future research investigating the combined effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise. These lines of evidence highlight potential new avenues for research and strategies for breast cancer prevention.

  17. Review article: Medical decision models of Helicobacter pylori therapy to prevent gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, A; Inadomi, J M

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the present article is to study the utility of Helicobacter pylori eradication programmes in decreasing the incidence of gastric cancer. Three types of decision models are employed to pursue this aim, i.e. decision tree, present value, and declining exponential approximation of life expectancy (DEALE). 1) A decision tree allows one to model the interaction of multiple variables in great detail and to calculate the marginal cost, as well as the marginal cost-benefit ratio, of a preventive strategy. The cost of gastric cancer, the efficacy of H. pylori therapy in preventing cancer, and the cumulative probability of developing gastric cancer exert the largest influence on the marginal cost of cancer prevention. The high cost of future gastric cancer and a high efficacy of therapy make screening for H. pylori and its eradication the preferred strategy. 2) The present value is an economic method to adjust future costs or benefits to their current value using a discount rate and the length of time between now and a given time point in the future. It accounts for the depreciation of money and all material values over time. During childhood, the present value of future gastric cancer is very low. Vaccination of children to prevent gastric cancer would need to be very inexpensive to be practicable. Cancer prevention becomes a feasible option, only if the time period between the preventive measures and the occurrence of gastric cancer can be made relatively short. 3) The DEALE provides a means to calculate the increase in life expectancy that would occur, if death from a particular disease became preventable. Life expectancy of the general population is hardly affected by gastric cancer. For life expectancy to increase appreciably by vaccination or antibiotic therapy directed against H. pylori infection, these interventions would need to be focused towards a sub-population with an a priori high risk for gastric cancer.

  18. Polyphenols in Food: Cancer Prevention and Apoptosis Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashita; Kaur, Mandeep; Katnoria, Jatinder Kaur; Nagpal, Avinash Kaur

    2017-10-06

    Polyphenols are group of water-soluble organic compounds, mainly of natural origin. The compounds having about 5-7 aromatic rings and more than 12 phenolic hydroxyl groups are classified as polyphenols. These are the antioxidants which protect the body from oxidative damage. In plants, they are the secondary metabolites produced as a defense mechanism against stress factors. Antioxidant property of polyphenols is suggested to provide protection against many diseases associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), including cancer. Various studies carried out across the world have suggested that polyphenols can inhibit the tumor generation, induce apoptosis in cancer cells and interfere in progression of tumors. This group of wonder compounds is present in surplus in natural plants and food products. Intake of polyphenols through diet can scavenge ROS and thus can help in cancer prevention. The plant derived products can also be used along with conventional chemotherapy to enhance the chemopreventive effects. The present review focuses on various in vitro and in vivo studies carried out to assess the anti-carcinogenic potential of polyphenols present in our food. Also, the pathways involved in cancer chemopreventive effects of various subclasses (flavonoids, lignans, stilbenes and phenolic acids) of polyphenols are discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Obstacles to the Primary and Secondary Prevention of Breast Cancer in African-American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hargreaves, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Study objectives are to develop a quantitative assessment tool to describe barriers to primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer, to use this tool to establish preliminary norms in an urban...

  20. Colon Cancer Chemoprevention by Flavonoid Silibinin | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cancer stem cells (CSC) are now recognized as the main cause for initiation, promotion and progression of most of the cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Despite this fact, efficacy of chemopreventive agents towards CSC generation leading to cancer initiation and tumorigenesis has not yet been well- defined. |

  1. Tranexamic Acid versus Placebo to Prevent Blood Transfusion during Radical Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer (TACT): Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breau, Rodney H; Lavallée, Luke T; Cnossen, Sonya; Witiuk, Kelsey; Cagiannos, Ilias; Momoli, Franco; Bryson, Gregory; Kanji, Salmaan; Morash, Christopher; Turgeon, Alexis; Zarychanski, Ryan; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Knoll, Greg; Fergusson, Dean A

    2018-05-02

    Radical cystectomy for bladder cancer is associated with a high risk of needing red blood cell transfusion. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss during cardiac and orthopedic surgery, but no study has yet evaluated tranexamic acid use during cystectomy. A randomized, double-blind (surgeon-, anesthesiologist-, patient-, data-monitor-blinded), placebo-controlled trial of tranexamic acid during cystectomy was initiated in June 2013. Prior to incision, the intervention arm participants receive a 10 mg/kg loading dose of intravenously administered tranexamic acid, followed by a 5 mg/kg/h maintenance infusion. In the control arm, the patient receives an identical volume of normal saline that is indistinguishable from the intervention. The primary outcome is any blood transfusion from the start of surgery up to 30 days post operative. There are no strict criteria to mandate the transfusion of blood products. The decision to transfuse is entirely at the discretion of the treating physicians who are blinded to patient allocation. Physicians are allowed to utilize all resources to make transfusion decisions, including serum hemoglobin concentration and vital signs. To date, 147 patients of a planned 354 have been randomized to the study. This protocol reviews pertinent data relating to blood transfusion during radical cystectomy, highlighting the need to identify methods for reducing blood loss and preventing transfusion in patients receiving radical cystectomy. It explains the clinical rationale for using tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss during cystectomy, and outlines the study methods of our ongoing randomized controlled trial. Canadian Institute for Health Research (CIHR) Protocol: MOP-342559; ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT01869413. Registered on 5 June 2013.

  2. Prevention of radiogenic cancers through changes in procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, I.P.

    1988-01-01

    A report is given of a comprehensive study of radiographic practice carried out between 1983-86 in 18 district general hospitals throughout Wales. Results are presented for the range of variation in exposure-area product (EAP) for each type of radiographic examination, the mean EAPs for various projections of each examination and the inter-departmental variation in choices of projections and film size for examination of the cervical spine. It is estimated that 80% of the radiogenic cancers associated with these examinations could be prevented through implementation of suitable guidelines to reduce inter-departmental variation in patients' exposure. (UK)

  3. Breast cancer prevention knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among college women and mother-daughter communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Vilchis, Hugo; Amatya, Anup

    2013-06-01

    Although breast cancer prevention targets mostly women ages 40 and older, little is known about breast cancer prevention for young women and mother's advice. The purpose of this study was to examine breast cancer prevention knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among college women and mother-daughter communication. Hispanic and non-Hispanic students at a southwestern university completed a breast cancer prevention survey with items for mother's advice, breast self-awareness and risk reduction knowledge, self-efficacy, susceptibility, family history, provider breast self-exam (BSE) recommendation, peer norms, BSE practice, and demographics. An openended item was also used to elicit types of mother's advice. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors for receiving mother's advice for breast cancer prevention and BSE practice. Self-reported data using a survey were obtained from 546 college women with a mean age of 23.3 (SD = 7.75). Nearly 36 % received mothers' advice and 55 % conducted BSE. Predictors for receiving mother's advice were age, self-efficacy, and family history of breast cancer. Predictors for BSE practice were mother's advice, age, self-efficacy, and provider BSE recommendation. Family history of breast cancer and knowledge were not significant predictors for BSE practice. Findings support the need for clinicians, community health educators, and mothers to provide breast cancer prevention education targeting college women.

  4. A qualitative study to explore Prospect theory and message framing and diet and cancer prevention-related issues among African American adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satia, Jessie A.; Barlow, Jameta; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Watters, Joanne L.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To develop and test cancer prevention messages based on Prospect theory on motivation to improve dietary intake in African American adolescents, and to explore other salient factors that may inform dietary intervention design and implementation in this population. Methods Semi-structured in-person qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 African-American male and female adolescents, 12-16 years, in North Carolina. Prospect theory and message framing were used to guide the design of the four sets of diet-related messages related to cancer prevention: short-term gain-, long-term gain-, short-term loss-, and long-term loss-framed messages. Data were also collected on demographic, behavioral, and psychological factors; usual health behaviors; and preferences for intervention delivery. Results The majority of respondents found the gain-framed, short-term messages most salient for both fruits/vegetables (8 (61.5%)), and fat consumption (7 (53.8%)). For fat consumption only, 2 (15.4%) found the loss-framed, short-term messages pertinent; none found the loss-framed, long-term messages relevant for either dietary variable. All indicated interest in participating in a dietary intervention/education program; most preferred the Internet as a channel for intervention delivery. Participants expressed diverse views regarding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding healthy eating. Conclusions Researchers conducting dietary interventions and education initiatives and medical professionals who counsel African American adolescents should consider using Prospect Theory as a theoretical framework, should focus on gain-framed short-term messages regarding cancer prevention, and should employ the Internet for data collection and intervention and information delivery. PMID:20142738

  5. Fulfilling the potential of cancer prevention and early detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curry, Susan J; Byers, Tim; Hewitt, Maria Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    ... competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Support for this project was provided by the National Cancer Institute; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; the American Cancer Society; Abbott Laboratories; the American Society of Clinical Oncology; Amgen, Inc.; Aventis; and the United Health Care Foundation. The views pre...

  6. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk factors for stomach (gastric) cancer include certain health conditions (e.g., atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, H. pylori infection), genetic factors (e.g., Li-Fraumeni syndrome), or environmental factors (e.g., diet, smoking). Review the evidence on these and other risk factors and interventions to prevent stomach cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  7. Awareness of cervical cancer and its prevention among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cancer of the cervix is a major public health issue in the developing countries. The burden of the disease is considerable with associated morbidity and mortality among women in their productive years. The lack of awareness and adequate information about cervical cancer and its prevention may be ...

  8. Health beliefs and cancer prevention practices of Filipino American women

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Celine M.

    2006-01-01

    Cancer is the number one cause of death among Asian Americans, and Filipino Americans are the second largest Asian American group in number. Filipino American women have relatively low rates of breast and colorectal cancer screening compared to their White counterparts; however, they experience higher numbers of late-stage diagnoses and mortality rates. Thus, early detection of cancer and maintenance of healthy prevention behaviors are very important. Little is known about this community's pr...

  9. Knowledge and practices of general practitioners at district hospitals towards cervical cancer prevention in Burundi, 2015: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndizeye, Zacharie; Vanden Broeck, Davy; Vermandere, Heleen; Bogers, John Paul; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre

    2018-01-16

    Well-organized screening and treatment programmes are effective to prevent Invasive Cervical Cancer (ICC) in LMICs. To achieve this, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the involvement of existing health personnel in casu doctors, nurses, midwives in ICC prevention. A necessary precondition is that health personnel have appropriate knowledge about ICC. Therefore, to inform policy makers and training institutions in Burundi, we documented the knowledge and practices of general practitioners (GPs) at district hospital level towards ICC control. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to April, 2015 among all GPs working in government district hospitals. A structured questionnaire and a scoring system were used to assess knowledge and practices of GPs. The participation rate was 58.2%. Majority of GPs (76.3%) had appropriate knowledge (score > 70%) on cervical cancer disease; but some risk factors were less well known as smoking and the 2 most important oncogenic HPV. Only 8.4% of the participants had appropriate knowledge on ICC prevention: 55% of the participants were aware that HPV vaccination exists and 48.1% knew cryotherapy as a treatment method for CIN. Further, 15.3% was aware of VIA as a screening method. The majority of the participants (87%) never or rarely propose screening tests to their clients. Only 2 participants (1.5%) have already performed VIA/VILI. Wrong thoughts were also reported: 39.7% thought that CIN could be treated with radiotherapy; 3.1% thought that X-ray is a screening method. In this comprehensive assessment, we observed that Burundian GPs have a very low knowledge level about ICC prevention, screening and treatment. Suboptimal practices and wrong thoughts related to ICC screening and treatments have also been documented. We therefore recommend an adequate pre- and in-service training of GPs and most probably nurses on ICC control before setting up any public health intervention on ICC control.

  10. Reduced fatalism and increased prevention behavior after two high-profile lung cancer events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, David B; Leach, Corinne R; Kaufman, Annette R; Moser, Richard P; Alfano, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    The positive impact of media coverage of high-profile cancer events on cancer prevention behaviors is well-established. However, less work has focused on potential adverse psychological reactions to such events, such as fatalism. Conducting 3 studies, the authors explored how the lung cancer death of Peter Jennings and diagnosis of Dana Reeve in 2005 related to fatalism. Analysis of a national media sample in Study 1 found that media coverage of these events often focused on reiterating the typical profile of those diagnosed with lung cancer; 38% of the media mentioned at least 1 known risk factor for lung cancer, most often smoking. Data from a nationally representative survey in Study 2 found that respondents reported lower lung cancer fatalism, after, compared with before, the events (OR = 0.16, 95% CI [0.03, 0.93]). A sustained increase in call volume to the national tobacco Quitline after these events was found in Study 3. These results suggest that there is a temporal association between high-profile cancer events, the subsequent media coverage, psychological outcomes, and cancer prevention behaviors. These results suggest that high-profile cancer events could be leveraged as an opportunity for large-scale public heath communication campaigns through the dissemination of cancer prevention messages and services.

  11. Natural Forms of Vitamin E as Effective Agents for Cancer Prevention and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qing

    2017-11-01

    Initial research on vitamin E and cancer has focused on α-tocopherol (αT), but recent clinical studies on cancer-preventive effects of αT supplementation have shown disappointing results, which has led to doubts about the role of vitamin E, including different vitamin E forms, in cancer prevention. However, accumulating mechanistic and preclinical animal studies show that other forms of vitamin E, such as γ-tocopherol (γT), δ-tocopherol (δT), γ-tocotrienol (γTE), and δ-tocotrienol (δTE), have far superior cancer-preventive activities than does αT. These vitamin E forms are much stronger than αT in inhibiting multiple cancer-promoting pathways, including cyclo-oxygenase (COX)- and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX)-catalyzed eicosanoids, and transcription factors such as nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3). These vitamin E forms, but not αT, cause pro-death or antiproliferation effects in cancer cells via modulating various signaling pathways, including sphingolipid metabolism. Unlike αT, these vitamin E forms are quickly metabolized to various carboxychromanols including 13'-carboxychromanols, which have even stronger anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects than some vitamin precursors. Consistent with mechanistic findings, γT, δT, γTE, and δTE, but not αT, have been shown to be effective for preventing the progression of various types of cancer in preclinical animal models. This review focuses on cancer-preventive effects and mechanisms of γT, δT, γTE, and δTE in cells and preclinical models and discusses current progress in clinical trials. The existing evidence strongly indicates that these lesser-known vitamin E forms are effective agents for cancer prevention or as adjuvants for improving prevention, therapy, and control of cancer. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutubessy Raymond

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose, methods, data sources and assumptions behind the World Health Organization (WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing (C4P tool that was developed to assist low- and middle-income countries (LMICs with planning and costing their nationwide human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination program are presented. Tanzania is presented as a case study where the WHO C4P tool was used to cost and plan the roll-out of HPV vaccines nationwide as part of the national comprehensive cervical cancer prevention and control strategy. Methods The WHO C4P tool focuses on estimating the incremental costs to the health system of vaccinating adolescent girls through school-, health facility- and/or outreach-based strategies. No costs to the user (school girls, parents or caregivers are included. Both financial (or costs to the Ministry of Health and economic costs are estimated. The cost components for service delivery include training, vaccination (health personnel time and transport, stationery for tally sheets and vaccination cards, and so on, social mobilization/IEC (information, education and communication, supervision, and monitoring and evaluation (M&E. The costs of all the resources used for HPV vaccination are totaled and shown with and without the estimated cost of the vaccine. The total cost is also divided by the number of doses administered and number of fully immunized girls (FIGs to estimate the cost per dose and cost per FIG. Results Over five years (2011 to 2015, the cost of establishing an HPV vaccine program that delivers three doses of vaccine to girls at schools via phased national introduction (three regions in year 1, ten regions in year 2 and all 26 regions in years 3 to 5 in Tanzania is estimated to be US$9.2 million (excluding vaccine costs and US$31.5 million (with vaccine assuming a vaccine price of US$5 (GAVI 2011, formerly the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations. This is equivalent to a

  13. Aspirin Metabolomics in Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substantial evidence supports the effectiveness of aspirin for cancer chemoprevention in addition to its well-established role in cardiovascular protection. In recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials in humans, daily aspirin use reduced incidence, metastasis and mortality from several common types of cancer, especially colorectal cancer. The mechanism(s) by which

  14. Lorenzo Tomatis and primary prevention of environmental cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huff James

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The leading 20th century proponent for primary prevention of environmental cancer was Dr. Lorenzo Tomatis, the former Director of the International Agency for Research on Cancer and founder of the IARC Monographs program. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Tomatis – eminent scientist, scholar, teacher, humanitarian, and public health champion - and includes many perspectives that he promoted throughout his career, with original quotations from some of his scientific writings on primary prevention of environmental cancer. Any attempt by us to simply summarize his views would only detract from the power and logic of his language. “Cancer still remains a mainly lethal disease. Primary prevention remains the most relevant approach to reduce mortality through a reduction in incidence”1.

  15. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine: Future of Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannatul Fardows

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a deadly cancer that clutches lives of the women in most of the cases due to lack of consciousness about the disease in the developing countries. It remains a threat which is second only to breast cancer in overall disease burden for women throughout the world. Cervical cancer is almost a preventable disease by prophylactic vaccine and routine screening. Both Cervarix and Gardasil vaccines have been effective in preventing persistent infection with targeted HPV types and in preventing cervical intraepithelial lesions. It is safe and nearly 100% effective if given before onset of sexual activity. This review article is aimed to explore different aspects of this vaccine as well as to develop awareness among health professionals of different disciplines.

  16. Biophysical Approach to Mechanisms of Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Green Tea Catechins

    OpenAIRE

    Masami Suganuma; Atsushi Takahashi; Tatsuro Watanabe; Keisuke Iida; Takahisa Matsuzaki; Hiroshi Y. Yoshikawa; Hirota Fujiki

    2016-01-01

    Green tea catechin and green tea extract are now recognized as non-toxic cancer preventives for humans. We first review our brief historical development of green tea cancer prevention. Based on exciting evidence that green tea catechin, (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in drinking water inhibited lung metastasis of B16 melanoma cells, we and other researchers have studied the inhibitory mechanisms of metastasis with green tea catechins using biomechanical tools, atomic force microscopy (AF...

  17. Fruits and vegetables in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van 't P.; Jansen, M.C.F.; Klerk, M.; Kok, F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: We quantified the public health benefit of fruits and vegetables on the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD), using currently available human data. Design: We reviewed over 250 observational studies on cancer and CVD. Relative risks (RRs) for high versus low intake of

  18. Nutrition-Related Cancer Prevention Cognitions and Behavioral Intentions: Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…

  19. Symptom Awareness and Cancer Prevention: Exploratory Findings from an At-Risk Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, Douglas; MacAskill, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Secondary prevention programmes have traditionally employed mass screening approaches to assess for asymptomatic signs of cancer. It has been suggested that early detection strategies involving public education and self-referral may prove more cost-effective with low risk populations for cancers with symptomatic presentation. This study,…

  20. Program Administration | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governance Structure Recognizing the importance of an integrated approach to preventative drug development, there is a unified Governance Structure for the PREVENT Program responsible for coordinating and integrating available resources. With the goal of reaching go/no-go decisions as efficiently as possible, the purpose is to ensure a pragmatic approach to drug development

  1. Independent Association of Postdoctoral Training with Subsequent Careers in Cancer Prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Faupel-Badger

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the career paths of alumni from the National Cancer Institute (NCI Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP, a structured in-house postdoctoral training program of 3-4 years duration, and specifically what proportion of the alumni were currently performing cancer prevention-related activities. The analyses here included 119 CPFP alumni and 85 unsuccessful CPFP applicants, all of whom completed postdoctoral training between 1987-2011 and are currently employed. Postdoctoral training experiences and current career outcomes data were collected via online surveys. Differences between groups were assessed using chi-square and Fisher's exact test p-values and subsequent regression analyses adjusted for differences between the groups. Compared to 15.3% of unsuccessful CPFP applicants, 52.1% of CPFP alumni (odds ratio [OR] = 4.99, 95% confidence interval [95% CI: 1.91-13.0 were currently spending the majority of their time working in cancer prevention. Among those doing any cancer prevention-focused work, 54.3% of CPFP alumni spent the majority of their time performing cancer prevention research activities when compared to 25.5% of unsuccessful applicants (OR = 4.26, 95% CI: 1.38-13.2. In addition to the independent effect of the NCI CPFP, scientific discipline, and employment sector were also associated with currently working in cancer prevention and involvement in cancer prevention research-related activities. These results from a structured postdoctoral training program are relevant not only to the cancer prevention community but also to those interested in evaluating alignment of postdoctoral training programs with available and desired career paths more broadly.

  2. Dietary Phytoestrogens and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurzer, Mindy S; Slaton, Joel

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to evaluate the effects of soy phytoestrogens on reproductive hormones and prostate tissue markers of cell proliferation and androgen action in men at high risk of prostate cancer...

