WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer prevention genetics

  1. Genetic variations may help identify best candidates for preventive breast cancer drugs | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newly discovered genetic variations may help predict breast cancer risk in women who receive preventive breast cancer therapy with the selective estrogen receptor modulator drugs tamoxifen andraloxifene, a Mayo Clinic-led study has found. The study is published in the journal Cancer Discovery. "Our findings are important because we identified genetic factors that could eventually be used to select women who should be offered the drugs for prevention," said James Ingle, M.D., an oncologist at Mayo Clinic. |

  2. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... prevent cancer are being studied. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  3. Molecular genetic, diagnosis, prevention and gene therapy in prostatic cancer: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori Daloii MR

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nThe prostate is a small gland located below the bladder and upper part of the urethra. In developed countries prostate cancer is the second common cancer (after skin cancer, and also the second leading cause of cancer death (after lung cancer among men. The several studies have been shown prostate cancer familial aggregation. The main reason for this aggregation is inheritance included genes. The family history is an important risk factor for developing the disease. The genes AR, CYP17, SRD5A2, HSD3B1 and HSD3B2 are all intimately involved in androgen metabolism and cell proliferation in the prostate. Each shows intraspecific polymorphism and variation among racial-ethnic groups that is associated with the risk of prostate cancer. Some of genes expressed in the prostate are in association with the production of seminal fluid and also with prostate cancer. Epigenetic modifications, specifically DNA hypermethylation, are believed to play an important role in the down-regulation of genes important for protection against prostate cancer. In prostate cancer numerous molecular and genetic aberrations have been described. It is now well established that cancer cells exhibit a number of genetic defects in apoptotic pathways. In this review article, the most recent data in molecular genetic, prevention and especially gene therapy in prostate cancer are introduced.

  4. Do Health Professionals Need Additional Competencies for Stratified Cancer Prevention Based on Genetic Risk Profiling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Susmita; Henneman, Lidewij; Dent, Tom; Hall, Alison; Burton, Alice; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Burton, Hilary

    2015-06-09

    There is growing evidence that inclusion of genetic information about known common susceptibility variants may enable population risk-stratification and personalized prevention for common diseases including cancer. This would require the inclusion of genetic testing as an integral part of individual risk assessment of an asymptomatic individual. Front line health professionals would be expected to interact with and assist asymptomatic individuals through the risk stratification process. In that case, additional knowledge and skills may be needed. Current guidelines and frameworks for genetic competencies of non-specialist health professionals place an emphasis on rare inherited genetic diseases. For common diseases, health professionals do use risk assessment tools but such tools currently do not assess genetic susceptibility of individuals. In this article, we compare the skills and knowledge needed by non-genetic health professionals, if risk-stratified prevention is implemented, with existing competence recommendations from the UK, USA and Europe, in order to assess the gaps in current competences. We found that health professionals would benefit from understanding the contribution of common genetic variations in disease risk, the rationale for a risk-stratified prevention pathway, and the implications of using genomic information in risk-assessment and risk management of asymptomatic individuals for common disease prevention.

  5. Do Health Professionals Need Additional Competencies for Stratified Cancer Prevention Based on Genetic Risk Profiling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Chowdhury

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that inclusion of genetic information about known common susceptibility variants may enable population risk-stratification and personalized prevention for common diseases including cancer. This would require the inclusion of genetic testing as an integral part of individual risk assessment of an asymptomatic individual. Front line health professionals would be expected to interact with and assist asymptomatic individuals through the risk stratification process. In that case, additional knowledge and skills may be needed. Current guidelines and frameworks for genetic competencies of non-specialist health professionals place an emphasis on rare inherited genetic diseases. For common diseases, health professionals do use risk assessment tools but such tools currently do not assess genetic susceptibility of individuals. In this article, we compare the skills and knowledge needed by non-genetic health professionals, if risk-stratified prevention is implemented, with existing competence recommendations from the UK, USA and Europe, in order to assess the gaps in current competences. We found that health professionals would benefit from understanding the contribution of common genetic variations in disease risk, the rationale for a risk-stratified prevention pathway, and the implications of using genomic information in risk-assessment and risk management of asymptomatic individuals for common disease prevention.

  6. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  8. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... has stayed about the same since 2005. Stomach (gastric) cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ...

  9. Pediatric Cancer Genetics Research and an Evolving Preventive Ethics Approach for Return of Results after Death of the Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollon, Sarah; Bergstrom, Katie; McCullough, Laurence B; McGuire, Amy L; Gutierrez, Stephanie; Kerstein, Robin; Parsons, D Williams; Plon, Sharon E

    2015-01-01

    The return of genetic research results after death in the pediatric setting comes with unique complexities. Researchers must determine which results and through which processes results are returned. This paper discusses the experience over 15 years in pediatric cancer genetics research of returning research results after the death of a child and proposes a preventive ethics approach to protocol development in order to improve the quality of return of results in pediatric genomic settings.

  10. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Prevention of carcinogen and inflammation-induced dermal cancer by oral rapamycin includes reducing genetic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Vinh; Pandeswara, Srilakshmi; Liu, Yang; Hurez, Vincent; Dodds, Sherry; Callaway, Danielle; Liu, Aijie; Hasty, Paul; Sharp, Zelton D; Curiel, Tyler J

    2015-05-01

    Cancer prevention is a cost-effective alternative to treatment. In mice, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin prevents distinct spontaneous, noninflammatory cancers, making it a candidate broad-spectrum cancer prevention agent. We now show that oral microencapsulated rapamycin (eRapa) prevents skin cancer in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) carcinogen-induced, inflammation-driven carcinogenesis. eRapa given before DMBA/TPA exposure significantly increased tumor latency, reduced papilloma prevalence and numbers, and completely inhibited malignant degeneration into squamous cell carcinoma. Rapamycin is primarily an mTORC1-specific inhibitor, but eRapa did not reduce mTORC1 signaling in skin or papillomas, and did not reduce important proinflammatory factors in this model, including p-Stat3, IL17A, IL23, IL12, IL1β, IL6, or TNFα. In support of lack of mTORC1 inhibition, eRapa did not reduce numbers or proliferation of CD45(-)CD34(+)CD49f(mid) skin cancer initiating stem cells in vivo and marginally reduced epidermal hyperplasia. Interestingly, eRapa reduced DMBA/TPA-induced skin DNA damage and the hras codon 61 mutation that specifically drives carcinogenesis in this model, suggesting reduction of DNA damage as a cancer prevention mechanism. In support, cancer prevention and DNA damage reduction effects were lost when eRapa was given after DMBA-induced DNA damage in vivo. eRapa afforded picomolar concentrations of rapamycin in skin of DMBA/TPA-exposed mice, concentrations that also reduced DMBA-induced DNA damage in mouse and human fibroblasts in vitro. Thus, we have identified DNA damage reduction as a novel mechanism by which rapamycin can prevent cancer, which could lay the foundation for its use as a cancer prevention agent in selected human populations.

  12. Home | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Research The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into cancer. |

  13. Cancer prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction A 44 year old woman attends your surgery,distressed by the fact that her closest friend has just been given a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. She wants to know how to minimise her risk of developing cancer.

  14. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? Most people with thyroid cancer have ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  15. Brassica, biotransformation and cancer risk: genetic polymorphisms alter the preventive effects of cruciferous vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Johanna W; Peterson, Sabrina

    2002-10-01

    The chemoprotective effect of cruciferous vegetables is due to their high glucosinolate content and the capacity of glucosinolate metabolites, such as isothiocyanates (ITC) and indoles, to modulate biotransformation enzyme systems (e.g., cytochromes P450 and conjugating enzymes). Data from molecular epidemiologic studies suggest that genetic and associated functional variations in biotransformation enzymes, particularly glutathione S-transferase (GST)M1 and GSTT1, which metabolize ITC, alter cancer risk in response to cruciferous vegetable exposure. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms in receptors and transcription factors that interact with these compounds may further contribute to variation in response to cruciferous vegetable intake. This review outlines the metabolism and mechanisms of action of cruciferous vegetable constituents, discusses the recent human studies testing effects of cruciferous vegetables on biotransformation systems and summarizes the epidemiologic and experimental evidence for an effect of genetic polymorphisms in these enzymes on response to cruciferous vegetable intake. Taken together, genetic differences in biotransformation enzymes and the factors that regulate them, as well as variation in glucosinolate content of cruciferous vegetables and the methods used to prepare these foods underscore the multiple layers of complexity that affect the study of gene-diet interactions and cancer risk in humans.

  16. Report: Human cancer genetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Marilyn; ALBERTSON Donna

    2006-01-01

    The short report will be focused on the genetic basis and possible mechanisms of tumorigenesis, common types of cancer, the importance of genetic diagnosis of cancer, and the methodology of cancer genetic diagnosis. They will also review presymptomatic testing of hereditary cancers, and the application of expression profiling to identify patients likely to benefit from particular therapeutic approaches.

  17. Human cancer genetics*

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The short report will be focused on the genetic basis and possible mechanisms of tumorigenesis, common types of cancer, the importance of genetic diagnosis of cancer, and the methodology of cancer genetic diagnosis. They will also review presymptomatic testing of hereditary cancers, and the application of expression profiling to identify patients likely to benefit from particular therapeutic approaches.

  18. Genetics, Disease Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the genetic terms used on this page Genetics, Disease Prevention and Treatment Overview How can learning about my family's health history help me prevent disease? How can I learn about my family's health ...

  19. Risk Assessment, Genetic Counseling, and Genetic Testing for BRCA-Related Cancer in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk Assessment, Genetic Counseling, and Genetic Testing for BRCA-related Cancer in Women The U.S. Preventive Services ... Risk Assessment, Genetic Counseling, and Genetic Testing for BRCA-related Cancer in Women. This final recommendation statement ...

  20. Endometrial Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk of endometrial cancer: Endometrial hyperplasia Estrogen Tamoxifen Obesity, weight gain, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes Genetic factors The following protective factors decrease the risk of ...

  1. CANCER CAN BE PREVENTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Life style factors are contributing significantly in cancer prevention. With the intake of proper and balanced diet ,cancer prevention is possible. Many foods are associated either with incidence or prevention of cancer. Plant based foods like fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains rich in fiber, b-carotene, vitamins and antioxidants can prevent cancer. Fiber rich foods increase bowel movement, decreasing the absorption of cholesterol. Pumpkin, carrots contain b-carotenes. Leafy vegetables, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, peas and beans are rich in fiber and stimulate cancer preventing enzyme induction. Vitamin C rich citrus fruits can stimulate immune system. Garlic and onions can stimulate enzymes that can suppress tumor growth. Turmeric used in cooking can prevent colorectal cancer. Topical application of turmeric can prevent breast cancer in women. On the other hand, certain foods can cause cancer. Refined foods, high fat foods, deep fried foods, processed foods and low fiber foods increase cancer risk. Red meat, processed meat and barbeques contain a carcinogen called acrylamide. Foods prepared with hydrogenated fats contain transfats which increase risk for breast, ovarian, cervical and lung cancer. Consumption of alcohol increasing the risk for cancers of digestive system. LET US EAT RIGHT FOODS AND AVOID WRONG FOODS.

  2. Can the Tomato Prevent Cancer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建明

    2009-01-01

    难度:★★★★☆字数:368建议时间:5分钟Apurple tomato genetically engineered to con-tain nutrients more commonly seen in dark berries helped prevent cancer in mice,British researchers said on Sunday.The finding,published in

  3. Clinical Trials Node | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Nutritional Science Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Trial NCT01950403 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Trial NCT01141231 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Trial NCT02237183 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Trial NCT01382082 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Trial NCT02273362 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Meetings and Events | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Trial NCT02112188 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Trial NCT01824836 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Trial NCT01968798 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Trial NCT01849250 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Trial NCT02116530 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Prostate and Urologic Cancer Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Active Prostate and Urologic Cancer Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Prostate and Urologic Cancer Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Preventing cervical cancer globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2012-11-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. More than 85% of cases and deaths occur in the developing world where the availability of effective screening is limited. In this issue of the journal, Pierce and colleagues (beginning on page 1273) describe a novel technique using a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) to diagnose cervical dysplasia. This perspective reviews the limitations of existing cervical cancer screening methods currently in use in low-resource settings and the potential for HRME imaging to contribute to cervical cancer prevention in the developing world.

  2. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  3. Can Ovarian Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ovarian Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Can Ovarian Cancer Be Prevented? Most women have one or more ... strategies for women with a family history of ovarian cancer or BRCA mutation If your family history suggests ...

  4. Prevention of urological cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Ansari

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Many urological cancers like prostate and bladder have protracted course and maybe ideal for chemoprevention strategies. This article reviews the biol-ogy, epidemiology and possible preventive strategies for the various urological cancers. Methods: The author reviewed the relevant articles published in the last 20 years and studied the biology of the various urological cancers. An attempt is made to identify the various dietary, nutritional and occupation-related factors implicated in the onset and progression of various urological cancers. The various interventions and clinical trial results are described to prove the relevance of these factors. Results: Epidemiological reports provide the strongest evidence of protective role for dietary agents in cancer of prostate, bladder and kidney. Cancers of prostate and blad-der are uniquely suitable for chemopreventive strategies. For prostate cancer strong evidence exists for a preven-tive effect of reduced fat intake, vitamin E, selenium, lycopene and soya proteins. Vitamin A administration shows a strong inverse relation to bladder cancer. Better prevention is seen with combination of high doses of vita-mins A, C, E and B6. High-energy intake is related to the higher incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC. While vitamins D and E supplementation has resulted in lower incidence of RCC. Conclusions: Numerous studies implicate dietary and nutritional factors in the onset and progression of various urological cancers. Hence, it is possible that bioactive compounds (anti-oxidants like vits. A, D, C, and E, min-erals like selenium and carotenoids like lycopene along with reduction of animal fat in diet can be a part of pre-ventive strategies for various urological cancers.

  5. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Dennert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a and randomised controlled trials (RCTs to answer research question (b. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91 and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83 with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05 than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77. These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS

  6. Statins and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poynter, JN., et al. New England Journal of Medicine , May 26, 2005, (352:2184–92]. Is NCI supporting research with statins to prevent other types of cancer? NCI is developing a phase II placebo-controlled trial to evaluate whether lovastatin can reverse ...

  7. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship provides a strong foundation for scientists and clinicians to train in the field of cancer prevention and control. This structured, multidisciplinary program offers early career scientists from different health disciplines a variety of postdoctoral training opportunities . | Training to form a strong foundation in cancer prevention and control for scientists and clinicians.

  8. Biorepositories- | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carefully collected and controlled high-quality human biospecimens, annotated with clinical data and properly consented for investigational use, are available through the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories listed in the charts below. Biorepositories Managed by the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories Supported by the Division of Cancer Prevention Related Biorepositories | Information about accessing biospecimens collected from DCP-supported clinical trials and projects.

  9. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  10. Can Metformin Prevent Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubowicz, Salomón; Hospital Universitario de Caracas

    2015-01-01

    The drug metformin is widely used for 50 years by diabetics and patients with obesity. It has recently been found to prevent various cancers and reduces the aggressiveness of some tumors. El medicamento metformina es ampliamente utilizado desde hace cincuenta años por diabéticos y pacientes con obesidad. Recientemente se ha descubierto que previene varios tipos de cáncer y disminuye la agresividad de algunos tumores.

  11. [Preventing cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, P; Noël, J-C

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer has hopefully been dropping down in our industrialized countries since the introduction of both primary and secondary prevention. Nevertheless, it is still lethal in one out of two affected women though the introduction of cytological screening has dramatically reduced the mortality. Progressive diffusion of anti-HPV vaccination, the broadening of the viral types concerned, its association with existing screening measures and finally the introduction of viral detection as a screening tool must optimize the results already obtained.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Share on Twitter Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Search MENU Toggle navigation Home Page Search ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions breast cancer breast cancer Enable ...

  13. Genetics of Prostate Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of prostate cancer, including information about specific genes and family cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about screening for prostate cancer and research aimed at prevention of this disease. Psychosocial issues associated with genetic testing and counseling of individuals who may have hereditary prostate cancer syndrome are also discussed.

  14. Genetics of Colorectal Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of colorectal cancer, including information about specific genes and family cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about screening for colorectal cancer and research aimed at prevention of this disease. Psychosocial issues associated with genetic testing and counseling of individuals who may have hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome are also discussed.

  15. Genetic Testing for Hereditary Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic counseling, and a genetic counselor may recommend genetic testing based on your family health history. When collecting ... find information on colorectal cancer, Lynch syndrome, cancer genetic testing, and genetic counseling services. Colorectal Cancer, Centers for ...

  16. Genetics of Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Cancer) (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of kidney cancer, including information about specific genes and family cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about screening for kidney cancer and research aimed at prevention of this disease.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neoplasm of lung malignant tumor of lung pulmonary cancer pulmonary carcinoma pulmonary neoplasms respiratory carcinoma Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes named? Additional Information & Resources ... Encyclopedia: Lung Cancer--Non-Small Cell Encyclopedia: Lung Cancer--Small Cell ...

  18. News | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    News about scientific advances in cancer prevention, program activities, and new projects are included here in NCI press releases and fact sheets, articles from the NCI Cancer Bulletin, and Clinical Trial News from the NCI website.

  19. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  20. Esophageal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower part of the esophagus, near the stomach. See the following PDQ summaries for more information about esophageal cancer: Esophageal Cancer Screening Esophageal Cancer Treatment Esophageal cancer is found more ...

  1. National Cancer Institute Prostate Cancer Genetics Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalona, William J; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Camp, Nicola J; Chanock, Stephen J; Cooney, Kathleen A; Easton, Douglas F; Eeles, Rosalind A; FitzGerald, Liesel M; Freedman, Matthew L; Gudmundsson, Julius; Kittles, Rick A; Margulies, Elliott H; McGuire, Barry B; Ostrander, Elaine A; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Stanford, Janet L; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Witte, John S; Isaacs, William B

    2011-05-15

    Compelling evidence supports a genetic component to prostate cancer susceptibility and aggressiveness. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified more than 30 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with prostate cancer susceptibility. It remains unclear, however, whether such genetic variants are associated with disease aggressiveness--one of the most important questions in prostate cancer research today. To help clarify this and substantially expand research in the genetic determinants of prostate cancer aggressiveness, the first National Cancer Institute Prostate Cancer Genetics Workshop assembled researchers to develop plans for a large new research consortium and patient cohort. The workshop reviewed the prior work in this area and addressed the practical issues in planning future studies. With new DNA sequencing technology, the potential application of sequencing information to patient care is emerging. The workshop, therefore, included state-of-the-art presentations by experts on new genotyping technologies, including sequencing and associated bioinformatics issues, which are just beginning to be applied to cancer genetics.

  2. Nutritional Science Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Active Nutritional Science Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Nutritional Science Meetings and Events | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Nutritional Science Funding Opportunities | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Asad Umar, DVM, PhD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA128134 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA148817 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R21CA190028 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA154489 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA179511 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA170549 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA155297 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R21CA182861 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant U01CA163056 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R21CA174541 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01CA107408 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01CA164782 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01CA155301 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01CA098286 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R21CA174594 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant U54CA163060 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R21CA190021 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA132951 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA134620 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. This one-week intense learning session provides specialized instruction in the role of diet and bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer incidence and tumor behavior. |

  7. Disparities in Cancer Genetic Risk Assessment and Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Meghan L; Jones, Tarsha; Habin, Karleen

    2016-07-01

    Scientific and technologic advances in genomics have revolutionized genetic counseling and testing, targeted therapy, and cancer screening and prevention. Among younger women, African American and Hispanic women have a higher rate of cancers that are associated with hereditary cancer risk, such as triple-negative breast cancer, which is linked to poorer outcomes. Therefore, genetic testing is particularly important in diverse populations. Unfortunately, all races and ethnic groups are not well represented in current genetic testing practices, leading to disparities in cancer prevention and early detection.

  8. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  9. Intention to seek information on cancer genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Andrews

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The public has a high interest in seeking personal genetic information, which holds implications for health information seeking research and health care policy. Rapid advances in cancer genetics research promise early detection, prevention and treatment, yet consumers may have greater difficulty finding and using the information they may need to make informed decisions regarding their personal health and the future of their families. Design. A statewide telephone survey was conducted of non-institutionalized Kentucky residents 18 years of age or older to investigate factors associated with the intention to seek cancer genetics information, including the need for such information seeking help. Results. The results show that intention to seek cancer genetics information, if testing were readily available, is moderately high (62.5% of those responding; n=835, and that status as a racial minority, the perception that cancer runs in one's family, and frequent worrying about cancer risk are statistically significant predictors of intent to seek genetics information. Conclusion. . We argue that an already complex health information environment will be even more difficult for individuals to navigate as genetic research becomes more ubiquitous in health care. An increase in demand for genetics information in various forms, as suggested by these results and those of other studies, implies that enduring intervention strategies are needed to help individuals acquire necessary health information literacy skills, with special attention given to racial minorities.

  10. Genetics of Endometrial Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Okuda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancers exhibit a different mechanism of tumorigenesis and progression depending on histopathological and clinical types. The most frequently altered gene in estrogen-dependent endometrioid endometrial carcinoma tumors is PTEN. Microsatellite instability is another important genetic event in this type of tumor. In contrast, p53 mutations or Her2/neu overexpression are more frequent in non-endometrioid tumors. On the other hand, it is possible that the clear cell type may arise from a unique pathway which appears similar to the ovarian clear cell carcinoma. K-ras mutations are detected in approximately 15%–30% of endometrioid carcinomas, are unrelated to the existence of endometrial hyperplasia. A β-catenin mutation was detected in about 20% of endometrioid carcinomas, but is rare in serous carcinoma. Telomere shortening is another important type of genomic instability observed in endometrial cancer. Only non-endometrioid endometrial carcinoma tumors were significantly associated with critical telomere shortening in the adjacent morphologically normal epithelium. Lynch syndrome, which is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder of cancer susceptibility and is characterized by a MSH2/MSH6 protein complex deficiency, is associated with the development of non-endometrioid carcinomas.

  11. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casari, Ilaria; Falasca, Marco

    2015-11-23

    Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  12. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Casari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  13. Diet, Genes, and Microbes: Complexities of Colon Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Birt, Diane F.; Phillips, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and generally, as countries climb the economic ladder, their rates of colon cancer increase. Colon cancer was an early disease where key genetic mutations were identified as important in disease progression, and there is considerable interest in determining whether specific mutations sensitize the colon to cancer prevention strategies. Epidemiological studies have revealed that fiber- and vegetable-r...

  14. Carotenoids and lung cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the molecular actions of carotenoids is critical for human studies involving carotenoids for prevention of lung cancer and cancers at other tissue sites. While the original hypothesis prompting the beta-carotene intervention trials was that beta-carotene exerts beneficial effects thro...

  15. [Cancer prevention and tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2015-04-01

    The paper summarized briefly the evidences for tobacco use as a cause of cancer based on hundreds of epidemiologic and biomedical studies carried out over the past 50-60 years, as well as overviewed the carcinogens in tobacco products and mechanisms of neoplasm induction by tobacco products. So, tobacco control is the important measure for cancer prevention.

  16. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. About DCP | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is the primary unit of the National Cancer Institute devoted to cancer prevention research. DCP provides funding and administrative support to clinical and laboratory researchers, community and multidisciplinary teams, and collaborative scientific networks. |

  18. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  19. Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD, et al. Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. New England Journal of Medicine 1996;334(18):1150-1155. [PubMed Abstract] Goodman ...

  20. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected with HPV, those who have used oral contraceptives ("the Pill") for 5 to 9 years have a risk of cervical cancer that is 3 times greater than that of women who have never used oral contraceptives. The risk is 4 times greater after 10 ...

  1. Annual Advances in Cancer Prevention Lecture | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016 Keynote Lecture Polyvalent Vaccines Targeting Oncogenic Driver Pathways A special keynote lecture became part of the NCI Summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention in 2000. This lecture will be held on Thursday, July 21, 2016 at 1:30pm at Masur Auditorium, Building 10, NIH Main Campus, Bethesda, MD. This year’s keynote speaker is Dr. Mary L. (Nora) Disis, MD. |

  2. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  3. Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, Ann B; Mitchell, Julie L

    2016-06-07

    This issue provides a clinical overview of breast cancer screening and prevention, focusing on risk assessment, screening, prevention, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  4. Green tea and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Extracts of green tea and green tea polyphenols have exhibited inhibitory effects against the formation and development of tumors at different organ sites in animals. These include animal models for skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, intestine, colon, liver, pancreas, bladder, mammary gland, and prostate cancers. In addition to suppressing cell proliferation, promoting apoptosis, and modulating signaling transduction, green tea polyphenols, especially (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, also inhibit cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of green tea polyphenols, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between green tea consumption and human cancer risk.

  5. Occupational cancer in Britain. Preventing occupational cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiqun; Osman, John

    2012-06-19

    Although only a relatively small proportion of cancer is attributable to occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents, the estimated number of deaths due to occupational cancer is high when compared to other deaths due to work-related ill health and injury. However, risk from occupational exposure to carcinogens can be minimised through proportionate but effective risk management. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the regulator of workplace health and safety in Great Britain. As part of its aim to reduce ill health arising from failures to control properly exposure to hazards at work, HSE commissioned the research presented elsewhere in this supplement to enable it to identify priorities for preventing occupational cancer. The research has shown that occupational cancer remains a key health issue and that low-level exposure of a large number of workers to carcinogens is important. The finding that a small number of carcinogens have been responsible for the majority of the burden of occupational cancer provides key evidence in the development of priorities for significant reduction of occupational cancer. Although the research presented in this supplement reflects the consequences of past exposures to carcinogens, occupational cancer remains a problem. The potential for exposure to the agents considered in this research is still present in the workplace and the findings are relevant to prevention of future disease. In this article, the principle approaches for risk reduction are described. It provides supporting information on some of the initiatives already being undertaken, or those being put in place, to reduce occupational cancer in Great Britain. The need also for systematic collection of exposure information and the importance of raising awareness and changing behaviours are discussed.

  6. Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers On This ... E supplement. Should men take vitamin E or selenium supplements for cancer prevention? No. Scientists do not understand how these ...

  7. Diet, genes, and microbes: complexities of colon cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birt, Diane F; Phillips, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and generally, as countries climb the economic ladder, their rates of colon cancer increase. Colon cancer was an early disease where key genetic mutations were identified as important in disease progression, and there is considerable interest in determining whether specific mutations sensitize the colon to cancer prevention strategies. Epidemiological studies have revealed that fiber- and vegetable-rich diets and physical activity are associated with reduced rates of colon cancer, while consumption of red and processed meat, or alcoholic beverages, and overconsumption as reflected in obesity are associated with increased rates. Animal studies have probed these effects and suggested directions for further refinement of diet in colon cancer prevention. Recently a central role for the microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract in colon cancer development is being probed, and it is hypothesized that the microbes may integrate diet and host genetics in the etiology of the disease. This review provides background on dietary, genetic, and microbial impacts on colon cancer and describes an ongoing project using rodent models to assess the ability of digestion-resistant starch in the integration of these factors with the goal of furthering colon cancer prevention.

  8. Clinical Trials Management | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials. Protocol Information Office The central clearinghouse for clinical trials management within the Division of Cancer Prevention.Read more about the Protocol Information Office. | Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials.

  9. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G; Nikolova, D; Simonetti, R G

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  10. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  11. Funded Projects | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast Cancer (vaccines)Plac1 vaccine for breast cancer preventionEfficacy of a multi-antigen vaccine in the prevention of methynitrosourea-induced mammary cancers (ER+) in female Sprague-Dawley rats Breast Cancer (small molecules and biomarkers)Chemopreventive effects in both standard chow diets and high-fat diets of known positive- and negative-chemopreventive agents employing both high-risk (but histologically normal) mammary epithelium and mammary cancers including correlative biomarkers | Breast Cancer (vaccines) Cervical Cancer (small molecule) Colon Cancer (small molecules, vaccine, biomarker) Lung Cancer (small molecules, vaccine, biomarker, vaccine) Pancreatic Cancer (small molecule) Prostate Cancer (small molecule) Oral Cancer (small molecule) Skin Cancer (small molecule)

  12. Annalisa Gnoleba, MSA | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrs. Annalisa Gnoleba is the Public Health Analyst for the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program, Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute. In this position, Mrs. Gnoleba serves as the analyst for developing and formulating short and long range public health program goals, objectives and policies. |

  13. Genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif; Lena Karapanagiotou; Kostas Syrigos

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is devastating for patients and their relatives as the incidence rate is approximately the same as mortality rate. Only a small percentage, which ranges from 0.4% to 4% of patients who have been given this diagnosis, will be alive at five years. At the time of diagnosis, 80% of pancreatic cancer patients have unresectable or metastatic disease.Moreover, the therapeutic alternatives offered by chemotherapy or radiotherapy are few, if not zero. For all these reasons, there is an imperative need of analyzing and understanding the primitive lesions that lead to invasive pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Molecular pathology of these lesions is the key of our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of this cancer and will probably help us in earlier diagnosis and better therapeutic results. This review focuses on medical research on pancreatic cancer models and the underlying genetic alterations.

  14. Genetic abnormalities in pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamboni Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The incidence and mortality of pancreatic adenocarcinoma are nearly coincident having a five-year survival of less than 5%. Enormous advances have been made in our knowledge of the molecular alterations commonly present in ductal cancer and other pancreatic malignancies. One significant outcome of these studies is the recognition that common ductal cancers have a distinct molecular fingerprint compared to other nonductal or endocrine tumors. Ductal carcinomas typically show alteration of K-ras, p53, p16INK4, DPC4 and FHIT, while other pancreatic tumor types show different aberrations. Among those tumors arising from the exocrine pancreas, only ampullary cancers have a molecular fingerprint that may involve some of the same genes most frequently altered in common ductal cancers. Significant molecular heterogeneity also exists among pancreatic endocrine tumors. Nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumors have frequent mutations in MEN-1 and may be further subdivided into two clinically relevant subgroups based on the amount of chromosomal alterations. The present review will provide a brief overview of the genetic alterations that have been identified in the various subgroups of pancreatic tumors. These results have important implications for the development of genetic screening tests, early diagnosis, and prognostic genetic markers.

  15. Clinical implications of genomics for cancer risk genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David M; James, Paul A; Ballinger, Mandy L

    2015-06-01

    The study of human genetics has provided substantial insight into cancer biology. With an increase in sequencing capacity and a reduction in sequencing costs, genomics will probably transform clinical cancer genetics. A heritable basis for many cancers is accepted, but so far less than half the genetic drivers have been identified. Genomics will increasingly be applied to populations irrespective of family history, which will change the framework of phenotype-directed genetic testing. Panel testing and whole genome sequencing will identify novel, polygenic, and de-novo determinants of cancer risk, often with lower penetrance, which will challenge present binary clinical classification systems and management algorithms. In the future, genotype-stratified public screening and prevention programmes could form part of tailored population risk management. The integration of research with clinical practice will result in so-called discovery cohorts that will help identify clinically significant genetic variation.

  16. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  18. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  19. Major Programs | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations, research networks, investigator-initiated grants, postdoctoral training, and specialized resources across the United States. |

  20. Efficacy of EGFR inhibition is modulated by model, sex, genetic background and diet: implications for preclinical cancer prevention and therapy trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica S Rinella

    Full Text Available Molecule-targeted therapies are being widely developed and deployed, but they are frequently less effective in clinical trials than predicted based upon preclinical studies. Frequently, only a single model or genetic background is utilized using diets that are not relevant to that consumed by most cancer patients, which may contribute to the lack of predictability of many preclinical therapeutic studies. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in colorectal cancer was used to investigate potential causes for low predictive values of many preclinical studies. The efficacy of the small molecule EGFR inhibitor AG1478 was evaluated using two mouse models, Apc(Min/+ and azoxymethane (AOM, both sexes on three genetic backgrounds, C57BL/6J (B6 and A/J (A inbred strains and AB6F1 hybrids, and two diets, standard chow (STD or Western-style diet (WD. AG1478 has significant anti-tumor activity in the B6-Apc(Min/+ model with STD but only moderately on the WD and in the AOM model on an A background with a WD but not STD. On the F1 hybrid background AG1478 is effective in the Apc(Min/+ model with either STD or WD, but has only moderate efficacy in the AOM model with either diet. Sex differences were also observed. Unexpectedly, the level of liver EGFR phosphorylation inhibition by AG1478 was not positively correlated with inhibition of tumor growth in the AOM model. Model-dependent interactions between genetic background and diet can dramatically impact preclinical results, and indicate that low predictive values of preclinical studies can be attributed to study designs that do not account for the heterogeneous patient population or the diets they consume. Better-designed preclinical studies should lead to more accurate predictions of therapeutic response in the clinic.

  1. Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Behavioral Counseling ...

  2. Review of selenium and prostate cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Pascal, Mouracade; Wu, Xiao-Hou

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men in the United States. Surgery or radiation are sometimes unsatisfactory treatments because of the complications such as incontinence or erectile dysfunction. Selenium was found to be effective to prevent prostate cancer in the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPC), which motivated two other clinical trials: the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) and a Phase III trial of selenium to prevent prostate cancer in men with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. However, these two trials failed to confirm the results of the NPC trial and indicated that the selenium may not be preventive of prostate cancer. In this article we review the three clinical trials and discuss some different points which might be potential factors underlying variation in results obtained.

  3. The genetics of cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Mark M; Freedman, Matthew L

    2011-01-01

    One hundred years ago, decades before the discovery of the structure of DNA, debate raged regarding how human traits were passed from one generation to the next. Phenotypes, including risk of disease, had long been recognized as having a familial component. Yet it was difficult to reconcile genetic segregation as described by Mendel with observations exhaustively documented by Karl Pearson and others regarding the normal distribution of human characteristics. In 1918, R. A. Fisher published his landmark article, "The Correlation Between Relatives on the Supposition of Mendelian Inheritance," bridging this divide and demonstrating that multiple alleles, all individually obeying Mendel's laws, account for the phenotypic variation observed in nature.Since that time, geneticists have sought to identify the link between genotype and phenotype. Trait-associated alleles vary in their frequency and degree of penetrance. Some minor alleles may approach a frequency of 50% in the human population, whereas others are present within only a few individuals. The spectrum for penetrance is similarly wide. These characteristics jointly determine the segregation pattern of a given trait, which, in turn, determine the method used to map the trait. Until recently, identification of rare, highly penetrant alleles was most practical. Revolutionary studies in genomics reported over the past decade have made interrogation of most of the spectrum of genetic variation feasible.The following article reviews recent discoveries in the genetic basis of inherited cancer risk and how these discoveries inform cancer biology and patient management. Although this article focuses on prostate cancer, the principles are generic for any cancer and, indeed, for any trait.

  4. Active Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Supportive and Palliative Care Research Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Supportive and Palliative Care Research Funding Opportunities | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Task Force Reaffirms Recommendation against Ovarian Cancer Screening | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women at average risk of ovarian cancer should not be screened for the disease, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has reaffirmed. Published in the Annals of Internal Medicine on September 11, the latest USPSTF clinical guideline does not apply to women who have symptoms of ovarian cancer or who have genetic mutations that increase their risk of ovarian cancer. |

  8. Technological changes in cancer prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishbein, L. (International Life Sciences Institute, Washington (United States). Risk Science Institute)

    1992-01-01

    Exposures and technologies in the workplace are changing due to a variety of factors, including newly developed technologies, mechanization and automation, and improvements in industrial hygiene primarily effected in many developed countries. In addition substitution and removal of carcinogenic constituents in the workplace and general environment are increasing in a number of instances, particularly in North America, Western Europe, and Japan, and they are being accompanied as well by remediation either by source reduction, recycling, or compliance to more stringent national and international regulations and standards. This overview highlights some of the strategies employed in the technological ages in cancer prevention and cites examples in source reduction, changes in formulation, product or process changes, recycling, and hazardous materials management

  9. Community capacity for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Pamela E; Wei, Ying; Stellman, Steven D

    2009-01-01

    We pilot-tested a street-level study of availability of physical resources to assess ethnic disparities in community capacity for cancer prevention in forty Brooklyn, NY, census tracts with high proportions of White, African American, or Jamaican immigrant populations. Interns with GIS maps made street-level inventories of food retailers, fast-food restaurants, and commercial exercise facilities. Availability was quantified as resources per capita or square mile. Median income-adjusted number of supermarkets, greengrocers and fast-food restaurants per square mile was significantly higher in Jamaican than in African American or White tracts. Bodegas per capita was greatest in African American tracts, with no significant differences among the population groups in availability of health food stores, or commercial exercise venues.

  10. Technological changes in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, L

    1992-01-01

    Exposures and technologies in the workplace are changing due to a variety of factors, including newly developed technologies, mechanization and automation, and improvements in industrial hygiene primarily effected in many developed countries. In addition substitution and removal of carcinogenic constituents in the workplace and general environment are increasing in a number of instances, particularly in North America, Western Europe, and Japan, and they are being accompanied as well by remediation either by source reduction, recycling, or compliance to more stringent national and international regulations and standards. This overview highlights some of the strategies employed in the technological changes in cancer prevention and cites examples in source reduction, changes in formulation, product or process changes, recycling, and hazardous materials management.

  11. Models for prevention and treatment of cancer: problems vs promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B; Danda, Divya; Gupta, Shan; Gehlot, Prashasnika

    2009-11-01

    Current estimates from the American Cancer Society and from the International Union Against Cancer indicate that 12 million cases of cancer were diagnosed last year, with 7 million deaths worldwide; these numbers are expected to double by 2030 (27 million cases with 17 million deaths). Despite tremendous technological developments in all areas, and President Richard Nixon's initiative in the 1974 "War against Cancer", the US cancer incidence is the highest in the world and the cancer death rate has not significantly changed in the last 50 years (193.9 per 100,000 in 1950 vs 193.4 per 100,000 in 2002). Extensive research during the same time, however, has revealed that cancer is a preventable disease that requires major changes in life style; with one third of all cancers assigned to Tobacco, one third to diet, and remaining one third to the environment. Approximately 20 billion dollars are spent annually to find a cure for cancer. We propose that our inability to find a cure to cancer lies in the models used. Whether cell culture or animal studies, no model has yet been found that can reproduce the pathogenesis of the disease in the laboratory. Mono-targeted therapies, till know in most cases, have done a little to make a difference in cancer treatment. Similarly, molecular signatures/predictors of the diagnosis of the disease and response are also lacking. This review discusses the pros and cons of current cancer models based on cancer genetics, cell culture, animal models, cancer biomarkers/signature, cancer stem cells, cancer cell signaling, targeted therapies, therapeutic targets, clinical trials, cancer prevention, personalized medicine, and off-label uses to find a cure for cancer and demonstrates an urgent need for "out of the box" approaches.

