WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer prevention intervention

  1. The microbiome and its potential as a cancer preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultman, Scott J

    2016-02-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that microbiota inhabiting our bodies influence cancer predisposition and etiology. In addition to pathogens with oncogenic properties, commensal and symbiotic microbiota have tumor-suppressive properties. Diet and other environmental factors can modulate the abundance of certain members of microbial communities within the gastrointestinal tract and at other anatomical sites. Furthermore, some dietary factors are metabolized by commensal/symbiotic gut microbiota into bioactive food components believed to prevent cancer. For example, dietary fiber undergoes bacterial fermentation in the colon to yield butyrate, which is a short-chain fatty acid and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that suppresses the viability and growth of colorectal cancer cell lines. A recent study using gnotobiotic mouse models demonstrates that fiber can protect against colorectal tumorigenesis in a microbiota- and butyrate-dependent manner that involves the Warburg effect. This and other examples suggest that some of the inter-individual variation observed in epidemiology and intervention studies that have investigated associations between diet and cancer risk might be explained by differences in microbiota among the participants. Data from basic research studies also support the idea that probiotics and prebiotics could be plausible chemoprevention strategies that may be utilized to a greater extent in the future. PMID:26970128

  2. Effectiveness of a Community-Based Health Education Intervention in Cervical Cancer Prevention in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chania

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women’s beliefs are one of the main reasons for not undergoing Pap-test for cervical cancer prevention. Health education programs could help change these beliefs and motivate women to adopt a preventive health behavior.Objectives: This study aims to assess the modification in women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention after the implementation of a health education intervention.Methodology: A health education intervention for cervical cancer prevention was implemented to 300 women in two prefectures of southern Greece. The experimental group received a 120-minute health education intervention, based on the Health Beliefs Model (HBM including a lecture, discussion and leaflets. The hypotheses were a will this brief intervention change women’s beliefs (perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, benefits and barriers ofundergoing the Pap-test? b will this change in beliefs sustain in six months follow-up period? and c will women undergo pap-test in six months period? The women filled in an anonymous questionnaire, based on the Health Belief Model (HBM, before, immediately after and six months after the program.Results: The health education intervention significantly modified women’s beliefs and behaviors towards pap-test. The greater changes in women’s beliefs were observed in their sense of susceptibility towards the disease and the benefits of prevention which were sustained or improved after six months. Perceived barriers to undergo the Paptest, pain, embarrassment, and worry for the results decreased immediately after the program but started relapsingin the six month follow up period. Moreover, 88.1% of the women answered that they had underwent a Pap-test during the following six months.Conclusions: This health education intervention modified women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention. Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be

  3. Effectiveness of a Brief Health Education Intervention for Breast Cancer Prevention in Greece Under Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakoula Merakou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence rates in breast cancer have now reached epidemic levels. One of the main reasons behind onset of breast cancer is poor preventive beliefs and behavior of women towards cancer prevention. We examined the effectiveness of health education intervention in two communities of South Greece.Objective: The study investigates the effectiveness of a brief health education intervention on women’s beliefs and behaviour changes concerning breast cancer prevention.Methodology: A 90-minute, one-off encounter, health education study was designed for 300 women from Peloponissos, South Greece. A Health Belief Model questionnaire, was used before the intervention, immediately after and 6-months after the intervention.Results: Despite certain perception-related barriers (embarrassment, anxiety, ect women’s overall beliefs towards breast cancer prevention (perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits and perceived barriers changed positively after the health education intervention and this change was sustained at 6-month follow up. However, specific barriers (embarrassment, fear of pain, anxiety when anticipating tests’ results were not maintained at the same level of post-intervention during the same follow up. During the follow up period, women performed breast self-examination every month (73% and 55.10% had breast examination by a clinician and underwent a mammography.Conclusions: Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be effective in changing beliefs and behaviour. Tailored interventions are necessary to overcome relapsing of specific barriers. Emphasis should be given on the importance of doctor/nurse role in breast screening.

  4. Multiple Health Behavior Changes in a Cancer Prevention Intervention for Construction Workers, 2001-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Harley, Amy E.; Devine, Carol M.; Beard, Binta; Stoddard, Anne M.; Hunt, Mary K.; Sorensen, Glorian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Few multiple behavior change interventions have addressed tobacco use in conjunction with fruit and vegetable consumption, particularly among high-risk blue-collar workers. Tools for Health, a cancer prevention intervention for construction laborers, was effective in achieving behavior change for smoking cessation and fruit and vegetable consumption separately. This study examines whether addressing smoking and fruit and vegetable consumption was successful in achieving positive...

  5. Interventions for preventing oral mucositis for patients with cancer receiving treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Worthington, Helen V; Clarkson, Jan E; Bryan, Gemma; Furness, Susan; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Littlewood, Anne; McCabe, Martin G.; Meyer, Stefan; Khalid, Tasneem

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of cancer is increasingly more effective but is associated with short and long term side effects. Oral side effects remain a major source of illness despite the use of a variety of agents to prevent them. One of these side effects is oral mucositis (mouth ulcers). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of prophylactic agents for oral mucositis in patients with cancer receiving treatment, compared with other potentially active interventions, placebo or no treatment. SE...

  6. Development of a Theory-Based (PEN-3 and Health Belief Model), Culturally Relevant Intervention on Cervical Cancer Prevention Among Latina Immigrants Using Intervention Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Bandura, Lisa; Hidalgo, Bertha; Cherrington, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The development of efficacious theory-based, culturally relevant interventions to promote cervical cancer prevention among underserved populations is crucial to the elimination of cancer disparities. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention focusing on primary (sexual risk reduction) and secondary (Pap smear) prevention of cervical cancer among Latina immigrants using intervention mapping (IM). The PEN-3 and Health Belief M...

  7. An intervention study to prevent gastric cancer by micro-selenium and large dose of allitridum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颢; 李会庆; 王云; 许海修; 范万藤; 王美岭; 孙培洪; 谢晓燕

    2004-01-01

    Background People have more and more concerned about allitridum as studies have shown that taking more raw garlic associated with a lower risk for cancers of the alimentary system. In the present study, we tried to examine whether a large dose of allitridum and a microdose of selenium prevent gastric cancer. Methods A double-blind intervention study was performed on the participants aged (35-74) years, who had matched at least one of the following criteria: (1) a medical history of stomach disorder, (2) a family history of tumour, or (3) smoking and/or alcohol consumption. A total of 2526 and 2507 persons were randomly enrolled into intervention group and control group respectively from 288 natural villages of seven communities in Qixia County, Shandong Province, China. Each person of the intervention group orally took 200 mg synthetic allitridum every day and 100 μg selenium every other day for one month of each year during November 1989 to December 1991. At the same time, people in control group were given 2 placebo capsules containing corn oid with the identical appearance to that in the intervention group.Results For all subjects the large dose of allitridum was accepted and no harmful side effects were found during the study. In the first follow-up five years (1992-1997) after stopping the intervention, the morbidity rates of malignant tumours in the intervention group declined by 22%, in contrast to the control group, declined by 47.3%. After adjusting for age, gender, and other potential confounders, relative risks (RRs) for all tumours and gastric cancer of the whole population were 0.67 (95%CL: 0.43-1.03) and 0.48 (95%CL: 0.21-1.06), respectively, and for male group they were 0.51 (95%CL: 0.30-0.85) and 0.36 (95%CL: 0.14-0.92), respectively. No signigicantly protective effect was found for the female subgroup.Conclusion The present study proves that large doses of allitridum and microdorse of selenium may effectively prevent gastric cancer ,especially in

  8. The application of evidence-based nursing in preventing complications occurred after interventional treatment of primary liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical effect of evidence-based nursing in preventing complications occurred after interventional treatment of primary liver cancer. Methods: Fifty-four patients of primary liver cancer who had received hepatic arterial chemo embolization were enrolled in this study. Using evidence-based thinking, the author analyzed the causes of complications occurred after the interventional treatment, formulated scientific nursing countermeasures and adopted foreseeable nursing care. Results: Through timely observation and targeted care, the incidence of complications after interventional treatment was effectively reduced, moreover, the patient's rehabilitation was improved. Conclusion: For the prevention of complications occurred after interventional treatment in patients with primary liver cancer, the evidencebased nursing plays an important role. It can provide scientific guidance to nursing practice, improve the quality and efficiency of nursing and enhance the ability of nurses in solving clinical problems. (J Intervent Radiol, 2010, 19 : 824-826) (authors)

  9. A systematic review of eHealth cancer prevention and control interventions: new technology, same methods and designs?

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Michael A.; Rabin, Borsika A.; Gaglio, Bridget; Henton, Michelle; Elzarrad, M Khair; Purcell, Peyton; Glasgow, Russell E

    2013-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of eHealth programs in cancer and other content areas, but few reviews have focused on the methodologies and designs employed in these studies. We conducted a systematic review of studies on eHealth interventions on cancer prevention and control published between 2001 and 2010 applying the Pragmatic Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary (PRECIS) criteria and external validity components from the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM) f...

  10. The role of chronic inflammation in the development of gastrointestinal cancers: reviewing cancer prevention with natural anti-inflammatory intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jae; Park, Jong-Min; Han, Young Min; Gil, Hong Kwon; Kim, Jinhyung; Chang, Ji Young; Jeong, Migyeong; Go, Eun-Jin; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators alter the local environment of tumors, known as the tumor microenvironment. Mechanistically, chronic inflammation induces DNA damage, but understanding this hazard may help in the search for new chemopreventive agents for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer which attenuate inflammation. In the clinic, GI cancer still remains a major cause of cancer-associated mortality, chemoprevention with anti-inflammatory agents is thought to be a realistic approach to reduce GI cancer. Proton pump inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor necrosis factor-alpha, anti-sense targeted smad7 and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents have been investigated for their potential to prevent inflammation-based GI cancer. Besides these, a wide variety of natural products have also shown potential for the prevention of GI cancer. In this review, the authors will provide insights to explain the mechanistic connection between inflammation and GI cancer, as well as describe a feasible cancer prevention strategy based on anti-inflammatory treatments.

  11. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  12. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Stomach Cancer Key Points Stomach (gastric) cancer is a ...

  13. CanPrevent: a telephone-delivered intervention to reduce multiple behavioural risk factors for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Anna L

    2012-11-01

    participation in CanPrevent. The intervention retention rate was 100%, participants reported that it was highly acceptable and they would recommend it to others at risk of colorectal cancer. Conclusions Positive behaviour change achieved through this intervention approach has the potential to impact on the progression of CRC and other cancers or chronic diseases. A large scale randomised controlled trial is required to confirm the positive results of this acceptability and short-term effectiveness study. Trial registration ACTRN12612000516886

  14. A Nutritional Approach to the Prevention of Cancer: from Assessment to Personalized Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Furia, L; Rusciano, M R; Leonardini, L; Rossi, P; Giammarchi, C; Vittori, E; Tilocca, S; Russo, F L; Montuori, P; Triassi, M; Nardone, A; Giaimo, M D; Migazzi, M; Piffer, S; Iaria, A; Trapasso, A; Firenze, A; Cristaudo, R; Revello, M; Castiglion, A; Zagonel, V; Iaccarino, G; Addis, A; Natale, L; Di Somma, C; Colao, A; Perra, A; Giova, K; Montuori, N; Illario, M

    2015-12-01

    Among lifestyle factors, nutrition is one of the most important determinants of health, and represents a pivotal element of cancer risk. Nonetheless, epidemiological evidences of the relationship between several cancers and specific foods and nutrients is still inadequate, and solid conclusions are missing. Indeed, caloric restriction without malnutrition is associated to cancer prevention. Food may be also the primary route of exposure to contaminants such as metals, persistent organic pollutants, and pesticides. Exposuredisease associations and the interplay with genetic susceptibility requires further studies on genetic variation, environment, lifestyle, and chronic disease in order to eliminate and reduce associated health risks, thus contributing to improve health outcomes for the population. A primary nutritional approach for Active and Healthy Ageing (AHA) has been developed by the Nutrition group of the European Innovation Partnership (EIP) on AHA. The working group on lifestyles of the Italian Ministry of Health has developed a comprehensive approach to adequate nutrition using a consensus methodology to collect and integrate the available evidences from the literature and from the Italian experiences at the regional level, to raise the interest of other experts and relevant stakeholders to outline and scale-up joint strategies for a primary nutritional approach to cancer prevention. PMID:27042431

  15. A Nutritional Approach to the Prevention of Cancer: from Assessment to Personalized Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Furia, L; Rusciano, M R; Leonardini, L; Rossi, P; Giammarchi, C; Vittori, E; Tilocca, S; Russo, F L; Montuori, P; Triassi, M; Nardone, A; Giaimo, M D; Migazzi, M; Piffer, S; Iaria, A; Trapasso, A; Firenze, A; Cristaudo, R; Revello, M; Castiglion, A; Zagonel, V; Iaccarino, G; Addis, A; Natale, L; Di Somma, C; Colao, A; Perra, A; Giova, K; Montuori, N; Illario, M

    2015-12-01

    Among lifestyle factors, nutrition is one of the most important determinants of health, and represents a pivotal element of cancer risk. Nonetheless, epidemiological evidences of the relationship between several cancers and specific foods and nutrients is still inadequate, and solid conclusions are missing. Indeed, caloric restriction without malnutrition is associated to cancer prevention. Food may be also the primary route of exposure to contaminants such as metals, persistent organic pollutants, and pesticides. Exposuredisease associations and the interplay with genetic susceptibility requires further studies on genetic variation, environment, lifestyle, and chronic disease in order to eliminate and reduce associated health risks, thus contributing to improve health outcomes for the population. A primary nutritional approach for Active and Healthy Ageing (AHA) has been developed by the Nutrition group of the European Innovation Partnership (EIP) on AHA. The working group on lifestyles of the Italian Ministry of Health has developed a comprehensive approach to adequate nutrition using a consensus methodology to collect and integrate the available evidences from the literature and from the Italian experiences at the regional level, to raise the interest of other experts and relevant stakeholders to outline and scale-up joint strategies for a primary nutritional approach to cancer prevention.

  16. Correlates of Adherence to a Telephone-Based Multiple Health Behavior Change Cancer Preventive Intervention for Teens: The Healthy for Life Program (HELP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Peshkin, Beth N.; Sharff, McKane E.; Walker, Leslie R.; Abraham, Anisha A.; Hawkins, Kirsten B.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with teens' adherence to a multiple health behavior cancer preventive intervention. Analyses identified predictors of trial enrollment, run-in completion, and adherence (intervention initiation, number of sessions completed). Of 104 teens screened, 73% (n = 76) were trial eligible. White teens were more…

  17. Cancer prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction A 44 year old woman attends your surgery,distressed by the fact that her closest friend has just been given a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. She wants to know how to minimise her risk of developing cancer.

  18. Impact of a smoking and alcohol intervention programme on lung and breast cancer incidence in Denmark: An example of dynamic modelling with Prevent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerjomataram, Isabelle; de Vries, Esther; Engholm, Gerda;

    2010-01-01

    of risk factors because of a 10% increase in cigarette and alcohol beverage price, repeated every 5years). Danish data from the household surveys, cancer registration and Eurostat were used. RESULTS: Up to 49% less new lung cancer cases can be expected in 2050 if smoking were to be completely eliminated....... Five-yearly 10% price increases may prevent 521 new lung cancer cases in 2050 (21% less cases). An intervention that immediately reduces population alcohol consumption to the recommended level (below 12g/d) may lower breast cancer by 7%, preventing 445 out of the 6060 expected new cases in 2050. Five......-yearly 10% price increases in alcoholic beverages achieved a reduction of half as expected by the ideal scenario, i.e. 4% (262) preventable cases in 2050. CONCLUSIONS: The future burden of lung and breast cancer could be markedly reduced by intervening in their risk factors. Prevent illustrates the benefit...

  19. Preventing Diabetes: Early Versus Late Preventive Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Schwarz, Peter E H

    2016-08-01

    There are a number of arguments in support of early measures for the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), as well as for concepts and strategies at later intervention stages. Diabetes prevention is achievable when implemented in a sustainable manner. Sustainability within a T2D prevention program is more important than the actual point in time or disease process at which prevention activities may start. The quality of intervention, as well as its intensity, should vary with the degree of the identified T2D risk. Nevertheless, preventive interventions should start as early as possible in order to allow a wide variety of relatively low- and moderate-intensity programs. The later the disease risk is identified, the more intensive the intervention should be. Public health interventions for diabetes prevention represent an optimal model for early intervention. Late interventions will be targeted at people who already have significant pathophysiological derangements that can be considered steps leading to the development of T2D. These derangements may be difficult to reverse, but the worsening of dysglycemia may be halted, and thus the clinical onset of T2D can be delayed. PMID:27440823

  20. Correlates of Adherence to a Telephone-Based Multiple Health Behavior Change Cancer Preventive Intervention for Teens: The Healthy for Life Program (HELP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mays, Darren; Peshkin, Beth N.; Sharff, McKane E.; Walker, Leslie R.; Abraham, Anisha A.; Hawkins, Kirsten; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with teens’ adherence to a multiple health behavior cancer preventive intervention. Analyses identified predictors of trial enrollment, run-in completion, and adherence (intervention initiation, number of sessions completed). Of 104 teens screened, 73% (n = 76) were trial-eligible. White teens were more likely to enroll than non-whites (χ2 [1] df = 4.49, p = 0.04). Among enrolled teens, 76% (n = 50) completed the run-in; there were no differences between...

  1. The insulin-like growth factor system in cancer prevention: potential of dietary intervention strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskuil, D.W.; Vrieling, A.; Veer, L.J. van 't; Kampman, E.; Rookus, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is related to proliferation and tumor growth, and high levels of circulating IGF-I are thought to be a risk factor for several types of cancer. This review summarizes the epidemiologic evidence for an association between circulating IGF-I and cancer risk a

  2. The Insulin-like Growth Factor System in Cancer Prevention: Potential of Dietary intervention Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskuil, D.W.; Vrieling, A.; Veer, van 't L.J.; Kampman, E.; Rookus, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is related to proliferation and tumor growth, and high levels of circulating IGF-I are thought to be a risk factor for several types of cancer. This review summarizes the epidemiologic evidence for an association between circulating IGF-I and cancer risk a

  3. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Harris, MD, MPH, MBA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network is a national network recently established to focus on developing new interventions and disseminating and translating proven interventions into practice to reduce cancer burden and disparities, especially among minority and medically underserved populations. Jointly funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network consists of sites administered through Prevention Research Centers funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The five sites are located in Kentucky, Massachusetts, South Carolina, Texas, Washington State, and West Virginia. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network’s intervention areas include primary prevention of cancer through healthy eating, physical activity, sun avoidance, tobacco control, and early detection of cancer through screening. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network uses the methods of community-based participatory research and seeks to build on the cancer-relevant systematic reviews of the Guide to Community Preventive Services. Initial foci for the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network’s research work groups include projects to increase screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers; to promote informed decision making for prostate cancer screening; and to validate educational materials developed for low-literacy populations.

  4. Fruit and Vegetable Dietary Behavior in Response to a Low-Intensity Dietary Intervention: The Rural Physician Cancer Prevention Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcaise-Edinboro, Patricia; McClish, Donna; Kracen, Amanda C.; Bowen, Deborah; Fries, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Context: Increased fruit and vegetable intake can reduce cancer risk. Information from this study contributes to research exploring health disparities in high-risk dietary behavior. Purpose: Changes in fruit and vegetable behavior were evaluated to assess the effects of a low-intensity, physician-endorsed dietary intervention in a rural…

  5. Statins and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCI Division of Cancer Prevention Web site at http://prevention.cancer.gov on the Internet. More information on cholesterol-lowering drugs can be obtained from the FDA Web site at http://www.fda.gov on the Internet. Related Resources Causes and Prevention Posted: June 2, ...

  6. What Works to Prevent Adolescent Smoking? A Systematic Review of the National Cancer Institute's Research-Tested Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Elyse J.; Primack, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cigarette use remains the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Although school is an ideal setting for antismoking interventions, school-based programs have not been successful in the long term. The purpose of this study was to explore characteristics of programs deemed to be successful short-term Research-Tested…

  7. Promoting oral health: interventions for preventing dental caries, oral and pharyngeal cancers, and sports-related craniofacial injuries. A report on recommendations of the task force on community preventive services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-30

    The Task Force on Community Preventive Services (the Task Force) has conducted systematic reviews of the evidence of effectiveness of selected population-based interventions to prevent and control dental caries (tooth decay), oral (mouth) and pharyngeal (throat) cancers, and sports-related craniofacial injuries. The Task Force strongly recommends community water fluoridation and school-based or school-linked pit and fissure sealant delivery programs for prevention and control of dental caries. Using the rules of evidence it has established, the Task Force found insufficient evidence of effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the remaining interventions reviewed. Therefore, the Task Force makes no recommendation for or against use of statewide or communitywide sealant promotion programs, population-based interventions for early detection of precancers and cancers, or population-based interventions to encourage use of helmets, facemasks, and mouthguards to reduce oral-facial trauma in contact sports. The Task Force's finding of insufficient evidence indicates the need for more research on intervention effectiveness. Until the results of such research become available, readers are encouraged to judge the usefulness of these interventions by other criteria. This report presents additional information regarding the recommendations, briefly describes how the reviews were conducted, and provides information designed to help apply the strongly recommended interventions locally. PMID:11770576

  8. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. CANCER CAN BE PREVENTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Life style factors are contributing significantly in cancer prevention. With the intake of proper and balanced diet ,cancer prevention is possible. Many foods are associated either with incidence or prevention of cancer. Plant based foods like fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains rich in fiber, b-carotene, vitamins and antioxidants can prevent cancer. Fiber rich foods increase bowel movement, decreasing the absorption of cholesterol. Pumpkin, carrots contain b-carotenes. Leafy vegetables, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, peas and beans are rich in fiber and stimulate cancer preventing enzyme induction. Vitamin C rich citrus fruits can stimulate immune system. Garlic and onions can stimulate enzymes that can suppress tumor growth. Turmeric used in cooking can prevent colorectal cancer. Topical application of turmeric can prevent breast cancer in women. On the other hand, certain foods can cause cancer. Refined foods, high fat foods, deep fried foods, processed foods and low fiber foods increase cancer risk. Red meat, processed meat and barbeques contain a carcinogen called acrylamide. Foods prepared with hydrogenated fats contain transfats which increase risk for breast, ovarian, cervical and lung cancer. Consumption of alcohol increasing the risk for cancers of digestive system. LET US EAT RIGHT FOODS AND AVOID WRONG FOODS.

  10. 浅析肿瘤预防中的心理干预策略%RESEARCH ON THE PSYCHOSOCIAL INTERVENTION FOR THE PREVENTION OF CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡淑琼

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To evaluate the role of psychosocial intervention for the prevention of cancer. [Methods] Psychosocial analysis using SCL-90 questionnaire was performed in people with high risk of cancer. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was used in the prevention of cancer. [Results] Evidence indicates high risk factors for cancer were distress, depression and anxiety. [Conclusion] Psychosocial support is beneficial for cancer prevention, and psychosocial intervention is helpful for the early diagnosis and prevention of cancer.%[目的]分析肿瘤患者在疾病发展的不同阶段存在的复杂心理问题,从而提醒人们在日常生活中,通过调整合理的生活方式,改善对生活的认知程度,可以预防肿瘤疾病的发生,进而提高生活质量.[方法]采用心理学分析方法,应用SCL-90测评量表及c塑行为研究分析.[结果]肿瘤高危人群在发病前均有典型的强迫、抑郁、焦虑及偏执等人格障碍.[结论]针对具有肿瘤易患因素的c型行为人群,如果能够早期发现,并实施合理的早期干预,纠正不良生活方式及思维习惯,改变c型行为,培养良好的认知情感,调动主观能动性,将使肿瘤的发病率大大降低.

  11. Evaluating Prevention and Intervention Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Arthur P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    States the process-outcome research and evaluation paradigm applied to alcohol and substance abuse prevention and intervention programs. Shows its application to efforts to improve students' and patients' self-esteem to be deficient in certain aspects and advocates additions to the evaluation procedures, most notably analysis of in-session change.…

  12. Correlates of Adherence to a Telephone-Based Multiple Health Behavior Change Cancer Preventive Intervention for Teens: The Healthy for Life Program (HELP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Peshkin, Beth N.; Sharff, McKane E.; Walker, Leslie R.; Abraham, Anisha A.; Hawkins, Kirsten; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with teens’ adherence to a multiple health behavior cancer preventive intervention. Analyses identified predictors of trial enrollment, run-in completion, and adherence (intervention initiation, number of sessions completed). Of 104 teens screened, 73% (n = 76) were trial-eligible. White teens were more likely to enroll than non-whites (χ2 [1] df = 4.49, p = 0.04). Among enrolled teens, 76% (n = 50) completed the run-in; there were no differences between run-in completers and non-completers. A majority of run-in completers (70%, n = 35) initiated the intervention, though teens who initiated the intervention were significantly younger than those who did not (p < 0.05). The mean number of sessions completed was 5.7 (SD = 2.6; maximum = 8). After adjusting for age, teens with poorer session engagement (e.g., less cooperative) completed fewer sessions (B = -1.97, p = 0.003, R2 = 0.24). Implications for adolescent cancer prevention research are discussed. PMID:21632437

  13. Effects of α-Tocopherol and β-Carotene Supplementation on Cancer Incidence and Mortality: 18-Year Post-Intervention Follow-Up of the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Virtamo, Jarmo; Taylor, Phil R; Kontto, Jukka; Männistö, Satu; Utriainen, Meri; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Huttunen, Jussi; Albanes, Demetrius

    2013-01-01

    In the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study among 29,133 Finnish male smokers aged 50–69 years, daily α-tocopherol (50 mg) for a median of 6.1 years decreased the risk of prostate cancer, whereas β-carotene (20 mg) increased risk of lung cancer and overall mortality. To determine the post-intervention effects of α-tocopherol and β-carotene, 25,563 men were followed 18 years for cancer incidence and all causes of mortality through national registers. Neither supplemen...

  14. Design and methods for a cluster randomized trial of the Sunless Study: A skin cancer prevention intervention promoting sunless tanning among beach visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merriam Philip

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancer is the most prevalent yet most preventable cancer in the US. While protecting oneself from ultraviolet radiation (UVR can largely reduce risk, rates of unprotected sun exposure remain high. Because the desire to be tan often outweighs health concerns among sunbathers, very few interventions have been successful at reducing sunbathing behavior. Sunless tanning (self-tanners and spray tans, a method of achieving the suntanned look without UVR exposure, might be an effective supplement to prevention interventions. Methods and Design This cluster randomized trial will examine whether a beach-based intervention that promotes sunless tanning as a substitute for sunbathing and includes sun damage imaging and sun safety recommendations is superior to a questionnaire only control group in reducing sunbathing frequency. Female beach visitors (N = 250 will be recruited from 2 public beaches in eastern Massachusetts. Beach site will be the unit of randomization. Follow-up assessment will occur at the end of the summer (1-month following intervention and 1 year later. The primary outcome is average sunbathing time per week. The study was designed to provide 90% power for detecting a difference of .70 hours between conditions (standard deviation of 2.0 at 1-year with an intra-cluster correlation coefficient of 0.01 and assuming a 25% rate of loss to follow-up. Secondary outcomes include frequency of sunburns, use of sunless tanning products, and sun protection behavior. Discussion Interventions might be improved by promoting behavioral substitutes for sun exposure, such as sunless tanners, that create a tanned look without exposure to UVR. Trial registration NCT00403377

  15. Preventing cervical cancer globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2012-11-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. More than 85% of cases and deaths occur in the developing world where the availability of effective screening is limited. In this issue of the journal, Pierce and colleagues (beginning on page 1273) describe a novel technique using a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) to diagnose cervical dysplasia. This perspective reviews the limitations of existing cervical cancer screening methods currently in use in low-resource settings and the potential for HRME imaging to contribute to cervical cancer prevention in the developing world.

  16. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  17. eHealth interventions for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly changing media landscape and proliferation of new technologies creates vast new opportunities for HIV prevention. The fast growth of the relatively new eHealth field is a testament to the excitement and promise of these new technologies. eHealth interventions in HIV prevention tested to date include computer- and Internet-based interventions; chat room interventions; text messaging interventions; and social media. The current article provides a brief review of these types of interventions in HIV prevention, including their unique advantages and evidence of efficacy. Implications for future research in the eHealth HIV prevention field are discussed. PMID:22519523

  18. PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PREVENT program provides a structure for the introduction of new agents, drugs and vaccines to inhibit, retard or reverse the cancer process. The program was designed to optimize translational opportunities from discovery to the clinic, and provide a mechanism to identify and study efficacy and pharmacodynamics biomarkers that will help in phase II trials to evaluate drug effects.  | Research pipeline for new prevention interventions and biomarkers headed toward clinical trials.

  19. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship provides a strong foundation for scientists and clinicians to train in the field of cancer prevention and control. This structured, multidisciplinary program offers early career scientists from different health disciplines a variety of postdoctoral training opportunities . | Training to form a strong foundation in cancer prevention and control for scientists and clinicians.

  20. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... inhibitor, can do an even better job of preventing breast cancer than the SERMs. Aromatase inhibitors stop an enzyme ...

  1. Biorepositories- | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carefully collected and controlled high-quality human biospecimens, annotated with clinical data and properly consented for investigational use, are available through the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories listed in the charts below. Biorepositories Managed by the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories Supported by the Division of Cancer Prevention Related Biorepositories | Information about accessing biospecimens collected from DCP-supported clinical trials and projects.

  2. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  3. [Preventing cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, P; Noël, J-C

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer has hopefully been dropping down in our industrialized countries since the introduction of both primary and secondary prevention. Nevertheless, it is still lethal in one out of two affected women though the introduction of cytological screening has dramatically reduced the mortality. Progressive diffusion of anti-HPV vaccination, the broadening of the viral types concerned, its association with existing screening measures and finally the introduction of viral detection as a screening tool must optimize the results already obtained.

  4. Prevention strategies in prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Trottier, Greg; Lawrentschuk, N.; Fleshner, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer (pca) prevention has been an exciting and controversial topic since the results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (pcpt) were published. With the recently published results of the reduce (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) trial, interest in this topic is at a peak. Primary pca prevention will be unlikely to affect mortality significantly, but the reduction in overtreatment and the effect on quality of life from the avoidance of a cancer diagnosis are im...

  5. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quit General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are diseases in ... about how you might lower your risk of cancer. Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are two different ...

  6. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Estimating the Costs of Preventive Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E. Michael; Porter, Michele M.; Ayers, Tim S.; Kaplan, Debra L.; Sandler, Irwin

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this article is to improve the practice and reporting of cost estimates of prevention programs. It reviews the steps in estimating the costs of an intervention and the principles that should guide estimation. The authors then review prior efforts to estimate intervention costs using a sample of well-known but diverse studies. Finally,…

  8. Home | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Research The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into cancer. |

  9. News | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    News about scientific advances in cancer prevention, program activities, and new projects are included here in NCI press releases and fact sheets, articles from the NCI Cancer Bulletin, and Clinical Trial News from the NCI website.

  10. Interventions for preventing occupational irritant hand dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, Andrea; Schmitt, Jochen; Bennett, Cathy; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Elsner, Peter; English, John; Williams, Hywel C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Occupational irritant hand dermatitis (OIHD) is an important cause of discomfort in the working population. Different preventive measures are in place but it is not clear how effective these are. Objectives To assess the effect of interventions for preventing OIHD in healthy people who wo

  11. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  12. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. This one-week intense learning session provides specialized instruction in the role of diet and bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer incidence and tumor behavior. |

  13. "Cancer--Educate to Prevent"--high-school teachers, the new promoters of cancer prevention education campaigns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Barros

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and thus represents a priority for national public health programs. Prevention has been assumed as the best strategy to reduce cancer burden, however most cancer prevention programs are implemented by healthcare professionals, which constrain range and educational impacts. We developed an innovative approach for cancer prevention education focused on high-school biology teachers, considered privileged mediators in the socialization processes. A training program, "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" was applied, so that the teachers were able to independently develop and implement prevention campaigns focused on students and school-related communities. The program encompassed different educational modules, ranging from cancer biology to prevention campaigns design. Fifty-four teachers were empowered to develop and implement their own cancer prevention campaigns in a population up to five thousands students. The success of the training program was assessed through quantitative evaluation--questionnaires focused on teachers' cancer knowledge and perceptions, before the intervention (pre-test and immediately after (post-test. The projects developed and implemented by teachers were also evaluated regarding the intervention design, educational contents and impact on the students' knowledge about cancer. This study presents and discusses the results concerning the training program "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" and clearly shows a significant increase in teacher's cancer literacy (knowledge and perceptions and teachers' acquired proficiency to develop and deliver cancer prevention campaigns with direct impact on students' knowledge about cancer. This pilot study reinforces the potential of high-school teachers and schools as cancer prevention promoters and opens a new perspective for the development and validation of cancer prevention education strategies, based upon focused interventions in restricted

  14. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in preventing gastrointestinal...... Database from inception to October 2007. We scanned reference lists and contacted pharmaceutical companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing antioxidant supplements to placebo/no intervention examining occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors (GB...... high. Heterogeneity was low to moderate. Antioxidant supplements were without significant effects on gastrointestinal cancers (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.06). However, there was significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 54.0%, P = 0.003). The heterogeneity may have been explained by bias risk (low-bias risk...

  15. Prevent Wounds by Conducting a Comprehensive Foot Examination and Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Shelly Burdette-Taylor

    2015-01-01

    Lower extremity wounds and falls are on the rise with the demographics and projected aging population. Diabetes and heart disease supersede cancer deaths. A basic foot exam—performed routinely on patients identified as high risk allows time for early intervention and prevention. A Certified Foot and Nail Care Nurse (CFCN) who evaluates clients on a regular basis, conducts a comprehensive lower extremity exam for loss of protective sensation (LOPS) and compromised peripheral blood flow is more...

  16. Preventive interventions for tendinopathy : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Janne A; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ronald L; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Tendinopathy, the most prevalent tendon disorder which is considered as the clinical diagnosis of pain and dysfunction, is common in sports and its prevalence is ever-increasing. Despite the lack of clarity about risk factors, various preventive interventions for tendinopathy have been i

  17. Can communit based interventions prevent child maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijken, M.W.; Stams, Geert-Jan; de Winter, M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the many efforts taken to prevent child maltreatment, this continues to be a significant worldwide problem. Interventions predominantly focus on ‘at risk’ populations and individual characteristics of the victim or abuser, but is that enough? The present review was designed to examine the po

  18. Cancer Prevention Overview (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large amount of arsenic has been linked to skin , bladder, and lung cancers. Studies have been done ...

  19. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate cancer increases as men get older. Family history of prostate cancer A man whose father, brother, ... some foods, such as green vegetables, beans and orange juice. Folic acid is a man-made form ...

  20. Future directions in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Asad; Dunn, Barbara K; Greenwald, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Prevention of cancer remains the most promising strategy for reducing both its incidence and the mortality due to this disease. For more than four decades, findings from epidemiology, basic research and clinical trials have informed the development of lifestyle and medical approaches to cancer prevention. These include selective oestrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer, the 5-α-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride for prostate cancer, and the development of vaccines for viruses that are associated with specific cancers. Future directions include genetic, proteomic and other molecular approaches for identifying pathways that are associated with cancer initiation and development, as well as refining the search for immunologically modifiable causes of cancer. PMID:23151603

  1. Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or other cancers, including lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma, and cancers of the lung, bladder, pancreas, and colon and rectum ( 26 ). Overall, these nine ... the incidence and mortality of carcinoma of the pancreas in a randomized, controlled trial. Cancer 1999; 86(1):37-42. [PubMed Abstract] Virtamo ...

  2. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casari, Ilaria; Falasca, Marco

    2015-11-23

    Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  3. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Casari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  4. Annual Advances in Cancer Prevention Lecture | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015 Keynote Lecture HPV Vaccination: Preventing More with Less A special keynote lecture became part of the NCI summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention in 2000. This lecture will be held on Thursday, July 23, 2015 at 3:00pm at Masur Auditorium, Building 10, NIH Main Campus, Bethesda, MD. This year’s keynote speaker is Dr. Douglas Lowy, NCI Acting Director. |

  5. Biobehavioral Intervention for Cancer Stress: Conceptualization, Components, and Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Barbara L.; Golden-Kreutz, Deanna M.; Emery, Charles F.; Thiel, Debora L.

    2009-01-01

    Trials testing the efficacy of psychological interventions for cancer patients had their beginnings in the 1970s. Since then, hundreds of trials have found interventions to be generally efficacious. In this article, we describe an intervention grounded in a conceptual model that includes psychological, behavioral, and biological components. It is…

  6. [Cancer prevention and tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2015-04-01

    The paper summarized briefly the evidences for tobacco use as a cause of cancer based on hundreds of epidemiologic and biomedical studies carried out over the past 50-60 years, as well as overviewed the carcinogens in tobacco products and mechanisms of neoplasm induction by tobacco products. So, tobacco control is the important measure for cancer prevention.