  3. Adherence to WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations and metabolic syndrome in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Eleonora; Gargano, Giuliana; Villarini, Anna; Traina, Adele; Johansson, Harriet; Mano, Maria Piera; Santucci De Magistris, Maria; Simeoni, Milena; Consolaro, Elena; Mercandino, Angelica; Barbero, Maggiorino; Galasso, Rocco; Bassi, Maria Chiara; Zarcone, Maurizio; Zagallo, Emanuela; Venturelli, Elisabetta; Bellegotti, Manuela; Berrino, Franco; Pasanisi, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), conventionally defined by the presence of at least three out of five dismetabolic traits (abdominal obesity, hypertension, low plasma HDL-cholesterol and high plasma glucose and triglycerides), has been associated with both breast cancer (BC) incidence and prognosis. We investigated the association between the prevalence of MetS and a score of adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) recommendations for the prevention of cancer in a cross-sectional study of BC patients. The DIet and ANdrogen-5 study (DIANA-5) for the prevention of BC recurrences recruited 2092 early stage BC survivors aged 35-70. At recruitment, all women completed a 24-hour food frequency and physical activity diary on their consumption and activity of the previous day. Using these diaries we created a score of adherence to five relevant WCRF/AICR recommendations. The prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of MetS associated with the number of recommendations met were estimated using a binomial regression model. The adjusted PRs of MetS decreased with increasing number of recommendations met (p < 0.001). Meeting all the five recommendations versus meeting none or only one was significantly associated with a 57% lower MetS prevalence (95% CI 0.35-0.73). Our results suggest that adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations is a major determinant of MetS and may have a clinical impact. © 2015 UICC.

  4. Nutrients, Foods, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S.; Chan, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigation have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grain have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, fo...

  5. The causes and prevention of cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Ames, B N; Gold, L S; Willett, W C

    1995-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that avoidance of smoking, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, and control of infections will have a major effect on reducing rates of cancer. Other factors include avoidance of intense sun exposure, increases in physical activity, and reduction of alcohol consumption and possibly red meat. A substantial reduction in breast cancer is likely to require modification of sex hormone levels, and development of practical methods for doing so is a high ...

  6. Diet, Stem Cells, and Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    pepper [39], flavonoids such as hesperetin and naringenin in citrus fruits and tomatoes [40], isoflavones (e.g., GEN, daidzein) from legumes and red...Inhibition of human breast cancer cell proliferation and delay of mammary tumorigenesis by flavonoids and citrus juices. Nutr Cancer 1996;26:167–81. [41...38], capsaicin from chili pepper [39], flavonoids such as hesperetin and naringenin in citrus fruits and tomatoes [40], isoflavones (e.g., GEN

  7. Nutrients, foods, and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S; Chan, Andrew T

    2015-05-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigations have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grains have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat have been associated with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, folate, fruits, and vegetables. Nutrients and foods also may interact, as a dietary pattern, to influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet likely influences colorectal carcinogenesis through several interacting mechanisms. These include the direct effects on immune responsiveness and inflammation, and the indirect effects of overnutrition and obesity-risk factors for colorectal cancer. Emerging evidence also implicates the gut microbiota as an important effector in the relationship between diet and cancer. Dietary modification therefore has the promise of reducing colorectal cancer incidence. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preventative therapies for healthy women at high risk of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sestak, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Tamoxifen has been shown to reduce the risk of developing estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer by at least 50%, in both pre- and postmenopausal women. The current challenge is to find new agents with fewer side effects and to find agents that are specifically suitable for premenopausal women with ER-negative breast cancer. Other selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as raloxifene, arzoxifene, and lasofoxifene, have been shown to reduce the incidence of breast cancer by 50%–80%. SERMs are interesting agents for the prevention of breast cancer, but longer follow-up is needed for some of them for a complete risk–benefit profile of these drugs. Aromatase inhibitors have emerged as new drugs in the prevention setting for postmenopausal women. In the Mammary Prevention 3 (MAP3) trial, a 65% reduction in invasive breast cancer with exemestane was observed, and the Breast Cancer Intervention Study-II trial, which compared anastrozole with placebo, reported a 60% reduction in those cancers. Although SERMs and aromatase inhibitors have been proven to be excellent agents in the preventive setting specifically for postmenopausal women and ER-positive breast cancer, newer agents have to be found specifically for ER-negative breast cancers, which mostly occur in premenopausal women

  9. CDC's Cervical Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Infographics Cancer and Alcohol Web Features Breast Cancer Awareness Breast Cancer in Young Women Cancer and Men ... in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer Awareness Colorectal Cancer Awareness Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Health Disparities ...

  10. Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

  11. Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force ( ... and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer. This final recommendation statement applies to ...

  12. Prevention of cancer and non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Geoffrey; Gupta, Prakash; Gomes, Fabio; Kerner, Jon; Parra, William; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kim, Jeongseon; Moore, Malcolm; Sutcliffe, Catherine; Sutcliffe, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for approximately 7.6 million deaths (13% of all deaths) in 2008. Cancer mortality is projected to increase to 11 million deaths in 2030, with the majority occurring in regions of the world with the least capacity to respond. However, cancer is not only a personal, societal and economic burden but also a potential societal opportunity in the context of functional life - the years gained through effective prevention and treatment, and strategies to enhance survivorship. The United Nations General Assembly Special Session in 2011 has served to focus attention on key aspects of cancer prevention and control. Firstly, cancer is largely preventable, by feasible means. Secondly, cancer is one of a number of chronic, non- communicable diseases that share common risk factors whose prevention and control would benefit a majority of the world's population. Thirdly, a proportion of cancers can be attributed to infectious, communicable causal factors (e.g., HPV, HBV, H.pylori, parasites, flukes) and that strategies to control the burden of infectious diseases have relevance to the control of cancer. Fourthly, that the natural history of non-communicable diseases, including cancer, from primary prevention through diagnosis, treatment and care, is underwritten by the impact of social, economic and environmental determinants of health (e.g., poverty, illiteracy, gender inequality, social isolation, stigma, socio-economic status). Session 1 of the 4th International Cancer Control Congress (ICCC-4) focused on the social, economic and environmental, as well as biological and behavioural, modifiers of the risk of cancer through one plenary presentation and four interactive workshop discussions. The workshop sessions concerned 1) the Global Adult Tobacco Survey and social determinants of tobacco use in high burden low- and middle-income countries; 2) the role of diet, including alcohol, and physical activity in modifying the

  13. Implications of Helicobacter pylori infection for stomach cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Karen J.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has implicated Helicobacter pylori, an established cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer, in the etiology of gastric cancer. Control of this infection would reduce the occurrence of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and might substantially lower the risk of stomach cancer as well. The public health impact of this infectious agent warrants efforts to identify preventive measures. This paper reviews the evidence linking H. pylori infection to gastric cancer and evaluates the potential for control in high-risk populations. Current obstacles to H. pylori control are discussed, including the link to poor socioeconomic conditions, difficulty in identifying incident cases, lack of natural immunity to reinfection, limited effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in high-prevalence populations, and incomplete knowledge regarding the reservoir of infection, mode of transmission, host susceptibility factors, and the potential for developing an effective vaccine. Worthwhile avenues of research include studies designed to identify modifiable risk factors for acquisition of the infection, modifiable host factors that may increase resistance to chronic infection, more effective antibiotic therapies, and effective vaccines.

  14. Environmental carcinogenic agents and cancer prevention. Risk assessment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Many agents in our environment have been established as being carcinogenic, and in most cases, the carcinogenic properties of these agents were identified because of high-dose occupational or accidental exposure. Risk characterization, taking into account the dose-response relationship, and exposure assessment are essential for risk assessment and subsequent cancer prevention. Based on scientific risk assessment, risk management should be conducted practically by considering the economic, social, political, and other technical issues and by balancing the risks and benefits. Asbestos and environmental tobacco smoke are typical examples of established carcinogenic agents in the general environment, contributing to low-dose exposure. Further epidemiological studies are required to investigate the carcinogenicity of low-dose exposure to known carcinogenic agents such as arsenic and cadmium through dietary intake, radiation via medical and natural exposure, and air pollution due to diesel exhaust. In contrast, occupational chemical exposure to 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane, whose carcinogenicity had not been established, was suggested to cause cholangiocarcinoma among workers involved in offset color proof-printing only after a rare situation of high-dose exposure was unveiled. Continuous monitoring of unusual cancer occurrences in target populations such as workers in occupational and regional settings as well as exposure reduction to suspected carcinogenic agents to levels as low as reasonably achievable is essential for reducing the risk of cancer due to environmental carcinogens. (author)

  15. 20-years of population-based cancer registration in hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention in the Gambia, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrima Bah

    Full Text Available The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS was designed as a randomised control trial of infant hepatitis B vaccination applied to public health policy, with the main goal of preventing primary liver cancer later in adult life in The Gambia. To that effect, the National Cancer Registry of The Gambia (NCR, a population-based cancer registry (PBCR, was established in 1986 to actively collect data on all cancer diagnosis nation-wide. We extracted 20-years (1990-2009 of data to assess for the first time, the evolution of the most common cancers, also describe and demonstrate the role of the PBCR in a hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention programme in this population.We estimated Age-Standardised Incidence Rates (ASR (W of the most common cancers registered during the period by gender. The registration period was divided into four 5-year intervals and incidence rates were estimated for each interval. The most common cancers in males were liver, prostate, lung plus bronchus, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and stomach, accounting for 60%, 5%, 4%, 5% and 3%, respectively. Similarly, cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, breast and NHL, were the most common in females, accounting for 33%, 24%, 11% and 4% of the female cancers, respectively.Cancer incidence has remained relatively stable over time, but as shown elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa the disease is a threat in The Gambia. The infection related cancers which are mostly preventable (HBV in men and HPV/HIV in women were the most common. At the moment the data is not enough to detect an effect of hepatitis B vaccination on liver cancer incidence in The Gambia. However, we observed that monitoring case occurrence through PBCR is a key public health pre-requisite for rational planning and implementation of targeted interventions for improving the health of the population.

  16. 20-Years of Population-Based Cancer Registration in Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer Prevention in The Gambia, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah, Ebrima; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia; Hainaut, Pierre; Bah, Yusupha; Nyan, Ousman; Taal, Makie

    2013-01-01

    Background The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS) was designed as a randomised control trial of infant hepatitis B vaccination applied to public health policy, with the main goal of preventing primary liver cancer later in adult life in The Gambia. To that effect, the National Cancer Registry of The Gambia (NCR), a population-based cancer registry (PBCR), was established in 1986 to actively collect data on all cancer diagnosis nation-wide. We extracted 20-years (1990-2009) of data to assess for the first time, the evolution of the most common cancers, also describe and demonstrate the role of the PBCR in a hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention programme in this population. Methods and Findings We estimated Age-Standardised Incidence Rates (ASR (W)) of the most common cancers registered during the period by gender. The registration period was divided into four 5-year intervals and incidence rates were estimated for each interval. The most common cancers in males were liver, prostate, lung plus bronchus, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and stomach, accounting for 60%, 5%, 4%, 5% and 3%, respectively. Similarly, cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, breast and NHL, were the most common in females, accounting for 33%, 24%, 11% and 4% of the female cancers, respectively. Conclusions Cancer incidence has remained relatively stable over time, but as shown elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa the disease is a threat in The Gambia. The infection related cancers which are mostly preventable (HBV in men and HPV/HIV in women) were the most common. At the moment the data is not enough to detect an effect of hepatitis B vaccination on liver cancer incidence in The Gambia. However, we observed that monitoring case occurrence through PBCR is a key public health pre-requisite for rational planning and implementation of targeted interventions for improving the health of the population. PMID:24098724

  17. Qualitative study to explore Prospect Theory and message framing and diet and cancer prevention-related issues among African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satia, Jessie A; Barlow, Jameta; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Watters, Joanne L

    2010-01-01

    There is a dearth of knowledge regarding factors that may motivate African American adolescents to consume healthier diets. To develop and test cancer prevention messages based on Prospect Theory on motivation to improve dietary intake in African American adolescents and to explore other salient factors that may inform dietary intervention design and implementation in this population. Semistructured in-person qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 African American male and female adolescents, aged 12 to 16 years, in North Carolina. Prospect Theory and message framing were used to guide the design of the 4 sets of diet-related messages related to cancer prevention: short-term, gain-framed; long-term, gain-framed; short-term, loss-framed; and long-term, loss-framed messages. Data were also collected on demographic, behavioral, and psychological factors; usual health behaviors; and preferences for intervention delivery. Most respondents found the gain-framed, short-term messages most salient for both fruits/vegetables (8 [61.5%]) and fat consumption (7 [53.8%]). For fat consumption only, 2 (15.4%) found the loss-framed, short-term messages pertinent; none found the loss-framed, long-term messages relevant for either dietary variable. All indicated interest in participating in a dietary intervention/education program; most preferred the Internet as a channel for intervention delivery. Participants expressed diverse views regarding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding healthy eating. The gain-framed, short-term messages were most salient for motivating the majority of respondents to consume a healthy diet and most expressed a strong interest in participating in programs about diet and nutrition, with the Internet as the preferred communication channel. Researchers conducting dietary interventions and education initiatives and medical professionals who counsel African American adolescents should consider using Prospect Theory as a theoretical framework

  18. Empowering underserved populations through cancer prevention and early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Colón, Venessa; Ramos, Roberto; Davis, Jenna L; Escobar, Myriam; Inda, Nikki Ross; Paige, Linda; Palencia, Jeannette; Vives, Maria; Grant, Cathy G; Green, B Lee

    2013-12-01

    It is well documented that cancer is disproportionately distributed in racial/ethnic minority groups and medically underserved communities. In addition, cancer prevention and early detection represent the key defenses to combat cancer. The purpose of this article is to showcase the comprehensive health education and community outreach activities at the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute (Moffitt) designed to promote and increase access to and utilization of prevention and early detection services among underserved populations. One of Moffitt's most important conduits for cancer prevention and early detection among underserved populations is through its community education and outreach initiatives, in particular, the Moffitt Program for Outreach Wellness Education and Resources (M-POWER). M-POWER works to empower underserved populations to make positive health choices and increase screening behaviors through strengthening collaboration and partnerships, providing community-based health education/promotion, and increasing access to care. Effective, empowering, and culturally and linguistically competent health education and community outreach, is key to opening the often impenetrable doors of cancer prevention and early detection to this society's most vulnerable populations.

  19. Cancer prevention and control: alarming challenges in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Ann M; Dong, Zigang; Wang, Hongyang

    2016-03-01

    China is geographically the third largest country in the world and the most populated low-to-middle-income country. Cancer incidence and mortality rates for some cancers in the USA and European countries have steadily decreased over the last decades, whereas the incidence and mortality of certain cancers in China have been increasing at an alarming speed. Rapid industrialization and urbanization in China have been accompanied by incredible changes in lifestyle and environment combined with an aging population. Mortality caused by lung, colorectal and breast cancers has been steadily increasing, whereas cancer mortality from gastric, esophageal and cervical tumors has tended to decrease. Similar to what has occurred in the United States, unhealthy lifestyles in China, including heavy smoking and poor diet combined with pollution, have contributed to increased cancer risk. China is facing many challenges in cancer treatment and prevention for the general population. The major areas that need to be addressed in the control of cancer in China include cancers associated with environmental pollution, tobacco use, occupational carcinogens, infection, excessive alcohol consumption, dietary deficiencies and obesity. In this perspective, we review the problems in each area and suggest ideas for future directions in cancer research and strategies and actions to reduce the incidence of cancer in China.

  20. Interventions for encouraging sexual behaviours intended to prevent cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jonathan P; Frampton, Geoff K; Harris, Petra

    2014-01-01

    mentioned HPV or cervical cancer prevention. Statistically significant effects for behavioural outcomes (e.g. increasing condom use) were common, though not universal and varied according to the type of outcome. There were no statistically significant effects of abstaining from or reducing sexual activity. There were few statistically significant effects on biological (STI) outcomes. Considerable uncertainty exists in the risk of bias due to incomplete or ambiguous reporting. Authors’ conclusions Behavioural interventions for young women which aim to promote sexual behaviours protective of STI transmission can be effective, primarily at encouraging condom use. Future evaluations should include a greater focus on HPV and its link to cervical cancer, with long-term follow-up to assess impact on behaviour change, rates of HPV infection and progression to cervical cancer. Studies should use an RCT design where possible with integral process evaluation and cost-effectiveness analysis where appropriate. Given the predominance of USA studies in this systematic review evaluations conducted in other countries would be particularly useful. PMID:21491379

  1. Gastric cancer: epidemiology, prevention, classification, and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sitarz, Robert; Skierucha, Małgorzata; Mielko, Jerzy; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Polkowski, Wojciech P

    2018-01-01

    Robert Sitarz,1–3 Małgorzata Skierucha,1,2 Jerzy Mielko,1 G Johan A Offerhaus,3 Ryszard Maciejewski,2 Wojciech P Polkowski1 1Department of Surgical Oncology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland; 2Department of Human Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland; 3Department of Pathology, University Medical Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands Abstract: Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world, the epidemiology of which has ch...

  2. Human endogenous retroviruses and cancer prevention: evidence and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cegolon Luca

    2013-01-01

    as other tumors like sarcoma, lymphoma, bladder and breast cancer. An amino acid sequence similar to HERV-K-MEL, recognized to cause a significant protective effect against melanoma, is shared by the antigenic determinants expressed by some vaccines such as BCG, vaccinia virus and the yellow fever virus. HERV-K are also reactivated in the majority of human breast cancers. Monoclonal and single-chain antibodies against the HERV-K Env protein recently proved capable of blocking the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro, inhibiting tumor growth in mice bearing xenograft tumors. Summary A recent epidemiological study provided provisional evidence of how melanoma risk could possibly be reduced if the yellow fever virus vaccine (YFV were received at least 10 years before, possibly preventing tumor initiation rather than culling melanoma cells already compromised. Further research is recommended to confirm the temporal pattern of this protection and eliminate/attenuate the potential role of relevant confounders as socio-economic status and other vaccinations. It appears also appropriate to examine the potential protective effect of YFV against other malignancies expressing high levels of HERV-K antigens, namely breast cancer, sarcoma, lymphoma and bladder cancer. Tumor immune-therapy, as described for the monoclonal antibodies against breast cancer, is indeed considered more complex and less advantageous than immune-prevention. Cellular immunity possibly triggered by vaccines as for YFV might also be involved in anti-cancer response, in addition to humoral immunity.

  3. Human endogenous retroviruses and cancer prevention: evidence and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegolon, Luca; Salata, Cristiano; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vineis, Paolo; Palù, Giorgio; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-03

    breast cancer. An amino acid sequence similar to HERV-K-MEL, recognized to cause a significant protective effect against melanoma, is shared by the antigenic determinants expressed by some vaccines such as BCG, vaccinia virus and the yellow fever virus.HERV-K are also reactivated in the majority of human breast cancers. Monoclonal and single-chain antibodies against the HERV-K Env protein recently proved capable of blocking the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro, inhibiting tumor growth in mice bearing xenograft tumors. A recent epidemiological study provided provisional evidence of how melanoma risk could possibly be reduced if the yellow fever virus vaccine (YFV) were received at least 10 years before, possibly preventing tumor initiation rather than culling melanoma cells already compromised. Further research is recommended to confirm the temporal pattern of this protection and eliminate/attenuate the potential role of relevant confounders as socio-economic status and other vaccinations.It appears also appropriate to examine the potential protective effect of YFV against other malignancies expressing high levels of HERV-K antigens, namely breast cancer, sarcoma, lymphoma and bladder cancer.Tumor immune-therapy, as described for the monoclonal antibodies against breast cancer, is indeed considered more complex and less advantageous than immune-prevention. Cellular immunity possibly triggered by vaccines as for YFV might also be involved in anti-cancer response, in addition to humoral immunity.

  4. Human endogenous retroviruses and cancer prevention: evidence and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cegolon, Luca; Salata, Cristiano; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Vineis, Paolo; Palù, Giorgio; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    and breast cancer. An amino acid sequence similar to HERV-K-MEL, recognized to cause a significant protective effect against melanoma, is shared by the antigenic determinants expressed by some vaccines such as BCG, vaccinia virus and the yellow fever virus. HERV-K are also reactivated in the majority of human breast cancers. Monoclonal and single-chain antibodies against the HERV-K Env protein recently proved capable of blocking the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro, inhibiting tumor growth in mice bearing xenograft tumors. A recent epidemiological study provided provisional evidence of how melanoma risk could possibly be reduced if the yellow fever virus vaccine (YFV) were received at least 10 years before, possibly preventing tumor initiation rather than culling melanoma cells already compromised. Further research is recommended to confirm the temporal pattern of this protection and eliminate/attenuate the potential role of relevant confounders as socio-economic status and other vaccinations. It appears also appropriate to examine the potential protective effect of YFV against other malignancies expressing high levels of HERV-K antigens, namely breast cancer, sarcoma, lymphoma and bladder cancer. Tumor immune-therapy, as described for the monoclonal antibodies against breast cancer, is indeed considered more complex and less advantageous than immune-prevention. Cellular immunity possibly triggered by vaccines as for YFV might also be involved in anti-cancer response, in addition to humoral immunity

  5. Preventive and therapeutic potential of peptides from cereals against cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Martinez, Margarita; Winkler, Robert; García-Lara, Silverio

    2014-12-05

    Epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of food based on whole-grain cereals and their products is associated with reduced risks of various types of degenerative chronic diseases. Food proteins are considered an important source of nutraceutical peptides and amino acids that can exert biological functions to promote health and prevent disease, including cancer. There have been several reports on peptides with anti-tumour activity in recent years. Plant-derived peptides, such as rapeseed, amaranth and soybean lunasin have received main attention. In this review, we extend this vision to analyse the evidence of current advances in peptides in cereals such as wheat, maize, rice, barley, rye and pseudocereals compared with soybean. We also show evidence of several mechanisms through which bioactive peptide exerts anti-tumour activity. Finally, we report the current status of major strategies for the fractionation, isolation and characterisation of bioactive peptides in cereals. In recent reports, it has been shown that peptides are an interesting alternative in the search for new treatments for cancer. One of the most studied sources of these peptides is food proteins; however, a review that includes more recent findings for cereals as a potential source of bioactive peptides in the treatment of cancer, the techniques for their isolation and characterisation and the assays used to prove their bioactivity is not available. This review can be used as a tool in the search for new sources of anti-cancer peptides. The authors have no conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The potential contribution of dietary factors to breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Niva

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer (BC), the leading cancer in women, is increasing in prevalence worldwide, concurrent with western metabolic epidemics, that is, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes, and shares major risk factors with these diseases. The corresponding potential for nutritional contributions toward BC prevention is reviewed and related to critical stages in the life cycle and their implications for carcinogenic and pathometabolic trajectories. BC initiation potentially involves diet-related pro-oxidative, inflammatory, and procarcinogenic processes, that interact through combined lipid/fatty acid peroxidation, estrogen metabolism, and related DNA-adduct/depurination/mutation formation. The pathometabolic trajectory is affected by high estrogen, insulin, and growth factor cascades and resultant accelerated proliferation/progression. Anthropometric risk factors - high birth weight, adult tallness, adiposity/BMI, and weight gain - are often reflective of these trends. A sex-based nutritional approach targets women's specific risk in western obesogenic environments, associated with increasing fatness, estrogen metabolism, n-6 : n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio, and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid conversion to proinflammatory/carcinogenic eicosanoids, and effects of timing of life events, for example, ages at menarche, full-term pregnancy, and menopause. Recent large-scale studies have confirmed the effectiveness of the evidence-based recommendations against BC risk, emphasizing low-energy density diets, highly nutritious plant-based regimes, physical activity, and body/abdominal adiposity management. Better understanding of dietary inter-relationships with BC, as applied to food intake, selection, combination, and processing/preparation, and recommended patterns, for example, Mediterranean, DASH, plant-based, low energy density, and low glycemic load, with high nutrient/phytonutrient density, would increase public motivation and authoritative support for early

  7. Prevention of Cancer Through Lifestyle Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. James Barnard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and an abundance of evidence suggests that lifestyle factors including smoking, the typical high-fat, refined-sugar diet and physical inactivity account for the majority of cancer. This review focuses on diet and inactivity as major factors for cancer promotion by inducing insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Elevated levels of serum insulin impact on the liver primarily, increasing the production of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I while reducing the production of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1 resulting in stimulation of tumor cell growth and inhibition of apoptosis (programmed cell death. Adopting a diet low in fat and high in fiber-rich starch foods, which would also include an abundance of antioxidants, combined with regular aerobic exercise might control insulin resistance, reduce the resulting serum factors and thus reduce the risk for many different cancers commonly seen in the USA.