  12. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer: are we closer to reality?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Qasim, Asghar

    2012-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An early detection of colorectal cancer determines therapeutic outcomes, while primary prevention remains a challenge. Our aim was to review the dietary, geographical and genetic factors in the causation and their possible role in the primary prevention of colorectal cancer. Data from experimental and clinical studies and population screening programmes were analysed to determine the factors responsible for causation of colorectal cancer. The role of dietary constituents, including the consumption of fat, red meat, fibre content, alcohol consumption, and other lifestyle issues, including obesity, lack of exercise and geographical variations in cancer prevalence were reviewed. The role of genetic and lifestyle factors in causation of colorectal cancer is evident from the experimental, clinical and population-based studies. Dietary factors, including the consumption of fat, fibre, red meat and alcohol, seem to have a significant influence in this regard. The role of micronutrients, vitamins, calcium may be relevant but remain largely unclear. In conclusion, there is ample evidence favouring the role of various dietary and lifestyle factors in the aetiology of colorectal cancer. Modification of these factors is an attractive option, which is likely to help in the primary prevention and reduced disease burden.

  13. CDC Grand Rounds: Family History and Genomics as Tools for Cancer Prevention and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Juan L; Thomas, Cheryll C; Massetti, Greta M; Duquette, Debra; Avner, Lindsay; Iskander, John; Khoury, Muin J; Richardson, Lisa C

    2016-11-25

    Although many efforts in cancer prevention and control have routinely focused on behavioral risk factors, such as tobacco use, or on the early detection of cancer, such as colorectal cancer screening, advances in genetic testing have created new opportunities for cancer prevention through evaluation of family history and identification of cancer-causing inherited mutations. Through the collection and evaluation of a family cancer history by a trained health care provider, patients and families at increased risk for a hereditary cancer syndrome can be identified, referred for genetic counseling and testing, and make informed decisions about options for cancer risk reduction (1). Although hereditary cancers make up a small proportion of all cancers, the number of affected persons can be large, and the level of risk among affected persons is high. Two hereditary cancer syndromes for which public health professionals have worked to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality are hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) and Lynch syndrome.

  14. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  15. Genetically Engineered Immunotherapy for Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this trial, doctors will collect T lymphocytes from patients with advanced mesothelin-expressing cancer and genetically engineer them to recognize mesothelin. The gene-engineered cells will be multiplied and infused into the patient to fight the cancer

  16. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  17. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  18. Overview of gastrointestinal cancer prevention in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Lee, Ho-Jae; Yoo, Jun Hwan; Ko, Weon Jin; Cho, Joo Young; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2015-12-01

    "War on cancer" was declared through the National Cancer Act by President Richard Nixon in 1971, but cancer statistics from the American Cancer Society and other sources indicated the failure of this war, suggesting instead focus on the message that a "prevention strategy" might be much more effective than cancer treatment. While cancer statistics notoriously showed sharp increases in incidence as well as in mortality concurrent with economic growth in Asia, fortunately Asian countries benefit from plentiful resources of natural compounds, which can prevent cancer. Just like cancer chemotherapeutics targeted to kill cancer cells in Western countries, natural agents activating molecular mechanisms for cancer prevention, reversion of premalignant tumors, and even ablation of cancer stem cells, are very abundant in Asia. Currently, these natural agents are under very active investigations targeting the hallmarks of cancer prevention, including selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells, suppression of growth factors or their signaling, suppression of cell proliferation and of cancer-promoting angiogenesis, induction of mesenchymal-epithelial transition, and disruption of the tumor microenvironment, developing promising cancer preventive agents. However, Asia is the most populous continent in the world and some Asian countries do not have the resources to implement cancer screening programs for early detection or treatment. In addition, despite the excellent cancer preventive screening strategies in some Asian countries, well-designed clinical trials for cancer prevention are somewhat delayed compared to Western countries. In this review article, several phytochemicals/phytoceuticals produced and studied in different Asian countries will be introduced, including Korean red ginseng (pride of Korea), curcumin (Indian spice for life), black or green tea (popular in Japan/Sri Lanka), genistein from tofu (famous Chinese food), diallylsulfide or S-allylcysteine (garlic

  19. PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PREVENT program provides a structure for the introduction of new agents, drugs and vaccines to inhibit, retard or reverse the cancer process. The program was designed to optimize translational opportunities from discovery to the clinic, and provide a mechanism to identify and study efficacy and pharmacodynamics biomarkers that will help in phase II trials to evaluate drug effects.  | Research pipeline for new prevention interventions and biomarkers headed toward clinical trials.

  20. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approa | Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers.

  1. Biorepository for Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the largest prostate cancer prevention trial ever undertaken, the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) has assembled a substantial biorepository of specimens. To help make SELECT resources available to a wider research community, NCI and the Southwest Oncology Group are developing a plan for prostate cancer biology and nutritional science and micronutrient studies. |

  2. Cancer prevention by tocopherols and tea polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Li, Guangxun; Yang, Zhihong; Guan, Fei; Chen, Amber; Ju, Jihyeung

    2013-06-28

    Tocopherols (vitamin E) and tea polyphenols have been reported to have cancer preventive activities. Large-scale human trials with high doses of alpha-tocopherol, however, have produced disappointing results. This review presents data showing that - and -tocopherols inhibit colon, lung, mammary and prostate carcinogenesis in animal models, whereas -tocopherol is ineffective in animal and human studies. Possible mechanisms of action are discussed. A broad cancer preventive activity of green tea polyphenols has been demonstrated in animal models, and many mechanisms have been proposed. The cancer preventive activity of green tea in humans, however, has not been conclusively demonstrated and remains to be further investigated.

  3. Cancer Biomarkers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    [[{"fid":"175","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","attributes":{"alt":"Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Homepage Logo","title":"Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Homepage Logo","height":"266","width":"400","style":"width: 400px; height: 266px;","class":"i | Research to identify, develop and validate biomarkers for early cancer detection and risk assessment.

  4. [Selenium and cancer: from prevention to treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozmanová, J

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential dietary component for all animals, including human beings, that is regarded as a protective agent against cancer. Although the mode of its anticancer action is not yet fully understood, several mechanisms, such as antioxidant protection through selenoenzymes, stimulation of DNA repair, and apoptosis in tumor prestages have all been proposed. Despite the unsupported results of the last "SELECT" trial, the cancer-preventing activity of Se has been demonstrated in a majority of epidemiological studies. Moreover, recent studies suggest that Se has a potential to be used not only in cancer prevention but also in cancer treatment, where in combination with other anticancer drugs or radiation it may increase the efficacy of cancer therapy. In combating cancer cells, Se acts as a prooxidant rather than an antioxidant, inducing apoptosis through the generation of oxidative stress. Thus, inorganic Se compounds, having high redox potency, represent a promising option in cancer therapy.

  5. Can Vulvar Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signs of vulvar cancer. This is known as self-examination. Some women choose to examine themselves monthly using ... Stories Glossary For Health Care Professionals Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair Loss & Mastectomy Products Hope ...

  6. Cardiotoxicity | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damage to the heart (cardiotoxicity), or blood vessels (cardiovascular toxicity) can occur during or after cancer treatment. As treatments have improved, more patients are surviving longer after a diagnosis of cancer than at any time in the past. See the article, Treating Cancer without Harming the Heart. |

  7. Cancer Preventive Activities of Tea Catechins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung S. Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Catechins are widely occurring in our diet and beverages. The cancer-preventive activities of catechins have been extensively studied. Of these, (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, the principal catechin in green tea, has received the most attention. The inhibitory activities of tea catechins against carcinogenesis and cancer cell growth have been demonstrated in a large number of laboratory studies. Many mechanisms for modulating cancer signaling and metabolic pathways have been proposed based on numerous studies in cell lines with EGCG, the most active tea catechin. Nevertheless, it is not known whether many of these mechanisms indeed contribute to the anti-cancer activities in animals and in humans. Human studies have provided some results for the cancer preventive activities of tea catechins; however, the activities are not strong. This article reviews the cancer preventive activities and mechanisms of action of tea catechins involving their redox activities, biochemical properties and binding to key enzymes or signal transduction proteins. These mechanisms lead to suppression of cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis. The relevance of the proposed mechanisms for cancer prevention are assessed in the light of the situation in vivo. The potential and possible problems in the application of tea and tea-derived products for cancer prevention are discussed.

  8. Think Tank: Identifying and Creating the Next Generation of Community-Based Cancer Prevention Studies | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    In late 2015, the NCI Division of Cancer Prevention convened cancer prevention research experts and stakeholders to discuss the current state of cancer prevention research, identify key prevention research priorities for the NCI, and identify studies that could be conducted within the NCI Community Oncology Research Program. Read the Cancer Prevention Research journal article (PDF, 532KB). |

  9. Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about actively enrolling, ongoing, and completed clinical trials of cancer prevention, early detection, and supportive care, including phase I, II, and III agent and action trials and clinical trials management. |

  10. Genetic evidence linking lung cancer and COPD: a new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crapo JD

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Robert P Young1,4, Raewyn J Hopkins1, Gregory D Gamble1, Carol Etzel2, Randa El-Zein2, James D Crapo31Department of Medicine and School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Department of Epidemiology, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 3National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USA; 4Synergenz Biosciences Ltd, Auckland, New ZealandAbstract: Epidemiological studies indicate that tobacco smoke exposure accounts for nearly 90% of cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer. However, genetic factors may explain why 10%–30% of smokers develop these complications. This perspective reviews the evidence suggesting that COPD is closely linked to susceptibility to lung cancer and outlines the potential relevance of this observation. Epidemiological studies show that COPD is the single most important risk factor for lung cancer among smokers and predates lung cancer in up to 80% of cases. Genome-wide association studies of lung cancer, lung function, and COPD have identified a number of overlapping “susceptibility” loci. With stringent phenotyping, it has recently been shown that several of these overlapping loci are independently associated with both COPD and lung cancer. These loci implicate genes underlying pulmonary inflammation and apoptotic processes mediated by the bronchial epithelium, and link COPD with lung cancer at a molecular genetic level. It is currently possible to derive risk models for lung cancer that incorporate lung cancer-specific genetic variants, recently identified “COPD-related” genetic variants, and clinical variables. Early studies suggest that single nucleotide polymorphism-based risk stratification of smokers might help better target novel prevention and early diagnostic strategies in lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, association study, single nucleotide polymorphism, risk model

  11. Kara Smigel Croker | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara Smigel Croker is the Communications Manager for the National Cancer Institute Division of Cancer Prevention. She coordinates and supports all aspects of communication, including media contacts, writing and editing of reports and responses, divisional websites, and social media. |

  12. Cancer prevention in the Asia Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Keun-Young

    2010-01-01

    Cancer incidences as well as the most prevalent cancer types vary greatly across Asian countries since people have differing health behaviors as well as lifestyle factors related to cancer risk. Countries have varying systems of government organization, laws, resources, facilities, and management strategies for addressing the cancer burden. Examples such as Korea and Japan with existing national cancer control programs need to focus on early screening and detection and quality of screening methods. If screening and detection increase to cover more than 50% of the target population, survival rate increases and thus the number of cancer patients detected increases resulting in higher medical cost. Thus, expansion of cancer screening, in addition to smoking prevention, immunization increase, and diet control awareness, are needed for cancer prevention strategies. Countries such as Thailand, China, Malaysia, and Turkey need to begin organized efforts to reduce cancer deaths through state-wide cancer screening programs. Strategies focused on increasing survival among cancer patients are also needed. In addition, government organizations and law regulations need to be in place as the first step towards cancer prevention. For the countries such as Nepal, Pakistan, Mongolia, and Iraq which do not have any cancer-related organizations in place, the first step that is needed is to raise public awareness about cancer; a public awareness campaign is the number one priority and should begin immediately. The easiest and most feasible step at this point is dissemination of cancer education materials during school health education and physical health screening. This must be started immediately because we need to avoid the development of existing cancers where patients will need to seek specialized cancer treatment facilities that are non-existent in these regions. In addition, hospitals need to take a step further and start undergoing registration of cancer prevalence and

  13. Preventing Second Cancers in Colon Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this phase III trial, people who have had curative surgery for colon cancer will be randomly assigned to take sulindac and a placebo, eflornithine and a placebo, both sulindac and eflornithine, or two placebo pills for 36 months.

  14. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277

  15. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-12

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action.

  16. Scientific Scope | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of developing cancer and to find ways to reduce that risk. Through laboratory, clinical, and epidemiologic research, scientists have shown that the diseases of cancer occur not as single, catastrophic events, but rather as the result of a complex and long-evolving molecular process that can take decades. This long-term process of carcinogenesis provides time and opportunities to slow down, stop, or reverse the cellular changes that can become cancer. | DCP research spans the initiation of cancer and the occurrence of invasive disease in major organ sites. The overall goal is to detect changes and intervene early to prevent symptomatic disease and death.

  17. Garlic and onions: their cancer prevention properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Holly L; Ross, Sharon A; Milner, John A

    2015-03-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiologic studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer-preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biologic processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer-preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps.

  18. Can Penile Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they also protect against HIV and some other sexually transmitted infections. A man can have an HPV infection for ... of doctors and master’s-prepared nurses with deep knowledge of cancer care as well as journalists, editors, ...

  19. Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... from foods fortified with vitamin D, such as milk, juices, and breakfast cereals. Vitamin D can also ...

  20. New Cancer Prevention and Control Central Institutional Review Board Established | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative announced the establishment of the Cancer Prevention and Control (CPC) CIRB January 14, extending the benefits of centralized review to investigators participating in clinical trials sponsored by the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). |

  1. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    [[{"fid":"184","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","attributes":{"alt":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","title":"Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","height":"266","width":"400"," | Prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers and their precursors.

  2. Prostate and Urologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    [[{"fid":"183","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","attributes":{"alt":"Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","title":"Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group Homepage Logo","height":"266","width":"400","clas | Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of prostate, bladder, and skin cancers.

  3. Genetic testing and your cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000842.htm Genetic testing and your cancer risk To use the sharing features on this page, ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  4. Stem cell divisions, somatic mutations, cancer etiology, and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetti, Cristian; Li, Lu; Vogelstein, Bert

    2017-03-24

    Cancers are caused by mutations that may be inherited, induced by environmental factors, or result from DNA replication errors (R). We studied the relationship between the number of normal stem cell divisions and the risk of 17 cancer types in 69 countries throughout the world. The data revealed a strong correlation (median = 0.80) between cancer incidence and normal stem cell divisions in all countries, regardless of their environment. The major role of R mutations in cancer etiology was supported by an independent approach, based solely on cancer genome sequencing and epidemiological data, which suggested that R mutations are responsible for two-thirds of the mutations in human cancers. All of these results are consistent with epidemiological estimates of the fraction of cancers that can be prevented by changes in the environment. Moreover, they accentuate the importance of early detection and intervention to reduce deaths from the many cancers arising from unavoidable R mutations.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Survivorship ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ClinicalTrials.gov Scientific Articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) BLADDER CANCER Sources for This Page American Cancer Society: What Are the Key Statistics for Bladder Cancer? Bryan RT, Hussain SA, James ...

  6. [Genetic cancer syndromes and reproductive choice: dialogue between parents and politicians on preimplantation genetic diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niermeijer, M.F.; Die-Smulders, C.E.M. de; Page-Christiaens, G.C.; Wert, G.M.W.R. de

    2008-01-01

    Genetic cancer syndromes have identical clinical severity, limited therapeutic options, reduced life expectancy, and risks of genetic transmission, as do other genetic or congenital diseases for which prenatal genetic diagnosis or preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is allowed in the Netherlands

  7. Epidemiology and prevention of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenfels, Albert B; Maisonneuve, Patrick

    2004-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an uncommon tumor, but because the mortality rate approaches 100%, this form of cancer has now become a common cause of cancer mortality. In the United States it is the fourth most frequent cause of cancer mortality; in Japan it ranks as the fifth commonest cause of death from cancer. Smoking is the major known risk factor for pancreatic cancer, accounting for approximately 25-30% of all cases. Some of the time-dependent changes in the frequency of pancreatic cancer can be explained by smoking trends. Aggressive public health measures to control smoking would substantially reduce the burden of pancreatic cancer. Dietary factors are less important for pancreatic cancer than for other digestive tract tumors, but consumption of a diet with adequate quantities of fruits and vegetables, plus control of calories either by dietary measures or by exercise will help to prevent this lethal tumor. There are more than a dozen inherited germline mutations that increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. Of these, hereditary pancreatitis confers the greatest risk, while BRCA2 mutations are the commonest inherited disorder. In addition to germline defects, there are several common polymorphisms in genes that control detoxification of environmental carcinogens that may alter the risk of pancreatic cancer. More research will be needed in this area, to explain and to clarify the interaction between genes and environmental factors.

  8. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one-week educational opportunity in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  9. Beliefs about Cancer and Diet among Those Considering Genetic Testing for Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Aunchalee E. L.; Upton, Rachel; Lee, Seungjin; Panter, Abby T.; Hadley, Don W.; Koehly, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess beliefs about the role of diet in cancer prevention among individuals considering genetic testing for Lynch Syndrome. Design: Family-centered, cascade recruitment; baseline assessment of a longitudinal study. Setting: Clinical research setting. Participants: Participants were 390 persons, ages 18 and older, including persons…

  10. Genetically engineered mouse models of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawijn, Martijn C.; Bergman, Andreas M.; van der Poel, Henk G.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Mouse models of prostate cancer are used to test the contribution of individual genes to the transformation process, evaluate the collaboration between multiple genetic lesions observed in a single tumour, and perform preclinical intervention studies in prostate cancer research. Methods:

  11. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Pan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin.

  12. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in preventing gastrointestinal...... Database from inception to October 2007. We scanned reference lists and contacted pharmaceutical companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing antioxidant supplements to placebo/no intervention examining occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors (GB...... high. Heterogeneity was low to moderate. Antioxidant supplements were without significant effects on gastrointestinal cancers (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.06). However, there was significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 54.0%, P = 0.003). The heterogeneity may have been explained by bias risk (low-bias risk...

  13. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted.

  14. Flavin-Dependent Enzymes in Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Wojcieszyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistical studies have demonstrated that various agents may reduce the risk of cancer’s development. One of them is activity of flavin-dependent enzymes such as flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOGS-OX1, FAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and flavin-dependent monoamine oxidase. In the last decade, many papers concerning their structure, reaction mechanism and role in the cancer prevention were published. In our work, we provide a more in-depth analysis of flavin-dependent enzymes and their contribution to the cancer prevention. We present the actual knowledge about the glucosinolate synthesized by flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOGS-OX1 and its role in cancer prevention, discuss the influence of mutations in FAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase on the cancer risk, and describe FAD as an important cofactor for the demethylation of histons. We also present our views on the role of riboflavin supplements in the prevention against cancer.

  15. Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention: Insights from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT)

    OpenAIRE

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Dunn, Barbara K.

    2013-01-01

    The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) was conducted to assess the efficacy of selenium and vitamin E alone, and in combination, on the incidence of prostate cancer. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial found that neither selenium nor vitamin E reduced the incidence of prostate cancer after seven years and that vitamin E was associated with a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer compared to placebo. The null result was ...

  16. Molecular genetics of cancer and tumorigenesis: Drosophila models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu-Min Deng

    2011-01-01

    Why do some cells not respond to normal control of cell division and become tumorous? Which signals trigger some tumor cells to migrate and colonize other tissues? What genetic factors are responsible for tumorigenesis and cancer development? What environmental factors play a role in cancer formation and progression? In how many ways can our bodies prevent and restrict the growth of cancerous cells?How can we identify and deliver effective drugs to fight cancer? In the fight against cancer,which kills more people than any other disease,these and other questions have long interested researchers from a diverse range of fields.To answer these questions and to fight cancer more effectively,we must increase our understanding of basic cancer biology.Model organisms,including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster,have played instrumental roles in our understanding of this devastating disease and the search for effective cures.Drosophila and its highly effective,easy-touse,and ever-expanding genetic tools have contributed toand enriched our knowledge of cancer and tumor formation tremendously.

  17. Introduction to cancer genetic susceptibility syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rose B; Nichols, Kim E

    2016-12-02

    The last 30 years have witnessed tremendous advances in our understanding of the cancer genetic susceptibility syndromes, including those that predispose to hematopoietic malignancies. The identification and characterization of families affected by these syndromes is enhancing our knowledge of the oncologic and nononcologic manifestations associated with predisposing germ line mutations and providing insights into the underlying disease mechanisms. Here, we provide an overview of the cancer genetic susceptibility syndromes, focusing on aspects relevant to the evaluation of patients with leukemia and lymphoma. Guidance is provided to facilitate recognition of these syndromes by hematologists/oncologists, including descriptions of the family history features, tumor genotype, and physical or developmental findings that should raise concern for an underlying cancer genetic syndrome. The clinical implications and management challenges associated with cancer susceptibility syndromes are also discussed.

  18. Childhood cancer and vitamins: prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Virginia A

    2008-02-01

    Discussions of pediatric nutrition and cancer usually focus on important issues of ensuring an adequate nutrient intake (enteral and parenteral) during and after the early treatment phase of care. However, information is available that suggests that vitamin status may have additional roles in the care of children with cancer. Over the last decade, investigators have reported findings that suggest that maternal preconception and perinatal vitamin intake and status influence the cancer risk of the infant and child. Others have shown a relationship between vitamin and antioxidant status and the prevalence and severity of adverse side effects for children undergoing chemotherapy. Vitamin D has potential anti-cancer activity and vitamin D status is suboptimal in many children in North America. Each of these issues is briefly presented from a perspective of prevention and treatment of childhood cancer.

  19. Blood Type Influences Pancreatic Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variation in the gene that determines ABO blood type influences the risk of pancreatic cancer, according to the results of the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) for this highly lethal disease. The genetic variation, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), was discovered in a region of chromosome 9 that harbors the gene that determines blood type, the researchers reported August 2 online in Nature Genetics. |

  20. Steps You Can Take to Prevent Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-02

    This podcast discusses the main steps people can take to reduce their risk of getting cancer.  Created: 2/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/2/2012.

  1. Nutrient intakes: cancer causation and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, T K; Mohs, M E; Watson, R R

    1986-01-01

    High intakes of the macronutrients--proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates in the form of excess energy-have some cancer stimulating properties. On the contrary, epidemiologic and animal laboratory data indicate that high-level supplementation of some micronutrients--certain vitamins, minerals, and lipotropes, as well as some non-nutrients, most notably various types of dietary fiber, may be useful in the prevention of cancer. A wealth of data exists for macronutrients whereas most micronutrients are almost unstudied concerning their role in cancer prevention. Vitamins A, E, and C and selenium are the most well-studied micronutrients, and are recognized as effective with significant anticancer effects, at least in animal models. There are minimal data to suggest that some other micronutrients may also exert varying degrees of incidence reduction on one or more types of cancer. This is most true for folic acid, manganese, molybdenum, copper, the amino acids phenylalanine and methionine, and the lipotrope choline. Zinc and vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and pantothenic acid have even less data, and some data are contradictory. Therefore, it is premature to make recommendations concerning their usefulness in cancer prevention at present.

  2. Identifying molecular targets of lifestyle modifications in colon cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Marie Derry

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One in four deaths in the United States is cancer-related, and colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. Screening strategies are utilized but have not reduced disease incidence or mortality. In this regard, there is an interest in cancer preventive strategies focusing on lifestyle intervention, where specific etiologic factors involved in cancer initiation, promotion, and progression could be targeted. For example, exposure to dietary carcinogens, such as nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons influences colon carcinogenesis. Furthermore, dietary deficiencies could alter sensitivity to genetic damage and influence carcinogen metabolism contributing to CRC. High alcohol consumption increases the risk of mutations including the fact that acetaldehyde, an ethanol metabolite, is classified as a group 1 carcinogen. Tobacco smoke exposure is also a risk factor for cancer development; ~20% of CRCs are associated with smoking. Additionally, obese patients have a higher risk of cancer development, which is further supported by the fact that physical activity decreases CRC risk by 55%. Similarly, chronic inflammatory conditions also increase the risk of CRC development. Moreover, the circadian clock alters digestion and regulates other biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes that could positively influence CRC. Taken together, colon carcinogenesis involves a number of etiological factors, and therefore, to create effective preventive strategies, molecular targets need to be identified and beleaguered prior to disease progression. With this in mind, the following is a comprehensive review identifying downstream target proteins of the above lifestyle risk factors, which are modulated during colon carcinogenesis and could be targeted for CRC prevention by novel agents including phytochemicals.

  3. Probiotics, prebiotics and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambalam, Padma; Raman, Maya; Purama, Ravi Kiran; Doble, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third major cause of mortality among various cancer types in United States, has been increasing in developing countries due to varying diet and dietary habits and occupational hazards. Recent evidences showed that composition of gut microbiota could be associated with the development of CRC and other gut dysbiosis. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics, either alone or in combination could positively influence the cross-talk between immune system and microbiota, would be beneficial in preventing inflammation and CRC. In this review, role of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention of CRC has been discussed. Various epidemiological and experimental studies, specifically gut microbiome research has effectively improved the understanding about the role of probiotics and microbial treatment as anticarcinogenic agents. A few human studies support the beneficial effect of probiotics and prebiotics; hence, comprehensive understanding is urgent to realize the clinical applications of probiotics and prebiotics in CRC prevention.

  4. Genetic Screening for Familial Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Carla

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Approximately 10% of gastric cancer cases show familial clustering but only 1-3% of gastric carcinomas arise as a result of inherited gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Direct proof that Hereditary Gastric Cancer a genetic disease with a germline gene defect has come from the demonstration of co-segregation of germline E-cadherin (CDH1 mutations with early onset diffuse gastric cancer in families with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance (HDGC. E-cadherin is a transmembrane calcium-dependent cell-adhesion molecule involved in cell-junction formation and the maintenance of epithelial integrity. In this review, we describe frequency and type of CDH1 mutations in sporadic and familial gastric cancer. Further we demonstrate the functional significance of some CDH1 germline missense mutations found in HDGC. We also discuss the CDH1 polymorphisms that have been associated to gastric cancer. We report other types of malignancies associated to HDGC, besides diffuse gastric cancer. Moreover, we review the data available on putative alternative candidate genes screened in familial gastric cancer. Finally, we briefly discuss the role of low-penetrance genes and Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer. This knowledge is a fundamental step towards accurate genetic counselling, in which a highly specialised pre-symptomatic therapeutic intervention should be offered.

  5. Cancer prevention in Africa: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busolo, David S; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is an emerging crisis in Africa. Cancer was the seventh leading cause of death in 2004. If not controlled, cancer incidence in Africa is expected to reach 1.28 million cases annually and claim 970,000 lives yearly by 2030. This paper presents a review of the literature on current cancer prevention approaches in Africa, and consists of cancer prevention studies conducted in African countries (e.g. South Africa and Nigeria) from PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL databases. Common female cancers in Africa are breast and cervical cancer while prostate cancer is the most common neoplasm among African males. Other common cancers are liver, colorectal, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Mortality related to these cancers comes as a result of delays in screening and treatment, unfamiliarity with cancer and cancer prevention, inaccessibility and unaffordability of care, and inefficiency of healthcare systems. Cancer prevention efforts are deficient because many governments lack cancer prevention and control policies. Also contributing to the lack of cancer prevention and control policies are low levels of awareness, scarce human and financial resources, and inadequacy of cancer registries. Overall, governments grapple with limited funds and competing healthcare priorities. As cancer continues to increase in Africa, the need for rigorous interdisciplinary research on cancer etiology and monitoring in Africa has never been timelier. Cost-effective cancer prevention programs, coordination of donor funding, advocacy, and education should be aggressively pursued. The call for more collaborative approaches in research and policy is urgently needed.

  6. Online Series presents Cancer Prevention Through Immunomodulation. Does Diet Play a Role? | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists are increasingly harnessing the power of the immune system to prevent cancer. Nutrition provides an opportunity for a generalized immune activation and reduction of cancer risk in certain populations. Research on several foods and bioactive food components as immunologic modulators is showing promising results. |

  7. David Nelson, MD, MPH | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. David E Nelson is the Director of the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) Branch in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Prevention. The CPFP is an internationally renowned postdoctoral program designed to train early career scientific researchers and leaders in the field of cancer prevention. Dr. Nelson came to the CPFP in 2008 after working at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta for many years. |

  8. Cancer preventive role of selected dietary factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Amitabha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary behavior seems to be an important modifiable determinant for the risk of cancer. The evidences from several epidemiological studies suggest that higher intakes of fruits and vegetables have been associated with lower risk of cancer. Dietary phenolic and polyphenolic substances, terpenoids, dietary fibers, fish oils, some micronutrients present in foods of both plant and animal origin, and a reduction of caloric intake appear to inhibit the process of cancer development. Many dietary factors possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and cause induction of phase II enzymes like glutathione-S-transferases. It has been suggested that cruciferous vegetables play an important role in cancer prevention, and their chemopreventive effects are due to high glucosinolate content which under enzymatic hydrolysis produces bioactive compound isothiocyanates. Further, isothiocyanates of a wide variety of cruciferous vegetables are powerful inhibitors of carcinogenesis in experimental animal models. Several flavonoids present in fruits, tea, soya beans, etc. may be useful as cancer preventive agents. Similarly, ellagic acid, perillyl alcohol and resveratrol found in various fruits may have chemoprotective effect. Moreover, different vanilloids such as curcumin and gingerol have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. Nevertheless, in spite of several studies, still the effects of various ingredients are not clearly distinguished. In human, little convincing evidence has been established for the proposed protective effects of dietary constituents. It is an important future research goal to provide necessary evidences to support the chemopreventive role of different dietary factors, and also to clarify misunderstandings in this perplexing area.

  9. Genetic counseling of the cancer survivor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulvihill, J.J.; Byrne, J.

    1989-02-01

    Each year, tens of thousands of persons are diagnosed with cancer, are treated, and become survivors while still in their reproductive years. Their concerns about possible germ-cell damage as a result of life-saving radiation, chemotherapy, or both are plausible, based on evidence from animal models and from somatic cell mutations in human beings. A 40-year follow-up of survivors of the atomic bomb blasts in Japan showed no detectable genetic damage and suggested that the human gonad is more resistant to radiogenic mutation than the laboratory mouse. The pooled results of studying 12 series of offspring of cancer patients showed a 4% rate of major birth defects (similar to that of the general population) and an excess of fetal loss and low birth weight in offspring of women who received abdominal radiotherapy. According to preliminary evaluation of a new National Cancer Institute collaboration with five cancer registries, offspring of survivors of childhood cancers had no more birth defects than expected and, beyond an increase in probably familial cancers in children younger than 5, no overall increase in childhood cancer. Ideally, genetic and reproductive counseling should take place as soon as cancer is diagnosed (before therapy starts) and again when pregnancy is contemplated. 28 references.

  10. Genetic Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    delivery to cancer patients. In: Principles and Practice of Oncology , human ovarian cancer xenografts utilizing a tropism- PPO Updates, DeVita Jr VT...1 Lyudmila N. Kaliberova,1 Cecil R. Stockard, William E. Grizzle, 2 and Donald J. Buchsbaum",* ’Department of Radiation Oncology and 2 Department...and D.J. Buchsbaum. Department of Radiation Oncology , Division of Human Gene Therapy, and Gene Therapy Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham

  11. Helicobacter pylori eradication for preventing gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Li, Meng

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor for gastric cancer (GC) development, which is one of the most challenging malignant diseases worldwide with limited treatments. In the multistep pathogenesis of GC, H. pylori infection slowly induces chronic active gastritis, which progresses through the premalignant stages of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia, and then finally to GC. Although eradication of H. pylori is a reasonable approach for the prevention of GC, there have been some contradictory reports, with only some long-term follow-up data showing efficacy of this approach. The inconsistencies are likely due to the insufficient number of participants, relatively short follow-up periods, poor quality of study designs, and the degree and extent of preneoplastic changes at the time of H. pylori eradication. This review analyzes recent high-quality studies to resolve the discrepancies regarding the eradication of H. pylori for GC prevention. The relationship between H. pylori eradication and GC/precancerous lesions/metachronous GC is examined, and the cost-effectiveness of this strategy in the prevention of GC is assessed. Although it is assumed that eradication of H. pylori has the potential to prevent GC, the feasibility and appropriate timing of this strategy for cancer prevention remain to be determined. As a result, additional well-designed trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to clarify this issue.

  12. Genetic Testing for Breast Cancer: Psychological and Social Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic testing for breast cancer: Psychological and social impact Genetic testing to estimate breast and ovarian cancer risk may prompt many emotional and psychological reactions. How will getting the news that you' ...

  13. Cancer Genetics Overview (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary in which the features of hereditary cancer and the structure and content of other PDQ cancer genetics summaries are described. The summary also contains an extensive list of genetics resources available online.

  14. ROLE OF LYCOPENE IN PREVENTING PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Tami Budirejeki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer in the United States in 2003. Prostate cancer is the second cause of death after lung cancer. The possibility of a man suffering from prostate cancer is about 3 %. Increasing age is the main risk factor for this disease. Eighty percent of prostate cancer patients aged over 65 years. Prostate cancer occurs due to accumulation of DNA damage. There are various mechanisms that cause DNA damage, one of them is due to oxidative stress. Imbalance levels of free radicals and antioxidant in tissues causes oxidative stress. Antioxidants are substance that has ability to neutralize free radicals. One of the powerful antioxidant is lycopene. It is belived have ability to prevent prostate cancer. Various studies and reviews have been conducted to determine the role of lycopene in the prevention of prostate cancer. Although most studies have found an association between the consumption of foods that contain lycopene with a reduced risk of prostate cancer, but few studies have found no such relationship. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  15. Selenium and prostate cancer prevention: insights from the selenium and vitamin E cancer prevention trial (SELECT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Holly L; Dunn, Barbara K

    2013-04-03

    The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) was conducted to assess the efficacy of selenium and vitamin E alone, and in combination, on the incidence of prostate cancer. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial found that neither selenium nor vitamin E reduced the incidence of prostate cancer after seven years and that vitamin E was associated with a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer compared to placebo. The null result was surprising given the strong preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting chemopreventive activity of selenium. Potential explanations for the null findings include the agent formulation and dose, the characteristics of the cohort, and the study design. It is likely that only specific subpopulations may benefit from selenium supplementation; therefore, future studies should consider the baseline selenium status of the participants, age of the cohort, and genotype of specific selenoproteins, among other characteristics, in order to determine the activity of selenium in cancer prevention.

  16. Prevention of osteoporosis after breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David M

    2009-09-20

    Breast cancer is a devastating illness but cure rates are increasing and as they do the secondary effects of breast cancer treatment on bone are becoming more prominent. Of particular concern is the increased fracture rates and dramatic bone loss seen in studies of patients undergoing therapy with aromatase inhibitors. Recently a UK Expert Group has drawn up guidelines for the prevention of bone loss. The main recommendations can be summarised as follows: Bone loss in women who experience a premature menopause due to treatment before the age of 45 or who are receiving ovarian suppression therapy is accelerated by the concomitant use of aromatase inhibitors. As they are at high risk of significant bone loss they should have a baseline dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessment of BMD. As randomised clinical trials in postmenopausal women indicate that bisphosphonates prevent the bone loss and accelerated bone turnover associated with aromatase inhibitor therapy their use as the main preventative therapy is recommended, along with a healthy lifestyle and adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D. Decisions on the initiation of treatment initiation should be based on a combination of risk factors for osteoporotic fracture and BMD levels. Due to the rate of bone loss associated with breast cancer treatments, and uncertainties about the interaction between aromatase inhibitor use and BMD for fracture risk, the thresholds for intervention have been set at a higher levels than generally recommended for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  17. Cancer precursors epidemiology, detection, and prevention

    CERN Document Server

    Rohan, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic advances in our understanding of cancer causation have come from epidemiologic and laboratory research, particularly over the past two decades. These developments have included a broadening interest in the critical events that take place during the early stages of the dynamic multistep process leading to - vasive cancer. Increasingly, cancer epidemiologists are pursuing research into the origins and natural history of premalignant lesions, including intermediate or surrogate endpoints, a trend - celerated by the development of molecular technologies that are revolutionizing our understanding of the transformation of normal to malignant cells. There seems little doubt that this emerging knowledge will provide further insights not only into carcinogenic processes, but also into more sensitive methods of early detection and more effective means of prevention. In this book, Drs. Franco and Rohan have succeeded in prep- ing a comprehensive, timely, and critical review of the substantial progress that has ...

  18. New genetic variants associated with prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have newly identified 23 common genetic variants -- one-letter changes in DNA known as single-nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs -- that are associated with risk of prostate cancer. These results come from an analysis of more than 10 million SNP

  19. Photocarcinogenesis and Skin Cancer Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebode, Christina; Lehmann, Janin; Emmert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    In this review the basic principles of UV-induced carcinogenesis are summarized and the state of the art diagnosis and therapeutic strategies are discussed. The prevalent keratinocyte-derived neoplasms of the skin are basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Cutaneous melanoma is less frequent but associated with high mortality. Common risk factors for all three tumor entities include sun exposure and DNA-repair deficiencies. Photocarcinogenesis follows a multistep model of cancer development in which ultraviolet-induced DNA damage leads to mutations resulting in activation of oncogenes or silencing of tumor-suppressor genes. This ends in a cellular mutator phenotype even more prone to mutation acquisition. DNA repair, especially the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, counteracts mutation formation and skin cancer development. This is vividly demonstrated by the NER-defective disorder xeroderma pigmentosum. Primary skin cancer preventative strategies, therefore, include reduction of DNA photodamage by protection from the sun. Secondary preventative strategies include skin cancer screening. This implies standard examination techniques with the naked eye, an epiluminescence microscope, or digital epiluminescence microscopy. More advanced techniques include confocal laser scan microscopy.

  20. Prediction of breast cancer risk based on profiling with common genetic variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mavaddat, Nasim; Pharoah, Paul D P; Michailidou, Kyriaki

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data for multiple common susceptibility alleles for breast cancer may be combined to identify women at different levels of breast cancer risk. Such stratification could guide preventive and screening strategies. However, empirical evidence for genetic risk stratification is lacking. M...