  7. Preventing Mass Atrocities: Ideological Strategies and Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Leader Maynard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Both scholars and international actors frequently stress the important role played by anti-civilian ideologies in escalating risks of mass atrocities against civilians. Yet strategies to combat and counter anti-civilian ideologies remain an uncertain and understudied component of atrocity prevention, and scepticism about their efficacy is to be expected. This paper provides a preliminary framework for thinking about strategies and interventions designed to counter the ideological causes of mass atrocities. First, I briefly clarify what existing research seems to suggest the role of ideology in mass atrocities is, and is not. I caution against cruder or overly strong theses about the role ideology plays, but clarify that whilst ideology’s actual causal impact is varying and complex, it is also significant. Second, I clarify what ideological interventions and strategies might be reasonably expected to do, and comparatively assess them against more dominant existing prevention tools to show that their preventive potential is sufficiently high to warrant usage. Finally, I provide guidelines on how the effort to formulate ideological strategies and interventions for preventing mass atrocities should best proceed.

  8. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This may lead to liver cancer. Blood banks test all donated blood for hepatitis B, which greatly lowers the risk of getting the ... This may lead to liver cancer. Blood banks test all donated blood for hepatitis C, which ... infected with hepatitis B. It is caused by hepatitis D virus (HDV) ...

  9. Prevention strategies for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz-Dräger, B J; Lümmen, G; Bismarck, E; Fischer, C

    2012-12-01

    Through the last decade consideration of the role of vitamins and minerals in primary prevention of genitourinary tumors has dramatically changed. Despite all efforts efficacy of a specific compound has not been proven, so far. In consequence, recommendations for a use of vitamins or other supplements with the intention of prostate cancer prevention should be avoided today. In contrast, there is some evidence that life style modification might be helpful: recent investigations suggest that smoking may be involved in prostate cancer carcinogenesis. In addition, there is evidence that moderate food consumption, reduction of dairy products and an Asian or Mediterranean diet might not only prevent prostate cancer but also harbors additional beneficial effects on general health. This move from single compounds to more complex diets can be considered as a change of paradigm in prostate cancer prevention and could be the starting point of future epidemiological research. Disappointing findings with regards to nutritional cancer prevention contrast with a solid evidence concerning the efficacy of chemoprevention using 5a-reductase inhibitors: Long-term use of Finasteride and Dutasteride significantly reduces prostate cancer detection. Further candidate drugs are under investigation. However, translation of these findings into urological practice remains a matter of controversial discussion. PMID:23288209

  10. Cyber Bullying Prevention: Intervention in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Shinn Lee; Wu Zi-Pei; Leif Svanström; Koustuv Dalal

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the cyber bullying prevention WebQuest course implementation. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The study adopted the quasi-experimental design with two classes made up of a total of 61 junior high school students of seventh grade. The study subjects comprised of 30 students from the experimental group and 31 students from the control group. The experimental group received eight sessions (total 360 minutes) of the teaching intervention for four...

  11. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the risk of breast cancer: Having an abortion. Making diet changes such as eating less fat or more ... does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care. Reviewers and Updates Editorial Boards ...

  12. Endometrial Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnant. This increases the risk of endometrial cancer. Tamoxifen Tamoxifen is one of a group of drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators , or SERMs. Tamoxifen acts like estrogen on some tissues in the ...

  13. About DCP | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is the primary unit of the National Cancer Institute devoted to cancer prevention research. DCP provides funding and administrative support to clinical and laboratory researchers, community and multidisciplinary teams, and collaborative scientific networks. |

  14. Lay Representations of Cancer Prevention and Early Detection: Associations With Prevention Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen W. Sullivan, PhD, MPH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe Common Sense Model of illness representations posits that how people think about an illness affects how they try to prevent the illness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prevention representations vary by cancer type (colon, lung, and skin cancer and whether representations are associated with relevant behaviors.MethodsWe analyzed data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 2005, a nationally representative survey of American adults (N = 5,586 conducted by telephone interview.ResultsRespondents reported that all 3 types of cancer can be prevented through healthy behaviors; however, fewer did so for colon cancer. More respondents reported screening as a prevention strategy for colon cancer than did so for lung or skin cancer. Representations were associated with colon cancer screening, smoking status, and sunscreen use.ConclusionRepresentations of cancer were associated with relevant health behaviors, providing a target for health messages and interventions.

  15. Cyber bullying prevention: intervention in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shinn Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of the cyber bullying prevention WebQuest course implementation. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The study adopted the quasi-experimental design with two classes made up of a total of 61 junior high school students of seventh grade. The study subjects comprised of 30 students from the experimental group and 31 students from the control group. The experimental group received eight sessions (total 360 minutes of the teaching intervention for four consecutive weeks, while the control group did not engage in any related courses. The self-compiled questionnaire for the student's knowledge, attitudes, and intentions toward cyber bullying prevention was adopted. Data were analysed through generalized estimating equations to understand the immediate results on the student's knowledge, attitudes, and intentions after the intervention. The results show that the WebQuest course immediately and effectively enhanced the knowledge of cyber bullying, reduced the intentions, and retained the effects after the learning. But it produced no significant impact on the attitude toward cyber bullying. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The intervention through this pilot study was effective and positive for cyber bulling prevention. It was with small number of students. Therefore, studies with large number of students and long experimental times, in different areas and countries are warranted.

  16. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk? What Are the Symptoms? What Should I Know About Screening? Statistics Related Links Inside Knowledge Campaign What CDC Is Doing Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Printable Versions Standard quality PDF [PDF-877KB] High-quality PDF for professional ...

  17. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  18. Annual Advances in Cancer Prevention Lecture | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016 Keynote Lecture Polyvalent Vaccines Targeting Oncogenic Driver Pathways A special keynote lecture became part of the NCI Summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention in 2000. This lecture will be held on Thursday, July 21, 2016 at 1:30pm at Masur Auditorium, Building 10, NIH Main Campus, Bethesda, MD. This year’s keynote speaker is Dr. Mary L. (Nora) Disis, MD. |

  19. Potential Targets for Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamseddine

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I. Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the “proof of principle” that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research.

  20. Nutrition in cancer prevention: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Norman J; Balay-Karperien, Audrey L

    2002-04-01

    There is considerable evidence that the war on cancer is not being won. There is, however, strong evidence that a substantial fraction of cancer can be prevented by using existing nutritional knowledge. In this paper we discuss strategies for reducing cancer incidence by implementing this knowledge. The most obvious route for persuading large numbers to change their diets is by individual counseling in a health-care setting, public education campaigns and interventions at the worksite. However, such health promotion actions have met with only limited success. For efforts to change population diets to be successful, a vital component must include changes in govemment policies. Examples of the tools that need to be employed are restrictions on advertising and marketing. Effective action will likely require an economic dimension, namely the employment of taxation and subsidies, for instance, by taxing unhealthy food choices and by subsidizing fruit and vegetables. PMID:11999546

  1. [Primary prevention of urologic tumors: prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz-Dräger, B J; Lümmen, G; Bismarck, E; Fischer, C

    2011-10-01

    Assessment of the role of vitamins and micronutrients in the primary prevention of prostate cancer has changed dramatically in the past 10 years. Efforts to confirm the efficacy of a single substance have not yet succeeded. Therefore, such recommendations should at present no longer be given. Consideration could even be given to discussing whether additional large-scale interventional studies are expedient in this regard. There is still solid evidence that a well-balanced moderate diet, reduced consumption of milk products, and an Asian or Mediterranean diet are not only beneficial for general good health but can also prevent the development of prostate cancer. This should be the focus of further epidemiological studies. Thus, one can certainly speak of a paradigm shift in the prevention of prostate cancer. In contrast, available data on chemoprevention with 5α-reductase inhibitors is unequivocal: intake of finasteride as well as dutasteride correlates with significantly decreased evidence for prostate cancer. Converting this result into urologic practice remains the topic of extensive controversy. PMID:21927877

  2. Can the Tomato Prevent Cancer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建明

    2009-01-01

    难度:★★★★☆字数:368建议时间:5分钟Apurple tomato genetically engineered to con-tain nutrients more commonly seen in dark berries helped prevent cancer in mice,British researchers said on Sunday.The finding,published in

  3. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... look for the gene mutations found in familial medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Because of this, most of the familial cases of MTC can be prevented or treated early by removing the thyroid gland. Once the disease is discovered in a family, the rest of ...

  4. Using Intervention Mapping as a Participatory Strategy: Development of a Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Theresa L.; Wilson, Katherine M.; Smith, Judith Lee; Heckert, Andrea; Orians, Carlyn E.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria E.; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable with treatment of precancerous lesions and treatable at early stages. Hispanics have higher rates of cervical cancer and lower rates of screening. "Ayndando a las Mujeres con Informaccion, Guia, y Amor para su Salud" (AMIGAS) is an intervention to increase cervical cancer screening in U.S. women of Mexican origin.…

  5. Occupational cancer in Britain. Preventing occupational cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiqun; Osman, John

    2012-06-19

    Although only a relatively small proportion of cancer is attributable to occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents, the estimated number of deaths due to occupational cancer is high when compared to other deaths due to work-related ill health and injury. However, risk from occupational exposure to carcinogens can be minimised through proportionate but effective risk management. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the regulator of workplace health and safety in Great Britain. As part of its aim to reduce ill health arising from failures to control properly exposure to hazards at work, HSE commissioned the research presented elsewhere in this supplement to enable it to identify priorities for preventing occupational cancer. The research has shown that occupational cancer remains a key health issue and that low-level exposure of a large number of workers to carcinogens is important. The finding that a small number of carcinogens have been responsible for the majority of the burden of occupational cancer provides key evidence in the development of priorities for significant reduction of occupational cancer. Although the research presented in this supplement reflects the consequences of past exposures to carcinogens, occupational cancer remains a problem. The potential for exposure to the agents considered in this research is still present in the workplace and the findings are relevant to prevention of future disease. In this article, the principle approaches for risk reduction are described. It provides supporting information on some of the initiatives already being undertaken, or those being put in place, to reduce occupational cancer in Great Britain. The need also for systematic collection of exposure information and the importance of raising awareness and changing behaviours are discussed.

  6. CPFP Summer Curriculum: Molecular Prevention Course | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) one-week course on molecular aspects of cancer prevention follows the Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course. It provides a strong background about molecular biology and genetics of cancer, and an overview of cutting-edge research and techniques in the fields of molecular epidemiology, biomarkers, multi-omic, and translational research. The following topics will be typically presented: |

  7. Preventing Vomiting Caused by Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Cancer Treatment Request Permissions Print to PDF Preventing Vomiting Caused by Cancer Treatment November 2, 2015 ... Torisel) Topotecan (Hycamtin, Brakiva) Trastuzumab (Herceptin) Recommendations for preventing vomiting caused by chemotherapy and targeted therapy The ...

  8. 乳腺癌防治社区干预模式及效果评价研究%Effect evaluation study of community intervention model for breast cancer prevention and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚瑞峰; 卢雪珍; 刘政红; 刘湘晖

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the impact of community intervention on women's awareness of breast cancer prevention and treatment and explore suitable community intervention model for breast cancer prevention and treatment. Methods From 2011 to 2013,married women within jurisdiction received breast cancer screening and their personal information was recorded. Results (1)From 2011 to 2013,the breast ultrasound examination rates were 16.05%,18.39% and 25.47% respectively,with statistically significant difference (P < 0.01). (2)The breast cancer detection rates were 10.61/100 thousand,67.85/100 thousand and 110.29/100 thousand. The breast molybdenum target screening model was further used for the abnormal results in breast black-and-white ultrasound B, and the breast cancer detection rates were 66.09/100 thousand,369.00/100 thousand and 433.09/100 thousand. For the breast cancer screening using only clinical palpation and breast infrared ray,the detection rate was 0. (3)Of the 17 cases of breast cancer,14 cases were in clinical stage I. Conclusion Community intervention can improve the women's awareness of breast cancer prevention and treatment. Suitable breast cancer screening method can improve the early detection,early diagnosis and early cure rates of breast cancer,avoid health damage caused by subsequent radiotherapy and chemotherapy,improve the patients' quality of life through allowing breast-conserving surgery,and obtain favorable social benefits.%目的:了解社区干预对妇女防治乳腺癌意识的影响,探索适合社区的乳腺癌防治干预模式。方法2011~2013年对辖区内已婚育龄妇女进行乳腺癌筛查,并记录个人信息。结果(1)2011~2013年乳腺超声受检率分别为16.05%、18.39%、25.47%,其差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01)。(2)乳腺癌检出率分别为10.61/10万、67.85/10万、110.29/10万。其中采用乳腺黑白B超异常进一步乳腺钼靶筛查模式,乳腺癌检出率为66.09/10

  9. Clinical Trials Management | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials. Protocol Information Office The central clearinghouse for clinical trials management within the Division of Cancer Prevention.Read more about the Protocol Information Office. | Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials.

  10. Survival in prostate cancer prevention trial detailed

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the NCI-sponsored Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, initial findings from a decade ago showed that the drug finasteride significantly reduced the risk of prostate cancer, but among those who did develop prostate cancer, paradoxically, the drug was asso

  11. Preventing disruptive behavior in early elementary schoolchildren: impact of a universal classroom-based preventive intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.C. van Lier

    2002-01-01

    textabstractKnowledge about the development of children with disruptive behaviors, leading to disruptive disorders and related poor outcomes, guides prevention research in the development and evaluation of preventive interventions. The overview of effective interventions in this chapter showed that

  12. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G;

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  13. Prospective cohort study of comprehensive prevention to gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Qiang Guo; Peng Guan; Hai-Long Shi; Xuan Zhang; Bao-Sen Zhou; Yuan Yuan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the preliminary effects of comprehensive prevention of gastric cancer in Zhuanghe County epidemiologically.METHODS: Stratified sampling and cluster sampling were applied to define the intervention group and the control group. The prospective cohort study was used for evaluating the effect of preventing gastric cancer. The relative risk (RR)and attributable risk percent (AR %) of intervention on gastric cancer death were calculated. Potential years of life lost (PLYY) of the disease was analyzed, and the RR and AR %of PYLL were calculated. Survival analysis was applied among the screened patients.RESULTS: In the first 4 years after intervening, the relative risk (RR) of intervention on death was 0.5059 (95 % CI:0.3462~0.7392,P<0.05) with significance statistically. AR %of the intervention on death was 49.41%. The RR of intervention on cumulative PYLL was 0.6778 (95 % CI:0.5604~0.8198,P<0.05) with statistic significance. AR %of the intervention on cumulative PYLL was 30.32 %. The four-year survival rate of the screened patients was 0.6751(95 % CI: 0.5298~0.9047).CONCLUSION: The initiative intervention results showed that the intervention approach used in the trial was effective, it reduced mortality and increased survival rate, and alleviated the adverse effect of gastric cancer on the health and life of screened population.

  14. Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. A Review of HIV Prevention Interventions for Juvenile Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Tolou-Shams, Marina; Stewart, Angela; Fasciano, John; Brown, Larry K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To conduct a critical review of all HIV prevention intervention studies conducted with adolescents in juvenile justice settings to inform future intervention development. Method PubMed and PsycInfo database searches were conducted for peer-reviewed, published HIV prevention intervention studies with juvenile offenders. Results Sixteen studies were identified (N = 3,700 adolescents). Half of the projects utilized rigorous methodologies to determine intervention effect on behavior cha...

  16. Prostate and Urologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of prostate and bladder cancer. | Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of prostate, bladder, and skin cancers.

  17. WITHDRAWN: Interventions to implement prevention in primary care (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Weijden, T. van der; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary care physicians hold a strategic position in delivering preventive services. However discrepancies exist between evidence based guidelines and practice. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of interventions to improve the delivery of preventive services in primary care. SEARCH STRAT

  18. Casting a Wider Net: Engaging Community Health Worker Clients and Their Families in Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Lee Anne; Zambrana, Ruth Enid; Ford, Sabrina; Meghea, Cristian; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Engaging family members in an intervention to prevent breast and cervical cancer can be a way to reach underserved women; however, little is known about whether family member recruitment reaches at-risk women. This study reports the kin relationship and risk characteristics of family members who chose to participate in the Kin Keeper(SM) cancer prevention intervention, delivered by community health workers (CHWs) via existing community programs. African American, Latina, and Arab family members reported risk factors for inadequate screening, including comorbid health conditions and inadequate breast or cervical cancer literacy. CHW programs can be leveraged to reach underserved families with cancer preventive interventions. PMID:27634780

  19. Funded Projects | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast Cancer (vaccines)Plac1 vaccine for breast cancer preventionEfficacy of a multi-antigen vaccine in the prevention of methynitrosourea-induced mammary cancers (ER+) in female Sprague-Dawley rats Breast Cancer (small molecules and biomarkers)Chemopreventive effects in both standard chow diets and high-fat diets of known positive- and negative-chemopreventive agents employing both high-risk (but histologically normal) mammary epithelium and mammary cancers including correlative biomarkers | Breast Cancer (vaccines) Cervical Cancer (small molecule) Colon Cancer (small molecules, vaccine, biomarker) Lung Cancer (small molecules, vaccine, biomarker, vaccine) Pancreatic Cancer (small molecule) Prostate Cancer (small molecule) Oral Cancer (small molecule) Skin Cancer (small molecule)

  20. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WHEELER COSETTE M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.

  1. Prevention of Urinary Bladder Cancer: The Interface Between Experimental and Human Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Shoji; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2000-01-01

    1. Introduction: Bladder Cancer and the Environment Historical Aspects 2. Geographical Variation in Histopathological Types of Bladder Cancer Schistosomiasis Arsenic Poisoning Chernobyl 3. Analytical Epidemiological and Linked Experimental Findings Smoking Analgesic Abuse Saccharine 4. Histogenesis of Bladder Cancers Histopathology Molecular pathology 5. Carcinogens and Modification of Tumour Development Carcinogens Promoting agents Inhibitory agents 6. Prevention of Bladder Cancer Primary Prevention/ Lifestyle Factors/Chemoprevention Secondary Prevention/ Screening/Intervention Conclusions

  2. Friday's Agenda | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    TimeAgenda8:00 am - 8:10 amWelcome and Opening RemarksLeslie Ford, MDAssociate Director for Clinical ResearchDivision of Cancer Prevention, NCIEva Szabo, MD Chief, Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research GroupDivision of Cancer Prevention, NCI8:10 am - 8:40 amClinical Trials Statistical Concepts for Non-Statisticians |

  3. Annalisa Gnoleba, MSA | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrs. Annalisa Gnoleba is the Public Health Analyst for the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program, Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute. In this position, Mrs. Gnoleba serves as the analyst for developing and formulating short and long range public health program goals, objectives and policies. |

  4. Conservative interventions for preventing clinically detectable upper-limb lymphoedema in patients who are at risk of developing lymphoedema after breast cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Stuiver; M.R. ten Tusscher; C.S. Agasi-Idenburg; C. Lucas; N.K. Aaronson; P.M.M. Bossuyt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer-related lymphoedema can be a debilitating long-term sequela of breast cancer treatment. Several studies have investigated the effectiveness of different treatment strategies to reduce the risk of breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Objectives: To assess the effects of conser

  5. Prevent Wounds by Conducting a Comprehensive Foot Examination and Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Shelly Burdette-Taylor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lower extremity wounds and falls are on the rise with the demographics and projected aging population. Diabetes and heart disease supersede cancer deaths. A basic foot exam—performed routinely on patients identified as high risk allows time for early intervention and prevention. A Certified Foot and Nail Care Nurse (CFCN who evaluates clients on a regular basis, conducts a comprehensive lower extremity exam for loss of protective sensation (LOPS and compromised peripheral blood flow is more likely to provide needed care in a timely manner. Why a nurse? Because nurses who have the level of education, expertise through acquired training, and are board certified are competent to assess, educate, provide intervention, and refer. Utilizing CFCNs is cost-effective and efficient. CFCN is utilized as a member of the multidisciplinary team. Nurses are educators and education is an effective method for prevention. Nurses, as the most trusted health care provider, communicate, establish rapport, and develop sustaining relationships. Utilizing the Wound Ostomy Continence Nurses’ Credentialing Board (WOCNCB CFCN raises the standard of care substantially and reduces overall costs to life, limbs, and dollars. This innovation in practice improves outcomes, patient satisfaction, and safety while reducing hospital admissions.

  6. The Child Anxiety Prevention Study: Intervention Model and Primary Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2009-01-01

    The article presents the intervention model and primary outcomes of a preventive intervention designed to reduce anxiety symptoms and prevent the onset of anxiety disorders in the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders. Participants were 40 volunteer children (mean age = 8.94 years; 45% girls; 90% Caucasian) whose parents met criteria for a…

  7. Interventions to prevent injuries in construction workers (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Molen, H.F.; Lethola, M.M.; Lappalainen, J.; Hoonakker, P.L.T.; Hsiao, H.; Haslam, R.; Hale, A.R.; Verbeek, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Construction workers are frequently exposed to various types of injury-inducing hazards. A number of injury prevention interventions have been proposed, yet their effectiveness is uncertain. Objectives To assess the effects of interventions to prevent injuries in construction workers. Sea

  8. Gastric cancer: prevention, risk factors and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zali, Hakimeh; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Azodi, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Cancer starts with a change in one single cell. This change may be initiated by external agents and genetic factors. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and accounts for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year. In this review, different aspects of gastric cancer; including clinical, pathological characteristic of gastric cancer, etiology, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatme...

  9. Preoperative Arterial Interventional Chemotherapy on Cervical Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; LING HU-Hua; TANG Liang-dan; ZHANG Xing-hua

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the therapeutic effect of preoperative interventional chemotherapy on cervical cancer.Methods:Preoperative interventional chemotherapy by femoral intubation was performed in 25 patients with bulky cervical cancer.The patients received bleomycin 45 mg and cisplatin or oxaliplatin 80 mg/m2.Results:25 cases(including 8 cases with stage Ⅰ and 17 cases with stage Ⅱ)received one or two courses of preoperative interventional chemotherapy.The size of the focal lesions was decreased greatly and radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy were performed successfully in all the patients.All of the specimens were sent for pathological examination.Lymphocyte infiltration was found more obvious in the cancer tissues as compared with their counterpart before treatment.As a result,relevant vaginal bleeding was stopped completely shortly after the treatment.Conclusion:Arterial interventional chemotherapy was proved to reduce the local size of cervical cancer and thus control the hemorrhage efficiently.The patients with cervical cancer can receive radical hysterectomy therapy after the interventional chemotherapy.

  10. Convergence of nanotechnology and cancer prevention: are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menter, David G; Patterson, Sherri L; Logsdon, Craig D; Kopetz, Scott; Sood, Anil K; Hawk, Ernest T

    2014-10-01

    Nanotechnology is emerging as a promising modality for cancer treatment; however, in the realm of cancer prevention, its full utility has yet to be determined. Here, we discuss the potential of integrating nanotechnology in cancer prevention to augment early diagnosis, precision targeting, and controlled release of chemopreventive agents, reduced toxicity, risk/response assessment, and personalized point-of-care monitoring. Cancer is a multistep, progressive disease; the functional and acquired characteristics of the early precancer phenotype are intrinsically different from those of a more advanced anaplastic or invasive malignancy. Therefore, applying nanotechnology to precancers is likely to be far more challenging than applying it to established disease. Frank cancers are more readily identifiable through imaging and biomarker and histopathologic assessment than their precancerous precursors. In addition, prevention subjects routinely have more rigorous intervention criteria than therapy subjects. Any nanopreventive agent developed to prevent sporadic cancers found in the general population must exhibit a very low risk of serious side effects. In contrast, a greater risk of side effects might be more acceptable in subjects at high risk for cancer. Using nanotechnology to prevent cancer is an aspirational goal, but clearly identifying the intermediate objectives and potential barriers is an essential first step in this exciting journey.

  11. Rehabilitation interventions for cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Ploug; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Johansen, Christoffer

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the influence of three contextual parameteres in rehabilitation courses for cancer survivors in Denmark. It is based on ethonographic fieldwork.......The present study examines the influence of three contextual parameteres in rehabilitation courses for cancer survivors in Denmark. It is based on ethonographic fieldwork....

  12. Active Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Trial NCT01950403 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Trial NCT01141231 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Trial NCT02237183 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Trial NCT01382082 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Trial NCT02273362 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Meetings and Events | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Trial NCT02112188 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Trial NCT01824836 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Trial NCT01968798 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Trial NCT01849250 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Trial NCT02116530 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Nutritional Science Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Clinical Trials Node | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. 2014 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. 2015 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. 2013 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. 2016 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. News Archives | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevention. No woman should die of cervical cancer. Doctors, nurses, and health systems can: Help women understand what ... Cancer Early Detection Program , Title X Family Planning Doctors, nurses, and health systems can Help women understand which ...

  12. Prevention program of cervical cancer - Enrique Pouey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the first basic objectives in the prevention of cervical cancer in Uruguay. The Papanicolaou test, the biopsia, and the colposcopy are important studies for the early cervical cancer detection

  13. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  14. Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

  15. Major Programs | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations, research networks, investigator-initiated grants, postdoctoral training, and specialized resources across the United States. |

  16. Perspectives for Cancer Prevention With Natural Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, A. R. M. Ruhul; KUCUK, Omer; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Dong M Shin

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Despite the estimated 565,650 deaths in 2008 of Americans as a result of cancer, it is mostly a preventable disease. Simply by modification of diet, maintenance of optimum body weight, and regular physical activity, 30% to 40% of all instances of cancer could be prevented. Modification of diet alone by increasing vegetable and fruit intake could prevent 20% or more of all cases of cancer and may potentially prevent approximatel...

  17. TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF ANTI-BULLYING INTERVENTIONS AND THE TYPES OF BULLYING EACH INTERVENTION PREVENTS

    OpenAIRE

    EMMA ELISE ROBERTS

    2011-01-01

    Teachers have a central role in the management and prevention of bullying within schools and are in turn involved in the implementation of anti-bullying interventions (Kochenderfer-Ladd & Pelletier, 2008). Therefore an assessment of teachers’ attitudes towards bullying interventions is needed to determine how helpful they perceived interventions to be. This study investigated teachers’ attitudes towards anti-bullying interventions and the types of bullying they perceived the interventions wou...

  18. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  19. Cancer risk and preventive behavior: persuasion as an intervention strategy Riesgo de cáncer y comportamientos preventivos: la persuasión como una estrategia de intervención Risco de câncer e comportamentos preventivos: a persuasão como estratégia de intervenção

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Tonani; Emilia Campos de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of interventions for health promotion, protection, and early diagnosis may include the process of persuasion employed. This study aims to evaluate the risk level of developing cancer, considering the pertinent risk factors, and the presence of persuasion and characteristics in communication regarding cancer prevention and early detection. It is an observational study, conducted among 110 inhabitants of a neighborhood in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil. It was confirmed tha...

  20. Interventions to prevent tenant evictions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Marieke; van den Dries, Linda; Wolf, Judith R L M

    2016-09-01

    Tenant evictions are a significant cause of homelessness. As evictions are a traumatic experience for those being evicted and involve high costs, preventing evictions is vital and should be part of local and national policy. In order to develop and implement preventive practices and policies, it is essential to know which interventions are effective in preventing evictions. However, little is known about these interventions. Therefore, a systematic search of the international literature, providing an overview of interventions to prevent evictions published in scientific journals and reporting on their (cost-)effectiveness, was conducted. Nine electronic databases and Google Scholar were searched for peer-reviewed and non-reviewed publications describing research into interventions to prevent tenant evictions published in English between January 1985 and May 2012. Two researchers reviewed titles, abstracts and full-text articles and eventually seven publications describing eight interventions to prevent tenant evictions were analysed. The eight interventions vary widely in terms of their target population, focus, type of support and duration, which makes comparison of results difficult. Only three effect studies on preventive interventions regarding tenant evictions were found; two researchers assessed their quality. One of these studies was of insufficient quality to assess the effectiveness of the intervention described. Legal assistance and debt advice are promising interventions that seem to be effective in decreasing the risk of eviction. The effectiveness of the other five interventions cannot be determined. More methodologically sound research into the prevention of tenant evictions is needed and future research will have to clarify what works for whom, in which context. PMID:26109137

  1. Technological changes in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, L

    1992-01-01

    Exposures and technologies in the workplace are changing due to a variety of factors, including newly developed technologies, mechanization and automation, and improvements in industrial hygiene primarily effected in many developed countries. In addition substitution and removal of carcinogenic constituents in the workplace and general environment are increasing in a number of instances, particularly in North America, Western Europe, and Japan, and they are being accompanied as well by remediation either by source reduction, recycling, or compliance to more stringent national and international regulations and standards. This overview highlights some of the strategies employed in the technological changes in cancer prevention and cites examples in source reduction, changes in formulation, product or process changes, recycling, and hazardous materials management.

  2. Lifestyle changes for prevention of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Seyed Hesam Bani; Karimi, Samieh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer among women. Lifestyle changes are shown to be important in the prevention of breast cancer. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and vitamin and mineral use are key factors influencing the risk of breast cancer among women. Because these factors are related to each other, it is difficult to assess their individual roles in breast cancer. Some of these factors are alterable, meaning that women can decrease their risk...

  3. E-health interventions for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J; O'Dea, Bridianne

    2014-08-12

    Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals' posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain.

  4. E-health interventions for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J; O'Dea, Bridianne

    2014-08-01

    Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals' posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain. PMID:25119698

  5. E-Health Interventions for Suicide Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Christensen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals’ posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain.

  6. Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program (Consortia) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five cancer research centers lead multiple collaborative networks to assess potential cancer preventive agents and to conduct early clinical development of promising preventive agents. Also called the Consortia for Early Phase Prevention Trials, the studies require extensive biomarker analysis, investigation of the biologic effects of the cancer preventive agents on their intended molecular targets and on multiple endpoints associated with carcinogenesis, and correlation with clinically relevant endpoints.  | Systematic early clinical development of promising preventive agents through five major medical research centers.

  7. Cancer Biomarkers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group promotes research to identify, develop, and validate biological markers for early cancer detection and cancer risk assessment. | Research to identify, develop and validate biomarkers for early cancer detection and risk assessment.

  8. E-Health Interventions for Suicide Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Christensen; Batterham, Philip J; Bridianne O'Dea

    2014-01-01

    Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals’ posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening f...

  9. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Prostate and Urologic Cancer Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Active Prostate and Urologic Cancer Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Prostate and Urologic Cancer Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Understanding Cancer Prevention, Detection, Treatment, Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Understanding Cancer Prevention, Detection, Treatment, Control Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... 2004 than in 2003. Today's continuing progress against cancer is the result of enhanced prevention strategies, earlier detection, and better treatment — much of ...

  14. Research Networks Map | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.  Five Major Programs' sites are shown on this map. | The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.

  15. Pancreatic Cancer Chemoprevention Translational Workshop | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursday, September 10th (6:00 to 9:30 PM) Welcome Barnett Kramer, MD, MPH (6:00 to 6:10 PM) Director of the Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI Introduction – Goals of the Workshop: ABCs of Cancer Prevention (Agents, Biomarkers, Cohorts) Mark Miller, PhD (6:10 to 6:25 PM) Program Director Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI |

  16. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  17. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  18. Extending cancer prevention to improve fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Darcy A; Peña-Purcell, Ninfa; Friedman, Daniela B; Ory, Marcia; Flocke, Susan; Barni, Marie T; Hébert, James R

    2014-12-01

    Consuming a diet that is rich in fruits and vegetables is critical for preventing cancer and cancer-related disparities. Food systems approaches that increase spatial-temporal, economic, and social access to fruits and vegetables may ultimately result in improved consumption patterns among Americans. Engaging the triad of Cooperative Extension Services, public health systems, and community health centers may yield maximal public health benefits from food systems interventions. These entities have a mutual interest in promoting health equity and community and economic vitality that provides common ground to (a) implement solutions through the dissemination of evidence-based programs and (b) share resources to foster grassroots support for sustained change. Working together, these systems have an unprecedented opportunity to build on their common ground to implement, evaluate, and disseminate evidence-based food systems interventions in communities and with populations experiencing disparate risk for cancer and cancer-related diseases.

  19. The National Cancer Institute's PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program: overview, current projects, animal models, agent development strategies, and molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Robert H; Suen, Chen S; Holmes, Cathy A; Fay, Judith R; Steele, Vernon E

    2016-02-01

    The PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) is a National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention (NCI, DCP)-supported program whose primary goal is to bring new cancer preventive interventions (small molecules and vaccines) and biomarkers through preclinical development towards clinical trials by creating partnerships between the public sector (eg, academia, industry) and DCP. PREVENT has a formalized structure for moving interventions forward in the prevention pipeline using a stage-gate process with go/no go decision points along the critical path for development. This review describes the structure of the program, its focus areas, and provides examples of projects currently in the pipeline.

  20. The National Cancer Institute's PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program: overview, current projects, animal models, agent development strategies, and molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Robert H; Suen, Chen S; Holmes, Cathy A; Fay, Judith R; Steele, Vernon E

    2016-02-01

    The PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) is a National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention (NCI, DCP)-supported program whose primary goal is to bring new cancer preventive interventions (small molecules and vaccines) and biomarkers through preclinical development towards clinical trials by creating partnerships between the public sector (eg, academia, industry) and DCP. PREVENT has a formalized structure for moving interventions forward in the prevention pipeline using a stage-gate process with go/no go decision points along the critical path for development. This review describes the structure of the program, its focus areas, and provides examples of projects currently in the pipeline. PMID:26970137

  1. Overview of gastrointestinal cancer prevention in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Lee, Ho-Jae; Yoo, Jun Hwan; Ko, Weon Jin; Cho, Joo Young; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2015-12-01

    "War on cancer" was declared through the National Cancer Act by President Richard Nixon in 1971, but cancer statistics from the American Cancer Society and other sources indicated the failure of this war, suggesting instead focus on the message that a "prevention strategy" might be much more effective than cancer treatment. While cancer statistics notoriously showed sharp increases in incidence as well as in mortality concurrent with economic growth in Asia, fortunately Asian countries benefit from plentiful resources of natural compounds, which can prevent cancer. Just like cancer chemotherapeutics targeted to kill cancer cells in Western countries, natural agents activating molecular mechanisms for cancer prevention, reversion of premalignant tumors, and even ablation of cancer stem cells, are very abundant in Asia. Currently, these natural agents are under very active investigations targeting the hallmarks of cancer prevention, including selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells, suppression of growth factors or their signaling, suppression of cell proliferation and of cancer-promoting angiogenesis, induction of mesenchymal-epithelial transition, and disruption of the tumor microenvironment, developing promising cancer preventive agents. However, Asia is the most populous continent in the world and some Asian countries do not have the resources to implement cancer screening programs for early detection or treatment. In addition, despite the excellent cancer preventive screening strategies in some Asian countries, well-designed clinical trials for cancer prevention are somewhat delayed compared to Western countries. In this review article, several phytochemicals/phytoceuticals produced and studied in different Asian countries will be introduced, including Korean red ginseng (pride of Korea), curcumin (Indian spice for life), black or green tea (popular in Japan/Sri Lanka), genistein from tofu (famous Chinese food), diallylsulfide or S-allylcysteine (garlic

  2. Overview of gastrointestinal cancer prevention in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Lee, Ho-Jae; Yoo, Jun Hwan; Ko, Weon Jin; Cho, Joo Young; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2015-12-01

    "War on cancer" was declared through the National Cancer Act by President Richard Nixon in 1971, but cancer statistics from the American Cancer Society and other sources indicated the failure of this war, suggesting instead focus on the message that a "prevention strategy" might be much more effective than cancer treatment. While cancer statistics notoriously showed sharp increases in incidence as well as in mortality concurrent with economic growth in Asia, fortunately Asian countries benefit from plentiful resources of natural compounds, which can prevent cancer. Just like cancer chemotherapeutics targeted to kill cancer cells in Western countries, natural agents activating molecular mechanisms for cancer prevention, reversion of premalignant tumors, and even ablation of cancer stem cells, are very abundant in Asia. Currently, these natural agents are under very active investigations targeting the hallmarks of cancer prevention, including selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells, suppression of growth factors or their signaling, suppression of cell proliferation and of cancer-promoting angiogenesis, induction of mesenchymal-epithelial transition, and disruption of the tumor microenvironment, developing promising cancer preventive agents. However, Asia is the most populous continent in the world and some Asian countries do not have the resources to implement cancer screening programs for early detection or treatment. In addition, despite the excellent cancer preventive screening strategies in some Asian countries, well-designed clinical trials for cancer prevention are somewhat delayed compared to Western countries. In this review article, several phytochemicals/phytoceuticals produced and studied in different Asian countries will be introduced, including Korean red ginseng (pride of Korea), curcumin (Indian spice for life), black or green tea (popular in Japan/Sri Lanka), genistein from tofu (famous Chinese food), diallylsulfide or S-allylcysteine (garlic

  3. Interventional Endosonography for Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surakit Pungpapong

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS was initially developed in the early 1980s as a research tool to overcome limitations of transabdominal ultrasound for an examination of the pancreas caused by intervening gas, bone, and fat. Since its introduction into clinical practice, EUS has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, particularly pancreatic cancer. The ability to position the transducer in direct proximity to the pancreas via the stomach and proximal duodenum, combined with the use of high-frequency ultrasound, provides detailed high-resolution images of the pancreas that are superior to those of computerized tomography and transabdominal ultrasound. The incorporation of fine-needle aspiration (FNA technique has significantly improved the accuracy of cancer staging and has encouraged a therapeutic capability that may parallel the evolution of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure. Injection with therapeutic agents can also be accomplished under EUS guidance leading to many therapeutic techniques being developed for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  4. Pancreatic cancer: Pathogenesis, prevention and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States with a very low survival rate of 5 years. To better design new preventive and/or therapeutic strategies for the fight against pancreatic cancer, the knowledge of the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer at the molecular level is very important. It has been known that the development and the progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways among which the EGFR, Akt, and NF-κB pathways appear to be most relevant. Therefore, the strategies targeting EGFR, Akt, NF-κB, and their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and/or treatment of pancreatic cancer. In this brief review, we will summarize the current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of pancreatic cancer

  5. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a maintenance programme for the SLIMMER diabetes prevention intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Elsman, E.B.M.; Leerlooijer, J.N.; Beek, ter, A.S.; Duijzer, G.; Jansen, S.C.; Hiddink, G.J.; Feskens, E. J. M.; Haveman-Nies, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although lifestyle interventions have shown to be effective in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, maintenance of achieved results is difficult, as participants often experience relapse after the intervention has ended. This paper describes the systematic development of a maintenance programme for the extensive SLIMMER intervention, an existing diabetes prevention intervention for high-risk individuals, implemented in a real-life setting in the Netherlands. Methods The ...