  8. Application Instructions | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is NOT a grant application - if successful, funds will not be transferred to your institution to support your project. Rather, this is an application to access the scientific capabilities and resources of the NCI with the goal of moving promising cancer chemopreventive agents into clinical testing. If successful, you will partner with the NCI in developing a drug

  9. Prevention of HPV-Related Oral Cancer by Dentists: Assessing the Opinion of Dutch Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelman, Marcella R; Brand, Henk S; Forouzanfar, Thymour; Daley, Ellen M; Jager, Derk H Jan

    2017-07-24

    The aim of this study is to assess dental students' opinions of the dentists' role in primary prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oral cancer using a cross-sectional web-based survey. A questionnaire, containing questions about knowledge of HPV and oral cancer, confidence in head and neck examination and role of the dentist in preventing HPV-related oral cancer, was sent to all students of the Academic Centre of Dentistry Amsterdam (n = 912). One hundred and twenty-six (n = 126) students completed the questionnaire. Significantly, more master students (75%) than bachelor students (54.3%) were aware that HPV is a causative factor for oral cancer. Master students had more knowledge of HPV than bachelor students, but knowledge about HPV vaccination was irrespective of the study phase. The majority of dental students agreed that it is important to discuss HPV vaccination with patients. Eighty-nine percent of the students think that more education about symptoms of oral cancer will increase screening for oral cancer. Development of a protocol for screening in dental practices was considered even more important. According to dental students, dentists should discuss HPV as a risk factor for oral cancer with patients. Future dentists are willing to be involved in both primary and secondary prevention of HPV-related oral cancer. Therefore, screening for oral cancer and education about HPV vaccination should be integral elements of the dental curriculum.

  10. Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers On ... of prostate cancer mean to men who take vitamin E but who were not SELECT participants? The incidence ...

  11. Preventing tobacco-caused cancer: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orleans, C T

    1995-11-01

    Nicotine addiction is the most common serious medical problem in the country. Tobacco use is responsible for 30% of cancer deaths in the United States and 90% of all lung cancer deaths. The physical addiction to nicotine explains why over 30% of Americans continue to smoke or use tobacco despite their desires and efforts to quit. The testimony summarized in this paper recommends four broad strategies for preventing tobacco-caused cancers in the United States: a) mandating and reimbursing effective treatments for nicotine addiction; b) increasing Federal and state tobacco excise taxes and earmarking a fraction of tax revenues for tobacco prevention and cessation; c) enacting other policy changes to prevent tobacco use and addiction among children, including expanded clean indoor air legislation, comprehensive youth tobacco access legislation, and the regulation of tobacco products and their advertising and promotion; and d) expanding tobacco control research and critical Federal research support. Specific recommendations are given for each broad strategy.

  12. Silver Clear Nylon Dressing is Effective in Preventing Radiation-Induced Dermatitis in Patients With Lower Gastrointestinal Cancer: Results From a Phase III Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niazi, Tamim M. [Segal Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada); Vuong, Te, E-mail: tvuong@jgh.mcgill.ca [Segal Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada); Azoulay, Laurant [Department of Epidemiology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University (Canada); Marijnen, Corrie [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bujko, Kryzstof [Department of Radiotherapy, The Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Centre, Warsaw (Poland); Nasr, Elie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital (Lebanon); Lambert, Christine; Duclos, Marie; Faria, Sergio; David, Marc [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montreal-General-Hospital, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Cummings, Bernard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto (Canada)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: For patients with anal canal and advanced rectal cancer, chemoradiation therapy is a curative modality or an important adjunct to surgery. Nearly all patients treated with chemoradiation experience some degree of radiation-induced dermatitis (RID). Prevention and effective treatment of RID, therefore, is of considerable clinical relevance. The present phase III randomized trial compared the efficacy of silver clear nylon dressing (SCND) with that of standard skin care for these patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 42 rectal or anal canal cancer patients were randomized to either a SCND or standard skin care group. SCND was applied from Day 1 of radiation therapy (RT) until 2 weeks after treatment completion. In the control arm, sulfadiazine cream was applied at the time of skin dermatitis. Printed digital photographs taken 2 weeks prior to, on the last day, and two weeks after the treatment completion were scored by 10 blinded readers, who used the common toxicity scoring system for skin dermatitis. Results: The radiation dose ranged from 50.4 to 59.4 Gy, and there were no differences between the 2 groups. On the last day of RT, when the most severe RID occurs, the mean dermatitis score was 2.53 (standard deviation [SD], 1.17) for the standard and 1.67 (SD, 1.2; P=.01) for the SCND arm. At 2 weeks after RT, the difference was 0.39 points in favor of SCND (P=.39). There was considerable intraclass correlation among the 10 observers. Conclusions: Silver clear nylon dressing is effective in reducing RID in patients with lower gastrointestinal cancer treated with combined chemotherapy and radiation treatment.

  13. Silver Clear Nylon Dressing is Effective in Preventing Radiation-Induced Dermatitis in Patients With Lower Gastrointestinal Cancer: Results From a Phase III Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niazi, Tamim M.; Vuong, Te; Azoulay, Laurant; Marijnen, Corrie; Bujko, Kryzstof; Nasr, Elie; Lambert, Christine; Duclos, Marie; Faria, Sergio; David, Marc; Cummings, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: For patients with anal canal and advanced rectal cancer, chemoradiation therapy is a curative modality or an important adjunct to surgery. Nearly all patients treated with chemoradiation experience some degree of radiation-induced dermatitis (RID). Prevention and effective treatment of RID, therefore, is of considerable clinical relevance. The present phase III randomized trial compared the efficacy of silver clear nylon dressing (SCND) with that of standard skin care for these patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 42 rectal or anal canal cancer patients were randomized to either a SCND or standard skin care group. SCND was applied from Day 1 of radiation therapy (RT) until 2 weeks after treatment completion. In the control arm, sulfadiazine cream was applied at the time of skin dermatitis. Printed digital photographs taken 2 weeks prior to, on the last day, and two weeks after the treatment completion were scored by 10 blinded readers, who used the common toxicity scoring system for skin dermatitis. Results: The radiation dose ranged from 50.4 to 59.4 Gy, and there were no differences between the 2 groups. On the last day of RT, when the most severe RID occurs, the mean dermatitis score was 2.53 (standard deviation [SD], 1.17) for the standard and 1.67 (SD, 1.2; P=.01) for the SCND arm. At 2 weeks after RT, the difference was 0.39 points in favor of SCND (P=.39). There was considerable intraclass correlation among the 10 observers. Conclusions: Silver clear nylon dressing is effective in reducing RID in patients with lower gastrointestinal cancer treated with combined chemotherapy and radiation treatment.

  14. Ethical issues in cancer screening and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutynski, Anya

    2012-06-01

    November 2009's announcement of the USPSTF's recommendations for screening for breast cancer raised a firestorm of objections. Chief among them were that the panel had insufficiently valued patients' lives or allowed cost considerations to influence recommendations. The publicity about the recommendations, however, often either simplified the actual content of the recommendations or bypassed significant methodological issues, which a philosophical examination of both the science behind screening recommendations and their import reveals. In this article, I discuss two of the leading ethical considerations at issue in screening recommendations: respect for patient autonomy and beneficence and then turn to the most significant methodological issues raised by cancer screening: the potential biases that may infect a trial of screening effectiveness, the problem of base rates in communicating risk, and the trade-offs involved in a judgment of screening effectiveness. These issues reach more broadly, into the use of "evidence-based" medicine generally, and have important implications for informed consent.

  15. Preventing skin cancer through behavior change. Implications for interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, J S; Blais, L M; Redding, C A; Weinstock, M A

    1995-07-01

    Sun exposure is the only major causative factor for skin cancer for which prevention is feasible. Both individual and community-based interventions have been effective in changing sun exposure knowledge and attitudes but generally have not been effective in changing behaviors. An integrative model of behavior change is described that has been successful in changing behavior across a wide range of health conditions. This model holds promise for developing a rational public health approach to skin cancer prevention based on sound behavioral science.

  16. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Meng, Xiao; Gan, Ren-You; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. Several epidemiological studies suggested the inverse correlation between the intake of vegetables and fruits and the incidence of breast cancer. Substantial experimental studies indicated that many dietary natural products could affect the development and progression of breast cancer, such as soy, pomegranate, mangosteen, citrus fruits, apple, grape, mango, cruciferous vegetables, ginger, garlic, black cumin, edible macro-fungi...

  17. The inception and evolution of a unique masters program in cancer biology, prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Carolyn; Blancato, Jan

    2010-09-01

    The University of the District of Columbia (UDC) and the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center (LCCC), Georgetown University Medical Center established a Masters Degree Program in Cancer Biology, Prevention and Control at UDC that is jointly administered and taught by UDC and LCCC faculty. The goal of the Masters Degree Program is to educate students as master-level cancer professionals capable of conducting research and service in cancer biology, prevention, and control or to further advance the education of students to pursue doctoral studies. The Program's unique nature is reflected in its philosophy "the best cancer prevention and control researchers are those with a sound understanding of cancer biology". This program is a full-time, 2-year, 36-credit degree in which students take half of their coursework at UDC and half of their coursework at LCCC. During the second year, students are required to conduct research either at LCCC or UDC. Unlike most cancer biology programs, this unique Program emphasizes both cancer biology and cancer outreach training.

  18. Eating habits, knowledge about cancer prevention and the HPLP scale in Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Hafize Ozturk; Ceber, Esin; Sogukpinar, Neriman; Saydam, Birsen Karaca; Otles, Semih; Ozenturk, Gulsun

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional status and healthy lifestyle are important factors not only in cancer etiology but also for prevention efforts. A good nutritional status contributes to a healthy life with high economic, social and cultural level. Unhealthy eating habits are part of risky behavior seen from adolescence. The present study was therefore carried out to determine eating habits, level of knowledge about cancer prevention and behavior of a group of adolescents. Data were collected using questionnaire covering eating habits and knowledge of adolescents on prevention from cancer, and special scale (HPLP) to determine the related behavior. Three hundred sixty six of 390 students volunteered for study. Eating habits and the level of cancer prevention knowledge were similar for both genders, except for the exercise issue. The mean total points of adolescents in the Health Promotion Behavior and Subscales was 113,63. While spiritual growth had the highest score in HPLP subscale, exercise had a minimal score. Exercise was the only HPLP subscale with a statistically significant difference between male and female genders. Although they have some information, the adolescents surveyed did not have preventive skills relative to their practical life. In general in order to ensure cancer prevention and a healthy life style social, cultural and sportive activities should be encouraged and educational programmes supporting these goals should be designed and applied for all stages of life, starting in early childhood.

  19. The role of government and regulation in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Otis W

    2017-08-01

    The world population is ageing and increasing in size. As a result, the numbers of people diagnosed with and dying of cancer are increasing. Cancer is also a growing problem in developing countries. Government, be it local, state, provincial, national, or even a union of nations, has clear roles in the control of cancer. It is widely appreciated that much of the research that has defined the causes and treatment of cancer was, and is, government funded. Less appreciated, the body of work about how to control cancer shows the importance of an environment that encourages individuals to adopt healthy behaviours, and government has a vitally important role. Through regulation, education, and support programmes, governments can create an environment in which tobacco use is reduced and citizens maintain good levels of physical activity, healthy bodyweight, and good nutrition. Cancer prevention and the creation of a culture of health is an essential mission of government, beyond that of the traditional health-focused departments such as health ministries; it is in the domain of governmental agencies involved in environmental protection, occupational safety, and transportation. Cancer prevention and health promotion are also in the realm of the zoning board, the board of education, and the board of health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Endocrine therapy for breast cancer prevention in high-risk women: clinical and economic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Amy G; Younis, Tallal

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of breast cancer highlights the need for primary prevention strategies that demonstrate both favorable clinical benefit/risk profile and good value for money. Endocrine therapy with selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs) or aromatase inhibitors (AIs) has been associated with a favorable clinical benefit/risk profile in the prevention of breast cancer in women at high risk of developing the disease. The available endocrine therapy strategies differ in terms of their relative reductions of breast cancer risk, potential side effects, and upfront drug acquisition costs, among others. This review highlights the clinical trials of SERMs and AIs for the primary prevention of breast cancer, and the cost-effectiveness /cost-utility studies that have examined their "value for money" in various health care jurisdictions.

  1. Men's perspectives on cancer prevention behaviors associated with HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Serena; Cornally, Nicola; Hegarty, Josephine

    2018-02-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the diagnosis of anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers in men. Evidence indicates that correct condom use in addition to obtaining the HPV vaccine provides the greatest protection from HPV infections. To explore young men's beliefs and behavioral intention in relation to receiving the HPV vaccine and using a condom correctly and consistently for sexual contact. A cross-sectional study underpinned by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) was conducted with male participants (n = 359, 18-28 years) who completed an online survey. Descriptive, correlational, and hierarchical regression analyses were performed on both status variables and variables of the TPB. Subjective norms (β = 0.519, P HPV vaccine, while relationship status (β = -0.215, P HPV vaccine and 44% in intention to use a condom were explained by the TPB model. Results from this study will impact on future sexual health research, education programs, and interventions for both HPV preventative behaviors towards the elimination of HPV-related cancers in men. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. cGMP signaling as a target for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, Perrin F; Tinsley, Heather N

    2015-04-01

    One in eight women in the United States will be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in her lifetime. Advances in therapeutic strategies, diagnosis, and improved awareness have resulted in a significant reduction in breast cancer related mortality. However, there is a continued need for more effective and less toxic drugs for both the prevention and the treatment of breast cancer in order to see a continued decline in the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. Recent studies suggest that the cGMP signaling pathway may be aberrantly regulated in breast cancer. As such, this pathway may serve as a source of novel targets for future breast cancer drug discovery efforts. This review provides an overview of cGMP signaling in normal physiology and in breast cancer as well as current strategies being investigated for targeting this pathway in breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Colorectal cancer: From prevention to personalized medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binefa, Gemma; Rodríguez-Moranta, Francisco; Teule, Àlex; Medina-Hayas, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a very heterogeneous disease that is caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. CRC develops through a gradual accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes, leading to the transformation of normal colonic mucosa into invasive cancer. CRC is one of the most prevalent and incident cancers worldwide, as well as one of the most deadly. Approximately 1235108 people are diagnosed annually with CRC, and 609051 die from CRC annually. The World Health Organization estimates an increase of 77% in the number of newly diagnosed cases of CRC and an increase of 80% in deaths from CRC by 2030. The incidence of CRC can benefit from different strategies depending on its stage: health promotion through health education campaigns (when the disease is not yet present), the implementation of screening programs (for detection of the disease in its early stages), and the development of nearly personalized treatments according to both patient characteristics (age, sex) and the cancer itself (gene expression). Although there are different strategies for screening and although the number of such strategies is increasing due to the potential of emerging technologies in molecular marker application, not all strategies meet the criteria required for screening tests in population programs; the three most accepted tests are the fecal occult blood test (FOBT), colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. FOBT is the most used method for CRC screening worldwide and is also the primary choice in most population-based screening programs in Europe. Due to its non-invasive nature and low cost, it is one of the most accepted techniques by population. CRC is a very heterogeneous disease, and with a few exceptions (APC, p53, KRAS), most of the genes involved in CRC are observed in a small percentage of cases. The design of genetic and epigenetic marker panels that are able to provide maximum coverage in the diagnosis of colorectal neoplasia seems a reasonable strategy

  4. University Student Awareness of Skin Cancer: Behaviors, Recognition, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trad, Megan; Estaville, Lawrence

    2017-03-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer, and it often is preventable. The authors sought to evaluate behavior and knowledge regarding skin cancer among students at a Texas university. The authors recruited a diverse group of students in terms of sex, age, and ethnicity to participate in a survey regarding knowledge of skin cancer signs, use of tanning beds, and performance of self-assessment for skin cancer. Participating students could complete surveys in classrooms, at health fairs, or online via Survey Monkey. The authors examined data for the 3 variables in relation to sex, ethnicity, and age. A total of 512 responses were completed. Female students completed 371 (72.46%) surveys, and male students completed 141 (27.54%). The ethnicity of student participants was nearly evenly split among whites, African Americans, and Hispanics. Ethnicity was the most significant factor influencing the knowledge of skin cancer and behaviors to prevent it. Specifically, Hispanic and African American students possessed a lower level of skin cancer awareness. More female students than male students used tanning beds, and although use was self-reported as infrequent, the results imply that 4500 of the university's students might use tanning beds, which is concerning if extrapolated to other university student populations in Texas. Behavioral intervention is critical in reducing students' risk of skin cancer in later years, and university students must acquire knowledge to increase their awareness of skin health and to minimize their risk of developing skin cancer. Radiation therapists are uniquely positioned to share knowledge of skin cancer. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  5. [Hormonotherapy for breast cancer prevention: What about women with genetic predisposition to breast cancer?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, Claire; Reyal, Fabien; Callet, Nasrine; This, Pascale; Noguès, Catherine; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Fourme, Emmanuelle

    2016-03-01

    In France, women carrying BRCA1/2 mutation, at an identified high risk of breast cancer are recommended to undergo breast MRI screening. That screening does not however prevent the risk of developing a breast cancer. The only alternative to breast cancer screening available in France is surgical prevention by prophylactic mastectomy. An interesting option for women who wish to reduce their breast cancer risk, but are unready for prophylactic mastectomy is a preventive hormonal treatment by aromatase inhibitors, or selective estrogens receptor modulators (SERMs). Reliable clinical trials show the efficiency of tamoxifen, raloxifen, exemestane, and anastrozole especially, in reducing breast cancer incidence by 33%, 34%, 65% and 53% respectively. This article tries to sum up the main published trials of breast cancer prevention with hormonal treatment, and presents the latest American and English clinical guidelines concerning hormonal prevention for women at high risk of breast cancer, and starts thinking about the possibilities of hormonoprevention, especially among women carrying a BRCA1/2 mutation in France. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevention of cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women from developing countries: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapanga, Witness; Elhakeem, Ahmed; Feresu, Shingairai A; Maseko, Fresier; Chipato, Tsungai

    2017-04-24

    Over 85% of cervical cancer cases and deaths occur in developing countries. HIV-seropositive women are more likely to develop precancerous lesions that lead to cervical cancer than HIV-negative women. However, the literature on cervical cancer prevention in seropositive women in developing countries has not been reviewed. The aim of this study is to systematically review cervical cancer prevention modalities available for HIV-seropositive women in developing countries. This protocol was developed by following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) statement, and the systematic review will be reported in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane Library will be searched from inception up to date of final search, and additional studies will be located through citation and reference list tracking. Eligible studies will be randomised controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies, case-control and cross-sectional studies carried out in developing countries. Studies will be included if they are published in English and examine cervical cancer prevention modalities in HIV-seropositive women. Results will be summarised in tables and, where appropriate, combined using meta-analysis. This review will address the gap in evidence by systematically reviewing the published literature on the different prevention modalities being used to prevent cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women in developing countries. The findings may be used to inform evidence-based guidelines for prevention of cervical cancer in seropositive women as well as future research. PROSPERO CRD42017054678 .