  1. Prediction of breast cancer risk based on profiling with common genetic variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Mavaddat (Nasim); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); J.P. Tyrer (Jonathan); M.N. Brook (Mark N.); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); Q. Wang (Qing); J. Dennis (Joe); A.M. Dunning (Alison); M. Shah (Mitul); R.N. Luben (Robert); J. Brown (Judith); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); S.F. Nielsen (Sune F.); H. Flyger (Henrik); K. Czene (Kamila); H. Darabi (Hatef); M. Eriksson (Mikael); J. Peto (Julian); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); F. Dudbridge (Frank); N. Johnson (Nichola); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); S. Verhoef; E.J. Rutgers (Emiel J.); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); A. Ashworth (Alan); N. Orr (Nick); M. Schoemaker (Minouk); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); L.A. Brinton (Louise); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); F.J. Couch (Fergus); J.E. Olson (Janet); C. Vachon (Celine); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); D. Lambrechts (Diether); H. Wildiers (Hans); C. van Ongeval (Chantal); E. van Limbergen (Erik); V. Kristensen (Vessela); G. Grenaker Alnæs (Grethe); S. Nord (Silje); A.-L. Borresen-Dale (Anne-Lise); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); T.A. Muranen (Taru); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); A. Rudolph (Anja); P. Seibold (Petra); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); P.A. Fasching (Peter); L. Haeberle (Lothar); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); F. Marme (Federick); A. Schneeweiss (Andreas); C. Sohn (Christof); A. Trentham-Dietz (Amy); P. Newcomb (Polly); L. Titus (Linda); K.M. Egan (Kathleen M.); D. Hunter (David); S. Lindstrom (Stephen); R. Tamimi (Rulla); P. Kraft (Peter); N. Rahman (Nazneen); C. Turnbull (Clare); A. Renwick (Anthony); S. Seal (Sheila); J. Li (Jingmei); J. Liu (Jianjun); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); J. Benítez (Javier); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); J.I. Arias Pérez (José Ignacio); P. Menéndez (Primitiva); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); N.N. Antonenkova (Natalia); T. Dörk (Thilo); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); A. Ziogas (Argyrios); L. Bernstein (Leslie); P. Devilee (Peter); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); E.K. Khusnutdinova (Elza); M. Bermisheva (Marina); D. Prokofyeva (Darya); Z. Takhirova (Zalina); A. Meindl (Alfons); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); C. Sutter (Christian); R. Yang (Rongxi); P. Schürmann (Peter); M. Bremer (Michael); H. Christiansen (Hans); T.-W. Park-Simon; P. Hillemanns (Peter); P. Guénel (Pascal); T. Truong (Thérèse); F. Menegaux (Florence); M. Sanchez (Marie); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); V. Pensotti (Valeria); J. Hopper (John); H. Tsimiklis (Helen); C. Apicella (Carmel); M.C. Southey (Melissa); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); T. Brüning (Thomas); Y.-D. Ko (Yon-Dschun); A.J. Sigurdson (Alice); M.M. Doody (Michele M.); U. Hamann (Ute); D. Torres (Diana); H.U. Ulmer (Hans); A. Försti (Asta); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); G. Glendon (Gord); A. Marie Mulligan (Anna); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); R. Balleine (Rosemary); G.G. Giles (Graham); R.L. Milne (Roger); C.A. McLean (Catriona Ann); A. Lindblom (Annika); S. Margolin (Sara); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); B.E. Henderson (Brian); F. Schumacher (Fredrick); L. Le Marchand (Loic); U. Eilber (Ursula); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); L.B. Koppert (Linetta); J. Carpenter (Jane); C. Clarke (Christine); R.J. Scott (Rodney J.); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); H. Brenner (Hermann); V. Arndt (Volker); C. Stegmaier (Christa); A. Karina Dieffenbach (Aida); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); M. Grip (Mervi); K. Offit (Kenneth); J. Vijai (Joseph); M. Robson (Mark); R. Rau-Murthy (Rohini); M. Dwek (Miriam); R. Swann (Ruth); K. Annie Perkins (Katherine); M.S. Goldberg (Mark); F. Labrèche (France); M. Dumont (Martine); D. Eccles (Diana); W. Tapper (William); M. Rafiq (Meena); E.M. John (Esther M.); A.S. Whittemore (Alice); S. Slager (Susan); D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); A.E. Toland (Amanda); S. Yao (Song); W. Zheng (Wei); S.L. Halverson (Sandra L.); A. González-Neira (Anna); G. Pita (G.); M. Rosario Alonso; N. Álvarez (Nuria); D. Herrero (Daniel); D.C. Tessier (Daniel C.); D. Vincent (Daniel); F. Bacot (Francois); C. Luccarini (Craig); C. Baynes (Caroline); S. Ahmed (Shahana); M. Maranian (Melanie); S. Healey (Sue); J. Simard (Jacques); P. Hall (Per); D.F. Easton (Douglas); M. García-Closas (Montserrat)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Data for multiple common susceptibility alleles for breast cancer may be combined to identify women at different levels of breast cancer risk. Such stratification could guide preventive and screening strategies. However, empirical evidence for genetic risk stratification is l

  2. Genetic Determinants of Gastric Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Boccia (Stefania)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractResults show that gastric cancer risk is increased by the inheritance of the variant alleles of the metabolic genes SULT1A1 and CYP2E1 *6, especially among smokers and drinkers, respectively. An additional increased risk is conferred by the inheritance of GSTT1 null variant, especially i

  3. Genetic determinants of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Gonzalez-Zuloeta Ladd (Angela)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the Western world and it is estimated that women who survive to the age of 85 years will have a 1 in 9 lifetime probability of developing this type of neoplasia (1, 2). The degree of risk is not spread homogeneously across the gener

  4. Rapalogs in cancer prevention: anti-aging or anticancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2012-12-01

    Common cancer is an age-related disease. Slow aging is associated with reduced and delayed carcinogenesis. Calorie restriction (CR), the most studied anti-aging intervention, prevents cancer by slowing down the aging process. Evidence is emerging that CR decelerates aging by deactivating MTOR (Target of Rapamycin). Rapamycin and other rapalogs suppress cellular senescence, slow down aging and postpone age-related diseases including cancer. At the same time, rapalogs are approved for certain cancer treatments. Can cancer prevention be explained by direct targeting of cancer cells? Or does rapamycin prevent cancer indirectly through slowing down the aging process? Increasing evidence points to the latter scenario.

  5. The Genetics of Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Pomerantz, Mark M.; Freedman, Matthew L.

    2011-01-01

    One hundred years ago, decades prior to the discovery of the structure of DNA, debate raged regarding how human traits were passed from one generation to the next. Phenotypes, including risk of disease, had long been recognized as having a familial component. Yet it was difficult to reconcile genetic segregation as described by Mendel with observations exhaustively documented by Karl Pearson and others regarding the normal distribution of human characteristics. In 1918, RA Fisher published hi...

  6. Study Points to Genetic Subtypes of Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Cancer Currents blog post about a study by The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network that identified distinct genetic and molecular changes in esophageal cancers that could improve their classification and identify potential new treatments.

  7. Genetic polymorphisms and metabolism of endocrine disruptors in cancer susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatagima Ana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have estimated that approximately 80% of all cancers are related to environmental factors. Individual cancer susceptibility can be the result of several host factors, including differences in metabolism, DNA repair, altered expression of tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes, and nutritional status. Xenobiotic metabolism is the principal mechanism for maintaining homeostasis during the body's exposure to xenobiotics. The balance of xenobiotic absorption and elimination rates in metabolism can be important in the prevention of DNA damage by chemical carcinogens. Thus the ability to metabolize and eliminate xenobiotics can be considered one of the body's first protective mechanisms. Variability in individual metabolism has been related to the enzymatic polymorphisms involved in activation and detoxification of chemical carcinogens. This paper is a contemporary literature review on genetic polymorphisms involved in the metabolism of endocrine disruptors potentially related to cancer development.

  8. Genetic polymorphisms and metabolism of endocrine disruptors in cancer susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Hatagima

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have estimated that approximately 80% of all cancers are related to environmental factors. Individual cancer susceptibility can be the result of several host factors, including differences in metabolism, DNA repair, altered expression of tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes, and nutritional status. Xenobiotic metabolism is the principal mechanism for maintaining homeostasis during the body's exposure to xenobiotics. The balance of xenobiotic absorption and elimination rates in metabolism can be important in the prevention of DNA damage by chemical carcinogens. Thus the ability to metabolize and eliminate xenobiotics can be considered one of the body's first protective mechanisms. Variability in individual metabolism has been related to the enzymatic polymorphisms involved in activation and detoxification of chemical carcinogens. This paper is a contemporary literature review on genetic polymorphisms involved in the metabolism of endocrine disruptors potentially related to cancer development.

  9. Dance as a therapy for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Gurbuz; Ogce, Filiz

    2005-01-01

    Even though the field of medicine has developed tremendously, the wide variety of cancer is still among chronic and life threatening disease today. Therefore, the specialists constantly research and try every possible way to find cure or preventive ways to stop its further development. For this reason, studies concerning the chronic disease such as cancer have been spread to many different fields. In this regard, many other alternative ways besides medicine, are used in prevention of cancer. Nutritional therapy, herbal therapy, sportive activities, art therapy, music therapy, dance therapy, imagery, yoga and acupuncture can be given as examples. Among these, dance/movement therapy which deals with individuals physical, emotional, cognitive as well as social integration is widely used as a popular form of physical activity. The physical benefits of dance therapy as exercise are well documented. Studies have shown that physical activity is known to increase special neurotransmitter substances in the brain (endorphins), which create a state of well-being. And total body movement such as dance enhances the functions of other body systems, such as circulatory, respiratory, skeletal, and muscular systems. Regarding its unique connection to the field of medicine, many researches have been undertaken on the effects of dance/movement therapy in special settings with physical problems such as amputations, traumatic brain injury, and stroke, chronic illnesses such as anorexia, bulimia, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, asthma, AIDS, and arthritis. Today dance/movement therapy is a well recognized form of complementary therapy used in hospitals as well as at the comprehensive clinical cancer centres.

  10. 1. HUMAN POPULATION MONITORING FOR CANCER PREVENTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Most of the chemicals classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as human carcinogens are mutagenic across test systems, cf. [www.epa.gov/gapdb ] and induce tumors at multiple sites in rodent species. They are therefore readity detected in short term tests for gene-tic and related effects (GRE), in animal carcinogenesis bioassays and in human monitoring studies. Carcinogens that are not genotoxic may be studied using new toxicogenomic approaches as will be discussed. A Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS) database is planned by the National Center for Toxicogenomics to contain information on such compounds. The 1992 Preamble to the IARC Monographs

  11. Genetic and molecular changes in ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert L Hollis; Charlie Gourley

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer represents the most lethal gynecological malignancy in the developed world, and can be divided into five main histological subtypes: high grade serous, endometrioid, clear cell, mucinous and low grade serous. These subtypes represent distinct disease entities, both clinically and at the molecular level. Molecular analysis has revealed significant genetic heterogeneity in ovarian cancer, particularly within the high grade serous subtype. As such, this subtype has been the focus of much research effort to date, revealing molecular subgroups at both the genomic and transcriptomic level that have clinical implications. However, stratification of ovarian cancer patients based on the underlying biology of their disease remains in its infancy. Here, we summarize the molecular changes that characterize the five main ovarian cancer subtypes, highlight potential opportunities for targeted therapeutic intervention and outline priorities for future research.

  12. Genetic instability in Gynecological Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qing-hua; ZHOU Hong-lin

    2003-01-01

    Defects of mismatch repair (MMR) genes also have beenidentified in many kinds of tumors. Loss of MMR functionhas been linked to genetic instability especially microsatelliteinstability that results in high mutation rate. In this review, wediscussed the microsatellite instability observed in thegynecological tumors. We also discussed defects in the DNAmismatch repair in these tumors and their correlation to themicrosatellite instability, as well as the gene mutations due tothe microsatellite instability in these tumors. From thesediscussion, we tried to understand the mechanism ofcarcinogenesis in gynecological tumors from the aspect ofgenetic instability due to mismatch repair defects.

  13. Endotoxin and cancer chemo-prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Fadda, Emanuela; Cegolon, Luca

    2013-10-01

    Reduced rates of lung cancer have been observed in several occupational groups exposed to high levels of organic dusts contaminated by endotoxin. The underlying anti-neoplastic mechanism of endotoxin may be an increased secretion of endogenous anti-neoplastic mediators and activation of the toll-like receptors (TLR). A detoxified endotoxin derivative, Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPL(®)) is marketed in Europe since 1999 as part of the adjuvant systems in allergy vaccines for treatment of allergic rhino-conjunctivitis and allergic asthma. Over 200,000 patients have used them to date (nearly 70% in Germany). Since detailed exposure (MPL(®) dose and timing of administration) and individual data are potentially available, an observational follow-up study could be conducted in Germany to investigate the protective effect of MPL(®) against cancer, comparing cancer incidence in two groups of patients with allergic rhinitis: those treated with allergoids plus MPL(®) and those treated with a vaccine including the same allergoids but not MPL(®). The protective effect of MPL(®) could be quantified in ever and never smokers. If this proposed observational study provides evidence of protective effects, MPL(®) could be immediately used as a chemo-preventive agent since it is already in use as adjuvant in human vaccines against cancer.

  14. Metformin for aging and cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Vladimir N.

    2010-01-01

    Studies in mammals have led to the suggestion that hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia are important factors in aging. Insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling molecules that have been linked to longevity include daf-2 and InR and their homologues in mammals, and inactivation of the corresponding genes increases life span in nematodes, fruit flies and mice. It is possible that the life-prolonging effect of caloric restriction is due to decreasing IGF-1 levels. Evidence has emerged that antidiabetic drugs are promising candidates for both life span extension and prevention of cancer. Thus, antidiabetic drugs postpone spontaneous carcinogenesis in mice and rats, as well as chemical and radiation carcinogenesis in mice, rats and hamsters. Furthermore metformin seems to decrease cancer risk in diabetic patients. PMID:21084729

  15. Finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy H Chau

    Full Text Available In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT, finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying drug concentrations.Data for this nested case-control study are from the PCPT. Cases were drawn from men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer and matched controls. Finasteride concentrations were measured using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry validated assay. The association of serum finasteride concentrations with prostate cancer risk was determined by logistic regression. We also examine whether polymorphisms in the enzyme target and metabolism genes of finasteride are related to drug concentrations using linear regression.Among men with detectable finasteride concentrations, there was no association between finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk, low-grade or high-grade, when finasteride concentration was analyzed as a continuous variable or categorized by cutoff points. Since there was no concentration-dependent effect on prostate cancer, any exposure to finasteride intake may reduce prostate cancer risk. Of the twenty-seven SNPs assessed in the enzyme target and metabolism pathway, five SNPs in two genes, CYP3A4 (rs2242480; rs4646437; rs4986910, and CYP3A5 (rs15524; rs776746 were significantly associated with modifying finasteride concentrations. These results suggest that finasteride exposure may reduce prostate cancer risk and finasteride concentrations are affected by genetic variations in genes responsible for altering its metabolism pathway.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00288106.

  16. [Colorectal cancer (CCR): genetic and molecular alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Vázquez, Clara Ibet; Rosales-Reynoso, Mónica Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present a genetic and molecular overview of colorectal carcinogenesis (sporadic and hereditary origin) as a multistage process, where there are a number of molecular mechanisms associated with the development of colorectal cancer and genomic instability that allows the accumulation of mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, chromosomal instability, and methylation and microsatellite instability, and the involvement of altered expression of microRNAs' prognosis factors.

  17. Bioactive food components, inflammatory targets, and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young S; Young, Matthew R; Bobe, Gerd; Colburn, Nancy H; Milner, John A

    2009-03-01

    Various dietary components may modify chronic inflammatory processes at the stage of cytokine production, amplification of nuclear factor-kappaB-mediated inflammatory gene expression, and the release of anti-inflammatory cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta. This review provides a synopsis of the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence that specific bioactive food components influence inflammation-related targets linked to cancer. A target repeatedly surfacing as a site of action for several dietary components is transforming growth factor beta. Whereas the use of dietary intervention strategies offers intriguing possibilities for maintaining normal cell function by modifying a process that is essential for cancer development and progression, more information is needed to characterize the minimum quantity of the bioactive food components required to bring about a change in inflammation-mediated cancer, the ideal time for intervention, and the importance of genetics in determining the response. Unquestionably, the societal benefits of using foods and their components to prevent chronic inflammation and associated complications, including cancer, are enormous.

  18. Biomarkers for diet and cancer prevention research: potentials and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cindy D DAVIS; John A MILNER

    2007-01-01

    As cancer incidence is projected to increase for decades there is a need for effec-tive preventive strategies. Fortunately, evidence continues to mount that altering dietary habits is an effective and cost-efficient approach for reducing cancer risk and for modifying the biological behavior of tumors. Predictive, validated and sensitive biomarkers, including those that reliably evaluate "intake" or exposure to a specific food or bioactive component, that assess one or more specific bio-logical "effects" that are linked to cancer, and that effectively predict individual "susceptibility" as a function of nutrient-nutrient interactions and genetics, are fundamental to evaluating who will benefit most from dietary interventions. These biomarkers must be readily accessible, easily and reliably assayed, and predictive of a key process(es) involved in cancer. The response to a food is determined not only by the effective concentration of the bioactive food component(s) reaching the target tissue, but also by the amount of the target requiring modification.Thus, this threshold response to foods and their components will vary from indi-vidual to individual. The key to understanding a personalized response is a greater knowledge of nutrigenomics, proteomics and metabolomics.

  19. Gastric cancer: prevention, screening and early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasechnikov, Victor; Chukov, Sergej; Fedorov, Evgeny; Kikuste, Ilze; Leja, Marcis

    2014-10-14

    Gastric cancer continues to be an important healthcare problem from a global perspective. Most of the cases in the Western world are diagnosed at late stages when the treatment is largely ineffective. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-established carcinogen for gastric cancer. While lifestyle factors are important, the efficacy of interventions in their modification, as in the use of antioxidant supplements, is unconvincing. No organized screening programs can be found outside Asia (Japan and South Korea). Although several screening approaches have been proposed, including indirect atrophy detection by measuring pepsinogen in the circulation, none of them have so far been implemented, and more study data is required to justify any implementation. Mass eradication of H. pylori in high-risk areas tends to be cost-effective, but its adverse effects and resistance remain a concern. Searches for new screening biomarkers, including microRNA and cancer-autoantibody panels, as well as detection of volatile organic compounds in the breath, are in progress. Endoscopy with a proper biopsy follow-up remains the standard for early detection of cancer and related premalignant lesions. At the same time, new advanced high-resolution endoscopic technologies are showing promising results with respect to diagnosing mucosal lesions visually and targeting each biopsy. New histological risk stratifications (classifications), including OLGA and OLGIM, have recently been developed. This review addresses the current means for gastric cancer primary and secondary prevention, the available and emerging methods for screening, and new developments in endoscopic detection of early lesions of the stomach.

  20. [China faces a challenge of breast cancer prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B N; Chen, W Q; Zhang, X; Qiao, Y L

    2016-10-23

    The incidence and mortality of breast cancer is in an increasing trend. In contrast to the global breast cancer situation, the prevention and control is challenging in China. Some suggestions are presented to the project of breast cancer prevention and control in China. Combining the global screening experiences with the epidemiological features of Chinese female breast cancer, aims to improve the population screening and early detection rate. Standardizing clinical diagnosis and treatment practice, aims to increase the efficacy and decrease the mortality. Intervening lifestyle and dietary behaviors, and intends to reduce risk exposure and incidence. Building national breast cancer registry provides preventive strategies. Great efforts should be made to carry out large sample multicenter clinical trails and translational research on the prevention and cotrol of breast cancer coordiated by health care service and science and technology administrations. Breast cancer prevention and control has a long way to go in China.

  1. Prevention of colorectal cancer with vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheem, Dae S; Baylink, David J; Olafsson, Snorri; Jackson, Christian S; Walter, Michael H

    2010-08-01

    The fact that colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States emphasizes the need for more effective preventive and therapeutic modalities. There is growing evidence that vitamin D may reduce the incidence of CRC. Results of epidemiologic, in vitro, in vivo animal and clinical studies suggest that a low serum vitamin D level may be a serious risk factor for CRC and a high serum vitamin D level may reduce the risk of CRC. On a molecular level, vitamin D suppresses CRC development and growth by affecting cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Vitamin D insufficiency and CRC are common in the elderly population. Vitamin D insufficiency is simple to screen for and treatable with vitamin D supplementation. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (calcidiol) is the best measure of vitamin D status and should be checked routinely for individuals with risk factors for CRC. Maintaining serum concentrations of calcidiol above 32 ng/ml (80 nmol/l) in individuals whose serum calcidiol level is low may help prevent CRC as well as osteoporosis, fractures, infections, and cardiovascular disease. Daily calcidiol intake of 1000 International Units can increase serum vitamin D to sufficient levels in most elderly persons and, based on available data, may substantially lower the incidence of CRC with minimal risks.

  2. Screening, HPV Vaccine Can Prevent Cervical Cancer: FDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163464.html Screening, HPV Vaccine Can Prevent Cervical Cancer: FDA Agency recommends ... cancer, which is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). An FDA-approved vaccine called Gardasil 9 protects ...

  3. To Help Prevent Colon Cancer, 'Listen to Your Gut'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161185.html To Help Prevent Colon Cancer, 'Listen to Your Gut' Belly pain and black ... between life and death, especially for people with colon cancer, researchers report. People who pay attention to their ...

  4. Strength Training May Prevent Side Effect of Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162473.html Strength Training May Prevent Side Effect of Breast Cancer Surgery ... 9, 2016 FRIDAY, Dec. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Strength training might benefit breast cancer survivors who've undergone ...

  5. The Role of Genetic Counseling in the Prevention of Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagon, Roberta A.

    1979-01-01

    Detection and counseling of individuals with genetic eye disorders may reduce morbidity by preventing unnecessary visual loss, by reducing misunderstanding, apprehension, and fear; by facilitating early diagnosis of other medical disorders; and by referring patients for appropriate educational and vocational training. (Author/SBH)

  6. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  7. Genetics of Skin Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of skin cancer — basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma — including information about specific gene mutations and related cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about interventions that may influence the risk of developing skin cancer in individuals who may be genetically susceptible to these syndromes.

  8. Lay Representations of Cancer Prevention and Early Detection: Associations With Prevention Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen W. Sullivan, PhD, MPH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe Common Sense Model of illness representations posits that how people think about an illness affects how they try to prevent the illness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prevention representations vary by cancer type (colon, lung, and skin cancer and whether representations are associated with relevant behaviors.MethodsWe analyzed data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 2005, a nationally representative survey of American adults (N = 5,586 conducted by telephone interview.ResultsRespondents reported that all 3 types of cancer can be prevented through healthy behaviors; however, fewer did so for colon cancer. More respondents reported screening as a prevention strategy for colon cancer than did so for lung or skin cancer. Representations were associated with colon cancer screening, smoking status, and sunscreen use.ConclusionRepresentations of cancer were associated with relevant health behaviors, providing a target for health messages and interventions.

  9. Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention: Insights from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Nicastro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT was conducted to assess the efficacy of selenium and vitamin E alone, and in combination, on the incidence of prostate cancer. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial found that neither selenium nor vitamin E reduced the incidence of prostate cancer after seven years and that vitamin E was associated with a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer compared to placebo. The null result was surprising given the strong preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting chemopreventive activity of selenium. Potential explanations for the null findings include the agent formulation and dose, the characteristics of the cohort, and the study design. It is likely that only specific subpopulations may benefit from selenium supplementation; therefore, future studies should consider the baseline selenium status of the participants, age of the cohort, and genotype of specific selenoproteins, among other characteristics, in order to determine the activity of selenium in cancer prevention.

  10. The war on prevention: bellicose cancer metaphors hurt (some) prevention intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, David J; Schwarz, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Cancer health information is dominated by enemy and war metaphors intended to motivate the public to "fight" cancer. However, enemy metaphoric framing may influence understanding of, and responses to, cancer. Cancer prevention benefits from avoiding risk increasing behaviors, yet self-limitation is not closely associated with fighting enemies. If so, the metaphor may hurt prevention intentions involving self-limitation. Participants read messages with minute wording variations that established different metaphoric frames. Results show that metaphorically framing cancer as an enemy lessens the conceptual accessibility of (Study 1) and intention for self-limiting prevention behaviors while not increasing intention for monitoring and treatment behaviors (Studies 2 and 3). Framing self-limiting prevention behaviors in terms of fighting an enemy increases their appeal, illustrating the benefits of metaphor matching (Study 3). Overall, these results suggest that enemy metaphors in cancer information reduce some prevention intentions without increasing others, making their use potentially harmful for public health.

  11. Vitamin D and prevention of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JoEllen WELSH

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic data have demonstrated that breast cancer incidence is inversely correlated with indices of vitamin D status, including ultraviolet exposure, which enhances epidermal vitamin D synthesis. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is ex-pressed in mammary epithelial cells, suggesting that vitamin D may directly influ-ence sensitivity of the gland to transformation. Consistent with this concept, in vitro studies have demonstrated that the VDR ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), exerts negative growth regulatory effects on mammary epithelial ceils that contribute to maintenance of the differentiated phenotype. Furthermore, deletion of the VDR gene in mice alters the balance between proliferation and apoptosis in the mammary gland, which ultimately enhances its susceptibility to carcinogenesis.In addition, dietary supplementation with vitamin D, or chronic treatment with synthetic VDR agonists, reduces the incidence of carcinogen-induced mammary tumors in rodents. Collectively, these observations have reinforced the need to further define the human requirement for vitamin D and the molecular actions of the VDR in relation to prevention of breast cancer.

  12. [Human papillomavirus detection in cervical cancer prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picconi, María Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC), which is strongly associated to high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection, continues being a significant health problem in Latin America. The use of conventional cytology to detect precancerous cervical lesions has had no major impact on reducing CC incidence and mortality rates, which are still high in the region. New screening tools to detect precancerous lesions became available, which provide great opportunities for CC prevention, as do highly efficacious HPV vaccines able to prevent nearly all lesions associated with HPV-16 and -18 when applied before viral exposure. Currently, hr-HPV testing represents an invaluable component of clinical guidelines for screening, management and treatment of CC and their precursor lesions. Many testing strategies have been developed that can detect a broad spectrum of hr-HPV types in a single assay; however, only a small subset of them has documented clinical performance for any of the standard HPV testing indications. HPV tests that have not been validated and lack proof of reliability, reproducibility and accuracy should not be used in clinical management. Once incorporated into the lab, it is essential to submit the whole procedure of HPV testing to continuous and rigorous quality assurance to avoid sub-optimal, potentially harmful practices. Recent progress and current status of these methods are discussed in this article.

  13. Molecular-Genetic Aspects of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasteva M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy among women. Advances in breast cancer knowledge have deciphered the involvement of a number of tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes in disease pathogenesis. These genes are part of the complex biochemical pathways, which enable cell cycle control and maintenance of genome integrity. Their function may be disrupted as a result of alterations in gene sequence or misregulation of gene expression including alterations in DNA methylation pattern. The present review summarizes the main findings on major breast cancer related genes BRCA1/2, p53, ATM, CHEK2, HER2, PIK3CA and their tumorigenic inactivation/activation. The potential clinical importance of these genes with respect to patients’ prognosis and therapy are also discussed. The possible implication of other putative breast cancer related genes is also outlined. The first elaborate data on the genetic and epigenetic status of the above mentioned genes concerning Bulgarian patients with the sporadic form of the disease are presented. The studies indicate for a characteristic mutational spectrum in some of the genes for the Bulgarian patients and specific correlation between the status of different genes and clinicopathological characteristics.

  14. Nutrition Frontiers E-Newsletter | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change. |

  15. Cervical cancer prevention: new tools and old barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Garcia, Francisco A R; Kobetz, Erin; Partridge, Edward E; Brandt, Heather M; Bell, Maria C; Dignan, Mark; Ma, Grace X; Daye, Jane L; Castle, Philip E

    2010-06-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common female tumor worldwide, and its incidence is disproportionately high (>80%) in the developing world. In the United States, in which Papanicolaou (Pap) tests have reduced the annual incidence to approximately 11,000 cervical cancers, >60% of cases are reported to occur in medically underserved populations as part of a complex of diseases linked to poverty, race/ethnicity, and/or health disparities. Because carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause virtually all cervical cancer, 2 new approaches for cervical cancer prevention have emerged: 1) HPV vaccination to prevent infections in younger women (aged or =30 years). Together, HPV vaccination and testing, if used in an age-appropriate manner, have the potential to transform cervical cancer prevention, particularly among underserved populations. Nevertheless, significant barriers of access, acceptability, and adoption to any cervical cancer prevention strategy remain. Without understanding and addressing these obstacles, these promising new tools for cervical cancer prevention may be futile. In the current study, the delivery of cervical cancer prevention strategies to these US populations that experience a high cervical cancer burden (African-American women in South Carolina, Alabama, and Mississippi; Haitian immigrant women in Miami; Hispanic women in the US-Mexico Border; Sioux/Native American women in the Northern Plains; white women in the Appalachia; and Vietnamese-American women in Pennsylvania and New Jersey) is reviewed. The goal was to inform future research and outreach efforts to reduce the burden of cervical cancer in underserved populations.

  16. Impact of preventive therapy on the risk of breast cancer among women with benign breast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzick, Jack; Sestak, Ivana; Thorat, Mangesh A

    2015-11-01

    There are three main ways in which women can be identified as being at high risk of breast cancer i) family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer, which includes genetic factors ii) mammographically identified high breast density, and iii) certain types of benign breast disease. The last category is the least common, but in some ways the easiest one for which treatment can be offered, because these women have already entered into the treatment system. The highest risk is seen in women with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), but this is very rare. More common is atypical hyperplasia (AH), which carries a 4-5-fold risk of breast cancer as compared to general population. Even more common is hyperplasia of the usual type and carries a roughly two-fold increased risk. Women with aspirated cysts are also at increased risk of subsequent breast cancer. Tamoxifen has been shown to be particularly effective in preventing subsequent breast cancer in women with AH, with a more than 70% reduction in the P1 trial and a 60% reduction in IBIS-I. The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) also are highly effective for AH and LCIS. There are no published data on the effectiveness of tamoxifen or the AIs for breast cancer prevention in women with hyperplasia of the usual type, or for women with aspirated cysts. Improving diagnostic consistency, breast cancer risk prediction and education of physicians and patients regarding therapeutic prevention in women with benign breast disease may strengthen breast cancer prevention efforts.

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV vaccine can reduce risk of cervical cancer. HPV causes most cervical cancers. Only 1 in 3 girls and 1 in ... Signs – Cervical Cancer [PSA - 0:60 seconds] Cervical Cancer Preteen and Teen Vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Associated Cancers What Should I Know About ...

  18. The Prevention of Liver Cancer by HBV Vaccine Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Xiong

    2002-01-01

    Objective To recognize the HBV vaccine program for prevention of the hepatic cancer.Methods To discuss the relation between the HBV and hepatic cancer arising, and to discuss the immunology respond of the HBV vaccine (HBV surface antigen protein) in our patient group. Result Our data indicates that the predisposing of the HBV infection is required for the hepatic cancer arising and for the high expression of the AFP gene, and our data indicates that the HBV vaccine can induce highly immuno respond in about 78.8 % of the adult for achieving the HBV prevention status and the hepatic cancer prevention status.

  19. Systems Biology and Cancer Prevention: All Options on the Table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Rosenfeld

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we outline the status quo and approaches to further development of the systems biology concepts with focus on applications in cancer prevention science. We discuss the biological aspects of cancer research that are of primary importance in cancer prevention, motivations for their mathematical modeling and some recent advances in computational oncology. We also make an attempt to outline in big conceptual terms the contours of future work aimed at creation of large-scale computational and informational infrastructure for using as a routine tool in cancer prevention science and decision making.

  20. [Nutrition and physical activity: two targets for cancer prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Ronan; Dupertuis, Yves M; Belabed, Linda; Pichard, Claude

    2010-05-26

    The links between nutrition and cancer onset are now well established by epidemiological studies. The scientific evidence is presented in a report of the World Cancer Research Foundation (WCRF). Protective factors towards overall cancer risk are fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Overweight and obesity, intakes of alcoholic beverage, fat, salt, high temperature cooked and processed red meat, increase cancer risk. In addition, beta-carotene systematic supplementation could increase lung cancer risk in smokers. As optimal controlling of these risk factors can decrease cancer mortality by 25%, nutritional counselling must be integrated in the global strategy of primary and secondary prevention of cancers.

  1. Vitamins and cancer prevention: issues and dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, V R; Newberne, P M

    1981-03-01

    Vitamins are a class of organic compounds that are components of an adequate diet. They or their derivatives function as coenzymes, cellular antioxidants, and/or regulators of gene expression. Fourteen vitamins are recognized in human nutrition (Vitamins A, D, E, K, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, niacin, folacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline), with deficiencies or excesses in intake leading to changes in protein, nucleic acid, carbohydrates, fat and/or mineral metabolism. Thus, the integrity of physiological systems, including those associated with detoxification, cellular repair, immune processes, and neural and endocrine function, depends upon the nutritional and vitamin status of the host. For these reasons, it may be anticipated that the adequacy of the vitamin supply to cells and tissues would affect the development, progress, and outcome of cancers. In this review, the definition and functions of and requirements and recommended allowance for vitamins are discussed briefly before exploring the evidence, largely from studies in experimental animals, that indicates the nature of the link between vitamins and cancer. Although evidence based on studies in animal systems reveals that vitamin intake and status can modulate the outcome of experimental carcinogenesis, the findings are often conflicting and difficult to interpret. Furthermore, it is not yet possible to develop a suitable prediction of the role of the individual vitamins in tumor development. The significance of these observations for human nutrition and cancer prevention, particularly in reference to ascorbic acid (vitamin C), vitamin E, and B-complex vitamins is considered. Vitamin A and retinoid compounds are discussed elsewhere in the symposium. The many popular misconceptions and unsound advice concerning vitamins and health, including "fake" vitamins-pangamic acid ("vitamin B15") and laetrile ("vitamin B17")-are also discussed. On the basis of current evidence, it would be inappropriate to recommend

  2. Can Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancers Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV infection is linked to some cases of cancer of the larynx or hypopharynx, most people with HPV infections of ... on to develop this cancer. In addition, most cancers of the larynx and hypopharynx are not related to HPV infection. ...

  3. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Approved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    On June 24, 2013, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Board of Scientific Advisors approved the creation of the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP). NCORP will bring state-of-the art cancer prevention, control, treatment and imaging clinical trials, cancer care delivery research, and disparities studies to individuals in their own communities. |

  4. Cervical cancer prevention and treatment in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Melissa S; Baker, Ellen S; Maza, Mauricio; Fontes-Cintra, Georgia; Lopez, Aldo; Carvajal, Juan M; Nozar, Fernanda; Fiol, Veronica; Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2017-02-07

    Cervical cancer is a preventable disease with a known etiology (human papillomavirus), effective preventive vaccines, excellent screening methods, and a treatable pre-invasive phase. Surgery is the primary treatment for pre-invasive and early-stage disease and can safely be performed in many low-resource settings. However, cervical cancer rates remain high in many areas of Latin America. This article presents a number of evidence-based strategies being implemented to improve cervical cancer outcomes in Latin America.

  5. California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives: Setting a research agenda for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, P; Kavanaugh-Lynch, M H E; Plumb, M; Yen, I H; Sarantis, H; Thomsen, C L; Campleman, S; Galpern, E; Dickenson, C; Woodruff, T J

    2015-07-01

    The environment is an underutilized pathway to breast cancer prevention. Current research approaches and funding streams related to breast cancer and the environment are unequal to the task at hand. We undertook the California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives, a four-year comprehensive effort to set a research agenda related to breast cancer, the environment, disparities and prevention. We identified 20 topics for Concept Proposals reflecting a life-course approach and the complex etiology of breast cancer; considering the environment as chemical, physical and socially constructed exposures that are experienced concurrently: at home, in the community and at work; and addressing how we should be modifying the world around us to promote a less carcinogenic environment. Redirecting breast cancer research toward prevention-oriented discovery could significantly reduce the incidence and associated disparities of the disease among future generations.

  6. Ovarian Cancer and BRCA1/2 Testing: Opportunities to improve clinical care and disease prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eKarakasis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Without prevention or screening options available, ovarian cancer is the most lethal malignancy of the female reproductive tract. High grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC is the most common histologic subtype, and the role of germline BRCA1/2 mutation in predisposition and prognosis is established. Given the targeted treatment opportunities with PARP inhibitors, a predictive role for BRCA1/2 mutation has emerged. Despite recommendations to provide BRCA1/2 testing to all women with histologically confirmed HGSOC, uniform implementation remains challenging. The opportunity to review and revise genetic screening and testing practices will identify opportunities where universal adoption of BRCA1/2 mutation testing will impact and improve treatment of women with ovarian cancer. Improving education and awareness of genetic testing for women with cancer, as well as the broader general community, will help focus much needed attention on opportunities to advance prevention and screening programs in ovarian cancer. This is imperative not only for women with cancer, those at risk of developing cancer, but also for their first-degree relatives. In addition, BRCA1/2 testing may have direct implications for patients with other types of cancers, many which are now being found to have BRCA1/2 involvement.

  7. Geocoding and social marketing in Alabama's cancer prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Julianna W; White, Arica; Lubenow, Anne E; Palmer, Sally

    2005-11-01

    The Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH) is collaborating with the National Cancer Institute to develop detailed profiles of underserved Alabama communities most at risk for cancer. These profiles will be combined with geocoded data to create a pilot project, Cancer Prevention for Alabama's Underserved Populations: A Focused Approach. The project's objectives are to provide the ADPH's cancer prevention programs with a more accurate and cost-effective means of planning, implementing, and evaluating its prevention activities in an outcomes-oriented and population-appropriate manner. The project links geocoded data from the Alabama Statewide Cancer Registry with profiles generated by the National Cancer Institute's cancer profiling system, Consumer Health Profiles. These profiles have been successfully applied to market-focused cancer prevention messages across the United States. The ADPH and the National Cancer Institute will evaluate the efficacy of using geocoded data and lifestyle segmentation information in strategy development and program implementation. Alabama is the first state in the nation not only to link geocoded cancer registry data with lifestyle segmentation data but also to use the National Cancer Institute's profiles and methodology in combination with actual state data.

  8. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress can cause cancer. Our aim was to establish whether antioxidant supplements reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer and mortality.......Oxidative stress can cause cancer. Our aim was to establish whether antioxidant supplements reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer and mortality....

  9. Prevention of the Angiogenic Switch in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    chronic myeloid leukaemia | colorectal cancer | Down syndrome | infantile haemangiomas | multiple myeloma | non-small-cell lung cancer | rheumatoid...Human Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Donald Ingber, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Children’s Hospital...From - To) 15 FEB 2004 - 14 FEB 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Prevention of the Angiogenic Switch in Human Breast Cancer 5b

  10. Genetic Testing for Rare Cancer: The Wider Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Chris; Pichert, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Identification of a potential genetic susceptibility to cancer and confirmation of a pathogenic gene mutation raises a number of challenging issues for the patient with cancer, their relatives and the health professionals caring for them. The specific risks and management issues associated with rare cancer types have been addressed in the earlier chapters. This chapter considers the wider issues involved in genetic counselling and genetic testing for a genetic susceptibility to cancer for patients, families and health professionals. The first part of the chapter will present the issues raised by the current practice in genetic counselling and genetic testing for cancer susceptibility. The second part of the chapter will address some of the issues raised by the advances in genetic testing technology and the future opportunities provided by personalised medicine and targeted cancer therapy. Facilitating these developments requires closer integration of genomics into mainstream cancer care, challenging the existing paradigm of genetic medicine, adding additional layers of complexity to the risk assessment and management of cancer and presenting wider issues for patients, families, health professionals and clinical services.