  6. Multilevel interventions aimed at adult obesity prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benwell, Ann Fenger

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature emphasizes the importance of using both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the wide range of aspects which hinder or promote the success of health interventions. The pilot phase of this study highlights how mixed-method approaches can be strengthened ...

  7. The Multicultural Model in Chemical Abuse Prevention and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold-Ezekoye, Stephanie

    1985-01-01

    Applies the concept of multiculturalism to chemical abuse prevention and intervention programs. Provides a model for implementation and describes projects with a similar conceptual basis. Acknowledges the cultural foundations for developing positive self-understanding. Promotes the development of culture-specific prevention strategies. (Author/LHW)

  8. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approa | Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers.

  9. Alcohol dependency prevention and early intervention.

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan, P E

    1988-01-01

    Current data on efforts to prevent alcoholism indicate that we are better able to prevent some of the consequences of alcohol misuse, such as alcohol-related car crashes and fetal alcohol syndrome, than chronic alcohol dependence itself. A review of data on outcomes of treatment for long-term alcohol dependence indicates that 9 of 10 alcohol dependent persons receive no treatment for the disorder in any given year. When treatment is provided for long-term alcohol dependent persons, it has onl...

  10. Biorepository for Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the largest prostate cancer prevention trial ever undertaken, the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) has assembled a substantial biorepository of specimens. To help make SELECT resources available to a wider research community, NCI and the Southwest Oncology Group are developing a plan for prostate cancer biology and nutritional science and micronutrient studies. |

  11. Diabetes Prevention Interventions in Latin American Countries: a Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Michele; Kaselitz, Elizabeth; Rana, Gurpreet K; Piette, John D

    2016-09-01

    Public policies, population health initiatives, and targeted behavioral change interventions for individuals at risk for developing diabetes are all essential for diabetes prevention in Latin American countries (LACs). This scoping review examines (1) the current evidence on diabetes prevention policies and interventions in LACs to identify components of effective diabetes prevention models in those countries and (2) effective diabetes prevention interventions targeting Latino populations in the USA to explore possible lessons from these interventions for LACs. Diabetes prevention programs in LACs evaluated to date consist of short-term health professional-led face-to-face behavioral counseling sessions. Intervention components of US-based programs for Latinos that might benefit diabetes prevention programs in Latin America include (1) deployment of community health workers ("promotoras") for diabetes screening and delivery of lifestyle modification programs, (2) multiple modes of program delivery beyond face-to-face sessions, (3) information technology to automate and enhance program delivery, (4) leveraging of pre-existing familial relationships to engage in and sustain lifestyle modifications, and (5) innovative environmental change strategies such as collaborations with local food stores and markets to promote healthy behaviors. PMID:27424069

  12. Complex interventions for preventing diabetic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, Ruben C; Dorresteijn, Johannes A N; Kriegsman, Didi M W; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can lead to the amputation of feet and legs, is a major problem for people with diabetes mellitus, and can cause substantial economic burden. Single preventive strategies have not been shown to reduce the incidence of foot ulceration to a significant extent.

  13. Cardiotoxicity | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damage to the heart (cardiotoxicity), or blood vessels (cardiovascular toxicity) can occur during or after cancer treatment. As treatments have improved, more patients are surviving longer after a diagnosis of cancer than at any time in the past. See the article, Treating Cancer without Harming the Heart. |

  14. Documentation of preventive screening interventions by general practitioners: a retrospective chart audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmelgarn Brenda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and early diagnosis has been shown to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with certain conditions such as cervical cancer. The role of general practitioners in promoting primary prevention of diseases is particularly important given that they have frequent contact with a large proportion of the population. This study assessed the extent to which general practitioners documented recommended preventive screening interventions among eligible patients. Methods We used a retrospective chart audit to assess patient visits to primary care clinics in Calgary, Canada from 2002-2004. We included fee for service physicians who practiced ≥ 2 days per week at their current location and excluded those whose primary practice was at walk-in clinics, community health centers, hospitals or emergency rooms. We included charts of patients who during the study period were age 35 years or older and had at least 2 visits to a clinic. We randomly selected and reviewed charts (N = 600 from 12 primary care clinics and abstracted information on 6 conditions recommended for preventive screening. Opportunities for preventive screening were determined based on recommendations of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care, the American College of Physicians, and the Canadian Cancer Society. Our main outcome measures included cancer screening (mammography and pap smears, immunization (influenza and pneumococcal, and risk factor assessment (cholesterol measurement and smoking cessation consultation. Results Patient visits to GP clinics present opportunities for preventive screening. However, we found that documentation of interventions was low, ranging from 40.3% (cholesterol measurement to 0.9% (pneumococcal vaccination within 1 year, and from 67.4% to 1.8% within the prior 3 years. Conclusions Documentation of preventive screening interventions by general practitioners was relatively low compared to the number of patients

  15. Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about actively enrolling, ongoing, and completed clinical trials of cancer prevention, early detection, and supportive care, including phase I, II, and III agent and action trials and clinical trials management. |

  16. Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Kara Smigel Croker | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara Smigel Croker is the Communications Manager for the National Cancer Institute Division of Cancer Prevention. She coordinates and supports all aspects of communication, including media contacts, writing and editing of reports and responses, divisional websites, and social media. |

  18. Immunosuppressants in cancer prevention and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2013-01-01

    Rapalogs such as rapamycin (sirolimus), everolimus, temserolimus, and deforolimus are indicated for the treatment of some malignancies. Rapamycin is the most effective cancer-preventive agent currently known, at least in mice, dramatically delaying carcinogenesis in both normal and cancer-prone murine strains. In addition, rapamycin and everolimus decrease the risk of cancer in patients receiving these drugs in the context of immunosuppressive regimens. In general, the main concern about the ...

  19. Breast Cancer Survivorship Care: Targeting a Colorectal Cancer Education Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri G. Homan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer survivors are at risk of developing a second primary cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the leading second primary cancers, and it is often preventable. We developed a multi-component educational tool to inform and encourage women breast cancer survivors to engage in CRC screening. To assess the strengths and weakness of the tool and to improve the relevancy to the target audience, we convened four focus groups of women breast cancer survivors in Missouri. We also assessed the potential impact of the tool on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding CRC and collected information on the barriers to CRC screening through pre- and post-focus groups’ questionnaires. A total of 43 women breast cancer survivors participated and provided very valuable suggestions on design and content to update the tool. Through the process and comparing pre- and post-focus group assessments, a significantly higher proportion of breast cancer survivors strongly agreed or agreed that CRC is preventable (78.6% vs. 96.9%, p = 0.02 and became aware that they were at a slightly increased risk for CRC (18.6% vs. 51.7%, p = 0.003. The most cited barrier was the complexity of preparation for colonoscopy.

  20. Impact of Soy Isoflavones on the Epigenome in Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pudenz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones (IF such as genistein are cancer preventive phytochemicals found in soy and other legumes. Epidemiological studies point to a reduced risk for hormone‑dependent cancers in populations following a typical Asian diet rich in soy products. IF act as phytoestrogens and prevent tumorigenesis in rodent models by a broad spectrum of bioactivities. During the past 10 years, IF were shown to target all major epigenetic mechanisms regulating gene expression, including DNA methylation, histone modifications controlling chromatin accessibility, and non-coding RNAs. These effects have been suggested to contribute to cancer preventive potential in in vitro and in vivo studies, affecting several key processes such as DNA repair, cell signaling cascades including Wnt-signaling, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, migration and invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, metastasis formation and development of drug-resistance. We here summarize the state-of-the-art of IF affecting the epigenome in major hormone-dependent, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tumor types and in in vivo studies on anti-cancer treatment or developmental aspects, and short-term intervention studies in adults. These data, while often requiring replication, suggest that epigenetic gene regulation represents an important novel target of IF and should be taken into consideration when evaluating the cancer preventive potential of IF in humans.

  1. Burnout and Doctors: Prevalence, Prevention and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shailesh

    2016-01-01

    Doctors are exposed to high levels of stress in the course of their profession and are particularly susceptible to experiencing burnout. Burnout has far-reaching implications on doctors; patients and the healthcare system. Doctors experiencing burnout are reported to be at a higher risk of making poor decisions; display hostile attitude toward patients; make more medical errors; and have difficult relationships with co-workers. Burnout among doctors also increases risk of depression; anxiety; sleep disturbances; fatigue; alcohol and drug misuse; marital dysfunction; premature retirement and perhaps most seriously suicide. Sources of stress in medical practice may range from the emotions arising in the context of patient care to the environment in which doctors practice. The extent of burnout may vary depending on the practice setting; speciality and changing work environment. Understanding dynamic risk factors associated with burnout may help us develop strategies for preventing and treating burnout. Some of these strategies will be reviewed in this paper. PMID:27417625

  2. Burnout and Doctors: Prevalence, Prevention and Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Doctors are exposed to high levels of stress in the course of their profession and are particularly susceptible to experiencing burnout. Burnout has far-reaching implications on doctors; patients and the healthcare system. Doctors experiencing burnout are reported to be at a higher risk of making poor decisions; display hostile attitude toward patients; make more medical errors; and have difficult relationships with co-workers. Burnout among doctors also increases risk of depression; anxiety; sleep disturbances; fatigue; alcohol and drug misuse; marital dysfunction; premature retirement and perhaps most seriously suicide. Sources of stress in medical practice may range from the emotions arising in the context of patient care to the environment in which doctors practice. The extent of burnout may vary depending on the practice setting; speciality and changing work environment. Understanding dynamic risk factors associated with burnout may help us develop strategies for preventing and treating burnout. Some of these strategies will be reviewed in this paper.

  3. Burnout and Doctors: Prevalence, Prevention and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shailesh

    2016-06-30

    Doctors are exposed to high levels of stress in the course of their profession and are particularly susceptible to experiencing burnout. Burnout has far-reaching implications on doctors; patients and the healthcare system. Doctors experiencing burnout are reported to be at a higher risk of making poor decisions; display hostile attitude toward patients; make more medical errors; and have difficult relationships with co-workers. Burnout among doctors also increases risk of depression; anxiety; sleep disturbances; fatigue; alcohol and drug misuse; marital dysfunction; premature retirement and perhaps most seriously suicide. Sources of stress in medical practice may range from the emotions arising in the context of patient care to the environment in which doctors practice. The extent of burnout may vary depending on the practice setting; speciality and changing work environment. Understanding dynamic risk factors associated with burnout may help us develop strategies for preventing and treating burnout. Some of these strategies will be reviewed in this paper.

  4. Burnout and Doctors: Prevalence, Prevention and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shailesh

    2016-01-01

    Doctors are exposed to high levels of stress in the course of their profession and are particularly susceptible to experiencing burnout. Burnout has far-reaching implications on doctors; patients and the healthcare system. Doctors experiencing burnout are reported to be at a higher risk of making poor decisions; display hostile attitude toward patients; make more medical errors; and have difficult relationships with co-workers. Burnout among doctors also increases risk of depression; anxiety; sleep disturbances; fatigue; alcohol and drug misuse; marital dysfunction; premature retirement and perhaps most seriously suicide. Sources of stress in medical practice may range from the emotions arising in the context of patient care to the environment in which doctors practice. The extent of burnout may vary depending on the practice setting; speciality and changing work environment. Understanding dynamic risk factors associated with burnout may help us develop strategies for preventing and treating burnout. Some of these strategies will be reviewed in this paper. PMID:27417625

  5. Preventing Second Cancers in Colon Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this phase III trial, people who have had curative surgery for colon cancer will be randomly assigned to take sulindac and a placebo, eflornithine and a placebo, both sulindac and eflornithine, or two placebo pills for 36 months.

  6. The art of casting nets: fishing for the prize of personalized cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, David J; Chiang, Emily C; Bostwick, David G

    2008-01-01

    Now, more than ever, there is great need for personalized cancer prevention. We define personalized cancer prevention as a strategy that will enable each person to reduce his or her risk for lethal cancer by matching the dose, duration, and timing of an intervention with their own cancer risk profile. Most research studies provide us with data on the average person. But who is the average person anyway? The central tenet of personalized cancer prevention is that average is overrated. In this article, we frame what are the major obstacles to developing personalized cancer-reducing interventions: the lack of validated, non-invasive stratifiers of risk; the U-shaped dose response between cancer-fighting nutrients (e.g., selenium) and DNA damage, meaning that more of a good thing is not necessarily a good thing; the relatively brief duration of interventions evaluated in human prevention trials; the challenge of finding populations in which the impact of early life interventions on the incidence of cancers affecting older adults can be studied; and the interindividual differences in gene expression that may influence a person's response to a particular nutrient. Moreover, we contend that those who study personalized cancer prevention will need a unique constellation of expertise, including an understanding of cancer and aging, a passion for prevention, and proven health communication skills. We propose that becoming cross-trained in cancer and aging and taking more responsibility for communicating health-related research to the public in the proper context are two of the most important ways scientists can move us all closer to the goal of personalized cancer prevention. Every fisherman knows that where he casts his net determines his catch. Now, we ask: When it comes to solving the cancer problem, where should we be casting our nets? PMID:18444129

  7. Cancer prevention in the Asia Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Keun-Young

    2010-01-01

    Cancer incidences as well as the most prevalent cancer types vary greatly across Asian countries since people have differing health behaviors as well as lifestyle factors related to cancer risk. Countries have varying systems of government organization, laws, resources, facilities, and management strategies for addressing the cancer burden. Examples such as Korea and Japan with existing national cancer control programs need to focus on early screening and detection and quality of screening methods. If screening and detection increase to cover more than 50% of the target population, survival rate increases and thus the number of cancer patients detected increases resulting in higher medical cost. Thus, expansion of cancer screening, in addition to smoking prevention, immunization increase, and diet control awareness, are needed for cancer prevention strategies. Countries such as Thailand, China, Malaysia, and Turkey need to begin organized efforts to reduce cancer deaths through state-wide cancer screening programs. Strategies focused on increasing survival among cancer patients are also needed. In addition, government organizations and law regulations need to be in place as the first step towards cancer prevention. For the countries such as Nepal, Pakistan, Mongolia, and Iraq which do not have any cancer-related organizations in place, the first step that is needed is to raise public awareness about cancer; a public awareness campaign is the number one priority and should begin immediately. The easiest and most feasible step at this point is dissemination of cancer education materials during school health education and physical health screening. This must be started immediately because we need to avoid the development of existing cancers where patients will need to seek specialized cancer treatment facilities that are non-existent in these regions. In addition, hospitals need to take a step further and start undergoing registration of cancer prevalence and

  8. Investigating combination HIV prevention: isolated interventions or complex system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Brown

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Treatment as prevention has mobilized new opportunities in preventing HIV transmission and has led to bold new UNAIDS targets in testing, treatment coverage and transmission reduction. These will require not only an increase in investment but also a deeper understanding of the dynamics of combining behavioural, biomedical and structural HIV prevention interventions. High-income countries are making substantial investments in combination HIV prevention, but is this investment leading to a deeper understanding of how to combine interventions? The combining of interventions involves complexity, with many strategies interacting with non-linear and multiplying rather than additive effects. Discussion: Drawing on a recent scoping study of the published research evidence in HIV prevention in high-income countries, this paper argues that there is a gap between the evidence currently available and the evidence needed to guide the achieving of these bold targets. The emphasis of HIV prevention intervention research continues to look at one intervention at a time in isolation from its interactions with other interventions, the community and the socio-political context of their implementation. To understand and evaluate the role of a combination of interventions, we need to understand not only what works, but in what circumstances, what role the parts need to play in their relationship with each other, when the combination needs to adapt and identify emergent effects of any resulting synergies. There is little development of evidence-based indicators on how interventions in combination should achieve that strategic advantage and synergy. This commentary discusses the implications of this ongoing situation for future research and the required investment in partnership. We suggest that systems science approaches, which are being increasingly applied in other areas of public health, could provide an expanded vocabulary and analytic tools for

  9. An intervention proposal to prevent bullying from a sociological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Noemí Leganés Lavall

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces an intervention proposal to prevent bullyingfrom a socio-group view. After analyzing different Spanish reports on school life,it is shown that the support by the peer group to the victim is one of the most effective actions. However, in most cases peer group show passive attitudes to aggression or even they consider it fun. Thus, here is developed a program that works prosocial behavior through its main component: the empathy. Data presentedby different Spanish programs in relation to school life, show the importance of carrying out further interventions, emphasizing prevention to eradicate abusive behavior before it arises.

  10. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277

  11. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277

  12. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-12

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action.

  13. Global cancer patterns: causes and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineis, Paolo; Wild, Christopher P

    2014-02-01

    Cancer is a global and growing, but not uniform, problem. An increasing proportion of the burden is falling on low-income and middle-income countries because of not only demographic change but also a transition in risk factors, whereby the consequences of the globalisation of economies and behaviours are adding to an existing burden of cancers of infectious origin. We argue that primary prevention is a particularly effective way to fight cancer, with between a third and a half of cancers being preventable on the basis of present knowledge of risk factors. Primary prevention has several advantages: the effectiveness could have benefits for people other than those directly targeted, avoidance of exposure to carcinogenic agents is likely to prevent other non-communicable diseases, and the cause could be removed or reduced in the long term--eg, through regulatory measures against occupational or environmental exposures (ie, the preventive effort does not need to be renewed with every generation, which is especially important when resources are in short supply). Primary prevention must therefore be prioritised as an integral part of global cancer control.

  14. Fasting and Caloric Restriction in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Longo, Valter D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and among the leading major diseases in the world. It is anticipated to continue to increase because of the growth of the aging population and prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and/or poor dietary habits. Cancer treatment has remained relatively similar during the past 30 years with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery remaining the standard therapies although novel therapies are slowly replacing or complementing the standard ones. According to the American Cancer Society, the dietary recommendation for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is to increase calorie and protein intake. In addition, there are no clear guidelines on the type of nutrition that could have a major impact on cancer incidence. Yet, various forms of reduced caloric intake such as calorie restriction (CR) or fasting demonstrate a wide range of beneficial effects able to help prevent malignancies and increase the efficacy of cancer therapies. Whereas chronic CR provides both beneficial and detrimental effects as well as major compliance challenges, periodic fasting (PF), fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs), and dietary restriction (DR) without a reduction in calories are emerging as interventions with the potential to be widely used to prevent and treat cancer. Here, we review preclinical and preliminary clinical studies on dietary restriction and fasting and their role in inducing cellular protection and chemotherapy resistance.

  15. Fasting and Caloric Restriction in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Longo, Valter D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and among the leading major diseases in the world. It is anticipated to continue to increase because of the growth of the aging population and prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and/or poor dietary habits. Cancer treatment has remained relatively similar during the past 30 years with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery remaining the standard therapies although novel therapies are slowly replacing or complementing the standard ones. According to the American Cancer Society, the dietary recommendation for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is to increase calorie and protein intake. In addition, there are no clear guidelines on the type of nutrition that could have a major impact on cancer incidence. Yet, various forms of reduced caloric intake such as calorie restriction (CR) or fasting demonstrate a wide range of beneficial effects able to help prevent malignancies and increase the efficacy of cancer therapies. Whereas chronic CR provides both beneficial and detrimental effects as well as major compliance challenges, periodic fasting (PF), fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs), and dietary restriction (DR) without a reduction in calories are emerging as interventions with the potential to be widely used to prevent and treat cancer. Here, we review preclinical and preliminary clinical studies on dietary restriction and fasting and their role in inducing cellular protection and chemotherapy resistance. PMID:27557543

  16. Dietary Polyphenols in Prevention and Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul K. Lall

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most prevalent disease affecting males in many Western countries, with an estimated 29,480 deaths in 2014 in the US alone. Incidence rates for prostate cancer deaths have been decreasing since the early 1990s in men of all races/ethnicities, though they remain about 60% higher in African Americans than in any other group. The relationship between dietary polyphenols and the prevention of prostate cancer has been examined previously. Although results are sometimes inconsistent and variable, there is a general agreement that polyphenols hold great promise for the future management of prostate cancer. Various dietary components, including polyphenols, have been shown to possess anti-cancer properties. Generally considered as non-toxic, dietary polyphenols act as key modulators of signaling pathways and are therefore considered ideal chemopreventive agents. Besides possessing various anti-tumor properties, dietary polyphenols also contribute to epigenetic changes associated with the fate of cancer cells and have emerged as potential drugs for therapeutic intervention. Polyphenols have also been shown to affect post-translational modifications and microRNA expressions. This article provides a systematic review of the health benefits of selected dietary polyphenols in prostate cancer, especially focusing on the subclasses of polyphenols, which have a great effect on disease prevention and treatment.

  17. The Promise of Preventive Cancer Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier-Luigi Lollini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Years of unsuccessful attempts at fighting established tumors with vaccines have taught us all that they are only able to truly impact patient survival when used in a preventive setting, as would normally be the case for traditional vaccines against infectious diseases. While true primary cancer prevention is still but a long-term goal, secondary and tertiary prevention are already in the clinic and providing encouraging results. A combination of immunopreventive cancer strategies and recently approved checkpoint inhibitors is a further promise of forthcoming successful cancer disease control, but prevention will require a considerable reduction of currently reported toxicities. These considerations summed with the increased understanding of tumor antigens allow space for an optimistic view of the future.

  18. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer: lifestyle, nutrition, exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María Elena

    2005-01-01

    The past two decades have provided a vast amount of literature related to the primary prevention of colorectal cancer. Large international variation in colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates and the prominent increases in the incidence of colorectal cancer in groups that migrated from low- to high-incidence areas provided important evidence that lifestyle factors influence the development of this malignancy. Moreover, there is convincing evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies that dietary intake is an important etiological factor in colorectal neoplasia. Although the precise mechanisms have not been clarified, several lifestyle factors are likely to have a major impact on colorectal cancer development. Physical inactivity and to a lesser extent, excess body weight, are consistent risk factors for colon cancer. Exposure to tobacco products early in life is associated with a higher risk of developing colorectal neoplasia. Diet and nutritional factors are also clearly important. Diets high in red and processed meat increase risk. Excess alcohol consumption, probably in combination with a diet low in some micronutrients such as folate and methionine, appear to increase risk. There is also recent evidence supporting a protective effect of calcium and vitamin D in the etiology of colorectal neoplasia. The relationship between intake of dietary fiber and risk of colon cancer has been studied for three decades but the results are still inconclusive. However, some micronutrients or phytochemicals in fiber-rich foods may be important; folic acid is one such micronutrient that has been shown to protect against the development of colorectal neoplasia and is currently being studied in intervention trials of adenoma recurrence. The overwhelming evidence indicates that primary prevention of colon cancer is feasible. Continued focus on primary prevention of colorectal cancer, in combination with efforts aimed at screening and surveillance, will be vital in

  19. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The evidence on whether vitamin D supplementation is effective in decreasing cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register...... vitamin D₃, one trial tested vitamin D₂, and three trials tested calcitriol supplementation. Cancer occurrence was observed in 1927/25,275 (7.6%) recipients of vitamin D versus 1943/25,348 (7.7%) recipients of control interventions (RR 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94 to 1.06); P = 0.88; I² = 0......% relative risk reduction. We did not observe substantial differences in the effect of vitamin D on cancer in subgroup analyses of trials at low risk of bias compared to trials at high risk of bias; of trials with no risk of for-profit bias compared to trials with risk of for-profit bias; of trials assessing...

  20. HIV prevention in Mexican schools: prospective randomised evaluation of intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, D.; Gutierrez, JP; TORRES, P.; Bertozzi, SM

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess effects on condom use and other sexual behaviour of an HIV prevention programme at school that promotes the use of condoms with and without emergency contraception. DESIGN: Cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 40 public high schools in the state of Morelos, Mexico. PARTICIPANTS: 10 954 first year high school students. INTERVENTION: Schools were randomised to one of three arms: an HIV prevention course that promoted condom use, the same course with emergency contr...

  1. Scientific Scope | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of developing cancer and to find ways to reduce that risk. Through laboratory, clinical, and epidemiologic research, scientists have shown that the diseases of cancer occur not as single, catastrophic events, but rather as the result of a complex and long-evolving molecular process that can take decades. This long-term process of carcinogenesis provides time and opportunities to slow down, stop, or reverse the cellular changes that can become cancer. | DCP research spans the initiation of cancer and the occurrence of invasive disease in major organ sites. The overall goal is to detect changes and intervene early to prevent symptomatic disease and death.

  2. Transforming Cancer Prevention through Precision Medicine and Immune-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensler, Thomas W; Spira, Avrum; Garber, Judy E; Szabo, Eva; Lee, J Jack; Dong, Zigang; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Hait, William N; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Davidson, Nancy E; Foti, Margaret; Lippman, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    We have entered a transformative period in cancer prevention (including early detection). Remarkable progress in precision medicine and immune-oncology, driven by extraordinary recent advances in genome-wide sequencing, big-data analytics, blood-based technologies, and deep understanding of the tumor immune microenvironment (TME), has provided unprecedented possibilities to study the biology of premalignancy. The pace of research and discovery in precision medicine and immunoprevention has been astonishing and includes the following clinical firsts reported in 2015: driver mutations detected in circulating cell-free DNA in patients with premalignant lesions (lung); clonal hematopoiesis shown to be a premalignant state; molecular selection in chemoprevention randomized controlled trial (RCT; oral); striking efficacy in RCT of combination chemoprevention targeting signaling pathway alterations mechanistically linked to germline mutation (duodenum); molecular markers for early detection validated for lung cancer and showing promise for pancreatic, liver, and ovarian cancer. Identification of HPV as the essential cause of a major global cancer burden, including HPV16 as the single driver of an epidemic of oropharyngeal cancer in men, provides unique opportunities for the dissemination and implementation of public health interventions. Important to immunoprevention beyond viral vaccines, genetic drivers of premalignant progression were associated with increasing immunosuppressive TME; and Kras vaccine efficacy in pancreas genetically engineered mouse (GEM) model required an inhibitory adjuvant (Treg depletion). In addition to developing new (e.g., epigenetic) TME regulators, recent mechanistic studies of repurposed drugs (aspirin, metformin, and tamoxifen) have identified potent immune activity. Just as precision medicine and immune-oncology are revolutionizing cancer therapy, these approaches are transforming cancer prevention. Here, we set out a brief agenda for the

  3. New Cancer Prevention and Control Central Institutional Review Board Established | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative announced the establishment of the Cancer Prevention and Control (CPC) CIRB January 14, extending the benefits of centralized review to investigators participating in clinical trials sponsored by the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). |

  4. CPFP Summer Curriculum: Principles and Practices of Cancer Prevention and Control Course | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program four-week summer course provides specialized instruction in the principles and practice of cancer prevention and control. Participants will gain a broad-based perspective on concepts, issues, and applications related to this field. The course typically covers the following topics: |

  5. TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF ANTI-BULLYING INTERVENTIONS AND THE TYPES OF BULLYING EACH INTERVENTION PREVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMMA ELISE ROBERTS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Teachers have a central role in the management and prevention of bullying within schools and are in turn involved in the implementation of anti-bullying interventions (Kochenderfer-Ladd & Pelletier, 2008. Therefore an assessment of teachers’ attitudes towards bullying interventions is needed to determine how helpful they perceived interventions to be. This study investigated teachers’ attitudes towards anti-bullying interventions and the types of bullying they perceived the interventions would prevent. A 26 item questionnaire analysing teachers’ attitudes towards four ‘global interventions’; ‘teacher implemented’, ‘student implemented’, ‘non-teaching staff implemented’ and ‘specific’. The results indicated that teachers perceived ‘nonteaching staff implemented’ as the most helpful in preventing bullying and was also identified as the most effective in preventing physical bullying, verbal bullying, intimidation, social alienation and social exclusion. Overall the results indicated a consistent pattern which could be analysed further and would benefit schools, local authorities and the government in preventing bullying.

  6. Epidemiology and prevention of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenfels, Albert B; Maisonneuve, Patrick

    2004-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an uncommon tumor, but because the mortality rate approaches 100%, this form of cancer has now become a common cause of cancer mortality. In the United States it is the fourth most frequent cause of cancer mortality; in Japan it ranks as the fifth commonest cause of death from cancer. Smoking is the major known risk factor for pancreatic cancer, accounting for approximately 25-30% of all cases. Some of the time-dependent changes in the frequency of pancreatic cancer can be explained by smoking trends. Aggressive public health measures to control smoking would substantially reduce the burden of pancreatic cancer. Dietary factors are less important for pancreatic cancer than for other digestive tract tumors, but consumption of a diet with adequate quantities of fruits and vegetables, plus control of calories either by dietary measures or by exercise will help to prevent this lethal tumor. There are more than a dozen inherited germline mutations that increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. Of these, hereditary pancreatitis confers the greatest risk, while BRCA2 mutations are the commonest inherited disorder. In addition to germline defects, there are several common polymorphisms in genes that control detoxification of environmental carcinogens that may alter the risk of pancreatic cancer. More research will be needed in this area, to explain and to clarify the interaction between genes and environmental factors.

  7. Effect of long term selenium yeast intervention on activity and gene expression of antioxidant and xenbiotic metabolising enzymes in healthy elderly volunteers from the Danish Prevention of Cancer by Intervention by Selenium (PRECISE) Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Krath, Britta; Overvad, Kim;

    2008-01-01

    Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to explain the anti-carcinogenic effects of Se, among them altered carcinogen metabolism. We investigated the effect of Se supplementation on activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in differ......Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to explain the anti-carcinogenic effects of Se, among them altered carcinogen metabolism. We investigated the effect of Se supplementation on activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST...... of intervention. When all four groups were compared we found no effect of Se supplementation on plasma GPX or GR, on erythrocyte GPX, GR or GST, or on thrombocyte GR or GST. We found increased thrombocyte GPX activity at the two highest dosage levels in women only, but not in men. No effects on GPX1, NQOI or Ah...

  8. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one-week educational opportunity in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  9. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the US Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  10. Cancer prevention as part of precision medicine: 'plenty to be done'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bernard W; Bray, Freddie; Forman, David; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Straif, Kurt; Ullrich, Andreas; Wild, Christopher P

    2016-01-01

    Cancer burden worldwide is projected to rise from 14 million new cases in 2012 to 24 million in 2035. Although the greatest increases will be in developing countries, where cancer services are already hard pressed, even the richest nations will struggle to meet demands of increasing patient numbers and spiralling treatment costs. No country can treat its way out of the cancer problem. Consequently, cancer control must combine improvements in treatment with greater emphasis on prevention and early detection. Cancer prevention is founded on describing the burden of cancer, identifying the causes and evaluating and implementing preventive interventions. Around 40-50% of cancers could be prevented if current knowledge about risk factors was translated into effective public health strategies. The benefits of prevention are attested to by major successes, for example, in tobacco control, vaccination against oncogenic viruses, reduced exposure to environmental and occupational carcinogens, and screening. Progress is still needed in areas such as weight control and physical activity. Fresh impetus for prevention and early detection will come through interdisciplinary approaches, encompassing knowledge and tools from advances in cancer biology. Examples include mutation profiles giving clues about aetiology and biomarkers for early detection, to stratify individuals for screening or for prognosis. However, cancer prevention requires a broad perspective stretching from the submicroscopic to the macropolitical, recognizing the importance of molecular profiling and multisectoral engagement across urban planning, transport, environment, agriculture, economics, etc., and applying interventions that may just as easily rely on a legislative measure as on a molecule. PMID:26590901

  11. Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that naturally contain vitamin D, such as fatty fish, fish liver oil, and eggs. However, most dietary vitamin ... prostate cancer. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2005; 97(1–2):31–36. [PubMed Abstract] ...

  12. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Pan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin.

  13. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent-child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent-adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID:26916841

  14. Community-based cancer prevention--the Stockholm Cancer Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, L E

    1991-01-01

    The Stockholm Cancer Prevention Program (SCPP) is among the first comprehensive community intervention programs in the world aimed at reducing cancer incidence and mortality. The program began in 1987 in an urban area with more than 1.6 million inhabitants. In its work, SCPP utilizes a community-based approach focusing on (1) reduction in tobacco consumption, (2) reduction in dietary fat consumption and increase in dietary fiber consumption, and (3) changing sunbathing behavior in order to reduce the incidence of malignant melanoma. The overall philosophy of the program is to initiate activities capable of affecting the life style of the Stockholm population in these directions. SCPP intends to influence behavior through individual face-to-face contact. The tool for this contact is collaboration with independent organizations which are already active in the target communities. Food supply to the general public will be influenced through food producers, wholesalers, retailers, and caterers. Tobacco use, food habits, and sunbathing habits will be influenced via occupational health services; public health services including primary care, schools and municipal social services; voluntary organizations; and mass media. A model for possible ways of evaluating the program has been designed. PMID:1782634

  15. A brief image-based prevention intervention for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E Chad; Bian, Hui; Diclemente, Carlo C; Moore, Michelle J; Thombs, Dennis; Ames, Steven C; Huang, I-Chan; Pokorny, Steven

    2010-03-01

    The authors evaluated the efficacy of a brief image-based prevention intervention and assessed current drug use as a moderator of intervention effects. In a clinical trial, 416 high school-age adolescents were randomized to either the brief intervention or usual care control, with data collected at baseline and 3-month follow-up. The brief intervention consisted of a tailored in-person communication and a series of parent/guardian print materials based on the behavior-image model. Health behavior goal setting increased for participants receiving the brief intervention, with an effect size in the small range (d = 0.33). Overall effect sizes for cigarette smoking frequency and quantity and alcohol use frequency and quantity were small (ds = 0.16-0.21) and in favor of the brief intervention. However, adolescents reporting current substance use who received the brief intervention reduced their frequency and heavy use of alcohol, frequency and quantity of cigarette smoking, and reported fewer alcohol/drug problems, with larger effects ranging from small to approaching medium in size (ds = 0.32-0.43, ps goal setting and reduce substance use, particularly among drug-using older adolescents.

  16. Prostate Cancer: Current Treatment and Prevention Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fang-zhi; Zhao, Xiao-kun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Prostate cancer is one of the life threatening disorders of male. Although, over the last two decades, a high rate of overdiagnosis, and overtreatment has lowered the incidence rate of prostate cancer, the treatment or prevention strategies are not enough to control the high rate of disease related mortality. Current medical treatment approaches include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, cryosurgery and other methods. These approaches are more or less effecti...

  17. Flavin-Dependent Enzymes in Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Wojcieszyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistical studies have demonstrated that various agents may reduce the risk of cancer’s development. One of them is activity of flavin-dependent enzymes such as flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOGS-OX1, FAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and flavin-dependent monoamine oxidase. In the last decade, many papers concerning their structure, reaction mechanism and role in the cancer prevention were published. In our work, we provide a more in-depth analysis of flavin-dependent enzymes and their contribution to the cancer prevention. We present the actual knowledge about the glucosinolate synthesized by flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOGS-OX1 and its role in cancer prevention, discuss the influence of mutations in FAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase on the cancer risk, and describe FAD as an important cofactor for the demethylation of histons. We also present our views on the role of riboflavin supplements in the prevention against cancer.

  18. Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention: Insights from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT)

    OpenAIRE

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Dunn, Barbara K

    2013-01-01

    The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) was conducted to assess the efficacy of selenium and vitamin E alone, and in combination, on the incidence of prostate cancer. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial found that neither selenium nor vitamin E reduced the incidence of prostate cancer after seven years and that vitamin E was associated with a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer compared to placebo. The null result was ...