  7. Preventable and mitigable adverse events in cancer care: Measuring risk and harm across the continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipitz-Snyderman, Allison; Pfister, David; Classen, David; Atoria, Coral L; Killen, Aileen; Epstein, Andrew S; Anderson, Christopher; Fortier, Elizabeth; Weingart, Saul N

    2017-12-01

    Patient safety is a critical concern in clinical oncology, but the ability to measure adverse events (AEs) across cancer care is limited by a narrow focus on treatment-related toxicities. The objective of this study was to assess the nature and extent of AEs among cancer patients across inpatient and outpatient settings. This was a retrospective cohort study of 400 adult patients selected by stratified random sampling who had breast (n = 128), colorectal (n = 136), or lung cancer (n = 136) treated at a comprehensive cancer center in 2012. Candidate AEs, or injuries due to medical care, were identified by trained nurse reviewers over the course of 1 year from medical records and safety-reporting databases. Physicians determined the AE harm severity and the likelihood of preventability and harm mitigation. The 400-patient sample represented 133,358 days of follow-up. Three hundred four AEs were identified for an overall rate of 2.3 events per 1000 patient days (91.2 per 1000 inpatient days and 0.9 per 1000 outpatient days). Thirty-four percent of the patients had 1 or more AEs (95% confidence interval, 29%-39%), and 16% of the patients had 1 or more preventable or mitigable AEs (95% confidence interval, 13%-20%). The AE rate for patients with breast cancer was lower than the rate for patients with colorectal or lung cancer (P ≤ .001). The preventable or mitigable AE rate was 0.9 per 1000 patient days. Six percent of AEs and 4% of preventable AEs resulted in serious harm. Examples included lymphedema, abscess, and renal failure. A heavy burden of AEs, including preventable or mitigable events, has been identified. Future research should examine risk factors and improvement strategies for reducing their burden. Cancer 2017;123:4728-4736. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  8. Prospective, Multi-center Randomized Intermediate Biomarker Study of Oral Contraceptive vs. Depo-Provera for Prevention of Endometrial Cancer in Women with Lynch Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Karen H.; Loose, David S.; Yates, Melinda S.; Nogueras-Gonzalez, Graciela M.; Munsell, Mark F.; Chen, Lee-may; Lynch, Henry; Cornelison, Terri; Boyd-Rogers, Stephanie; Rubin, Mary; Daniels, Molly S.; Conrad, Peggy; Milbourne, Andrea; Gershenson, David M.; Broaddus, Russell R.

    2013-01-01

    Women with Lynch syndrome have a 40–60% lifetime risk for developing endometrial cancer, a cancer associated with estrogen imbalance. The molecular basis for endometrial-specific tumorigenesis is unclear. Progestins inhibit estrogen-driven proliferation, and epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that progestin-containing oral contraceptives (OCP) reduce the risk of endometrial cancer by 50% in women at general population risk. It is unknown if they are effective in women with Lynch syndrome. Asymptomatic women age 25–50 with Lynch syndrome were randomized to receive the progestin compounds depo-Provera (depoMPA) or OCP for three months. An endometrial biopsy and transvaginal ultrasound were performed before and after treatment. Endometrial proliferation was evaluated as the primary endpoint. Histology and a panel of surrogate endpoint biomarkers were evaluated for each endometrial biopsy as secondary endpoints. A total of 51 women were enrolled, and 46 completed treatment. Two of the 51 women had complex hyperplasia with atypia at the baseline endometrial biopsy and were excluded from the study. Overall, both depoMPA and OCP induced a dramatic decrease in endometrial epithelial proliferation and microscopic changes in the endometrium characteristic of progestin action. Transvaginal ultrasound measurement of endometrial stripe was not a useful measure of endometrial response or baseline hyperplasia. These results demonstrate that women with Lynch syndrome do show an endometrial response to short term exogenous progestins, suggesting that OCP and depoMPA may be reasonable chemopreventive agents in this high-risk patient population. PMID:23639481

  9. Prospective multicenter randomized intermediate biomarker study of oral contraceptive versus depo-provera for prevention of endometrial cancer in women with Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Karen H; Loose, David S; Yates, Melinda S; Nogueras-Gonzalez, Graciela M; Munsell, Mark F; Chen, Lee-May; Lynch, Henry; Cornelison, Terri; Boyd-Rogers, Stephanie; Rubin, Mary; Daniels, Molly S; Conrad, Peggy; Milbourne, Andrea; Gershenson, David M; Broaddus, Russell R

    2013-08-01

    Women with Lynch syndrome have a 40% to 60% lifetime risk for developing endometrial cancer, a cancer associated with estrogen imbalance. The molecular basis for endometrial-specific tumorigenesis is unclear. Progestins inhibit estrogen-driven proliferation, and epidemiologic studies have shown that progestin-containing oral contraceptives (OCP) reduce the risk of endometrial cancer by 50% in women at general population risk. It is unknown whether they are effective in women with Lynch syndrome. Asymptomatic women ages 25 to 50 with Lynch syndrome were randomized to receive the progestin compounds Depo-Provera (depo-MPA) or OCP for three months. An endometrial biopsy and transvaginal ultrasound were conducted before and after treatment. Endometrial proliferation was evaluated as the primary endpoint. Histology and a panel of surrogate endpoint biomarkers were evaluated for each endometrial biopsy as secondary endpoints. A total of 51 women were enrolled, and 46 completed treatment. Two of the 51 women had complex hyperplasia with atypia at the baseline endometrial biopsy and were excluded from the study. Overall, both depo-MPA and OCP induced a dramatic decrease in endometrial epithelial proliferation and microscopic changes in the endometrium characteristic of progestin action. Transvaginal ultrasound measurement of endometrial stripe was not a useful measure of endometrial response or baseline hyperplasia. These results show that women with Lynch syndrome do show an endometrial response to short-term exogenous progestins, suggesting that OCP and depo-MPA may be reasonable chemopreventive agents in this high-risk patient population.

  10. Nutrition Frontiers - Spring 2016 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 7, Issue 2 The spring issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases green tea's effect on human metabolism, fish oil — as a chemopreventive agent in myeloid leukemia and, with pectin, how they affect microRNA expression in the colon. Learn about our spotlight investigator, Dr. Richard Eckert, and his research on skin cancer prevention, upcoming announcements and more. |

  11. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Am I eligible? To be considered for the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP), you must meet eligibility criteria related to educational attainment, US citizenship/permanent residency status, and the duration of prior postdoctoral research experience. Refer to the Eligibility Requirements for details. How do I apply? You must apply through our online application process.

  12. Advanced breast cancer and its prevention by screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, H. J.; van Ineveld, B. M.; de Haes, J. C.; van Oortmarssen, G. J.; Klijn, J. G.; van der Maas, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    In discussions on breast cancer screening, much attention has been focussed on the possible morbidity generated by screening. Favourable effects like the prevention of advanced disease seem underestimated, probably because quantification is that difficult. To analyse the amount of care and treatment

  13. Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Africa: A Daunting Task ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa has a high estimated incidence of cervical cancer, thus requiring the development of an effective prevention strategy. Cytology-based screening is beyond the capacity of many African countries, hence the need for alternatives. Visual inspection of the cervix after application of 3–5% acetic acid (VIA) is a promising ...

  14. Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripamonti Carla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In breast cancer patients, bone is the most common site of metastases. Medical therapies are the basic therapy to prevent distant metastases and recurrence and to cure them. Radiotherapy has a primary role in pain relief, recalcification and stabilization of the bone, as well as the reduction of the risk of complications (e.g., bone fractures, spinal cord compression. Bisphosphonates, as potent inhibitors of osteoclastic-mediated bone resorption are a well-established, standard-of-care treatment option to reduce the frequency, severity and time of onset of the skeletal related events in breast cancer patients with bone metastases. Moreover bisphosphonates prevent cancer treatment-induced bone loss. Recent data shows the anti-tumor activity of bisphosphonates, in particular, in postmenopausal women and in older premenopausal women with hormone-sensitive disease treated with ovarian suppression. Pain is the most frequent symptom reported in patients with bone metastases, and its prevention and treatment must be considered at any stage of the disease. The prevention and treatment of bone metastases in breast cancer must consider an integrated multidisciplinary approach.

  15. Cancer Prevention Programs in the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Michael P.

    When employees develop cancer, businesses bear not only the direct medical costs of the disease, but also the indirect costs associated with lost work time, disability payments, loss of a trained employee, and retraining. Research has confirmed that aggressive prevention and screening programs can be, and indeed are, effective in limiting the…

  16. Breast cancer risk accumulation starts early – Prevention must also

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Graham A; Bohlke, Kari; Berkey, Catherine S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Nearly 1 in 4 breast cancers is diagnosed before the age of 50, and many early-stage premalignant lesions are present but not yet diagnosed. Therefore, we review evidence to support the strategy that breast cancer prevention efforts must begin early in life. Methods Literature review Results Exposures during childhood and adolescence affect a woman’s long-term risk of breast cancer, but have received far less research attention than exposures that occur later in life. Breast tissue undergoes rapid cellular proliferation between menarche and first full-term pregnancy, and risk accumulates rapidly until the terminal differentiation that accompanies first pregnancy. Evidence on childhood diet and growth in height, and adolescent alcohol intake, among other adolescent factors are related to breast cancer risk and risk of premalignant proliferative benign lesions. Conclusion Breast cancer prevention efforts will have the greatest effect when initiated at an early age and continued over a lifetime. Gaps in knowledge are identified and deserve increase attention to inform prevention. PMID:24820413

  17. Vaccines for Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahomed, M.F.

    2017-01-01

    The characteristics of two prophylactic Human Papilloma Virus HPV vaccines and ethical issues related to HPV vaccination are reviewed in this paper. These vaccines have the potential of substantially reducing HPV-related morbidity and mortality, and in particular cervical cancer. The vaccines cannot treat women with current HPV infection or HPV related disease. They should be administered before the commencement of sexual activity. The ideal age group is adolescent girls between the ages 9-13. Both vaccines are highly efficacious and immunogenic and induce high levels of serum antibodies after three doses for all vaccine-related HPV types. School-based vaccination is considered as a costeffective method for its delivery. Adequate education of both clinicians and patients is an essential to ensure effective implementation when considering a national vaccination program. (author)

  18. Minimizing the cancer-promotional activity of cox-2 as a central strategy in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis examining long-term mortality in subjects who participated in controlled studies evaluating the impact of daily aspirin on vascular risk, has concluded that aspirin confers substantial protection from cancer mortality. Remarkably, low-dose aspirin was as effective as higher-dose regimens; hence this protection may be achievable with minimal risk. There is reason to believe that this protection stems primarily from inhibition of cox-2 in pre-neoplastic lesions. Since safe aspirin regimens can only achieve a partial and transitory inhibition of cox-2, it may be feasible to complement the cancer-protective benefit of aspirin with other measures which decrease cox-2 expression or which limit the bioactivity of cox-2-derived PGE2. Oxidative stress boosts cox-2 expression by up-regulating activation of NF-kappaB and MAP kinases; NADPH oxidase activation may thus promote carcinogenesis by increasing cox-2 expression while also amplifying oxidant-mediated mutagenesis. A prospective cohort study has observed that relatively elevated serum bilirubin levels are associated with a marked reduction in subsequent cancer mortality; this may reflect bilirubin's physiological role as a potent inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. It may be feasible to mimic this protective effect by supplementing with spirulina, a rich source of a phycobilin which shares bilirubin's ability to inhibit NADPH oxidase. Ancillary antioxidant measures - phase 2 inducing phytochemicals, melatonin, N-acetylcysteine, and astaxanthin - may also aid cox-2 down-regulation. The cancer protection often associated with high-normal vitamin D status may be attributable, in part, to the ability of the activated vitamin D receptor to decrease cox-2 expression while promoting PGE2 catabolism and suppressing the expression of PGE2 receptors. Diets with a relatively low ratio of omega-6 to long-chain omega-3 fats may achieve cancer protection by antagonizing the production and bioactivity of PGE2. Growth

  19. Skin Cancer Concerns in People of Color: Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Alpana K; Bharadwaj, Mausumi; Mehrotra, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Though people of color (POC) are less likely to become afflicted with skin cancer, they are much more likely to die from it due to delay in detection or presentation. Very often, skin cancer is diagnosed at a more advanced stage in POC, making treatment difficult. The purpose of this research was to improve awareness regarding skin cancers in people of color by providing recommendations to clinicians and the general public for early detection and photo protection preventive measures. Methods: Data on different types of skin cancers were presented to POC. Due to limited research, there are few resources providing insights for evaluating darkly pigmented lesions in POC. Diagnostic features for different types of skin cancers were recorded and various possible risk factors were considered. Results: This study provided directions for the prevention and early detection of skin cancer in POC based on a comprehensive review of available data. Conclusions: The increased morbidity and mortality rate associated with skin cancer in POC is due to lack of awareness, diagnosis at a more advanced stage and socioeconomic barriers hindering access to care. Raising public health concerns for skin cancer prevention strategies for all people, regardless of ethnic background and socioeconomic status, is the key to timely diagnosis and treatment. PMID:28125871

  20. Health Literacy: Cancer Prevention Strategies for Early Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Robert A; Cosgrove, Susan C; Romney, Martha C; Plumb, James D; Brawer, Rickie O; Gonzalez, Evelyn T; Fleisher, Linda G; Moore, Bradley S

    2017-09-01

    Health literacy, the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand health information and services needed to make health decisions, is an essential element for early adults (aged 18-44 years) to make informed decisions about cancer. Low health literacy is one of the social determinants of health associated with cancer-related disparities. Over the past several years, a nonprofit organization, a university, and a cancer center in a major urban environment have developed and implemented health literacy programs within healthcare systems and in the community. Health system personnel received extensive health literacy training to reduce medical jargon and improve their patient education using plain language easy-to-understand written materials and teach-back, and also designed plain language written materials including visuals to provide more culturally and linguistically appropriate health education and enhance web-based information. Several sustainable health system policy changes occurred over time. At the community level, organizational assessments and peer leader training on health literacy have occurred to reduce communication barriers between consumers and providers. Some of these programs have been cancer specific, including consumer education in such areas as cervical cancer, skin cancer, and breast cancer that are targeted to early adults across the cancer spectrum from prevention to treatment to survivorship. An example of consumer-driven health education that was tested for health literacy using a comic book-style photonovel on breast cancer with an intergenerational family approach for Chinese Americans is provided. Key lessons learned from the health literacy initiatives and overall conclusions of the health literacy initiatives are also summarized. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mouse Models for Studying Oral Cancer: Impact in the Era of Cancer Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J J; Young, C D; Zhou, H M; Wang, X J

    2018-04-01

    Model systems for oral cancer research have progressed from tumor epithelial cell cultures to in vivo systems that mimic oral cancer genetics, pathological characteristics, and tumor-stroma interactions of oral cancer patients. In the era of cancer immunotherapy, it is imperative to use model systems to test oral cancer prevention and therapeutic interventions in the presence of an immune system and to discover mechanisms of stromal contributions to oral cancer carcinogenesis. Here, we review in vivo mouse model systems commonly used for studying oral cancer and discuss the impact these models are having in advancing basic mechanisms, chemoprevention, and therapeutic intervention of oral cancer while highlighting recent discoveries concerning the role of immune cells in oral cancer. Improvements to in vivo model systems that highly recapitulate human oral cancer hold the key to identifying features of oral cancer initiation, progression, and invasion as well as molecular and cellular targets for prevention, therapeutic response, and immunotherapy development.

  2. Familial breast cancer - targeted therapy in secondary and tertiary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin

    2015-02-01

    The introduction of an increasing number of individualized molecular targeted therapies into clinical routine mirrors their importance in modern cancer prevention and treatment. Well-known examples for targeted agents are the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab and the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen. The identification of an unaltered gene in tumor tissue in colon cancer (KRAS) is a predictor for the patient's response to targeted therapy with a monoclonal antibody (cetuximab). Targeted therapy for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer has become a reality with the approval of olaparib for platin-sensitive late relapsed BRCA-associated ovarian cancer in December 2014. This manuscript reviews the status quo of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) in the therapy of breast and ovarian cancer as well as the struggle for carboplatin as a potential standard of care for triple-negative and, in particular, BRCA-associated breast cancer. Details of the mechanism of action with information on tumor development are provided, and an outlook for further relevant research is given. The efficacy of agents against molecular targets together with the identification of an increasing number of cancer-associated genes will open the floodgates to a new era of treatment decision-making based on molecular tumor profiles. Current clinical trials involving patients with BRCA-associated cancer explore the efficacy of the molecular targeted therapeutics platinum and PARPi.

  3. Red flags on pinkwashed drinks: contradictions and dangers in marketing alcohol to prevent cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart, Sarah; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2015-10-01

    To document alcohol products and promotions that use the pink ribbon symbol and related marketing materials that associate alcohol brands with breast cancer charities, awareness and survivors. We conducted a basic Boolean public internet search for alcohol products with pink ribbon/breast cancer awareness marketing campaigns. There is strong and growing evidence of alcohol as a contributing cause of several types of cancer, including breast cancer. There is no U-shaped curve for cancer, and threshold of elevated relative risk is as low as one drink a day for certain cancers. We found 17 examples of alcohol product campaigns with websites, press releases and social media posts, along with news articles and blog posts from industry and non-profit organizations regarding alcohol products associated with breast cancer causes and charities. Various cancer charities have entered into alliances with sectors of the alcohol industry that raise funds for breast cancer research, treatment or prevention by promoting the purchase of certain alcoholic beverages. Some alcohol corporations use pink ribbons and other breast cancer-related images, messages and user-generated media to market a product that contributes to cancer disease and death. Therefore, cancer charities should adopt policies to separate them from alliances with the alcohol industry. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. History, genetics, and strategies for cancer prevention in Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrinos, Fay; Stoffel, Elena M

    2014-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common gastrointestinal malignancy and the third cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. The majority of CRC cases diagnosed annually are due to sporadic events, but up to 6% are attributed to known monogenic disorders that confer a markedly increased risk for the development of CRC and multiple extracolonic malignancies. Lynch syndrome is the most common inherited CRC syndrome and is associated with mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes, mainly MLH1 and MSH2 but also MSH6, PMS2, and EPCAM. Although the risk of CRC and endometrial cancer may approach near 75% and 50%, respectively, in gene mutation carriers, the identification of these individuals and at-risk family members through predictive genetic testing provides opportunities for cancer prevention including specialized cancer screening, intensified surveillance, and/or prophylactic surgeries. This article will provide a review of the major advances in risk assessment, molecular genetics, DNA mutational analyses, and cancer prevention and management made since Lynch syndrome was first described 100 years ago. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiation oxidative stress in cancer induction and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meher, Prabodha Kumar; Mishra, Kaushala Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Exposure of cells to ionizing radiation causes generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are implicated in the mechanism of carcinogenesis. Molecular steps involved in the transformation of normal cells to cancer cells have been enigmatic but generally believed to arise from aberration in cellular redox homeostasis. In normal cell function, a delicate balance is maintained between ROS generated in the metabolic process and level of endogenous antioxidant defense. ROS are known to regulate various cellular functions, such as cell division, signal transduction, and apoptosis. Cells experience oxidative stress when excess production of ROS occurs inside a cell upon exposure to external stress or agents. This redox imbalance affects the cellular functions due to DNA strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, gene mutations, alteration in signal transduction, and inhibition of apoptosis leading to induction of cancer and other diseases. Radiation-induced ROS are involved in initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis. Therefore, detoxification of ROS by exogenous antioxidants including dietary polyphenols offers an important strategy for cancer prevention. Recent research results have shown that resistance of cancer stem cells to therapies is linked to low level of ROS. Interestingly, in vitro and in vivo experiments have reported that radiotherapy- and chemotherapy-induced ROS in cytosol sensitize the tumor cells to death, resulting in tumor growth retardation. This review is an attempt to delineate mechanisms of ROS in carcinogenesis and prevention by dietary compounds. Natural polyphenols and dietary antioxidants hold potential to prevent cancer. Interventions in ROS-mediated signal alteration, apoptosis activation, and modulation of epigenetic processes may offer effective cancer prevention strategy. (author)

  6. Identifying molecular targets of lifestyle modifications in colon cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Marie Derry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One in four deaths in the United States is cancer-related, and colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Screening strategies are utilized but have not reduced disease incidence or mortality. In this regard, there is an interest in cancer preventive strategies focusing on lifestyle intervention, where specific etiologic factors involved in cancer initiation, promotion, and progression could be targeted. For example, exposure to dietary carcinogens, such as nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons influences colon carcinogenesis. Furthermore, dietary deficiencies could alter sensitivity to genetic damage and influence carcinogen metabolism contributing to CRC. High alcohol consumption increases the risk of mutations including the fact that acetaldehyde, an ethanol metabolite, is classified as a group 1 carcinogen. Tobacco smoke exposure is also a risk factor for cancer development; ~20% of CRCs are associated with smoking. Additionally, obese patients have a higher risk of cancer development, which is further supported by the fact that physical activity decreases CRC risk by 55%. Similarly, chronic inflammatory conditions also increase the risk of CRC development. Moreover, the circadian clock alters digestion and regulates other biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes that could positively influence CRC. Taken together, colon carcinogenesis involves a number of etiological factors, and therefore, to create effective preventive strategies, molecular targets need to be identified and beleaguered prior to disease progression. With this in mind, the following is a comprehensive review identifying downstream target proteins of the above lifestyle risk factors, which are modulated during colon carcinogenesis and could be targeted for CRC prevention by novel agents including phytochemicals.