  11. Prevalence and detection of psychosocial problems in cancer genetic counseling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijzenga, W.; Bleiker, E.M.A.; Hahn, D.E.E.; van der Kolk, L.E.; Sidharta, G.N.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Only a minority of individuals who undergo cancer genetic counseling experience heightened levels of psychological distress, but many more experience a range of cancer genetic-specific psychosocial problems. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of such psychosocial problems, and to i

  12. Identification of novel genetic markers of breast cancer survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Q. Guo (Qi); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); P. Kraft (Peter); S. Canisius (Sander); C. Chen (Constance); S. Khan (Sofia); J.P. Tyrer (Jonathan); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); Q. Wang (Qing); J. Dennis (Joe); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); M. Lush (Michael); S. Kar (Siddhartha); J. Beesley (Jonathan); A.M. Dunning (Alison); M. Shah (Mitul); K. Czene (Kamila); H. Darabi (Hatef); M. Eriksson (Mikael); D. Lambrechts (Diether); C. Weltens (Caroline); K. Leunen; S.E. Bojesen (Stig); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); S.F. Nielsen (Sune); H. Flyger (Henrik); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); A. Rudolph (Anja); P. Seibold (Petra); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); C. Blomqvist (Carl); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); R. Fagerholm (Rainer); T.A. Muranen (Taru); F.J. Couch (Fergus); J.E. Olson (Janet); C. Vachon (Celine); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); G. Glendon (Gord); A.-M. Mulligan (Anna-Marie); A. Broeks (Annegien); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); B.E. Henderson (Brian); F.R. Schumacher (Fredrick); L. Le Marchand (Loic); J. Hopper (John); H. Tsimiklis (Helen); C. Apicella (Carmel); M.C. Southey (Melissa); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); G.G. Giles (Graham G.); R.L. Milne (Roger L.); C.A. McLean (Catriona Ann); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); M. Grip (Mervi); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); J.W.M. Martens (John W. M.); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); F. Marme (Federick); A. Schneeweiss (Andreas); R. Yang (Rongxi); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); H. Brenner (Hermann); A.K. Dieffenbach (Aida Karina); V. Arndt (Volker); B. Holleczek (B.); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); J. Li (Jingmei); J.S. Brand (Judith S.); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); P. Devilee (Peter); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); P. Mariani (Paolo); P.A. Fasching (Peter); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); R. Hein (Rebecca); A.B. Ekici (Arif); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); R. Balleine (Rosemary); K.-A. Phillips (Kelly-Anne); J. Benítez (Javier); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); J.I. Arias Pérez (José Ignacio); P. Menéndez (Primitiva); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); U. Hamann (Ute); M. Kabisch (Maria); H.U. Ulmer (Hans); T. Rud̈iger (Thomas); S. Margolin (Sara); V. Kristensen (Vessela); S. Nord (Silje); D.G. Evans (Gareth); J. Abraham (Jean); H. Earl (Helena); L. Hiller (Louise); J.A. Dunn (J.); S. Bowden (Sarah); C.D. Berg (Christine); D. Campa (Daniele); W.R. Diver (Ryan); S.M. Gapstur (Susan M.); M.M. Gaudet (Mia); S.E. Hankinson (Susan); R.N. Hoover (Robert); A. Hüsing (Anika); R. Kaaks (Rudolf); M.J. Machiela (Mitchell J.); W.C. Willett (Walter C.); M. Barrdahl (Myrto); F. Canzian (Federico); S.-F. Chin (Suet-Feung); C. Caldas (Carlos); D. Hunter (David); S. Lindstrom (Stephen); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); P. Hall (Per); D.F. Easton (Douglas); D. Eccles (Diana); N. Rahman (Nazneen); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Survival after a diagnosis of breast cancer varies considerably between patients, and some of this variation may be because of germline genetic variation. We aimed to identify genetic markers associated with breast cancer-specific survival. Methods: We conducted a large meta-

  13. Identification of novel genetic markers of breast cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qi; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Kraft, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Survival after a diagnosis of breast cancer varies considerably between patients, and some of this variation may be because of germline genetic variation. We aimed to identify genetic markers associated with breast cancer-specific survival. METHODS: We conducted a large meta-analysis ...

  14. Defining and targeting an audience for cancer-prevention messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettinghaus, E P

    1992-01-01

    The target audience for cancer-prevention messages is not the cancer patient. Cancer-prevention messages should be designed for and directed toward groups of people who have been determined to be at risk for the disease. Potential audiences may vary widely in size and nature, depending on the specific cancer, its cause, and its etiology. The prevention of specific disease, eg, lung cancer, typically demands some behavior on the part of the recipient of a cancer-prevention message. Thus, members of a target audience may be asked to stop smoking or to refrain from starting. Each potential target audience is likely to be unique and cannot always be reached with typical mass-media campaigns. Messages designed to be effective for such special audiences may be required if a significant impact on behavior is to be obtained. This article attempts to identify potential audiences for cancer-prevention messages and develops the nature of the media to be used, the sources to be employed, and the arguments to be developed in such a campaign. Characteristics (eg, sex, race, age, marital status, and socioeconomic status) are used as examples of variables that may dictate the nature of cancer-prevention campaigns.

  15. Chemo/Dietary prevention of cancer: perspectives in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Feng, Qing

    2014-11-01

    Cancer is a major disease worldwide and different approaches are needed for its prevention. Previous laboratory and clinical studies suggest that cancer can be prevented by chemicals, including those from the diet. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have suggested that deficiencies in certain nutrients can increase the risk of some cancers. In this article on chemo/dietary prevention, examples will be given to illustrate the effectiveness of chemopreventive agents in the prevention of breast, colon and prostate cancers in high-risk populations and the possible side effects of these agents. The potential usefulness of dietary approaches in cancer prevention and the reasons for some of the failed trials will be discussed. Lessons learned from these studies can be used to design more relevant research projects and develop effective measures for cancer prevention in the future. The development of effective chemopreventive agents, the use of nutrient supplements in deficient or carcinogen-exposed populations, and the importance of cohort studies will be discussed in the context of the current socioeconomic situation in China. More discussions are needed on how we can influence society to pay more attention to cancer prevention research and measures.

  16. Education in cancer prevention for primary care clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R R; Stone, H L; Hughes, B

    1986-01-01

    In response to increased public interest in cancer prevention and rapidly escalating health care costs, the National Cancer Institute supported the development of cancer prevention courses for health professionals. A multidisciplinary group of physicians, behavioral scientists, and educators developed, field-tested, revised, and evaluated a 12-module, 24-classroom-hour clinical preventive oncology course for primary care physicians. A rationale for education in cancer prevention is presented, the new clinical discipline of preventive oncology is defined, and contributory disciplines are identified. A curriculum based upon detailed learning objectives is described, short-term evaluation data are presented, and a methodology for incorporating a didactic course into a residency program is suggested. The positive reception given to this course by residents warrants optimism concerning application of a biopsychosocial or self-regulative model rather than the traditional biomedical one to clinical medicine and its teaching.

  17. American Society of Clinical Oncology Policy Statement Update: Genetic and Genomic Testing for Cancer Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Mark E; Bradbury, Angela R; Arun, Banu; Domchek, Susan M; Ford, James M; Hampel, Heather L; Lipkin, Stephen M; Syngal, Sapna; Wollins, Dana S; Lindor, Noralane M

    2015-11-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) has long affirmed that the recognition and management of individuals with an inherited susceptibility to cancer are core elements of oncology care. ASCO released its first statement on genetic testing in 1996 and updated that statement in 2003 and 2010 in response to developments in the field. In 2014, the Cancer Prevention and Ethics Committees of ASCO commissioned another update to reflect the impact of advances in this area on oncology practice. In particular, there was an interest in addressing the opportunities and challenges arising from the application of massively parallel sequencing-also known as next-generation sequencing-to cancer susceptibility testing. This technology introduces a new level of complexity into the practice of cancer risk assessment and management, requiring renewed effort on the part of ASCO to ensure that those providing care to patients with cancer receive the necessary education to use this new technology in the most effective, beneficial manner. The purpose of this statement is to explore the challenges of new and emerging technologies in cancer genetics and provide recommendations to ensure their optimal deployment in oncology practice. Specifically, the statement makes recommendations in the following areas: germline implications of somatic mutation profiling, multigene panel testing for cancer susceptibility, quality assurance in genetic testing, education of oncology professionals, and access to cancer genetic services.

  18. Advancing cervical cancer prevention in India: implementation science priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Madsen, Emily; Porterfield, Deborah; Varghese, Beena

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in India, accounting for 17% of all cancer deaths among women aged 30 to 69 years. At current incidence rates, the annual burden of new cases in India is projected to increase to 225,000 by 2025, but there are few large-scale, organized cervical cancer prevention programs in the country. We conducted a review of the cervical cancer prevention research literature and programmatic experiences in India to summarize the current state of knowledge and practices and recommend research priorities to address the gap in services. We found that research and programs in India have demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of cervical cancer prevention efforts and that screening strategies requiring minimal additional human resources and laboratory infrastructure can reduce morbidity and mortality. However, additional evidence generated through implementation science research is needed to ensure that cervical cancer prevention efforts have the desired impact and are cost-effective. Specifically, implementation science research is needed to understand individual- and community-level barriers to screening and diagnostic and treatment services; to improve health care worker performance; to strengthen links among screening, diagnosis, and treatment; and to determine optimal program design, outcomes, and costs. With a quarter of the global burden of cervical cancer in India, there is no better time than now to translate research findings to practice. Implementation science can help ensure that investments in cervical cancer prevention and control result in the greatest impact.

  19. Cancer risk and preventive behavior: persuasion as an intervention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonani, Marcela; Carvalho, Emilia Campos de

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of interventions for health promotion, protection, and early diagnosis may include the process of persuasion employed. This study aims to evaluate the risk level of developing cancer, considering the pertinent risk factors, and the presence of persuasion and characteristics in communication regarding cancer prevention and early detection. It is an observational study, conducted among 110 inhabitants of a neighborhood in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil. It was confirmed that there are high risks for colon/rectum, cervical, and endometrial cancer; and moderate risks for the above as well as lung and breast cancer. In terms of persuasion, it was observed that cancer information was spread but not sustained for long periods. Moreover, there was no reinforcement. In view of cancer risk and the identified preventive behaviors, persuasion is considered a useful strategy to reduce these risks, as well as to encourage and sustain preventive behaviors, since it indicates routes to be followed.

  20. Third Preventing Overdiagnosis conference | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overdiagnosis Conference Early Bird Registration Open and Abstract Submission This event will be co-hosted by the National institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute in Washington DC, September 01-03, 2015. |

  1. Employing the Church as a Marketer of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Coffey, Candice R.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church. PMID:23718957

  2. Epigenetics and genetics in endometrial cancer: new carcinogenic mechanisms and relationship with clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Kouji; Kisu, Iori; Yanokura, Megumi; Masuda, Kenta; Ueki, Arisa; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Susumu, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Daisuke

    2012-04-01

    Endometrial cancer is the seventh most common cancer worldwide among females. An increased incidence and a younger age of patients are also predicted to occur, and therefore elucidation of the pathological mechanisms is important. However, several aspects of the mechanism of carcinogenesis in the endometrium remain unclear. Associations with genetic mutations of cancer-related genes have been shown, but these do not provide a complete explanation. Therefore, epigenetic mechanisms have been examined. Silencing of genes by DNA hypermethylation, hereditary epimutation of DNA mismatch repair genes and regulation of gene expression by miRNAs may underlie carcinogenesis in endometrial cancer. New therapies include targeting epigenetic changes using histone deacetylase inhibitors. Some cases of endometrial cancer may also be hereditary. Thus, patients with Lynch syndrome which is a hereditary disease, have a higher risk for developing endometrial cancer than the general population. Identification of such disease-related genes may contribute to early detection and prevention of endometrial cancer.

  3. Cancer genetic association studies in the genome-wide age

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Sharon A

    2008-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies of hundreds of thousands of SNPs have led to a deluge of studies of genetic variation in cancer and other common diseases. Large case–control and cohort studies have identified novel SNPs as markers of cancer risk. Genome-wide association study SNP data have also advanced understanding of population-specific genetic variation. While studies of risk profiles, combinations of SNPs that may increase cancer risk, are not yet clinically applicable, future, large-sca...

  4. Complementary roles in cancer prevention: protease inhibitor makes the cancer preventive peptide lunasin bioavailable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chien Hsieh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The lower incidence of breast cancer among Asian women compared with Western countries has been partly attributed to soy in the Asian diet, leading to efforts to identify the bioactive components that are responsible. Soy Bowman Birk Inhibitor Concentrate (BBIC is a known cancer preventive agent now in human clinical trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objectives of this work are to establish the presence and delineate the in vitro activity of lunasin and BBI found in BBIC, and study their bioavailability after oral administration to mice and rats. We report that lunasin and BBI are the two main bioactive ingredients of BBIC based on inhibition of foci formation, lunasin being more efficacious than BBI on an equimolar basis. BBI and soy Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor protect lunasin from in vitro digestion with pancreatin. Oral administration of (3H-labeled lunasin with lunasin-enriched soy results in 30% of the peptide reaching target tissues in an intact and bioactive form. In a xenograft model of nude mice transplanted with human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, intraperitoneal injections of lunasin, at 20 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg body weight, decrease tumor incidence by 49% and 33%, respectively, compared with the vehicle-treated group. In contrast, injection with BBI at 20 mg/kg body weight shows no effect on tumor incidence. Tumor generation is significantly reduced with the two doses of lunasin, while BBI is ineffective. Lunasin inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death in the breast tumor sections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that lunasin is actually the bioactive cancer preventive agent in BBIC, and BBI simply protects lunasin from digestion when soybean and other seed foods are eaten by humans.

  5. Prevention of cancer risk of workers of glass fibers manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Mukhammadieva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the process of producing of continuous glass fiber workers are exposed to complex impact of carcinogenic chemicals released into the air of the working area (including formaldehyde, epichlorohydrin, ethane acids, aerosol of mineral oil. The penetrating effect of harmful substances through the skin is enhanced by the fine glass dust, which has a traumatic and irritating effect. Aggravating factors of the impact of lubricants on the body of the operators is the increased temperature and the excess of heat radiation. A risk factor is also the unfavorable climate of the workplace. Among the professional patients (71 person of 170 examined employees most of persons aged 50–59 years. The average age of the patients at the time of detection of hyperkeratosis was 51,9 ± 0,9 years, skin cancer – 57,3 ± 1,7 years. Professional skin neoplasms were diagnosed mainly in workers who have been working for more than 10 years (average period of 12.6 ± 2.4 years. The period of transformation of limited hyperkeratosis to the skin cancer was on average 5–8 years. It was found that the molecular-genetic factors predisposing to the development of professional skin lesions are polymorphic variants of the gene suppressor of tumor growth TP53 (Ex4 + 119G>C, IVS3 16 bp Del/Ins and IVS6+62A>G. It has been shown that the development of preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of occupational diseases is relevant and should include the interaction of administration, engineering and technical staff of the enterprise, labor protection service, Rospotrebnadzor specialists, doctors specialized in occupational diseases and the workers themselves. The complex of measures of primary and secondary prevention of health problems is suggested. The necessity of including the continuous glass fiber production to the list of carcinogen production processes, presented in national normative documents.

  6. From Biology to Targeted Cancer Treatment and Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li MAO

    2009-01-01

    @@ Cancer is a complex disease involving accumulation of multiple molecular abnormalities during a long period of time. Because the differences in tim-ing and types of abnormalities, together with differences in inherited genetic background of individuals, patients with even same type cancer may experi- ence dramatically different clinical presentations and outcomes.

  7. Cancer Prevention and Control in American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, James W.

    1992-01-01

    Examines differences among American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives with regard to incidence and mortality rates for various types of cancer, particularly lung, cervix, breast, biliary, gastric, colorectal, prostate, and primary hepatic cancer. Discusses the influence of genetic and environmental factors, smoking, and inadequate medical…

  8. Health initiatives for the prevention of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinert, Rüdiger; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Mohr, Peter; Volkmer, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in white population worldwide. However, because the most prominent risk factor-solar UV-radiation and/or artificial UV from sunbeds-is known, skin cancer is highly preventable be primary prevention. This prevention needs, that the public is informed by simple and balanced messages about the possible harms and benefits of UV-exposure and how a person should behave under certain conditions of UV-exposure. For this purpose information and recommendations for the public must be age- and target-group specific to cover all periods of life and to reach all sub-groups of a population, continuously. There is a need that political institutions together with Health Institutions and Societies (e.g., European Commission, WHO, EUROSKIN, ICNIRP, etc.), which are responsible for primary prevention of skin cancer, find a common language to inform the public, in order not to confuse it. This is especially important in connection with the ongoing Vitamin D debate, where possible positive effects of UV have to be balanced with the well known skin cancer risk of UV. A continuously ongoing evaluation of interventions and programs in primary prevention is a pre-requisite to assess the effectiveness of strategies. There is surely no "no message fits all" approach, but balanced information in health initiatives for prevention of skin cancer, which use evidence-base strategies, will further be needed in the future to reduce the incidence, morbidity and mortality skin cancer.

  9. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural...... history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe....

  10. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Cuzick (Jack); M.A. Thorat (Mangesh A); G. Andriole (Gerald); O.W. Brawley (Otis W); P.H. Brown (Powel H); Z. Culig (Zoran); R. Eeles (Rosalind); L.G. Ford (Leslie G); F. Hamdy (Freddie); L. Holmberg (Lars); D. Ilic (Dragan); T.J. Key (Timothy J); C.L. Vecchia (Carlo La); H. Lilja (Hans); M. Marberger (Michael); F.L. Meyskens (Frank L); L.M. Minasian (Lori M); C. Parker (C.); H.L. Parnes (Howard L); S. Perner (Sven); H. Rittenhouse (Harry); J.A. Schalken (J.); H.-P. Schmid (Hans-Peter); B.J. Schmitz-Dräger (Bernd J); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A. Stenzl (Arnulf); B. Tombal (Bertrand); T.J. Wilt (Timothy J.); K. Wolk (Kerstin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by pr

  11. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world. One out of three new cancers is a skin cancer. More than 1 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell cancers [SCC]) occur annually. While the incidence rates for non-melanoma skin cancers continue to rise, there continues to be a substantial impact on morbidity, health and health care costs. |

  12. Convergence of nanotechnology and cancer prevention: are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menter, David G; Patterson, Sherri L; Logsdon, Craig D; Kopetz, Scott; Sood, Anil K; Hawk, Ernest T

    2014-10-01

    Nanotechnology is emerging as a promising modality for cancer treatment; however, in the realm of cancer prevention, its full utility has yet to be determined. Here, we discuss the potential of integrating nanotechnology in cancer prevention to augment early diagnosis, precision targeting, and controlled release of chemopreventive agents, reduced toxicity, risk/response assessment, and personalized point-of-care monitoring. Cancer is a multistep, progressive disease; the functional and acquired characteristics of the early precancer phenotype are intrinsically different from those of a more advanced anaplastic or invasive malignancy. Therefore, applying nanotechnology to precancers is likely to be far more challenging than applying it to established disease. Frank cancers are more readily identifiable through imaging and biomarker and histopathologic assessment than their precancerous precursors. In addition, prevention subjects routinely have more rigorous intervention criteria than therapy subjects. Any nanopreventive agent developed to prevent sporadic cancers found in the general population must exhibit a very low risk of serious side effects. In contrast, a greater risk of side effects might be more acceptable in subjects at high risk for cancer. Using nanotechnology to prevent cancer is an aspirational goal, but clearly identifying the intermediate objectives and potential barriers is an essential first step in this exciting journey.

  13. CANCER IS PREVENTABLE- LET US TRY OUR LEVEL BEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a chronic disease and the prevalence is increasing at a faster rate in recent years. Most of the cancers are incurable, treatment is very expensive and is not affordable even for above middle-class people. A strong correlation is observed between lifestyle factors and cancer incidence or prevention. Let us know about cancer prevention lifestyle focussing mainly on the role of physical activity and diet. Most of the people leading sedentary life style. There is an overall decline in the level of physical activity. There is strong evidence between adequate physical activity and prevention of colon cancer and breast cancer. Regular and proper physical activity increases the motility of digestive system and decreases the residence time of food carcinogens. Further it will decrease obesity as well as abdominal fat deposition. Moreover regular physical activity is associated with a decrease in the circulating levels of sex hormones, insulin and insulin like growth factor; all are associated with cancer incidence. Let us be active to make world cancer free. Meet you again in the next issue with the role of diet in cancer prevention.

  14. Delivering cervical cancer prevention services in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J; Barone, M; Mahé, C; Lewis, R; Luciani, S

    2005-05-01

    The goals of any cervical cancer prevention program should be threefold: to achieve high coverage of the population at risk, to screen women with an accurate test as part of high-quality services, and to ensure that women with positive test results are properly managed. This article focuses on the experiences of the Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (ACCP) in delivery of screening and treatment services as part of cervical cancer prevention projects in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. Research and experience show that cervical cancer can be prevented when strategies and services are well planned and well managed and when attention is paid to program monitoring and evaluation. Coordination of program components, reduction of the number of visits, improvement of service quality, and flexibility in how services are delivered are all essential features of an effective service.

  15. Protein found to promote DNA repair, prevent cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ An abundant chromosomal protein that binds to damaged DNA prevents cancer development by enhancing DNA repair, researchers at University of Texas reported on-line in the Proceedings of the National Academies of Science.

  16. Epidemiology of gastric cancer and perspectives for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUÑOZ NUBIA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent estimates of the world-wide incidence of cancer indicate that gastric cancer was in 1990 the second most frequent cancer in the world (after lung cancer, with about 900 000 new cases diagnosed every year. Steady declines in the rates have been observed everywhere in the last few decades, but the absolute number of new cases per year is increasing mainly because of ageing of the population. The exact causes of the decline of gastric cancer are not well understood, but must include improvements in diet, food storage (e.g., refrigeration and, possibly, the decline of Helicobacter pylori infection. Dietary modifications and, possibly, vitamin supplements remain one of the most important tool for the prevention of gastric cancer. Control of H. pylori infection, by means of eradication or immunization, is also likely to offer great potential for the prevention of this important malignancy.

  17. Developing phytoestrogens for breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mandy M; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jeffrey

    2012-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women, and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Chemoprevention using phytoestrogens (PEs) for breast cancer may be a valid strategy. PEs are phytochemicals with estrogen-like structures and can be classified into four types: isoflavones, lignans, stilbenes and coumestans. They are widely distributed in diet and herbs and have shown anti-cancer activity via mechanisms including estrogen receptor modulation, aromatase inhibition, and anti-angiogenesis. Genistein, daidzein and resveratrol are some of the most studied PE examples. Quality control in product manufacturing and clinical study design is a critical issue in developing them as clinically effective chemopreventive agents for breast cancer.

  18. Nutrients, foods, and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S; Chan, Andrew T

    2015-05-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigations have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grains have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat have been associated with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, folate, fruits, and vegetables. Nutrients and foods also may interact, as a dietary pattern, to influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet likely influences colorectal carcinogenesis through several interacting mechanisms. These include the direct effects on immune responsiveness and inflammation, and the indirect effects of overnutrition and obesity-risk factors for colorectal cancer. Emerging evidence also implicates the gut microbiota as an important effector in the relationship between diet and cancer. Dietary modification therefore has the promise of reducing colorectal cancer incidence.

  19. Genetic factors associated with cancer male breast: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Maria Tomaz Silveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The male breast cancer is a rare neoplastic framework, covers 1% of cases of breast cancer worldwide, 1% of malignant tumors in men and has an annual incidence of 1 per 100,000 men. Information was gathered about the current studies related to genetic character in addressed condition, in which the goal was to analyze aspects of predisposition and association, using 16 original articles indexed in the period between January 2011 to February 2016, written in English and Spanish, with experimental design or observational, using male breast cancer descriptors, breast cancer and genetic factor for breast cancer, as well as their English translations male breast cancer, cancer treatment, breast cancer and genetic factors. It was mainly discussed the genetic influence on the occurrence of male breast cancer, such as changes in suppressors BRCA genes, relationships with CHECK2 checkpoint, family history and links with Klinefelter syndrome, among other factors. Environmental aspects are also suggested by the literature on the clinical neoplasic manifestation, but with less conclusive emphases. Although the literature on the subject still need growth and deepening, we observe scientific reassurances about the importance of genetic influence, especially the BRCA 1, about the Multifactorial etiology of the neoplasia.

  20. Vitamin D for Cancer Prevention: Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    and lost considerable power because of a factorial design that did not take into account an unexpected interaction for colorectal cancer between the...Overgrowth, penetration of Rapidly mitotic cells compete for Re-establishes basement nutrients and blood supply, dissolve intercellular junctions and...MH, Zang M, Singh RK, Siegal GP. 1 alpha,25- Dihydroxyvitamin D ( calcitriol ) inhibits rhe invasiveness of human pros- tate cancer cells. Cancer

  1. Molecular Mechanism by Which Retinoids Prevent Breast Cancer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    clinicians to conquer this disease is to prevent the incidence, detect early and treat breast cancer with effective therapy resulting in long overall... biological functions such as embryogenesis, growth, differentiation, vision and reproduction (3-6). Retinoids also contain anti- proliferative...and are currently available to treat psoriasis , acne, photoaging, actinic keratosis or cancers such as acute promelocytic leukemia, cutaneous T-cell

  2. NCORP’s First Year Reviewed | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    By the numbers, the first year of NCI’s Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) has made progress in clinical trials for prevention, control, health-related quality of life, comparative effectiveness and screening; accrual to NCI National Clinical Trials Network treatment and imaging trials; and in new areas of emphasis in cancer care delivery research and cancer disparities research. |

  3. Genetic counseling for breast cancer risk: how did we get here and where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Katherine Af

    2013-07-01

    Genetic counselors have been helping patients navigate hereditary cancer risk for decades. The rapidly changing landscape of genetic testing options means the field is again at a unique time in its history. Fears that arose when BRCA testing first became available are again being voiced in light of next-generation sequencing. The origins of genetic counseling, best practices, and recommendations that have come about since those early days need to be well understood before these new challenges can be met. The role of a proper risk assessment in preventing adverse outcomes is vital as options for testing change. In addition, an understanding of how various countries have incorporated genetic testing and genetic counseling into their healthcare systems can provide lessons in moving forward and capitalizing on the new technology that is again creating a genetics revolution.

  4. Genomic and genetic alterations influence the progression of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefania Nobili; Lorenzo Bruno; Ida Landini; Cristina Napoli; Paolo Bechi; Francesco Tonelli; Carlos A Rubio; Enrico Mini; Gabriella Nesi

    2011-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancerrelated deaths worldwide, although the incidence has gradually decreased in many Western countries. Twomain gastric cancer histotypes, intestinal and diffuse, are recognised. Although most of the described genetic alterations have been observed in both types, different genetic pathways have been hypothesized. Genetic and epigenetic events, including 1q loss of heterozygosity (LOH), microsatellite instability and hypermethylation, have mostly been reported in intestinal-type gastric carcinoma and its precursor lesions, whereas 17p LOH, mutation or loss of E-cadherin are more often implicated in the development of diffuse-type gastric cancer.

  5. Supportive and Palliative Care Research | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supportive and palliative care research includes studies to prevent or treat the acute and chronic symptoms and morbidities related to cancer and its treatment, and to examine the effects of cancer and its treatment on quality of life and psychosocial issues and treatment strategies at the end of life. Active Projects can range from caregiver issues to geriatrics, physical functioning to cognitive dysfunction. | Examining symptoms and morbidities related to cancer, its treatment, quality of life and end of life.

  6. "Lassie," "Toto," and fellow pet dogs: poised to lead the way for advances in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Deborah W; Dhawan, Deepika; Ostrander, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Cancer causes substantial morbidity and takes the lives of over 8 million people worldwide each year. Advances in cancer prevention research are crucial, and animal models are key to this. There are many valuable experimentally induced cancer models, but these do not fully meet the needs for cancer prevention studies. Pet dogs with risks for naturally occurring cancer can fill important gaps in cancer prevention research. Using invasive urothelial carcinoma (iUC) as an example, the advantages of utilizing pet dogs include: (1) close similarities between dogs and humans in carcinogenesis, molecular and cellular features, invasive and metastatic behavior, and response to treatment, thus providing high relevance for comparative studies, (2) shared environment between dogs and humans to help identify not-yet-known environmental iUC risks, (3) strong breed-associated risk (5- to 21-fold increased risk compared with mixed breeds) that facilitates investigation of gene-environment interactions, screening, and early intervention, (4) large size of dogs (versus rodents) that allows collection of fluids and tissues via cystoscopy, and detailed imaging at multiple time points, and (5) acceptance for studies in which each participating dog can benefit while enjoying life in their family environment, and in which findings will help other dogs and humans. An ongoing 3-year study in Scottish Terriers (comparable to a 15- to 20-year study in humans) is aimed at defining genetic and environmental risk factors for iUC, effective methods for screening/early detection, and a successful secondary cancer prevention approach with very promising results to date. Pet dogs can indeed propel cancer prevention research.

  7. Cancer genetics and genomics: essentials for oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jean; Habin, Karleen; Underhill, Meghan

    2014-06-01

    Cancer genetics and genomics are rapidly evolving, with new discoveries emerging in genetic mutations, variants, genomic sequencing, risk-reduction methods, and targeted therapies. To educate patients and families, state-of-the-art care requires nurses to understand terminology, scientific and technological advances, and pharmacogenomics. Clinical application of cancer genetics and genomics involves working in interdisciplinary teams to properly identify patient risk through assessing family history, facilitating genetic testing and counseling services, applying risk-reduction methods, and administering and monitoring targeted therapies.

  8. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude;

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natur...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions hereditary diffuse gastric cancer hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited disorder that greatly increases ...

  10. Etiology and Early Marker Studies (EEMS) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Etiology and Early Marker Studies (EEMS) is a component of the PLCO Trial. By collecting biologic materials and risk factor information from trial participants before the diagnosis of disease, PLCO EEMS adds substantial value to the trial, providing a resource for cancer research, focused, in particular, on cancer etiology and early markers. Etiologic studies investigate the environmental, biochemical and genetic risk factors for cancer. Early detection studies aim to develop reproducible, diagnostics-ready biomarkers of early disease. | Risk factor data and biospecimens collected before the diagnosis of disease from participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial.

  11. Targeting CD81 to Prevent Metastases in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0398 TITLE: Targeting CD81 to Prevent Metastases in Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Stefanie Jeffrey...Targeting CD81 to Prevent Metastases in Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0398 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Stefanie Jeffrey 5d...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES None 14. ABSTRACT During the research period, we tested a role for CD81 in breast cancer metastases and found that loss of CD81

  12. Genetically Predicted Body Mass Index and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yan; Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or enviro......BACKGROUND: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic...... or environmental factors. METHODS: We applied Mendelian randomization to evaluate the association between BMI and risk of breast cancer occurrence using data from two large breast cancer consortia. We created a weighted BMI genetic score comprising 84 BMI-associated genetic variants to predicted BMI. We evaluated...... genetically predicted BMI in association with breast cancer risk using individual-level data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) (cases  =  46,325, controls  =  42,482). We further evaluated the association between genetically predicted BMI and breast cancer risk using summary statistics from...

  13. Discriminatory power of common genetic variants in personalized breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yirong; Abbey, Craig K.; Liu, Jie; Ong, Irene; Peissig, Peggy; Onitilo, Adedayo A.; Fan, Jun; Yuan, Ming; Burnside, Elizabeth S.

    2016-03-01

    Technology advances in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has engendered optimism that we have entered a new age of precision medicine, in which the risk of breast cancer can be predicted on the basis of a person's genetic variants. The goal of this study is to evaluate the discriminatory power of common genetic variants in breast cancer risk estimation. We conducted a retrospective case-control study drawing from an existing personalized medicine data repository. We collected variables that predict breast cancer risk: 153 high-frequency/low-penetrance genetic variants, reflecting the state-of-the-art GWAS on breast cancer, mammography descriptors and BI-RADS assessment categories in the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. We trained and tested naïve Bayes models by using these predictive variables. We generated ROC curves and used the area under the ROC curve (AUC) to quantify predictive performance. We found that genetic variants achieved comparable predictive performance to BI-RADS assessment categories in terms of AUC (0.650 vs. 0.659, p-value = 0.742), but significantly lower predictive performance than the combination of BI-RADS assessment categories and mammography descriptors (0.650 vs. 0.751, p-value < 0.001). A better understanding of relative predictive capability of genetic variants and mammography data may benefit clinicians and patients to make appropriate decisions about breast cancer screening, prevention, and treatment in the era of precision medicine.

  14. A micro costing of NHS cancer genetic services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, G L; Tudor-Edwards, R; Gray, J; Butler, R; Wilkinson, C; Turner, J; France, B; Bennett, P

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the first full micro costing of a commonly used cancer genetic counselling and testing protocol used in the UK. Costs were estimated for the Cardiff clinic of the Cancer Genetics Service in Wales by issuing a questionnaire to all staff, conducting an audit of clinic rooms and equipment and obtaining gross unit costs from the finance department. A total of 22 distinct event pathways were identified for patients at risk of developing breast, ovarian, breast and ovarian or colorectal cancer. The mean cost per patient were £97–£151 for patients at moderate risk, £975–£3072 for patients at high risk of developing colorectal cancer and £675–£2909 for patients at high risk of developing breast or ovarian cancer. The most expensive element of cancer genetic services was labour. Labour costs were dependent upon the amount of labour, staff grade, number of counsellors used and the proportion of staff time devoted to indirect patient contact. With the growing demand for cancer genetic services and the growing number of national and regional cancer genetic centers, there is a need for the different protocols being used to be thoroughly evaluated in terms of costs and outcomes. PMID:15583691

  15. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine: Future of Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannatul Fardows

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is a deadly cancer that clutches lives of the women in most of the cases due to lack of consciousness about the disease in the developing countries. It remains a threat which is second only to breast cancer in overall disease burden for women throughout the world. Cervical cancer is almost a preventable disease by prophylactic vaccine and routine screening. Both Cervarix and Gardasil vaccines have been effective in preventing persistent infection with targeted HPV types and in preventing cervical intraepithelial lesions. It is safe and nearly 100% effective if given before onset of sexual activity. This review article is aimed to explore different aspects of this vaccine as well as to develop awareness among health professionals of different disciplines.

  16. Targeting the epigenome with bioactive food components for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Thomas Prates; Moreno, Fernando Salvador; Ross, Sharon Ann

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic processes participate in cancer development and likely influence cancer prevention. Global DNA hypomethylation, gene promoter hypermethylation and aberrant histone post-translational modifications are hallmarks of neoplastic cells which have been associated with genomic instability and altered gene expression. Because epigenetic deregulation occurs early in carcinogenesis and is potentially reversible, intervention strategies targeting the epigenome have been proposed for cancer prevention. Bioactive food components (BFCs) with anticancer potential, including folate, polyphenols, selenium, retinoids, fatty acids, isothiocyanates and allyl compounds, influence DNA methylation and histone modification processes. Such activities have been shown to affect the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, death and differentiation that are frequently altered in cancer. Although the epigenome represents a promising target for cancer prevention with BFCs, few studies have addressed the influence of dietary components on these mechanisms in vivo, particularly on the phenotype of humans, and thus the exact mechanisms whereby diet mediates an effect on cancer prevention remains unclear. Primary factors that should be elucidated include the effective doses and dose timing of BFCs to attain epigenetic effects. Because diet-epigenome interactions are likely to occur in utero, the impact of early-life nutrition on cancer risk programming should be further investigated.

  17. Targeting the Epigenome with Bioactive Food Components for Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Thomas Prates; Moreno, Fernando Salvador; Ross, Sharon Ann

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic processes participate in cancer development and likely influence cancer prevention. Global DNA hypomethylation, gene promoter hypermethylation and aberrant histone post-translational modifications are hallmarks of neoplastic cells which have been associated with genomic instability and altered gene expression. Because epigenetic deregulation occurs early in carcinogenesis and is potentially reversible, intervention strategies targeting the epigenome have been proposed for cancer prevention. Bioactive food components (BFCs) with anticancer potential, including folate, polyphenols, selenium, retinoids, fatty acids, isothiocyanates and allyl compounds, influence DNA methylation and histone modification processes. Such activities have been shown to affect the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, death and differentiation that are frequently altered in cancer. Although the epigenome represents a promising target for cancer prevention with BFCs, few studies have addressed the influence of dietary components on these mechanisms in vivo, particularly on the phenotype of humans, and thus the exact mechanisms whereby diet mediates an effect on cancer prevention remains unclear. Primary factors that should be elucidated include the effective doses and dose timing of BFCs to attain epigenetic effects. Because diet-epigenome interactions are likely to occur in utero, the impact of early-life nutrition on cancer risk programming should be further investigated. PMID:22353664

  18. Tea and cancer prevention: epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M

    2011-08-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiological studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans.

  19. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  20. Genetic variant as a marker for bladder cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients who have inherited a specific common genetic variant develop bladder cancer tumors that strongly express a protein known as prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), which is also expressed in many pancreatic and prostate tumors, according to research a

  1. Governance Structure | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing the importance of an integrated approach to preventative drug development, there is a unified Governance Structure for the PREVENT Program responsible for coordinating and integrating available resources. With the goal of reaching go/no-go decisions as efficiently as possible, the purpose is to ensure a pragmatic approach to drug development and a clear path to market. |

  2. Program Administration | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governance Structure Recognizing the importance of an integrated approach to preventative drug development, there is a unified Governance Structure for the PREVENT Program responsible for coordinating and integrating available resources. With the goal of reaching go/no-go decisions as efficiently as possible, the purpose is to ensure a pragmatic approach to drug development and a clear path to market. |

  3. Job Opening for Medical Officer in DCP’s Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group (BGCRG), Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP), National Cancer Institute (NCI), has an opening for an experienced Medical Officer. BGCRG focuses on fostering the development and conduct of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. Learn more about BGCRG. |

  4. The BRCA1/2 pathway prevents hematologic cancers in addition to breast and ovarian cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedenson Bernard

    2007-08-01

    prevent a subgroup of human leukemias and lymphomas that may involve non-random, characteristic gene rearrangements. Here, the genetic defect in BRCA pathway deficiencies is a chromosomal misrepair syndrome that may facilitate this subgroup of somatic cancers. Inactivation of a single gene within the pathway can increase risks for multiple cancers and inactivation of a different gene in the same pathway may have similar effects. The results presented here may have clinical implications for surveillance and therapy.

  5. [Current methods in genetic analysis : an approach for genetics-based preventive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Hans-Georg; Rost, Imma

    2015-02-01

    Modern genetic analysis methods such as DNA arrays (gene chips) or high-throughput DNA sequencing of the next generation (Next Generation Sequencing, NGS) have once again accelerated the pace of innovation that has been powered by genome research over the past 10 years of the "post-genomic era". The present paper introduces array and NGS methods as two important innovation driving methods and provides examples for their application in large-scale scientific projects. However, a broad application of these very powerful technologies for genetic screening for the purpose of disease prevention is currently not yet in sight. The complexity of the interaction of genes, gene products and the environment has so far exceeded all expectations, suggesting that reliable statements about the medical relevance of common genetic variants can presently only be made in a few areas such as pharmacogenetics and oncology. We also discuss ethical issues raised by genetic population screening. The aim of this paper is to provide a brief outline of the development of methods in molecular genetics to the now dominant modern technologies and present their applications in research, in the diagnosis of rare diseases, and in terms of screening approaches.

  6. Nutritional Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and fo | Establishing a comprehensive understanding of diet and food components in cancer risk and tumor cell behavior.