  19. Two Outstanding Investigator Awards Go to Division of Cancer Prevention Grantees | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI's Outstanding Investigator Award supports accomplished leaders in cancer research, who are providing significant contributions toward understanding cancer and developing applications that may lead to a breakthrough in biomedical, behavioral, or clinical cancer research. The Award provides up to $600,000 in direct costs per year for 7 years, allowing substantial time for funded investigators to take greater risks and be more adventurous in their research. Two of these awards have been made to Division of Cancer Prevention investigators: |

  20. Effectiveness of Nursing Interventions on Physical and Psychological Outcome among Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sivabalan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer patient's undergoing chemotherapy experiences a variety of side effects which has influence on prognosis of illness, activity of daily living and the quality of life. There is a need of nursing care interventions for management and prevention of problem among cancer patients. Aim & Objectives: The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of nursing interventions on physical and psychological outcome among cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Material and Methods: A true experimental study, post test only design with control group approach was conducted among 130 cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy at oncology ward of Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni (Bk, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra. Cancer patients who are 18 years old or older were selected with systematic random sampling method. Pre tested semi structured interview schedule was used to gather data. The assessment of health status before start of chemotherapy was carried out, followed by the nursing interventions was implemented based on patient needs and problems, and the post test was conducted after the period of interventions. The collected data was tabulated and analyzed using appropriate statistical methods wherever required. Results: The results revealed that the cancer patients experienced a wide range of physical and psychological problems prior to chemotherapy treatment. Cancer patients who received nursing interventions had improved post test mean scores on chemotherapy symptoms, pain and fatigue; emotional well being, anxiety and depression than the patients who received routine care, notably it was statistically significant at p<0.05 level. A significant association was observed between physical, psychological outcome variables and the socio demographic characteristics like sex, site of cancer, stage of cancer, duration of cancer, metastasis of cancer and the regimen of chemotherapy at p<0.05 level. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the nursing

  1. Preventing aggressive prostate cancer with proven cardiovascular disease preventive methods

    OpenAIRE

    Moyad, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the number one cause of death in the U.S. for 114 of the last 115 years. Risk factors for prostate cancer have primarily mirrored risk proven risk factors for CVD, especially aggressive disease. Obesity, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, metabolic syndrome, unhealthy dietary habits or caloric excess, lack of physical activity, and inflammation are just some of these shared risk factors. The evidence also suggests proven CVD preventive measures are identi...

  2. Childhood cancer and vitamins: prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Virginia A

    2008-02-01

    Discussions of pediatric nutrition and cancer usually focus on important issues of ensuring an adequate nutrient intake (enteral and parenteral) during and after the early treatment phase of care. However, information is available that suggests that vitamin status may have additional roles in the care of children with cancer. Over the last decade, investigators have reported findings that suggest that maternal preconception and perinatal vitamin intake and status influence the cancer risk of the infant and child. Others have shown a relationship between vitamin and antioxidant status and the prevalence and severity of adverse side effects for children undergoing chemotherapy. Vitamin D has potential anti-cancer activity and vitamin D status is suboptimal in many children in North America. Each of these issues is briefly presented from a perspective of prevention and treatment of childhood cancer.

  3. Behaviors, beliefs, and intentions in skin cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, R; Lee, C

    1990-08-01

    This study investigated knowledge, behaviors, and health beliefs of Australian university students (n = 312) regarding skin cancers and evaluated the effects of videotaped presentations. Students' knowledge and health beliefs were assessed, and they then viewed either an informational video, an emotionally involving video, or a control video. Knowledge and beliefs were assessed immediately and 10 weeks later. Postvideo skin protection intentions increased significantly from prevideo assessment among the two intervention groups compared to the controls. Maintenance of skin protection intentions was higher with the emotional video. Health belief variables, particularly perceived barriers, were significant predictors of knowledge, intention, and behavior. However, other variables such as skin type and previous experience with skin cancer were more important. Females had greater knowledge and stronger intentions to prevent skin cancer than males but reported fewer high-risk behaviors. PMID:2246784

  4. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Majidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC. Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran.

  5. Identifying molecular targets of lifestyle modifications in colon cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Marie Derry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One in four deaths in the United States is cancer-related, and colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Screening strategies are utilized but have not reduced disease incidence or mortality. In this regard, there is an interest in cancer preventive strategies focusing on lifestyle intervention, where specific etiologic factors involved in cancer initiation, promotion, and progression could be targeted. For example, exposure to dietary carcinogens, such as nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons influences colon carcinogenesis. Furthermore, dietary deficiencies could alter sensitivity to genetic damage and influence carcinogen metabolism contributing to CRC. High alcohol consumption increases the risk of mutations including the fact that acetaldehyde, an ethanol metabolite, is classified as a group 1 carcinogen. Tobacco smoke exposure is also a risk factor for cancer development; ~20% of CRCs are associated with smoking. Additionally, obese patients have a higher risk of cancer development, which is further supported by the fact that physical activity decreases CRC risk by 55%. Similarly, chronic inflammatory conditions also increase the risk of CRC development. Moreover, the circadian clock alters digestion and regulates other biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes that could positively influence CRC. Taken together, colon carcinogenesis involves a number of etiological factors, and therefore, to create effective preventive strategies, molecular targets need to be identified and beleaguered prior to disease progression. With this in mind, the following is a comprehensive review identifying downstream target proteins of the above lifestyle risk factors, which are modulated during colon carcinogenesis and could be targeted for CRC prevention by novel agents including phytochemicals.

  6. Continuing education in oral cancer prevention for dentists in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Juan; Varela-Centelles, Pablo; Tomás, Inmaculada; Seoane-Romero, Juan; Diz, Pedro; Takkouche, Bahi

    2012-09-01

    Continuing education (CE) can have a large impact on dentists' oral cancer attitudes, knowledge, and behavior. Reading scientific journals is a key component of CE. The objective of this study was to assess preventive and clinical attitudes of the participants in an educational intervention on oral cancer in Spain based on scientific journals. Members of the Spanish Board of Dentists and Stomatologists participated in an online, cross-sectional study, using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. There were 791 general dental practitioners (GDPs) invited to participate in the study. The large majority reported that they deliver tobacco-cessation counseling (93.6 percent) as well as advice on alcohol consumption (66.6 percent), but advice on vegetable intake was less frequently provided (42.4 percent). Alcohol intake advice, routine mucosa exploration, and biopsy performance on lesions suspicious of malignancy are preventive attitudes related to training. Compared with those who did not benefit from CE courses or did so only once, the GDPs who took four or more CE courses showed a doubling in the odds of giving alcohol advice to their patients and a tenfold increased odds of performing mucosa check on a routine basis; they were 3.5 times as likely to take biopsies of suspicious lesions. A longer experience as a GDP did not increase the probability of adopting preventive attitudes. In addition to presenting the results of this study, the article also discusses the general usefulness of other preventive measures in oral cancer. PMID:22942420

  7. Protocol Information Office | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIO Instructions and ToolsFind instructions, forms, and templates for the management of all types of Division of Cancer Prevention clinical trials.Clinical Trials Reference MaterialsModel clinical agreements, human subject protection and informed consent models, gender and minority inclusion information, and monitoring policy and guidelines. |

  8. Steps You Can Take to Prevent Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-02

    This podcast discusses the main steps people can take to reduce their risk of getting cancer.  Created: 2/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/2/2012.

  9. A Web nursing intervention to prevent Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Quirós Abajo

    2008-01-01

    Eating Disorders are an important health problem of our society because of their rising incidence in the last years, as well as their high cost in terms of Public Health. Nowadays the best option to face this problem is through prevention. The objective of the present work is to evaluate if a Web nursing intervention based on Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy can prevent Eating Disorders by reducing risk factors in 15 to 18 years old women.Methodology: It is a randomized clinical trial in which t...

  10. [Early detection and prevention of cancers in various therapeutic areas. Discussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, H; Tsuruo, T; Tsukamoto, T; Noguchi, S; Moriwaki, H; Isonishi, S; Masuda, N; Hinotsu, S; Nash, A F; von Euler, M; Wildin, J; Stribling, D

    1999-10-01

    As illustrated by prostate cancer screening provides an opportunity for early intervention and treatment. However the screening test needs to detect patients with cancer with a low rate of false positives and at a stage which can be treated. Recently the concept of treating patients at high risk of developing breast cancer or suffering a recurrence has been highlighted by the western studies with Nolvadex (tamoxifen). Thus roundtable discussion (held in Tokyo) discussed the different strategies in Japan compared to US & Europe for screening & early intervention/prevention of cancer for breast, prostate, bladder, liver, lung, gynaecological & GI cancers. The range of strategies for cancer screening, how it is funded, whether it is appropriately targeted and whether there is any evidence for a beneficial effect on morbidity or mortality & future prospects for improved sensitivity through new methodology or markers were discussed. Although the relative rates of cancer vary between Japan & the West, the same factors seem to influence cancer development & the data on intervention were seen to be valid. The changing patterns of cancer in Japan suggest a clear opportunity for reducing, the incidence of cancer through lifestyle modification. For some cancers, e.g. cervical & bladder where there is a clear link between abnormal cytology & development cancer true prevention is already practiced. In other cases, preventive treatment is limited by the efficacy of available therapies. As far as drug treatment is concerned, funding of healthcare in Japan does not recognise the concept of prevention although there is, in practice, no barrier to the use of interventions where there is a clear link between biochemical/histological markers & development of cancer.

  11. Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: Hypes and Hopes 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prabhudas; Vora, Hemangini; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Gandhi, Varsha; Mehta, Kapil; Pathak, Sen

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is primarily an "old-age" disease that has an "age-old" history. The overall incidence of cancer is much higher in Western countries, but is rapidly growing in Eastern countries perhaps due to change in life-style. Almost three million studies published to date indicate that cancer is a hyperproliferative disorder that arises from dysregulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. The cancer genome landscape indicates that approximately 140 genes and 12 cell signaling pathways drive almost all cancers. "Targeted therapy," a buzz word in cancer treatment for the past two decades, has provided antibodies, as well as small-molecule inhibitors. These therapies have been successful only in few instances. However, in most cases, minor increase in overall survival has been reported at the cost of huge expense. An alternative strategy is to prevent cancer or to diagnose and treat the disease at an early stage to gain survival benefits. Such interventions are also cost-effective. To address some of these issues, the 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference was held during February 4-7th, 2016, in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India; the homeland of Mahatma Gandhi. This conference was focused on utilizing multidisciplinary approaches for prevention and early treatment that would likely simultaneously or sequentially target many key pathways. Several distinguished speakers were invited from around the world. This article highlights primary features of this conference. PMID:27630358

  12. Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: Hypes and Hopes 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prabhudas; Vora, Hemangini; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Gandhi, Varsha; Mehta, Kapil; Pathak, Sen

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is primarily an "old-age" disease that has an "age-old" history. The overall incidence of cancer is much higher in Western countries, but is rapidly growing in Eastern countries perhaps due to change in life-style. Almost three million studies published to date indicate that cancer is a hyperproliferative disorder that arises from dysregulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. The cancer genome landscape indicates that approximately 140 genes and 12 cell signaling pathways drive almost all cancers. "Targeted therapy," a buzz word in cancer treatment for the past two decades, has provided antibodies, as well as small-molecule inhibitors. These therapies have been successful only in few instances. However, in most cases, minor increase in overall survival has been reported at the cost of huge expense. An alternative strategy is to prevent cancer or to diagnose and treat the disease at an early stage to gain survival benefits. Such interventions are also cost-effective. To address some of these issues, the 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference was held during February 4-7th, 2016, in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India; the homeland of Mahatma Gandhi. This conference was focused on utilizing multidisciplinary approaches for prevention and early treatment that would likely simultaneously or sequentially target many key pathways. Several distinguished speakers were invited from around the world. This article highlights primary features of this conference.

  13. Effects of delayed psychosocial interventions versus early psychosocial interventions for women with early stage breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Vos; A.P. Visser; B. Garssen; H.J. Duivenvoorden; H.C.J.M. de Haes

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The importance of psychosocial counselling after a diagnosis of cancer has been acknowledged and many intervention studies have been carried out, with the aim to find out which types of intervention are most effective in enhancing quality of life in cancer patients. A factor which could b

  14. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Zare, Maryam; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Naghshineh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention. PMID:26543649

  15. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention.

  16. A Web nursing intervention to prevent Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Quirós Abajo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Eating Disorders are an important health problem of our society because of their rising incidence in the last years, as well as their high cost in terms of Public Health. Nowadays the best option to face this problem is through prevention. The objective of the present work is to evaluate if a Web nursing intervention based on Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy can prevent Eating Disorders by reducing risk factors in 15 to 18 years old women.Methodology: It is a randomized clinical trial in which the experimental group will receive the Web nursing intervention and the control group will not receive any kind of preventive intervention related to Eating Disorders. The study will be developed in six Secondary Education Institutes of the areas 9 and 10 of Madrid Community. Women at risk will be selected by the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ. Risk factors such as body image dissatisfaction, eating and depressive symptoms will be evaluated. Measurements will be, besides BSQ, the Body Attitudes Test (BAT, the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI.

  17. Increasing Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening in Jamaica: Effectiveness of a Theory-Based Educational Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Coronado Interis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite declines in cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates remain high in Jamaica due to low levels of screening. Effective interventions are needed to decrease barriers to preventive behaviors and increase adoption of behaviors and services to improve prospects of survival. We enrolled 225 women attending health facilities in an intervention consisting of a pre-test, educational presentation and post-test. The questionnaires assessed attitudes, knowledge, risk factors, and symptoms of cervical cancer among women. Changes in knowledge and intention to screen were assessed using paired t-tests and tests for correlated proportions. Participants were followed approximately six months post-intervention to determine cervical cancer screening rates. We found statistically significant increases from pre-test to post-test in the percentage of questions correctly answered and in participants’ intention to screen for cervical cancer. The greatest improvements were observed in responses to questions on knowledge, symptoms and prevention, with some items increasing up to 62% from pre-test to post-test. Of the 123 women reached for follow-up, 50 (40.7% screened for cervical cancer. This theory-based education intervention significantly increased knowledge of and intention to screen for cervical cancer, and may be replicated in similar settings to promote awareness and increase screening rates.

  18. Direct therapeutic intervention for advanced pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Kazuki; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-12-10

    Currently, chemotherapy is an accredited, standard treatment for unresectable, advanced pancreatic cancer (PC). However, it has been still showed treatment-resistance and followed dismal prognosis in many cases. Therefore, some sort of new, additional treatments are needed for the better therapeutic results for advanced PC. According to the previous reports, it is obvious that interventional endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a well-established, helpful and low-risky procedure in general. As the additional treatments of the conventional therapy for advanced PC, many therapeutic strategies, such as immunotherapies, molecular biological therapies, physiochemical therapies, radioactive therapies, using siRNA, using autophagy have been developing in recent years. Moreover, the efficacy of the other potential therapeutic targets for PC using EUS-fine needle injection, for example, intra-tumoral chemotherapeutic agents (paclitaxel, irinotecan), several ablative energies (radiofrequency ablation and cryothermal treatment, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, high-intensity focused ultrasound), etc., has already been showed in animal models. Delivering these promising treatments reliably inside tumor, interventional EUS may probably be indispensable existence for the treatment of locally advanced PC in near future. PMID:26677434

  19. Cancer prevention in Africa: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busolo, David S; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is an emerging crisis in Africa. Cancer was the seventh leading cause of death in 2004. If not controlled, cancer incidence in Africa is expected to reach 1.28 million cases annually and claim 970,000 lives yearly by 2030. This paper presents a review of the literature on current cancer prevention approaches in Africa, and consists of cancer prevention studies conducted in African countries (e.g. South Africa and Nigeria) from PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL databases. Common female cancers in Africa are breast and cervical cancer while prostate cancer is the most common neoplasm among African males. Other common cancers are liver, colorectal, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Mortality related to these cancers comes as a result of delays in screening and treatment, unfamiliarity with cancer and cancer prevention, inaccessibility and unaffordability of care, and inefficiency of healthcare systems. Cancer prevention efforts are deficient because many governments lack cancer prevention and control policies. Also contributing to the lack of cancer prevention and control policies are low levels of awareness, scarce human and financial resources, and inadequacy of cancer registries. Overall, governments grapple with limited funds and competing healthcare priorities. As cancer continues to increase in Africa, the need for rigorous interdisciplinary research on cancer etiology and monitoring in Africa has never been timelier. Cost-effective cancer prevention programs, coordination of donor funding, advocacy, and education should be aggressively pursued. The call for more collaborative approaches in research and policy is urgently needed.

  20. Online Series presents Cancer Prevention Through Immunomodulation. Does Diet Play a Role? | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists are increasingly harnessing the power of the immune system to prevent cancer. Nutrition provides an opportunity for a generalized immune activation and reduction of cancer risk in certain populations. Research on several foods and bioactive food components as immunologic modulators is showing promising results. |

  1. Rosemary and cancer prevention: preclinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Suong N T; Williams, Desmond B; Head, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in Australia. Nutrition, particularly intake of vegetables and certain plant components, has been reported to have a major role in cancer risk reduction. Recently, there has been a growing research interest in rosemary, a common household plant grown in many parts of the world. This study aims to review scientific evidence from all studies, published from 1996 to March 2010 that examined the protective effects of rosemary on colorectal cancer and other types of cancer. Literature evidence from animal and cell culture studies demonstrates the anticancer potential of rosemary extract, carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid. No evidence for other rosemary constituents was found. The reported anticancer properties were found to arise through the molecular changes in the multiple-stage process of cancer development, which are dose related and not tissue or species specific. This is evidenced by the ability of rosemary to suppress the development of tumors in several organs including the colon, breast, liver, stomach, as well as melanoma and leukemia cells. The results suggested that the different molecular targets modulated by rosemary and its active constituents are useful indicators of success in clinical cancer chemo-prevention trials. PMID:21955093

  2. Evidence, theory and context - using intervention mapping to develop a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children

    OpenAIRE

    Greaves Colin J; Logan Stuart; Lloyd Jennifer J; Wyatt Katrina M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. Methods This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in chil...

  3. Cancer preventive role of selected dietary factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Amitabha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary behavior seems to be an important modifiable determinant for the risk of cancer. The evidences from several epidemiological studies suggest that higher intakes of fruits and vegetables have been associated with lower risk of cancer. Dietary phenolic and polyphenolic substances, terpenoids, dietary fibers, fish oils, some micronutrients present in foods of both plant and animal origin, and a reduction of caloric intake appear to inhibit the process of cancer development. Many dietary factors possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and cause induction of phase II enzymes like glutathione-S-transferases. It has been suggested that cruciferous vegetables play an important role in cancer prevention, and their chemopreventive effects are due to high glucosinolate content which under enzymatic hydrolysis produces bioactive compound isothiocyanates. Further, isothiocyanates of a wide variety of cruciferous vegetables are powerful inhibitors of carcinogenesis in experimental animal models. Several flavonoids present in fruits, tea, soya beans, etc. may be useful as cancer preventive agents. Similarly, ellagic acid, perillyl alcohol and resveratrol found in various fruits may have chemoprotective effect. Moreover, different vanilloids such as curcumin and gingerol have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. Nevertheless, in spite of several studies, still the effects of various ingredients are not clearly distinguished. In human, little convincing evidence has been established for the proposed protective effects of dietary constituents. It is an important future research goal to provide necessary evidences to support the chemopreventive role of different dietary factors, and also to clarify misunderstandings in this perplexing area.

  4. The role of interventional therapies in cancer pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Wilson; Ho, Kok-Yuen

    2009-11-01

    Cancer pain is complex and multifactorial. Most cancer pain can be effectively controlled using analgesics in accordance to the WHO analgesic ladder. However, in a small but significant percentage of cancer patients, systemic analgesics fail to provide adequate control of cancer pain. These cancer patients can also suffer from intolerable adverse effects of drug therapy or intractable cancer pain in advance disease. Though the prognosis of these cancer patients is often very limited, the pain relief, reduced medical costs and improvement in function and quality of life from a wide variety of available interventional procedures is extremely invaluable. These interventions can be used as sole agents or as useful adjuncts to supplement analgesics. This review will discuss interventional procedures such as epidural and intrathecal drug infusions, intrathecal neurolysis, sympathetic nervous system blockade, nerve blocks, vertebroplasty and the more invasive neurosurgical procedures. Intrathecal medications including opioids, local anaesthetics, clonidine, and ziconotide will also be discussed. PMID:19956822

  5. Maltreatment in Infancy: A Developmental Perspective on Prevention and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Brenda Jones; Buhler, Andrea; Parra, Laura Jimenez

    2016-10-01

    Burgeoning research has documented high rates of maltreatment during the first 3 years of life. Early exposure to maltreatment is related to a host of negative physical, developmental, and mental health outcomes in childhood and adulthood. Scientists have documented the "biological embedding" of maltreatment, including alterations in the structures and processes of the young brain. Maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, which manifests in contexts of family poverty, inadequate parental knowledge and skill regarding child development and caregiving, social isolation of parents, disruptions in parent-child relationships, compromised parental psychological functioning, and concrete issues that affect parenting. Capitalizing on research on young child maltreatment, interventions have been designed to ameliorate infant/toddler maltreatment, buffer young children against the effects of maltreatment, and promote the well-being of maltreated young children. There is a growing empirical base on interventions to address early maltreatment within the context of a public health prevention framework. Primary prevention programs aim to reduce the incidence of maltreatment and related outcomes for infants, toddlers, and their families through the implementation of population-based programs, such as home visiting and early care and education programs. Secondary prevention models target families with specific risk factors associated with maltreatment, such as maternal depression. Tertiary programs generally entail involuntary services, designed to prevent maltreatment recurrence and to improve parenting skills through therapeutic approaches targeting the parent-child dyad. Empirical knowledge about maltreated young children and their families and interventions to support them can inform the design and delivery of child welfare services. PMID:27580663

  6. Severe Reading Difficulties--Can They Be Prevented? A Comparison of Prevention and Intervention Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Donna M.; Vellutino, Frank R.; Small, Sheila G.; Fanuele, Diane P.; Sweeney, Joan M.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a preventative program delivered in kindergarten to children who were identified as being at risk for experiencing reading difficulties. It also examined the effects of two 1st-grade intervention programs delivered to children who demonstrated substantial difficulty with reading development at the beginning of…

  7. Helicobacter pylori eradication for preventing gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Li, Meng

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor for gastric cancer (GC) development, which is one of the most challenging malignant diseases worldwide with limited treatments. In the multistep pathogenesis of GC, H. pylori infection slowly induces chronic active gastritis, which progresses through the premalignant stages of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia, and then finally to GC. Although eradication of H. pylori is a reasonable approach for the prevention of GC, there have been some contradictory reports, with only some long-term follow-up data showing efficacy of this approach. The inconsistencies are likely due to the insufficient number of participants, relatively short follow-up periods, poor quality of study designs, and the degree and extent of preneoplastic changes at the time of H. pylori eradication. This review analyzes recent high-quality studies to resolve the discrepancies regarding the eradication of H. pylori for GC prevention. The relationship between H. pylori eradication and GC/precancerous lesions/metachronous GC is examined, and the cost-effectiveness of this strategy in the prevention of GC is assessed. Although it is assumed that eradication of H. pylori has the potential to prevent GC, the feasibility and appropriate timing of this strategy for cancer prevention remain to be determined. As a result, additional well-designed trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to clarify this issue.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Comparison of Breast Cancer Screening and Vascular Event Primary Prevention with Aspirin in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth

    2011-01-01

    Aim: For the first time, this article presents a cost-effectiveness comparison of a breast cancer screening programme with a possible health education programme with aspirin for vascular event primary prevention. Background: Breast cancer screening is a well established part of cancer control programmes yet recent evidence on this intervention has…

  9. Attachment-oriented psychological intervention for couples facing breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Anne; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Hagedoorn, Mariët;

    2014-01-01

    no neo-adjuvant treatment, having no history of hospitalisation due to psychosis, and able to read and speak Danish. Partners were eligible if they could read and speak Danish and were ≥ 18 years. DISCUSSION: This study investigates the effect of an attachment-oriented psychological intervention...... for breast cancer patients and their partners. The intervention has a theoretical framework and a strong design. If proven effective, this intervention would be helpful in optimising psychosocial care and rehabilitation of couples coping with breast cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier......BACKGROUND: There is evidence that both breast cancer patients and their partners are affected emotionally, when facing a breast cancer diagnosis. Several couple interventions have been evaluated, but there is a need for couple intervention studies with a clear theoretical basis and a strong design...

  10. Should Male Circumcision be Advocated for Genital Cancer Prevention?

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Brian J.; Mindel, Adrian; Tobian, Aaron AR; Hankins, Catherine A.; Ronald H Gray; Bailey, Robert C.; Bosch, Xavier; Wodak, Alex D

    2012-01-01

    The recent policy statement by the Cancer Council of Australia on infant circumcision and cancer prevention and the announcement that the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine will be made available for boys in Australia prompted us to provide an assessment of genital cancer prevention. While HPV vaccination of boys should help reduce anal cancer in homosexual men and cervical cancer in women, it will have little or no impact on penile or prostate cancer. Male circumcision can reduc...

  11. Prostate cancer educational intervention among men in Western Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Capanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To conduct and evaluate the impact of a theory-based health education intervention on awareness of prostate cancer and intention to screen among men in Western Jamaica and determine screening rates of men participating in the intervention at 6 months post-intervention. 454 men utilizing various clinics and hospitals in Western Jamaica completed an interviewer-administered pretest survey on general prostate cancer knowledge and intention to screen. Upon completing the pretest, participants observed a prostate cancer health education intervention and immediately completed a posttest survey. Statistically significant improvements in the percentage of correct responses between the pretest and posttest were evident (p < 0.05. Additionally, screening rates increased dramatically by 6 months post-intervention with over 33% of men receiving a prostate exam after participating in the educational intervention. The theory-based educational intervention increased participants' knowledge of prostate cancer, types of screening tests, frequency of screenings and risk factors and symptoms, and was effective in increasing screening rates among the men in Western Jamaica within 6 months post-intervention. This theory-based educational intervention may be replicated to promote awareness of prostate cancer and further increase screening rates in other areas of Jamaica and other developing countries.

  12. Contextual community prevention theory: building interventions with community agency collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eduardo S

    2009-11-01

    Translation from research to practice faces numerous problems that include replicating effectiveness, fidelity to the protocol and processes, and adaptations to different types of target populations. Working collaboratively with existing service providers can speed up the time for development and can ease the implementation of empirical randomized trials. Contextual community prevention theory is an innovative approach that focuses on changing behaviors of community members by creating a visible institutional presence that draws and pulls the targeted population into the organization's activities and interventions. The result is an institution or organization within the community that provides a new active and dynamic context, engaging its community members into its activities, interventions, and functions. An HIV prevention program developed collaboratively from the ground up for Latino gay/bisexual men is presented. Results from the program evaluation efforts across the years suggest promise for testing its efficacy through a randomized trial. HIV prevention efforts need to develop dynamic support systems within communities where these men have ownership, have control, and feel safe; otherwise HIV infection rates in this population will increase.

  13. ROLE OF LYCOPENE IN PREVENTING PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Tami Budirejeki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer in the United States in 2003. Prostate cancer is the second cause of death after lung cancer. The possibility of a man suffering from prostate cancer is about 3 %. Increasing age is the main risk factor for this disease. Eighty percent of prostate cancer patients aged over 65 years. Prostate cancer occurs due to accumulation of DNA damage. There are various mechanisms that cause DNA damage, one of them is due to oxidative stress. Imbalance levels of free radicals and antioxidant in tissues causes oxidative stress. Antioxidants are substance that has ability to neutralize free radicals. One of the powerful antioxidant is lycopene. It is belived have ability to prevent prostate cancer. Various studies and reviews have been conducted to determine the role of lycopene in the prevention of prostate cancer. Although most studies have found an association between the consumption of foods that contain lycopene with a reduced risk of prostate cancer, but few studies have found no such relationship. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  14. A decision support system for AIDS intervention and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L D

    1994-08-01

    In recent years, the importance of information systems has been identified as a vital issue to continuing success in AIDS intervention and prevention (AIP). The advances in information technology have resulted in integrative information systems including decision support systems (DSS). The concept of DSS for AIP was created at the intersection of two trends. The first trend was a growing belief that AIP information systems are successful in automating operations in AIP programs. The second was a continuing improvement in modeling and software development in the AIP area. This paper presents an integrated DSS for AIP. The system is integrated with a database and achieves its efficiency by incorporating various algorithms and models to support AIP decision processes. The application examples include screening AIDS-risky behaviors, evaluating educational interventions, and scheduling AIP sessions. The implementation results present evidence of the usefulness of the system in AIP.

  15. Mobile Phone Interventions for the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Linda G; Beatty, Alexis; Stafford, Zoey; Whooley, Mary A

    2016-01-01

    Mobile health in the form of text messaging and mobile applications provides an innovative and effective approach to promote prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, the magnitude of these effects is unclear. Through a comprehensive search of databases from 2002-2016, we conducted a quantitative systematic review. The selected studies were critically evaluated to extract and summarize pertinent characteristics and outcomes. A large majority of studies (22 of 28, 79%) demonstrated text messaging, mobile applications, and telemonitoring via mobile phones were effective in improving outcomes. Some key factors associated with successful interventions included personalized messages with tailored advice, greater engagement (2-way text messaging, higher frequency of messages), and use of multiple modalities. Overall, text messaging appears more effective than smartphone-based interventions. Incorporating principles of behavioral activation will help promote and sustain healthy lifestyle behaviors in patients with CVD that result in improved clinical outcomes. PMID:27001245

  16. Cancer precursors epidemiology, detection, and prevention

    CERN Document Server

    Rohan, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic advances in our understanding of cancer causation have come from epidemiologic and laboratory research, particularly over the past two decades. These developments have included a broadening interest in the critical events that take place during the early stages of the dynamic multistep process leading to - vasive cancer. Increasingly, cancer epidemiologists are pursuing research into the origins and natural history of premalignant lesions, including intermediate or surrogate endpoints, a trend - celerated by the development of molecular technologies that are revolutionizing our understanding of the transformation of normal to malignant cells. There seems little doubt that this emerging knowledge will provide further insights not only into carcinogenic processes, but also into more sensitive methods of early detection and more effective means of prevention. In this book, Drs. Franco and Rohan have succeeded in prep- ing a comprehensive, timely, and critical review of the substantial progress that has ...

  17. Photocarcinogenesis and Skin Cancer Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebode, Christina; Lehmann, Janin; Emmert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    In this review the basic principles of UV-induced carcinogenesis are summarized and the state of the art diagnosis and therapeutic strategies are discussed. The prevalent keratinocyte-derived neoplasms of the skin are basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Cutaneous melanoma is less frequent but associated with high mortality. Common risk factors for all three tumor entities include sun exposure and DNA-repair deficiencies. Photocarcinogenesis follows a multistep model of cancer development in which ultraviolet-induced DNA damage leads to mutations resulting in activation of oncogenes or silencing of tumor-suppressor genes. This ends in a cellular mutator phenotype even more prone to mutation acquisition. DNA repair, especially the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, counteracts mutation formation and skin cancer development. This is vividly demonstrated by the NER-defective disorder xeroderma pigmentosum. Primary skin cancer preventative strategies, therefore, include reduction of DNA photodamage by protection from the sun. Secondary preventative strategies include skin cancer screening. This implies standard examination techniques with the naked eye, an epiluminescence microscope, or digital epiluminescence microscopy. More advanced techniques include confocal laser scan microscopy. PMID:26977038

  18. Exercise and relaxation intervention for patients with advanced lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Stage, M; Laursen, J;

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer patients experience loss of physical capacity, dyspnea, pain, reduced energy and psychological distress. The aim of this study was to explore feasibility, health benefits and barriers of exercise in former sedentary patients with advanced stage lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer...... (NSCLC) (III-IV) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) (ED), undergoing chemotherapy. The intervention consisted of a hospital-based, supervised, group exercise and relaxation program comprising resistance-, cardiovascular- and relaxation training 4 h weekly, 6 weeks, and a concurrent unsupervised home...... exercise and relaxation intervention showed an adherence rate of 76%, whereas the patients failed to comply with the home-based exercise. The hospital-based intervention initiated at time of diagnosis encouraged former sedentary lung cancer patients to participation and was undertaken safely by cancer...

  19. Researching Human Experience: video intervention/prevention assessment (VIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Patashnick

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Human experience is a critical subject for research. By discussing Video Intervention/Prevention Assessment (VIA, a patient-centered health research method where patients teach their clinicians about living with a chronic condition through the creation of visual illness narratives, this paper examines the value of qualitative inquiry and why human experience rarely is investigated directly. An analysis of a sample VIA data is presented to demonstrate how, by utilizing grounded theory and qualitative analysis, one can derive rich and unique information from human experience.

  20. Hypnosis and music interventions (HMIs) inactivate HIF-1: A potential curative efficacy for cancers and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Zhang; Li, Ling; Pan, Li-Lan; Chen, Jian-Hua

    2015-11-01

    Hypnosis and music interventions (HMIs) have shown positive influence on cancers for nearly 200years, but the underlying mechanisms were rarely explored systematically. The hypothesis suggests a potential curative efficacy of HMIs on cancers by inhibiting hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which is a key mediator of cancer development, especially under hypoxic conditions. HMIs are sufficient to attenuate the pain and anxiety degree of individuals, improve multiple psychological and physiological parameters, and consequently, lead to increased oxygen saturation in vivo. Furthermore, abundant oxygen in vivo inhibits the activation of HIF-1 and potentially blockades kinds of HIF-1-induced oncogenic signaling pathways. The hypothesized efficacy of HMIs is very similar to anti-cancer medicines targeting HIF-1. The implication of the hypothesis in preventing hypertension is also discussed. In summary, the hypothesis clearly suggests the potential involvement of the convenient, safe, non-pharmaceutical, and low-cost HMIs in preventing HIF-1-mediated diseases, including cancers and hypertension.

  1. Hypnosis and music interventions (HMIs) inactivate HIF-1: A potential curative efficacy for cancers and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Zhang; Li, Ling; Pan, Li-Lan; Chen, Jian-Hua

    2015-11-01

    Hypnosis and music interventions (HMIs) have shown positive influence on cancers for nearly 200years, but the underlying mechanisms were rarely explored systematically. The hypothesis suggests a potential curative efficacy of HMIs on cancers by inhibiting hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which is a key mediator of cancer development, especially under hypoxic conditions. HMIs are sufficient to attenuate the pain and anxiety degree of individuals, improve multiple psychological and physiological parameters, and consequently, lead to increased oxygen saturation in vivo. Furthermore, abundant oxygen in vivo inhibits the activation of HIF-1 and potentially blockades kinds of HIF-1-induced oncogenic signaling pathways. The hypothesized efficacy of HMIs is very similar to anti-cancer medicines targeting HIF-1. The implication of the hypothesis in preventing hypertension is also discussed. In summary, the hypothesis clearly suggests the potential involvement of the convenient, safe, non-pharmaceutical, and low-cost HMIs in preventing HIF-1-mediated diseases, including cancers and hypertension. PMID:26206760

  2. Dance as a therapy for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Gurbuz; Ogce, Filiz

    2005-01-01

    Even though the field of medicine has developed tremendously, the wide variety of cancer is still among chronic and life threatening disease today. Therefore, the specialists constantly research and try every possible way to find cure or preventive ways to stop its further development. For this reason, studies concerning the chronic disease such as cancer have been spread to many different fields. In this regard, many other alternative ways besides medicine, are used in prevention of cancer. Nutritional therapy, herbal therapy, sportive activities, art therapy, music therapy, dance therapy, imagery, yoga and acupuncture can be given as examples. Among these, dance/movement therapy which deals with individuals physical, emotional, cognitive as well as social integration is widely used as a popular form of physical activity. The physical benefits of dance therapy as exercise are well documented. Studies have shown that physical activity is known to increase special neurotransmitter substances in the brain (endorphins), which create a state of well-being. And total body movement such as dance enhances the functions of other body systems, such as circulatory, respiratory, skeletal, and muscular systems. Regarding its unique connection to the field of medicine, many researches have been undertaken on the effects of dance/movement therapy in special settings with physical problems such as amputations, traumatic brain injury, and stroke, chronic illnesses such as anorexia, bulimia, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, asthma, AIDS, and arthritis. Today dance/movement therapy is a well recognized form of complementary therapy used in hospitals as well as at the comprehensive clinical cancer centres. PMID:16236009

  3. Cancer Prevention and Interception: A New Era for Chemopreventive Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, Adriana; DeCensi, Andrea; Cavalli, Franco; Costa, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    At several recent, internationally attended scientific meetings, including the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR)'s "Shaping the Future of Cancer Prevention: A Roadmap for Integrative Cancer Science and Public Health" summit in Leesburg (VA) and the AACR Annual Meeting in New Orleans, the focus on cancer prevention to reduce cancer-related deaths was extensively discussed with renewed attention and emphasis. Cancer prevention should be actively proposed even to healthy individuals, and not just to individuals with high cancer risk. We discuss evaluation of a high cancer risk versus the relatively low risk for side effects of chemopreventive agents. The concept of cancer interception, which is halting transformed cells from becoming malignant cancers, should be adopted for cancer prevention. Potential prevention/interception actions include adopting healthy life style and avoiding carcinogens, repressing inflammation and pathologic angiogenesis, controlling metabolism, correcting insulin resistance and other metabolic alterations. Current drugs with limited toxicity can be repurposed to reduce cancer incidence. Aspirin is now being recommended for the prevention of colorectal cancer and it prevents other neoplasms as well. Metformin and β-blockers could be valuable for reducing pancreatic and breast cancer onset. On the basis of the evaluation of cancer risk, we here call for personalized approaches for cancer prevention and preventive interception and we envisage a list of measures and potential guidelines for preventive and interceptive strategies to reduce cancer burden. Investment into translational research to bring these approaches into public health policies and in the clinic is urgently needed. Clin Cancer Res; 22(17); 4322-7. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27220959

  4. Childhood Injury Prevention: Intervention in the Bedouin City of Rahat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Hemmo-Lotem

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For several years, the National Center for Children's Health and Safety (Beterem has worked on many levels to promote safety and prevent injury of the children in Israel. As part of intervention programs in 20 communities around Israel, this paper describes a 1-year, multidisciplinary, multistrategic childhood safety promotion and injury prevention project. The project took place in the Bedouin city of Rahat in the Southern part of Israel, the Negev, conducted by a local safety coordinator. This specific intervention study took place from March 2003 to March 2004. The main goal was to identify hazards and dangerous obstacles in public places in Rahat, then remove or repair the obstacles found, in order to secure a safe public environment for children. “Obstacle”” was defined as any barrier that could endanger the safety of a child. Ten examples are used to illustrate this applied research project, and 80% of the problems were solved within the project period (time to solve between 1 week to 3 months, depending on various factors. We recommend the involvement of a safety coordinator from the community to focus on safety hazards for children, the use of a documentation diary to log the time frame, and also the use of pictures to illustrate the hazards and the changes, or to use as arguments in the lobbying process.