  7. Law 16.097 Prevention program of uterine cervix cancer in Uruguay: Uterine cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Every year in Uruguay, is diagnosed around 600 new cases of cancer of uterine cervix. Next important information was related on this cancer and the evolution that will have the carrying of this illness, it was informed about the prevention, symptoms, I diagnose and treatment of the same one

  8. Physical activity and cancer prevention: awareness and meeting the recommendations among adult Saudis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Al-Hammam, Abudllah Mohammed; AlMulhim, Nasser Abdullah; Al-Hayan, Mohammed Ibrahim; Al-Mulhim, Mona Mohammed; Al-Mosabeh, Modhahir Jawad; Al-Subaie, Mohammed Ali; Al-Hmmad, Qassem Ahmed; Al-Omran, Ahmed Adi

    2014-01-01

    There is a scarcity of information about the proportion of the adult Saudi population that meet the recommended guidelines of physical activity (PA) to reduce cancer risk. Moreover, their awareness about the role of PA in cancer prevention is unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed at estimating the proportion of adult Saudis meeting the PA guidelines, specifically those recommended by American Cancer Society (ACS) for cancer prevention, and to assess the public awareness about the role of PA in cancer prevention. Using a multistage sampling method, 2,127 adult Saudis of both genders were recruited from 6 urban and 4 rural primary health care centers in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Participants were personally interviewed to gather information about their sociodemographic characteristics, searching activity about PA and cancer, and the time spent in leisure time PA (moderate and vigorous)/week using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire with show cards. Finally, items about the role of PA in cancer risk reduction were inquired. Of the included participants, 11.6% met the recommendations for cancer prevention (≥ 45 minutes of moderate-vigorous PA activity/≥ 5 days/week or 225 minutes/week). Multivariate regression showed that being male (AOR=1.49, CI=1.09-2.06), cancer prevention. Only 11.4% of the sample indicated correctly the frequency and duration of PA required for an average adult to be physically active and while >70% of them indicated the role of PA in prevention of hypertension, coronary heart disease and lowering elevated blood cholesterol, only 18.6% and 21.7% correctly mentioned the role of PA in reducing colon and breast cancer risk, respectively. Poor knowledge was found among those with less than college education and aged ≥ 50 years. The level of knowledge was significantly positively correlated with total leisure time PA of the participants. A minority of adult Saudis in Al Hassa was aware about the role of PA in cancer prevention and

  9. The knowledge of risk factors and prevention of breast cancer in Polish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmaj-Wierzchowska, K; Jurczyk, M U; Czech-Szczapa, B; Wilczak, M

    2017-01-01

    Currently, breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women and it constitutes a significant medical, economic, and social problem. The study was conducted in a group of 600 healthy women (aged 18 to 88 years) between September 2011 and February 2015 living in the region of Wielkopolska (Poland) in a private gynecological practice. A survey questionnaire designed specifically for purposes of the study was a tool used to conduct the study. With regards to risk factors for breast cancer: 93% - familial history of breast cancer, 46% - use of hormone treatment, and 40.16% - taking contraceptive pills. A significant component of breast cancer prevention should be providing information regarding prevention tests and increasing accessibility to medical services.

  10. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    -analysis. Meta-regression assessed the effect of covariates across the trials. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 20 randomised trials (211,818 participants), assessing beta-carotene (12 trials), vitamin A (4 trials), vitamin C (8 trials), vitamin E (10 trials), and selenium (9 trials). Trials quality was generally...... effects on mortality in a random-effects model meta-analysis (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.07, I(2) = 53.5%), but significantly increased mortality in a fixed-effect model meta-analysis (RR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.07). Beta-carotene in combination with vitamin A (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.23) and vitamin E...... (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.11) significantly increased mortality. Increased yellowing of the skin and belching were non-serious adverse effects of beta-carotene. In five trials (four with high risk of bias), selenium seemed to show significant beneficial effect on gastrointestinal cancer occurrence...

  11. Screening for the Prevention of Cervical Cancer: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker | "Screening for the Prevention of Cervical Cancer: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly" will be presented by the 2017 CPFP Distinguished Alumni Awardee Philip E. Castle, PhD, MPH, on March 6, 2018. Time: 11:00 am - 12:00 pm. Location: NCI Shady Grove, Seminar 110, Terrace Level East.

  12. Natural ways to prevent and treat oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Danaraddi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the usual causes of mortality all over the world, with a five-year survival rate of only 50%. Oral cancers are treated primarily by surgery with / without adjuvant radiotherapy and / or chemotherapy. However, there is significant post-treatment morbidity and mortality secondary to recurrences. Dietary supplements like fruits and vegetables are rich in phytochemicals and provide a variety of antioxidants like vitamin A, C, E. Spirulina, Selenium, Green tea (EGCG, Neem, Tomatoes (lycopene, Turmeric (curcumin, and some medicinal mushrooms are also used as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. This overview emphasizes on natural therapies to fight against oral cancer. Thus, there are several natural compounds that can enhance the prevention of oral cancer.

  13. The Role of Red Meat and Flavonoid Consumption on Cancer Prevention: The Korean Cancer Screening Examination Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Young; Wie, Gyung-Ah; Cho, Yeong-Ah; Kang, Hyun-Hee; Ryu, Kyoung-A; Yoo, Min-Kyong; Jun, Shinyoung; Kim, Seong-Ah; Ha, Kyungho; Kim, Jeongseon; Cho, Yoon Hee; Shin, Sangah; Joung, Hyojee

    2017-08-25

    Markedly increased red meat consumption is a cancer risk factor, while dietary flavonoids may help prevent the disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of red meat and flavonoid consumption with cancer risk, based on data from 8024 subjects, drawn from the 2004-2008 Cancer Screening Examination Cohort of the Korean National Cancer Center. Hazard ratios (HRs) were obtained by using a Cox proportional hazard model. During the mean follow-up period of 10.1 years, 443 cases were newly diagnosed with cancer. After adjusting for age, there was a significant correlation between cancer risk and the daily intake of ≥43 g of red meat per day (HR 1.31; 95% CI 1.01, 1.71; p = 0.045), and total flavonoid intake tended to decrease cancer risk (HR 0.70; 95% CI 0.49, 0.99; highest vs. lowest quartile; p -trend = 0.073) in men. Following multivariable adjustment, there were no statistically significant associations between flavonoid intake and overall cancer risk in individuals with high levels of red meat intake. Men with low daily red meat intake exhibited an inverse association between flavonoid consumption and cancer incidence (HR 0.41; 95% CI 0.21, 0.80; highest vs. lowest; p -trend = 0.017). Additional research is necessary to clarify the effects of flavonoid consumption on specific cancer incidence, relative to daily red meat intake.

  14. "A Somali girl is Muslim and does not have premarital sex. Is vaccination really necessary?" A qualitative study into the perceptions of Somali women in the Netherlands about the prevention of cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salad, J.; Verdonk, P.; de Boer, F.; Abma, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Participation in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and Papanicolaou Screening (Pap smears) is low among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands and hardly any information is available about the cervical cancer prevention methods of Somali women living in the diaspora. This

  15. Workplace Wellness Programs to Promote Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldano, Sharon K

    2016-08-01

    To define the diversity of and business case for workplace wellness programs, highlight best practices for a comprehensive health promotion program, and describe the opportunities for employees to become wellness advocates. Current literature and articles published between 2010 and 2016, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health Enhancement Research Organization, National Business Group on Health, Wellness Councils of America, best practice program guidelines and internet resources. Employers are increasingly affected by rising health care costs and epidemic rates of obesity and associated chronic diseases within the workforce. Employers who offer workplace wellness programs can contribute to the overall health and well-being of their employees, improve employee productivity and retention, and reduce absenteeism and health care costs. Employees participating in workplace wellness programs can reduce their health risks and serve as health promotion advocates. Nurses can lead by example by participating in their workplace wellness programs, serving as an advocate to influence their employers and colleagues, and educating their patients regarding the benefits of workplace wellness programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reproductive history and breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Jose

    2016-07-01

    The hormonal milieu of an early full-term pregnancy induces lobular development, completing the cycle of differentiation of the breast. This process induces a specific genomic signature in the mammary gland that is represented by the stem cell containing a heterochomatin condensed nucleus (HTN). Even though differentiation significantly reduces cell proliferation in the mammary gland, the mammary epithelium remains capable of responding with proliferation to given stimuli, such as a new pregnancy. The stem cell HTN is able to metabolize the carcinogen and repair the induced DNA damage more efficiently than the stem cell containing an euchromatinic structure (EUN), as it has been demonstrated in the rodent experimental system. The basic biological concept is that pregnancy shifts the stem cell EUN to the stem cell HTN that is refractory to carcinogenesis. Data generated by the use of cDNA micro array techniques have allowed to demonstrate that while lobular development regressed after pregnancy and lactation, programmed cell death genes, DNA repair genes, chromatin remodeling, transcription factors and immune-surveillance gene transcripts all of these genes are upregulated and are part of the genomic signature of pregnancy that is associated with the preventive effect of this physiological process.

  17. Prevention of Gastric Cancer: Eradication of Helicobacter Pylori and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Tsukamoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although its prevalence is declining, gastric cancer remains a significant public health issue. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is known to colonize the human stomach and induce chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. Results using a Mongolian gerbil model revealed that H. pylori infection increased the incidence of carcinogen-induced adenocarcinoma, whereas curative treatment of H. pylori significantly lowered cancer incidence. Furthermore, some epidemiological studies have shown that eradication of H. pylori reduces the development of metachronous cancer in humans. However, other reports have warned that human cases of atrophic metaplastic gastritis are already at risk for gastric cancer development, even after eradication of these bacteria. In this article, we discuss the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication and the morphological changes that occur in gastric dysplasia/cancer lesions. We further assess the control of gastric cancer using various chemopreventive agents.

  18. Inhibition of Mutation: A Novel Approach to Preventing and Treating Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romesberg, Floyd E

    2007-01-01

    .... Specific biochemical pathways are responsible for introducing mutation to the genome. Using drug(s) to inhibit one or more of these proteins and thereby prevent cancer is a novel and unique cancer prevention approach...

  19. Language of Uncertainty: the Expression of Decisional Conflict Related to Skin Cancer Prevention Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Yulia A; James, Vaughan S

    2017-09-01

    User-generated information on the Internet provides opportunities for the monitoring of health information consumer attitudes. For example, information about cancer prevention may cause decisional conflict. Yet posts and conversations shared by health information consumers online are often not readily actionable for interpretation and decision-making due to their unstandardized format. This study extends prior research on the use of natural language as a predictor of consumer attitudes and provides a link to decision-making by evaluating the predictive role of uncertainty indicators expressed in natural language. Analyzed data included free-text comments and structured scale responses related to information about skin cancer prevention options. The study identified natural language indicators of uncertainty and showed that it can serve as a predictor of decisional conflict. The natural indicators of uncertainty reported here can facilitate the monitoring of health consumer perceptions about cancer prevention recommendations and inform education and communication campaign planning and evaluation.

  20. Prospective phase II study evaluating the efficacy of swallow ability screening tests and pneumonia prevention using a team approach for elderly patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Yuichiro; Makuuchi, Rie; Honda, Shinsaku; Tokunaga, Masanori; Tanizawa, Yutaka; Bando, Etsuro; Kawamura, Taiichi; Yurikusa, Takashi; Tanuma, Akira; Terashima, Masanori

    2018-03-01

    Aging partly impairs swallowing function, which is considered a risk factor for postoperative pneumonia (PP). We evaluated the efficacy of a new team-based strategy to reduce the incidence of PP in elderly patients with gastric cancer. This single-center, prospective phase II study included elderly patients (≥75 years old) with gastric cancer undergoing gastric surgery. The primary endpoint was the incidence of Clavien-Dindo grade II or higher PP. Patients were initially screened using three swallowing function screening tests: a symptom questionnaire, the modified water swallow test (MSWT), and the repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST). All patients were provided standard preoperative oral checks and care and simple neck muscle training. For patients who screened positive, a videofluorographic swallowing study was performed; if an abnormality was found, the patient was given intensive swallowing rehabilitation both pre- and postoperatively. Of 86 eligible patients enrolled, PP developed in 3 (3.5%). The 60% confidence interval of 1.8-6.3% had an upper limit below the prespecified threshold of 7.8%. Positive screening results were found for 19 patients (22.1%) on the symptom questionnaire, 3 (3.5%) on the MSWT, and 1 (1.2%) on the RSST. PP was not observed in any patients who screened positive. In conclusion, although the screening tests we adopted here were not sufficient to identify patients at high risk of aspiration pneumonia, perioperative interventions using a team approach might be effective in reducing the incidence of PP in elderly patients with gastric cancer.

  1. Beta-endorphin cell therapy for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changqing; Murugan, Sengottuvelan; Boyadjieva, Nadka; Jabbar, Shaima; Shrivastava, Pallavi; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2015-01-01

    β-Endorphin (BEP)-producing neuron in the hypothalamus plays a key role in bringing the stress axis to a state of homeostasis and maintaining body immune defense system. Long-term delivery of BEP to obtain beneficial effect on chemoprevention is challenging, as the peptides rapidly develop tolerance. Using rats as animal models, we show here that transplantation of BEP neurons into the hypothalamus suppressed carcinogens- and hormone-induced cancers in various tissues and prevented growth and metastasis of established tumors via activation of innate immune functions. In addition, we show that intracerebroventricular administration of nanosphere-attached dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (dbcAMP) increased the number of BEP neurons in the hypothalamus, reduced the stress response, enhanced the innate immune function, and prevented tumor cell growth, progression, and metastasis. BEP neuronal supplementation did not produce any deleterious effects on general health but was beneficial in suppressing age-induced alterations in physical activity, metabolic, and immune functions. We conclude that the neuroimmune system has significant control over cancer growth and progression, and that activation of the neuroimmune system via BEP neuronal supplementation/induction may have therapeutic value for cancer prevention and improvement of general health. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Green Tea and Its Extracts in Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Schulze

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Green tea (GT and green tea extracts (GTE have been postulated to decrease cancer incidence. In vitro results indicate a possible effect; however, epidemiological data do not support cancer chemoprevention. We have performed a PubMED literature search for green tea consumption and the correlation to the common tumor types lung, colorectal, breast, prostate, esophageal and gastric cancer, with cohorts from both Western and Asian countries. We additionally included selected mechanistical studies for a possible mode of action. The comparability between studies was limited due to major differences in study outlines; a meta analysis was thus not possible and studies were evaluated individually. Only for breast cancer could a possible small protective effect be seen in Asian and Western cohorts, whereas for esophagus and stomach cancer, green tea increased the cancer incidence, possibly due to heat stress. No effect was found for colonic/colorectal and prostatic cancer in any country, for lung cancer Chinese studies found a protective effect, but not studies from outside China. Epidemiological studies thus do not support a cancer protective effect. GT as an indicator of as yet undefined parameters in lifestyle, environment and/or ethnicity may explain some of the observed differences between China and other countries.

  3. Screening and prevention of breast cancer in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jeffrey A; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2009-09-01

    Mammography remains the mainstay of breast cancer screening. There is little controversy that mammography reduces the risk of dying from breast cancer by about 23% among women between the ages of 50 and 69 years, although the harms associated with false-positive results and overdiagnosis limit the net benefit of mammography. Women in their 70s may have a small benefit from screening mammography, but overdiagnosis increases in this age group as do competing causes of death. While new data support a 16% reduction in breast cancer mortality for 40- to 49-year-old women after 10 years of screening, the net benefit is less compelling in part because of the lower incidence of breast cancer in this age group and because mammography is less sensitive and specific in women younger than 50 years. Digital mammography is more sensitive than film mammography in young women with similar specificity, but no improvements in breast cancer outcomes have been demonstrated. Magnetic resonance imaging may benefit the highest risk women. Randomized trials suggest that self-breast examination does more harm than good. Primary prevention with currently approved medications will have a negligible effect on breast cancer incidence. Public health efforts aimed at increasing mammography screening rates, promoting regular exercise in all women, maintaining a healthy weight, limiting alcohol intake, and limiting postmenopausal hormone therapy may help to continue the recent trend of lower breast cancer incidence and mortality among American women.

  4. Diet Modulation is an Effective Complementary Agent in Preventing and Treating Breast Cancer Lung Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangmin; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Wang, Dezhi; Siegal, Gene P.; Hardy, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    A significant percentage of breast cancer victims will suffer from metastases indicating that new approaches to preventing breast cancer metastasis are thus needed. Dietary stearate and chemotherapy have been shown to reduce breast cancer metastasis. We tested the complementary use of dietary stearate with a taxol-based chemotherapy which work through separate mechanisms to reduce breast cancer metastasis. We therefore carried out a prevention study in which diets were initiated prior to human MDA-MB-435 cancer cells being injected into the host and a treatment study in which diets were combined with paclitaxel (PTX). Using an orthotopic athymic nude mouse model and three diets (corn oil control diet/CO, low fat /LF or stearate/ST) the prevention study demonstrated that the ST diet decreased the incidence of lung metastasis by 50% compared to both the LF and CO diets. The ST diet also reduced the number and size of metastatic lung nodules compared to the LF diet. Results of the treatment study indicated that both the CO and ST diets decreased the number of mice with lung metastasis compared to the LF diet. Both CO and ST also decreased the number of lung metastases per mouse compared to the LF diet however only the ST diet cohort was significant. Histomorphometric analysis of the lung tumor tissue indicated that the ST diet plus PTX decreased angiogenesis compared to the LF diet plus PTX. In conclusion these results support combining diet with chemotherapy in both treatment and prevention settings. PMID:24832758

  5. The effect of knowledge on uptake of breast cancer prevention modalities among women in Kyadondo County, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuhairwe, Christine; Amongin, Dinah; Agaba, Elly; Mugarura, Steven; Taremwa, Ivan M

    2018-02-23

    Breast cancer, the third most frequent cancer of women is preventable through knowledge on breast self-examination. Of the 44% of women diagnosed with breast cancer at the Uganda Cancer Institute, only 22% go for check-up in less than three months. This study explored the effect of breast cancer knowledge on the uptake of breast cancer prevention modalities among women in Kyadondo County, Uganda. A household survey of women in Kyadondo County was conducted during June, 2014 to August, 2015. This involved studying in-depth using a questionnaire the level of breast cancer knowledge of the respondents. Data was analyzed using logistic regression model. Chi-square test was used to establish relationships between knowledge base factors and the uptake of breast cancer prevention modalities. This study has established an empirical relationship between uptake of breast cancer prevention modalities and source of information especially radio (OR 1.94 95% CI: 1.16-3.24), television (OR 1.82 95%CI: 1.14-2.93), awareness of breast cancer (OR 4.03 95%CI: 1.01-15.98), knowledge on how to reduce risk of breast cancer (OR 1.98 95% CI: 1.20-3.27), what reduces breast cancer acquisition (OR 2.75 95% CI: 1.42-5.35), how to check for signs of breast cancer especially through breast self-examination (OR 3.09 95% CI: 1.62-5.88), and other methods of breast cancer diagnosis in a health care set up. The women's level of breast cancer awareness as a primary prevention strategy was found wanting, and requires a boost through community health education.

  6. Application of nanotechnology in cancers prevention, early detection and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shraddha P; Patel, Parshottambhai B; Parekh, Bhavesh B

    2014-01-01

    Use of nanotechnology in medical science is a rapidly developing area. New opportunities of diagnosis, imaging and therapy have developed due to recent rapid advancement by nanotechnology. The most common areas to be affected are diagnostic, imaging and targeted drug delivery in gastroenterology, oncology, cardiovascular medicine, obstetrics and gynecology. Mass screening with inexpensive imaging might be possible in the near future with the help of nanotechnology. This review paper provides an overview of causes of cancer and the application of nanotechnology in cancer prevention, detection and treatment.

  7. Effectiveness of a Community-Based Health Education Intervention in Cervical Cancer Prevention in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chania

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women’s beliefs are one of the main reasons for not undergoing Pap-test for cervical cancer prevention. Health education programs could help change these beliefs and motivate women to adopt a preventive health behavior.Objectives: This study aims to assess the modification in women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention after the implementation of a health education intervention.Methodology: A health education intervention for cervical cancer prevention was implemented to 300 women in two prefectures of southern Greece. The experimental group received a 120-minute health education intervention, based on the Health Beliefs Model (HBM including a lecture, discussion and leaflets. The hypotheses were a will this brief intervention change women’s beliefs (perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, benefits and barriers ofundergoing the Pap-test? b will this change in beliefs sustain in six months follow-up period? and c will women undergo pap-test in six months period? The women filled in an anonymous questionnaire, based on the Health Belief Model (HBM, before, immediately after and six months after the program.Results: The health education intervention significantly modified women’s beliefs and behaviors towards pap-test. The greater changes in women’s beliefs were observed in their sense of susceptibility towards the disease and the benefits of prevention which were sustained or improved after six months. Perceived barriers to undergo the Paptest, pain, embarrassment, and worry for the results decreased immediately after the program but started relapsingin the six month follow up period. Moreover, 88.1% of the women answered that they had underwent a Pap-test during the following six months.Conclusions: This health education intervention modified women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention. Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be

  8. The causes and prevention of cancer: the role of environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, B N; Gold, L S

    1998-01-01

    The idea that synthetic chemicals such as DDT are major contributors to human cancer has been inspired, in part, by Rachel Carson's passionate book, Silent Spring. This chapter discusses evidence showing why this is not true. We also review research on the causes of cancer, and show why much cancer is preventable. Epidemiological evidence indicates several factors likely to have a major effect on reducing rates of cancer: reduction of smoking, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, and control of infections. Other factors are avoidance of intense sun exposure, increases in physical activity, and reduction of alcohol consumption and possibly red meat. Already, risks of many forms of cancer can be reduced and the potential for further reductions is great. If lung cancer (which is primarily due to smoking) is excluded, cancer death rates are decreasing in the United States for all other cancers combined. Pollution appears to account for less than 1% of human cancer; yet public concern and resource allocation for chemical pollution are very high, in good part because of the use of animal cancer tests in cancer risk assessment. Animal cancer tests, which are done at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), are being misinterpreted to mean that low doses of synthetic chemicals and industrial pollutants are relevant to human cancer. About half of the chemicals tested, whether synthetic or natural, are carcinogenic to rodents at these high doses. A plausible explanation for the high frequency of positive results is that testing at the MTD frequently can cause chronic cell killing and consequent cell replacement, a risk factor for cancer that can be limited to high doses. Ignoring this greatly exaggerates risks. Scientists must determine mechanisms of carcinogenesis for each substance and revise acceptable dose levels as understanding advances. The vast bulk of chemicals ingested by humans is natural. For example, 99.99% of the pesticides we eat are naturally present in

  9. Strengthening prevention programs to eliminate cervical cancer in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dillner, L.; Pagliusi, S.; Bray, F.