  7. Cancer genetics: from Boveri and Mendel to microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmain, A

    2001-10-01

    The human genome has now been sequenced, a century after the re-discovery of Mendel's Laws, and the publication of Theodor Boveri's chromosomal theory of heredity. Tracing the historical landmarks of cancer genetics from these early days to the present time not only gives us an appreciation of how far we have come, but also emphasizes the challenges that we face if we are to unravel the genetic basis of hereditary and sporadic cancers in the next century.

  8. Treating High-grade Lesions to Prevent Anal Cancer in HIV-infected People

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study, called the ANCHOR trial, will investigate whether screening and prevention methods similar to those used to prevent cervical cancer can help prevent anal cancer in HIV-infected men and women.

  9. Diet and Skin Cancer: The Potential Role of Dietary Antioxidants in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Rajani Katta; Danielle Nicole Brown

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Americans. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is the major risk factor for the development of NMSC. Dietary AOs may prevent free radical-mediated DNA damage and tumorigenesis secondary to UV radiation. Numerous laboratory studies have found that certain dietary AOs show significant promise in skin cancer prevention. These results have been substantiated by animal studies. In human studies, researchers have evaluated both oral AO...

  10. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy genetics: Molecular diagnostics and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Alica M; Behr, Elijah R; Semsarian, Christopher; Bagnall, Richard D; Sisodiya, Sanjay; Cooper, Paul N

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies clearly document the public health burden of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Clinical and experimental studies have uncovered dynamic cardiorespiratory dysfunction, both interictally and at the time of sudden death due to epilepsy. Genetic analyses in humans and in model systems have facilitated our current molecular understanding of SUDEP. Many discoveries have been informed by progress in the field of sudden cardiac death and sudden infant death syndrome. It is becoming apparent that SUDEP genomic complexity parallels that of sudden cardiac death, and that there is a pauci1ty of analytically useful postmortem material. Because many challenges remain, future progress in SUDEP research, molecular diagnostics, and prevention rests in international, collaborative, and transdisciplinary dialogue in human and experimental translational research of sudden death.

  11. Characteristic analysis and prevention on premature convergence in genetic algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宗本; 高勇

    1997-01-01

    The identification and characteristics of premature convergence in genetic algorithms (GAs) are investigated Through a detailed quantitative analysis on the search capability and the degree of population diversity, the cause of premature convergence in GAs is recognized, and attributed to the maturation effect of the GAs: The minimum schema deduced from current population, which is the largest search space of a GA, converges to a homogeneous population in probability 1 ( so the search capability of the GA decreases and premature convergence occurs). It is shown that, as quantitative features of the maturation effect, the degree of population diversity converges to zero with probability 1, and the tendency for premature convergence is inversely proportional to the population size and directly proportional to the variance of the fitness ratio of zero allele at any gene position of the current population. Based on the theoretical analysis, several strategies for preventing premature convergence are suggest

  12. Chemoprevention gene therapy (CGT): novel combinatorial approach for preventing and treating pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S; Azab, B M; Das, S K; Quinn, B A; Shen, X; Dash, R; Emdad, L; Thomas, S; Dasgupta, S; Su, Z-Z; Wang, X-Y; Sarkar, D; Fisher, P B

    2013-08-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains one of the deadliest of all cancers despite aggressive surgical treatment combined with adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Chemoresistance and radioresistance are the principal causes of failure of pancreatic cancer patients to respond to therapy. Conditionally replication competent adenovirus (CRCA)-based cancer gene therapy is an innovative strategy for treating cancers displaying inherent resistance to treatment. Limitations of current adenovirus (Ad)-based gene therapies for malignant tumors include lack of cancer-specificity, and effective and targeted delivery. To remedy this situation, CRCAs have been designed that express E1A, necessary for Ad replication, under the control of a cancer-specific progression elevated gene-3 promoter (PEG-Prom) with concomitant expression of an immunomodulatory cytokine, such as mda-7/IL-24 or interferon-γ (IFN-γ), under the control of a ubiquitous and strong cytomegalovirus promoter (CMV-Prom) from the E3 region. These bipartite CRCAs, when armed with a transgene, are called cancer terminator viruses (CTVs), i.e., Ad.PEG-E1A-CMV-mda-7 (CTV-M7) and Ad.PEG-E1A-CMV-IFN-γ (CTV-γ), because of their universal effectiveness in cancer treatment irrespective of p53/pRb/p16 or other genetic alterations in tumor cells. In addition to their selective oncolytic effects in tumor cells, the potent 'bystander antitumor' properties of MDA-7/IL-24 and IFN-γ embody the CTVs with expanded treatment properties for both primary and distant cancers. Pancreatic cancer cells display a "translational block" of mda-7/IL-24 mRNA, limiting production of MDA-7/IL-24 protein and cancer-specific apoptosis. Specific chemopreventive agents abrogate this "translational block" resulting in pancreatic cancer-specific killing. This novel chemoprevention gene therapy (CGT) strategy holds promise for both prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancers where all other strategies have proven ineffective.

  13. Broad targeting of angiogenesis for cancer prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongwei; Dabrosin, Charlotta; Yin, Xin; Fuster, Mark M; Arreola, Alexandra; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Generali, Daniele; Nagaraju, Ganji P; El-Rayes, Bassel; Ribatti, Domenico; Chen, Yi Charlie; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Nowsheen, Somaira; Amedei, Amedeo; Niccolai, Elena; Amin, Amr; Ashraf, S Salman; Helferich, Bill; Yang, Xujuan; Guha, Gunjan; Bhakta, Dipita; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Aquilano, Katia; Chen, Sophie; Halicka, Dorota; Mohammed, Sulma I; Azmi, Asfar S; Bilsland, Alan; Keith, W Nicol; Jensen, Lasse D

    2015-12-01

    Deregulation of angiogenesis--the growth of new blood vessels from an existing vasculature--is a main driving force in many severe human diseases including cancer. As such, tumor angiogenesis is important for delivering oxygen and nutrients to growing tumors, and therefore considered an essential pathologic feature of cancer, while also playing a key role in enabling other aspects of tumor pathology such as metabolic deregulation and tumor dissemination/metastasis. Recently, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis has become a clinical anti-cancer strategy in line with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, which underscore the critical importance of the angiogenic switch during early tumor development. Unfortunately the clinically approved anti-angiogenic drugs in use today are only effective in a subset of the patients, and many who initially respond develop resistance over time. Also, some of the anti-angiogenic drugs are toxic and it would be of great importance to identify alternative compounds, which could overcome these drawbacks and limitations of the currently available therapy. Finding "the most important target" may, however, prove a very challenging approach as the tumor environment is highly diverse, consisting of many different cell types, all of which may contribute to tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, the tumor cells themselves are genetically unstable, leading to a progressive increase in the number of different angiogenic factors produced as the cancer progresses to advanced stages. As an alternative approach to targeted therapy, options to broadly interfere with angiogenic signals by a mixture of non-toxic natural compound with pleiotropic actions were viewed by this team as an opportunity to develop a complementary anti-angiogenesis treatment option. As a part of the "Halifax Project" within the "Getting to know cancer" framework, we have here, based on a thorough review of the literature, identified 10 important aspects of tumor angiogenesis and the

  14. Cruciferous vegetables: dietary phytochemicals for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Noor, Noramaliza Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between diet and health have attracted attention for centuries; but links between diet and cancer have been a focus only in recent decades. The consumption of diet-containing carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines is most closely correlated with increasing cancer risk. Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that consumption of dietary phytochemicals found in vegetables and fruit can decrease cancer incidence. Among the various vegetables, broccoli and other cruciferous species appear most closely associated with reduced cancer risk in organs such as the colorectum, lung, prostate and breast. The protecting effects against cancer risk have been attributed, at least partly, due to their comparatively high amounts of glucosinolates, which differentiate them from other vegetables. Glucosinolates, a class of sulphur- containing glycosides, present at substantial amounts in cruciferous vegetables, and their breakdown products such as the isothiocyanates, are believed to be responsible for their health benefits. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive effect of these compounds are likely to be manifold, possibly concerning very complex interactions, and thus difficult to fully understand. Therefore, this article provides a brief overview about the mechanism of such compounds involved in modulation of carcinogen metabolising enzyme systems.

  15. Breast Cancer Genetic Counseling: A Surgeon’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Marie Agnese

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As surgeons who care for patients with breast cancer, the possibility of a cancer diagnosis being related to a hereditary predisposition is always a consideration. Not only are we as surgeons always trying to identify these patients and families, but also we are often asked about a potential hereditary component by the patients and their family members. It is therefore critical that we accurately assess patients to determine who may benefit from genetic testing. Importantly, the potential benefit for identifying a hereditary breast cancer extends beyond the patient to other family members and the risk may not be only for the development of breast cancers, but for other cancers as well. As a surgeon with additional training in clinical cancer genetics, I have perhaps a unique perspective on the issue and feel that a review of some of the more practical considerations is important.

  16. Aspirin Metabolomics in Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Substantial evidence supports the effectiveness of aspirin for cancer chemoprevention in addition to its well-established role in cardiovascular protection. In recent meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials in humans, daily aspirin use reduced incidence, metastasis and mortality from several common types of cancer, especially colorectal cancer. The mechanism(s) by which aspirin exerts an anticancer benefit is uncertain;numerous effects have been described involving both cyclooxygenase-dependent and -independent pathways. |

  17. Can Aspirin and Cancer Prevention be Ageless Companions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the rate of cancer diagnosis has increased worldwide due to the increase in population and average life expectancy, and also, due to the advances in diagnostic medical technology that facilitate early cancer detection and recognition. Nonetheless, the treatment options have not been developed proportional to this increase, with a huge number of patients frequently being diagnosed with different types of fatal cancer. This has prompted different health organizations to search for novel strategies to prevent cancer, or even halt its progression. Having failed to provide optimum vascular protection benefits, especially with the introduction of relatively superior antiplatelets, such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitors; clopidogrel and ticagrelor, regular aspirin use was proposed to reduce the risk of common cancers like colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer and haematological malignancies, as suggested by epidemiological studies. However, it is difficult to draw any firm conclusions on such weak data, as this could raise false hopes among patients and physicians and could potentially mislead scientific research. Clearly, current evidence highlights a gap in medical research and emphasizes the need to carry out interventional studies in high risk for cancer patients using specific aspirin doses in order to validate the data. This should also shed some light on the risk-benefit profile in view of the potential for bleeding complications, especially with the higher doses.

  18. Update on prevention and screening of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Shaniqua L; Ferrante, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer in women in the world. During the past few decades tremendous strides have been made toward decreasing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer with the implementation of various prevention and screening strategies. The causative agent linked to cervical cancer development and its precursors is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Prevention and screening measures for cervical cancer are paramount because the ability to identify and treat the illness at its premature stage often disrupts the process of neoplasia. Cervical carcinogenesis can be the result of infections from multiple high-risk HPV types that act synergistically. This imposes a level of complexity to identifying and vaccinating against the actual causative agent. Additionally, most HPV infections spontaneously clear. Therefore, screening strategies should optimally weigh the benefits and risks of screening to avoid the discovery and needless treatment of transient HPV infections. This article provides an update of the preventative and screening methods for cervical cancer, mainly HPV vaccination, screening with Pap smear cytology, and HPV testing. It also provides a discussion of the newest United States 2012 guidelines for cervical cancer screening, which changed the age to begin and end screening and lengthened the screening intervals. PMID:25302174

  19. Preventing cancer: the role of food, nutrition and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The recommendations of a major report on dietary aspects of cancer prevention are summarised and discussed. The findings of The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) Second Expert Report Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective were published in 2007 and remain valid. The Report reviewed the relationship between food, nutrition, physical activity, body fatness and 17 cancer sites. The goal of the Report was to review all the relevant research, using precise and reproducible methodologies. An expert panel reviewed the evidence. Based upon evidence that was graded "convincing" or "probable", a series of 10 recommendations to reduce the risk of developing cancer was produced. One of the most important factors is maintaining a healthy weight throughout life, which can be achieved by regular physical activity and limiting consumption of energy-dense foods and sugary drinks. Other important dietary measures include consuming a diet high in plant-based foods, limiting intakes of red meat, and avoiding salty foods and processed meat. Alcohol should be consumed in modest amounts, if at all. Dietary supplements are not recommended for cancer prevention.

  20. Prognostic Factors for Distress After Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorwinden, Jan S; Jaspers, Jan P C

    2016-06-01

    The psychological impact of an unfavorable genetic test result for counselees at risk for hereditary cancer seems to be limited: only 10-20 % of counselees have psychological problems after testing positive for a known familial mutation. The objective of this study was to find prognostic factors that can predict which counselees are most likely to develop psychological problems after presymptomatic genetic testing. Counselees with a 50 % risk of BRCA1/2 or Lynch syndrome completed questionnaires at three time-points: after receiving a written invitation for a genetic counseling intake (T1), 2-3 days after receiving their DNA test result (T2), and 4-6 weeks later (T3). The psychological impact of the genetic test result was examined shortly and 4-6 weeks after learning their test result. Subsequently, the influence of various potentially prognostic factors on psychological impact were examined in the whole group. Data from 165 counselees were analyzed. Counselees with an unfavorable outcome did not have more emotional distress, but showed significantly more cancer worries 4-6 weeks after learning their test result. Prognostic factors for cancer worries after genetic testing were pre-existing cancer worries, being single, a high risk perception of getting cancer, and an unfavorable test result. Emotional distress was best predicted by pre-existing cancer worries and pre-existing emotional distress. The psychological impact of an unfavorable genetic test result appears considerable if it is measured as "worries about cancer." Genetic counselors should provide additional guidance to counselees with many cancer worries, emotional distress, a high risk perception or a weak social network.

  1. A national agenda for Latino cancer prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Gallion, Kipling J; Suarez, Lucina; Giachello, Aida L; Marti, Jose R; Medrano, Martha A; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Talavera, Gregory A; Trapido, Edward J

    2005-06-01

    Although cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and premature death among Latinos, there is limited knowledge of cancer-related issues and priorities of greatest significance to the Latino population, the largest minority group in the nation. This information is vital in helping to guide Latino cancer research, training, and awareness efforts at national, regional, and local levels. To help identify cancer issues of greatest relevance to Latinos, Redes En Accion, The National Hispanic/Latino Cancer Network, a major network among the National Cancer Institute's Special Populations Networks, conducted a survey of 624 key opinion leaders from around the country. Respondents were asked to rank the three cancer sites most important to Latinos in their region and the five issues of greatest significance for this population's cancer prevention and control. Recommendations were prioritized for three specific areas: 1) research, 2) training and/or professional education, and 3) awareness and/or public education. Among cancers, breast carcinoma was ranked number one, followed in order by cervical and lung carcinomas. The issues of greatest significance to Latinos were 1) access to cancer screening and care, 2) tobacco use, 3) patient-doctor communication, 4) nutrition, and 5) risk communication. This survey solicited information from scientists, health care professionals, leaders of government agencies, professional and community-based organizations, and other stakeholders in Latino health. The results laid the foundation for a national Redes En Accion Latino cancer agenda, thus providing a useful tool for individuals and organizations engaged in cancer prevention and control efforts among the Hispanic-Latino population.

  2. Genetic progression and the waiting time to cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Beerenwinkel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer results from genetic alterations that disturb the normal cooperative behavior of cells. Recent high-throughput genomic studies of cancer cells have shown that the mutational landscape of cancer is complex and that individual cancers may evolve through mutations in as many as 20 different cancer-associated genes. We use data published by Sjöblom et al. (2006 to develop a new mathematical model for the somatic evolution of colorectal cancers. We employ the Wright-Fisher process for exploring the basic parameters of this evolutionary process and derive an analytical approximation for the expected waiting time to the cancer phenotype. Our results highlight the relative importance of selection over both the size of the cell population at risk and the mutation rate. The model predicts that the observed genetic diversity of cancer genomes can arise under a normal mutation rate if the average selective advantage per mutation is on the order of 1%. Increased mutation rates due to genetic instability would allow even smaller selective advantages during tumorigenesis. The complexity of cancer progression can be understood as the result of multiple sequential mutations, each of which has a relatively small but positive effect on net cell growth.

  3. Combinations of genetic data in a study of oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling Thyge; Møller, Gert Lykke; Mondal, Pinaki

    2015-01-01

    for a polygenic disorder will not occur in in control persons genetically unrelated to patients, so the strategy is to analyze combinations of genetic variants present exclusively in patients. In a previous study of oral cancer and leukoplakia 325 SNPs were analyzed. This study has been supplemented...... with an analysis of combinations of two SNP genotypes from among the 325 SNPs. Two clusters of combinations containing 95 patient specific combinations were significantly associated with oral cancer or leukoplakia. Of 373 patients with oral cancer 205 patients had a number of these 95 combinations in their genome...

  4. Beyond the scalpel: targeting hedgehog in skin cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin, Charles M

    2010-01-01

    This perspective places the article by Tang et al. in this issue of the journal (beginning on page 25) in the context of recent work defining the hedgehog signaling pathway as a central etiologic factor and as a therapeutic target in basal cell cancer. Tang et al. show that inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity, either genetically (in a relevant mouse model) or pharmacologically (in the mouse and in patients highly predisposed to develop basal cell skin cancers), may suppress basal cell carcinogenesis. This new study of cyclooxygenase inhibition, together with recent data on the efficacy of hedgehog pathway inhibition, offers new hope for patients at a high risk for basal cell cancer.

  5. Nutrition in the prevention of gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Diet has been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of gastrointestinal cancer for a long time. Initially, strong evidence of such effects was found in retrospective epidemiological studies. Dietary habits, in particular those from the distant past, are difficult to measure, however. Results f

  6. Prevention of Cancer Through Lifestyle Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. James Barnard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and an abundance of evidence suggests that lifestyle factors including smoking, the typical high-fat, refined-sugar diet and physical inactivity account for the majority of cancer. This review focuses on diet and inactivity as major factors for cancer promotion by inducing insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Elevated levels of serum insulin impact on the liver primarily, increasing the production of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I while reducing the production of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1 resulting in stimulation of tumor cell growth and inhibition of apoptosis (programmed cell death. Adopting a diet low in fat and high in fiber-rich starch foods, which would also include an abundance of antioxidants, combined with regular aerobic exercise might control insulin resistance, reduce the resulting serum factors and thus reduce the risk for many different cancers commonly seen in the USA.

  7. RAMBAs for Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    dUTP nick -end-labelling) reaction mixture containing the enzyme terminal transferase and the label solution for 60 min at 371C in a humidified atmosphere...Huggins, C.; Hodges , C. V. Cancer Res. 1941, 1, 293. 32. Huggins, C., Jr.; Stevens, R. E.; Hodges , C. V. Arch. Surg. 1941, 43, 209. 33. Edwards, J

  8. Status of selenium in cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    An abundance of data indicate that selenium (Se) can be antitumorigenic. Those data, mostly from controlled studies using animal tumor models and some from clinical studies in free-living people, indicate that treatment with Se in the absence of nutritional Se-deficiency, can reduce cancer risk. T...

  9. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, K A; Potter, J D

    1996-10-01

    In this review of the scientific literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer, results from 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies are summarized. The evidence for a protective effect of greater vegetable and fruit consumption is consistent for cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity and pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon. The types of vegetables or fruit that most often appear to be protective against cancer are raw vegetables, followed by allium vegetables, carrots, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and tomatoes. Substances present in vegetables and fruit that may help protect against cancer, and their mechanisms, are also briefly reviewed; these include dithiolthiones, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, allium compounds, isoflavones, protease inhibitors, saponins, phytosterols, inositol hexaphosphate, vitamin C, D-limonene, lutein, folic acid, beta carotene, lycopene, selenium, vitamin E, flavonoids, and dietary fiber. Current US vegetable and fruit intake, which averages about 3.4 servings per day, is discussed, as are possible noncancer-related effects of increased vegetable and fruit consumption, including benefits against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, obesity, diverticulosis, and cataracts. Suggestions for dietitians to use in counseling persons toward increasing vegetable and fruit intake are presented.

  10. Selenium and cancer prevention: observations and complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glattre, Eystein; Nygård, Jan F; Aaseth, Jan

    2012-06-01

    Early case-control and intervention studies suggested that selenium (Se) species might reduce the risk of cancer and in a pre-diagnostic case-control study from 1986 [1] we found that the higher the serum Se concentration, the lower was the odds ratio of thyroid cancer. Our data showed, however, that this observation occurred late in the pre-diagnostic period indicating that low serum Se was simply a consequence of thyroid cancer. In 1986 we therefore concluded that the only way to get an indisputable and lasting answer to the question was to carry out properly designed intervention studies. Great was our frustration therefore when we in 2003 [2] discovered that thyroid cancer morbidity is a fractal variable powered by such complexity that we may never find a definite and enduring answer: Even the best, randomised, controlled trial comparing the incidence rate among exposed and controls can only produce temporary answers due to the complexity background. The only possible way to come up with a lasting solution seems to be by means of reductionist experiments, but they have to be tested on man and then one is back to square one.

  11. Application Instructions | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is NOT a grant application - if successful, funds will not be transferred to your institution to support your project. Rather, this is an application to access the scientific capabilities and resources of the NCI with the goal of moving promising cancer chemopreventive agents into clinical testing. If successful, you will partner with the NCI in developing a drug development pipeline. |

  12. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Eiliv

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH1 triggers the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary. Genetic variants in the gene encoding GNRH1 or its receptor may influence breast cancer risk by modulating production of ovarian steroid hormones. We studied the association between breast cancer risk and polymorphisms in genes that code for GNRH1 and its receptor (GNRHR in the large National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (NCI-BPC3. Methods We sequenced exons of GNRH1 and GNRHR in 95 invasive breast cancer cases. Resulting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped and used to identify haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPS in a panel of 349 healthy women. The htSNPs were genotyped in 5,603 invasive breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls from the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II, European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, Multiethnic Cohort (MEC, Nurses' Health Study (NHS, and Women's Health Study (WHS. Circulating levels of sex steroids (androstenedione, estradiol, estrone and testosterone were also measured in 4713 study subjects. Results Breast cancer risk was not associated with any polymorphism or haplotype in the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes, nor were there any statistically significant interactions with known breast cancer risk factors. Polymorphisms in these two genes were not strongly associated with circulating hormone levels. Conclusion Common variants of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes are not associated with risk of invasive breast cancer in Caucasians.

  13. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

  14. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  15. [A novel approach to techniques in genetic testing for cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Jun-ichi

    2014-04-01

    In molecular targeted drug therapy, genetic screening is carried out to identify the existence of target genes that are specifically expressed in cancer cells. Conventional methods for detecting the mutation of genes in cancer cells through the use of purified DNA is time consuming, especially in the case of the enzymatic treatment of pathological specimens, and it is difficult to finish all these protocols on the same day. Also, depending on the condition of the patients, it may be difficult to perform surgery or biopsy, and pathological specimens are not always obtainable. Thus, sometimes genetic screening using purified DNA and the enzymatic treatment of pathological specimens cannot be performed. We have successfully solved these problems using i-densy, a genetic analysis device, and two different methods of genetic testing for cancer. The first is a method which, without extracting DNA, uses simply pretreated pathological specimens for genetic screening. Using deparaffinized specimens that have only been heat-treated for a short period of time, we were able to obtain the exact same results as if we had extracted DNA. The second is the highly specific genetic screening technique, the MBP-QP method. Using this method, we were able to confirm the detection of genetic mutation from the DNA of blood plasma. It is now possible to screen for the mutation of genes in cancer cells using just a blood sample from patients without using tissue or cells, which also has little burden on the patient.

  16. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer: lifestyle, nutrition, exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María Elena

    2005-01-01

    The past two decades have provided a vast amount of literature related to the primary prevention of colorectal cancer. Large international variation in colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates and the prominent increases in the incidence of colorectal cancer in groups that migrated from low- to high-incidence areas provided important evidence that lifestyle factors influence the development of this malignancy. Moreover, there is convincing evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies that dietary intake is an important etiological factor in colorectal neoplasia. Although the precise mechanisms have not been clarified, several lifestyle factors are likely to have a major impact on colorectal cancer development. Physical inactivity and to a lesser extent, excess body weight, are consistent risk factors for colon cancer. Exposure to tobacco products early in life is associated with a higher risk of developing colorectal neoplasia. Diet and nutritional factors are also clearly important. Diets high in red and processed meat increase risk. Excess alcohol consumption, probably in combination with a diet low in some micronutrients such as folate and methionine, appear to increase risk. There is also recent evidence supporting a protective effect of calcium and vitamin D in the etiology of colorectal neoplasia. The relationship between intake of dietary fiber and risk of colon cancer has been studied for three decades but the results are still inconclusive. However, some micronutrients or phytochemicals in fiber-rich foods may be important; folic acid is one such micronutrient that has been shown to protect against the development of colorectal neoplasia and is currently being studied in intervention trials of adenoma recurrence. The overwhelming evidence indicates that primary prevention of colon cancer is feasible. Continued focus on primary prevention of colorectal cancer, in combination with efforts aimed at screening and surveillance, will be vital in

  17. SoyCaP: Soy and Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    preventive dietary agent . The androgen receptor (AR) mediates the action of androgens, and AR expression is a potential marker for prostate cancer...Natl Cancer Inst 1992;84(634- 638). 5. Lakhani NJ, Sarkar MA, Venitz J, Figg WD. 2-methoxyestradiol, a promising anticancer agent . Pharmacotherapy...Clin Oncol. 2005 Jan 10;23(2):368-77. 19. Zhou JR, Gugger ET, Tanaka T, Guo Y, Blackburn GL, Clinton SK. Soybean phytochemicals inhibit the growth

  18. Nutrition Frontiers - Summer 2016 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 7, Issue 3 The summer issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases the combined effects of ursolic acid and resveratrol for skin cancer, the potential chemopreventive effects of the dietary supplement 4-MU, and a method to monitor a heterocyclic aromatic amine in dyed hair. Learn about our spotlight investigators, Drs. Michael Caligiuri and Jianhua Yu, and their research on dietary components for cancer prevention, upcoming announcements and more. |

  19. Joy Osborne, MS, MPA | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy Osborne is the ARC Director for the Division of Cancer Prevention and the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences. The ARC (Administrative Resource Center) provides services to DCP in the areas of budget, contracts, grants, human resources, travel, space and facilities, and other administrative areas. Joy came to NCI in 1992 as a Presidential Management Intern and has worked with many of the NCI Divisions in both intramural and extramural. |

  20. Impact of Soy Isoflavones on the Epigenome in Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pudenz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones (IF such as genistein are cancer preventive phytochemicals found in soy and other legumes. Epidemiological studies point to a reduced risk for hormone‑dependent cancers in populations following a typical Asian diet rich in soy products. IF act as phytoestrogens and prevent tumorigenesis in rodent models by a broad spectrum of bioactivities. During the past 10 years, IF were shown to target all major epigenetic mechanisms regulating gene expression, including DNA methylation, histone modifications controlling chromatin accessibility, and non-coding RNAs. These effects have been suggested to contribute to cancer preventive potential in in vitro and in vivo studies, affecting several key processes such as DNA repair, cell signaling cascades including Wnt-signaling, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, migration and invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, metastasis formation and development of drug-resistance. We here summarize the state-of-the-art of IF affecting the epigenome in major hormone-dependent, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tumor types and in in vivo studies on anti-cancer treatment or developmental aspects, and short-term intervention studies in adults. These data, while often requiring replication, suggest that epigenetic gene regulation represents an important novel target of IF and should be taken into consideration when evaluating the cancer preventive potential of IF in humans.

  1. [CHEK2-mutation in Dutch breast cancer families: expanding genetic testing for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adank, M.A.; Hes, F.J.; Zelst-Stams, W.A.G. van; Tol, M.P. van den; Seynaeve, C.; Oosterwijk, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    - In the majority of breast cancer families, DNA testing does not show BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and the genetic cause of breast cancer remains unexplained. - Routine testing for the CHEK2*1100delC mutation has recently been introduced in breast cancer families in the Netherlands. - The 1100delC muta

  2. Genetics and Personal Insurance: the Perspectives of Canadian Cancer Genetic Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Michelle; Ngueng Feze, Ida; Joly, Yann

    2015-12-01

    Genetic discrimination in the context of genetic testing has been identified as a concern for symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals for more than three decades. Genetic counselors are often the health care professionals who discuss risks and benefits of genetic testing with patients, thereby making them most appropriate to address patient concerns about genetics and personal insurance (i.e., life, life as related to mortgage or group insurance, disability, critical illness and travel). A pilot study was conducted to ascertain the current practices of Canadian cancer genetic counselors in regard to their discussions with patients about genetic testing and access to personal insurance. Among the 36 counselors surveyed, 100 % reported discussing the issue of genetic testing and personal insurance with their patients. Several factors influenced the content, depth and length of these discussions including age, cancer status, family members, and patients' current and future insurance needs. Counselors reported discussing with patients the possible impact of genetic test results on access to personal insurance, possible access and use of patient genetic information by insurance companies, and whom patients should contact if they have additional questions. The most commonly reported inquiries from patients included questions about the possible impact of genetic testing on their ability to obtain insurance, and the insurability of family members. While 28 % of counselors reported having been contacted by an insurer requesting access to patient information, only one counselor was aware of or could recall the outcome of such a request. This pilot study revealed that issues concerning genetics and personal insurance are commonly discussed in Canadian cancer genetic counseling sessions. Counselors furthermore expressed a need for additional educational resources on the topic of genetics and personal insurance for themselves and their patients.

  3. Prevention of Prostate Cancer by Inositol Hexaphosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Venkatraman G, Shamsuddin AM. Growth inhibition and differentiation of HT-29 cells in vitro by inositol hexaphosphate ( phytic acid ). Carcinogenesis 1993...hexaphosphate (IP6), the most abundant phosphorylated inositol present in most cereals, nuts, legumes and soybeans has anti-proliferative effects on a...nuts, legumes and soybeans (9). Elegant work by Shamsuddin and his associates (9-11) and others (12-14) have demonstrated a profound anti-cancer

  4. Diet, Stem Cells, and Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    comprised of fibroblasts, endothelial cells and adipocytes, which collectively form the mammary fat pad . Breast cancer originates from subversions of...luminal epithelial cells embedded in a complex stromal matrix (‘mammary fat pad ’) comprised predominantly of fibroblasts, adipocytes and macrophages (Fig. 1...report, we showed that limited exposure (i.e., in utero and lactational only) of female rat offspring to a maternal diet containing soy protein isolate

  5. Triterpenoids and Prevention of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    prostate cancer. With the known importance of oxidative stress and the known involvement of the enzymes , inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and inducible...triterpenoids can block de novo induction and synthesis of both these enzymes , there is now a sound mechanistic basis for this hypothesis. Furthermore, since we...the same method as for 47 to give a crystalline 3305, 2947, 2875, 1692 cm- 1. 1H NMR [acetone-ds, internal solid (quantitative): mnp 133-135 0C. IR (KBr

  6. Sponsoring Organization | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) project officers are responsible for the design and oversight of all aspects of the PLCO trial. These NCI components work directly with the Coordinating Center which provides support for development and implementation of the study protocol; and with the Principal Investigators from each of the Screening Centers to ensure that the technical aspects of the trial are carried out under rigorous scientific standards. |

  7. A genetic study and meta-analysis of the genetic predisposition of prostate cancer in a Chinese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan-Chao; Ren, Guoping; Yu, Yongwei; Wu, Yudong; Wu, Ji; Xue, Yao; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Yanling; Xu, Xingxing; Li, Jie; He, Weiyang; Benlloch, Sara; Ross-Adams, Helen; Chen, Li; Li, Jucong; Hong, Yingqia; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Cui, Xingang; Hou, Jianguo; Guo, Jianming; Xu, Lei; Yin, Changjun; Zhou, Yuanping; Neal, David E.; Oliver, Tim; Cao, Guangwen; Zhang, Zhengdong; Easton, Douglas F.; Chelala, Claude; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Zhang, Hongwei; Lu, Yong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer predisposition has been extensively investigated in European populations, but there have been few studies of other ethnic groups. To investigate prostate cancer susceptibility in the under-investigated Chinese population, we performed single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis on a cohort of Chinese cases and controls and then meta-analysis with data from the existing Chinese prostate cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS). Genotyping 211,155 SNPs in 495 cases and 640 controls of Chinese ancestry identified several new suggestive Chinese prostate cancer predisposition loci. However, none of them reached genome-wide significance level either by meta-analysis or replication study. The meta-analysis with the Chinese GWAS data revealed that four 8q24 loci are the main contributors to Chinese prostate cancer risk and the risk alleles from three of them exist at much higher frequencies in Chinese than European populations. We also found that several predisposition loci reported in Western populations have different effect on Chinese men. Therefore, this first extensive single-nucleotide polymorphism study of Chinese prostate cancer in comparison with European population indicates that four loci on 8q24 contribute to a great risk of prostate cancer in a considerable large proportion of Chinese men. Based on those four loci, the top 10% of the population have six- or two-fold prostate cancer risk compared with men of the bottom 10% or median risk respectively, which may facilitate the design of prostate cancer genetic risk screening and prevention in Chinese men. These findings also provide additional insights into the etiology and pathogenesis of prostate cancer. PMID:26881390

  8. Mutagen sensitivity: a genetic predisposition factor for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xifeng; Gu, Jian; Spitz, Margaret R

    2007-04-15

    Mutagen sensitivity, measured by quantifying the chromatid breaks induced by mutagens in short-term cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes, has been used as an indirect measure of DNA repair capacity. Numerous epidemiologic studies have suggested that mutagen sensitivity is a cancer susceptibility factor for a variety of epithelial cancers. A recent classic twin study examined systematically the role of genetic and environmental factors on the mutagen sensitivity phenotype and provided compelling evidence that mutagen sensitivity is highly heritable. A new prospective analysis provides further support to the notion that mutagen sensitivity increases the risk of cancer. In this review, we briefly summarize nearly two decades of epidemiologic and genetic studies linking mutagen sensitivity and cancer risk. The evidence is becoming increasingly convincing that mutagen sensitivity is a risk factor for cancer development.

  9. [Genetic basis of head and neck cancers and gene therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özel, Halil Erdem; Özkırış, Mahmut; Gencer, Zeliha Kapusuz; Saydam, Levent

    2013-01-01

    Surgery and combinations of traditional treatments are not successful enough particularly for advanced stage head and neck cancer. The major disadvantages of chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the lack of specificity for the target tissue and toxicity to the patient. As a result, gene therapy may offer a more specific approach. The aim of gene therapy is to present therapeutic genes into cancer cells which selectively eliminate malignant cells with no systemic toxicity to the patient. This article reviews the genetic basis of head and neck cancers and important concepts in cancer gene therapy: (i) inhibition of oncogenes; (ii) tumor suppressor gene replacement; (iii) regulation of immune response against malignant cells; (iv) genetic prodrug activation; and (v) antiangiogenic gene therapy. Currently, gene therapy is not sufficient to replace the traditional treatments of head and neck cancers, however there is no doubt that it will have an important role in the near future.

  10. Genetic factors affecting patient responses to pancreatic cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulos, George; Syrigos, Konstantinos; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the exocrine pancreas is a malignancy with a high lethal rate. Surgical resection is the only possible curative mode of treatment. Metastatic pancreatic cancer is incurable with modest results from the current treatment options. New genomic information could prove treatment efficacy. An independent review of PubMed and ScienceDirect databases was performed up to March 2016, using combinations of terms such pancreatic exocrine cancer, chemotherapy, genomic profile, pancreatic cancer pharmacogenomics, genomics, molecular pancreatic pathogenesis, and targeted therapy. Recent genetic studies have identified new markers and therapeutic targets. Our current knowledge of pancreatic cancer genetics must be further advanced to elucidate the molecular basis and pathogenesis of the disease, improve the accuracy of diagnosis, and guide tailor-made therapies. PMID:27708512

  11. A Nutritional Approach to the Prevention of Cancer: from Assessment to Personalized Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Furia, L; Rusciano, M R; Leonardini, L; Rossi, P; Giammarchi, C; Vittori, E; Tilocca, S; Russo, F L; Montuori, P; Triassi, M; Nardone, A; Giaimo, M D; Migazzi, M; Piffer, S; Iaria, A; Trapasso, A; Firenze, A; Cristaudo, R; Revello, M; Castiglion, A; Zagonel, V; Iaccarino, G; Addis, A; Natale, L; Di Somma, C; Colao, A; Perra, A; Giova, K; Montuori, N; Illario, M

    2015-12-01

    Among lifestyle factors, nutrition is one of the most important determinants of health, and represents a pivotal element of cancer risk. Nonetheless, epidemiological evidences of the relationship between several cancers and specific foods and nutrients is still inadequate, and solid conclusions are missing. Indeed, caloric restriction without malnutrition is associated to cancer prevention. Food may be also the primary route of exposure to contaminants such as metals, persistent organic pollutants, and pesticides. Exposuredisease associations and the interplay with genetic susceptibility requires further studies on genetic variation, environment, lifestyle, and chronic disease in order to eliminate and reduce associated health risks, thus contributing to improve health outcomes for the population. A primary nutritional approach for Active and Healthy Ageing (AHA) has been developed by the Nutrition group of the European Innovation Partnership (EIP) on AHA. The working group on lifestyles of the Italian Ministry of Health has developed a comprehensive approach to adequate nutrition using a consensus methodology to collect and integrate the available evidences from the literature and from the Italian experiences at the regional level, to raise the interest of other experts and relevant stakeholders to outline and scale-up joint strategies for a primary nutritional approach to cancer prevention.

  12. A Nutritional Approach to the Prevention of Cancer: from Assessment to Personalized Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Furia, L.; Rusciano, M.R.; Leonardini, L.; Rossi, P.; Giammarchi, C.; Vittori, E.; Tilocca, S.; Russo, F.L.; Montuori, P.; Triassi, M.; Nardone, A.; Giaimo, M.D.; Migazzi, M.; Piffer, S.; Iaria, A.; Trapasso, A.; Firenze, A.; Cristaudo, R.; Revello, M.; Castiglion, A.; Zagonel, V.; Iaccarino, G.; Addis, A.; Natale, L.; Di Somma, C.; Colao, A.; Perra, A.; Giova, K.; Montuori, N.; Illario, M.

    2015-01-01

    Among lifestyle factors, nutrition is one of the most important determinants of health, and represents a pivotal element of cancer risk. Nonetheless, epidemiological evidences of the relationship between several cancers and specific foods and nutrients is still inadequate, and solid conclusions are missing. Indeed, caloric restriction without malnutrition is associated to cancer prevention. Food may be also the primary route of exposure to contaminants such as metals, persistent organic pollutants, and pesticides. Exposuredisease associations and the interplay with genetic susceptibility requires further studies on genetic variation, environment, lifestyle, and chronic disease in order to eliminate and reduce associated health risks, thus contributing to improve health outcomes for the population. A primary nutritional approach for Active and Healthy Ageing (AHA) has been developed by the Nutrition group of the European Innovation Partnership (EIP) on AHA. The working group on lifestyles of the Italian Ministry of Health has developed a comprehensive approach to adequate nutrition using a consensus methodology to collect and integrate the available evidences from the literature and from the Italian experiences at the regional level, to raise the interest of other experts and relevant stakeholders to outline and scale-up joint strategies for a primary nutritional approach to cancer prevention. PMID:27042431

  13. Bone-targeted agents: preventing skeletal complications in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgans, Alicia K; Smith, Matthew R

    2012-11-01

    In men, prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death. Skeletal complications occur at various points during the disease course, either due to bone metastases directly, or as an unintended consequence of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Bone metastases are associated with pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, and bone pain and can require narcotics or palliative radiation for pain relief. ADT results in bone loss and fragility fractures. This review describes the biology of bone metastases, skeletal morbidity, and recent advances in bone-targeted therapies to prevent skeletal complications of prostate cancer.