  5. Nutritional Interventions for Cancer-induced Cachexia

    OpenAIRE

    Gullett, Norleena P.; Mazurak, Vera; Hebbar, Gautam; Ziegler, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    Cancer-induced cachexia remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer treatment. Cancer research and development continues at an aggressive pace and yet a degree of cancer-induced cachexia is experienced by up to 80% of advanced stage cancer patients. Unfortunately, there are no established treatment regimens for this condition. Weight loss and fatigue consistently appear in patient oncologic histories and progress notes. However, few oncologists fully understand the pathol...

  6. Health-related knowledge of primary prevention of cancer in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana Rute; Silva, Susana; Moura-Ferreira, Pedro; Villaverde-Cabral, Manuel; Santos, Osvaldo; do Carmo, Isabel; Barros, Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of new cases of cancer highlights the relevance of primary prevention for cancer control, which is influenced, among other factors, by the population’s health-related knowledge. Therefore, we aimed to describe cancer-related knowledge in Portugal, including perception of risk, awareness of cancer causes and preventive behaviours. We evaluated 1624 Portuguese-speaking dwellers, aged between 16 and 79 years, through face-to-face interviews conducted using a structured questionnaire. We computed adjusted (sex, age, education) regression coefficients and prevalence ratios, using linear and Poisson regression, respectively, to quantify associations with cancer-specific knowledge. The proportions of nonresponse ranged from 13.4 to 63.5% for the most frequent cancer in Portugal and the leading cause of cancer, respectively. The mean of the estimated lifetime risk of cancer in the Portuguese population was 37.0%. A total of 47.5% of the respondents identified breast cancer as the most frequent in Portugal, 72.0% named lifestyles as the leading cause of cancer and 40.2% selected not smoking as the most important preventive behaviour. Lower levels of education were associated with higher proportions of nonresponse, but not consistently with inaccurate knowledge. Men provided lower estimates of the lifetime risk of cancer, indicated breast cancer less frequently and more often lung cancer as the most frequent, and were more likely to select not smoking as the most important preventive behaviour. The present study provides relevant data on knowledge of cancer prevention, which may be used for the planning and evaluation of awareness-raising and primary prevention interventions in Portugal. PMID:25642793

  7. Health-related knowledge of primary prevention of cancer in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana Rute; Silva, Susana; Moura-Ferreira, Pedro; Villaverde-Cabral, Manuel; Santos, Osvaldo; do Carmo, Isabel; Barros, Henrique; Lunet, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of new cases of cancer highlights the relevance of primary prevention for cancer control, which is influenced, among other factors, by the population's health-related knowledge. Therefore, we aimed to describe cancer-related knowledge in Portugal, including perception of risk, awareness of cancer causes and preventive behaviours. We evaluated 1624 Portuguese-speaking dwellers, aged between 16 and 79 years, through face-to-face interviews conducted using a structured questionnaire. We computed adjusted (sex, age, education) regression coefficients and prevalence ratios, using linear and Poisson regression, respectively, to quantify associations with cancer-specific knowledge. The proportions of nonresponse ranged from 13.4 to 63.5% for the most frequent cancer in Portugal and the leading cause of cancer, respectively. The mean of the estimated lifetime risk of cancer in the Portuguese population was 37.0%. A total of 47.5% of the respondents identified breast cancer as the most frequent in Portugal, 72.0% named lifestyles as the leading cause of cancer and 40.2% selected not smoking as the most important preventive behaviour. Lower levels of education were associated with higher proportions of nonresponse, but not consistently with inaccurate knowledge. Men provided lower estimates of the lifetime risk of cancer, indicated breast cancer less frequently and more often lung cancer as the most frequent, and were more likely to select not smoking as the most important preventive behaviour. The present study provides relevant data on knowledge of cancer prevention, which may be used for the planning and evaluation of awareness-raising and primary prevention interventions in Portugal.

  8. Public Awareness of Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interventions for Increasing Screening Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno Garcia, Antonio Z.; Hernandez Alvarez Buylla, Noemi; Nicolas-Perez, David; Quintero, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer ranks as one of the most incidental and death malignancies worldwide. Colorectal cancer screening has proven its benefit in terms of incidence and mortality reduction in randomized controlled trials. In fact, it has been recommended by medical organizations either in average-risk or family-risk populations. Success of a screening campaign highly depends on how compliant the target population is. Several factors influence colorectal cancer screening uptake including sociodemographics, provider and healthcare system factors, and psychosocial factors. Awareness of the target population of colorectal cancer and screening is crucial in order to increase screening participation rates. Knowledge about this disease and its prevention has been used across studies as a measurement of public awareness. Some studies found a positive relationship between knowledge about colorectal cancer, risk perception, and attitudes (perceived benefits and barriers against screening) and willingness to participate in a colorectal cancer screening campaign. The mentioned factors are modifiable and therefore susceptible of intervention. In fact, interventional studies focused on average-risk population have tried to increase colorectal cancer screening uptake by improving public knowledge and modifying attitudes. In the present paper, we reviewed the factors impacting adherence to colorectal cancer screening and interventions targeting participants for increasing screening uptake. PMID:24729896

  9. Meditation as primary intervention strategy in prevention of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadneshwar Khobragade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart diseases especially Hypertension, Coronary Artery Diseases (CAD and stroke are the leading causes of death all over the world. Hostility, anxiety, depression and increased reactivity to mental stress have been strongly associated with hypertension and CAD. Mental stress or anxiety causes increased sympathetic activation and poor vagus nerve control over heart. Imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system leads to vasospasm and has been associated with Hypertension, Coronary Artery Disease and Myocardial Infarction. Psychosocial stress has also been found to be responsible for imbalance in autonomic nervous system, causing sympathetic dominance over parasympathetic leading to acute coronary events. Meditation is a process of self-contemplation and purification of mind. Practitioner of meditation brings about desirable changes in their behaviour and lifestyle. During Meditation sympathetic activity is reduced and there is parasympathetic dominance over sympathetic. During meditation and after meditation person feels calm, quiet and relaxed. Meditation causes decrease in metabolic rate. The blood pressure may come to normal or falls, pulse rate comes to normal or low, vascular spasm if any, is reduced and myocardial perfusion increase. Thus meditation helps in preventing hypertension, coronary artery disease and other cardiac events. This may be beneficial before a person gets coronary event and post-myocardial infarction. In view of the beneficial effects of meditation, it may be introduced as primary intervention strategy in preventing Cardio-vascular Diseases. We did this review study to find out: (1 Can meditation bring about desirable changes in human mind and body in post-intervention group compared to control group? (2 Its effectiveness in prevention of heart diseases like hypertension, coronary events and post-MI complications. This review included all randomised controlled trials on patients above 18 years, both

  10. Systematic review: primary and secondary prevention of gastrointestinal cancers with antioxidant supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements prevent gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory. AIM: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in preventing gastrointestinal cancers. METHODS: Using the Cochrane Collaboration methodology, we reviewed.......5%) but significantly increased mortality in a fixed-effect model meta-analysis (RR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.07). CONCLUSIONS: We could not find evidence that the studied antioxidant supplements prevented gastrointestinal cancers. On the contrary, they seem to increase overall mortality Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/15...... the randomized trials comparing antioxidant supplements with placebo or no intervention on the occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers. We searched electronic databases and reference lists until October, 2007. Our outcome measures were gastrointestinal cancers, overall mortality and adverse events. Outcomes were...

  11. 20-years of population-based cancer registration in hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention in the Gambia, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrima Bah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS was designed as a randomised control trial of infant hepatitis B vaccination applied to public health policy, with the main goal of preventing primary liver cancer later in adult life in The Gambia. To that effect, the National Cancer Registry of The Gambia (NCR, a population-based cancer registry (PBCR, was established in 1986 to actively collect data on all cancer diagnosis nation-wide. We extracted 20-years (1990-2009 of data to assess for the first time, the evolution of the most common cancers, also describe and demonstrate the role of the PBCR in a hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention programme in this population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimated Age-Standardised Incidence Rates (ASR (W of the most common cancers registered during the period by gender. The registration period was divided into four 5-year intervals and incidence rates were estimated for each interval. The most common cancers in males were liver, prostate, lung plus bronchus, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and stomach, accounting for 60%, 5%, 4%, 5% and 3%, respectively. Similarly, cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, breast and NHL, were the most common in females, accounting for 33%, 24%, 11% and 4% of the female cancers, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer incidence has remained relatively stable over time, but as shown elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa the disease is a threat in The Gambia. The infection related cancers which are mostly preventable (HBV in men and HPV/HIV in women were the most common. At the moment the data is not enough to detect an effect of hepatitis B vaccination on liver cancer incidence in The Gambia. However, we observed that monitoring case occurrence through PBCR is a key public health pre-requisite for rational planning and implementation of targeted interventions for improving the health of the population.

  12. Endotoxin and cancer chemo-prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Fadda, Emanuela; Cegolon, Luca

    2013-10-01

    Reduced rates of lung cancer have been observed in several occupational groups exposed to high levels of organic dusts contaminated by endotoxin. The underlying anti-neoplastic mechanism of endotoxin may be an increased secretion of endogenous anti-neoplastic mediators and activation of the toll-like receptors (TLR). A detoxified endotoxin derivative, Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPL(®)) is marketed in Europe since 1999 as part of the adjuvant systems in allergy vaccines for treatment of allergic rhino-conjunctivitis and allergic asthma. Over 200,000 patients have used them to date (nearly 70% in Germany). Since detailed exposure (MPL(®) dose and timing of administration) and individual data are potentially available, an observational follow-up study could be conducted in Germany to investigate the protective effect of MPL(®) against cancer, comparing cancer incidence in two groups of patients with allergic rhinitis: those treated with allergoids plus MPL(®) and those treated with a vaccine including the same allergoids but not MPL(®). The protective effect of MPL(®) could be quantified in ever and never smokers. If this proposed observational study provides evidence of protective effects, MPL(®) could be immediately used as a chemo-preventive agent since it is already in use as adjuvant in human vaccines against cancer.

  13. Biomarkers for diet and cancer prevention research: potentials and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cindy D DAVIS; John A MILNER

    2007-01-01

    As cancer incidence is projected to increase for decades there is a need for effec-tive preventive strategies. Fortunately, evidence continues to mount that altering dietary habits is an effective and cost-efficient approach for reducing cancer risk and for modifying the biological behavior of tumors. Predictive, validated and sensitive biomarkers, including those that reliably evaluate "intake" or exposure to a specific food or bioactive component, that assess one or more specific bio-logical "effects" that are linked to cancer, and that effectively predict individual "susceptibility" as a function of nutrient-nutrient interactions and genetics, are fundamental to evaluating who will benefit most from dietary interventions. These biomarkers must be readily accessible, easily and reliably assayed, and predictive of a key process(es) involved in cancer. The response to a food is determined not only by the effective concentration of the bioactive food component(s) reaching the target tissue, but also by the amount of the target requiring modification.Thus, this threshold response to foods and their components will vary from indi-vidual to individual. The key to understanding a personalized response is a greater knowledge of nutrigenomics, proteomics and metabolomics.

  14. Metformin for aging and cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Vladimir N.

    2010-01-01

    Studies in mammals have led to the suggestion that hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia are important factors in aging. Insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling molecules that have been linked to longevity include daf-2 and InR and their homologues in mammals, and inactivation of the corresponding genes increases life span in nematodes, fruit flies and mice. It is possible that the life-prolonging effect of caloric restriction is due to decreasing IGF-1 levels. Evidence has emerged that antidiabetic drugs are promising candidates for both life span extension and prevention of cancer. Thus, antidiabetic drugs postpone spontaneous carcinogenesis in mice and rats, as well as chemical and radiation carcinogenesis in mice, rats and hamsters. Furthermore metformin seems to decrease cancer risk in diabetic patients. PMID:21084729

  15. [Experience of stroke prevention-Enlightenment for cancer research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Weicheng

    2015-08-01

    Cancer, stroke and heart diseases are most common causes of death. This paper summarized the experience of stroke prevention, which is an enlightenment for cancer research. In addition, this paper also described the progress of cancer epidemiological research, particular the primary and second preventions in China. PMID:26733022

  16. Breast Cancer Screening Interventions in Selected Counties Across US Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Shamly; Martin, Michelle Y; Levine, Robert S.; Pisu, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the types of, and the populations targeted by interventions implemented to increase breast cancer screening rates in counties with large African American populations across different US regions. Methods A brief questionnaire was administered by e-mail to county representatives from 33 states from October 2008 through March 2009. Responses were obtained from 33% of 203 targeted counties. Results Most counties (>80%) reported interventions for African American women and for women with low income. Women were exposed to different kinds of interventions depending on where they lived. Most counties in the Northeast (93%), Southwest (82%) and Midwest (100%) implemented interventions that provided free or low cost mammograms. Counties in the Southeast (83%) were more likely to report education interventions. Counties from the Southwest reported using a variety of interventions to encourage breast cancer screening. Conclusion In this selected group of counties, different types of interventions were used to increase breast cancer screening in minority and disadvantaged women. Interventions implemented were similar to those shown in the literature to be effective in increasing screening rates in specific populations. Future research should examine the use of screening interventions in a larger sample of US counties. PMID:20820899

  17. Effects of a Stage-based Alcohol Preventive Intervention for Inner-City Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.; Carlson, Joan M.; Owen, Deborah M.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Carbonari, Joseph P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines first year outcomes of an alcohol preventive intervention within inner-city middle schools. Results reveal that significantly fewer neighborhood intervention students initiated alcohol use compared to control students. Suggests that a brief, stage-based preventive intervention may result in significant reductions in alcohol initiation and…

  18. Cost effectiveness of preventive interventions in type 2 diabetes mellitus : a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijgen, Sylvia M C; Hoogendoorn, Mirjam; Baan, Caroline A; de Wit, G Ardine; Limburg, Wien; Feenstra, Talitha L

    2006-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature was conducted to give an overview of economic evaluations of preventive interventions in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The interventions were sorted by type of preventive intervention (primary, secondary or tertiary) and by category (e.g. education, medication for h

  19. Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas F; Alexander, Kelly T; Sinclair, David; Boisson, Sophie; Peletz, Rachel; Chang, Howard H; Majorin, Fiona; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea is a major cause of death and disease, especially among young children in low-income countries. In these settings, many infectious agents associated with diarrhoea are spread through water contaminated with faeces. In remote and low-income settings, source-based water quality improvement includes providing protected groundwater (springs, wells, and bore holes), or harvested rainwater as an alternative to surface sources (rivers and lakes). Point-of-use water quality improvement interventions include boiling, chlorination, flocculation, filtration, or solar disinfection, mainly conducted at home. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (11 November 2014), CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library, 7 November 2014), MEDLINE (1966 to 10 November 2014), EMBASE (1974 to 10 November 2014), and LILACS (1982 to 7 November 2014). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, contacted researchers and organizations working in the field, and checked references from identified studies through 11 November 2014. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) comparing interventions aimed at improving the microbiological quality of drinking water with no intervention in children and adults. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We used meta-analyses to estimate pooled measures of effect, where appropriate, and investigated potential sources of heterogeneity using subgroup analyses. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results Forty-five cluster-RCTs, two quasi-RCTs, and eight CBA studies, including over 84,000 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Most included studies were conducted in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs) (50 studies) with

  20. The Peru Cervical Cancer Prevention Study (PERCAPS): Community Based Participatory Research in Manchay, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Kimberly L.; Abuelo, Carolina; Chyung, Eunice; Salmeron, Jorge; Belinson, Suzanne E; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Ortiz, Carlos Santos; Vallejos, Maria Jose; Belinson, Jerome L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cervical cancer is a preventable disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. While technology for early detection continues to improve, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers. Community Based Participatory Research is an approach to research which focuses on collaboration with the community to surmount these barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of Community Based Participatory Research techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for cervical cancer prevention in Manchay, Peru. Methods/materials HPV self-sampling and cryotherapy were utilized for the screen/treat intervention, and the Gardasil vaccine was utilized for the vaccine intervention. Community health workers from Manchay participated in a 3-day educational course, designed by the research team. The community health workers then decided how to implement the interventions in their community. The success of the program was measured by: 1) the ability of the community health workers to determine an implementation plan, 2) the successful use of research forms provided, 3) participation and retention rates, and 4) satisfaction of the participants. Results 1) The community health workers used a door-to-door approach through which participants were successfully registered and both interventions were successfully carried out; 2) registration forms, consent forms, and result forms were utilized correctly with minimal error; 3) screen/treat intervention: 97% of registered participants gave an HPV sample, 94% of HPV positive women were treated, and 90% returned for 6-month follow-up; vaccine intervention: 95% of registered girls received the 1st vaccine, 97% of those received the 2nd vaccine, and 93% the 3rd; 4) 96% of participants in the screen/treat intervention reported high satisfaction. Conclusion Community Based Participatory Research techniques successfully helped to implement a screen

  1. Federal structures and associated behavioural interventions in prevention of cigarette smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich, Stefan N.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The recently published HTA-report “Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural strategies in the prevention of cigarette smoking” detects a lack of high-quality publications considering the national prevention structures. Included publications do not give any information regarding current interventions in Germany. The goal of this addendum is to give an overview of the federal prevention system and associated measures for behavioural smoking prevention. Methods: Firstly, relevant tobacco prevention structures with associated tasks and activities were identified. Further, a survey of available project information was conducted in December 2007. This procedure based on systematic analysis in PrevNet-network as well as on manual search on the web sites of primary network centres (PrevNet-Knotenpunkte or other relevant federal state organisations. A written, postal questionnaire was conducted among network centres, federal state organisations and selected health insurance funds. Results: Interventions regarding primary prevention of smoking cover a variety of activities and campaigns issued by the Federal Government, several national organisations, federal and local authorities as well as health insurance funds. Institutions such as the German Ministry of Health, the Federal Centre for Health Education (BZGA, the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ contribute to smoking prevention on national level. Diverse professional associations, workshops or authorities set up the organisational framework for coordination and planning of tobacco prevention on federal state level. Even on communal level institutional structures in terms of local professional departments and committees are established. The health insurance companies and their associations also play a major role in prevention of smoking uptake. “Rauchfrei”, “Be smart, don´ t start”, “Klasse 2000”, “ALF” or “Just be smokefree” are among the most well

  2. Moving from Theory to Practice: Implementing the Kin Keeper[superscript SM] Cancer Prevention Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K. P.; Mullan, P. B.; Todem, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale and findings of a feasibility and process study of the Kin Keeper[superscript SM] Cancer Prevention Intervention. An observational cohort study design was implemented with African-American women in synergistic female family relationships. Community health workers (CHWs) from two Michigan public health programs…

  3. Research Areas: Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI's prevention research has a broad focus—from identifying environmental and lifestyle factors that influence cancer risk to studying the biology of how cancer develops and testing ways to disseminate prevention interventions.

  4. [Significance of precision medicine in pancreatic cancer prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C F

    2016-03-23

    The morbidity and mortality of pancreatic cancer has been increasing year by year, however, the treatment progress and prevention effect were minimal. With the development of basic research, especially the advances of gene sequencing technology, it was possible to clarify the etiology and pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer, and achieve the first stage prevention. The discovery of pancreatic cancer exosomes of high sensitivity and specificity made early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (the second stage prevention) no longer a worldwide problem. The build of pancreatic cancer genotyping with clinical applicability made the precision treatment of pancreatic cancer (the third stage prevention) possible. Thus, the precision medicine which is based on advances of gene sequencing, popularity of the Internet and the big data technology has brought a ray of hope for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26988819

  5. Early interventions to prevent retinal vasculopathy in diabetes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison WW

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wendy W Harrison, Vladimir YevseyenkovArizona College of Optometry, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USAAbstract: Diabetic eye disease is a public health concern in all areas of the world as a leading cause of blindness in the working aged to elderly populations. Diabetes damages the lining of the microvasculature throughout the body through prolonged exposure to hyperglycemic conditions. The ocular changes are progressive with very little recourse for improvement once damage begins. Current treatments for the eye focus mainly on the late stages of the disease when neovascularization or edema threatens sight. Early interventions for diabetic vasculopathy involve metabolic therapy to improve blood glucose and blood pressure control. Technology improvements have a large part to play in advancing diagnosis of diabetic eye disease. These new technologies offer both structural and functional means for assessment of retinal health. This review focuses on current treatments for diabetic eye disease at all stages with an emphasis on new and early interventions. It also details established and emerging technologies used for earlier detection of diabetic eye disease, which is vital to the development and approval of much needed treatments targeted at earlier stages of diabetic retinopathy. Possible future treatments should be aimed to prevent retinal vasculopathy from progressing. This review will explore current research on this topic and what is needed moving forward.Keywords: diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, vascular disease

  6. Grant R01NS046606 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA138800 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R21CA184788 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant U01DK048375 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA161534 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R21CA182111 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R03CA121827 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01NR014068 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant U01DK048377 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant U01DK048349 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R21CA185460 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01EB019337 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01CA128134 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01CA148817 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R21CA190028 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01CA154489 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA179511 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA170549 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA155297 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R21CA182861 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant U01CA163056 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R21CA174541 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA107408 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA164782 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA155301 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA098286 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R21CA174594 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant U54CA163060 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R21CA190021 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA132951 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA134620 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Active Nutritional Science Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Nutritional Science Meetings and Events | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Nutritional Science Funding Opportunities | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Asad Umar, DVM, PhD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Nutritional Science Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE SURGEON GENERAL’S CALL TO ACTION TO PREVENT SKIN CANCER From the Surgeon General Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer the ... be disfiguring and even deadly. Medical treatment for skin cancer is costly for individuals, families, and the nation. ...

  3. To Help Prevent Colon Cancer, 'Listen to Your Gut'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161185.html To Help Prevent Colon Cancer, 'Listen to Your Gut' Belly pain and black ... between life and death, especially for people with colon cancer, researchers report. People who pay attention to their ...

  4. Study Hints At HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159696.html Study Hints at HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise Fewer ... that can lead to cervical cancer, a new study shows. Canadian researchers found that young women who ...

  5. Postoperative pulmonary complications in elderly patients with lung cancer:Possible reasons And preventive nursing Interventions%老年肺癌患者术后肺部并发症原因分析及围手术期的护理干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳海荣

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨老年肺癌患者围手术期肺部并发症预防的原因及护理干预方法.方法 通过肺部并发症原因分析对88例肺癌手术治疗患者,进行术前戒烟教育、肺功能锻炼、有效咳嗽指导、控制原发病、上呼吸道清洁、心理护理,及术后早期活动、协助排痰、湿化气道、镇痛、病室空气消毒等.结果 88例患者均痊愈出院,无术后肺部并发症的发生.结论 通过对老年肺癌患者手术肺部并发症原因分析有针对性地进行围手术期并发症的护理干预,减少了肺部并发症的发生,促进了患者康复.%Objective To explore possible reasons and preventive nursing interventions for postoperative pulmonary complications in elderly patients with lung cancer. Methods Eighty-eight elderly patients with lung cancer, who had received surgery treatment, were analyzed. Nursing interventions were conducted including preoperative smoking giving-up, pulmonary rehabilitation, medicine treatment for primary disease, upper pulmonary tract cleaning, mental nursing, as well as postoperative early physical activities, sputum cleaning, steam inhalation, pain control and ward sterilization, etc. Results All patients recovered without any postoperative pulmonary complications. Conclusions Many reasons are related to postoperative pulmonary complications in elderly patients. Perioperative nursing interventions will be effective to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications.

  6. Barriers to a Career Focus in Cancer Prevention: A Report and Initial Recommendations From the American Society of Clinical Oncology Cancer Prevention Workforce Pipeline Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyskens, Frank L.; Bajorin, Dean F.; George, Thomas J.; Jeter, Joanne M.; Khan, Shakila; Tyne, Courtney A.; William, William N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assist in determining barriers to an oncology career incorporating cancer prevention, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Cancer Prevention Workforce Pipeline Work Group sponsored surveys of training program directors and oncology fellows. Methods Separate surveys with parallel questions were administered to training program directors at their fall 2013 retreat and to oncology fellows as part of their February 2014 in-training examination survey. Forty-seven (67%) of 70 training directors and 1,306 (80%) of 1,634 oncology fellows taking the in-training examination survey answered questions. Results Training directors estimated that ≤ 10% of fellows starting an academic career or entering private practice would have a career focus in cancer prevention. Only 15% of fellows indicated they would likely be interested in cancer prevention as a career focus, although only 12% thought prevention was unimportant relative to treatment. Top fellow-listed barriers to an academic career were difficulty in obtaining funding and lower compensation. Additional barriers to an academic career with a prevention focus included unclear career model, lack of clinical mentors, lack of clinical training opportunities, and concerns about reimbursement. Conclusion Reluctance to incorporate cancer prevention into an oncology career seems to stem from lack of mentors and exposure during training, unclear career path, and uncertainty regarding reimbursement. Suggested approaches to begin to remedy this problem include: 1) more ASCO-led and other prevention educational resources for fellows, training directors, and practicing oncologists; 2) an increase in funded training and clinical research opportunities, including reintroduction of the R25T award; 3) an increase in the prevention content of accrediting examinations for clinical oncologists; and 4) interaction with policymakers to broaden the scope and depth of reimbursement for prevention counseling and

  7. Towards research-tested smartphone applications for preventing breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Steven S; Thind, Herpreet; Liu, Benyuan; Wilson, Lt Col Candy

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to prevent breast cancer and other chronic illnesses have focused on promoting physical activity, healthy diet and nutrition, and avoidance of excessive alcohol consumption. Smartphone applications (apps) offer a low-cost, effective strategy for breast cancer prevention in women through behavioral change. However, there are currently no research-tested smartphone apps for breast cancer prevention that are suitable for women with varying levels of health literacy and eHealth literacy. ...

  8. Preventative therapies for healthy women at high risk of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamoxifen has been shown to reduce the risk of developing estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer by at least 50%, in both pre- and postmenopausal women. The current challenge is to find new agents with fewer side effects and to find agents that are specifically suitable for premenopausal women with ER-negative breast cancer. Other selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as raloxifene, arzoxifene, and lasofoxifene, have been shown to reduce the incidence of breast cancer by 50%–80%. SERMs are interesting agents for the prevention of breast cancer, but longer follow-up is needed for some of them for a complete risk–benefit profile of these drugs. Aromatase inhibitors have emerged as new drugs in the prevention setting for postmenopausal women. In the Mammary Prevention 3 (MAP3) trial, a 65% reduction in invasive breast cancer with exemestane was observed, and the Breast Cancer Intervention Study-II trial, which compared anastrozole with placebo, reported a 60% reduction in those cancers. Although SERMs and aromatase inhibitors have been proven to be excellent agents in the preventive setting specifically for postmenopausal women and ER-positive breast cancer, newer agents have to be found specifically for ER-negative breast cancers, which mostly occur in premenopausal women

  9. CANCER IS PREVENTABLE- LET US TRY OUR LEVEL BEST

    OpenAIRE

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a chronic disease and the prevalence is increasing at a faster rate in recent years. Most of the cancers are incurable, treatment is very expensive and is not affordable even for above middle-class people. A strong correlation is observed between lifestyle factors and cancer incidence or prevention. Let us know about cancer prevention lifestyle focussing mainly on the role of physical activity and diet. Most of the people leading sedentary life style. There is an overall decline in ...

  10. Co-ordination and ecology in practical cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M A; Tsuda, H

    1998-10-01

    A great deal of information is already available regarding modifiable factors affecting cancer development in a negative or positive fashion. Thus, avoidance of harmful agents like tobacco, vaccination against virus infections, prompt treatment of inflammatory conditions and increased exposure to beneficial influences hold great promise for the achievement of effective prevention. However, this requires a co-ordinated strategy and an integration of efforts in epidemiological and biological research, medical practice and education, and is essential for optimal use of the resources available. In addition, more stress needs to be placed on community approaches. Concentration of particular attention on the 'ecological' interactions among a triad of the major areas of action: (1) information generation; (2) intervention efforts; (3) government policy, appears warranted. PMID:9884888

  11. Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Funding Opportunities | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Active Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. A brief intervention for fatigue management in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillion, Lise; Gagnon, Pierre; Leblond, Francine; Gélinas, Céline; Savard, Josée; Dupuis, Réjeanne; Duval, Karine; Larochelle, Marie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized control trial was to verify the effectiveness of a brief group intervention that combines stress management psycho-education and physical activity (ie, independent variable) intervention in reducing fatigue and improving energy level, quality of life (mental and physical), fitness (VO 2submax), and emotional distress (ie, dependent variables) in breast cancer survivors. This study applied Lazarus and Folkman stress-coping theoretical framework, as well as Salmon's unifying theory of physical activity. Eighty-seven French-speaking women who had completed their treatments for nonmetastatic breast cancer at a university hospital in Quebec City, Canada, were randomly assigned to either the group intervention (experimental) or the usual-care (control) condition. Data were collected at baseline, postintervention, and at 3-month follow-up. The 4-week group intervention was cofacilitated by 2 nurses. Results showed that participants in the intervention group showed greater improvement in fatigue, energy level, and emotional distress at 3-month follow-up, and physical quality of life at postintervention, compared with the participants in the control group. These results suggest that a brief psycho-educational group intervention focusing on active coping strategies and physical activity is beneficial to cancer survivors after breast cancer treatments.

  15. Interventional Radiology Treatments for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be given without affecting the patient's overall health and most people can resume their usual activities in a few days. In this procedure, the interventional radiologist guides a small needle through the skin into ...

  16. Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention: Insights from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Nicastro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT was conducted to assess the efficacy of selenium and vitamin E alone, and in combination, on the incidence of prostate cancer. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial found that neither selenium nor vitamin E reduced the incidence of prostate cancer after seven years and that vitamin E was associated with a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer compared to placebo. The null result was surprising given the strong preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting chemopreventive activity of selenium. Potential explanations for the null findings include the agent formulation and dose, the characteristics of the cohort, and the study design. It is likely that only specific subpopulations may benefit from selenium supplementation; therefore, future studies should consider the baseline selenium status of the participants, age of the cohort, and genotype of specific selenoproteins, among other characteristics, in order to determine the activity of selenium in cancer prevention.

  17. The Complexities of Epidemiology and Prevention of Gastrointestinal Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Haq

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer epidemiology and prevention is one of the most well studied fields today. The more we can understand about the incidence and pathogenesis of this disease, the better we will be able to prevent it. Effective prevention strategies can decrease the mortality rate of cancer significantly; this is why it is important to delineate the underlying causes. It has been well recognized that genetic mutations, sporadic or hereditary, may lead to increased chance of tumorigenesis. Detecting genetic mutations can lead to the identification of high-risk individuals with hereditary cancer syndromes, which may assist in devising prevention strategies. Further, environmental factors are known to play important roles in epidemiology and suggest prevention tools that could be implemented to reduce cancer incidence and subsequent cancer-associated morbidity and mortality. Chemoprevention has been tried in colon cancer and is finding new advancements in other carcinomas as well. Out of many environmental cancer preventive agents, the most notable developments are the identification of the role of vitamins E, vitamin D and folic acid. Increased consumption of these vitamins has shown to be inversely correlated with cancer risk. This review will highlight important aspects of cancer epidemiology in the most aggressive carcinomas of the gastrointestinal system focusing on colorectal adenocarcinoma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Additionally, some of the well-known and evolving aspects of epidemiology of colorectal and pancreatic cancer along with current and new prevention strategies will also be reviewed.

  18. Tomato Lycopene and Lung Cancer Prevention: From Experimental to Human Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing evidence suggests that tomato lycopene may be preventive against the formation and the development of lung cancer. Experimental studies demonstrated that lycopene may inhibit the growth of several cultured lung cancer cells and prevent lung tumorigenesis in animal models through various mechanisms, including a modulation of redox status, cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induction, a regulation of growth factor signaling, changes in cell growth-related enzymes, an enhancement of gap junction communication and a prevention of smoke-induced inflammation. In addition, lycopene also inhibited cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Several lycopene metabolites have been identified, raising the question as to whether the preventive effects of lycopene on cancer risk is, at least in part, due to its metabolites. Despite these promising reports, it is difficult at the moment to directly relate available experimental data to human pathophysiology. More well controlled clinical intervention trials are needed to further clarify the exact role of lycopene in the prevention of lung cancer cell growth. Such studies should take into consideration subject selection, specific markers of analysis, the levels of carotenoids being tested, metabolism and isomerization of lycopene, interaction with other bioactive food components. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of lycopene, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between lycopene consumption and human cancer risk

  19. Tomato Lycopene and Lung Cancer Prevention: From Experimental to Human Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palozza, Paola, E-mail: p.palozza@rm.unicatt.it; Simone, Rossella E.; Catalano, Assunta [Institute of General Pathology, School of Medicine, Catholic University, L. Go F. Vito, Rome 1 00168 (Italy); Mele, Maria Cristina [Institute of Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Catholic University, L. Go F. Vito, Rome 1 00168 (Italy)

    2011-05-11

    Increasing evidence suggests that tomato lycopene may be preventive against the formation and the development of lung cancer. Experimental studies demonstrated that lycopene may inhibit the growth of several cultured lung cancer cells and prevent lung tumorigenesis in animal models through various mechanisms, including a modulation of redox status, cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induction, a regulation of growth factor signaling, changes in cell growth-related enzymes, an enhancement of gap junction communication and a prevention of smoke-induced inflammation. In addition, lycopene also inhibited cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Several lycopene metabolites have been identified, raising the question as to whether the preventive effects of lycopene on cancer risk is, at least in part, due to its metabolites. Despite these promising reports, it is difficult at the moment to directly relate available experimental data to human pathophysiology. More well controlled clinical intervention trials are needed to further clarify the exact role of lycopene in the prevention of lung cancer cell growth. Such studies should take into consideration subject selection, specific markers of analysis, the levels of carotenoids being tested, metabolism and isomerization of lycopene, interaction with other bioactive food components. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of lycopene, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between lycopene consumption and human cancer risk.

  20. Tomato Lycopene and Lung Cancer Prevention: From Experimental to Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunta Catalano

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that tomato lycopene may be preventive against the formation and the development of lung cancer. Experimental studies demonstrated that lycopene may inhibit the growth of several cultured lung cancer cells and prevent lung tumorigenesis in animal models through various mechanisms, including a modulation of redox status, cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induction, a regulation of growth factor signaling, changes in cell growth-related enzymes, an enhancement of gap junction communication and a prevention of smoke-induced inflammation. In addition, lycopene also inhibited cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Several lycopene metabolites have been identified, raising the question as to whether the preventive effects of lycopene on cancer risk is, at least in part, due to its metabolites. Despite these promising reports, it is difficult at the moment to directly relate available experimental data to human pathophysiology. More well controlled clinical intervention trials are needed to further clarify the exact role of lycopene in the prevention of lung cancer cell growth. Such studies should take into consideration subject selection, specific markers of analysis, the levels of carotenoids being tested, metabolism and isomerization of lycopene, interaction with other bioactive food components. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of lycopene, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between lycopene consumption and human cancer risk.

  1. Diet, Genes, and Microbes: Complexities of Colon Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Birt, Diane F.; Phillips, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and generally, as countries climb the economic ladder, their rates of colon cancer increase. Colon cancer was an early disease where key genetic mutations were identified as important in disease progression, and there is considerable interest in determining whether specific mutations sensitize the colon to cancer prevention strategies. Epidemiological studies have revealed that fiber- and vegetable-r...

  2. Vitamin D and prevention of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JoEllen WELSH

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic data have demonstrated that breast cancer incidence is inversely correlated with indices of vitamin D status, including ultraviolet exposure, which enhances epidermal vitamin D synthesis. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is ex-pressed in mammary epithelial cells, suggesting that vitamin D may directly influ-ence sensitivity of the gland to transformation. Consistent with this concept, in vitro studies have demonstrated that the VDR ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), exerts negative growth regulatory effects on mammary epithelial ceils that contribute to maintenance of the differentiated phenotype. Furthermore, deletion of the VDR gene in mice alters the balance between proliferation and apoptosis in the mammary gland, which ultimately enhances its susceptibility to carcinogenesis.In addition, dietary supplementation with vitamin D, or chronic treatment with synthetic VDR agonists, reduces the incidence of carcinogen-induced mammary tumors in rodents. Collectively, these observations have reinforced the need to further define the human requirement for vitamin D and the molecular actions of the VDR in relation to prevention of breast cancer.