    2008-01-01

    Disease trend studies based on birth cohort analysis and serological studies indicate that recent generations have a higher prevalence of oncogenic Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) types, and are likely to be at higher risk of cancer than previous generations. This implies that prevention strategies...

  10. Helicobacter pylori Therapy for the Prevention of Metachronous Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Il Ju; Kook, Myeong-Cherl; Kim, Young-Il; Cho, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Jong Yeul; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Park, Boram; Nam, Byung-Ho

    2018-03-22

    Patients with early gastric cancers that are limited to gastric mucosa or submucosa usually have an advanced loss of mucosal glandular tissue (glandular atrophy) and are at high risk for subsequent (metachronous) development of new gastric cancer. The long-term effects of treatment to eradicate Helicobacter pylori on histologic improvement and the prevention of metachronous gastric cancer remain unclear. In this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, we assigned 470 patients who had undergone endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer or high-grade adenoma to receive either H. pylori eradication therapy with antibiotics or placebo. Two primary outcomes were the incidence of metachronous gastric cancer detected on endoscopy performed at the 1-year follow-up or later and improvement from baseline in the grade of glandular atrophy in the gastric corpus lesser curvature at the 3-year follow-up. A total of 396 patients were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis population (194 in the treatment group and 202 in placebo group). During a median follow-up of 5.9 years, metachronous gastric cancer developed in 14 patients (7.2%) in the treatment group and in 27 patients (13.4%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the treatment group, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.94; P=0.03). Among the 327 patients in the subgroup that underwent histologic analysis, improvement from baseline in the atrophy grade at the gastric corpus lesser curvature was observed in 48.4% of the patients in the treatment group and in 15.0% of those in the placebo group (Pgastric cancer who received H. pylori treatment had lower rates of metachronous gastric cancer and more improvement from baseline in the grade of gastric corpus atrophy than patients who received placebo. (Funded by the National Cancer Center, South Korea; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02407119 .).

  11. Gordon Wilson Lecture: Infectious Disease Causes of Cancer: Opportunities for Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    The role of infectious agents in cancer is generally underappreciated. However, approximately 20% of human cancers are caused by infectious agents and as such they rank second only to tobacco as a potentially preventable cause in humans. Specific viruses, parasites, and bacteria have been linked to specific human cancers. The infectious etiology for these specific cancers provides opportunities for prevention and treatment.

  12. NCI Statement on the U.S. Surgeon General's "Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the Federal Government's principal agency for cancer research and training, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) endorses the U.S. Surgeon General’s “Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer,” which provides a comprehensive evaluation of the current state of skin cancer prevention efforts in the United States and recommends actions for improvement in the future.

  13. Biophysical Approach to Mechanisms of Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Green Tea Catechins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganuma, Masami; Takahashi, Atsushi; Watanabe, Tatsuro; Iida, Keisuke; Matsuzaki, Takahisa; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y; Fujiki, Hirota

    2016-11-18

    Green tea catechin and green tea extract are now recognized as non-toxic cancer preventives for humans. We first review our brief historical development of green tea cancer prevention. Based on exciting evidence that green tea catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in drinking water inhibited lung metastasis of B16 melanoma cells, we and other researchers have studied the inhibitory mechanisms of metastasis with green tea catechins using biomechanical tools, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and microfluidic optical stretcher. Specifically, determination of biophysical properties of cancer cells, low cell stiffness, and high deformability in relation to migration, along with biophysical effects, were studied by treatment with green tea catechins. The study with AFM revealed that low average values of Young's moduli, indicating low cell stiffness, are closely associated with strong potential of cell migration and metastasis for various cancer cells. It is important to note that treatments with EGCG and green tea extract elevated the average values of Young's moduli resulting in increased stiffness (large elasticity) of melanomas and various cancer cells. We discuss here the biophysical basis of multifunctions of green tea catechins and green tea extract leading to beneficial effects for cancer prevention and treatment.

  14. Biophysical Approach to Mechanisms of Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Green Tea Catechins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Suganuma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Green tea catechin and green tea extract are now recognized as non-toxic cancer preventives for humans. We first review our brief historical development of green tea cancer prevention. Based on exciting evidence that green tea catechin, (−-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG in drinking water inhibited lung metastasis of B16 melanoma cells, we and other researchers have studied the inhibitory mechanisms of metastasis with green tea catechins using biomechanical tools, atomic force microscopy (AFM and microfluidic optical stretcher. Specifically, determination of biophysical properties of cancer cells, low cell stiffness, and high deformability in relation to migration, along with biophysical effects, were studied by treatment with green tea catechins. The study with AFM revealed that low average values of Young’s moduli, indicating low cell stiffness, are closely associated with strong potential of cell migration and metastasis for various cancer cells. It is important to note that treatments with EGCG and green tea extract elevated the average values of Young’s moduli resulting in increased stiffness (large elasticity of melanomas and various cancer cells. We discuss here the biophysical basis of multifunctions of green tea catechins and green tea extract leading to beneficial effects for cancer prevention and treatment.

  15. Tea and cancer prevention: an evaluation of the epidemiologic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeier, L; Weterings, K G; Steck, S; Kok, F J

    1997-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies provide evidence of an anticarcinogenic potential of active ingredients in teas. This review encompasses epidemiologic studies of stomach, colon, and lung cancer as well as the evidence of a relationship between tea drinking and cancer at large in humans. Cohort studies do not suggest a protective role for tea drinking in the total risk of cancer. Site-specific studies reveal a more complex picture. The epidemiologic studies on tea drinking and stomach cancer do not justify claims of a cancer-protective effect. A protective effect of green tea on the development of colon cancer is suggested. The evidence regarding black tea is less clear, with some indication of a risk of colon or rectal cancer associated with regular use of black tea. The studies on tea and lung cancer also suggest an increased risk with increased tea consumption. The range and crude categorization of tea consumption, choice of control groups, and inadequate control for confounding might have obscured possible relationships. From the limited studies that suggest a favorable effect from tea, it is likely that benefits are restricted to high intakes in high-risk populations.

  16. Breastfeeding and the prevention of breast cancer: a retrospective review of clinical histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jiménez, Emilio; García, Pedro A; Aguilar, María José; Padilla, Carlos A; Álvarez, Judit

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate at what age parous and nonparous women were diagnosed with breast cancer. Factors taken into account for parous women were whether they had breastfed their children, and if so, the length of the lactation period. Other factors considered for both groups were obesity, family histories of cancer, smoking habits and alcohol consumption. Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in younger women in Western countries. Its growing incidence as well as the increasingly early age of diagnosis led us to carefully analyse its possible causes and the preventive measures to be taken. This is a particularly important goal in epidemiological research. A retrospective study of the clinical histories of patients diagnosed with breast cancer at the San Cecilio University Hospital in Granada (Spain). In this study, we analysed 504 medical records of female patients, 19-91 years of age, who had been diagnosed and treated for breast cancer from 2004-2009 at the San Cecilio University Hospital in Granada (Spain). Relevant data (age of diagnosis, period of lactation, family history of cancer, obesity, alcohol consumption and smoking habits) were collected from the clinical histories of each patient and analysed. A conditional inference tree was used to relate the age of diagnosis to smoking habits and the length of the lactation period. The conditional inference tree identified significant differences between the age of the patients at breast cancer diagnosis, smoking habits (p cancer. Our study concluded that breastfeeding for over six months not only provides children with numerous health benefits, but also protects mothers from breast cancer when the mothers are nonsmokers. Nurses play a crucial role in encouraging new mothers to breastfeed their children, and this helps to prevent breast cancer. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Phytochemicals in Skin Cancer Prevention and Treatment: An Updated Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Yee Ng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Skin is the largest human organ, our protection against various environmental assaults and noxious agents. Accumulation of these stress events may lead to the formation of skin cancers, including both melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. Although modern targeted therapies have ameliorated the management of cutaneous malignancies, a safer, more affordable, and more effective strategy for chemoprevention and treatment is clearly needed for the improvement of skin cancer care. Phytochemicals are biologically active compounds derived from plants and herbal products. These agents appear to be beneficial in the battle against cancer as they exert anti-carcinogenic effects and are widely available, highly tolerated, and cost-effective. Evidence has indicated that the anti-carcinogenic properties of phytochemicals are due to their anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic effects. In this review, we discuss the preventive potential, therapeutic effects, bioavailability, and structure–activity relationship of these selected phytochemicals for the management of skin cancers. The knowledge compiled here will provide clues for future investigations on novel oncostatic phytochemicals and additional anti-skin cancer mechanisms.

  18. PPAR Agonists for the Prevention and Treatment of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya P. Lakshmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common and most fatal of all malignancies worldwide. Furthermore, with more than half of all lung cancer patients presenting with distant metastases at the time of initial diagnosis, the overall prognosis for the disease is poor. There is thus a desperate need for new prevention and treatment strategies. Recently, a family of nuclear hormone receptors, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs, has attracted significant attention for its role in various malignancies including lung cancer. Three PPARs, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, display distinct biological activities and varied influences on lung cancer biology. PPARα activation generally inhibits tumorigenesis through its antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. Activated PPARγ is also antitumorigenic and antimetastatic, regulating several functions of cancer cells and controlling the tumor microenvironment. Unlike PPARα and PPARγ, whether PPARβ/δ activation is anti- or protumorigenic or even inconsequential currently remains an open question that requires additional investigation. This review of current literature emphasizes the multifaceted effects of PPAR agonists in lung cancer and discusses how they may be applied as novel therapeutic strategies for the disease.

  19. Role of HPV Vaccine in the Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh JA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer which affects relatively young women of child bearing age is considered to be the second most common cancer in women and a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in developing countries, a reflection of global health inequity. There are more than 450,000 newly diagnosed cases annually with over a quarter of million deaths recorded out of which over 80 percent are from the developing countries especially Africa, South Asia, South and Central America, and the Caribbean, with an exponential rise expected from this figure by 2020. The preventive measures available (Pap smear and HPV vaccine aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality associated with this disease, has been shown to be very effective but difficult to implement especially in the developing countries partly due to lack of resources and mainly lack of government commitment amongst other things. This forms the basis of this review to look at the position of HPV vaccine in the prevention of cancer of the cervix. Method: In the course of this write-up, relevant literatures were reviewed using manual library search, relevant websites and internet articles. The key words employed were: cervical cancer, human papilloma virus, pap smear and vaccination. Results: It has been shown that, where resources permits, combining HPV vaccine in combination with pap smear screening methods especially to high risk group would greatly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cancer of the cervix. Conclusion: Although there are so many essential questions still unanswered, considering the havoc caused by this preventable gynaecological malignancy and coupled with the ever increasing costs of its treatment, the advantages of using HPV vaccine in addition to routine Pap smear as a means of preventing cancer of the cervix greatly outweighs the disadvantages. However, there is the need for caution to be adhered to when it comes to large scale vaccination programs in view of

  20. Adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research and mortality: a census-linked cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Tina; Faeh, David; Bopp, Matthias; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Modifiable lifestyle factors linked to cancer offer great potential for prevention. Previous studies suggest an association between adherence to recommendations on healthy lifestyle and cancer mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) is associated with reduced all-cause, total cancer, and specific cancer type mortality. We built a lifestyle score that included 3 categories, based on the recommendations of the WCRF/AICR. Applying Cox regression models, we investigated the association with all-cause, total cancer, and specific cancer type mortality; in addition, we included cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. We used census- and death registry-linked survey data allowing a mortality follow-up for ≤32 y. Our analysis included 16,722 participants. Information on lifestyle score components and confounders was collected at baseline. Over a mean follow-up of 21.7 y, 3730 deaths were observed (1332 cancer deaths). Comparing best with poorest category of the lifestyle score showed an inverse association with all-cause (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.89) and total cancer (men only, HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.84) mortality. We estimated that ∼13% of premature cancer deaths in men would have been preventable if lifestyle score levels had been high. Inverse associations were observed for lung, upper aerodigestive tract, stomach, and prostate cancer mortality [men and women combined, HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.99; HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.92; HR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.83; HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.82 (men only), respectively]. CVD mortality was not associated with the lifestyle score (men and women combined, HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.13). Our results support the importance of adhering to recommendations for a healthy lifestyle with regard to all-cause and cancer mortality. To reduce the burden of cancer in the

  1. IP and Data Access | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following outlines the different patent and licensing mechanisms applicable to studies of third-party agents in the PREVENT Program. Please note that the NCI has a variety of agreement mechanisms by which these terms may be applied and will work with the NCI Technology Transfer Center to determine the appropriate agreement for the studies approved by the PREVENT Program. | The section outlines the different patent and licensing mechanisms applicable to studies of third-party agents in the PREVENT Program.

  2. Novel vitamin D compounds and skin cancer prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Tongkao-on, Wannit; Gordon-Thomson, Clare; Dixon, Katie M.; Song, Eric J.; Luu, Tan; Carter, Sally E.; Sequeira, Vanessa B.; Reeve, Vivienne E.; Mason, Rebecca S.

    2013-01-01

    As skin cancer is one of the most costly health issues in many countries, particularly in Australia, the possibility that vitamin D compounds might contribute to prevention of this disease is becoming increasingly more attractive to researchers and health communities. In this article, important epidemiologic, mechanistic and experimental data supporting the chemopreventive potential of several vitamin D-related compounds are explored. Evidence of photoprotection by the active hormone, 1α,25di...

  3. [HPV immunization for the prevention of cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, Christiane; Bourgault-Villada, Isabelle; Coursaget, Pierre

    2009-12-01

    Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) infect epithelial cells of the skin and mucosae. Mucosal high-risk HPV types (mainly HPV 16 and 18) are involved in the development of cervical cancer, one of the most common cancers in young women. HPV infection is usually asymptomatic and clears spontaneously, but 10 - 15 % of high-risk HPV infections are persistent and increase the risk of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the cervix. Two HPV vaccines have been licensed to provide protection against cervical cancer. To report the different aspects of HPV infection in order to improve the understanding of the particular problems of HPV vaccination and to review the most recent findings related to HPV vaccines, particularly regarding the protective efficacy of vaccines and the roles of adjuvants and immune response in protection. Articles were selected from the PubMed database (National Library of Medicine- National Institute of Health) with the following Keywords "HPV", "Prevention", "HPV vaccines", "Immune response", "Antibody". Abstracts of oral presentations from international meetings were also selected for the more recent findings. a critical analysis of the majority of papers published was undertaken and relevant information summarized. Virus-like particle production by expressing the major protein of the HPV capsid was carried out in the early 90's, leading to the recent development of two HPV vaccines. These vaccines are now licensed in many countries and have been demonstrated to be highly immunogenic. In subjects that are non-infected at the time of vaccination, HPV vaccines are highly effective in preventing persistent HPV 16 - 18 infections (90 %) and precursors lesions of cervical cancer associated with these two HPV types (close to 100 %). Clinical trials have also confirmed that HPV vaccines are well tolerated by recipients. The present paper is a detailed review published in French on HPV vaccines, their efficacy in the prevention of HPV infections and unresolved

  4. Cancer Prevention and Control Research Manpower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    for preeclampsia in twin pregnancies: a population-based cohort study. Obstet Gynecol 1995;85:645-50. 17. Gu Y , He S, Shi L, Li 0, Zhu Kr, Yin Z, Wang...Gestational Diabetes, Sickle Cell Anemia in the laboratories of Jayduff Vadgama, P.D. and of Steven Taylor, M.D. at Charles Drew University of Medicine...California RESEARCH EXPERIENCE: Sickle Cell Anemia Infant Neurodevelopment and language acquisistion Deviant sexual behavior and group therapy

  5. Phenethyl Isothiocyanate in Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    life of about 2.2 hours (15). Therefore, in contrast to dietary components such as the flavonoids , oral clearance of these ITCs is low and...reported to have the lowest IC 50 among the dietary flavonoids tested in MCF-7 cells (25). While some studies have demonstrated similar cytotoxicity...pharmacokinetic profiles of total ITC have been examined using a HPLC -based cyclocondensation approach; PEITC, PEITC conjugates as well as other ITCs or

  6. Estimating lung cancer risks of indoor radon: applications for prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The epidemiologic evidence for a serious lung cancer hazard from radon exposure is very strong, and cumulative exposures accrued in residences may frequently overlap those accrued in underground miners. However, many uncertainties exist in extrapolating from mining to indoor risks because of differences in the populations, in radon exposure variables, and in other exposures. Risks are also considered for indoor radon exposures outside the home. There is already suggestive evidence of an association of lung cancer with radon levels in community settings, and several large-scale investigations are in progress. Some important questions regarding quantifying risk may not be approached, however; some further research needs are outlined including development of techniques for preventing or postponing lung cancer in individuals previously exposed to high radon levels. 31 references, 2 tables

  7. Preventing skin cancer through reduction of indoor tanning: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Holman, Dawn M; Fox, Kathleen A; Guy, Gery P; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Sampson, Blake P; Sinclair, Craig; Lazovich, DeAnn

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning devices (tanning beds, booths, and sun lamps) or from the sun contributes to the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma, which is the type of skin cancer responsible for most deaths. Indoor tanning is common among certain groups, especially among older adolescents and young adults, adolescent girls and young women, and non-Hispanic whites. Increased understanding of the health risks associated with indoor tanning has led to many efforts to reduce use. Most environmental and systems efforts in the U.S. (e.g., age limits or requiring parental consent/accompaniment) have occurred at the state level. At the national level, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission regulate indoor tanning devices and advertising, respectively. The current paper provides a brief review of (1) the evidence on indoor tanning as a risk factor for skin cancer; (2) factors that may influence use of indoor tanning devices at the population level; and (3) various environmental and systems options available for consideration when developing strategies to reduce indoor tanning. This information provides the context and background for the companion paper in this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, which summarizes highlights from an informal expert meeting convened by the CDC in August 2012 to identify opportunities to prevent skin cancer by reducing use of indoor tanning devices. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Preventing Skin Cancer Through Reduction of Indoor Tanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Holman, Dawn M.; Fox, Kathleen A.; Guy, Gery P.; Seidenberg, Andrew B.; Sampson, Blake P.; Sinclair, Craig; Lazovich, DeAnn

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning devices (tanning beds, booths, and sun lamps) or from the sun contributes to the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma, which is the type of skin cancer responsible for most deaths. Indoor tanning is common among certain groups, especially among older adolescents and young adults, adolescent girls and young women, and non-Hispanic whites. Increased understanding of the health risks associated with indoor tanning has led to many efforts to reduce use. Most environmental and systems efforts in the U.S. (e.g., age limits or requiring parental consent/accompaniment) have occurred at the state level. At the national level, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission regulate indoor tanning devices and advertising, respectively. The current paper provides a brief review of (1) the evidence on indoor tanning as a risk factor for skin cancer; (2) factors that may influence use of indoor tanning devices at the population level; and (3) various environmental and systems options available for consideration when developing strategies to reduce indoor tanning. This information provides the context and background for the companion paper in this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, which summarizes highlights from an informal expert meeting convened by the CDC in August 2012 to identify opportunities to prevent skin cancer by reducing use of indoor tanning devices. PMID:23683987

  9. Prevention of human cancer by modulation of chronic inflammatory processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshima, Hiroshi [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08 (France)]. E-mail: ohshima@iarc.fr; Tazawa, Hiroshi [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Sylla, Bakary S. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Sawa, Tomohiro [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08 (France)

    2005-12-11

    Chronic inflammation induced by biological, chemical and physical factors has been associated with increased risk of human cancer at various sites. Inflammation facilitates the initiation of normal cells and their growth and progression to malignancy through production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and diverse reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. These also activate signaling molecules involved in inflammation and carcinogenesis such as nuclear transcription factor (NF-{kappa}B), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Several chemopreventive agents act through inhibition of signaling pathways (e.g. NF-{kappa}B), inhibition of oxidant-generating enzymes (e.g. iNOS) and mediators of inflammation (e.g. COX-2), scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and modulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (especially phase II enzyme induction). Some anti-inflammatory drugs have been tested in clinical trials to prevent human cancer at several sites. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which chronic inflammation increases cancer risk will lead to further development of new strategies for cancer prevention at many sites.