  14. Role of antioxidants in the prevention of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Llacuna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the association between free radicals and cancer is complex and paradoxical, as it seems that free radicals and oxidative stress can induce cancer, but at the same time the transformed cells, that is, the cancer cells generate more free radicals than normal cells. Endogenous antioxidant compounds, including glutathione and lysozyme, can limit the effects of oxidative stress, but these systems can be quickly saturated by high amounts of free radicals. It is important to increase the cellular levels of antioxidants that could provide protection against possible adverse agents that can cause a cell cancer. A good diet and the knowledge of several compounds of foods with antioxidant effects may be helpful to prevent cancer disease.

  15. Dietary Polyphenols in Prevention and Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul K. Lall

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most prevalent disease affecting males in many Western countries, with an estimated 29,480 deaths in 2014 in the US alone. Incidence rates for prostate cancer deaths have been decreasing since the early 1990s in men of all races/ethnicities, though they remain about 60% higher in African Americans than in any other group. The relationship between dietary polyphenols and the prevention of prostate cancer has been examined previously. Although results are sometimes inconsistent and variable, there is a general agreement that polyphenols hold great promise for the future management of prostate cancer. Various dietary components, including polyphenols, have been shown to possess anti-cancer properties. Generally considered as non-toxic, dietary polyphenols act as key modulators of signaling pathways and are therefore considered ideal chemopreventive agents. Besides possessing various anti-tumor properties, dietary polyphenols also contribute to epigenetic changes associated with the fate of cancer cells and have emerged as potential drugs for therapeutic intervention. Polyphenols have also been shown to affect post-translational modifications and microRNA expressions. This article provides a systematic review of the health benefits of selected dietary polyphenols in prostate cancer, especially focusing on the subclasses of polyphenols, which have a great effect on disease prevention and treatment.

  16. Review article about nutrition and primary prevention of oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atena Shiva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a worldwide problem that is caused by a variety of different factors increasing over a number of years. Oral cancer is a very prevalent disease and one of the most 10 common causes of death. It is important that the risk factors can be controlled. Selecting the correct health behaviors and preventing exposure to convinced environmental risk factors can help to prevent the expansion of cancer. Scientists guess that as many as 30-40 percent of all cancer-related deaths are caused by human behaviors such as smoking, consumption of alcohol, poor diet quality and physical inactivity. This result explains the tendency in the following behaviors that can influence the possibility of getting cancer, especially oral cancer in addition to providing information and classes about healthy eating habits and a subsequent healthy lifestyle at home. In fact, a diet rich in fresh fruits, whole grains and vegetables can decrease the risk of the oral cancer because of certain compounds such as vitamin C, E, carotenoids and lycopene. Moreover, limit consumption of meat, particularly processed meat, and replace it with vegetable proteins and fish (rich of omega 3 are helpful and effective.

  17. Fasting and Caloric Restriction in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Longo, Valter D

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and among the leading major diseases in the world. It is anticipated to continue to increase because of the growth of the aging population and prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and/or poor dietary habits. Cancer treatment has remained relatively similar during the past 30 years with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery remaining the standard therapies although novel therapies are slowly replacing or complementing the standard ones. According to the American Cancer Society, the dietary recommendation for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is to increase calorie and protein intake. In addition, there are no clear guidelines on the type of nutrition that could have a major impact on cancer incidence. Yet, various forms of reduced caloric intake such as calorie restriction (CR) or fasting demonstrate a wide range of beneficial effects able to help prevent malignancies and increase the efficacy of cancer therapies. Whereas chronic CR provides both beneficial and detrimental effects as well as major compliance challenges, periodic fasting (PF), fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs), and dietary restriction (DR) without a reduction in calories are emerging as interventions with the potential to be widely used to prevent and treat cancer. Here, we review preclinical and preliminary clinical studies on dietary restriction and fasting and their role in inducing cellular protection and chemotherapy resistance.

  18. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral-digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made.

  19. Role of Withania somnifera in Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Singh

    2011-10-01

    , environmental chemical toxins, allopathic drugs, pesticide infected food with heavy metals and some not properly developed metallic preparation of Ayurvedic or other Folk Medicine can be a causative factor, leave aside genetic processes of the Individual for the development of the risk of cancer. If we look in the properties of WS like adaptogen/ anti-stress agent, immunomodulator, antioxidant (reducing free radical damage, anabolic effect, improving resistance of body, reducing fatigue and detoxificant effects, we are inclined to suggests that WS works through all above mechanisms in controlling the dreaded cancer, rather than its effect on stopping the cell division. As during radio and chemotherapy body’s natural normal cells are also killed and low immunity develops, WS helps prevent these adverse effects of both and helps patients better recovery and life styles. However, multicentric long term clinical studies by oncologists, although deviated from their routine, must be carried out on WS to prove our contentions.

  20. Cancer Prevention and Control Research Manpower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    production in sickle cell disease patients with acute pneumonia , Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, Vol. 15, Issue 4: 340-344, 1996. PHS 398 (Rev. 5...Taylor BD, et al. The Effectiveness of personal Letters to improve the influenza Immunization Rate in Geriatric Patients . 2 4 "’FF ,Principal...Hodder, RA. Towards the Integration of Curative and Preventive Services for Internal Medicine Patients . American Public Health Association. Atlanta, GA

  1. Genome-wide Association Studies from the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) Initiative | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGEMS identifies common inherited genetic variations associated with a number of cancers, including breast and prostate. Data from these genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are available through the Division of Cancer Epidemiology & Genetics website.

  2. Genetic influences on blood lipids and cardiovascular disease risk: tools for primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordovas, José M

    2009-05-01

    Genetic polymorphism in human populations is part of the evolutionary process that results from the interaction between the environment and the human genome. Recent changes in diet have upset this equilibrium, potentially influencing the risk of most common morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Reduction of these conditions is a major public health concern, and such a reduction could be achieved by improving our ability to detect disease predisposition early in life and by providing more personalized behavioral recommendations for successful primary prevention. In terms of cardiovascular diseases, polymorphisms at multiple genes have been associated with differential effects in terms of lipid metabolism; however, the connection with cardiovascular disease has been more elusive, and considerable heterogeneity exists among studies regarding the predictive value of genetic markers. This may be because of experimental limitations, the intrinsic complexity of the phenotypes, and the aforementioned interactions with environmental factors. The integration of genetic and environmental complexity into current and future research will drive the field toward the implementation of clinical tools aimed at providing dietary advice optimized for the individual's genome. This may imply that dietary changes are implemented early in life to gain maximum benefit. However, it is important to highlight that most reported studies have focused on adult populations and to extrapolate these findings to children and adolescents may not be justified until proper studies have been carried out in these populations and until the ethical and legal issues associated with this new field are adequately addressed.

  3. Current strategies for the prevention of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Advani P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pooja Advani, Alvaro Moreno-AspitiaDepartment of Hematology and Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USAAbstract: Due to the high incidence of breast cancer in the United States, optimal strategies for its prevention are imperative. This entails identification of women who are at an increased risk for breast cancer and an integrative approach that includes effective screening methods as well as nutritional, pharmacologic, and surgical management. Several breast cancer risk-assessment tools, such as the Gail and Claus models, can help clinicians determine the quantitative risk of breast cancer. The role of selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, for the prevention of breast cancer has been well established. Several other agents, such as aromatase inhibitors, are currently being investigated. The potential adverse effects of these chemopreventive agents, which include an impact on the quality of life, must be discussed with the patient before deciding on this approach. Additionally, breast cancer risk factors have been identified over the years; some of them are modifiable, but others are not. Although there is no conclusive evidence to suggest the protective role of specific dietary components, alcohol consumption and obesity are associated with an increased breast cancer risk; thus lifestyle changes can lead to a lower risk of developing breast cancer. Surgical approaches, including bilateral risk-reduction mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, are usually limited to women with a hereditary predisposition to development of breast cancer. The objective of this review is to summarize the various approaches directed at reducing the incidence of breast cancer.Keywords: chemoprevention, tamoxifen, raloxifene, prophylactic surgery

  4. Indian studies on genetic polymorphisms and cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic influences on cancer development have been extensively investigated during the last decade following publication of human genome sequence. The present review summarizes case-control studies on genetic polymorphisms and cancer risk in Indians. It is observed that the most commonly studied genes in the Indian population included members of phase I and phase II metabolic enzymes. Other than these genes, genetic polymorphisms for cell cycle and apoptosis-related factors, DNA repair enzymes, immune response elements, growth factors, folate metabolizing enzymes, vitamin/hormone receptors, etc., were investigated. Several studies also evidenced a stronger risk for combined genotypes rather than a single polymorphism. Gene-environment interaction was also found to be a determining factor for cancer development in some experiments. Data for single polymorphism and single cancer type, however, was insufficient to validate an association. It appears that much more experiments involving larger sample size, cross-tabulating genetic polymorphisms and environmental factors are required in order to identify genetic markers for different cancers in Indian populations.

  5. External Link Policy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following graphic notice means that you are leaving the DCP Web site: (link is external)This external link provides additional information that is consistent with the intended purpose of DCP.The National Cancer Institute (NCI) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal site.Linking to a non-federal site does not constitute an endorsement by HHS or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the site.You will be subject to the destination site |

  6. Mammalian cardenolides in cancer prevention and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghoul, Mohammad; Valdes, Roland

    2008-04-01

    Digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF) and ouabain-like factor (OLF) are the mammalian counterparts to the plant-derived cardiotonic steroids digoxin and ouabain. Compelling evidence indicates that the cardiotonic steroids may have anticancer properties. Recent evidence indicates that low (nanomolar) concentrations of DLIF selectively induce cell death in transformed cells, while sparing normal cells, and is even more potent than the plant-derived compounds. The discovery that these endogenous molecules may play a role in the regulation of cancer cell proliferation provides a potentially new paradigm for the physiologic role of DLIF and OLF. In addition, the possible use of digoxin itself as a therapeutic agent in cancer has been explored, and evidence suggests that its conversion to dihydrodigoxin may be involved in regulating anticancer activity. The mechanism(s) for the pro-apoptotic property of these compounds is not known. In this brief review, we will discuss the proposed mechanism of action of digoxin, ouabain, DLIF, and OLF as anticancer compounds and discuss the effects that metabolic conversion to their dihydro-derivatives may have on this activity. From the perspective of therapeutic drug monitoring, these findings suggest some potential new challenges in the need to measure concentrations of digoxin and dihydrodigoxin as well as their endogenous counterparts DLIF and OLF in serum.

  7. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which mod...

  8. Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripamonti Carla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In breast cancer patients, bone is the most common site of metastases. Medical therapies are the basic therapy to prevent distant metastases and recurrence and to cure them. Radiotherapy has a primary role in pain relief, recalcification and stabilization of the bone, as well as the reduction of the risk of complications (e.g., bone fractures, spinal cord compression. Bisphosphonates, as potent inhibitors of osteoclastic-mediated bone resorption are a well-established, standard-of-care treatment option to reduce the frequency, severity and time of onset of the skeletal related events in breast cancer patients with bone metastases. Moreover bisphosphonates prevent cancer treatment-induced bone loss. Recent data shows the anti-tumor activity of bisphosphonates, in particular, in postmenopausal women and in older premenopausal women with hormone-sensitive disease treated with ovarian suppression. Pain is the most frequent symptom reported in patients with bone metastases, and its prevention and treatment must be considered at any stage of the disease. The prevention and treatment of bone metastases in breast cancer must consider an integrated multidisciplinary approach.

  9. Dietary Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surasi VADHANAVIKIT

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that the trace nutrient selenium may reduce the risk of prostate cancer. There is, however, a need to prove that intake of high but not toxic levels of selenium can prevent the disease in the general population, and to conduct further relevant study.

  10. Nutrition Frontiers - Spring 2016 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 7, Issue 2 The spring issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases green tea's effect on human metabolism, fish oil — as a chemopreventive agent in myeloid leukemia and, with pectin, how they affect microRNA expression in the colon. Learn about our spotlight investigator, Dr. Richard Eckert, and his research on skin cancer prevention, upcoming announcements and more. |

  11. Helicobacter Pylori and the Prevention of Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence Sullivan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is an important cause of stomach cancer that infects a substantial proportion of the Canadian adult population. H pylori can be detected by noninvasive tests and effectively eradicated by medical treatment. Screening for and treatment of H pylori may represent a significant opportunity for preventive oncology.

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids for breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-05-04

    Women with evidence of high intake ratios of the marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) relative to the omega-6 arachidonic acid have been found to have a reduced risk of breast cancer compared with those with low ratios in some but not all case-control and cohort studies. If increasing EPA and DHA relative to arachidonic acid is effective in reducing breast cancer risk, likely mechanisms include reduction in proinflammatory lipid derivatives, inhibition of nuclear factor-κB-induced cytokine production, and decreased growth factor receptor signaling as a result of alteration in membrane lipid rafts. Primary prevention trials with either risk biomarkers or cancer incidence as endpoints are underway but final results of these trials are currently unavailable. EPA and DHA supplementation is also being explored in an effort to help prevent or alleviate common problems after a breast cancer diagnosis, including cardiac and cognitive dysfunction and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. The insulin-sensitizing and anabolic properties of EPA and DHA also suggest supplementation studies to determine whether these omega-3 fatty acids might reduce chemotherapy-associated loss of muscle mass and weight gain. We will briefly review relevant omega-3 fatty acid metabolism, and early investigations in breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

  13. [Recommendations for cancer prevention of World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF): situational analysis for Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovetto, Mirta; Uauy, Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    The main diet-related cancers include colorectal, lung, breast in (postmenopausal) women, stomach, esophagus, prostate and pancreas. After tobacco, obesity is the leading cause of cancer; it accounts for one third of all cancers. Cancer is associated with high total body fat, abdominal fat and weight gain in adult life. These are all potentially modifiable risk factors. Consumption of a "healthy diet" and living an "active life" can significantly reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the recommendations published by the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) for the prevention of cancer in 2007. We compared the recommendations of Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: a global perspective", with the national situation in Chile, analyzing the national report on the prevalence of risk factors. Our main finding was that the pattern of consumption and lifestyles differ markedly from the WCRF recommendations: we observed an over consumption of sugary drinks and high intake of processed foods high in sodium and total fat and low consumption of legumes, vegetables, fruits high in antioxidants and fiber that protect from cancer. Chile has an increased cancer prevalence which is associated with poor quality diets, rising mean body mass index and a sedentary behavior. We recommend the strengthening programs to promote healthy diets and active living, in order to reduce cancer risk.

  14. Evaluating bioactive food components in obesity and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kristi M; Allison, David

    2015-01-01

    Research into bioactive food compounds (BFC) continues to evolve albeit with shared challenges among scientists in the fields of obesity and cancer treatment and prevention. Given the diversity of scientific disciplines involved in evaluating BFC, multidisciplinary conferences provide opportunities to update the state of the science and critically discuss conceptual and methodological challenges encountered in studying BFC in both preclinical and clinical trials. This overview is an introduction to presentations given at a conference sponsored by the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health and the University of Alabama at Birmingham, which convened a multidisciplinary group of researchers evaluating BFC in obesity and cancer prevention. Full presentations can be viewed in video format at http://www.norc.uab.edu/courses/conferences/conference2013.

  15. Strategies of functional food for cancer prevention in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ya-Wen; Yang, Jia-Zheng; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Du, Juan; Yang, Tao; Yang, Shu-Ming; Zhu, Wei-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Functional food for prevention of chronic diseases is one of this century's key global challenges. Cancer is not only the first or second leading cause of death in China and other countries across the world, but also has diet as one of the most important modifiable risk factors. Major dietary factors now known to promote cancer development are polished grain foods and low intake of fresh vegetables, with general importance for an unhealthy lifestyle and obesity. The strategies of cancer prevention in human being are increased consumption of functional foods like whole grains (brown rice, barley, and buckwheat) and by-products, as well some vegetables (bitter melon, garlic, onions, broccoli, and cabbage) and mushrooms (boletes and Tricholoma matsutake). In addition some beverages (green tea and coffee) may be protective. Southwest China (especially Yunnan Province) is a geographical area where functional crop production is closely related to the origins of human evolution with implications for anticancer influence.

  16. Sulforaphane – a possible agent in prevention and therapy of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Tomczyk

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulforaphane (SFN is an isothiocyanate that is naturally present in cruciferous vegetables, with high concentration in broccoli. The results of the most recent studies indicate multi-targeted sulforaphane actions which may contribute to prevention and therapy of cancer. Protective properties of sulforaphane have been observed in every stage of carcinogenesis. The mechanism of protection against the initiation of carcinogenesis by SFN includes modulation of phase I and II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, as well as direct blocking of specific binding sites of carcinogens with the DNA molecule. As a result, sulforaphane inhibits DNA adduct formation, thus reducing the risk of mutations. Further sulforaphane activity is targeted at cancer cells and prevents their expansion due to regulation of proliferation and induction of differentiation or apoptosis. In vitro studies using various types of cancer cells have revealed the ability of SFN to arrest the cell cycle, particularly in G2/M, while SFN at higher concentration is shown to activate apoptotic pathways. The possible SFN anticancer effect in the progression stage of carcinogenesis has been proved by only a few studies, which provide evidence for its antiangiogenic and antimetastatic influence. Additionally, SFN exhibits anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects relevant to cancer prevention.Apart from the biological activity of SFN, this review also focuses on its bioavailability and tissue distribution as well as individuals’ genetic predispositions as significant factors influencing the potential efficiency of chemoprevention using this compound.

  17. Potential of food modification in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, C; Lisk, D J; Scimeca, J A

    1994-04-01

    This presentation focuses on research that could theoretically be applied to implement the strategy of general population chemoprevention. The concept is based on the premise of enhancing foods with known anticarcinogens through either agricultural methods or food-processing technologies. Two areas of our work are described: (a) garlic cultivated with selenium fertilization and (b) foods high in conjugated linoleic acid. Both selenium and conjugated linoleic acid are powerful chemopreventive agents in the animal tumor model. The rationale of delivering these two specific compounds through the food system will be developed. Preliminary studies will be summarized to show the feasibility of this approach in suppressing carcinogen-induced mammary cancer in rats. Finally, the advantages of using foods to provide anticarcinogens to the general population as part of a chemopreventive strategy will also be discussed.

  18. Prediction of Breast Cancer Risk Based on Profiling With Common Genetic Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan; Brook, Mark N.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Brown, Judith; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dudbridge, Frank; Johnson, Nichola; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Verhoef, Senno; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J.; Brinton, Louise; Lissowska, Jolanta; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Lambrechts, Diether; Wildiers, Hans; Van Ongeval, Chantal; van Limbergen, Erik; Kristensen, Vessela; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe; Nord, Silje; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fasching, Peter A.; Haeberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Newcomb, Polly; Titus, Linda; Egan, Kathleen M.; Hunter, David J.; Lindstrom, Sara; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Kraft, Peter; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare; Renwick, Anthony; Seal, Sheila; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Benitez, Javier; Pilar Zamora, M.; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Menéndez, Primitiva; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Dörk, Thilo; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A. E. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Asperen, Christi J.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Bermisheva, Marina; Prokofyeva, Darya; Takhirova, Zalina; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Sutter, Christian; Yang, Rongxi; Schürmann, Peter; Bremer, Michael; Christiansen, Hans; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Hillemanns, Peter; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Menegaux, Florence; Sanchez, Marie; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Pensotti, Valeria; Hopper, John L.; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Doody, Michele M.; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Försti, Asta; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Marie Mulligan, Anna; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Balleine, Rosemary; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; McLean, Catriona; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Eilber, Ursula; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Koppert, Linetta B.; Carpenter, Jane; Clarke, Christine; Scott, Rodney; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Karina Dieffenbach, Aida; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Offit, Kenneth; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Rau-Murthy, Rohini; Dwek, Miriam; Swann, Ruth; Annie Perkins, Katherine; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Eccles, Diana M.; Tapper, William J.; Rafiq, Sajjad; John, Esther M.; Whittemore, Alice S.; Slager, Susan; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Toland, Amanda E.; Yao, Song; Zheng, Wei; Halverson, Sandra L.; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Rosario Alonso, M.; Álvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Maranian, Mel; Healey, Catherine S.; Simard, Jacques; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Data for multiple common susceptibility alleles for breast cancer may be combined to identify women at different levels of breast cancer risk. Such stratification could guide preventive and screening strategies. However, empirical evidence for genetic risk stratification is lacking. Methods: We investigated the value of using 77 breast cancer-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for risk stratification, in a study of 33 673 breast cancer cases and 33 381 control women of European origin. We tested all possible pair-wise multiplicative interactions and constructed a 77-SNP polygenic risk score (PRS) for breast cancer overall and by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Absolute risks of breast cancer by PRS were derived from relative risk estimates and UK incidence and mortality rates. Results: There was no strong evidence for departure from a multiplicative model for any SNP pair. Women in the highest 1% of the PRS had a three-fold increased risk of developing breast cancer compared with women in the middle quintile (odds ratio [OR] = 3.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.95 to 3.83). The ORs for ER-positive and ER-negative disease were 3.73 (95% CI = 3.24 to 4.30) and 2.80 (95% CI = 2.26 to 3.46), respectively. Lifetime risk of breast cancer for women in the lowest and highest quintiles of the PRS were 5.2% and 16.6% for a woman without family history, and 8.6% and 24.4% for a woman with a first-degree family history of breast cancer. Conclusions: The PRS stratifies breast cancer risk in women both with and without a family history of breast cancer. The observed level of risk discrimination could inform targeted screening and prevention strategies. Further discrimination may be achievable through combining the PRS with lifestyle/environmental factors, although these were not considered in this report. PMID:25855707

  19. The cancer genetics and pathology of male breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Siddhartha; Lakhani, Sunil R; Ottini, Laura; Fox, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon and poorly understood disease. Recent molecular studies have shown important differences from female breast cancer which are likely to influence treatment strategies from the current female-based management towards a more tailored approach. Significantly more MBCs than female breast cancers arise with an underlying germline cancer predisposition, and display a vastly different penetrance compared with females. Furthermore, the genophenotypical association of basal-like cancer with BRCA1 present in female breast cancer is not observed in male breast cancer. Differences in somatic changes between male and female breast cancer have also been reported, with particular enrichment of PIK3CA mutations and a paucity of TP53 mutations. In general, chromosomal-based changes, in particular regions of gains, are seen more frequently in male than female breast cancer and methylation is seen less frequently. Clinically, several molecular subtypes with prognostic relevance have been described, including chromosomal complex high and methylation high groups, and subgroups with profiling signatures pertaining to epithelial mesenchymal transition and hormonal therapy insensitivity. As with female breast cancer, attention to male specific multicentre trials based on the individual characteristics are needed, together with establishment of reliable preclinical models to understand more clearly the pathogenesis of male breast cancer and improve the general poor outcome of this disease.

  20. Ultraviolet B, vitamin D, and their mechanisms in cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Cedric F.; Garland, Frank C.; Gorham, Edward D.; Lipkin, Martin; Newmark, Harold; Raffa, Joseph V.; Holick, Michael F.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Recent advances confirming the role of vitamin D in prevention of cancer have created new scientific interest. The main source of vitamin D is exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB). Factors that reduce atmospheric penetration of UVB play a role in increasing risk of cancers of the colon, breast, and other sites. Objective: To systematically review available epidemiological and laboratory studies concerning effects of UVB or vitamin D on colon, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer. Methods: All published research articles that identified the role of ultraviolet B, vitamin D, and its metabolites in conjunction with colon and breast cancer were ascertained and abstracts or articles were reviewed. Results: The preponderance of epidemiological and laboratory studies support the hypothesis that moderate exposures to ultraviolet B and vitamin D provide protection against colon and breast cancer, among others. The effect is present throughout life for colon cancer, but is exerted mostly during the first two decades for breast cancer. Conclusion: Latitude, climate, sulfate air pollution, stratospheric ozone, and behavioral factors combine to reduce the dermal synthesis of vitamin D to virtually zero during winter months. Populations at 37+ degrees of latitude are at markedly elevated risk of vitamin D deficiency, and, consequently, of colon, breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality.

  1. Chronic mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibition: preventing cancer to delay aging, or vice versa?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Zelton Dave; Curiel, Tyler Jay; Livi, Carolina Becker

    2013-01-01

    Cancer and aging appear to be inexorably linked, yet approaches to ameliorate them in concert are lacking. Although not (easily) feasible in humans, years of preclinical research show that diet and growth factor restriction each successfully address cancer and aging together. Chronic treatment of genetically heterogeneous mice with an enteric formulation of rapamycin (eRapa) extended maximum lifespan of both genders when started in mid or late life. In part, cancer amelioration in treated mice suggested that long-term eRapa, like diet restriction, could be a pharmacological approach feasible for use in the clinic. We review the current understanding of the role of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) in cancer and aging. We also discuss the tumor immune surveillance system, and the need for a better understanding of its responses to mTOR inhibitors. We also address the issue of the misperception that rapamycin is a potent immunosuppressant. Finally, we review the current state of mTOR inhibitors in the cancer clinic. Because of the burgeoning elderly population most at risk for cancer, there is a great need for our eRapa findings to be a proof of concept for the development of new and more comprehensive approaches to cancer prevention that are safe and also mitigate other deleterious effects of aging.

  2. Eradication of H pylori for the prevention of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karolin Trautmann; Manfred Stolte; Stephan Miehlke

    2006-01-01

    Tnfection with H pylori is the most important known etiological factor associated with gastric cancer. While colonization of the gastric mucosa with H pylori results in active and chronic gastritis in virtually all individuals infected, the likelihood of developing gastric cancer depends on environmental, bacterial virulence and host specific factors. The majority of all gastric cancer cases are attributable to H pylori infection and therefore theoretically preventable. There is evidence from animal models that eradication of H pylori at an early time point can prevent gastric cancer development. However, randomized clinical trials exploring the prophylactic effect of H pylori eradication on the incidence of gastric cancer in humans remain sparse and have yielded conflicting results. Better markers for the identification of patientsat risk for H pylori induced gastric malignancy are needed to allow the development of a more efficient public eradication strategy. Meanwhile, screening and treatment of H pylori in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients as well as certain high-risk populations might be beneficial.

  3. Behaviour among women in the scope of cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Słopiecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cytological examination is a simple and inexpensive method used in the prevention of cervical cancer. In Poland, too low proportions of women still have the test. Aim of the research : To analyse the attitudes towards cervical cancer prevention. Material and methods : Two hundred and ten hospitalized women were invited to take part in the investigation. The research used the diagnostic poll method, using the author’s original questionnaire form. The research was carried out in four gynaecological wards. Results : Of the women who participated in the research, 16.2% by the time of diagnosis had never received a Pap test. In the analysed group, 88.2% of women were not referred to a specialist for a Pap test. Among all respondents, only 35.7% underwent cervix cytology regularly, i.e. once a year or once every 2 years. Conclusions : The effort made by the women towards the attitudes of cervical cancer prevention was insufficient; still too many women had not reported to the specialist for taking material from the cervix, or did not do so regularly. A significant relation in the behaviour of women was found depending on their level of education and place of residence. Greater activity of nurses, midwives and family physicians in stimulating Polish women to participate in prevention programmes for cervical cancer is advisable. To increase the health awareness of girls and women, it is important to include in the curriculum, especially in secondary schools, the issues of prevention of female reproductive system cancer.

  4. Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task ...

  5. Genetics and epidemiology, congenital anomalies and cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, J.M. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    1997-03-01

    Many of the basic statistical methods used in epidemiology - regression, analysis of variance, and estimation of relative risk, for example - originally were developed for the genetic analysis of biometric data. The familiarity that many geneticists have with this methodology has helped geneticists to understand and accept genetic epidemiology as a scientific discipline. It worth noting, however, that most of the work in genetic epidemiology during the past decade has been devoted to linkage and other family studies, rather than to population-based investigations of the type that characterize much of mainstream epidemiology. 30 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Majidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC. Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran.

  7. Cancer and Cancer Prevention and Control Programs in the Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Thomas K.

    1992-01-01

    Describes cancer control activities by the Indian Health Service in North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, and Nebraska, including risk factor assessment and cancer screening using a modified Health Risk Appraisal; interventions to reduce smoking; community empowerment; development of health education materials; and clinical preventive services. (SV)

  8. The genetic epidemiology of prostate cancer and its clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeles, Rosalind; Goh, Chee; Castro, Elena; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Guy, Michelle; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Easton, Douglas; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, familial and epidemiological studies have generated considerable evidence of an inherited component to prostate cancer. Indeed, rare highly penetrant genetic mutations have been implicated. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have also identified 76 susceptibility loci associated with prostate cancer risk, which occur commonly but are of low penetrance. However, these mutations interact multiplicatively, which can result in substantially increased risk. Currently, approximately 30% of the familial risk is due to such variants. Evaluating the functional aspects of these variants would contribute to our understanding of prostate cancer aetiology and would enable population risk stratification for screening. Furthermore, understanding the genetic risks of prostate cancer might inform predictions of treatment responses and toxicities, with the goal of personalized therapy. However, risk modelling and clinical translational research are needed before we can translate risk profiles generated from these variants into use in the clinical setting for targeted screening and treatment.

  9. Shared genetics underlying epidemiological association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yi; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Painter, Jodie N;

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between endometriosis and certain histotypes of ovarian cancer, including clear cell, low-grade serous and endometrioid carcinomas. We aimed to determine whether the observed associations might be due to shared genetic aetiology. To address...... this, we used two endometriosis datasets genotyped on common arrays with full-genome coverage (3194 cases and 7060 controls) and a large ovarian cancer dataset genotyped on the customized Illumina Infinium iSelect (iCOGS) arrays (10 065 cases and 21 663 controls). Previous work has suggested...... that a large number of genetic variants contribute to endometriosis and ovarian cancer (all histotypes combined) susceptibility. Here, using the iCOGS data, we confirmed polygenic architecture for most histotypes of ovarian cancer. This led us to evaluate if the polygenic effects are shared across diseases. We...

  10. The genetics of nicotine dependence: Relationship to pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stewart L MacLeod; Parimal Chowdhury

    2006-01-01

    Smoking of tobacco products continues to be a major cause of worldwide health problems. Epidemiological studies have shown that tobacco smoking is the greatest risk factor for the development of pancreatic cancer.Smokers who are able to quit smoking can reduce their risk of pancreatic cancer by nearly 50% within two years, however, their risk of developing pancreatic cancer remains higher than that of non-smokers for 10 years. Nicotine is the major psychoactive substance in tobacco, and is responsible for tobacco dependence and addiction. Recent evidence suggests that individuals have genetically based differences in their ability to metabolize nicotine, as well as genetic differences in the psychological reward pathways that may influence individual response to smoking initiation, dependence,addiction and cessation. Numerous associations have been reported between smoking behavior and genetic polymorphisms in genes that are responsible for nicotine metabolism. Tn addition, polymorphisms in genes that encode neurotransmitters and transporters that function in psychological reward pathways have been implicated in differences in smoking behavior. However,there is a large degree of between-study variability that demonstrates the need for larger, well-controlled casecontrol studies to identify target genes and deduce mechanisms that account for the genetic basis of interindividual differences in smoking behavior. Understanding the genetic factors that increase susceptibility to tobacco addiction may result in more effective tobacco cessation programs which will, in turn, reduce the incidence of tobacco related disease, including pancreatic cancer.

  11. Genetic surgery - a right strategy to attack cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdlov, Eugene D

    2011-12-01

    The approaches now united under the term "gene therapy" can be divided into two broad strategies: (1) strategy using the ideology of molecular targeted therapy, but with genes in the role of agents targeted at certain molecular component(s) or pathways presumably crucial for cancer maintenance; (ii) strategy aimed at the destruction of tumors as a whole exploiting the features shared by all cancers, for example relatively fast mitotic cell division. While the first strategy is "true" gene therapy, the second one, as e.g. suicide gene therapy, is more like genetic surgery, when a surgeon just cuts off a tumor being not interested in subtle genetic mechanisms of cancer emergence and progression. This approach inherits the ideology of chemotherapy but escapes its severe toxic effects due to intracellular formation of toxic agents. Genetic surgery seems to be the most appropriate approach to combat cancer, and its simplicity is paradoxically adequate to the super-complexity of tumors. The review consists of three parts: (i) analysis of the reasons of tumor supercomplexity and fatally inevitable failure of molecular targeted therapy, (ii) general principles of the genetic surgery strategy, and (iii) examples of genetic surgery approaches with analysis of their drawbacks and the ways for their improvement.

  12. Courting the future: cancer and genetics in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Describing this double issue of MEDICC Review could be an exercise for a first-year philosophy course in logic. It's not about "cancer and genetics" in Cuba. It's about cancer in Cuba and about genetics in Cuba, not about exploring relationships between them. Nevertheless, while the marriage of the two themes was fortuitous, in that the two had long been scheduled for the journal in 2014, there is a certain felicity to their sharing an issue. To date, the outstanding accomplishments of genetics have been most helpful for conditions occurring at the beginning of life and cancer is largely (though not exclusively) a disease related to aging. But the two are intrinsically connected: Although only a few of the more than 100 different diseases grouped under the term cancer are known to be hereditary, every cancer begins with a mutation in one or more genes, whether the mutation is inherited, due to an exposure, or is simply a random error in the millions of cell divisions that are part and parcel of cellular reproduction. Our cover image, a stained-glass window by Cuban artist Rosa María de la Terga at Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center, illustrates the elegance of the DNA molecule, the intricate key to life.

  13. Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancer Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complaints about false or misleading health claims in advertisements. The American Society of Human Genetics, a membership ... at the National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT ...

  14. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The evidence on whether vitamin D supplementation is effective in decreasing cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register...... vitamin D₃, one trial tested vitamin D₂, and three trials tested calcitriol supplementation. Cancer occurrence was observed in 1927/25,275 (7.6%) recipients of vitamin D versus 1943/25,348 (7.7%) recipients of control interventions (RR 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94 to 1.06); P = 0.88; I² = 0......% relative risk reduction. We did not observe substantial differences in the effect of vitamin D on cancer in subgroup analyses of trials at low risk of bias compared to trials at high risk of bias; of trials with no risk of for-profit bias compared to trials with risk of for-profit bias; of trials assessing...

  15. Natural ways to prevent and treat oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Danaraddi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the usual causes of mortality all over the world, with a five-year survival rate of only 50%. Oral cancers are treated primarily by surgery with / without adjuvant radiotherapy and / or chemotherapy. However, there is significant post-treatment morbidity and mortality secondary to recurrences. Dietary supplements like fruits and vegetables are rich in phytochemicals and provide a variety of antioxidants like vitamin A, C, E. Spirulina, Selenium, Green tea (EGCG, Neem, Tomatoes (lycopene, Turmeric (curcumin, and some medicinal mushrooms are also used as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. This overview emphasizes on natural therapies to fight against oral cancer. Thus, there are several natural compounds that can enhance the prevention of oral cancer.

  16. Annual fasting; the early calories restriction for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Solat; Barzgari, Zahra; Saliani, Negar; Saeedi, Nazli; Barzegari, Abolfazl

    2012-01-01

    Essentially, people's diet and nutritional status has been changed substantially worldwide and several lines of evidence suggest that these changes are to the detriment of their health. Additionally, it has been well documented that unhealthy diet especially the fast foods, untraditional foods or bad-eating-habits influence the human gut microbiome. The gut microbiota shapes immune responses during human life and affects his/her metabolomic profiles. Furthermore, many studies highlight the molecular pathways that mediate host and symbiont interactions that regulate proper immune function and prevention of cancer in the body. Intriguingly, if cancer forms in a human body due to the weakness of immune system in detriment of microbiome, the removal of cancer stem cells can be carried out through early Calories Restriction with Annual Fasting (AF) before tumor development or progress. Besides, fasting can balance the gut microbiome for enhancement of immune system against cancer formation.

  17. Extending cancer prevention to improve fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Darcy A; Peña-Purcell, Ninfa; Friedman, Daniela B; Ory, Marcia; Flocke, Susan; Barni, Marie T; Hébert, James R

    2014-12-01

    Consuming a diet that is rich in fruits and vegetables is critical for preventing cancer and cancer-related disparities. Food systems approaches that increase spatial-temporal, economic, and social access to fruits and vegetables may ultimately result in improved consumption patterns among Americans. Engaging the triad of Cooperative Extension Services, public health systems, and community health centers may yield maximal public health benefits from food systems interventions. These entities have a mutual interest in promoting health equity and community and economic vitality that provides common ground to (a) implement solutions through the dissemination of evidence-based programs and (b) share resources to foster grassroots support for sustained change. Working together, these systems have an unprecedented opportunity to build on their common ground to implement, evaluate, and disseminate evidence-based food systems interventions in communities and with populations experiencing disparate risk for cancer and cancer-related diseases.

  18. Role of prevention and screening in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddireddi Reddi Rani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is a disease with poor prognosis and high mortality among gynaecological cancers due to inaccessibility of ovary for inspection or sampling and lack of proper screening methods. Strategies to detect early ovarian cancer include estimation of serum CA-125 and transvaginal ultrasound (TVS for morphological index. Studies have shown that screening of asymptomatic average risk post-menopausal women did not show any benefit and are associated with false positive results which may lead to unnecessary surgery and resultant morbidity. The risks outweigh benefits. Present recommendation is to screen high risk women especially hereditary cancers and offer risk reducing surgery when needed. Prophylactic salpingectomy/oophorectomy may offer the opportunity to prevent ovarian cancer. More trials and more research in newer biomarkers are needed. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 941-946

  19. Annual Fasting; the Early Calories Restriction for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solat Eslami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Essentially, people’s diet and nutritional status has been changed substantially worldwide and several lines of evidence suggest that these changes are to the detriment of their health. Additionally, it has been well documented that unhealthy diet especially the fast foods, untraditional foods or bad-eating-habits influence the human gut microbiome. The gut microbiota shapes immune responses during human life and affects his/her metabolomic profiles. Furthermore, many studies highlight the molecular pathways that mediate host and symbiont interactions that regulate proper immune function and prevention of cancer in the body. Intriguingly, if cancer forms in a human body due to the weakness of immune system in detriment of microbiome, the removal of cancer stem cells can be carried out through early Calories Restriction with Annual Fasting (AF before tumor development or progress. Besides, fasting can b balance the gut microbiome for enhancement of immune system against cancer formation.

  20. COX2 genetic variation, NSAIDs, and advanced prostate cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, I.; Liu, X.; Plummer, S J; Krumroy, L M; Casey, G; Witte, J S

    2007-01-01

    Collective evidence suggests that cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) plays a role in prostate cancer risk. Cyclooxygenase 2 is the major enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, which are potent mediators of inflammation. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the enzymatic activity of COX2 and long-term use of NSAIDs appears to modestly lower the risk of prostate cancer. We investigated whether common genetic variation in COX2 influences the risk of advanced prostate canc...