  3. The war on prevention: bellicose cancer metaphors hurt (some) prevention intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, David J; Schwarz, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Cancer health information is dominated by enemy and war metaphors intended to motivate the public to "fight" cancer. However, enemy metaphoric framing may influence understanding of, and responses to, cancer. Cancer prevention benefits from avoiding risk increasing behaviors, yet self-limitation is not closely associated with fighting enemies. If so, the metaphor may hurt prevention intentions involving self-limitation. Participants read messages with minute wording variations that established different metaphoric frames. Results show that metaphorically framing cancer as an enemy lessens the conceptual accessibility of (Study 1) and intention for self-limiting prevention behaviors while not increasing intention for monitoring and treatment behaviors (Studies 2 and 3). Framing self-limiting prevention behaviors in terms of fighting an enemy increases their appeal, illustrating the benefits of metaphor matching (Study 3). Overall, these results suggest that enemy metaphors in cancer information reduce some prevention intentions without increasing others, making their use potentially harmful for public health.

  4. Efficacy of interventions for prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyoseung; Jo, Seong Jin; Kim, Do Hun; Kwon, Ohsang; Myung, Seung-Kwon

    2015-03-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is a highly distressing event for cancer patients, and hence, we here aimed to assess the efficacy of various interventions in the prevention of CIA. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library, from June 20, 2013 through August 31, 2013. Two of the authors independently reviewed and selected clinical trials that reported the efficacy of any intervention for prevention of CIA compared with that of controls. Two authors extracted data independently on dichotomized outcome in terms of CIA occurrence. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidential intervals (CIs) were calculated for efficacy of CIA prevention by using random-effect or fixed-effect models. Out of 691 articles retrieved, a total of eight randomized controlled trials and nine controlled clinical trials involving 1,098 participants (616 interventions and 482 controls), were included in the final analyses. Scalp cooling, scalp compression, a combination of cooling and compression, topical minoxidil and Panicum miliaceum were used as interventions. The participants were mainly breast cancer patients receiving doxorubicin- or epirubicin-containing chemotherapy. Scalp cooling, which is the most popular preventive method, significantly reduced the risk of CIA (RR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.32-0.45), whereas topical 2% minoxidil and other interventions did not significantly reduce the risk of CIA. No serious adverse effects associated with scalp cooling were reported. Our results suggest that scalp cooling can prevent CIA in patients receiving chemotherapy. However, the long-term safety of scalp cooling should be confirmed in further studies. PMID:25081068

  5. A community intervention trial of multimodal suicide prevention program in Japan: A Novel multimodal Community Intervention program to prevent suicide and suicide attempt in Japan, NOCOMIT-J

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Yuriko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To respond to the rapid surge in the incidence of suicide in Japan, which appears to be an ongoing trend, the Japanese Multimodal Intervention Trials for Suicide Prevention (J-MISP have launched a multimodal community-based suicide prevention program, NOCOMIT-J. The primary aim of this study is to examine whether NOCOMIT-J is effective in reducing suicidal behavior in the community. Methods/DesignThis study is a community intervention trial involving seven intervention regions with accompanying control regions, all with populations of statistically sufficient size. The program focuses on building social support networks in the public health system for suicide prevention and mental health promotion, intending to reinforce human relationships in the community. The intervention program components includes a primary prevention measures of awareness campaign for the public and key personnel, secondary prevention measures for screening of, and assisting, high-risk individuals, after-care for individuals bereaved by suicide, and other measures. The intervention started in July 2006, and will continue for 3.5 years. Participants are Japanese and foreign residents living in the intervention and control regions (a total of population of 2,120,000 individuals. Discussion The present study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the community-based suicide prevention program in the seven participating areas. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR UMIN000000460.

  6. Innovative and community-driven communication practices of the South Carolina cancer prevention and control research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Daniela B; Brandt, Heather M; Freedman, Darcy A; Adams, Swann Arp; Young, Vicki M; Ureda, John R; McCracken, James Lyndon; Hébert, James R

    2014-07-24

    The South Carolina Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (SC-CPCRN) is 1 of 10 networks funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) that works to reduce cancer-related health disparities. In partnership with federally qualified health centers and community stakeholders, the SC-CPCRN uses evidence-based approaches (eg, NCI Research-tested Intervention Programs) to disseminate and implement cancer prevention and control messages, programs, and interventions. We describe the innovative stakeholder- and community-driven communication efforts conducted by the SC-CPCRN to improve overall health and reduce cancer-related health disparities among high-risk and disparate populations in South Carolina. We describe how our communication efforts are aligned with 5 core values recommended for dissemination and implementation science: 1) rigor and relevance, 2) efficiency and speed, 3) collaboration, 4) improved capacity, and 5) cumulative knowledge.

  7. Nutrition Frontiers E-Newsletter | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change. |

  8. Cervical cancer prevention: new tools and old barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Garcia, Francisco A R; Kobetz, Erin; Partridge, Edward E; Brandt, Heather M; Bell, Maria C; Dignan, Mark; Ma, Grace X; Daye, Jane L; Castle, Philip E

    2010-06-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common female tumor worldwide, and its incidence is disproportionately high (>80%) in the developing world. In the United States, in which Papanicolaou (Pap) tests have reduced the annual incidence to approximately 11,000 cervical cancers, >60% of cases are reported to occur in medically underserved populations as part of a complex of diseases linked to poverty, race/ethnicity, and/or health disparities. Because carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause virtually all cervical cancer, 2 new approaches for cervical cancer prevention have emerged: 1) HPV vaccination to prevent infections in younger women (aged or =30 years). Together, HPV vaccination and testing, if used in an age-appropriate manner, have the potential to transform cervical cancer prevention, particularly among underserved populations. Nevertheless, significant barriers of access, acceptability, and adoption to any cervical cancer prevention strategy remain. Without understanding and addressing these obstacles, these promising new tools for cervical cancer prevention may be futile. In the current study, the delivery of cervical cancer prevention strategies to these US populations that experience a high cervical cancer burden (African-American women in South Carolina, Alabama, and Mississippi; Haitian immigrant women in Miami; Hispanic women in the US-Mexico Border; Sioux/Native American women in the Northern Plains; white women in the Appalachia; and Vietnamese-American women in Pennsylvania and New Jersey) is reviewed. The goal was to inform future research and outreach efforts to reduce the burden of cervical cancer in underserved populations.

  9. Skin cancer in rural workers: nursing knowledge and intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVETo identify the exposure of rural workers to the sun's ultraviolet radiation and pesticides; to identify previous cases of skin cancer; and to implement clinical and communicative nursing actions among rural workers with a previous diagnosis of skin cancer.METHODObservational-exploratory study conducted with rural workers exposed to ultraviolet radiation and pesticides in a rural area in the extreme south of Brazil. A clinical judgment and risk communication model properly adapted was used to develop interventions among workers with a previous history of skin cancer.RESULTSA total of 123 (97.7% workers were identified under conditions of exposure to the sun's ultraviolet radiation and pesticides; seven (5.4% were identified with a previous diagnosis of skin cancer; four (57.1% of these presented potential skin cancer lesions.CONCLUSIONThis study's results enabled clarifying the combination of clinical knowledge and risk communication regarding skin cancer to rural workers.

  10. Exosomes for Immunoregulation and Therapeutic Intervention in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Pei, Zenglin; Chen, Jinyun; Ji, Chunxia; Xu, Jianqing; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes, as a subset of extracellular vesicles, function as a mode of intercellular communication and molecular transfer, and facilitate the direct extracellular transfer of proteins, lipids, and miRNAs/mRNAs/DNAs between cells. Cancers have adapted exosomes and related microvesicles as a pathway that can suppress the immune system and establish a fertile local and distant environment to support neoplastic growth, invasion, and metastasis; these tumor-derived exosomes affect immunoregulation mechanisms, including immune activation and immune suppression. Immune cell-derived exosomes can modulate the immune response in cancer, which supports the belief that these membranous vesicles are immunotherapeutic reagents. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in the cancer immunotherapy, roles of exosomes in cancer, immunoregulation of tumor-derived exosomes, and immunomodulation by immune cell-derived exosomes. The topics covered here highlight novel insights into the development of efficient exosome-based cancer vaccines for cancer therapeutic intervention. PMID:27326251

  11. Exosomes for Immunoregulation and Therapeutic Intervention in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Pei, Zenglin; Chen, Jinyun; Ji, Chunxia; Xu, Jianqing; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes, as a subset of extracellular vesicles, function as a mode of intercellular communication and molecular transfer, and facilitate the direct extracellular transfer of proteins, lipids, and miRNAs/mRNAs/DNAs between cells. Cancers have adapted exosomes and related microvesicles as a pathway that can suppress the immune system and establish a fertile local and distant environment to support neoplastic growth, invasion, and metastasis; these tumor-derived exosomes affect immunoregulation mechanisms, including immune activation and immune suppression. Immune cell-derived exosomes can modulate the immune response in cancer, which supports the belief that these membranous vesicles are immunotherapeutic reagents. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in the cancer immunotherapy, roles of exosomes in cancer, immunoregulation of tumor-derived exosomes, and immunomodulation by immune cell-derived exosomes. The topics covered here highlight novel insights into the development of efficient exosome-based cancer vaccines for cancer therapeutic intervention. PMID:27326251

  12. The Prevention of Liver Cancer by HBV Vaccine Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Xiong

    2002-01-01

    Objective To recognize the HBV vaccine program for prevention of the hepatic cancer.Methods To discuss the relation between the HBV and hepatic cancer arising, and to discuss the immunology respond of the HBV vaccine (HBV surface antigen protein) in our patient group. Result Our data indicates that the predisposing of the HBV infection is required for the hepatic cancer arising and for the high expression of the AFP gene, and our data indicates that the HBV vaccine can induce highly immuno respond in about 78.8 % of the adult for achieving the HBV prevention status and the hepatic cancer prevention status.

  13. Can Mindfulness-Based Interventions Help Adolescents with Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Paul; Blunda, Megan; Biegel, Gina; Carlson, Linda E.; Biel, Matthew; Wiener, Lori

    2013-01-01

    During the past 30 years, there has been an increase in the incidence of cancer in adolescents. While recent studies have illustrated remarkable resilience in youth living with cancer, they can also face daunting acute and chronic adjustment struggles, cognitive and school problems, family and peer relational difficulties, depression, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and other anxiety disorders. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), increasingly shown to be effective in a variety of medical ...

  14. Mindfulness as an Intervention for Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Deirdre; Schwartz, Shira

    2016-08-01

    Breast cancer survivors often turn to complementary health approaches (CHAs) to address the effects of treatment. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a type of CHA that uses attentional and meditative exercises to minimize stress and increase awareness of the present. This article aims to determine whether adequate evidence-based research with uniform methodologies and outcomes to support MBSR as an intervention for breast cancer survivors exists. PMID:27441505

  15. [Nutrition and physical activity: two targets for cancer prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Ronan; Dupertuis, Yves M; Belabed, Linda; Pichard, Claude

    2010-05-26

    The links between nutrition and cancer onset are now well established by epidemiological studies. The scientific evidence is presented in a report of the World Cancer Research Foundation (WCRF). Protective factors towards overall cancer risk are fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Overweight and obesity, intakes of alcoholic beverage, fat, salt, high temperature cooked and processed red meat, increase cancer risk. In addition, beta-carotene systematic supplementation could increase lung cancer risk in smokers. As optimal controlling of these risk factors can decrease cancer mortality by 25%, nutritional counselling must be integrated in the global strategy of primary and secondary prevention of cancers.

  16. Vitamins and cancer prevention: issues and dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, V R; Newberne, P M

    1981-03-01

    Vitamins are a class of organic compounds that are components of an adequate diet. They or their derivatives function as coenzymes, cellular antioxidants, and/or regulators of gene expression. Fourteen vitamins are recognized in human nutrition (Vitamins A, D, E, K, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, niacin, folacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline), with deficiencies or excesses in intake leading to changes in protein, nucleic acid, carbohydrates, fat and/or mineral metabolism. Thus, the integrity of physiological systems, including those associated with detoxification, cellular repair, immune processes, and neural and endocrine function, depends upon the nutritional and vitamin status of the host. For these reasons, it may be anticipated that the adequacy of the vitamin supply to cells and tissues would affect the development, progress, and outcome of cancers. In this review, the definition and functions of and requirements and recommended allowance for vitamins are discussed briefly before exploring the evidence, largely from studies in experimental animals, that indicates the nature of the link between vitamins and cancer. Although evidence based on studies in animal systems reveals that vitamin intake and status can modulate the outcome of experimental carcinogenesis, the findings are often conflicting and difficult to interpret. Furthermore, it is not yet possible to develop a suitable prediction of the role of the individual vitamins in tumor development. The significance of these observations for human nutrition and cancer prevention, particularly in reference to ascorbic acid (vitamin C), vitamin E, and B-complex vitamins is considered. Vitamin A and retinoid compounds are discussed elsewhere in the symposium. The many popular misconceptions and unsound advice concerning vitamins and health, including "fake" vitamins-pangamic acid ("vitamin B15") and laetrile ("vitamin B17")-are also discussed. On the basis of current evidence, it would be inappropriate to recommend

  17. Toward Rigorous Idiographic Research in Prevention Science: Comparison Between Three Analytic Strategies for Testing Preventive Intervention in Very Small Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Ridenour, Ty A.; Pineo, Thomas Z.; Maldonado Molina, Mildred M.; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller

    2013-01-01

    Psychosocial prevention research lacks evidence from intensive within-person lines of research to understand idiographic processes related to development and response to intervention. Such data could be used to fill gaps in the literature and expand the study design options for prevention researchers, including lower-cost yet rigorous studies (e.g., for program evaluations), pilot studies, designs to test programs for low prevalence outcomes, selective/indicated/ adaptive intervention researc...

  18. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Approved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    On June 24, 2013, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Board of Scientific Advisors approved the creation of the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP). NCORP will bring state-of-the art cancer prevention, control, treatment and imaging clinical trials, cancer care delivery research, and disparities studies to individuals in their own communities. |

  19. Preventing and Treating Prostate Cancer Spread to Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... options Preventing and treating prostate cancer spread to bones If prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it ... a vein and settle in areas of damaged bones (like those containing cancer spread). Once there, they give off radiation that ...

  20. Educating Cancer Prevention Researchers in Emerging Biobehavioral Models: Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Davila, Marivel; Kamrudin, Samira A.; Li, Dennis H.; Noor, Syed W.; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Chang, Shine; Cameron, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    To increase the adoption of transdisciplinary research methods among future cancer prevention investigators, faculty members from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a graduate-level course in biobehavioral methods in cancer prevention research. Two instructors paired by topic and area of expertise offered an hour-long lecture-based seminar every week for 15 weeks during the spring semester of 2010. Students and presenters both evaluated the overall course content and ...

  1. Testing Mediators of Intervention Effects in Randomized Controlled Trials: An Evaluation of Three Depression Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a new 5-step method for testing mediators hypothesized to account for the effects of depression prevention programs. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, at-risk teens with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…

  2. Systematic review of school-based interventions to prevent smoking for girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, M.J.J. de; Farmer, M.M.; Booth, M.; Motala, A.; Smith, A.; Sherman, S.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Shekelle, P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this review is to study the effect of school-based interventions on smoking prevention for girls. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of articles published since 1992 on school-based tobacco-control interventions in controlled trials for smoking prevention among chil

  3. Perceptions of Local Parents and School Staff on Childhood Obesity Prevention Interventions in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnoush Mohammadpour-Ahranjani

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: This study provided important contextual data on where the emphasis should be placed in developing the childhood obesity prevention interventions for the school children in Tehran. The findings further highlight the importance of involving a wide range of stakeholders, and including multiple components to maximise the chances of success. Keywords: Child, Obesity, Prevention, Intervention, Qualitative research, Iran

  4. Many Sources, One Theme: Analysis of Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Ahlfors

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Cyberbullying represents the expansion of traditional bullying into the electronic realm. As the problem of cyberbullying typically occurs via the Internet, many cyberbullying prevention and intervention resources have been made available online. The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine general characteristics of cyberbullying prevention and intervention websites. This study was conducted as a preliminary survey of seventeen independent ...

  5. Replicating a Teen HIV/STD Preventive Intervention in a Multicultural City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Beadnell, Blair A.; Wilsdon, Anthony; Higa, Darrel; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Casey, Erin A.

    2007-01-01

    Although there are now several adolescent HIV and STD preventive interventions of demonstrated efficacy in the literature, little is understood about the portability of these interventions. This study replicated Stanton's Focus on Kids intervention, developed for inner city African American adolescents, in a different population, transferring it…

  6. A "Common Factors" Approach to Developing Culturally Tailored HIV Prevention Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarzak, Jill; Phillips, Sarah D.; Filippova, Olga; Alpatova, Polina; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Zub, Tatyana; Aleksanyan, Ruzanna

    2016-01-01

    The current dominant model of HIV prevention intervention dissemination involves packaging interventions developed in one context, training providers to implement that specific intervention, and evaluating the extent to which providers implement it with fidelity. Research shows that providers rarely implement these programs with fidelity due to…

  7. Targeting the nucleolus for cancer intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quin, Jaclyn E; Devlin, Jennifer R; Cameron, Donald; Hannan, Kate M; Pearson, Richard B; Hannan, Ross D

    2014-06-01

    The contribution of the nucleolus to cancer is well established with respect to its traditional role in facilitating ribosome biogenesis and proliferative capacity. More contemporary studies however, infer that nucleoli contribute a much broader role in malignant transformation. Specifically, extra-ribosomal functions of the nucleolus position it as a central integrator of cellular proliferation and stress signaling, and are emerging as important mechanisms for modulating how oncogenes and tumor suppressors operate in normal and malignant cells. The dependence of certain tumor cells to co-opt nucleolar processes to maintain their cancer phenotypes has now clearly been demonstrated by the application of small molecule inhibitors of RNA Polymerase I to block ribosomal DNA transcription and disrupt nucleolar function (Bywater et al., 2012 [1]). These drugs, which selectively kill tumor cells in vivo while sparing normal cells, have now progressed to clinical trials. It is likely that we have only just begun to scratch the surface of the potential of the nucleolus as a new target for cancer therapy, with "suppression of nucleolar stress" representing an emerging "hallmark" of cancer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Role of the Nucleolus in Human Disease.

  8. Development of a Barbershop-Based Cancer Communication Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Wynn, Theresa A.; Lewis, Ivey; Litaker, Mark S.; Jeames, Sanford; Huckaby, Francine; Stroud, Leonardo; Southward, Penny L.; Simons, Virgil; Lee, Crystal; Ross, Louis; Mitchell, Theodies

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate and colorectal cancer (CRC) rates are disproportionately high among African-American men. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of an intervention in which barbers were trained to educate clients about early detection for prostate and CRC. Design/methodology/approach: Working with an advisory panel of local…

  9. Jo Ann Rinaudo, PhD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Jo Ann Rinaudo is a Program Director in the Cancer Biomarkers Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute. She received a doctoral degree from the University of Toronto, where she studied chemical carcinogenesis in the liver. She was in the pathology department and has a broad background in human disease. Post-graduate training included further studies on the cell cycle during liver regeneration and cancer. |

  10. Preventing Child Behavior Problems and Substance Use: The Pathways Home Foster Care Reunification Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    DeGarmo, David S.; Reid, John B.; Fetrow, Becky A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Antoine, Karla D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluated the Pathways Home manualized selective preventive intervention designed to prevent reunification failures once children are returned home to their biological parent(s) after first time stays in foster care (n = 101). The theoretically based intervention focused on support and parent management practices designed to prevent the development of child behavior problems including internalizing and externalizing problems, and substance use. Intent to treat analyses employed pro...

  11. Chemo/Dietary prevention of cancer: perspectives in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Feng, Qing

    2014-11-01

    Cancer is a major disease worldwide and different approaches are needed for its prevention. Previous laboratory and clinical studies suggest that cancer can be prevented by chemicals, including those from the diet. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have suggested that deficiencies in certain nutrients can increase the risk of some cancers. In this article on chemo/dietary prevention, examples will be given to illustrate the effectiveness of chemopreventive agents in the prevention of breast, colon and prostate cancers in high-risk populations and the possible side effects of these agents. The potential usefulness of dietary approaches in cancer prevention and the reasons for some of the failed trials will be discussed. Lessons learned from these studies can be used to design more relevant research projects and develop effective measures for cancer prevention in the future. The development of effective chemopreventive agents, the use of nutrient supplements in deficient or carcinogen-exposed populations, and the importance of cohort studies will be discussed in the context of the current socioeconomic situation in China. More discussions are needed on how we can influence society to pay more attention to cancer prevention research and measures.

  12. Mindfulness-based interventions for coping with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Linda E

    2016-06-01

    Work in the development and evaluation of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for cancer care has been underway for the last 20 years, and a growing body of literature now supports their efficacy. MBIs are particularly helpful in dealing with common experiences related to cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship, including loss of control, uncertainty about the future, and fears of recurrence, as well as a range of physical and psychological symptoms, including depression, anxiety, insomnia, and fatigue. Our adaptation, mindfulness-based cancer recovery (MBCR), has resulted in improvements across a range of psychological and biological outcomes, including cortisol slopes, blood pressure, and telomere length, in various groups of cancer survivors. In this paper, I review the rationale for MBIs in cancer care and provide an overview of the state of the current literature, with a focus on results from three recent clinical trials conducted by our research group. These include a comparative efficacy trial comparing MBCR to supportive-expressive therapy in distressed breast cancer survivors, a non-inferiority trial comparing MBCR to cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in cancer survivors with clinical insomnia, and an online adaptation of MBCR for rural and remote cancer survivors without access to in-person groups. I conclude by outlining work in progress and future directions for MBI research and applications in cancer care. PMID:26963792

  13. Cancer survivor identity shared in a social media intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hayeon; Nam, Yujung; Gould, Jessica; Sanders, W Scott; McLaughlin, Margaret; Fulk, Janet; Meeske, Kathleen A; Ruccione, Kathleen S

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how cancer survivors construct their identities and the impact on their psychological health, as measured by depression and survivor self-efficacy. Fourteen young adult survivors of pediatric cancer participated in a customized social networking and video blog intervention program, the LIFECommunity, over a 6-month period. Survivors were asked to share their stories on various topics by posting video messages. Those video blog postings, along with survey data collected from participants, were analyzed to see how cancer survivors expressed their identities, and how these identities are associated with survivors' psychosocial outcomes. In survivors who held negative stereotypes about cancer survivors, there was a positive relationship with depression while positive stereotypes had a marginal association with cancer survivor efficacy. Findings indicate that although pediatric cancer survivors often do not publicly discuss a "cancer survivor identity," they do internalize both positive and negative stereotypes about cancer survivorship. It is important for practitioners to be aware of the long-term implications of cancer survivor identity and stereotypes. PMID:22472482

  14. Cancer survivor identity shared in a social media intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hayeon; Nam, Yujung; Gould, Jessica; Sanders, W Scott; McLaughlin, Margaret; Fulk, Janet; Meeske, Kathleen A; Ruccione, Kathleen S

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how cancer survivors construct their identities and the impact on their psychological health, as measured by depression and survivor self-efficacy. Fourteen young adult survivors of pediatric cancer participated in a customized social networking and video blog intervention program, the LIFECommunity, over a 6-month period. Survivors were asked to share their stories on various topics by posting video messages. Those video blog postings, along with survey data collected from participants, were analyzed to see how cancer survivors expressed their identities, and how these identities are associated with survivors' psychosocial outcomes. In survivors who held negative stereotypes about cancer survivors, there was a positive relationship with depression while positive stereotypes had a marginal association with cancer survivor efficacy. Findings indicate that although pediatric cancer survivors often do not publicly discuss a "cancer survivor identity," they do internalize both positive and negative stereotypes about cancer survivorship. It is important for practitioners to be aware of the long-term implications of cancer survivor identity and stereotypes.

  15. Advancing cervical cancer prevention in India: implementation science priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Madsen, Emily; Porterfield, Deborah; Varghese, Beena

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in India, accounting for 17% of all cancer deaths among women aged 30 to 69 years. At current incidence rates, the annual burden of new cases in India is projected to increase to 225,000 by 2025, but there are few large-scale, organized cervical cancer prevention programs in the country. We conducted a review of the cervical cancer prevention research literature and programmatic experiences in India to summarize the current state of knowledge and practices and recommend research priorities to address the gap in services. We found that research and programs in India have demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of cervical cancer prevention efforts and that screening strategies requiring minimal additional human resources and laboratory infrastructure can reduce morbidity and mortality. However, additional evidence generated through implementation science research is needed to ensure that cervical cancer prevention efforts have the desired impact and are cost-effective. Specifically, implementation science research is needed to understand individual- and community-level barriers to screening and diagnostic and treatment services; to improve health care worker performance; to strengthen links among screening, diagnosis, and treatment; and to determine optimal program design, outcomes, and costs. With a quarter of the global burden of cervical cancer in India, there is no better time than now to translate research findings to practice. Implementation science can help ensure that investments in cervical cancer prevention and control result in the greatest impact.

  16. Long Term Outcomes of a Geriatric Liaison Intervention in Frail Elderly Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Hempenius

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effects after discharge of a hospital-based geriatric liaison intervention to prevent postoperative delirium in frail elderly cancer patients treated with an elective surgical procedure for a solid tumour. In addition, the effect of a postoperative delirium on long term outcomes was examined.A three month follow-up was performed in participants of the Liaison Intervention in Frail Elderly study, a multicentre, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Patients were randomized to standard treatment or a geriatric liaison intervention. The intervention consisted of a preoperative geriatric consultation, an individual treatment plan targeted at risk factors for delirium and daily visits by a geriatric nurse during the hospital stay. The long term outcomes included: mortality, rehospitalisation, Activities of Daily Living (ADL functioning, return to the independent pre-operative living situation, use of supportive care, cognitive functioning and health related quality of life.Data of 260 patients (intervention n = 127, Control n = 133 were analysed. There were no differences between the intervention group and usual-care group for any of the outcomes three months after discharge. The presence of postoperative delirium was associated with: an increased risk of decline in ADL functioning (OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.02-6.88, an increased use of supportive assistance (OR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.02-5.87 and a decreased chance to return to the independent preoperative living situation (OR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.07-0.49.A hospital-based geriatric liaison intervention for the prevention of postoperative delirium in frail elderly cancer patients undergoing elective surgery for a solid tumour did not improve outcomes 3 months after discharge from hospital. The negative effect of a postoperative delirium on late outcome was confirmed.Nederlands Trial Register, Trial ID NTR 823.

  17. Preventive Effects of Cocoa and Cocoa Antioxidants in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angeles Martín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related mortality in the developed world. Carcinogenesis is a multistage process conventionally defined by the initiation, promotion and progression stages. Natural polyphenolic compounds can act as highly effective antioxidant and chemo-preventive agents able to interfere at the three stages of cancer. Cocoa has been demonstrated to counteract oxidative stress and to have a potential capacity to interact with multiple carcinogenic pathways involved in inflammation, proliferation and apoptosis of initiated and malignant cells. Therefore, restriction of oxidative stress and/or prevention or delayed progression of cancer stages by cocoa antioxidant compounds has gained interest as an effective approach in colorectal cancer prevention. In this review, we look over different in vitro and in vivo studies that have identified potential targets and mechanisms whereby cocoa and their flavonoids could interfere with colonic cancer. In addition, evidence from human studies is also illustrated.

  18. Third Preventing Overdiagnosis conference | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overdiagnosis Conference Early Bird Registration Open and Abstract Submission This event will be co-hosted by the National institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute in Washington DC, September 01-03, 2015. |

  19. A Qualitative Evaluation of a Faith-Based Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S.; Calhoun, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for African American women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church…

  20. Employing the Church as a Marketer of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Coffey, Candice R.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church. PMID:23718957

  1. Complementary roles in cancer prevention: protease inhibitor makes the cancer preventive peptide lunasin bioavailable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chien Hsieh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The lower incidence of breast cancer among Asian women compared with Western countries has been partly attributed to soy in the Asian diet, leading to efforts to identify the bioactive components that are responsible. Soy Bowman Birk Inhibitor Concentrate (BBIC is a known cancer preventive agent now in human clinical trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objectives of this work are to establish the presence and delineate the in vitro activity of lunasin and BBI found in BBIC, and study their bioavailability after oral administration to mice and rats. We report that lunasin and BBI are the two main bioactive ingredients of BBIC based on inhibition of foci formation, lunasin being more efficacious than BBI on an equimolar basis. BBI and soy Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor protect lunasin from in vitro digestion with pancreatin. Oral administration of (3H-labeled lunasin with lunasin-enriched soy results in 30% of the peptide reaching target tissues in an intact and bioactive form. In a xenograft model of nude mice transplanted with human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, intraperitoneal injections of lunasin, at 20 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg body weight, decrease tumor incidence by 49% and 33%, respectively, compared with the vehicle-treated group. In contrast, injection with BBI at 20 mg/kg body weight shows no effect on tumor incidence. Tumor generation is significantly reduced with the two doses of lunasin, while BBI is ineffective. Lunasin inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death in the breast tumor sections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that lunasin is actually the bioactive cancer preventive agent in BBIC, and BBI simply protects lunasin from digestion when soybean and other seed foods are eaten by humans.

  2. Types of Interventions for Smoking Prevention and Cessation in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nădăşan, Valentin; Chirvăsuţă, Radu; Ábrám, Zoltan; Mihăicuţă, Ştefan

    2015-01-01

    Smoking among children and adolescents is a pressing public health issue that demands the development, improvement and implementation of programmes aimed at the prevention and cessation of smoking on a global scale. The objective of our article is to review the main types of interventions for smoking prevention and cessation among children and adolescents. These interventions are based on a wide variety of approaches and include school-based programmes, primary and secondary care-based interventions, programmes targeting parents and family, community-based programmes, social marketing programmes and media campaigns, legislative interventions and computer and other IT-based interventions. Generally, there is still a paucity of low level evidence regarding the efficacy of most smoking prevention and cessation programmes for children and adolescents except for a few particular types of interventions that are reasonably well documented. PMID:26738374

  3. Nutritional Interventions in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemoradiotherapy: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Bossola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review aimed to define the role of nutritional interventions in the prevention and treatment of malnutrition in HNC patients undergoing CRT as well as their impact on CRT-related toxicity and survival. Head and neck cancer patients are frequently malnourished at the time of diagnosis and prior to the beginning of treatment. In addition, chemo-radiotherapy (CRT causes or exacerbates symptoms, such as alteration or loss of taste, mucositis, xerostomia, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, with consequent worsening of malnutrition. Nutritional counseling (NC and oral nutritional supplements (ONS should be used to increase dietary intake and to prevent therapy-associated weight loss and interruption of radiation therapy. If obstructing cancer and/or mucositis interfere with swallowing, enteral nutrition should be delivered by tube. However, it seems that there is not sufficient evidence to determine the optimal method of enteral feeding. Prophylactic feeding through nasogastric tube or percutaneous gastrostomy to prevent weight loss, reduce dehydration and hospitalizations, and avoid treatment breaks has become relatively common. Compared to reactive feeding (patients are supported with oral nutritional supplements and when it is impossible to maintain nutritional requirements enteral feeding via a NGT or PEG is started, prophylactic feeding does not offer advantages in terms of nutritional outcomes, interruptions of radiotherapy and survival. Overall, it seems that further adequate prospective, randomized studies are needed to define the better nutritional intervention in head and neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy.

  4. Preventive Intervention for Anxious Preschoolers and Their Parents: Strengthening Early Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeremy K.; Warner, Carrie Masia; Lerner, Amy B.; Ludwig, Kristy; Ryan, Julie L.; Colognori, Daniela; Lucas, Christopher P.; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence and early onset of anxiety disorders have inspired innovative prevention efforts targeting young at-risk children. With parent-child prevention models showing success for older children and adolescents, the goal of this study was to evaluate a parent-child indicated preventive intervention for preschoolers with mild to moderate…

  5. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world. One out of three new cancers is a skin cancer. More than 1 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell cancers [SCC]) occur annually. While the incidence rates for non-melanoma skin cancers continue to rise, there continues to be a substantial impact on morbidity, health and health care costs. |

  6. Expressive writing interventions in cancer patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Erin L; Fox, Rina S; Malcarne, Vanessa L

    2014-01-01

    Decades of research have suggested that expressive writing produces physical and psychological benefits in controlled laboratory experiments among healthy college students. This work has been extended to clinical and medical populations, including cancer patients. Although expressive writing could be a promising and inexpensive intervention for this population, the effects have not been systematically examined in oncology samples. A systematic review using PRISMA guidelines was conducted for experimental trials of cancer patients who participated in an expressive writing intervention. PsycINFO and PubMed/Medline were searched for peer-reviewed studies. Thirteen articles met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Although the majority of the intervention effects were null, there were several main effects for expressive writing on sleep, pain, and general physical and psychological symptoms. Several moderators were identified, suggesting that expressive writing may be more or less beneficial based on individual characteristics such as social constraints. The reviewed studies were limited due to representativeness of the samples, performance, detection and patient-reported outcomes biases, and heterogeneity of the intervention protocol and writing prompts. Future studies with rigorous designs are needed to determine whether expressive writing is therapeutically effective in cancer patients.

  7. Provision of relapse prevention interventions in UK NHS Stop Smoking Services: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwen Andy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background UK NHS Stop Smoking Services provide cost effective smoking cessation interventions but, as yet, there has been no assessment of their provision of relapse prevention interventions. Methods Electronic questionnaire survey of 185 UK Stop Smoking Services Managers. Results Ninety six Stop Smoking Service managers returned completed questionnaires (52% response rate. Of these, 58.3% (n = 56 ran NHS Stop Smoking Services which provided relapse prevention interventions for clients with the most commonly provided interventions being behavioural support: telephone (77%, group (73%, and individual (54%. Just under half (48%, n = 27 offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, 21.4% (n = 12 bupropion; 19.6% (n = 11 varenicline. Over 80% of those providing relapse prevention interventions do so for over six months. Nearly two thirds of all respondents thought it was likely that they would either continue to provide or commence provision of relapse prevention interventions in their services. Of the remaining respondents, 66.7% (n = 22 believed that the government focus on four-week quit rates, and 42.9% (14 services believed that inadequate funding for provision of relapse prevention interventions, were major barriers to introducing these interventions into routine care. Conclusions Just over half of UK managers of NHS Stop Smoking Services who responded to the questionnaire reported that, in their services, relapse prevention interventions were currently provided for clients, despite, at that time, there being a weak evidence base for their effectiveness. The most commonly provided relapse prevention interventions were those for which there was least evidence. If these interventions are found to be effective, barriers would need to be removed before they would become part of routine care.

  8. Native Women at Risk: Addressing Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Kay M. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses outcomes of a conference that brought together representatives from Indian tribes, state health departments, the Indian Health Service, the Mayo Clinic, and the American Cancer Society, to address the high rate of cervical cancer among American Indian women. Describes barriers to health care and plans to promote cancer screening among…

  9. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude;

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural...... history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe....

  10. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuzick, J.; Thorat, M.A.; Andriole, G.; Brawley, O.W.; Brown, P.H.; Culig, Z.; Eeles, R.A.; Ford, L.G.; Hamdy, F.C.; Holmberg, L.; Ilic, D.; Key, T.J.; Vecchia, C. La; Lilja, H.; Marberger, M.; Meyskens, F.L.; Minasian, L.M.; Parker, C.; Parnes, H.L.; Perner, S.; Rittenhouse, H.; Schalken, J.A.; Schmid, H.P.; Schmitz-Drager, B.J.; Schroder, F.H.; Stenzl, A.; Tombal, B.; Wilt, T.J.; Wolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by prostate-speci

  11. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Cuzick (Jack); M.A. Thorat (Mangesh A); G. Andriole (Gerald); O.W. Brawley (Otis W); P.H. Brown (Powel H); Z. Culig (Zoran); R. Eeles (Rosalind); L.G. Ford (Leslie G); F. Hamdy (Freddie); L. Holmberg (Lars); D. Ilic (Dragan); T.J. Key (Timothy J); C.L. Vecchia (Carlo La); H. Lilja (Hans); M. Marberger (Michael); F.L. Meyskens (Frank L); L.M. Minasian (Lori M); C. Parker (C.); H.L. Parnes (Howard L); S. Perner (Sven); H. Rittenhouse (Harry); J.A. Schalken (J.); H.-P. Schmid (Hans-Peter); B.J. Schmitz-Dräger (Bernd J); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A. Stenzl (Arnulf); B. Tombal (Bertrand); T.J. Wilt (Timothy J.); K. Wolk (Kerstin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by pr

  12. CALCIUM AND THE PREVENTION OF COLON CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WELBERG, JWM; KLEIBEUKER, JH; VANDERMEER, R; MULDER, NH; DEVRIES, EGE

    1991-01-01

    Diet is a major determinant of colon cancer risk. Calcium may protect against colon cancer, presumably by binding cytotoxic bile acids and fatty acids. Numerous studies support this proposition. In subjects at risk for colon cancer oral calcium supplementation has been shown to reduce rectal epithel

  13. Application of the Intervention Mapping protocol to develop Keys, a family child care home intervention to prevent early childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Courtney M.; Ward, Dianne S.; Vaughn, Amber; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E.; Long Vidal, Lenita J.; Omar, Sakinah; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J.; Østbye, Truls

    2015-01-01

    Background Many families rely on child care outside the home, making these settings important influences on child development. Nearly 1.5 million children in the U.S. spend time in family child care homes (FCCHs), where providers care for children in their own residences. There is some evidence that children in FCCHs are heavier than those cared for in centers. However, few interventions have targeted FCCHs for obesity prevention. This paper will describe the application of the Intervention M...