  10. Delivering prostate cancer prevention messages to the public: how the National Cancer Institute (NCI) effectively spread the word about the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Kara Smigel; Ryan, Anne; Morzenti, Thuy; Cave, Lynn; Maze-Gallman, Tamara; Ford, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial was the first clinical trial to show that a direct intervention (5 mg of finasteride daily for 7 years) could reduce a man's risk of developing prostate cancer. Initial results also suggested that men taking finasteride had an increased risk of developing what appeared to be higher-grade disease (Gleason score 7-10). The National Cancer Institute has a congressional mandate to communicate health information to the public and has established methods to reach the public directly and to reach information intermediaries in the media, professional societies, and advocacy groups. The groundbreaking yet complicated results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial were widely disseminated by National Cancer Institute using the social marketing and public-relations strategies and tactics detailed here. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Double-blind randomized phase III study comparing a mixture of natural agents versus placebo in the prevention of acute mucositis during chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucci, Laura; Farneti, Alessia; Di Ridolfi, Paolo; Pinnaro, Paola; Pellini, Raul; Giannarelli, Diana; Vici, Patrizia; Conte, Mario; Landoni, Valeria; Sanguineti, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    There is no widely accepted intervention in the prevention of acute mucositis during chemoradiotherapy for head and neck carcinoma. In the present double-blind study, we tested 4 natural agents, propolis, aloe vera, calendula, and chamomile versus placebo. Patients undergoing concomitant chemo-intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were given natural agent or matched placebo; grade 3 mucositis on physical examination according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0 was the primary endpoint. Various covariates were tested at logistic regression, including the individual amount of mucosa receiving at least 9.5 Gy per week (V9.5w). One hundred seven patients were randomized from January 2011 to July 2014, and 104 were assessable (51%-49% were assigned to the placebo group and 53%-51% were assigned to the natural agent). Overall, 61 patients developed peak grade 3 mucositis with no difference between arms (P = .65). Conversely, V9.5w (P = .007) and primary site (P = .037) were independent predictors. The selected natural agents do not prevent mucositis, whereas the role of V9.5w is confirmed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [Survey and analysis of awareness of lung cancer prevention and control in a LDCT lung cancer screening project in Tianjin Dagang Oilfield of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guanhua; Ye, Jianfei; Fan, Yaguang; Wang, Jing; Sun, Zhijuan; Jia, Hui; Du, Xinxin; Hou, Chaohua; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Yongcheng; Zhou, Qinghua

    2014-02-01

    It has been proven that increase of the awareness level of lung cancer prevention and control could enhance participation of lung cancer screening of lung cancer high risk group. The aim of this study is to investigate the awareness level of lung cancer prevention and control and the effect of individual characteristics on lung cancer awareness, and to provide evidence for comprehensive lung cancer prevention in high risk areas of lung cancer. Staffs of Tianjin Dagang Oil Field who participate low dose CT (LDCT) lung cancer screening by cluster sampling or according to voluntary principle were surveyed, data of lung cancer awareness were collected by questionnaire. A total of 1,633 valid questionnaires were collected. The average age of respondents was 60.08±6.58. Most participants were males (82.2%) while female only accounted for 17.8%. The proportions of awareness about lung cancer in China, risk factors, screening methods and the knowledge of health examination were 64.5%, 77.1%, 43.7%, 49.6% respectively. Result of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that education level, smoking (pack-year), age, prior tuberculosis were the influencing factors of lung cancer awareness with adjusted Ors for education and age level as of 0.567 (95%CI: 0.439-0.733) and 1.373 (95%CI: 1.084-1.739) respectively. 80.3% of the participants can accept health examination once a year, while the ability to pay the medical expenses was not high. The influencing factors of health examination willingness were gender, age, income, the knowledge of lung cancer. Education level and smoking affect the awareness of lung cancer prevention and control, health education for lung cancer should be conducted especially in population with low education level. Comprehensive lung cancer control in high risk areas should combined lung cancer screening, tobacco control and health education.

  13. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.

  14. Southeastern Cancer Study Group: breast cancer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, R.V.; Bartolucci, A.A.; Moore, M.

    1983-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) has been engaged in one major adjuvant study and three major advanced disease studies for patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. The adjuvant study is demonstrating that six months of adjuvant CMF is the therapeutic equivalent of 12 months and that post-operative irradiation is of no added therapeutic benefit. In patients with advanced disease, a low dose 5 drug combination of CMFVP induces more objective responses than single agent 5FU, but improves survival only for those patients with liver metastases when compared to the sequential use of the same 5 single agents. The three drug combination, CAF, utilizing doxorubicin, induces more objective responses than low dose CMFVP, but it does not improve overall survival. The addition of a phase active combination, CAMELEON, (i.e., sequentially alternating therapy) of CAF has not improved the duration of disease control and survival for patients with liver metastases, lymphangitic and nodular lung metastases compared to CAF. Aggressive combination chemotherapeutic approaches to patients with advanced disease provide better and longer disease and tumor control but only marginal improvements in overall survival. Adding additional agents to a maximally tolerable regimen has not improved the therapeutic outcome

  15. Midwives at youth clinics attitude to HPV vaccination and their role in cervical cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscarsson, Marie G; Dahlberg, Annica; Tydén, Tanja

    2011-11-01

    To explore youth clinic midwives role in cervical cancer prevention and their attitude to HPV vaccination. Individual interviews with 13 midwives working at youth clinics in Sweden. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Three themes were identified in the qualitative content analysis: "Cervical cancer prevention not a prioritised area", "Ambivalence to the HPV vaccine", and "Gender and socioeconomic controversies". Few midwives talked spontaneously about cervical cancer prevention. The responsibility for providing information about HPV vaccination was considered as primarily that of school health nurses and parents. Midwives were positive about the HPV vaccination, but recognised certain risks, such as its potential negative impact on cervical cancer screening and increased sexual risk taking. The midwives expressed concerns with medical risks, such as side effects and unknown long-term effects of the HPV vaccine. The midwives in the study had ethical concerns that boys were not included in the program and not all families had the financial resources to vaccinate their children. Thus, weak socioeconomic groups might be excluded. The midwives considered cervical cancer prevention as important, but did not integrate information on the HPV vaccine into their routine work, mainly because young people visiting youth clinics had had their sexual debut and they were concerned about the medical risks and that the vaccine was too expensive. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Employing the church as a marketer of cancer prevention: a look at a health promotion project aimed to reduce colorectal cancer among African Americans in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Coffey, Candice R; Daley, Christine M; Greiner, K Allen

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church.

  17. Antioxidant Capacity of Calendula Officinalis Flowers Extract and Prevention of Radiation Induced Oropharyngeal Mucositis in Patients with Head and Neck Cancers: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Kazemi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effect of Calendula officinalis flowers extract mouthwash as oral gel on radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis (OM in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Forty patients with neck and head cancers under radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy protocols were randomly assigned to receive either 2% calendula extract mouthwash or placebo (20 patients in each group. Patients were treated with telecobalt radiotherapy at conventional fractionation (200 cGy/fraction, five fractions weekly, 30–35 fractions within 4–7 weeks. The oropharyngeal mucositis was evaluated by two clinical investigators (a radiation oncologist and a dentist, using the oral mucositis assessment scale (OMAS. Trying to find out the possible mechanism of action of the treatment, total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents, and quercetin concentration of the mouth wash were measured. Calendula mouthwash significantly decreased the intensity of OM compared to placebo at week 2 (score: 5.5 vs. 6.8, p = 0.019, week 3 (score: 8.25 vs. 10.95, p < 0.0001 and week 6 (score: 11.4 vs. 13.35, p = 0.031. Total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents and quercetin concentration of the 2% extract were 2353.4 ± 56.5 μM, 313.40 ± 6.52 mg/g, 76.66 ± 23.24 mg/g, and 19.41 ± 4.34 mg/l, respectively. Calendula extract gel could be effective on decreasing the intensity of radiotherapy- induced OM during the treatment and antioxidant capacity may be partly responsible for the effect.

  18. Antioxidant capacity of calendula officinalis flowers extract and prevention of radiation induced oropharyngeal mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers: a randomized controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Neda; Moslemi, Dariush; Khalilpour, Mohammad; Vejdani, Fatemeh; Moghadamnia, Yasaman; Bijani, Ali; Baradaran, Mahmoud; Kazemi, Mohammad Taghi; Khalilpour, Asieh; Pouramir, Mahdi; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar

    2013-03-07

    This study was designed to determine the effect of Calendula officinalis flowers extract mouthwash as oral gel on radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis (OM) in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Forty patients with neck and head cancers under radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy protocols were randomly assigned to receive either 2% calendula extract mouthwash or placebo (20 patients in each group). Patients were treated with telecobalt radiotherapy at conventional fractionation (200 cGy/fraction, five fractions weekly, 30-35 fractions within 4-7 weeks). The oropharyngeal mucositis was evaluated by two clinical investigators (a radiation oncologist and a dentist), using the oral mucositis assessment scale (OMAS). Trying to find out the possible mechanism of action of the treatment, total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents, and quercetin concentration of the mouth wash were measured. Calendula mouthwash significantly decreased the intensity of OM compared to placebo at week 2 (score: 5.5 vs. 6.8, p = 0.019), week 3 (score: 8.25 vs. 10.95, p antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents and quercetin concentration of the 2% extract were 2353.4 ± 56.5 μM, 313.40 ± 6.52 mg/g, 76.66 ± 23.24 mg/g, and 19.41 ± 4.34 mg/l, respectively. Calendula extract gel could be effective on decreasing the intensity of radiotherapy- induced OM during the treatment and antioxidant capacity may be partly responsible for the effect.

  19. Dietary Bioactive Diallyl Trisulfide in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinelli, Michael T; Stan, Silvia D

    2017-07-28

    Bioactive dietary agents have been shown to regulate multiple cancer hallmark pathways. Epidemiologic studies have linked consumption of Allium vegetables, such as garlic and onions, to decreased incidence of cancer. Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), a bioactive compound derived from Allium vegetables, has been investigated as an anti-cancer and chemopreventive agent. Preclinical studies provide ample evidence that DATS regulates multiple cancer hallmark pathways including cell cycle, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. DATS has been shown to arrest cancer cells at multiple stages of the cell cycle with the G2/M arrest being the most widely reported. Additionally, increased pro-apoptotic capacity as a result of regulating intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathway components has been widely reported following DATS treatment. Invasion, migration, and angiogenesis represent emerging targets of DATS and support its anti-cancer properties. This review summarizes DATS mechanisms of action as an anti-cancer and chemopreventive agent. These studies provide rationale for future investigation into its use as a cancer chemopreventive agent.

  20. [Economic and political aspects of prostate cancer prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Zaleski, I

    2008-04-01

    Deciding on a health policy in practice means dedicating human and financial resources and prioritising spendings. The economic evaluation of prevention strategies attempts to establish a relationship between the medical benefit of prevention and its additional cost (or in some cases cost reduction) compared to no prevention. Decisions on reimbursing drugs, interventions or funding health programmes do not usually follow efficiency criteria which define economic rationality. Politics may for example decide to make prostate cancer a public health priority if mortality in a country or in some regions of the country appears to be excessively high. Economic rationality alone is not an appropriate factor on which to base a decision which may be purely political, reflecting the actual values of the society at a given point in time.

  1. Ethnic differences in breast cancer prevention information-seeking among rural women: will provider mobile messages work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Although growing research supports cancer survivor information-seeking, little is known about breast cancer prevention information-seeking among women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in breast cancer risk factor knowledge, information sources, and desired mobile messages among Hispanic and non-Hispanic rural women. Women were recruited to complete a survey at an imaging center during a mammography screening visit. A total of 156 women (mean age = 61, SD = 12.07) completed the survey. Breast cancer risk factor knowledge was significantly higher for non-Hispanic women compared to Hispanic women (p = .035). Television, magazines, and Internet were the most frequent information sources. Providers were the most frequent interpersonal information source. Nearly 87 % used cell phones and 47 % used texting. Hispanic women were more likely to desire breast cancer prevention cell voice messages (p breast cancer prevention education, and best practices to manage screening appointments.

  2. [Technology and prevention in the era of mobile health: applications for cancer screening programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Fabrizio; Gualano, Maria Rosaria; Clemente, Salvatore; Villa, Giulia; Siliquini, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    The Italian national health system provides screening to detect breast, colorecatal and cervical cancers, however, population adherence is not as high as expected. Smartphones and their applications (apps) could be used as a tool to communicate with the population and to help improve adherence. The aim of this study was to analyze the features and functions of smartphone applications aimed at secondary prevention of oncological diseases. In February 2016, we reviewed online app stores, using specific key-words, to search for available apps for cancer screening. We identified 32 apps meeting our inclusion criteria. The most frequent types of app are breast cancer (13/32) and cervical cancer (4/32) screening apps. We also found apps addressing secondary prevention of cancers for which screening is not provided to the Italian population (melanoma, prostate cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma). The most common features are: information providers (22/32), risk calculators (10/32), reminders for appointments and tests (7/32). Only one app has been validated for diagnostic accuracy or utility using established international certification (CE Marking). The results show a large potential for development and utilization of applications in secondary prevention. Despite their potential usefulness, there are also disadvantages such as language barriers (only 2 of 32 apps are in Italian), and the digital divide. Future efforts should focus on improving education regarding approaches to technologies, strengthen national and international regulations and monitoring inequalities in access to services.

  3. Conditioned Side Effects Induced by Cancer Chemotherapy: Prevention Through Behavioral Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burish, Thomas G.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Studied cancer patients (N=24) in order to determine whether conditioned nausea and vomiting could be delayed or prevented. Indicated that patients receiving progressive muscle relaxation training and guided imagery had significantly less nausea and vomiting and significanty lower blood pressures, pulse rates, and dysphoria, especially anxiety,…

  4. Aspirin and Zileuton and Biomarker Expression in Nasal Tissue of Current Smokers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase II trial studies the effects of aspirin and zileuton on genes related to tobacco use in current smokers. Aspirin and zileuton may interfere with genes related to tobacco use and may be useful in preventing lung cancer in current smokers. |

  5. DCP Leading NIH Glycoscience Common Fund Program; Funding Opportunities Open | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI's Division of Cancer Prevention is a leading participant for a key initiative in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Glycoscience Common Fund program. This program supports development of accessible and affordable new tools and technologies for studying the role complex carbohydrates in health and disease. |

  6. Aromatase inhibitors for prevention of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behan, Lucy Ann; Amir, Eitan; Casper, Robert F

    2015-03-01

    The increasing incidence of breast cancer (BC) worldwide has resulted in widespread interest in primary prevention therapies. A number of large randomized trials have shown that selective estrogen receptor modulators can reduce the relative risk for BC by 30% to 40% in high-risk women. In early-stage BC, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) showed a 35% relative reduction in the risk of contralateral BCs compared with tamoxifen. In this narrative review, we discuss the role of AIs in the primary prevention of BC and novel research on combination hormone therapy-medical therapy for the primary prevention of BC. Using PubMed/Medline, we comprehensively searched for studies of BC primary prevention using AIs, including studies of novel methods of prevention using combination hormone therapy-BC prevention. Two large multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trials have evaluated AIs--anastrozole (International Breast Cancer Intervention Study II) and exemestane (Mammary Prevention 3)--for BC risk reduction in women at increased risk for BC, which we summarize. We identified five studies (three completed and two ongoing) of combination AI-hormone therapy that are undergoing investigation for BC risk reduction. AIs are effective at BC risk reduction, although long-term follow-up data are required to assess whether this risk reduction will result in reduced mortality. Combination hormone therapy-AI for BC risk reduction is experimental and warrants further investigation.

  7. A Phase II Study of Submandibular Gland Transfer Prior to Radiation for Prevention of Radiation-Induced Xerostomia in Head and Neck Cancer (Rtog 0244)s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Naresh; Harris, Jonathan; Seikaly, Hadi; Jacobs, John R.; McEwan, AJB.; Thomas Robbins, K.; Grecula, John; Sharma, Anand K.; Ang, K. Kian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We report the results of a phase II study to determine reproducibility of surgical technique of submandibular salivary gland transfer (SGT) for prevention of radiation (XRT) induced xerostomia in a multi-institutional setting and to assess severity of xerostomia. Methods and Materials Eligible patients had surgery for primary, neck dissection, and SGT followed by XRT during which the transferred salivary gland was shielded. IMRT, amifostine, and pilocarpine were not allowed, but postoperative chemotherapy was allowed. Each operation was reviewed by two and radiation by one reviewer. If 13 or more (out of 43) were “not per protocol”, then technique would be considered not reproducible as per study design. The secondary endpoint was the rate of acute xerostomia, Grade 2 or higher and a rate of ≤ 51% was acceptable. Results 44 of the total 49 patients were analyzable: male (81.8%), oropharynx (63.6%), stage IV (61.4%), median age 56.5 years. SGT was “per protocol” or with acceptable variation in 34 patients (77.3%) and XRT in 79.5%. 9 patients (20.9%) developed grade II acute xerostomia; 2 had grade 0 -1 xerostomia (4.7%) but started on amifostine/pilocarpine. These 11 patients (25.6%) were considered failures for the xerostomia endpoint. 13 patients have died; median follow-up for 31 surviving patients is 2.9 years. Two-year overall and disease-free survival rates are 76.4% and 71.7%, respectively. Conclusions the technique of submandibular salivary gland transfer procedure is reproducible in a multicenter setting. Seventy-four percent of patients had prevention of XRT induced acute xerostomia. PMID:22541957

  8. A Phase II Study of Submandibular Gland Transfer Prior to Radiation for Prevention of Radiation-induced Xerostomia in Head-and-Neck Cancer (RTOG 0244)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Naresh; Harris, Jonathan; Seikaly, Hadi; Jacobs, John R.; McEwan, A.J.B.; Robbins, K. Thomas; Grecula, John; Sharma, Anand K.; Ang, K. Kian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We report the results of a phase II study to determine the reproducibility of a submandibular salivary gland transfer (SGT) surgical technique for prevention of radiation (XRT)-induced xerostomia in a multi-institutional setting and to assess severity of xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had surgery for primary, neck dissection, and SGT, followed by XRT, during which the transferred salivary gland was shielded. Intensity modulated radiation therapy, amifostine, and pilocarpine were not allowed, but postoperative chemotherapy was allowed. Each operation was reviewed by 2 reviewers and radiation by 1 reviewer. If 13 or more (of 43) were “not per protocol,” then the technique would be considered not reproducible as per study design. The secondary endpoint was the rate of acute xerostomia, grade 2 or higher, and a rate of ≤51% was acceptable. Results: Forty-four of the total 49 patients were analyzable: male (81.8%), oropharynx (63.6%), stage IV (61.4%), median age 56.5 years. SGT was “per protocol” or within acceptable variation in 34 patients (77.3%) and XRT in 79.5%. Nine patients (20.9%) developed grade 2 acute xerostomia; 2 had grade 0-1 xerostomia (4.7%) but started on amifostine/pilocarpine. Treatment for these 11 patients (25.6%) was considered a failure for the xerostomia endpoint. Thirteen patients died; median follow-up for 31 surviving patients was 2.9 years. Two-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 76.4% and 71.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The technique of submandibular SGT is reproducible in a multicenter setting. Seventy-four percent of patients were prevented from XRT-induced acute xerostomia.

  9. A Phase II Study of Submandibular Gland Transfer Prior to Radiation for Prevention of Radiation-induced Xerostomia in Head-and-Neck Cancer (RTOG 0244)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Naresh, E-mail: naresh.jha@albertahealthservices.ca [University of Alberta, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Harris, Jonathan [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Seikaly, Hadi [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Jacobs, John R. [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan (United States); McEwan, A.J.B. [University of Alberta, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Robbins, K. Thomas [St. John' s Hospital Cancer Institute, Springfield, Illinois (United States); Grecula, John [Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Sharma, Anand K. [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Ang, K. Kian [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: We report the results of a phase II study to determine the reproducibility of a submandibular salivary gland transfer (SGT) surgical technique for prevention of radiation (XRT)-induced xerostomia in a multi-institutional setting and to assess severity of xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had surgery for primary, neck dissection, and SGT, followed by XRT, during which the transferred salivary gland was shielded. Intensity modulated radiation therapy, amifostine, and pilocarpine were not allowed, but postoperative chemotherapy was allowed. Each operation was reviewed by 2 reviewers and radiation by 1 reviewer. If 13 or more (of 43) were 'not per protocol,' then the technique would be considered not reproducible as per study design. The secondary endpoint was the rate of acute xerostomia, grade 2 or higher, and a rate of {<=}51% was acceptable. Results: Forty-four of the total 49 patients were analyzable: male (81.8%), oropharynx (63.6%), stage IV (61.4%), median age 56.5 years. SGT was 'per protocol' or within acceptable variation in 34 patients (77.3%) and XRT in 79.5%. Nine patients (20.9%) developed grade 2 acute xerostomia; 2 had grade 0-1 xerostomia (4.7%) but started on amifostine/pilocarpine. Treatment for these 11 patients (25.6%) was considered a failure for the xerostomia endpoint. Thirteen patients died; median follow-up for 31 surviving patients was 2.9 years. Two-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 76.4% and 71.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The technique of submandibular SGT is reproducible in a multicenter setting. Seventy-four percent of patients were prevented from XRT-induced acute xerostomia.

  10. Opportunities for Skin Cancer Prevention Education among Individuals Attending a Community Skin Cancer Screening in a High-Risk Catchment Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Bridget Grahmann; Gren, Lisa H; Simonsen, Sara E; Harding, Garrett; Grossman, Douglas; Wu, Yelena P

    2018-04-01

    Despite the highly preventable nature of skin cancer, it remains the most commonly diagnosed form of cancer in the United States. Recommendations for a complete skin cancer prevention regimen include engaging in photoprotection (e.g., sunscreen use), avoiding skin cancer risk behaviors (e.g., tanning), and receiving total body skin exams from a health care provider. The current study examined reported engagement in these behaviors among participants attending a community skin cancer screening (N = 319) in a high-risk catchment area to assess the need for increased health education on skin cancer prevention. Participants' responses indicate a history of suboptimal avoidance of skin cancer risk behaviors. Over half of participants (52%) reported four or more blistering sunburns before age 20, and 46% reported indoor tanning at least one during their lifetime. There is a need among this population for education regarding a complete skin cancer prevention regimen, which could improve adherence to photoprotection and avoidance of skin cancer risk behaviors, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality due to skin cancer.