  1. Mobile genetic elements and cancer. From mutations to gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozeretska, I A; Demydov, S V; Ostapchenko, L I

    2011-12-01

    In the present review, an association between cancer and the activity of the non-LTR retroelements L1, Alu, and SVA, as well as endogenous retroviruses, in the human genome, is analyzed. Data suggesting that transposons have been involved in embryogenesis and malignization processes, are presented. Events that lead to the activation of mobile elements in mammalian somatic cells, as well as the use of mobile elements in genetic screening and cancer gene therapy, are reviewed.

  2. Genetic aspects of etiology and development of thyroid gland cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko Yu.V.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on thyroid gland cancer development and progression have identified new classes of tumor markers, proto-oncogenes, tumor-suppressing genes, cell receptor genes, identified genetic tumor-predisposing polymorphism and some other significantly important segments of genome. The identification has been based mainly on revealing of DNA abnormal consequences, specific for occurrence of thyroid gland cancer and its progression.

  3. 76 FR 44021 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for Using Public Data for Cancer Prevention and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... Public Data for Cancer Prevention and Control: From Innovation to Impact Developer Challenge AGENCY... Using Public Data for Cancer Prevention and Control: From Innovation to Impact Developer Challenge. This... Survey (CHIS) public use data files...

  4. Molecular and genetic bases of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Vanja; Gelibter, Alain; Bria, Emilio; Iapicca, Pierluigi; Cappello, Paola; Di Modugno, Francesca; Pino, Maria Simona; Nuzzo, Carmen; Cognetti, Francesco; Novelli, Francesco; Nistico, Paola; Milella, Michele

    2012-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains a formidable challenge for oncologists and patients alike. Despite intensive efforts, attempts at improving survival in the past 15 years, particularly in advanced disease, have failed. This is true even with the introduction of molecularly targeted agents, chosen on the basis of their action on pathways that were supposedly important in pancreatic cancer development and progression: indeed, with the notable exception of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor erlotinib, that has provided a minimal survival improvement when added to gemcitabine, other agents targeting EGFR, matrix metallo-proteases, farnesyl transferase, or vascular endothelial growth factor have not succeeded in improving outcomes over standard gemcitabine monotherapy for a variety of different reasons. However, recent developments in the molecular epidemiology of pancreatic cancer and an ever evolving understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying pancreatic cancer initiation and progression raise renewed hope to find novel, relevant therapeutic targets that could be pursued in the clinical setting. In this review we focus on molecular epidemiology of pancreatic cancer, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and its influence on sensitivity to EGFR-targeted approaches, apoptotic pathways, hypoxia-related pathways, developmental pathways (such as the hedgehog and Notch pathways), and proteomic analysis as keys to a better understanding of pancreatic cancer biology and, most importantly, as a source of novel molecular targets to be exploited therapeutically.

  5. AN EPIDEMIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETIC STUDY ON BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾卫华; 王继先; 李本孝; 李征

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the genetic susceptibility for breast cancer of Chinese, a hospital-based case-control study, pedigree survey and molecular genetic study were conducted. Methods. Logistic regression model and stratification methods were used in the risk factors analysis. Li-Mantel art and Falconer methods were used to analyze the segregation ratio and heritability. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used to detect AI, G-banding technique was used to detect the chromosome aberration of peripheral blood lymphocyte. Results. Family history of breast cancer is related to enhanced breast cancer risk significartly, OR is 3.905 ( 95 % CI = 1.079 ~ 14.13), and it widely interacts with other risk factors. Accumulative incidence of breast cancer in first degree relatives is 9.99%, which is larger than that in second, third degree and non-blood relatives. Segregation ratio is 0.021, heritability among first degree relatives is 35.6 ± 5.8%. Frequencies of LOH at BRCA1 and BRCA2 loci in sporadic breast cancer are 6.12% and 5.77% respectively. In the sibs, both of them show LOH at D13S173 locus, and high frequencies of chromosome aberrations were observed. Conclusions. Genetic susceptibility contributes to breast cancer occurrence of Chinese, and its racial variation may be one of the important reasons for the large difference of incidence between western and eastern countries.

  6. AN EPIDEMIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR GENETIC STUDY ON BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾卫华; 王继先; 李本孝; 李征

    2000-01-01

    Obieaites. To investigate the genetic susceptibility for breast cancer of Chinese, a hospital-besed case-control study, pedigree survey and molecular genetic study were conducted. Methods. Logistic regression model and stratification methods were used in the risk factors analysis. Li-Mantel-Gart and Falconer methods were used to analyze the segregation ratio and heritability. Polymemse chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used to detect AI, G-banding technique was used to detect the chromosome aberration of peripheral blood lymphocyte. Results. Family history of breast cancer is related to enhanced breast cancer risk significantly, OR is 3.905(95% CI = 1.079—14.13), and it widely interacts with other risk factors. Accumulative incidence of breast cancer in first degree relatives is 9.99%, which is larger than that in second, third degree and non-blnod relatives. Segregation ratio is 0.021, heritability among first degree relatives is 35.6 ± 5.8%. Frequencies of LDH at BRCA1 and BRCA2 loci in sporadic breast cancer are 6.12% and 5.77% respectively. In the sibs, both of them show LOH at D13S173 locus, and high frequencies of chromosome abermtions were observed.Condusions. Genetic susceptibility contributes to breast cancer occurrence of Chinese, and its racial variation may be one of the important reasons for the large difference of incidence between western and eastern countries.

  7. Pomegranate for Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, and those who survive cancer may experience lasting difficulties, including treatment side effects, as well as physical, cognitive, and psychosocial struggles. Naturally-occurring agents from dietary fruits and vegetables have received considerable attention for the prevention and treatment of cancers. These natural agents are safe and cost efficient in contrast to expensive chemotherapeutic agents, which may induce significant side effects. The pomegranate (Punica granatum L. fruit has been used for the prevention and treatment of a multitude of diseases and ailments for centuries in ancient cultures. Pomegranate exhibits strong antioxidant activity and is a rich source of anthocyanins, ellagitannins, and hydrolysable tannins. Studies have shown that the pomegranate fruit as well as its juice, extract, and oil exert anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-tumorigenic properties by modulating multiple signaling pathways, which suggest its use as a promising chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical studies highlighting the role of pomegranate in prevention and treatment of skin, breast, prostate, lung, and colon cancers.

  8. Molecular Link between Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Grant

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as calcitriol, is a biologically active molecule required to maintain the physiological functions of several target tissues in the human body from conception to adulthood. Its molecular mode of action ranges from immediate nongenomic responses to longer term mechanisms that exert persistent genomic effects. The genomic mechanisms of vitamin D action rely on cross talk between 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 signaling pathways and that of other growth factors or hormones that collectively regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and cell survival. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate a role for vitamin D (calcitriol in modulating cellular growth and development. Vitamin D (calcitriol acts as an antiproliferative agent in many tissues and significantly slows malignant cellular growth. Moreover, epidemiological studies have suggested that ultraviolet-B exposure can help reduce cancer risk and prevalence, indicating a potential role for vitamin D as a feasible agent to prevent cancer incidence and recurrence. With the preventive potential of this biologically active agent, we suggest that countries where cancer is on the rise—yet where sunlight and, hence, vitamin D may be easily acquired—adopt awareness, education and implementation strategies to increase supplementation with vitamin D in all age groups as a preventive measure to reduce cancer risk and prevalence.

  9. Screening and prevention of breast cancer in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jeffrey A; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2009-09-01

    Mammography remains the mainstay of breast cancer screening. There is little controversy that mammography reduces the risk of dying from breast cancer by about 23% among women between the ages of 50 and 69 years, although the harms associated with false-positive results and overdiagnosis limit the net benefit of mammography. Women in their 70s may have a small benefit from screening mammography, but overdiagnosis increases in this age group as do competing causes of death. While new data support a 16% reduction in breast cancer mortality for 40- to 49-year-old women after 10 years of screening, the net benefit is less compelling in part because of the lower incidence of breast cancer in this age group and because mammography is less sensitive and specific in women younger than 50 years. Digital mammography is more sensitive than film mammography in young women with similar specificity, but no improvements in breast cancer outcomes have been demonstrated. Magnetic resonance imaging may benefit the highest risk women. Randomized trials suggest that self-breast examination does more harm than good. Primary prevention with currently approved medications will have a negligible effect on breast cancer incidence. Public health efforts aimed at increasing mammography screening rates, promoting regular exercise in all women, maintaining a healthy weight, limiting alcohol intake, and limiting postmenopausal hormone therapy may help to continue the recent trend of lower breast cancer incidence and mortality among American women.

  10. [Consensus for the prevention of cervical cancer in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kably Ambe, Alberto; Ruiz Moreno, José Antonio; Ponce, Eduardo Lazcano; Vargas Hernández, Victor Manuel; Aguado Pérez, Rogelio A; Alonso de Ruiz, Patricia

    2011-12-01

    Cervical cancer remains a serious public health problem in the world; that is why the Mexican Federation of Schools of Obstetrics and Gynecology convened the elaboration of a consensus that is devoted this number of Ginecologia y Obstetricia de Mexico. In recent years has strengthened perceptions (public and private) in the need for preventive strategies in the medium and long terms. The development of effective vaccines against the human papilloma virus and the application of new methods of detection from viral DNA (completely automated for personal application) allow some degree of optimism. It is proposed a consensus with general recommendations in two consecutive stages: (a) primary prevention consisting of education for the prevention of cervical cancer and universal immunization and (b) secondary prevention by early detection of infections or injuries that could favor carcinogenesis. The consensus reviewed characteristics of available vaccines in detail and proposes strategies for implementation in Mexican population. Also, check out main methods of early detection of infection (or predisposing lesions) and suggests public and private strategies for implementation. Consensus places particular emphasis on early immunization for female population and correct use of methods for detection of infections or injuries that might cause cervical cancer.

  11. Dietary Factors and Epigenetic Regulation for Prostate Cancer Prevention12

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Emily; Laura M Beaver; Williams, David E.; DASHWOOD, RODERICK H.

    2011-01-01

    The role of epigenetic alterations in various human chronic diseases has gained increasing attention and has resulted in a paradigm shift in our understanding of disease susceptibility. In the field of cancer research, e.g., genetic abnormalities/mutations historically were viewed as primary underlying causes; however, epigenetic mechanisms that alter gene expression without affecting DNA sequence are now recognized as being of equal or greater importance for oncogenesis. Methylation of DNA, ...

  12. Catalog of genetic progression of human cancers: breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmedt, Christine; Yates, Lucy; Kulka, Janina

    2016-03-01

    With the rapid development of next-generation sequencing, deeper insights are being gained into the molecular evolution that underlies the development and clinical progression of breast cancer. It is apparent that during evolution, breast cancers acquire thousands of mutations including single base pair substitutions, insertions, deletions, copy number aberrations, and structural rearrangements. As a consequence, at the whole genome level, no two cancers are identical and few cancers even share the same complement of "driver" mutations. Indeed, two samples from the same cancer may also exhibit extensive differences due to constant remodeling of the genome over time. In this review, we summarize recent studies that extend our understanding of the genomic basis of cancer progression. Key biological insights include the following: subclonal diversification begins early in cancer evolution, being detectable even in in situ lesions; geographical stratification of subclonal structure is frequent in primary tumors and can include therapeutically targetable alterations; multiple distant metastases typically arise from a common metastatic ancestor following a "metastatic cascade" model; systemic therapy can unmask preexisting resistant subclones or influence further treatment sensitivity and disease progression. We conclude the review by describing novel approaches such as the analysis of circulating DNA and patient-derived xenografts that promise to further our understanding of the genomic changes occurring during cancer evolution and guide treatment decision making.

  13. Plants vs. cancer: a review on natural phytochemicals in preventing and treating cancers and their druggability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hu; Khor, Tin Oo; Shu, Limin; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Fuentes, Francisco; Lee, Jong-Hun; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2012-12-01

    Cancer remains to be one of the leading causes of death in the United States and around the world. The advent of modern drug-targeted therapies has undeniably improved cancer patients' cares. However, advanced metastasized cancer remains untreatable. Hence, continued searching for a safer and more effective chemoprevention and treatment is clearly needed for the improvement of the efficiency and to lower the treatment cost for cancer care. Cancer chemoprevention with natural phytochemical compounds is an emerging strategy to prevent, impede, delay, or cure cancer. This review summarizes the latest research in cancer chemoprevention and treatment using the bioactive components from natural plants. Relevant molecular mechanisms involved in the pharmacological effects of these phytochemicals are discussed. Pharmaceutical developmental challenges and opportunities in bringing the phytochemicals into the market are also explored. The authors wish to expand this research area not only for their scientific soundness, but also for their potential druggability.

  14. Application of nanotechnology in cancers prevention, early detection and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shraddha P; Patel, Parshottambhai B; Parekh, Bhavesh B

    2014-01-01

    Use of nanotechnology in medical science is a rapidly developing area. New opportunities of diagnosis, imaging and therapy have developed due to recent rapid advancement by nanotechnology. The most common areas to be affected are diagnostic, imaging and targeted drug delivery in gastroenterology, oncology, cardiovascular medicine, obstetrics and gynecology. Mass screening with inexpensive imaging might be possible in the near future with the help of nanotechnology. This review paper provides an overview of causes of cancer and the application of nanotechnology in cancer prevention, detection and treatment.

  15. Occupational cancer in France: epidemiology, toxicology, prevention, and compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrun, J C; Binet, S; Bozec, C; Brochard, P; Dimerman, S; Fontaine, B; Guénel, P; Luce, D; Martinet, Y; Moulin, J J; Mur, J M; Pietruszynski, M; Vallayer, C

    1999-01-01

    This article is a description of the current situation in France with regard to occupational cancer: research, prevention, and occupation. Toxicologic experiments are carried out using (italic)in vitro(/italic) and (italic)in vivo(/italic) tests, particularly using transgenic mice. Several epidemiologic studies have been conducted over the last decades: population-based case-control studies; mortality studies and cancer incidence studies carried out in historical cohorts of workers employed in the industry; and case-control studies nested in occupational cohorts. French ethical aspects of toxicologic and epidemiologic studies are described. The results thus obtained are used to establish regulations for the prevention and the compensation of cancers attributable to occupational exposure. This French regulation for prevention of occupational cancer involves several partners: (italic)a(/italic)) the states authorities, including labor inspectors, responsible for preparing and implementing the labor legislation and for supervising its application, particularly in the fields of occupational health and safety and working conditions; (italic)b(/italic)) the Social Security Organisation for the analysis of present or potential occupational risks based on tests, visits in plants, complaints or requests from various sources, and statistics. These activities are performed within the framework of the general French policy for the prevention of occupational cancer. This organization includes the National Institute for Research and Safety, particularly involved in research in the various fields of occupational risks--animal toxicology, biologic monitoring, exposure measurements epidemiology, psychology, ergonomy, electronic systems and machineries, exposure to chemicals, noise, heat, vibration, and lighting; and (italic)c(/italic)) companies where the regulation defines the role of the plant manager, the occupational physician, and the Health, Safety and Working Conditions

  16. Natural Polyphenols for Prevention and Treatment of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There is much epidemiological evidence that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables could lower the risk of certain cancers. The effect has been attributed, in part, to natural polyphenols. Besides, numerous studies have demonstrated that natural polyphenols could be used for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Potential mechanisms included antioxidant, anti-inflammation as well as the modulation of multiple molecular events involved in carcinogenesis. The current review summarized the anticancer efficacy of major polyphenol classes (flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans and stilbenes and discussed the potential mechanisms of action, which were based on epidemiological, in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies within the past five years.

  17. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Lazarova, Darina L; Bordonaro, Michael

    2014-02-15

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which modifies the host's metabolism in various ways. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which dietary fiber-dependent changes in gut microbiota enhance bile acid deconjugation, produce short chain fatty acids, and modulate inflammatory bioactive substances can lead to a better understanding of the beneficial role of dietary fiber. This article reviews the current knowledge concerning the mechanisms via which dietary fiber protects against colon cancer.

  18. Genetic counselling and testing for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: the gent(le) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, M; Poppe, B; Delvaux, I; Mortier, G; Claes, K; Messiaen, L; De Paepe, A

    1999-10-01

    The counselling experience with 50 Flemish families in whom mutation analysis of the total coding region of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene has been initiated, is presented. Genetic testing for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility is offered by a multidisciplinary team. During the counselling sessions, special attention is given to comprehensible and emotionally acceptable communication of genetic information and to the psychosocial evaluation of the counselee. The limitations of molecular testing and the controversy surrounding cancer prevention strategies are also discussed. The overall acceptance of mutation testing is high. Some of the problems encountered are inaccuracy of the reported family history, poor retrieval of the medical records of affected family members and the reluctance of many patients to inform their relatives about the possibility of being tested.

  19. Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of BETRNet is to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of esophageal adenocarcinoma by answering key questions related to the progression of the disease, especially in the premalignant stage. In partnership with NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology, multidisciplinary translational research centers collaborate to better understand the biology of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma to improve risk stratification and develop prevention strategies.  | Multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration to enhance understanding of Barrett's esophagus and to prevent esophageal adenocarcinoma.

  20. Does and should breast cancer genetic counselling include lifestyle advice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, A.; Vernooij, M.; Osch, L. van; Pijpe, A.; Dulmen, S. van; Ausems, M.G.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    To optimally inform counselees about their and their relatives' risks, information about lifestyle risk factors, e.g. physical activity and alcohol consumption, might be discussed in breast cancer genetic counselling. This study explored whether lifestyle was discussed, on whose initiative, whether

  1. Prognostic Factors for Distress After Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorwinden, Jan S; Jaspers, Jan P C

    2015-01-01

    The psychological impact of an unfavorable genetic test result for counselees at risk for hereditary cancer seems to be limited: only 10-20 % of counselees have psychological problems after testing positive for a known familial mutation. The objective of this study was to find prognostic factors tha

  2. Insights into genetic and epigenetic determinants with impact on vitamin D signaling and cancer association studies: The case of thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoire B Morand

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is a key regulator of calcium metabolism and has been implicated as a cancer preventive agent. However, clinical studies have revealed conflicting results on its cancer preventive properties, attributed in part to multiple metabolic and regulatory factors susceptible to affect individual responses to exogenous vitamin D. Vitamin D is obtained from dietary sources and sun exposure, which depends on numerous parameters such as skin type, latitude, and lifestyle factors. Focusing on thyroid cancer, we document that genetic and epigenetic determinants can greatly impact individual response to vitamin D and may outweigh the classical clinical correlative studies that focus on sun exposure/dietary intake factors. In particular, genetic determinants innate to host intrinsic metabolic pathways such as highly polymorphic cytochromes P450s responsible for the metabolic activation of vitamin D are expressed in many organs, including the thyroid gland and can impact vitamin D interaction with its nuclear receptor (VDR in thyroid tissue. Moreover, downstream regulatory pathways in vitamin D signalling as well as VDR are also subject to wide genetic variability among human populations as shown by genome-wide studies. These genetic variations in multiple components of vitamin D pathways are critical determinants for the re-valuation of the potential preventive and anticancer properties of vitamin D in thyroid cancer.

  3. [The microencapsulated genetic engineering cells: a new platform on treatment of cancer instead of genetic engineering drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuelong; Zheng, Shu

    2003-06-01

    The microencapsulated genetic cells may be a new platform instead of genetic engineering drugs, as they can overcome the genetic engineering drugs' shortages such as short half-life in vivo, low activity, and incomplete elimination of organic solvent. This article reviews and summarizes the advantages, possible problems and solution and the feasibility of using microencapsulated genetic engineering cells in the treatment of cancer.

  4. Chinese Anti-Cancer Association as a non-governmental organization undertakes systematic cancer prevention work in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting

    2015-08-01

    Cancer has become the first leading cause of death in the world, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Facing the increasing trend of cancer incidence and mortality, China issued and implemented "three-early (early prevention, early diagnosis and early treatment)" national cancer prevention plan. As the main body and dependence of social governance, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) take over the role of government in the field of cancer prevention and treatment. American Cancer Society (ACS) made a research on cancer NGOs and civil society in cancer control and found that cancer NGOs in developing countries mobilize civil society to work together and advocate governments in their countries to develop policies to address the growing cancer burden. Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), Cancer Council Australia (CCA), and Malaysian cancer NGOs are the representatives of cancer NGOs in promoting cancer control. Selecting Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (CACA) as an example in China, this article is to investigate how NGOs undertake systematic cancer prevention work in China. By conducting real case study, we found that, as a NGO, CACA plays a significant role in intensifying the leading role of government in cancer control, optimizing cancer outcomes, decreasing cancer incidence and mortality rates and improving public health.

  5. Prostate Cancer Genetics in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    family of each index case, as ongoing research at Creighton has shown that virtually all forms of hereditary cancer involve multiple anatomic sites...HOME NEWS SPORTS BUSINESS ENTERTAINMENT LIFE TRAVEL BLOGS OPINION JOBS HOMES CARS CLASSIFIEDS COUPONS INDEX Houston & Texas Houston weather Houston...with any of the following conditions? (Please select all that apply) anemia (chronic) Crohn’s disease diabetes ulcerative

  6. Genetics of Breast and Gynecologic Cancers (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of breast and gynecologic cancers, including information about specific genes and family cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about interventions that may influence the risk of developing breast and gynecologic cancers in individuals who may be genetically susceptible to these diseases. Psychosocial issues associated with genetic testing are also discussed.

  7. Ginger Helps Reduce Nausea from Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginger helped prevent or reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea when taken with traditional anti-nausea drugs by patients with cancer, researchers have found. The results are from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, the largest study to examine the potential effects of ginger on chemotherapy-related nausea. The study will be presented May 30 at the ASCO annual meeting in Orlando, FL. |

  8. Molecular Targeted Approaches to Cancer Therapy and Prevention Using Chalcones

    OpenAIRE

    Jandial, Danielle D.; Blair, Christopher A.; Zhang, Saiyang; Krill, Lauren S; Zhang, Yan-Bing; Zi, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    There is an emerging paradigm shift in oncology that seeks to emphasize molecularly targeted approaches for cancer prevention and therapy. Chalcones (1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-ones), naturally-occurring compounds with widespread distribution in spices, tea, beer, fruits and vegetables, consist of open-chain flavonoids in which the two aromatic rings are joined by a three-carbon α, β-unsaturated carbonyl system. Due to their structural diversity, relative ease of chemical manipulation and reacti...

  9. Mechanistic findings of green tea as cancer preventive for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, H; Suganuma, M; Okabe, S; Sueoka, E; Suga, K; Imai, K; Nakachi, K; Kimura, S

    1999-04-01

    Based on our initial work with green tea, in which repeated topical applications of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the main green tea polyphenol, inhibited tumor promotion in a two-stage carcinogenesis experiment on mouse skin (Phytother Res 1, 44-47, 1987), numerous scientists have since provided so much additional evidence of the benefits of drinking green tea that it is now an acknowledged cancer preventive in Japan, and will possibly soon be recognized as such in other countries. Our work has so far produced several important results with EGCG and green tea: a wide range of target organs in animal experiments for cancer prevention, wide bioavailability of 3H-EGCG in various organs of mice, delayed cancer onset of patients with a history of consuming over 10 cups of green tea per day, and absence of any severe adverse effects among volunteers who took 15 green tea tablets per day (2.25 g green tea extracts, 337.5 mg EGCG, and 135 mg caffeine) for 6 months. This paper introduces three new findings: 1) EGCG interacted with the phospholipid bilayer membrane resulting in confirmation of the sealing effect of EGCG; 2) EGCG inhibited TNF-alpha gene expression in the cells and TNF-alpha release from the cells; 3) high consumption of green tea was closely associated with decreased numbers of axillary lymph node metastases among premenopausal Stage I and II breast cancer patients, and with increased expression of progesterone and estrogen receptors among postmenopausal ones. These results provide new insights into our understanding of the mechanisms of action of tea polyphenols and green tea extract as a cancer preventive.

  10. Biology of lung cancer: genetic mutation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoi, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    At present, most cases of unresectable cancer cannot be cured. Genetic mutations, EMT, and cancer stem cells are three major issues linked to poor prognosis in such cases, all connected by inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity. Issues on inter-/intra-tumor heterogeneity of genetic mutation could be resolved with recent and future technologies of deep sequencers, whereas, regarding such issues as the "same genome, different epigenome/phenotype", we expect to solve many of these problems in the future through further research in stem cell biology. We herein review and discuss the three major issues in the biology of cancers, especially from the standpoint of stem cell biology.

  11. Oral cancer preventive campaigns: are we reaching the real target?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Paladino Nemoto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral cavity malignant neoplasms have a high mortality rate. For this reason, preventive campaigns have been developed, both to educate the population and to diagnose lesions at an early stage. However, there are studies that contest the validity of these endeavors, principally because the target audience of the campaigns may not conform to the group at highest risk for oral malignancy. Objective: To describe the profile of patients who avail themselves of the preventive campaign, identify the presence of oral lesions in that population, and compare that data with the epidemiological profile of patients with oral cancer. Methods: Cross-sectional historical cohort study performed by analysis of epidemiological data of the campaign "Abra a Boca para a Saúde" collected in the years from 2008 to 2013. Results: In the years analyzed, 11,965 people were treated and 859 lesions were diagnosed, all benign. There was a female predominance (52.7%, with mean age of 44 years (±15.4 years; 26% were smokers and 29% reported alcohol consumption. It is known that the group at highest risk to develop oral cancer is 60to 70-year-old men, who are alcoholic smokers. Conclusion: The population that seeks preventive campaigns is not the main risk group for the disease. This fact explains the low number of lesions and the lack of cancer detection.

  12. Diet and physical activity in the prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Mamta; Shike, Moshe

    2014-12-01

    Diet has been linked to the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) and may explain some of the differences in incidence and mortality among various populations. Evidence suggests that a high intake of red and processed meats is associated with an increased risk of CRC. The protective benefits of fiber are unclear, although in some studies fiber is associated with reduced CRC risk. The role of supplements, such as calcium, vitamin D, and folic acid, remains uncertain, and these nutrients cannot be currently recommended for chemoprevention. Obesity and sedentary lifestyle have been associated with an increased risk for colon cancer. Because of the inherent difficulty in studying the effects of specific nutrients, dietary pattern analysis may be a preferable approach to the investigation of the relationship between diet and risk for human diseases. Lifestyle modifications, such as increasing physical activity and consumption of a diet rich in fiber, fruits, vegetables, fish, and poultry and low in red and processed meats, have been advocated for primary prevention of several chronic diseases, and may in fact be beneficial for cancer prevention, particularly CRC.

  13. Prospective cohort study of comprehensive prevention to gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Qiang Guo; Peng Guan; Hai-Long Shi; Xuan Zhang; Bao-Sen Zhou; Yuan Yuan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the preliminary effects of comprehensive prevention of gastric cancer in Zhuanghe County epidemiologically.METHODS: Stratified sampling and cluster sampling were applied to define the intervention group and the control group. The prospective cohort study was used for evaluating the effect of preventing gastric cancer. The relative risk (RR)and attributable risk percent (AR %) of intervention on gastric cancer death were calculated. Potential years of life lost (PLYY) of the disease was analyzed, and the RR and AR %of PYLL were calculated. Survival analysis was applied among the screened patients.RESULTS: In the first 4 years after intervening, the relative risk (RR) of intervention on death was 0.5059 (95 % CI:0.3462~0.7392,P<0.05) with significance statistically. AR %of the intervention on death was 49.41%. The RR of intervention on cumulative PYLL was 0.6778 (95 % CI:0.5604~0.8198,P<0.05) with statistic significance. AR %of the intervention on cumulative PYLL was 30.32 %. The four-year survival rate of the screened patients was 0.6751(95 % CI: 0.5298~0.9047).CONCLUSION: The initiative intervention results showed that the intervention approach used in the trial was effective, it reduced mortality and increased survival rate, and alleviated the adverse effect of gastric cancer on the health and life of screened population.

  14. Preventing skin cancer through reduction of indoor tanning: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Holman, Dawn M; Fox, Kathleen A; Guy, Gery P; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Sampson, Blake P; Sinclair, Craig; Lazovich, DeAnn

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning devices (tanning beds, booths, and sun lamps) or from the sun contributes to the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma, which is the type of skin cancer responsible for most deaths. Indoor tanning is common among certain groups, especially among older adolescents and young adults, adolescent girls and young women, and non-Hispanic whites. Increased understanding of the health risks associated with indoor tanning has led to many efforts to reduce use. Most environmental and systems efforts in the U.S. (e.g., age limits or requiring parental consent/accompaniment) have occurred at the state level. At the national level, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Federal Trade Commission regulate indoor tanning devices and advertising, respectively. The current paper provides a brief review of (1) the evidence on indoor tanning as a risk factor for skin cancer; (2) factors that may influence use of indoor tanning devices at the population level; and (3) various environmental and systems options available for consideration when developing strategies to reduce indoor tanning. This information provides the context and background for the companion paper in this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, which summarizes highlights from an informal expert meeting convened by the CDC in August 2012 to identify opportunities to prevent skin cancer by reducing use of indoor tanning devices.

  15. Green tea and tea polyphenols in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di; Daniel, Kenyon G; Kuhn, Deborah J; Kazi, Aslamuzzaman; Bhuiyan, Mohammad; Li, Lianhai; Wang, Zhigang; Wan, Sheng Biao; Lam, Wai Har; Chan, Tak Hang; Dou, Q Ping

    2004-09-01

    The cancer-preventive effects of green tea and its main constituent (-)-epigallocatechin gallate [(-)-EGCG] are widely supported by results from epidemiological, cell culture, animal and clinical studies in the recent decade. In vitro cell culture studies show that tea polyphenols potently induce apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest in tumor cells but not in their normal cell counterparts. Green tea polyphenols affect several signal transduction pathways, including growth factor-mediated, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent, and ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathways. Epidemiological studies have suggested that the consumption of green tea lowers the risk of cancer. Various animal studies have revealed that treatment by green tea inhibits tumor incidence and multiplicity in different organ sites such as skin, lung, liver, stomach, mammary gland and colon. Phase I and II clinical trials were carried out recently to explore the anticancer effects of green tea in patients with cancer. At this time, more mechanistic research, animal studies, and clinical trials are necessary to further evaluate the role of green tea in cancer prevention.

  16. Genetic testing by cancer site: endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, Robert; Nagy, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Numerous hereditary syndromes, caused by mutations in multiple tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, can cause tumors in organs of the endocrine system. The primary syndromes (and genes) addressed here include multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2 (MEN1 and RET genes), Cowden syndrome (PTEN), hereditary pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes (multiple genes), and von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). Clinical genetic testing is available for each of these syndromes and is generally directed to individuals with endocrine or other tumors and additional features suggestive of a hereditary syndrome. However, for some endocrine tumors, the proportion because of heredity is so high that genetic testing may be appropriate for all affected individuals. Management for hereditary cases typically involves aggressive screening and/or surgical protocols, starting at young ages to minimize morbidity and mortality. Endocrine tumors can be less commonly seen in a number of other hereditary syndromes (eg, neurofibromatosis), which are not reviewed in this section.

  17. Translating Population Difference: The Use and Re-Use of Genetic Ancestry in Brazilian Cancer Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Sahra

    2016-01-01

    In the past ten years, there has been an expansion of scientific interest in population genetics linked to both understanding histories of human migration and the way that population difference and diversity may account for and/or be implicated in health and disease. In this article, I examine how particular aspects of a globalizing research agenda related to population differences and genetic ancestry are taken up in locally variant ways in the nascent field of Brazilian cancer genetics. Drawing on a broad range of ethnographic data from clinical and nonclinical contexts in the south of Brazil, I examine the ambiguities that attention to genetic ancestry generates, so revealing the disjunctured and diverse ways a global research agenda increasingly orientated to questions of population difference and genetic ancestry is being used and reused.

  18. Helicobacter pylori eradication as a preventive tool against gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Goto, Yasuyuki; Nishio, Kazuko; Tanaka, Daisuke; Kawai, Sayo; Sakakibara, Hisataka; Kondo, Takaaki

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which increases the risk of gastric diseases, including digestive ulcers and gastric cancer, is highly prevalent in Asian countries. There is no doubt that eradication of the bacterium is effective as a treatment of digestive ulcer, but eradication aiming to reduce the gastric cancer risk is still controversial. Observational studies in Japan demonstrated that the eradication decreased the gastric cancer risk among 132 stomach cancer patients undergoing endoscopical resection (65 treated with omeprazol and antibiotics and 67 untreated). In Columbia, 976 participants were randomized into eight groups in a three-treatment factorial design including H. pylori eradication, resulting in significant regression in the H. pylori eradication group. A recent randomized study in China also showed a significant reduction of gastric cancer risk among those without any gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. Efficacy of eradication may vary in extent among countries with different incidence rates of gastric cancer. Since the lifetime cumulative risk (0 to 84 years old) of gastric cancer in Japan is reported to be 12.7% for males and 4.8% for females (Inoue and Tominaga, 2003), the corresponding values for H. pylori infected Japanese can be estimated at 21.2% in males and 8.0% in females under the assumptions that the relative risk for infected relative to uninfected is 5 and the proportion of those infected is 0.5. Both the fact that not all individuals are infected among those exposed and the knowledge that only a small percentage of individuals infected with the bacterium develop gastric cancer, indicate the importance of gene-environment interactions. Studies on such interactions should provide useful information for anti-H. pylori preventive strategies.

  19. COSMIC: somatic cancer genetics at high-resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Simon A.; Beare, David; Boutselakis, Harry; Bamford, Sally; Bindal, Nidhi; Tate, John; Cole, Charlotte G.; Ward, Sari; Dawson, Elisabeth; Ponting, Laura; Stefancsik, Raymund; Harsha, Bhavana; Kok, Chai Yin; Jia, Mingming; Jubb, Harry; Sondka, Zbyslaw; Thompson, Sam; De, Tisham; Campbell, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    COSMIC, the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (http://cancer.sanger.ac.uk) is a high-resolution resource for exploring targets and trends in the genetics of human cancer. Currently the broadest database of mutations in cancer, the information in COSMIC is curated by expert scientists, primarily by scrutinizing large numbers of scientific publications. Over 4 million coding mutations are described in v78 (September 2016), combining genome-wide sequencing results from 28 366 tumours with complete manual curation of 23 489 individual publications focused on 186 key genes and 286 key fusion pairs across all cancers. Molecular profiling of large tumour numbers has also allowed the annotation of more than 13 million non-coding mutations, 18 029 gene fusions, 187 429 genome rearrangements, 1 271 436 abnormal copy number segments, 9 175 462 abnormal expression variants and 7 879 142 differentially methylated CpG dinucleotides. COSMIC now details the genetics of drug resistance, novel somatic gene mutations which allow a tumour to evade therapeutic cancer drugs. Focusing initially on highly characterized drugs and genes, COSMIC v78 contains wide resistance mutation profiles across 20 drugs, detailing the recurrence of 301 unique resistance alleles across 1934 drug-resistant tumours. All information from the COSMIC database is available freely on the COSMIC website. PMID:27899578

  20. Emerging Cancer Vaccines: The Promise of Genetic Vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurisicchio, Luigi, E-mail: aurisicchio@takis-it.it [Takis, via di Castel Romano 100, 00128 Rome (Italy); BIOGEM scarl, via Camporeale, 83031 Ariano Irpino (AV) (Italy); Ciliberto, Gennaro [Takis, via di Castel Romano 100, 00128 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Clinica, Università degli studi di Catanzaro “Magna Graecia”, 88100 Catanzaro (Italy)

    2011-09-22

    Therapeutic vaccination against cancer is an important approach which, when combined with other therapies, can improve long-term control of cancer. In fact, the induction of adaptive immune responses against Tumor Associated Antigens (TAAs) as well as innate immunity are important factors for tumor stabilization/eradication. A variety of immunization technologies have been explored in last decades and are currently under active evaluation, such as cell-based, protein, peptide and heat-shock protein-based cancer vaccines. Genetic vaccines are emerging as promising methodologies to elicit immune responses against a wide variety of antigens, including TAAs. Amongst these, Adenovirus (Ad)-based vectors show excellent immunogenicity profile and have achieved immunological proof of concept in humans. In vivo electroporation of plasmid DNA (DNA-EP) is also a desirable vaccine technology for cancer vaccines, as it is repeatable several times, a parameter required for the long-term maintenance of anti-tumor immunity. Recent findings show that combinations of different modalities of immunization (heterologous prime/boost) are able to induce superior immune reactions as compared to single-modality vaccines. In this review, we will discuss the challenges and requirements of emerging cancer vaccines, particularly focusing on the genetic cancer vaccines currently under active development and the promise shown by Ad and DNA-EP heterologous prime-boost.

  1. Emerging Cancer Vaccines: The Promise of Genetic Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Ciliberto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic vaccination against cancer is an important approach which, when combined with other therapies, can improve long-term control of cancer. In fact, the induction of adaptive immune responses against Tumor Associated Antigens (TAAs as well as innate immunity are important factors for tumor stabilization/eradication. A variety of immunization technologies have been explored in last decades and are currently under active evaluation, such as cell-based, protein, peptide and heat-shock protein-based cancer vaccines. Genetic vaccines are emerging as promising methodologies to elicit immune responses against a wide variety of antigens, including TAAs. Amongst these, Adenovirus (Ad-based vectors show excellent immunogenicity profile and have achieved immunological proof of concept in humans. In vivo electroporation of plasmid DNA (DNA-EP is also a desirable vaccine technology for cancer vaccines, as it is repeatable several times, a parameter required for the long-term maintenance of anti-tumor immunity. Recent findings show that combinations of different modalities of immunization (heterologous prime/boost are able to induce superior immune reactions as compared to single-modality vaccines. In this review, we will discuss the challenges and requirements of emerging cancer vaccines, particularly focusing on the genetic cancer vaccines currently under active development and the promise shown by Ad and DNA-EP heterologous prime-boost.

  2. Stomach cancer screening and preventive behaviors in relatives of gastric cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung Min Kang; Dong Wook Shin; Young Min Kwon; Sang Min Park; Min Sun Park; Jin Ho Park; Ki Young Son; Be Long Cho

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate gastric cancer screening and preventive behaviors among the relatives of patients with gastric cancer [i.e., gastric cancer relatives (GCRs)]. METHODS: We examined the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 (KNHANES Ⅲ) database and compared the gastric cancer screening and preventive behaviors of GCRs (n = 261) with those of non-GCRs (n = 454) and controls without a family history of cancer (n = 2842). RESULTS: The GCRs were more likely to undergo gastric cancer screening compared with the control group (39.2% vs 32.3%, adjusted odds ratio: 1.43, CI: 1.05-1.95), although the absolute screening rate was low. Dietary patterns and smoking rates did not differ significantly between the groups, and a high proportion of GCRs reported inappropriate dietary habits (i.e., approximately 95% consumed excessive sodium, 30% were deficient in vitamin C, and 85% were deficient in dietary fiber). CONCLUSION: The gastric cancer screening and preventive behaviors of GCRs have yet to be improved. To increase awareness among GCRs, systematic family education programs should be implemented.