  14. 护理干预预防结直肠癌化疗患者恶心呕吐的疗效观察%Effect of a nursing Interventions on Preventing nausea and vomiting in Chemotherapy patients with colo-rectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利平; 董会民; 张秀霞; 朱玉欣; 张红娟

    2013-01-01

    化疗是结直肠癌患者比较常用的一种治疗方法。但治疗中产生的副作用如恶心、呕吐常可引起脱水、代谢紊乱等不良后果,严重者会影响化疗的正常进行[1-2]。我们针对113例结直肠癌化疗患者进行了一系列综合干预措施(化疗前期作好护理评估,了解化疗经历,熟悉化疗方案,掌握心理状态,化疗期间给予患者适当心理疏导及饮食指导,创造良好进食环境,正确使用止吐药,严密观察副作用等)来预防其发生恶心的副反应。结果显示,113例患者中只有5例出现轻度恶心症状,护理干预措施有效。%Chemotherapy is a commonly treatment method of colon-rectal cancer patients. However, it is the side effects such as nausea and vomiting could cause dehydration, metabolic disorder and other adverse consequences, that can even discontinue the treatment. We used a series of nursing interventions(including:do a good nursing assessment before chemotherapy, knowing well the chemotherapy, master the patients’ mental state, supply mental nursing and dietary instruction, create good eating environment,master medication’s giving time, use the antiemetic properly , observe the side effects rigorously, and so on) to aim directly at 113 patients in Chemotherapy with colo-rectal cancer,who in order to prevent the side effects of nausea. The results showed that only five patients have mild-nausea, therefore nursing interventions have been effective in preventing nausea in Chemotherapy patients with colo-rectal cancer .

  15. Active Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Active Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. The approach of cancer related fatigue in rehabilitation medicine: Part II – Therapeutic interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salca Amalia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Starting with patient’ diagnose and continuing throughout the treatment and thereafter, cancer-related fatigue (CRF is a distressing and disabling symptom, highly prevalent across the cancer continuum2. This is a review article mainly focusing on the rehabilitation objectives and interventions in CRF, and implementation issues, according to the report of an NCCN member institution4. Implementation is the most problematic, considering the large number of patients to whom it is addressed to and the variety of pathologies within this group of patients. The onset of CRF is difficult to establish, because of the limitations of reporting this symptom4, but it is a valuable predictor in prognosis. The main interventions in rehabilitation applicable to these patients are discussed in correlation to the objectives of each phase of therapeutic management in cancer: pre-operatory, before, during or after radio and/or chemotherapy Conclusion: Rehabilitation interventions should be applied to all patients diagnosed with cancer, according to their phase of oncologic treatment and the objectives. This should be practiced as preventive measure, but as a therapeutic one to, considering the high incidence of CFR before diagnose.

  19. Moderate alcohol consumption and breast cancer in women: from epidemiology to mechanisms and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Philip J; Zakhari, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that moderate alcohol consumption increases breast cancer risk in women. Understanding the mechanistic basis of this relationship has important implications for women's health and breast cancer prevention. In this commentary, we focus on some recent epidemiologic studies linking moderate alcohol consumption to breast cancer risk and place the results of those studies within the framework of our current understanding of the temporal and mechanistic basis of human carcinogenesis. This analysis supports the hypothesis that alcohol acts as a weak cumulative breast carcinogen and may also be a tumor promoter. We discuss the implications of these mechanisms for the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related breast cancer and present some considerations for future studies. Moderate alcohol consumption has been shown to benefit cardiovascular health and recently been associated with healthy aging. Therefore, a better understanding of how moderate alcohol consumption impacts breast cancer risk will allow women to make better informed decisions about the risks and benefits of alcohol consumption in the context of their overall health and at different stages of their life. Such mechanistic information is also important for the development of rational clinical interventions to reduce ethanol-related breast cancer mortality.

  20. Psychological distress and intervention in cancer patients treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Common side effects of treatment with radiation therapy (RT) often cause psychophysical distress in cancer patients. Anxiety, adjustment disorders and depression (which are according to many studies experienced in about half of the oncological population) might originate some serious psychiatric forms of mood disorders and can even culminate in suicide, if not treated appropriately. There are some groups of cancer patients who are especially vulnerable and among them are cancer patients undergoing RT - they should receive special attention from medical staff. The purpose of this review is to present a variety of psychosocial interventions and illustrate some methods that are (or could be) used in psycho-oncology practice. Conclusions. A large body of literature suggests that the first intervention step should be effective screening for patients in distress. In regard to these proposals the development of (computerized) screening programmes is the first measure that ought to be taken. Moreover, further systematical research of traditional, non-traditional and complementary intervention strategies in cancer patients in distress would be necessary in order to provide reliable empirical results about the effectiveness of different approaches. (author)

  1. Models for prevention and treatment of cancer: problems vs promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B; Danda, Divya; Gupta, Shan; Gehlot, Prashasnika

    2009-11-01

    Current estimates from the American Cancer Society and from the International Union Against Cancer indicate that 12 million cases of cancer were diagnosed last year, with 7 million deaths worldwide; these numbers are expected to double by 2030 (27 million cases with 17 million deaths). Despite tremendous technological developments in all areas, and President Richard Nixon's initiative in the 1974 "War against Cancer", the US cancer incidence is the highest in the world and the cancer death rate has not significantly changed in the last 50 years (193.9 per 100,000 in 1950 vs 193.4 per 100,000 in 2002). Extensive research during the same time, however, has revealed that cancer is a preventable disease that requires major changes in life style; with one third of all cancers assigned to Tobacco, one third to diet, and remaining one third to the environment. Approximately 20 billion dollars are spent annually to find a cure for cancer. We propose that our inability to find a cure to cancer lies in the models used. Whether cell culture or animal studies, no model has yet been found that can reproduce the pathogenesis of the disease in the laboratory. Mono-targeted therapies, till know in most cases, have done a little to make a difference in cancer treatment. Similarly, molecular signatures/predictors of the diagnosis of the disease and response are also lacking. This review discusses the pros and cons of current cancer models based on cancer genetics, cell culture, animal models, cancer biomarkers/signature, cancer stem cells, cancer cell signaling, targeted therapies, therapeutic targets, clinical trials, cancer prevention, personalized medicine, and off-label uses to find a cure for cancer and demonstrates an urgent need for "out of the box" approaches. PMID:19481061

  2. Models for prevention and treatment of cancer: problems vs promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B; Danda, Divya; Gupta, Shan; Gehlot, Prashasnika

    2009-11-01

    Current estimates from the American Cancer Society and from the International Union Against Cancer indicate that 12 million cases of cancer were diagnosed last year, with 7 million deaths worldwide; these numbers are expected to double by 2030 (27 million cases with 17 million deaths). Despite tremendous technological developments in all areas, and President Richard Nixon's initiative in the 1974 "War against Cancer", the US cancer incidence is the highest in the world and the cancer death rate has not significantly changed in the last 50 years (193.9 per 100,000 in 1950 vs 193.4 per 100,000 in 2002). Extensive research during the same time, however, has revealed that cancer is a preventable disease that requires major changes in life style; with one third of all cancers assigned to Tobacco, one third to diet, and remaining one third to the environment. Approximately 20 billion dollars are spent annually to find a cure for cancer. We propose that our inability to find a cure to cancer lies in the models used. Whether cell culture or animal studies, no model has yet been found that can reproduce the pathogenesis of the disease in the laboratory. Mono-targeted therapies, till know in most cases, have done a little to make a difference in cancer treatment. Similarly, molecular signatures/predictors of the diagnosis of the disease and response are also lacking. This review discusses the pros and cons of current cancer models based on cancer genetics, cell culture, animal models, cancer biomarkers/signature, cancer stem cells, cancer cell signaling, targeted therapies, therapeutic targets, clinical trials, cancer prevention, personalized medicine, and off-label uses to find a cure for cancer and demonstrates an urgent need for "out of the box" approaches.

  3. What implementation interventions increase cancer screening rates? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lent Barbara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. As part of a larger agenda to create an implementation guideline, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate interventions designed to increase the rate of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (CRC screening. The interventions considered were: client reminders, client incentives, mass media, small media, group education, one-on-one education, reduction in structural barriers, reduction in out-of-pocket costs, provider assessment and feedback interventions, and provider incentives. Our primary outcome, screening completion, was calculated as the overall median post-intervention absolute percentage point (PP change in completed screening tests. Methods Our first step was to conduct an iterative scoping review in the research area. This yielded three relevant high-quality systematic reviews. Serving as our evidentiary foundation, we conducted a formal update. Randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized controlled trials, published between 2004 and 2010, were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHinfo. Results The update yielded 66 studies new eligible studies with 74 comparisons. The new studies ranged considerably in quality. Client reminders, small media, and provider audit and feedback appear to be effective interventions to increase the uptake of screening for three cancers. One-on-one education and reduction of structural barriers also appears effective, but their roles with CRC and cervical screening, respectively, are less established. More study is required to assess client incentives, mass media, group education, reduction of out-of-pocket costs, and provider incentive interventions. Conclusion The new evidence generally aligns with the evidence and conclusions from the original systematic

  4. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in a multi-centre European project: the IDEFICS intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbestel Vera

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. The aim of the present manuscript was to describe the content and developmental process of the IDEFICS intervention. Methods The intervention mapping protocol (IMP was used to develop the community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in 3 to 10 years old children. It is a theory- and evidence-based tool for the structured planning and development of health promotion programs that requires the completion of six different steps. These steps were elaborated by two coordinating centers and discussed with the other participating centers until agreement was reached. Focus group research was performed in all participating centers to provide an informed basis for intervention development. Results The application of the IMP resulted in an overall intervention framework with ten intervention modules targeting environmental and personal factors through the family, the school and the community. The summary results of the focus group research were used to inform the development of the overall intervention. The cultural adaptation of the overall intervention was realised by using country specific focus group results. The need for cultural adaptation was considered during the entire process to improve program adoption and implementation. A plan was developed to evaluate program effectiveness and quality of implementation. Conclusions The IDEFICS project developed a community-based intervention for the prevention of

  5. Electronic Feedback in College Student Drinking Prevention and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronce, Jessica M; Bittinger, Joyce N; Liu, Junny; Kilmer, Jason R

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is prevalent among college students and can be associated with serious negative consequences. Several efficacious programs using one-on-one brief intervention techniques have been developed to target high-risk drinking by individual students, such as the Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) (Dimeff et al. 1999). To reach a larger population (e.g., the incoming freshman class), researchers have adapted these interventions so that students can access them via the Internet or in some other electronic format.The purpose of this review is to discuss specific alcohol intervention programs that were (1) designed to be delivered remotely (e.g., via the Web or on an electronic device) without interaction with a provider and (2) were tested among college students using a randomized controlled trial design. Specific studies were drawn from earlier reviews as well as a comprehensive literature search. Although many programs have limited research support, and some findings are mixed, components that were directly translated from in-person BASICS to remote-delivery mediums (i.e., personalized feedback interventions [PFIs], personalized normative feedback [PNF] interventions), and broader programs that incorporate PFI/ PNF, show promise in reducing alcohol use and/or negative consequences. However, more research is needed and suggestions for how the field can move these interventions forward are discussed.

  6. Reducing cancer risk in rural communities through supermarket interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Barent N; Lyford, Conrad P; Hensarling, Natalie; Pence, Barbara; McCool, Audrey C; Thapa, Janani; Belasco, Eric; Carter, Tyra M

    2013-09-01

    Cancer risk is high, and prevention efforts are often minimal in rural communities. Feasible means of encouraging lifestyles that will reduce cancer risk for residents of rural communities are needed. This project developed and tested a model that could be feasibly adopted by rural communities to reduce cancer risk. This model focuses on incorporating multi-faceted cancer risk education in the local supermarket. As the supermarket functions both as the primary food source and an information source in small rural communities, the supermarket focus encourages the development of a community environment supportive of lifestyles that should reduce residents' risk for cancer. The actions taken to implement the model and the challenges that communities would have in implementing the model are identified.

  7. CANCER IS PREVENTABLE- LET US TRY OUR LEVEL BEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a chronic disease and the prevalence is increasing at a faster rate in recent years. Most of the cancers are incurable, treatment is very expensive and is not affordable even for above middle-class people. A strong correlation is observed between lifestyle factors and cancer incidence or prevention. Let us know about cancer prevention lifestyle focussing mainly on the role of physical activity and diet. Most of the people leading sedentary life style. There is an overall decline in the level of physical activity. There is strong evidence between adequate physical activity and prevention of colon cancer and breast cancer. Regular and proper physical activity increases the motility of digestive system and decreases the residence time of food carcinogens. Further it will decrease obesity as well as abdominal fat deposition. Moreover regular physical activity is associated with a decrease in the circulating levels of sex hormones, insulin and insulin like growth factor; all are associated with cancer incidence. Let us be active to make world cancer free. Meet you again in the next issue with the role of diet in cancer prevention.

  8. Protein found to promote DNA repair, prevent cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ An abundant chromosomal protein that binds to damaged DNA prevents cancer development by enhancing DNA repair, researchers at University of Texas reported on-line in the Proceedings of the National Academies of Science.

  9. Insurance, Distance Often Prevent Breast Reconstruction After Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160210.html Insurance, Distance Often Prevent Breast Reconstruction After Cancer Obstacles ... 2, 2016 TUESDAY, Aug. 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Insurance coverage and the distance to a doctor's office ...

  10. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention reduces injury incidence in Physical Education Teacher Education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, L; Cardon, G; Witvrouw, E; Steyaert, A; De Clercq, D

    2016-01-01

    Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students are at considerable risk for non-contact sports injuries of the lower extremities. Multifactorial injury prevention interventions including exercises have been successful in sports populations, but no such study has ever been performed in PETE students. This study investigated the efficacy of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention on injury incidence reduction in PETE students. PETE students in the intervention group (n = 154) and in the control group (n = 189) registered sports injuries prospectively. The intervention lasted one academic year and consisted of an injury awareness programme and preventive strategies, implemented by the PETE sports lecturers. Differences in injury incidence between the intervention and control group were tested by Poisson regression Wald tests. There was a trend towards significantly lower incidence rate (2.18 vs. 2.73; p = 0.061) in the intervention group compared with the control group. Students in the intervention group had significantly less acute, first-time and extracurricular injuries. The largest reduction was observed for injuries during unsupervised practice sessions. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention embedded into a regular PETE programme is a promising and feasible strategy to prevent injuries in PETE students. Further research is needed to investigate whether the results may be generalised to other PETE programmes. PMID:25768808

  11. Diet, genes, and microbes: complexities of colon cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Diane F; Phillips, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and generally, as countries climb the economic ladder, their rates of colon cancer increase. Colon cancer was an early disease where key genetic mutations were identified as important in disease progression, and there is considerable interest in determining whether specific mutations sensitize the colon to cancer prevention strategies. Epidemiological studies have revealed that fiber- and vegetable-rich diets and physical activity are associated with reduced rates of colon cancer, while consumption of red and processed meat, or alcoholic beverages, and overconsumption as reflected in obesity are associated with increased rates. Animal studies have probed these effects and suggested directions for further refinement of diet in colon cancer prevention. Recently a central role for the microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract in colon cancer development is being probed, and it is hypothesized that the microbes may integrate diet and host genetics in the etiology of the disease. This review provides background on dietary, genetic, and microbial impacts on colon cancer and describes an ongoing project using rodent models to assess the ability of digestion-resistant starch in the integration of these factors with the goal of furthering colon cancer prevention.

  12. Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Worry, Uncertainty, and Insomnia for Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-22

    Anxiety Disorder; Worry; Uncertainty; Sleep Disorders; Insomnia; Fatigue; Pain; Depression; Cognitive-behavioral Therapy; Psychological Intervention; Esophageal Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Leukemia; Lung Cancer; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Neoplasm; Stage III or IV Cervical or Uterine Cancer; Stage IIIB, IIIC, or IV Breast Cancer; Glioblastoma Multiforme; Relapsed Lymphoma; Stage III or IV Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC or IV Melanoma

  13. [Application of cohort study in cancer prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Min; Bai, Yana; Pu, Hongquan; Cheng, Ning; Li, Haiyan; He, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Cancer control is a long-term work. Cancer research and intervention really need the support of cohort study. In the recent years, more and more cohort studies on cancer control were conducted in China along with the increased ability of scientific research in China. Since 2010, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, collaborated with Lanzhou University and the Worker' s Hospital of Jinchuan Group Company Limited, have carried out a large-scale cohort study on cancer, which covered a population of more than 50 000 called " Jinchang cohort". Since 2012, a National Key Public Health Project, "cancer screening in urban China" , has been conducted in Jinchang, which strengthened the Jinchang cohort study. Based on the Jinchang cohort study, historical cohort study, cross-sectional study and prospective cohort study have been conducted, which would provide a lot of evidence for the cancer control in China.

  14. Eat for health: a nutrition and cancer control supermarket intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Light, Luise; Tenney, Janet; Portnoy, Barry; Kessler, Larry; Rodgers, Anne Brown; Patterson, Blossom; Mathews, Odonna; Katz, Eileen; Blair, Joan E.; Evans, Shirley King; Tuckermanty, Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    The growing evidence linking dietary patterns to the incidence and prevention of chronic disease has prompted a number of prominent health and scientific agencies to publish dietary guidelines for the public. Some dietary guidelines address specific diseases, such as cancer or heart disease; others focus on overall health promotion. This situation has created a demand for nutrition education and information programs for the public.

  15. "Lassie," "Toto," and fellow pet dogs: poised to lead the way for advances in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Deborah W; Dhawan, Deepika; Ostrander, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Cancer causes substantial morbidity and takes the lives of over 8 million people worldwide each year. Advances in cancer prevention research are crucial, and animal models are key to this. There are many valuable experimentally induced cancer models, but these do not fully meet the needs for cancer prevention studies. Pet dogs with risks for naturally occurring cancer can fill important gaps in cancer prevention research. Using invasive urothelial carcinoma (iUC) as an example, the advantages of utilizing pet dogs include: (1) close similarities between dogs and humans in carcinogenesis, molecular and cellular features, invasive and metastatic behavior, and response to treatment, thus providing high relevance for comparative studies, (2) shared environment between dogs and humans to help identify not-yet-known environmental iUC risks, (3) strong breed-associated risk (5- to 21-fold increased risk compared with mixed breeds) that facilitates investigation of gene-environment interactions, screening, and early intervention, (4) large size of dogs (versus rodents) that allows collection of fluids and tissues via cystoscopy, and detailed imaging at multiple time points, and (5) acceptance for studies in which each participating dog can benefit while enjoying life in their family environment, and in which findings will help other dogs and humans. An ongoing 3-year study in Scottish Terriers (comparable to a 15- to 20-year study in humans) is aimed at defining genetic and environmental risk factors for iUC, effective methods for screening/early detection, and a successful secondary cancer prevention approach with very promising results to date. Pet dogs can indeed propel cancer prevention research.

  16. Knowledge, beliefs and barriers associated with prostate cancer prevention and screening behaviors among African-American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocker, Deborah E; Romocki, LaHoma Smith; Thomas, Kamilah B; Jones, Belinda L; Jackson, Ethel Jean; Reid, LaVerne; Campbell, Marci K

    2006-08-01

    African-American men have the highest prostate cancer rates worldwide, and innovative efforts are needed to increase cancer prevention and screening behaviors among this population. Formative research was conducted to assess attitudes and behaviors linked to prostate cancer prevention activities that could be used to develop a culturally relevant intervention for an African-American church-based population. Four gender-specific focus groups were conducted with 29 men and women at two African-American churches in central North Carolina. Three primary themes emerged from the focus group discussions: culturally and gender-influenced beliefs and barriers about cancer prevention and screening; barriers related to the healthcare system: and religious influences, including the importance of spiritual beliefs and church support. These discussions revealed the importance of the black family, the positive influence of spouses/partners on promoting cancer screening and healthy behaviors, the roles of faith and church leadership, and beliefs about God's will for good health. These findings also revealed that there are still major barriers and challenges to cancer prevention among African Americans, including continued mistrust of the medical community and negative attitudes toward specific screening tests. Findings provide important insights to consider in implementing successful prostate cancer prevention interventions designed for church-based audiences. PMID:16916126

  17. Epidemiology of gastric cancer and perspectives for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUÑOZ NUBIA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent estimates of the world-wide incidence of cancer indicate that gastric cancer was in 1990 the second most frequent cancer in the world (after lung cancer, with about 900 000 new cases diagnosed every year. Steady declines in the rates have been observed everywhere in the last few decades, but the absolute number of new cases per year is increasing mainly because of ageing of the population. The exact causes of the decline of gastric cancer are not well understood, but must include improvements in diet, food storage (e.g., refrigeration and, possibly, the decline of Helicobacter pylori infection. Dietary modifications and, possibly, vitamin supplements remain one of the most important tool for the prevention of gastric cancer. Control of H. pylori infection, by means of eradication or immunization, is also likely to offer great potential for the prevention of this important malignancy.

  18. Occupational therapy intervention with patients with breast cancer: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vockins, H

    2004-03-01

    Occupational therapists (OTs) working with patients with breast cancer provide a variety of therapeutic interventions. A survey was undertaken to record the different assessments and treatments employed by OTs in a specialist cancer centre with the type and length of interventions recorded on a log sheet by each therapist over a period of a month. A significant amount of time was spent facilitating educational programmes, teaching relaxation techniques and exploring strategies for managing breathlessness and fatigue. However, documentation and report writing consumed the largest proportion of the therapists' time. Less time was spent on assessment of activities of daily living and home assessments, often perceived to be the traditional domain of OTs. PMID:14961775

  19. NCORP’s First Year Reviewed | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    By the numbers, the first year of NCI’s Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) has made progress in clinical trials for prevention, control, health-related quality of life, comparative effectiveness and screening; accrual to NCI National Clinical Trials Network treatment and imaging trials; and in new areas of emphasis in cancer care delivery research and cancer disparities research. |

  20. Role of phytochemicals in colon cancer prevention. A nutrigenomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, van M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Specific food compounds, especially from fruits and vegetables, may protect against development of colon cancer. In this thesis effects and mechanisms of various phytochemicals in relation to colon cancer prevention were studied through application of large-scale gene expression profiling. Expressio

  1. Screening and prevention in women at increased breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.S. de

    2015-01-01

    The most frequent cancer among women in the Western world arises in the breast accounting for over 1.7 million new cases in 2012, a number which is still rising. Much attention is paid to the discovery of new ways to prevent breast cancer, as is the search for new treatment modalities with a minimum

  2. An Intersectoral Intervention to Prevent Early Alcohol Use in Cuban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabelo-Roche, Justo R; Iglesias-Moré, Serguei; Gómez-García, Ana M; Hernández-Domínguez, Heydi; García-Enríquez, Iovanny

    2016-07-01

    To encourage development of negative attitudes toward alcohol use and thus prevent early onset of alcohol use, an intersectoral intervention was conducted from 2014 to 2015 among Cuban adolescents in 14 schools in Havana. The intervention included 312 students (189 girls and 123 boys) aged 14 to 15 years in 10th grade of high school or vocational school. Workshops were conducted using participatory techniques and group dynamics. Qualitative methods were applied, including narrative, desiderative and projective techniques. Indicators included attitudes, motivation, interests and perception of risk. Following the intervention, 82.7% (258/312) of participants reported healthy cultural and recreational interests and 61.9% (193/312) reinforced negative attitudes toward drinking. Such interventions can help prevent early onset of alcohol use in school settings. Given the positive results, the intervention is slated to be reproduced in other Cuban provinces. KEYWORDS Adolescents, prevention, alcoholism, attitudes, Cuba. PMID:27510934

  3. Intervention treatments for chronic pain syndrome in cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Bryuzgin

    2010-01-01

    Noninvasive treatments for chronic pain syndrome benefit in 80-90% of cancer patients. Invasive, intervention procedures for analgesia should be used in other cases. These include neuroablative and neuromodulatory measures. Neuroablation is defined as the physical suspension of painful impulse transmission pathways by a surgical, chemical, or thermal method and comprises lytic and other blocks. Neuromodulation is the dynamic and functional suppression of pain impulse pathways by the intraspin...

  4. Health beliefs and cancer prevention practices of Filipino American women

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Celine M

    2006-01-01

    Cancer is the number one cause of death among Asian Americans, and Filipino Americans are the second largest Asian American group in number. Filipino American women have relatively low rates of breast and colorectal cancer screening compared to their White counterparts; however, they experience higher numbers of late-stage diagnoses and mortality rates. Thus, early detection of cancer and maintenance of healthy prevention behaviors are very important. Little is known about this community's pr...

  5. Elaine Trujillo, MS, RD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaine Trujillo is a Nutritionist with the NSRG, where she promotes the translation of information about bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer. She plans and directs nutritional programs such as the annual week-long Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum, and the lectureship program Stars in Nutrition and Cancer. She collaborates with other federal agencies, and is currently serving on the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Management Team. Ms. |

  6. Dietary Polyphenols in Prevention and Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul K. Lall; Syed, Deeba N.; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Mohammad Imran Khan; Hasan Mukhtar

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent disease affecting males in many Western countries, with an estimated 29,480 deaths in 2014 in the US alone. Incidence rates for prostate cancer deaths have been decreasing since the early 1990s in men of all races/ethnicities, though they remain about 60% higher in African Americans than in any other group. The relationship between dietary polyphenols and the prevention of prostate cancer has been examined previously. Although results are sometimes incons...

  7. High School Teachers' Perceptions of Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Sterling; Heath, Melissa Allen; Coyne, Sarah Marie; Ferrin, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses indicate that bully prevention programs produce minimal change in student behavior. This study examined 66 high school teachers' perceptions regarding the effect of cyberbullying on students, which intervening strategies teachers would use when dealing with cyberbullying, and which prevention strategies would assist in…

  8. Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Approach to Prevention Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarski, John S.; Smyth, Nancy J.

    1994-01-01

    Presents data on the extent, nature, and consequences of adolescent substance abuse. Definition of substance abuse is considered. Discusses primary and secondary prevention programs, including programs targeting high-risk youth, school and peer group, families, and communities. Outlines tertiary prevention efforts and emphasizes the need for…

  9. The effectiveness of exercise interventions to prevent sports injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauersen, Jeppe Bo; Bertelsen, Ditte Marie; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems.......Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems....

  10. Improving surgical site infection prevention practices through a multifaceted educational intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Owens, P

    2015-03-01

    As part of the National Clinical Programme on healthcare-associated infection prevention, a Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) and Royal College of Physicians of Ireland (RCPI) working group developed a quality improvement tool for prevention of surgical site infection (SS). We aimed to validate the effectiveness of an educational campaign, which utilises this quality improvement tool to prevent SSI in a tertiary hospital. Prior to the SSI educational campaign, surgical patients were prospectively audited and details of antibiotic administration recorded. Prophylactic antibiotic administration recommendations were delivered via poster and educational presentations. Post-intervention, the audit was repeated. 50 patients were audited pre-intervention, 45 post-intervention. Post-intervention, prophylaxis within 60 minutes prior to incision increased from 54% to 68% (p = 0.266). Appropriate postoperative prescribing improved from 71% to 92% (p = 0.075). A multifaceted educational program may be effective in changing SSI prevention practices.

  11. Universality properties of school-based preventive intervention targeted at cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miovský, Michal; Voňková, Hana; Gabrhelík, Roman; Šťastná, Lenka

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of school-based preventive intervention on cannabis use in Czech adolescents with different levels of risk factors and provide evidence of its universality. A randomized controlled prevention trial with six waves was conducted over a period of 33 months. We used a two-level logistic random-intercept model for panel data; we first looked at the statistical significance of the effect of the intervention on cannabis use, controlling for the characteristics of the children and time dummies. Then we analyzed the effects of the interactions between the intervention and the characteristics of the children on cannabis use and related it to the definition of universal preventive interventions. The setting for the study was in basic schools in the Czech Republic in the years 2007-2010. A total of 1,874 sixth-graders (mean age 11.82 years) who completed the baseline testing. According to our results, the prevention intervention was effective. We found all the selected characteristics of the children to be relevant in relation to cannabis use, except their relationships with their friends. We showed empirically that the intervention is universal in two dimensions for the selected characteristics of the children. First, all adolescents who undergo the intervention are expected to benefit. Second, with respect to the effect of the intervention on cannabis use, the total level of individual risk of cannabis use is superior to the composition of the risk factors in the individual risk profile. We present indicative evidence that the drug prevention intervention may be considered a true universal preventive intervention. PMID:24420651

  12. Lay Representations of Cancer Prevention and Early Detection: Associations With Prevention Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Helen W. Sullivan, PhD, MPH; Lila J. Finney Rutten, PhD, MPH; Bradford W. Hesse, PhD; Richard P. Moser, PhD; Alexander J. Rothman, PhD; Kevin D. McCaul, PhD

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The Common Sense Model of illness representations posits that how people think about an illness affects how they try to prevent the illness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prevention representations vary by cancer type (colon, lung, and skin cancer) and whether representations are associated with relevant behaviors. Methods We analyzed data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 2005), a nationally representative survey of American adults (N...

  13. What is the benefit of the biomedical and behavioral interventions in preventing HIV transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kuchenbecker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Scientific evidence supports the sinergy between biomedical and behavioral interventions aimed at preventing the transmission of HIV as a strategy to eradicate AIDS.Objective:To characterize comparatively the benefits from biomedical and behavioral interventions to prevent HIV transmission.Methods:Narrative review. We performed a comparative analysis of the benefits of studied interventions by means of estimating the number needed to treat (NNT. Evaluated interventions: counseling activities for behavior change to prevent exposure to HIV; antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and antiretroviral post-exposure prophylasis (PEP for HIV and treatment of serodiscordant couples as a strategy for prevention of HIV transmission (TasP.Results:counseling interventions and TasP have smaller NNTs, equal to, respectively, 11 (95%CI 9 - 18 at 12 months and 34 (95%CI 23 - 54 in 42 months comparatively to PrEP interventions, that resulted in 41 (95%CI 28 - 67 individuals receiving antiretrovirals in order to prevent one case of HIV infection at 36 months for men and serodiscordant couples. PEP interventions are associated with protective effects estimated at 81%. Lack of trials evaluating PEP prevents estimate of NNT.Conclusion:The estimate of the NNT can be a helpful parameter in the comparison between the effectiveness of different behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention strategies. Studies evaluating the benefit and safety of combined behavioral and biomedical interventions are needed, especially considering the attributable fraction of each component. Integration of behavioral and biomedical interventions is required to achieve complete suppression of the virus, and thus reducing viral replication, infectivity and the number of cases.

  14. Nutritional Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to | Establishing a comprehensive understanding of diet and food components in cancer risk and tumor cell behavior.

  15. Serum Oxidized Protein and Prostate Cancer Risk within the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, Ashraful; Ambrosone, Christine B; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Tangen, Cathy; Kristal, Alan; Lucia, Scott; Wang, Qiao; Kappil, Maya; Thompson, Ian; Hsing, Ann W.; Parnes, Howard; Lippman, Scott M.; Santella, Regina M.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the role of oxidative stress in prostate cancer risk, we analyzed serum levels of protein carbonyl groups in 1808 prostate cancer cases and 1805 controls, nested in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, a randomized, placebo-control trial that found finasteride decreased prostate cancer risk. There were no significant differences in protein carbonyl levels in baseline samples between those later diagnosed with prostate cancer and those without at the end of study biopsy. Adjusted ...

  16. Finasteride Concentrations and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Cindy H.; Price, Douglas K.; Cathee Till; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Xiaohong Chen; Leach, Robin J; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L.; Hsing, Ann W.; Ashraful Hoque; Tangen, Catherine M.; Lisa Chu; Parnes, Howard L.; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Reichardt, Juergen K. V.; Thompson, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying dru...

  17. Interventions to prevent and manage psychosocial risks and work-related stress

    OpenAIRE

    Klein Hesselink, J.; Jain, A.

    2014-01-01

    Prevention is the cornerstone of the European approach to managing occupational safety and health. Prevention means anticipating and analysing the various aspects of work to identify short and long term risks, and then taking action to eliminate or mitigate those risks; that is identifying and addressing the source of the problem. The actions taken to eliminate or mitigate risks are referred to as interventions. This article presents the different levels of interventions that can be applied t...

  18. Links Between Metabolism and Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker Chi Van Dang, MD, PhD John H. Glick Professor of Medicine Director, Abramson Cancer Center and Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine Philadelphia, PA |

  19. Internet-Based Recruitment to a Depression Prevention Intervention: Lessons From the Mood Memos Study

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Amy Joanna; Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mackinnon, Andrew James

    2013-01-01

    Background Recruiting participants to randomized controlled trials of health interventions can be very difficult. Internet-based recruitment is becoming an increasingly important mode of recruitment, yet there are few detailed accounts of experiences recruiting participants to mental health interventions. Objective To report on our experience with Internet-based recruitment to an online depression prevention intervention and pass on lessons we learned. Methods Participants were recruited to t...

  20. Longitudinal Impact of Two Universal Preventive Interventions in First Grade on Educational Outcomes in High School

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Zmuda, Jessika H.; Kellam, Sheppard G.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of 2 first-grade universal preventive interventions on academic outcomes (e.g., achievement, special education service use, graduation, postsecondary education) through age 19 in a sample of 678 urban, primarily African American children. The classroom-centered intervention combined the Good Behavior Game (H. H. Barrish, Saunders, & Wolfe, 1969) with an enhanced academic curriculum, whereas a second intervention, the Family–School Partnership, focu...

  1. Evaluation of the effectiveness of an intervention program on preventing childhood obesity in Denizli, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SEVİNÇ, Özgür; Bozkurt, Ali İhsan; Mehmet GÜNDOĞDU; ASLAN, Ümmühan BAŞ; Ağbuğa, Bülent; ASLAN, Şehmus; DİKBAŞ, Emel; GÖKÇE, Zeliha

    2011-01-01

    To determine the efficiency of 2 different intervention programs (healthy nutrition education and/or physical activity programs) for preventing the obesity of primary school students. Materials and methods: Selected were 6 schools, making 3 groups, from all primary schools in Denizli with the half-day education system. Each group was composed of 2 schools. The groups were randomly divided into intervention group 1, intervention group 2, and the control group. The body mass index (BMI) level...

  2. Preventive interventions in families with parental depression: children's psychosocial symptoms and prosocial behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Solantaus, Tytti; Paavonen, E. Juulia; Toikka, Sini; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The aim is to document the effectiveness of a preventive family intervention (Family Talk Intervention, FTI) and a brief psychoeducational discussion with parents (Let?s Talk about the Children, LT) on children?s psychosocial symptoms and prosocial behaviour in families with parental mood disorder, when the interventions are practiced in psychiatric services for adults in the finnish national health service. Patients with mood disorder were invited to participate with thei...

  3. Lifestyle changes and the risk of developing endometrial and ovarian cancers: opportunities for prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavis, Anna L; Smith, Anna Jo Bodurtha; Fader, Amanda Nickles

    2016-01-01

    Modifiable lifestyle factors, such as obesity, lack of physical activity, and smoking, contribute greatly to cancer and chronic disease morbidity and mortality worldwide. This review appraises recent evidence on modifiable lifestyle factors in the prevention of endometrial cancer (EC) and ovarian cancer (OC) as well as new evidence for lifestyle management of EC and OC survivors. For EC, obesity continues to be the strongest risk factor, while new evidence suggests that physical activity, oral contraceptive pills, and bariatric surgery may be protective against EC. Other medications, such as metformin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, may be protective, and interventional research is ongoing. For OC, we find increasing evidence to support the hypothesis that obesity and hormone replacement therapy increase the risk of developing OC. Oral contraceptive pills are protective against OC but are underutilized. Dietary factors such as the Mediterranean diet and alcohol consumption do not seem to affect the risk of either OC or EC. For EC and OC survivors, physical activity and weight loss are associated with improved quality of life. Small interventional trials show promise in increasing physical activity and weight maintenance for EC and OC survivors, although the impact on long-term health, including cancer recurrence and overall mortality, is unknown. Women's health providers should integrate counseling about these modifiable lifestyle factors into both the discussion of prevention for all women and the management of survivors of gynecologic cancers. PMID:27284267

  4. Prevention of smoking in adolescents with lower education: a school based intervention study

    OpenAIRE

    Crone, M.; Reijneveld, S.; Willemsen, M; Leerdam, F.J.M. van; Spruijt, R; Sing, R

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of an antismoking intervention focusing on adolescents in lower education. Students with lower education smoke more often and perceive more positive norms, and social pressure to smoke, than higher educated students. An intervention based on peer group pressure and social influence may therefore be useful to prevent smoking among these students.