  11. Online Series presents The Impact of Obesity on Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is a critical public health problem which is worsening over time. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than one third (34.9% or 78.6 million) of U.S. adults are obese. Growing obesity incidence is associated with detrimental health consequences including cancer. Experts in the field of nutrition and cancer will present the latest data and

  12. Effectiveness of a Brief Health Education Intervention for Breast Cancer Prevention in Greece Under Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakoula Merakou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence rates in breast cancer have now reached epidemic levels. One of the main reasons behind onset of breast cancer is poor preventive beliefs and behavior of women towards cancer prevention. We examined the effectiveness of health education intervention in two communities of South Greece.Objective: The study investigates the effectiveness of a brief health education intervention on women’s beliefs and behaviour changes concerning breast cancer prevention.Methodology: A 90-minute, one-off encounter, health education study was designed for 300 women from Peloponissos, South Greece. A Health Belief Model questionnaire, was used before the intervention, immediately after and 6-months after the intervention.Results: Despite certain perception-related barriers (embarrassment, anxiety, ect women’s overall beliefs towards breast cancer prevention (perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits and perceived barriers changed positively after the health education intervention and this change was sustained at 6-month follow up. However, specific barriers (embarrassment, fear of pain, anxiety when anticipating tests’ results were not maintained at the same level of post-intervention during the same follow up. During the follow up period, women performed breast self-examination every month (73% and 55.10% had breast examination by a clinician and underwent a mammography.Conclusions: Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be effective in changing beliefs and behaviour. Tailored interventions are necessary to overcome relapsing of specific barriers. Emphasis should be given on the importance of doctor/nurse role in breast screening.

  13. Health Literacy Approaches to Improving Communication between Dental Hygienists and Patients for HPV-Related Oral Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Erika L; Daley, Ellen M; Vamos, Cheryl A; Horowitz, Alice M; Catalanotto, Frank A; DeBate, Rita D; Merrell, Laura K; Griner, Stacey B; Vazquez-Otero, Coralia; Kline, Nolan S

    2017-08-01

    Purpose: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as a causal agent for oropharyngeal cancers, suggesting a new role for dental hygienists in HPV-related cancer prevention strategies. Health literacy assessment is an approach that can be used to understand providers' informational assets and needs for educating and discussing HPV prevention with patients. This study aimed to understand dental hygienists' level of health literacy regarding HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers. Methods: Four focus group sessions with dental hygienists (n=48) were conducted at a national conference. The constant comparison method, with a priori codes for health literacy competencies (i.e., access/understand/appraise/apply), was utilized for this qualitative study. Results: Participants mentioned a variety of modes (e.g., magazines, journals) for accessing HPV-information; however, descriptions of understanding HPV and its relationship to oropharyngeal cancer varied. Participants considered patients' personal characteristics, the dental practice environment, and professional factors to appraise HPV-related information. Additionally, participants self-described themselves as being "prevention specialists." These factors influenced how dental hygienists applied primary and secondary prevention of HPV-related care issues with their patients (e.g., education and oral-cancer screenings). Conclusions: Dental hygienists recognized the importance of HPV and oropharyngeal cancer prevention efforts, including oral-cancer screenings and promotion of the HPV vaccine. The study findings identified opportunities for intervention focusing on primary prevention. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  14. Evaluation of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator in a High-Risk Screening Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David J.; Boorjian, Stephen A.; Ruth, Karen; Egleston, Brian L.; Chen, David Y.T.; Viterbo, Rosalia; Uzzo, Robert G.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Raysor, Susan; Giri, Veda N.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Clinical factors in addition to PSA have been evaluated to improve risk assessment for prostate cancer. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) risk calculator provides an assessment of prostate cancer risk based on age, PSA, race, prior biopsy, and family history. This study evaluated the risk calculator in a screening cohort of young, racially diverse, high-risk men with a low baseline PSA enrolled in the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program. Patients and Methods Eligibility for PRAP include men ages 35-69 who are African-American, have a family history of prostate cancer, or have a known BRCA1/2 mutation. PCPT risk scores were determined for PRAP participants, and were compared to observed prostate cancer rates. Results 624 participants were evaluated, including 382 (61.2%) African-American men and 375 (60%) men with a family history of prostate cancer. Median age was 49.0 years (range 34.0-69.0), and median PSA was 0.9 (range 0.1-27.2). PCPT risk score correlated with prostate cancer diagnosis, as the median baseline risk score in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer was 31.3%, versus 14.2% in patients not diagnosed with prostate cancer (p<0.0001). The PCPT calculator similarly stratified the risk of diagnosis of Gleason score ≥7 disease, as the median risk score was 36.2% in patients diagnosed with Gleason ≥7 prostate cancer versus 15.2% in all other participants (p<0.0001). Conclusion PCPT risk calculator score was found to stratify prostate cancer risk in a cohort of young, primarily African-American men with a low baseline PSA. These results support further evaluation of this predictive tool for prostate cancer risk assessment in high-risk men. PMID:19709072

  15. Curcumin: A Potential Candidate in Prevention of Cancer via Modulation of Molecular Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H.; Al Zohairy, Mohammad A.; Aly, Salah M.; Khan, Masood A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the most dreadful disease worldwide in terms of morbidity and mortality. The exact cause of cancer development and progression is not fully known. But it is thought that cancer occurs due to the structural and functional changes in the genes. The current approach to cancer treatment based on allopathic is expensive, exhibits side effects; and may also alter the normal functioning of genes. Thus, a safe and effective mode of treatment is needed to control the cancer development and progression. Some medicinal plants provide a safe, effective and affordable remedy to control the progression of malignant cells. The importance of medicinal plants and their constituents has been documented in Ayurveda, Unani medicine, and various religious books. Curcumin, a vital constituent of the spice turmeric, is an alternative approach in the prevention of cancer. Earlier studies have shown the effect of curcumin as an antioxidant, antibacterial, antitumor and it also has a noteworthy role in the control of different diseases. In this review, we summarize the understanding of chemopreventive effects of curcumin in the prevention of cancer via the regulation of various cell signaling and genetic pathways. PMID:25295272

  16. Second primary cancers in survivors of cervical cancer in the Netherlands: Implications for prevention and surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Melina; Liu, Lifang; Kenter, Gemma G.; Creutzberg, Carien L.; Coebergh, Jan Willem; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: We investigated the effects of socio-demographic, treatment- and tumor-specific determinants on the risk of developing a second malignancy among patients treated for cervical cancer. Material and methods: We included patients with a first cervical cancer (N = 12,048) from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR), 1989–2008. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and absolute excess risks (AER) per 10,000 person-years were calculated to estimate the burden of second cancers in cervical cancer survivors. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were computed to identify predictors for second cancers among cervical cancer survivors. Results: During the study period, 676 (5.6%) patients were diagnosed with a second cancer. Smoking-related cancers contributed the most to the overall burden of second cancers (AER = 21) and risks remained elevated after 10 years of follow-up (SIR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4–2.2), yet it decreased markedly in the younger birth cohorts. Cervical cancer survivors who underwent radiotherapy were at higher risk for a second tumor when compared to those without radiotherapy, especially at smoking-related sites (IRR = 1.6 (1.2–2.3)). Conclusion: Patients with cervical cancer had a significantly increased risk for a second cancer compared to the general population, especially for smoking- and irradiation-related tumors. Long-term follow-up suggested the importance of smoking cessation and the benefits of counseling cervical cancer patients accordingly, particularly those who received radiotherapy

  17. Gynecologic Cancer Prevention and Control in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program: Progress, Current Activities, and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Sherri L.; Lakhani, Naheed; Brown, Phaeydra M.; Larkin, O. Ann; Moore, Angela R.; Hayes, Nikki S.

    2013-01-01

    Gynecologic cancer confers a large burden among women in the United States. Several evidence-based interventions are available to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from these cancers. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is uniquely positioned to implement these interventions in the US population. This review discusses progress and future directions for the NCCCP in preventing and controlling gynecologic cancer.

  18. Gynecologic cancer prevention and control in the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program: progress, current activities, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L; Lakhani, Naheed; Brown, Phaeydra M; Larkin, O Ann; Moore, Angela R; Hayes, Nikki S

    2013-08-01

    Gynecologic cancer confers a large burden among women in the United States. Several evidence-based interventions are available to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from these cancers. The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) is uniquely positioned to implement these interventions in the US population. This review discusses progress and future directions for the NCCCP in preventing and controlling gynecologic cancer.

  19. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosara Teixeira, Marcela; Braghiroli, Maria Ignez; Sabbaga, Jorge; Hoff, Paulo M

    2014-11-07

    Colorectal cancer incidence has been rising strongly in parallel with economic development. In the past few decades, much has been learned about the lifestyle, dietary and medication risk factors for this malignancy. With respect to lifestyle, compelling evidence indicates that prevention of weight gain and maintenance of a reasonable level of physical activity can positively influence in lowering the risk. Although there is controversy about the role of specific nutritional factors, consideration of dietary pattern as a whole appears useful for formulating recommendations. Though quite often recommended, the role for many supplements, including omega-3, vitamin D, folate, and vitamin B6, remains unsettled. Only calcium and vitamin D supplementation appear to add a modest benefit, particularly in those with a low daily intake. With regard to chemoprevention, medications such as aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and postmenopausal hormonal replacement for women might be associated with substantial reductions in colorectal cancer risk, though their utility is affected by their side effect profile. However, the role of agents such as statins, bisphosphonates and antioxidants have yet to be determined. Ultimately, primary prevention strategies focusing on modifying environmental, lifestyle risk factors, and chemopreventive drugs are options that have already been tested, and may impact on colon cancer incidence.

  20. Rat models of 17β-estradiol-induced mammary cancer reveal novel insights into breast cancer etiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, James D; Dennison, Kirsten L; Chack, Aaron C; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2018-03-01

    Numerous laboratory and epidemiologic studies strongly implicate endogenous and exogenous estrogens in the etiology of breast cancer. Data summarized herein suggest that the ACI rat model of 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced mammary cancer is unique among rodent models in the extent to which it faithfully reflects the etiology and biology of luminal types of breast cancer, which together constitute ~70% of all breast cancers. E2 drives cancer development in this model through mechanisms that are largely dependent upon estrogen receptors and require progesterone and its receptors. Moreover, mammary cancer development appears to be associated with generation of oxidative stress and can be modified by multiple dietary factors, several of which may attenuate the actions of reactive oxygen species. Studies of susceptible ACI rats and resistant COP or BN rats provide novel insights into the genetic bases of susceptibility and the biological processes regulated by genetic determinants of susceptibility. This review summarizes research progress resulting from use of these physiologically relevant rat models to advance understanding of breast cancer etiology and prevention.

  1. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, L E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccinatio...... of prevention programs, operational research and advocacy could strengthen political momentum for cervical cancer prevention and avoid risking the lives of many women in the Pacific....

  2. Adaptation of Individual Meaning-Centered Psychotherapy for Chinese Immigrant Cancer Patients | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the study is to modify a type of counseling called "Individual Meaning Centered Psychotherapy" to meet the needs of Chinese cancer patients. Many cancer patients use counseling or other resources to help cope with the emotional burden of their illnesses. Counseling often helps them cope with cancer by giving them a place to express their feelings.

  3. Plant sterol intakes and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands : cohort study on diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Normén, A.L.; Brants, H.A.M.; Voorrips, L.E.; Andersson, H.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2001-01-01

    Background: Plant sterols in vegetable foods might prevent colorectal cancer. Objective: The objective was to study plant sterol intakes in relation to colorectal cancer risk in an epidemiologic study. Design: The study was performed within the framework of the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and

  4. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in colorectal cancer prevention: point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arber, Nadir

    2008-08-01

    The limited success of current treatments for most advanced common malignancies highlights the importance of cancer prevention. Clinical trials on cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor drugs showed the potential of chemoprevention as a strategy for reducing cancer incidence, although not without associated side effects. The attractiveness of these drugs partly stems from an ability to engage multiple mechanisms of action by their potential to influence multiple components of the carcinogenesis pathway, from initiation to progression. There are two isoforms of the COX enzymes. COX-1 is constitutively expressed in normal tissues and serves as a "housekeeper" of mucosal integrity, whereas COX-2 is an immediate early response gene that is highly inducible by neoplastic and inflammatory stimuli. COX-2 is significantly overexpressed in colorectal neoplasms, making it an attractive therapeutic target. The drug market has been revolutionized by the development of preparations targeted selectively against COX-2, and a proof of concept has been achieved. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer is already possible with celecoxib, but it is still not the ultimate drug of choice especially because of the cardiovascular risk associated with COX-2 inhibitors. Better patient selection and more effective and safer drugs are needed. Celecoxib is probably best used in a subset of individuals at moderate to high colorectal cancer risk and low risk of cardiovascular disease.

  5. Study Design and Rationale for the Phase 3 Clinical Development Program of Enobosarm, a Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator, for the Prevention and Treatment of Muscle Wasting in Cancer Patients (POWER Trials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jeffrey; Prado, Carla M M; Johnston, Mary Ann; Gralla, Richard J; Taylor, Ryan P; Hancock, Michael L; Dalton, James T

    2016-06-01

    Muscle wasting in cancer is a common and often occult condition that can occur prior to overt signs of weight loss and before a clinical diagnosis of cachexia can be made. Muscle wasting in cancer is an important and independent predictor of progressive functional impairment, decreased quality of life, and increased mortality. Although several therapeutic agents are currently in development for the treatment of muscle wasting or cachexia in cancer, the majority of these agents do not directly inhibit muscle loss. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have the potential to increase lean body mass (LBM) and hence muscle mass, without the untoward side effects seen with traditional anabolic agents. Enobosarm, a nonsteroidal SARM, is an agent in clinical development for prevention and treatment of muscle wasting in patients with cancer (POWER 1 and 2 trials). The POWER trials are two identically designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, and multinational phase 3 trials to assess the efficacy of enobosarm for the prevention and treatment of muscle wasting in subjects initiating first-line chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To assess enobosarm's effect on both prevention and treatment of muscle wasting, no minimum weight loss is required. These pivotal trials have pioneered the methodological and regulatory fields exploring a therapeutic agent for cancer-associated muscle wasting, a process hereby described. In each POWER trial, subjects will receive placebo (n = 150) or enobosarm 3 mg (n = 150) orally once daily for 147 days. Physical function, assessed as stair climb power (SCP), and LBM, assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), are the co-primary efficacy endpoints in both trials assessed at day 84. Based on extensive feedback from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the co-primary endpoints will be analyzed as a responder analysis. To be considered a physical function responder, a

  6. Targeting arachidonic acid pathway by natural products for cancer prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Bishayee, Anupam; Sethi, Gautam; Reddanna, Pallu; Kalle, Arunasree M; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa; Dowluru, Kaladhar S V G K; Chintala, Ramakrishna; Duddukuri, Govinda Rao

    2016-10-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) pathway, a metabolic process, plays a key role in carcinogenesis. Hence, AA pathway metabolic enzymes phospholipase A 2 s (PLA 2 s), cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenases (LOXs) and their metabolic products, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, have been considered novel preventive and therapeutic targets in cancer. Bioactive natural products are a good source for development of novel cancer preventive and therapeutic drugs, which have been widely used in clinical practice due to their safety profiles. AA pathway inhibitory natural products have been developed as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against several cancers. Curcumin, resveratrol, apigenin, anthocyans, berberine, ellagic acid, eugenol, fisetin, ursolic acid, [6]-gingerol, guggulsteone, lycopene and genistein are well known cancer chemopreventive agents which act by targeting multiple pathways, including COX-2. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid and baicalein can be chemopreventive molecules against various cancers by inhibiting LOXs. Several PLA 2 s inhibitory natural products have been identified with chemopreventive and therapeutic potentials against various cancers. In this review, we critically discuss the possible utility of natural products as preventive and therapeutic agents against various oncologic diseases, including prostate, pancreatic, lung, skin, gastric, oral, blood, head and neck, colorectal, liver, cervical and breast cancers, by targeting AA pathway. Further, the current status of clinical studies evaluating AA pathway inhibitory natural products in cancer is reviewed. In addition, various emerging issues, including bioavailability, toxicity and explorability of combination therapy, for the development of AA pathway inhibitory natural products as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against human malignancy are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Venous thromboembolism prevention in gynecologic cancer surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, M Heather; Pritts, Elizabeth A; Hartenbach, Ellen M

    2007-06-01

    Advanced age, pelvic surgery, and the presence of malignancy place gynecologic oncology patients at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). This study was designed to systematically analyze the world's literature on VTE in these patients and determine the optimal prophylaxis regimen. Computerized searches of Pubmed, Ovid, DARE, ACP Journal Club, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry 1966-2005 were performed, as well as EMBASE 1980-2005. Major conferences and target references were hand-searched. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating VTE prophylaxis with heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), and sequential compression devices (SCD). The search yielded 278 articles; 11 met inclusion criteria. Data were abstracted by one author and analyzed with the Mantel-Haenszel method. The analysis of heparin-versus-control revealed a significant decrease in DVT in patients receiving heparin (RR=0.58, 95% CI 0.35-0.95). There were no significant differences in EBL or transfusions between the two groups. In the 320 patients in the heparin vs. LMWH studies, there was no significant difference in DVT (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.38-2.17), although power analysis demonstrated insufficient numbers to show a difference. No patient in either group required re-exploration for bleeding. All gynecologic cancer patients should receive VTE prophylaxis. Although heparin, LMWH, and SCD have been shown to be safe and effective, due to the paucity of data in the gynecologic oncology literature, no one prevention modality can be considered superior at this time. Adequately powered RCTs are urgently needed to determine the optimal regimen in these high-risk patients.

  8. Precision in Setting Cancer Prevention Priorities: Synthesis of Data, Literature, and Expert Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girschik, Jennifer; Miller, Laura Jean; Addiscott, Tony; Daube, Mike; Katris, Paul; Ransom, David; Slevin, Terry; Threlfall, Tim; Weeramanthri, Tarun Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Cancer will continue to be a leading cause of ill health and death unless we can capitalize on the potential for 30-40% of these cancers to be prevented. In this light, cancer prevention represents an enormous opportunity for public health, potentially saving much of the pain, anguish, and cost associated with treating cancer. However, there is a challenge for governments, and the wider community, in prioritizing cancer prevention activities, especially given increasing financial constraints. This paper describes a method for identifying cancer prevention priorities. This method synthesizes detailed cancer statistics, expert opinion, and the published literature for the priority setting process. The process contains four steps: assessing the impact of cancer types; identifying cancers with the greatest impact; considering opportunities for prevention; and combining information on impact and preventability. The strength of our approach is that it is straightforward, transparent and reproducible for other settings. Applying this method in Western Australia produced a priority list of seven adult cancers which were identified as having not only the biggest impact on the community but also the best opportunities for prevention. Work conducted in an additional project phase went on to present data on these priority cancers to a public consultation and develop an agenda for action in cancer prevention.

  9. Phytochemicals from cruciferous vegetables, epigenetics, and prostate cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W Watson, Gregory; M Beaver, Laura; E Williams, David; H Dashwood, Roderick; Ho, Emily

    2013-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence has demonstrated a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with cruciferous vegetable intake. Follow-up studies have attributed this protective activity to the metabolic products of glucosinolates, a class of secondary metabolites produced by crucifers. The metabolic products of glucoraphanin and glucobrassicin, sulforaphane, and indole-3-carbinol respectively, have been the subject of intense investigation by cancer researchers. Sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol inhibit prostate cancer by both blocking initiation and suppressing prostate cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. Research has largely focused on the anti-initiation and cytoprotective effects of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol through induction of phases I and II detoxification pathways. With regards to suppressive activity, research has focused on the ability of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol to antagonize cell signaling pathways known to be dysregulated in prostate cancer. Recent investigations have characterized the ability of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol derivatives to modulate the activity of enzymes controlling the epigenetic status of prostate cancer cells. In this review, we will summarize the well-established, "classic" non-epigenetic targets of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol, and highlight more recent evidence supporting these phytochemicals as epigenetic modulators for prostate cancer chemoprevention.

  10. Breast cancer prevention strategies in lobular carcinoma in situ: A decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephanie M; Stout, Natasha K; Punglia, Rinaa S; Prakash, Ipshita; Sagara, Yasuaki; Golshan, Mehra

    2017-07-15

    Women diagnosed with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) have a 3-fold to 10-fold increased risk of developing invasive breast cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the life expectancy (LE) and differences in survival offered by active surveillance, risk-reducing chemoprevention, and bilateral prophylactic mastectomy among women with LCIS. A Markov simulation model was constructed to determine average LE and quality-adjusted LE (QALE) gains for hypothetical cohorts of women diagnosed with LCIS at various ages under alternative risk-reduction strategies. Probabilities for invasive breast cancer, breast cancer-specific mortality, other-cause mortality and the effectiveness of preventive strategies were derived from published studies and from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Assuming a breast cancer incidence from 1.02% to 1.37% per year under active surveillance, a woman aged 50 years diagnosed with LCIS would have a total LE of 32.78 years and would gain 0.13 years (1.6 months) in LE by adding chemoprevention and 0.25 years (3.0 months) in LE by adding bilateral prophylactic mastectomy. After quality adjustment, chemoprevention resulted in the greatest QALE for women ages 40 to 60 years at LCIS diagnosis, whereas surveillance remained the preferred strategy for optimizing QALE among women diagnosed at age 65 years and older. In this model, among women with a diagnosis of LCIS, breast cancer prevention strategies only modestly affected overall survival, whereas chemoprevention was modeled as the preferred management strategy for optimizing invasive disease-free survival while prolonging QALE form women younger than 65 years. Cancer 2017;123:2609-17. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.