  5. What Would You Do? Strategies for Bystander Intervention to Prevent Sexual Violence by College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Sarah; Hoffman, Melanie Lowe; McMahon, Sheila M.; Zucker, Sharon; Koenick, Ruth Anne

    2013-01-01

    Bystander education is an increasingly utilized strategy for addressing sexual assault prevention and intervention on U.S. college campuses. Given the paramount importance of peers among college students, what types of pro-social bystander interventions do students themselves deem feasible in the campus context? Drawing on self-reports from…

  6. Outcomes of an HIV Prevention Peer Group Intervention for Rural Adults in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaponda, Chrissie P. N.; Norr, Kathleen F.; Crittenden, Kathleen S.; Norr, James L.; McCreary, Linda L.; Kachingwe, Sitingawawo I.; Mbeba, Mary M.; Jere, Diana L. N.; Dancy, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a quasi-experimental design to evaluate a six-session peer group intervention for HIV prevention among rural adults in Malawi. Two rural districts were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. Independent random samples of community adults compared the districts at baseline and at 6 and 18 months postintervention.…

  7. Psychosocial Issues in Engaging Older People with Physical Activity Interventions for the Prevention of Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the psychosocial factors that influence older people's participation in physical activity interventions to prevent falls. The importance of psychosocial factors is stressed inasmuch as interventions will be rendered useless if they do not successfully gain the active participation of older people. The theory of…

  8. The Development of an Osteoporosis Prevention Education Intervention: Its Effectiveness, Conclusions, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu H.; Wang, Ze; Waigandt, Alexander C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis prevention education interventions have been found to be ineffective. Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of a developed intervention based on the health belief model, which emphasized its visible severity and proximal time of onset. Method: A sample of 109 college women were randomly assigned to either a treatment or…

  9. Outcomes of a pilot obesity prevention plus intervention targeting children and parenting practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevention-Plus interventions for primary care offer a venue to intervene with both children and parents for child obesity treatment. Such interventions can promote effective parenting practices that encourage healthy eating, physical activity (PA), and lower TV use among children. Test for feasibil...

  10. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Family Cognitive-Behavioral Preventive Intervention for Children of Depressed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compas, Bruce E.; Forehand, Rex; Keller, Gary; Champion, Jennifer E.; Rakow, Aaron; Reeslund, Kristen L.; McKee, Laura; Fear, Jessica M.; Colletti, Christina J. M.; Hardcastle, Emily; Merchant, Mary Jane; Roberts, Lori; Potts, Jennifer; Garai, Emily; Coffelt, Nicole; Roland, Erin; Sterba, Sonya K.; Cole, David A.

    2009-01-01

    A family cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention for parents with a history of depression and their 9-15-year-old children was compared with a self-study written information condition in a randomized clinical trial (n = 111 families). Outcomes were assessed at post-intervention (2 months), after completion of 4 monthly booster sessions (6…

  11. Low back pain prevention for nursing students: a kettlebell intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Peltoniemi, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to educate and provide information to promote nursing students to take action in Low Back Pain (LBP) prevention. LBP is a high risk in nursing and prevention measures are recommended prior to starting the work. LBP is a debilitating musculoskeletal condition which affects all parts of the world. Prevention measures are many and this thesis aims to promote the Kettlebell training as one of them. The Kettlebell is a cast-iron ball with a handle. It has become incre...

  12. Workplace violence. Prevalence, prevention, and first-line interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M L; Robertson, K

    1997-06-01

    Workplace violence is increasing, but through education, prevention, and man aging escalating crises, critical care nurses can help to minimize the negative consequences of violence. Critical care nurses are particularly prone to acts of aggression and acts of violence due to the stressful environment for them, their families, and their patients. Developing violence prevention skills and interpersonal communication skills, not always highly valued in a critical care environment, are important steps in deterring workplace violence. Although not all incidents of workplace violence can be prevented, recognizing the individual at risk for violence and intervening on the behalf of all involved is a responsibility of every employee including the critical care nurse. PMID:9214890

  13. Neurocognitive skills moderate urban male adolescents' responses to preventive intervention materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Diana H; Hyde, Christopher; Eldreth, Diana; Paschall, Mallie J; Hubal, Robert; Das, Abhik; Tarter, Ralph; Ialongo, Nick; Hubbard, Scott; Yung, Betty

    2006-03-15

    The present experiment was designed to determine whether individual variation in neurobiological mechanisms associated with substance abuse risk moderated effects of a brief preventive intervention on social competency skills. This study was conducted in collaboration with the ongoing preventive intervention study at Johns Hopkins University Prevention Intervention Research Center (JHU PIRC) within the Baltimore City Public Schools. A subsample (N = 120) of male 9th grade students was recruited from the larger JHU study population. Approximately half of the participants had a current or lifetime diagnosis of CD while the other half had no diagnosis of CD or other reported problem behaviors. Measures of executive cognitive function (ECF), emotional perception and intelligence were administered. In a later session, participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group. The experimental group underwent a facilitated session using excerpted materials from a model preventive intervention, Positive Adolescent Choices Training (PACT), and controls received no intervention. Outcomes (i.e., social competency skills) were assessed using virtual reality vignettes involving behavioral choices as well as three social cognition questionnaires. Poor cognitive and emotional performance and a diagnosis of CD predicted less favorable change in social competency skills in response to the prevention curriculum. This study provides evidence for the moderating effects of neurocognitive and emotional regulatory functions on ability of urban male youth to respond to preventive intervention materials. PMID:16154296

  14. Evidence, theory and context - using intervention mapping to develop a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greaves Colin J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. Methods This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP, a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM. The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Results Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives - establish motivation, take action and stay motivated - in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their

  15. Biorepositories for the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) and the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) has a serum and lymphocyte bank with specimens on more than 90% of the 33,000 women in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) and Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR). They also have tumor blocks on the majority of the breast cancers that have occurred in women on these studies. |

  16. Community Based HIV Prevention Intervention in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To describe the features and examine effects of community based HIV prevention interventions implemented in developing countries on HIV-related knowledge and self-reported risk behavior. Background. The HIV epidemic has a significant impact on developing countries, increasing the prevalence of HIV among young persons. Community-based HIV prevention interventions have been designed to improve HIV-related knowledge and decrease engagement in risk behavior. Variations in the design and implementation of these interventions have been reported, which may influence their effectiveness. Design. Systematic review. Method. Data were extracted on the characteristics of the study and interventions and effects of the interventions on knowledge and self-report of risk behavior. Results. In total, 10 studies were included in the review. Overall, the results showed variability in theoretical underpinning, dose, and mode of delivery of the interventions. Multicomponent interventions that used mixed teaching methods produced beneficial effects on knowledge and self-reported risk behavior. Conclusion. Examining the characteristics of HIV-prevention interventions provides direction for researchers in developing efficient interventions to improve knowledge and reduce engagement in self-reported risk behavior and, in turn, decrease transmission of HIV.

  17. A Model Curriculum for Tobacco Use Cessation and Prevention Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboy, Michael J.; Fried, Jacquelyn L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes a curriculum for dental/dental hygiene schools that would teach oral health care providers how to routinely assess tobacco use, advise cessation, and provide assistance and follow-up for tobacco-using patients. The article emphasizes the importance of making tobacco interventions routine components of schools' clinical teaching programs.…

  18. Lorenzo Tomatis and primary prevention of environmental cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huff James

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The leading 20th century proponent for primary prevention of environmental cancer was Dr. Lorenzo Tomatis, the former Director of the International Agency for Research on Cancer and founder of the IARC Monographs program. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Tomatis – eminent scientist, scholar, teacher, humanitarian, and public health champion - and includes many perspectives that he promoted throughout his career, with original quotations from some of his scientific writings on primary prevention of environmental cancer. Any attempt by us to simply summarize his views would only detract from the power and logic of his language. “Cancer still remains a mainly lethal disease. Primary prevention remains the most relevant approach to reduce mortality through a reduction in incidence”1.

  19. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J.; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K. Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based a...

  20. Physical Activity Behavioral Intervention in Obese Endometrial Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-14

    Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  1. Governance Structure | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing the importance of an integrated approach to preventative drug development, there is a unified Governance Structure for the PREVENT Program responsible for coordinating and integrating available resources. With the goal of reaching go/no-go decisions as efficiently as possible, the purpose is to ensure a pragmatic approach to drug development and a clear path to market. |

  2. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  3. Assessment of Information to Substantiate a Health Claim on the Prevention of Prostate Cancer by Lignans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhani Tuominen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignans and their in vivo metabolites, especially enterolactone (ENL, have attracted substantial interest as potential chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer. Preclinical and clinical interventions performed with lignan-rich flaxseed that use surrogate biomarkers as endpoints suggest that lignans may attenuate prostate carcinogenesis in individuals with increased risk or with diagnosed cancer. No unequivocal prostate cancer risk reduction has been found for lignans in epidemiological studies, suggesting that lignan concentrations found in populations consuming a regular non-supplemented diet are not chemopreventive in prostate cancer. Presumably, the main obstacles in assessing the efficacy of food lignans is limited knowledge of the serum and tissue lignan concentrations required for the putative prevention. Further clinical studies performed with the purified compounds are required to substantiate a health claim.

  4. Preventive interventions among children exposed to trauma of armed conflict: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen, Kirsi; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2010-01-01

    Increasing research is available on the preconditions for child mental health and optimal development in traumatic conditions, whereas less is known how to translate the findings into effective interventions to help traumatized children. This literature review analyses the effectiveness of psychosocial preventive interventions and treatments and their theoretical bases among children traumatized in the context of armed conflicts (war, military violence, terrorism and refugee). The first aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive interventions in preventing emotional distress and impairment and promoting optimal emotional-cognitive and social development. The second task is to analyze the nature of the underlying mechanisms for the success of preventive interventions, and the theoretical premises of the choice of intervention techniques, procedures and tools. We found 16 relevant published studies, but an examination of them revealed that only four of them had experimental designs strong enough that they could be included in the meta-analysis. While the subjective reports of the researchers suggested that systematic preventive interventions were effective in decreasing PTSD and depressive symptoms among children traumatized due to armed conflict, the more objective results of the meta-analysis and the weaknesses in designs uncovered during the meta-analysis undermine such a conclusion. Additionally, a majority of the reported preventive interventions focused only on children's biased cognitive processes and negative emotions, while only a few aimed at influencing multiple domains of child development and improving developmental functioning on emotional, social and psychophysiological levels. It is concluded that substantial additional work needs to be done in developing effective preventive interventions and treatments for children traumatized by exposure to war and violence. PMID:19998393

  5. Cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in Andhra Pradesh state of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar G Anil

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on cost-effectiveness of the range of HIV prevention interventions is a useful contributor to decisions on the best use of resources to prevent HIV. We conducted this assessment for the state of Andhra Pradesh that has the highest HIV burden in India. Methods Based on data from a representative sample of 128 public-funded HIV prevention programs of 14 types in Andhra Pradesh, we have recently reported the number of HIV infections averted by each type of HIV prevention intervention and their cost. Using estimates of the age of onset of HIV infection, we used standard methods to calculate the cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY saved as a measure of cost-effectiveness of each type of HIV prevention intervention. Results The point estimates of the cost per DALY saved were less than US $50 for blood banks, men who have sex with men programmes, voluntary counselling and testing centres, prevention of parent to child transmission clinics, sexually transmitted infection clinics, and women sex worker programmes; between US $50 and 100 for truckers and migrant labourer programmes; more than US $100 and up to US $410 for composite, street children, condom promotion, prisoners and workplace programmes and mass media campaign for the general public. The uncertainty range around these estimates was very wide for several interventions, with the ratio of the high to the low estimates infinite for five interventions. Conclusions The point estimates for the cost per DALY saved from the averted HIV infections for all interventions was much lower than the per capita gross domestic product in this Indian state. While these indicative cost-effectiveness estimates can inform HIV control planning currently, the wide uncertainty range around estimates for several interventions suggest the need for more firm data for estimating cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions in India.

  6. Knowledge, attitude and preventive practices for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of the breast cancer in medical community. The study was carried out in the Department of Oncology, Service Hospital, Lahore and completed in one month. Subjects and Methods: About 200 female doctors and nurses of the Hospital were involved. Each subject was asked to fill up a pro forma designed to assess knowledge, risk factors and preventive practices of the breast cancer. Using non-probability convenience sampling technique, breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography was performed as screening of breast cancer. Results: A majority had good knowledge of the risk factors and screening method for the early detection of breast cancer. Majority had the consensus on the benefit of mammography. Conclusions: The study shows that although medical professionals had fairly good knowledge about screening methods and risk factors of breast cancer. Their preventive practices were scanty in high risk population and, therefore, physicians and nurses need proper training. (author)

  7. How to permanently build up the prevention of occupational cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As about 2 millions of workers are exposed to carcinogenic agents in different industrial sectors, this expert opinion proposes a presentation of the state of the art of the prevention of carcinogenic risks. The different parts address the contribution of experimental and epidemiologic studies to the knowledge and prevention of occupational cancers (sure and possible factors, classifications and regulations), the knowledge of exposures in working environments (exposure modalities and principle of assessment of exposures, traceability and retrospective assessment), the risk management within a company (identification, suppression and substitution, design of work equipment, prevention of exposure for the personnel of subcontracting companies and in the waste and recycling sectors), the evolution from risk perception to risk prevention, the various strategies for action and professional sectors (general regime, prevention policy of the French national fund of prevention for territorial and hospital public services, the taking into charge of cancers as occupational disease by agriculture regimes of social protection), and the taking into care and restorative actions (medical and legal follow up and remedy, taking inequities into account, acknowledgement of occupational cancers in Europe, critical discussion of the European policy on occupational cancer prevention, lessons learned from Giscop93 inquiry)

  8. The development of a culturally relevant, theoretically driven HPV prevention intervention for urban adolescent females and their parents/guardians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Baker, Jillian L; Voytek, Chelsea D; Leader, Amy; Cashman, Rebecca R; Silverman, Randee; Peter, Nadja; Buchner, Bradley J; Barnes, Christopher A; Jemmott, Loretta S; Frank, Ian

    2013-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States, accounting for the large majority of cervical cancer and anogenital warts cases. Two HPV vaccines are currently licensed and recommended for women and girls. However, vaccination rates have been suboptimal, with evidence of disparities influencing both uptake and series completion among African American and Hispanic adolescents. There has been a dearth of theory-based, behavioral interventions targeted to prevent HPV infection and increase HPV vaccine uptake among urban adolescents. This article describes the development of two skills-based intervention curricula aimed to increase HPV prevention and vaccination among low-income urban adolescent females 9 to 18 years old. Guided by the theory of planned behavior, elicitation research was conducted to elucidate the social psychological factors that underlie HPV vaccination intentions (N = 141). The findings were subsequently used to identify theoretical mediators of behavioral change to drive the intervention. Culturally relevant strategies to promote HPV vaccination were translated into the curricula content. Both curricula were designed to motivate and empower participants to reduce risk of being infected with HPV. Targeting theoretical mediators of behavioral change, derived from the voices of the community, may prove to be successful in increasing HPV vaccination and preventing HPV. PMID:23099659

  9. Nutrients, Foods, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S.; Andrew T Chan

    2015-01-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigation have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grain have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, fo...

  10. Effects of an expressive writing intervention on cancer-related distress in Danish breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Johansen, Mikael Birkelund; Christensen, Søren; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis;

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of an expressive writing intervention (EWI) on cancer-related distress, depressive symptoms, and mood in women treated for early stage breast cancer. Methods: A nationwide sample of 507 Danish women who had recently completed treatment for primary breast cancer w...... of previous results with cancer patients, no main effects of EWI were found for cancer-related distress, depressive symptoms, and mood. Moderator analyses suggested that choice of writing topic and ability to process emotional experiences should be studied further.......Objective: To examine the effects of an expressive writing intervention (EWI) on cancer-related distress, depressive symptoms, and mood in women treated for early stage breast cancer. Methods: A nationwide sample of 507 Danish women who had recently completed treatment for primary breast cancer...... were randomly assigned to three 20-min home-based writing exercises, one week apart, focusing on either emotional disclosure (EWI group) or a non-emotional topic (control group). Cancer-related distress [Impact of Event Scale (IES)], depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory—Short Form...

  11. Developing a Culturally Appropriate HIV and Hepatitis C Prevention Intervention for Latino Criminal Justice Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Gladys E; Whitt, Elaine; Rosa, Mario de la; Martin, Steve; O'Connell, Daniel; Castro, Jose

    2016-07-01

    The population within the criminal justice system suffers from various health disparities including HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). African American and Latino offenders represent the majority of the offender population. Evidence-based interventions to prevent HIV and HCV among criminal justice clients are scant and usually do not take cultural differences into account. Toward this end, this study describes the process of culturally adapting an HIV/HCV prevention intervention for Latino criminal justice clients in Miami, Florida, by using the ecological validity model. Recommendations for culturally adapting an intervention for Latinos include an emphasis on language and integrating cultural themes such as familism and machismo.

  12. Developing a Culturally Appropriate HIV and Hepatitis C Prevention Intervention for Latino Criminal Justice Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Gladys E; Whitt, Elaine; Rosa, Mario de la; Martin, Steve; O'Connell, Daniel; Castro, Jose

    2016-07-01

    The population within the criminal justice system suffers from various health disparities including HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). African American and Latino offenders represent the majority of the offender population. Evidence-based interventions to prevent HIV and HCV among criminal justice clients are scant and usually do not take cultural differences into account. Toward this end, this study describes the process of culturally adapting an HIV/HCV prevention intervention for Latino criminal justice clients in Miami, Florida, by using the ecological validity model. Recommendations for culturally adapting an intervention for Latinos include an emphasis on language and integrating cultural themes such as familism and machismo. PMID:27302706

  13. Adherence to Diet and Physical Activity Cancer Prevention Guidelines and Cancer Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Lindsay N; Garcia, David O; Harris, Robin B; Oren, Eyal; Roe, Denise J; Jacobs, Elizabeth T

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have reported that adherence to health promotion guidelines for diet, physical activity, and maintenance of healthy body weight may decrease cancer incidence and mortality. A systematic review was performed to examine associations between adherence to established cancer prevention guidelines for diet and physical activity and overall cancer incidence and mortality. PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Reviews databases were searched following the current recommendations of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis Approach (PRISMA). Twelve studies met inclusion criteria for this review. High versus low adherence to established nutrition and physical activity cancer prevention guidelines was consistently and significantly associated with decreases of 10% to 61% in overall cancer incidence and mortality. Consistent significant reductions were also shown for breast cancer incidence (19%-60%), endometrial cancer incidence (23%-60%), and colorectal cancer incidence in both men and women (27%-52%). Findings for lung cancer incidence were equivocal, and no significant relationships were found between adherence and ovarian or prostate cancers. Adhering to cancer prevention guidelines for diet and physical activity is consistently associated with lower risks of overall cancer incidence and mortality, including for some site-specific cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(7); 1018-28. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27340121

  14. SOMOS: Evaluation of an HIV Prevention Intervention for Latino Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Miriam Y.; Spieldenner, Andrew R.; DeLeon, Dennis; Nieto, Bolivar X.; Stroman, Carolyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Latino gay men face multiple barriers to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, in particular a lack of intervention programs that integrate prevention messages with cultural norms and address issues of social marginalization from multiple communities (gay community and Latino community), homophobia and racism. In order to address these…

  15. Early Childhood Intervention Programs: Opportunities and Challenges for Preventing Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asawa, Lindsay E.; Hansen, David J.; Flood, Mary Fran

    2008-01-01

    Due to the destructive impact of child maltreatment and limited available funding to address its consequences, the value of preventive measures is evident. Early Childhood Intervention Programs (ECIPs) provide excellent opportunities to prevent and identify cases of child maltreatment, among other varied objectives. These programs are typically…

  16. Fostering a Healthy Body Image: Prevention and Intervention with Adolescent Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Michelle; Hass, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders are among the most frequently seen chronic illnesses found in adolescent females. In this paper, we discuss school-based prevention and intervention efforts that seek to reduce the impact of this serious illness. School counselors play a key role in the prevention of eating disorders and can provide support even when not directly…

  17. Future possibilities in the prevention of breast cancer: Fat and fiber and breast cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Prentice, Ross L.

    2000-01-01

    The potential for a reduction in dietary fat or for an increase in dietary fiber to reduce breast cancer risk has been debated for some years. It is argued here that available research data, even though extensive, leave open hypotheses ranging from little or no potential to major public health potential for breast cancer prevention by means of these dietary maneuvers. Some elements of a research strategy for testing these and other dietary breast cancer prevention hypotheses are described.

  18. Diet and Skin Cancer: The Potential Role of Dietary Antioxidants in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Rajani Katta; Danielle Nicole Brown

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Americans. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is the major risk factor for the development of NMSC. Dietary AOs may prevent free radical-mediated DNA damage and tumorigenesis secondary to UV radiation. Numerous laboratory studies have found that certain dietary AOs show significant promise in skin cancer prevention. These results have been substantiated by animal studies. In human studies, researchers have evaluated both oral AO...

  19. Coping and Communication-Enhancing Intervention versus Supportive Counseling for Women Diagnosed with Gynecological Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L.; Rubin, Stephen; Edelson, Mitchell; Rosenblum, Norman; Bergman, Cynthia; Hernandez, Enrique; Carlson, John; Rocereto, Thomas; Winkel, Gary

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy of 2 psychological interventions, a coping and communication-enhancing intervention (CCI) and supportive counseling (SC), in reducing depressive symptoms and cancer-specific distress of women diagnosed with gynecological cancer. Demographic, medical, and psychological moderators of intervention effects were…

  20. Treating High-grade Lesions to Prevent Anal Cancer in HIV-infected People

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study, called the ANCHOR trial, will investigate whether screening and prevention methods similar to those used to prevent cervical cancer can help prevent anal cancer in HIV-infected men and women.

  1. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in a multi-centre European project: the IDEFICS intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Verbestel Vera; De Henauw Stefaan; Maes Lea; Haerens Leen; Mårild Staffan; Eiben Gabriele; Lissner Lauren; Moreno Luis A; Frauca Natalia; Barba Gianvincenzo; Kovács Éva; Konstabel Kenn; Tornaritis Michael; Gallois Katharina; Hassel Holger

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesi...

  2. Cruciferous vegetables: dietary phytochemicals for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Noor, Noramaliza Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between diet and health have attracted attention for centuries; but links between diet and cancer have been a focus only in recent decades. The consumption of diet-containing carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines is most closely correlated with increasing cancer risk. Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that consumption of dietary phytochemicals found in vegetables and fruit can decrease cancer incidence. Among the various vegetables, broccoli and other cruciferous species appear most closely associated with reduced cancer risk in organs such as the colorectum, lung, prostate and breast. The protecting effects against cancer risk have been attributed, at least partly, due to their comparatively high amounts of glucosinolates, which differentiate them from other vegetables. Glucosinolates, a class of sulphur- containing glycosides, present at substantial amounts in cruciferous vegetables, and their breakdown products such as the isothiocyanates, are believed to be responsible for their health benefits. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive effect of these compounds are likely to be manifold, possibly concerning very complex interactions, and thus difficult to fully understand. Therefore, this article provides a brief overview about the mechanism of such compounds involved in modulation of carcinogen metabolising enzyme systems.

  3. A Mood Management Intervention in an Internet Stop Smoking Randomized Controlled Trial Does Not Prevent Depression: A Cautionary Tale

    OpenAIRE

    Schueller, Stephen M; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.

    2013-01-01

    Smoking and depression are related, and mood management interventions included in smoking cessation interventions can increase smoking abstinence rates. Could a mood management intervention embedded in an Internet-based smoking cessation intervention prevent major depressive episodes? Spanish- and English-speaking smokers (N = 17,430) from 191 countries were randomized to one of four online self-help intervention conditions (two with mood management). We analyzed preventive effects among thos...

  4. Neural Regulation of Pancreatic Cancer: A Novel Target for Intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Aeson [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Kim-Fuchs, Corina [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Department of Visceral Surgery and Medicine, University Hospital Bern, Bern 3010 (Switzerland); Le, Caroline P. [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Hollande, Frédéric [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Sloan, Erica K., E-mail: erica.sloan@monash.edu [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Cousins Center for PNI, UCLA Semel Institute, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, and UCLA AIDS Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Cancer Surgery, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia)

    2015-07-17

    The tumor microenvironment is known to play a pivotal role in driving cancer progression and governing response to therapy. This is of significance in pancreatic cancer where the unique pancreatic tumor microenvironment, characterized by its pronounced desmoplasia and fibrosis, drives early stages of tumor progression and dissemination, and contributes to its associated low survival rates. Several molecular factors that regulate interactions between pancreatic tumors and their surrounding stroma are beginning to be identified. Yet broader physiological factors that influence these interactions remain unclear. Here, we discuss a series of preclinical and mechanistic studies that highlight the important role chronic stress plays as a physiological regulator of neural-tumor interactions in driving the progression of pancreatic cancer. These studies propose several approaches to target stress signaling via the β-adrenergic signaling pathway in order to slow pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis. They also provide evidence to support the use of β-blockers as a novel therapeutic intervention to complement current clinical strategies to improve cancer outcome in patients with pancreatic cancer.

  5. Neural Regulation of Pancreatic Cancer: A Novel Target for Intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tumor microenvironment is known to play a pivotal role in driving cancer progression and governing response to therapy. This is of significance in pancreatic cancer where the unique pancreatic tumor microenvironment, characterized by its pronounced desmoplasia and fibrosis, drives early stages of tumor progression and dissemination, and contributes to its associated low survival rates. Several molecular factors that regulate interactions between pancreatic tumors and their surrounding stroma are beginning to be identified. Yet broader physiological factors that influence these interactions remain unclear. Here, we discuss a series of preclinical and mechanistic studies that highlight the important role chronic stress plays as a physiological regulator of neural-tumor interactions in driving the progression of pancreatic cancer. These studies propose several approaches to target stress signaling via the β-adrenergic signaling pathway in order to slow pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis. They also provide evidence to support the use of β-blockers as a novel therapeutic intervention to complement current clinical strategies to improve cancer outcome in patients with pancreatic cancer

  6. Universal preventive interventions for children in the context of disasters and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Varma, Vandana; Nitiéma, Pascal; Newman, Elana

    2014-04-01

    This review addresses universal disaster and terrorism services and preventive interventions delivered to children before and after an event. The article describes the organization and structure of services used to meet the needs of children in the general population (practice applications), examines screening and intervention approaches (tools for practice), and suggests future directions for the field. A literature search identified 17 empirical studies that were analyzed to examine the timing and setting of intervention delivery, providers, conditions addressed and outcomes, and intervention approaches and components.

  7. Cancer Control and Prevention by Nutrition and Epigenetic Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    Significance: Epigenetics involves alterations in gene expression without changing the nucleotide sequence. Because some epigenetic changes can be reversed chemically, epigenetics has tremendous implications for disease intervention and treatment. Recent Advances: After epigenetic components in cancer were characterized, genes and pathways are being characterized in other diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and neurological disorders. Observational, experimental, and clinical studies in diffe...

  8. Prevention and Intervention of Depression in Asian-American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieu, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders experienced by adolescents. Research has shown depression rates are higher in Asian-American adolescents when compared to their European-American counterparts. This paper will investigate possible programs for preventing and responding to Asian-American youths' depression through a…

  9. Teen Depression and Suicide: Effective Prevention and Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Teen depression and suicidal behaviors are intricately intertwined, with untreated depression being a leading cause of adolescent suicide. Most depressed or suicidal teens tend to show warning signs and possess specific risk factors. A key component to preventing teen depression is for adults to remain aware of such warning signs and risk factors…

  10. Recruitment Evaluation of a Preschooler Obesity-Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouteris, Helen; Hill, Briony; McCabe, Marita; Swinburn, Boyd; Sacher, Paul; Chadwick, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the recruitment strategies of two recent studies that focused on the parental influences on childhood obesity during the preschool years. The first study was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the Mind, Exercise, Nutrition?…?Do It! 2-4 obesity prevention programme and the second was a longitudinal cohort…

  11. Coping with Stress: Implications for Preventive Interventions with Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compas, Bruce E.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Reeslund, Kristen

    2005-01-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to stress and the ways individuals cope with stress are of central importance for prevention of mental health and adjustment problems during childhood and adolescence. Coping may be a moderator, or a protective factor, which increases or decreases the probability of developing mental health problems in response to a…

  12. Prostate cancer: a serious disease suitable for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, John M; Schulman, Claude; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Schröder, Fritz H

    2009-04-01

    Prostate cancer is among the most common causes of death from cancer in men, and accounts for 10% of all new male cancers worldwide. The diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer place a substantial physical and emotional burden on patients and their families, and have considerable financial implications for healthcare providers and society. Given that the risk of prostate cancer continues to increase with age, the burden of the disease is likely to increase in line with population life-expectancy. Reducing the risk of prostate cancer has gained increasing coverage in recent years, with proof of principle shown in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial with the type 2 5alpha-reductase (5AR) inhibitor, finasteride. The long latency period, high disease prevalence, and significant associated morbidity and mortality make prostate cancer a suitable target for a risk-reduction approach. Several agents are under investigation for reducing the risk of prostate cancer, including selenium/vitamin E and selective oestrogen receptors modulators (e.g. toremifene). In addition, the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events trial, involving >8000 men, is evaluating the effect of the dual 5AR inhibitor, dutasteride, on the risk of developing prostate cancer. A successful risk-reduction strategy might decrease the incidence of the disease, as well as the anxiety, cost and morbidity associated with its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:19302133

  13. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer: are we closer to reality?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Qasim, Asghar

    2012-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An early detection of colorectal cancer determines therapeutic outcomes, while primary prevention remains a challenge. Our aim was to review the dietary, geographical and genetic factors in the causation and their possible role in the primary prevention of colorectal cancer. Data from experimental and clinical studies and population screening programmes were analysed to determine the factors responsible for causation of colorectal cancer. The role of dietary constituents, including the consumption of fat, red meat, fibre content, alcohol consumption, and other lifestyle issues, including obesity, lack of exercise and geographical variations in cancer prevalence were reviewed. The role of genetic and lifestyle factors in causation of colorectal cancer is evident from the experimental, clinical and population-based studies. Dietary factors, including the consumption of fat, fibre, red meat and alcohol, seem to have a significant influence in this regard. The role of micronutrients, vitamins, calcium may be relevant but remain largely unclear. In conclusion, there is ample evidence favouring the role of various dietary and lifestyle factors in the aetiology of colorectal cancer. Modification of these factors is an attractive option, which is likely to help in the primary prevention and reduced disease burden.

  14. Preventing cancer: the role of food, nutrition and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The recommendations of a major report on dietary aspects of cancer prevention are summarised and discussed. The findings of The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) Second Expert Report Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective were published in 2007 and remain valid. The Report reviewed the relationship between food, nutrition, physical activity, body fatness and 17 cancer sites. The goal of the Report was to review all the relevant research, using precise and reproducible methodologies. An expert panel reviewed the evidence. Based upon evidence that was graded "convincing" or "probable", a series of 10 recommendations to reduce the risk of developing cancer was produced. One of the most important factors is maintaining a healthy weight throughout life, which can be achieved by regular physical activity and limiting consumption of energy-dense foods and sugary drinks. Other important dietary measures include consuming a diet high in plant-based foods, limiting intakes of red meat, and avoiding salty foods and processed meat. Alcohol should be consumed in modest amounts, if at all. Dietary supplements are not recommended for cancer prevention.

  15. Instructions for Applying | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is NOT a grant application - if successful, funds will not be transferred to your institution to support your project. Rather, this is an application to access the scientific capabilities and resources of the NCI with the goal of moving promising cancer chemopreventive agents into clinical testing. If successful, you will partner with the NCI in developing a drug development pipeline. | Apply to access the scientific capabilities and resources of the NCI with the goal of moving promising cancer chemopreventive agents into clinical testing.

  16. Prevention, screening and treatment of colorectal cancer: a global and regional generalized cost effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johns Benjamin P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regional generalized cost-effectiveness estimates of prevention, screening and treatment interventions for colorectal cancer are presented. Methods Standardised WHO-CHOICE methodology was used. A colorectal cancer model was employed to provide estimates of screening and treatment effectiveness. Intervention effectiveness was determined via a population state-transition model (PopMod that simulates the evolution of a sub-regional population accounting for births, deaths and disease epidemiology. Economic costs of procedures and treatment were estimated, including programme overhead and training costs. Results In regions characterised by high income, low mortality and high existing treatment coverage, the addition of screening to the current high treatment levels is very cost-effective, although no particular intervention stands out in cost-effectiveness terms relative to the others. In regions characterised by low income, low mortality with existing treatment coverage around 50%, expanding treatment with or without screening is cost-effective or very cost-effective. Abandoning treatment in favour of screening (no treatment scenario would not be cost effective. In regions characterised by low income, high mortality and low treatment levels, the most cost-effective intervention is expanding treatment. Conclusions From a cost-effectiveness standpoint, screening programmes should be expanded in developed regions and treatment programmes should be established for colorectal cancer in regions with low treatment coverage.

  17. A national agenda for Latino cancer prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Gallion, Kipling J; Suarez, Lucina; Giachello, Aida L; Marti, Jose R; Medrano, Martha A; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Talavera, Gregory A; Trapido, Edward J

    2005-06-01

    Although cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and premature death among Latinos, there is limited knowledge of cancer-related issues and priorities of greatest significance to the Latino population, the largest minority group in the nation. This information is vital in helping to guide Latino cancer research, training, and awareness efforts at national, regional, and local levels. To help identify cancer issues of greatest relevance to Latinos, Redes En Accion, The National Hispanic/Latino Cancer Network, a major network among the National Cancer Institute's Special Populations Networks, conducted a survey of 624 key opinion leaders from around the country. Respondents were asked to rank the three cancer sites most important to Latinos in their region and the five issues of greatest significance for this population's cancer prevention and control. Recommendations were prioritized for three specific areas: 1) research, 2) training and/or professional education, and 3) awareness and/or public education. Among cancers, breast carcinoma was ranked number one, followed in order by cervical and lung carcinomas. The issues of greatest significance to Latinos were 1) access to cancer screening and care, 2) tobacco use, 3) patient-doctor communication, 4) nutrition, and 5) risk communication. This survey solicited information from scientists, health care professionals, leaders of government agencies, professional and community-based organizations, and other stakeholders in Latino health. The results laid the foundation for a national Redes En Accion Latino cancer agenda, thus providing a useful tool for individuals and organizations engaged in cancer prevention and control efforts among the Hispanic-Latino population. PMID:15822119

  18. A national agenda for Latino cancer prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Gallion, Kipling J; Suarez, Lucina; Giachello, Aida L; Marti, Jose R; Medrano, Martha A; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Talavera, Gregory A; Trapido, Edward J

    2005-06-01

    Although cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and premature death among Latinos, there is limited knowledge of cancer-related issues and priorities of greatest significance to the Latino population, the largest minority group in the nation. This information is vital in helping to guide Latino cancer research, training, and awareness efforts at national, regional, and local levels. To help identify cancer issues of greatest relevance to Latinos, Redes En Accion, The National Hispanic/Latino Cancer Network, a major network among the National Cancer Institute's Special Populations Networks, conducted a survey of 624 key opinion leaders from around the country. Respondents were asked to rank the three cancer sites most important to Latinos in their region and the five issues of greatest significance for this population's cancer prevention and control. Recommendations were prioritized for three specific areas: 1) research, 2) training and/or professional education, and 3) awareness and/or public education. Among cancers, breast carcinoma was ranked number one, followed in order by cervical and lung carcinomas. The issues of greatest significance to Latinos were 1) access to cancer screening and care, 2) tobacco use, 3) patient-doctor communication, 4) nutrition, and 5) risk communication. This survey solicited information from scientists, health care professionals, leaders of government agencies, professional and community-based organizations, and other stakeholders in Latino health. The results laid the foundation for a national Redes En Accion Latino cancer agenda, thus providing a useful tool for individuals and organizations engaged in cancer prevention and control efforts among the Hispanic-Latino population.

  19. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, K A; Potter, J D

    1996-10-01

    In this review of the scientific literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer, results from 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies are summarized. The evidence for a protective effect of greater vegetable and fruit consumption is consistent for cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity and pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon. The types of vegetables or fruit that most often appear to be protective against cancer are raw vegetables, followed by allium vegetables, carrots, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and tomatoes. Substances present in vegetables and fruit that may help protect against cancer, and their mechanisms, are also briefly reviewed; these include dithiolthiones, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, allium compounds, isoflavones, protease inhibitors, saponins, phytosterols, inositol hexaphosphate, vitamin C, D-limonene, lutein, folic acid, beta carotene, lycopene, selenium, vitamin E, flavonoids, and dietary fiber. Current US vegetable and fruit intake, which averages about 3.4 servings per day, is discussed, as are possible noncancer-related effects of increased vegetable and fruit consumption, including benefits against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, obesity, diverticulosis, and cataracts. Suggestions for dietitians to use in counseling persons toward increasing vegetable and fruit intake are presented.

  20. Prevention of Cancer Through Lifestyle Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. James Barnard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and an abundance of evidence suggests that lifestyle factors including smoking, the typical high-fat, refined-sugar diet and physical inactivity account for the majority of cancer. This review focuses on diet and inactivity as major factors for cancer promotion by inducing insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Elevated levels of serum insulin impact on the liver primarily, increasing the production of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I while reducing the production of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1 resulting in stimulation of tumor cell growth and inhibition of apoptosis (programmed cell death. Adopting a diet low in fat and high in fiber-rich starch foods, which would also include an abundance of antioxidants, combined with regular aerobic exercise might control insulin resistance, reduce the resulting serum factors and thus reduce the risk for many different cancers commonly seen in the USA.