  3. Dietary factors and epigenetic regulation for prostate cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Emily; Beaver, Laura M; Williams, David E; Dashwood, Roderick H

    2011-11-01

    The role of epigenetic alterations in various human chronic diseases has gained increasing attention and has resulted in a paradigm shift in our understanding of disease susceptibility. In the field of cancer research, e.g., genetic abnormalities/mutations historically were viewed as primary underlying causes; however, epigenetic mechanisms that alter gene expression without affecting DNA sequence are now recognized as being of equal or greater importance for oncogenesis. Methylation of DNA, modification of histones, and interfering microRNA (miRNA) collectively represent a cadre of epigenetic elements dysregulated in cancer. Targeting the epigenome with compounds that modulate DNA methylation, histone marks, and miRNA profiles represents an evolving strategy for cancer chemoprevention, and these approaches are starting to show promise in human clinical trials. Essential micronutrients such as folate, vitamin B-12, selenium, and zinc as well as the dietary phytochemicals sulforaphane, tea polyphenols, curcumin, and allyl sulfur compounds are among a growing list of agents that affect epigenetic events as novel mechanisms of chemoprevention. To illustrate these concepts, the current review highlights the interactions among nutrients, epigenetics, and prostate cancer susceptibility. In particular, we focus on epigenetic dysregulation and the impact of specific nutrients and food components on DNA methylation and histone modifications that can alter gene expression and influence prostate cancer progression.

  4. Graphic Narratives and Cancer Prevention: A Case Study of an American Cancer Society Comic Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Melinda

    2017-05-01

    As the interest in graphic medicine grows, health communicators have started engaging readers with compelling visual and textual accounts of health and illness, including via comic books. One context where comics have shown promise is cancer communication. This brief report presents an early example of graphic medicine developed by the American Cancer Society. "Ladies … Wouldn't It Be Better to Know?" is a comic book produced in the 1960s to provide the public with lay information about the Pap test for cervical cancer prevention and detection. An analysis of a key narrative attribute, plot development, illustrates the central role that perceived barriers played in this midcentury public health message, a component that remains a consideration of cancer communication design today. This case study of an early graphic narrative identifies promising cancer message features that can be used to address and refute barriers to cervical cancer screening and connects contemporary research with historical efforts in public health communication.

  5. Expression profiling of colon cancer cell lines and colon biopsies: Towards a screening system for potential cancer-preventive compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, van M.J.; Krul, C.A.M.; Caldenhoven, E.; Stierum, R.H.; Peters, W.H.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, van B.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in mechanisms of colon cancer prevention by food compounds is strong and research in this area is often performed with cultured colon cancer cells. In order to assess utility for screening of potential cancer-preventive (food) compounds, expression profiles of 14 human cell lines derived fr

  6. Expression profiling of colon cancer cell lines and colon biopsies: towards a screening system for potential cancer-preventive compounds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, M.J. van; Krul, C.A.; Caldenhoven, E.; Stierum, R.H.; Peters, W.H.M.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, B.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in mechanisms of colon cancer prevention by food compounds is strong and research in this area is often performed with cultured colon cancer cells. In order to assess utility for screening of potential cancer-preventive (food) compounds, expression profiles of 14 human cell lines derived fr

  7. The determination of genetic markers of age-related cancer pathologies in populations from Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Bulatovna Djansugurova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging associates with a variety of pathological conditions such as cancer, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, autoimmune diseases, and metabolic disorders. The oncogenic alterations overlap frequently with the genes linked to aging. Here, we show that several aging related genes may serve as the genetic risk factors for cervical and esophagus cancers. In our study, we analyzed samples obtained from 115 patients with esophageal and 207 patients with cervical cancer. The control groups were selected to match the ethnicity and age of cancer patients. We examined the genes involved in the processes of xenobiotics detoxification (GSTM1 and GSTT1, DNA repair (XRCC1 and XRCC3, and cell cycle regulation and apoptosis (CCND1 and TP53. Our study revealed that deletions of GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes or the distinct point mutations of XRCC1 gene are associated with cervical and esophageal cancers. These results will lead to development of screening for detection of individuals susceptible to esophageal and cervical cancers. Introduction of the screening programs will allow the early and effective preventive measures that will reduce cancer incidence and mortality in Kazakhstan.

  8. Field cancerization in mammary carcinogenesis - Implications for prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivenbark, Ashley G; Coleman, William B

    2012-12-01

    The natural history of breast cancer unfolds with the development of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in normal breast tissue, and evolution of this pre-invasive neoplasm into invasive cancer. The mechanisms that drive these processes are poorly understood, but evidence from the literature suggests that mammary carcinogenesis may occur through the process of field cancerization. Clinical observations are consistent with the idea that (i) DCIS may arise in a field of altered breast epithelium, (ii) narrow surgical margins do not remove the entire altered field (contributing to recurrence and/or disease progression), and (iii) whole-breast radiation therapy is effective in elimination of the residual field of altered cells adjacent to the resected DCIS. Molecular studies suggest that the field of altered breast epithelial cells may carry cancer-promoting genetic mutations (or other molecular alterations) or cancer promoting epimutations (oncogenic alterations in the epigenome). In fact, most breast cancers develop through a succession of molecular events involving both genetic mutations and epimutations. Hence, in hereditary forms of breast cancer, the altered field reflects the entire breast tissue which is composed of cells with a predisposing molecular lesion (such as a BRCA1 mutation). In the example of a BRCA1-mutant patient, it is evident that local resection of a DCIS lesion or localized but invasive cancer will not result in elimination of the altered field. In sporadic breast cancer patients, the mechanistic basis for the altered field may not be so easily recognized. Nonetheless, identification of the nature of field cancerization in a given patient may guide clinical intervention. Thus, patients with DCIS that develops in response to an epigenetic lesion (such as a hypermethylation defect affecting the expression of tumor suppressor genes) might be treated with epigenetic therapy to normalize the altered field and reduce the risk of secondary occurrence of

  9. Cancer Prevention Interdisciplinary Education Program at Purdue University: Overview and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegarden, Dorothy; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Adedokun, Omolola; Childress, Amy; Parker, Loran Carleton; Burgess, Wilella; Nagel, Julie; Knapp, Deborah W.; Lelievre, Sophie; Agnew, Christopher R.; Shields, Cleveland; Leary, James; Adams, Robin; Jensen, Jakob D.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer prevention is a broad field that crosses many disciplines; therefore, educational efforts to enhance cancer prevention research focused on interdisciplinary approaches to the field are greatly needed. In order to hasten progress in cancer prevention research, the Cancer Prevention Internship Program (CPIP) at Purdue University was designed to develop and test an interdisciplinary curriculum for undergraduate and graduate students. The hypothesis was that course curriculum specific to introducing interdisciplinary concepts in cancer prevention would increase student interest in and ability to pursue advanced educational opportunities (e.g., graduate school, medical school). Preliminary results from the evaluation of the first year which included 10 undergraduate and 5 graduate students suggested that participation in CPIP is a positive professional development experience, leading to a significant increase in understanding of interdisciplinary research in cancer prevention. In its first year, the CPIP project has created a successful model for interdisciplinary education in cancer prevention research. PMID:21533583

  10. A Model Community Skin Cancer Prevention Project in Maine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Hayden

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our program was to create and test a community skin cancer prevention project for replication throughout the state of Maine. The project was a collaborative effort of the Maine Cancer Consortium, American Cancer Society (ACS, and the City of Portland, Health and Human Services Department, Public Health Division. Portland, Me, served as the pilot site. The National Cancer Institute (NCI defines skin cancer as a disease in which abnormal cells divide uncontrollably in the outer layers of the skin (1. The American Cancer Society's Facts and Figures 2001 (the latest year for which these figures are available estimated that more than 1 million cases of highly curable basal cell or squamous cell cancers would be diagnosed in the United States that year (2. An estimated 9800 U.S. deaths from cancer were projected as well: 7800 from melanoma, the most serious form of skin cancer, and 2000 from other skin cancers. Melanoma was expected to be diagnosed in about 51,400 Americans in 2001. The incidence rate of melanoma has increased about 3% per year on average since 1981. In 2002, NCI announced that researchers showed for the first time that individual risk of melanoma is associated with the intensity of sunlight that a person receives over a lifetime (3. Target audiences for our program were newborns and their parents, children between 5 and 14 years old and their caregivers, and all people living in the Portland area. Protecting skin from excess sun exposure during childhood and adolescence is important in reducing the risk of all types of skin cancer during adulthood. From our anecdotal evidence, many parents of newborns are unaware that sunscreen is not recommended for babies under 6 months of age, and they need better information about how to protect their newborns from the sun. Teaching children and their caregivers to follow ACS guidelines will help protect their skin for years to come. It will also help children to develop healthy

  11. Cost-effectiveness of a genetic test for breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folse, Henry J; Green, Linda E; Kress, Andrea; Allman, Richard; Dinh, Tuan A

    2013-12-01

    Genetic testing of seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (7SNP) can improve estimates of risk of breast cancer relative to the Gail risk test alone, for the purpose of recommending MRI screening for women at high risk. A simulation of breast cancer and health care processes was used to conduct a virtual trial comparing the use of the 7SNP test with the Gail risk test to categorize patients by risk. Average-risk patients received annual mammogram, whereas high-risk patients received annual MRI. Cancer incidence was based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data and validated to Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort data. Risk factor values were drawn from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-4) and Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial data. Mammogram characteristics were derived from Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium data. The test was most cost-effective when given to patients at an intermediate lifetime risk of breast cancer. For patients with a risk of 16% to 28%, it resulted in a 1.91% reduction in cancer deaths, saving 0.005 quality-adjusted life years per person at a cost of $163,264 per QALY. These results were sensitive to the age at which the test is given, the discount rate, and the costs of the genetic test and MRI. The cost effectiveness of using the 7SNP test for patients with intermediate Gail risk is similar to that of other recommended strategies, including annual MRI for patients with a lifetime risk greater than 20% or BRCA1/2 mutations.

  12. Genetic-epidemiological evidence for the role of acetaldehyde in cancers related to alcohol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, C J Peter

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol drinking increases the risk for a number of cancers. Currently, the highest risk (Group 1) concerns oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colorectum, and female breast, as assessed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Alcohol and other beverage constituents, their metabolic effects, and alcohol-related unhealthy lifestyles have been suggested as etiological factors. The aim of the present survey is to evaluate the carcinogenic role of acetaldehyde in alcohol-related cancers, with special emphasis on the genetic-epidemiological evidence. Acetaldehyde, as a constituent of alcoholic beverages, and microbial and endogenous alcohol oxidation well explain why alcohol-related cancers primarily occur in the digestive tracts and other tissues with active alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism. Genetic-epidemiological research has brought compelling evidence for the causality of acetaldehyde in alcohol-related cancers. Thus, IARC recently categorized alcohol-drinking-related acetaldehyde to Group 1 for head and neck and esophageal cancers. This is probably just the tip of the iceberg, since more recent epidemiological studies have also shown significant positive associations between the aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2 (rs671)*2 allele (encoding inactive enzyme causing high acetaldehyde elevations) and gastric, colorectal, lung, and hepatocellular cancers. However, a number of the current studies lack the appropriate matching or stratification of alcohol drinking in the case-control comparisons, which has led to erroneous interpretations of the data. Future studies should consider these aspects more thoroughly. The polymorphism phenotypes (flushing and nausea) may provide valuable tools for future successful health education in the prevention of alcohol-drinking-related cancers.

  13. Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: Hypes and Hopes 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prabhudas; Vora, Hemangini; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Gandhi, Varsha; Mehta, Kapil; Pathak, Sen

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is primarily an "old-age" disease that has an "age-old" history. The overall incidence of cancer is much higher in Western countries, but is rapidly growing in Eastern countries perhaps due to change in life-style. Almost three million studies published to date indicate that cancer is a hyperproliferative disorder that arises from dysregulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. The cancer genome landscape indicates that approximately 140 genes and 12 cell signaling pathways drive almost all cancers. "Targeted therapy," a buzz word in cancer treatment for the past two decades, has provided antibodies, as well as small-molecule inhibitors. These therapies have been successful only in few instances. However, in most cases, minor increase in overall survival has been reported at the cost of huge expense. An alternative strategy is to prevent cancer or to diagnose and treat the disease at an early stage to gain survival benefits. Such interventions are also cost-effective. To address some of these issues, the 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference was held during February 4-7th, 2016, in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India; the homeland of Mahatma Gandhi. This conference was focused on utilizing multidisciplinary approaches for prevention and early treatment that would likely simultaneously or sequentially target many key pathways. Several distinguished speakers were invited from around the world. This article highlights primary features of this conference.

  14. Atrial natriuretic peptide prevents cancer metastasis through vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojiri, Takashi; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Tokudome, Takeshi; Miura, Koichi; Ishikane, Shin; Otani, Kentaro; Kishimoto, Ichiro; Shintani, Yasushi; Inoue, Masayoshi; Kimura, Toru; Sawabata, Noriyoshi; Minami, Masato; Nakagiri, Tomoyuki; Funaki, Soichiro; Takeuchi, Yukiyasu; Maeda, Hajime; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shioi, Go; Arai, Yuji; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Takakura, Nobuyuki; Hori, Megumi; Ohno, Yuko; Miyazato, Mikiya; Mochizuki, Naoki; Okumura, Meinoshin; Kangawa, Kenji

    2015-03-31

    Most patients suffering from cancer die of metastatic disease. Surgical removal of solid tumors is performed as an initial attempt to cure patients; however, surgery is often accompanied with trauma, which can promote early recurrence by provoking detachment of tumor cells into the blood stream or inducing systemic inflammation or both. We have previously reported that administration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) during the perioperative period reduces inflammatory response and has a prophylactic effect on postoperative cardiopulmonary complications in lung cancer surgery. Here we demonstrate that cancer recurrence after curative surgery was significantly lower in ANP-treated patients than in control patients (surgery alone). ANP is known to bind specifically to NPR1 [also called guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) receptor]. In mouse models, we found that metastasis of GC-A-nonexpressing tumor cells (i.e., B16 mouse melanoma cells) to the lung was increased in vascular endothelium-specific GC-A knockout mice and decreased in vascular endothelium-specific GC-A transgenic mice compared with control mice. We examined the effect of ANP on tumor metastasis in mice treated with lipopolysaccharide, which mimics systemic inflammation induced by surgical stress. ANP inhibited the adhesion of cancer cells to pulmonary arterial and micro-vascular endothelial cells by suppressing the E-selectin expression that is promoted by inflammation. These results suggest that ANP prevents cancer metastasis by inhibiting the adhesion of tumor cells to inflamed endothelial cells.

  15. Treatment and prevention of bone complications from prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard J; Saylor, Philip J; Smith, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    Bone metastases and skeletal complications are major causes of morbidity in prostate cancer patients. Despite the osteoblastic appearance of bone metastases on imaging studies, patients have elevated serum and urinary markers of bone resorption, indicative of high osteoclast activity. Increased osteoclast activity is independently associated with higher risk of subsequent skeletal complications, disease progression, and death. Osteoclast-targeted therapies are therefore a rational approach to reduction of risk for disease-related skeletal complications, bone metastases, and treatment-related fractures. This review focuses on recent advances in osteoclast-targeted therapy in prostate cancer. Bisphosphonates have been extensively studied in men with prostate cancer. Zoledronic acid significantly decreased the risk of skeletal complications in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases, and it is FDA-approved for this indication. Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody that binds and inactivates RANKL, a critical mediator of osteoclast differentiation, activation, and survival. Recent global phase 3 clinic trials demonstrated an emerging role for denosumab in the treatment of prostate cancer bone metastases and prevention of fractures associated with androgen deprivation therapy.

  16. Biotechnologically produced secondary plant metabolites for cancer treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkina, Liudmila; Kostyuk, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Secondary metabolites of higher plants exert numerous effects on tumorigenesis, on tumor cells in vitro, tumors in experimental animals in vivo, interact with anti-cancer drugs, thus affecting positively or negatively their efficacy, and protect normal tissues of the host organism against adverse effects of anti-cancer therapies. The industrial development of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products based on secondary plant metabolites is limited due to the following: (i) limited availability of their natural sources, (ii) concern about rare extinguishing plants, (iii) unavoidable contamination of plant extracts with environmental pollutants, (iv) seasonal variations in plant harvesting, (v) poor standardization of the final product due to variable conditions for plant growth, and (vi) difficulties of secondary metabolite extraction from the parts of grown plant. There is now steadily growing interest in the biotechnological approach to produce secondary metabolites using plant cell or plant tissue cultures. In the present review, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and their role(s) in plant physiology will be briefly discussed; the biotechnological approach to active substances production in the plant cell and plant tissue cultures will be described; examples and mechanisms of cancer preventive and anti-cancer action of some biotechnologically produced plant metabolites will be provided; and future perspectives for biotechnologically produced plant-derived substances in the combined protocols for cancer treatment will be suggested.

  17. Molecular markers and targets for colorectal cancer prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveena B JANAKIRAM; Chinthalapally V RAO

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. If detected at an early stage, treatment often might lead to cure. As prevention is better than cure, epidemiological studies reveal that having a healthy diet often protects from pro-moting/developing cancer. An important consideration in evaluating new drugs and devices is determining whether a product can effectively treat a targeted disease. There are quite a number of biomarkers making their way into clinical trials and few are awaiting the preclinical efficacy and safety results to enter into clinical trials. Researchers are facing challenges in modifying trial design and defining the right control population, validating biomarker assays from the bio-logical and analytical perspective and using biomarker data as a guideline for decision making. In spite of following all guidelines, the results are disappointing from many of the large clinical trials. To avoid these disappointments, selection of biomarkers and its target drug needs to be evaluated in appropriate animal models for its toxicities and efficacies. The focus of this review is on the few of the potential molecular targets and their biomarkers in colorectal cancers. Strengths and limitations of biomarkers/surrogate endpoints are also discussed. Various pathways involved in tumor cells and the specific agents to target the altered molecular biomarkerin biomolecular pathwayare elucidated. Importance of emerging new platforms siRNAs and miRNAs technology for colorectal cancer therapeutics is reviewed.

  18. Green tea and prevention of esophageal and lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2011-06-01

    Green tea contains high concentrations of tea polyphenols that have shown inhibitory effects against the development, progress, and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in animal models at different organ sites, including the esophagus and lung. Green tea polyphenols also have shown to suppress cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Besides antioxidative property, green tea polyphenols have pro-oxidative activities under certain conditions and modulate phase II metabolic enzymes that can enhance the detoxification pathway of environmental toxicants and carcinogens. Although epidemiological studies have provided inconclusive results on the effect of green tea consumption against the development of esophageal and lung cancers in humans overall, the inverse association between green tea intake and risk of esophageal cancer risk is more consistently observed in studies with adequate control for potential confounders. Epidemiological studies also have demonstrated an inverse, albeit moderate, association between green tea consumption and lung cancer, especially in non-smokers. This article reviews data on the cancer-preventive activities of green tea extract and green tea polyphenols and possible mechanisms against the esophageal and lung carcinogenesis in experimental animals, and summarizes the current knowledge from epidemiological studies on the relationship between green tea consumption and esophageal and lung cancer risk in humans.

  19. The Prevention of Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer: A Personal View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narod Steven

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Options for the prevention of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer include screening, preventive surgery and chemoprevention. Screening studies with magnetic resonance imaging of the breast are promising but the technology is not widespread and MRI is unlikely to be available as a screening tool in the near future. Prophylactic oophorectomy and mastectomy are effective preventive measures and are gaining in acceptance by patients and physicians. Preventive mastectomy is effective against both primary and contralateral breast cancer. Oophorectomy prevents ovarian cancer, and if done prior to menopause, will prevent breast cancer as well. Tamoxifen has been shown to prevent contralateral breast cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers but is not widely accepted as a means of primary prevention. Oral contraceptives and tubal ligation will reduce the risk of hereditary ovarian cancer and should be considered in women who wish to retain ovarian function.

  20. Predicting human genetic interactions from cancer genome evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Lu

    Full Text Available Synthetic Lethal (SL genetic interactions play a key role in various types of biological research, ranging from understanding genotype-phenotype relationships to identifying drug-targets against cancer. Despite recent advances in empirical measuring SL interactions in human cells, the human genetic interaction map is far from complete. Here, we present a novel approach to predict this map by exploiting patterns in cancer genome evolution. First, we show that empirically determined SL interactions are reflected in various gene presence, absence, and duplication patterns in hundreds of cancer genomes. The most evident pattern that we discovered is that when one member of an SL interaction gene pair is lost, the other gene tends not to be lost, i.e. the absence of co-loss. This observation is in line with expectation, because the loss of an SL interacting pair will be lethal to the cancer cell. SL interactions are also reflected in gene expression profiles, such as an under representation of cases where the genes in an SL pair are both under expressed, and an over representation of cases where one gene of an SL pair is under expressed, while the other one is over expressed. We integrated the various previously unknown cancer genome patterns and the gene expression patterns into a computational model to identify SL pairs. This simple, genome-wide model achieves a high prediction power (AUC = 0.75 for known genetic interactions. It allows us to present for the first time a comprehensive genome-wide list of SL interactions with a high estimated prediction precision, covering up to 591,000 gene pairs. This unique list can potentially be used in various application areas ranging from biotechnology to medical genetics.

  1. Online Series presents The Impact of Obesity on Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is a critical public health problem which is worsening over time. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than one third (34.9% or 78.6 million) of U.S. adults are obese. Growing obesity incidence is associated with detrimental health consequences including cancer. Experts in the field of nutrition and cancer will present the latest data and future directions of research for this important topic. |

  2. The 'new genetics' in blood and cardiovascular research: applications to prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, A G

    1984-11-01

    Genetic approaches have become an important component of both fundamental and disease-oriented research. Certain diseases of the blood--the hemoglobinopathies--have been elucidated by the spectacular methods of molecular genetics. Some of these advances have already been incorporated in disease management. Often, common conditions such as coronary heart disease and hypertension show familial aggregation. Genetic analysis of these diseases together with biochemical and molecular methods are likely to be useful for further understanding and ultimate prevention and control.

  3. Validating genetic risk associations for ovarian cancer through the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, C L; Near, A M; Van Den Berg, D J;

    2009-01-01

    The search for genetic variants associated with ovarian cancer risk has focused on pathways including sex steroid hormones, DNA repair, and cell cycle control. The Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) identified 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes in these pathways, which had...... been genotyped by Consortium members and a pooled analysis of these data was conducted. Three of the 10 SNPs showed evidence of an association with ovarian cancer at P... and risk of ovarian cancer suggests that this pathway may be involved in ovarian carcinogenesis. Additional follow-up is warranted....

  4. Genetic susceptibility loci, pesticide exposure and prostate cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Koutros

    Full Text Available Uncovering SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms-environment interactions can generate new hypotheses about the function of poorly characterized genetic variants and environmental factors, like pesticides. We evaluated SNP-environment interactions between 30 confirmed prostate cancer susceptibility loci and 45 pesticides and prostate cancer risk in 776 cases and 1,444 controls in the Agricultural Health Study. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Multiplicative SNP-pesticide interactions were calculated using a likelihood ratio test. After correction for multiple tests using the False Discovery Rate method, two interactions remained noteworthy. Among men carrying two T alleles at rs2710647 in EH domain binding protein 1 (EHBP1 SNP, the risk of prostate cancer in those with high malathion use was 3.43 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.44-8.15 (P-interaction= 0.003. Among men carrying two A alleles at rs7679673 in TET2, the risk of prostate cancer associated with high aldrin use was 3.67 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.43, 9.41 (P-interaction= 0.006. In contrast, associations were null for other genotypes. Although additional studies are needed and the exact mechanisms are unknown, this study suggests known genetic susceptibility loci may modify the risk between pesticide use and prostate cancer.

  5. Socioeconomic Disparities in Fatalistic Beliefs About Cancer Prevention and the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of public information environment in cancer control, it is theoretically and practically important to explore how people's media use to acquire health information influences their beliefs about cancer prevention. In the current research, we focus on the role of the Internet in shaping fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention (cancer fatalism). To be more specific, we examine the effect of Internet use for health information on changes in cancer fatalism using a 2-wave n...

  6. Mass spectrometry cancer data classification using wavelets and genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh; Nahavandi, Saeid; Creighton, Douglas; Khosravi, Abbas

    2015-12-21

    This paper introduces a hybrid feature extraction method applied to mass spectrometry (MS) data for cancer classification. Haar wavelets are employed to transform MS data into orthogonal wavelet coefficients. The most prominent discriminant wavelets are then selected by genetic algorithm (GA) to form feature sets. The combination of wavelets and GA yields highly distinct feature sets that serve as inputs to classification algorithms. Experimental results show the robustness and significant dominance of the wavelet-GA against competitive methods. The proposed method therefore can be applied to cancer classification models that are useful as real clinical decision support systems for medical practitioners.

  7. Preventing clonal evolutionary processes in cancer: Insights from mathematical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Brenes, Ignacio A; Wodarz, Dominik

    2015-07-21

    Clonal evolutionary processes can drive pathogenesis in human diseases, with cancer being a prominent example. To prevent or treat cancer, mechanisms that can potentially interfere with clonal evolutionary processes need to be understood better. Mathematical modeling is an important research tool that plays an ever-increasing role in cancer research. This paper discusses how mathematical models can be useful to gain insights into mechanisms that can prevent disease initiation, help analyze treatment responses, and aid in the design of treatment strategies to combat the emergence of drug-resistant cells. The discussion will be done in the context of specific examples. Among defense mechanisms, we explore how replicative limits and cellular senescence induced by telomere shortening can influence the emergence and evolution of tumors. Among treatment approaches, we consider the targeted treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We illustrate how basic evolutionary mathematical models have the potential to make patient-specific predictions about disease and treatment outcome, and argue that evolutionary models could become important clinical tools in the field of personalized medicine.

  8. [Cancer prevention with green tea: reality and wishful thinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Barbara; Bartsch, H

    2002-01-01

    Different processing of the leaves of the tea plant Camellia sinensis yields green or black tea, the subject of numerous investigations on the preventive effects on chronic degenerative diseases. The tea polyphenols, in particular (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) were found to account for most of the protective effects. Since the concentration of EGCG is 5 times higher in green than in black tea, it is assumed that green tea possesses a greater preventive potential. Protection against cancer and cardiovascular diseases are the most important biomedical effects. In experimental models the preventive activity of tea is well documented for tumors at many organ sites. In humans, tea was reported to be protective against tumors of the lung, the gastrointestinal tract and the liver. Tea polyphenols, especially EGCG, were shown to exert cancer-protective activity by the following mechanisms: they inhibit the metabolic activation of carcinogens and induce at the same time detoxifying enzymes. They inhibit signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation and tumor growth such as protein kinase C and the release of tumor necrose factor-alpha from cells. Tea polyphenols reactivate processes which are impaired in tumor cells, such as the programmed cell death and the tumorsuppressor gene p53. Finally, tea polyphenols can also block angiogenesis leading to a starvation of the tumor. By inactivation of proteolytic enzymes they inhibit the development of metastases. This short review summarizes relevant recent findings on the protective effects of green tea constituents.

  9. Dietary phytochemicals and cancer prevention: Nrf2 signaling, epigenetics, and cell death mechanisms in blocking cancer initiation and progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Hun; Khor, Tin Oo; Shu, Limin; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Fuentes, Francisco; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2013-01-01

    Reactive metabolites from carcinogens and oxidative stress can drive genetic mutations, genomic instability, neoplastic transformation, and ultimately carcinogenesis. Numerous dietary phytochemicals in vegetables/fruits have been shown to possess cancer chemopreventive effects in both preclinical animal models and human epidemiological studies. These phytochemicals could prevent the initiation of carcinogenesis via either direct scavenging of reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) or, more importantly, the induction of cellular defense detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes. These defense enzymes mediated by Nrf2-antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways can contribute to cellular protection against ROS/RNS and reactive metabolites of carcinogens. In addition, these compounds would kill initiated/transformed cancer cells in vitro and in in vivo xenografts via diverse anti-cancer mechanisms. These mechanisms include the activation of signaling kinases (e.g., JNK), caspases and the mitochondria damage/cytochrome c pathways. Phytochemicals may also have anti-cancer effects by inhibiting the IKK/NF-κB pathway, inhibiting STAT3, and causing cell cycle arrest. In addition, other mechanisms may include epigenetic alterations (e.g., inhibition of HDACs, miRNAs, and the modification of the CpG methylation of cancer-related genes). In this review, we will discuss: the current advances in the study of Nrf2 signaling; Nrf2-deficient tumor mouse models; the epigenetic control of Nrf2 in tumorigenesis and chemoprevention; Nrf2-mediated cancer chemoprevention by naturally occurring dietary phytochemicals; and the mutation or hyper-expression of the Nrf2–Keap1 signaling pathway in advanced tumor cells. The future development of dietary phytochemicals for chemoprevention must integrate in vitro signaling mechanisms, relevant biomarkers of human diseases, and combinations of different phytochemicals and/or non-toxic therapeutic drugs, including

  10. Metformin: Can a Diabetes Drug Help Prevent Cancer? | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1957, the first results from a clinical trial of the diabetes drug metformin in patients were published. Yet, it would take nearly 40 years for the drug to be approved in the United States as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. Now researchers want to know whether this decades-old drug may have additional uses in another disease—cancer. |

  11. Nutriomes and personalised nutrition for DNA damage prevention, telomere integrity maintenance and cancer growth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage at the base sequence and chromosome level is a fundamental cause of developmental and degenerative diseases. Multiple micronutrients and their interactions with the inherited and/or acquired genome determine DNA damage and genomic instability rates. The challenge is to identify for each individual the combination of micronutrients and their doses (i.e. the nutriome) that optimises genome stability, including telomere integrity and functionality and DNA repair. Using nutrient array systems with high-content analysis diagnostics of DNA damage, cell death and cell growth, it is possible to define, on an individual basis, the optimal nutriome for DNA damage prevention and cancer growth control. This knowledge can also be used to improve culture systems for cells used in therapeutics such as stem cells to ensure that they are not genetically aberrant when returned to the body. Furthermore, this information could be used to design dietary patterns that deliver the micronutrient combinations and concentrations required for preventing DNA damage by micronutrient deficiency or excess. Using this approach, new knowledge could be obtained to identify the dietary restrictions and/or supplementations required to control specific cancers, which is particularly important given that reliable validated advice is not yet available for those diagnosed with cancer.

  12. From Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Clinical Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sin Hang, E-mail: shlee01@snet.net; Vigliotti, Jessica S.; Vigliotti, Veronica S.; Jones, William [Department of Pathology, Milford Hospital, 300 Seaside Ave., Milford, CT 06460 (United States)

    2014-10-02

    The newly gained knowledge of the viral etiology in cervical carcinogenesis has prompted industrial interests in developing virology-based tools for cervical cancer prevention. Due to the long incubation period from viral infection to developing an invasive cancer, a process whose outcome is influenced by numerous life-style and genetic factors, the true efficacy of the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in cervical cancer prevention cannot be determined for another 30 years. Most HPV DNA test kits designed to replace the traditional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for precancer detection lack the analytical sensitivity and specificity to comprehensively detect all potentially carcinogenic HPVs and to perform reliable genotyping. The authors implemented the classic nested PCR and Sanger DNA-sequencing technology for routine HPV testing. The results showed a true negative HPV PCR invariably indicates the absence of precancerous cells in the cytology samples. However, 80.5% of single positive HPV-16 tests and 97.3% of single positive HPV-18 tests were associated with a negative or a largely self-reversible Pap cytology. Routine sensitive and reliable HPV type-specific or perhaps even variant-specific methods are needed to address the issues of persistence of HPV infection if a virology-based primary cervical screen is used to replace the Pap cytology screening paradigm.

  13. From Human Papillomavirus (HPV Detection to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Hang Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The newly gained knowledge of the viral etiology in cervical carcinogenesis has prompted industrial interests in developing virology-based tools for cervical cancer prevention. Due to the long incubation period from viral infection to developing an invasive cancer, a process whose outcome is influenced by numerous life-style and genetic factors, the true efficacy of the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines in cervical cancer prevention cannot be determined for another 30 years. Most HPV DNA test kits designed to replace the traditional Papanicolaou (Pap smears for precancer detection lack the analytical sensitivity and specificity to comprehensively detect all potentially carcinogenic HPVs and to perform reliable genotyping. The authors implemented the classic nested PCR and Sanger DNA-sequencing technology for routine HPV testing. The results showed a true negative HPV PCR invariably indicates the absence of precancerous cells in the cytology samples. However, 80.5% of single positive HPV-16 tests and 97.3% of single positive HPV-18 tests were associated with a negative or a largely self-reversible Pap cytology. Routine sensitive and reliable HPV type-specific or perhaps even variant-specific methods are needed to address the issues of persistence of HPV infection if a virology-based primary cervical screen is used to replace the Pap cytology screening paradigm.

  14. Integrated patient and tumor genetic testing for individualized cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, D L; McLeod, H L

    2016-02-01

    Tumor genome analysis is transforming cancer treatment by enabling identification of specific oncogenic drivers and selection of effective targeted agents. Meanwhile, patient genome analysis is being employed across therapeutic areas to inform selection of appropriate drugs and doses for treatment safety. Integration of patient genome analysis concurrent with preemptive tumor genetic testing will enable oncologists to make informed treatment decisions to select the right dose of the right drug for each patient and their tumor.

  15. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in colorectal cancer prevention: point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arber, Nadir

    2008-08-01

    The limited success of current treatments for most advanced common malignancies highlights the importance of cancer prevention. Clinical trials on cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor drugs showed the potential of chemoprevention as a strategy for reducing cancer incidence, although not without associated side effects. The attractiveness of these drugs partly stems from an ability to engage multiple mechanisms of action by their potential to influence multiple components of the carcinogenesis pathway, from initiation to progression. There are two isoforms of the COX enzymes. COX-1 is constitutively expressed in normal tissues and serves as a "housekeeper" of mucosal integrity, whereas COX-2 is an immediate early response gene that is highly inducible by neoplastic and inflammatory stimuli. COX-2 is significantly overexpressed in colorectal neoplasms, making it an attractive therapeutic target. The drug market has been revolutionized by the development of preparations targeted selectively against COX-2, and a proof of concept has been achieved. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer is already possible with celecoxib, but it is still not the ultimate drug of choice especially because of the cardiovascular risk associated with COX-2 inhibitors. Better patient selection and more effective and safer drugs are needed. Celecoxib is probably best used in a subset of individuals at moderate to high colorectal cancer risk and low risk of cardiovascular disease.

  16. Prevention of erectile dysfunction after radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izak Faiena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing scrutiny of prostate cancer (PCa diagnosis and treatment, much attention has been given to the morbidity caused by radical prostatectomy (RP and/or radiotherapy (RT. One of the most common side-effects of either treatment is erectile dysfunction (ED. [1] Approximately, 40% of patients will experience ED after RT for PCa. The post-RT ED causes significant patient dissatisfaction with cancer treatment as well as decrease in patient and partner psychosocial function. [2] To address this issue in patients undergoing RT, Pisansky et al. [3] conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of a phosphodiesterase enzyme-5 inhibitor (PDE5i, tadalafil, as a preventive measure for patients undergoing RT for PCa and found no difference in erectile function between the control and treatment groups.

  17. Cancer prevention by tea: Evidence from laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Wang, Hong; Li, Guang Xun; Yang, Zhihong; Guan, Fei; Jin, Huanyu

    2011-08-01

    The cancer preventive activities of tea (Camellia sinensis Theaceae) have been studied extensively. Inhibition of tumorigenesis by green tea extracts and tea polyphenols has been demonstrated in different animal models, including those for cancers of the skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, bladder, liver, pancreas, prostate, and mammary glands. Many studies in cell lines have demonstrated the modulation of signal transduction and metabolic pathways by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant and active polyphenol in green tea. These molecular events can result in cellular changes, such as enhancement of apoptosis, suppression of cell proliferation, and inhibition of angiogenesis. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of inhibition of carcinogenesis in animals and humans remain to be further investigated. Future research directions in this area are discussed.

  18. Opportunities for Cancer Prevention Using Employee Wellness Programs: The Case of Kansas State Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Siu-kuen Azor; Engelman, Kimberly; Shireman, Theresa I.; Hunt, Suzanne; Ellerbeck, Edward F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The utility of employee wellness programs (EWPs) in cancer prevention and control is not well established. Purpose: This project is to determine the potential value of EWPs in preventing cancer by examining the characteristics of EWP participants and their prevalence of cancer risk factors. Methods: A secondary data analysis of health…

  19. Genetics and genomics of prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Dean; Hong Lou

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignancies in the world with over 890 000 cases and over 258 000 deaths worldwide each year.Nearly all mortalities from PCa are due to metastatic disease,typically through tumors that evolve to be hormone-refractory or castrate-resistant.Despite intensive epidemiological study,there are few known environmental risk factors,and age and family history are the major determinants.However,there is extreme heterogeneity in PCa incidence worldwide,suggesting that major determining factors have not been described.Genome-wide association studies have been performed and a considerable number of significant,but low-risk loci have been identified.In addition,several groups have analyzed PCa by determination of genomic copy number,fusion gene generation and targeted resequencing of candidate genes,as well as exome and whole genome sequencing.These initial studies have examined both primary and metastatic tumors as well as murine xenografts and identified somatic alterations in TP53 and other potential driver genes,and the disturbance of androgen response and cell cycle pathways.It is hoped that continued characterization of risk factors as well as gene mutation and misregulation in tumors will aid in understanding,diagnosing and better treating PCa.

  20. The prospect of genome-guided preventive medicine: a need and opportunity for genetic counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Daniel, Julianne M

    2010-08-01

    One of the major anticipated benefits of genomic medicine is the area of preventive medicine. Commercially available genomic profiling is now able to generate risk information for a number of common conditions several of which have recognized preventive guidelines. Similarly, family history assessment affords powerful health risk prediction based on the shared genetic, physical and lifestyle environments within families. Thus, with the ability to help predict disease risk and enable preemptive health plans, genome-guided preventive medicine has the potential to improve population health on an individualized level. To realize this potential, steps to broaden access to accurate genomic health information must be considered. With expertise in genetic science, risk assessment and communication, and a patient-centered practice approach, genetic counselors are poised to play a critical role in facilitating the incorporation of genomic health risks into the burgeoning field of genome-guided preventive medicine.

  1. Genetic Alterations in Hungarian Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiás, Bálint; Halászlaki, Csaba; Balla, Bernadett; Kósa, János P; Árvai, Kristóf; Horváth, Péter; Takács, István; Nagy, Zsolt; Horváth, Evelin; Horányi, János; Járay, Balázs; Székely, Eszter; Székely, Tamás; Győri, Gabriella; Putz, Zsuzsanna; Dank, Magdolna; Valkusz, Zsuzsanna; Vasas, Béla; Iványi, Béla; Lakatos, Péter

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancers is increasing worldwide. Some somatic oncogene mutations (BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, KRAS) as well as gene translocations (RET/PTC, PAX8/PPAR-gamma) have been associated with the development of thyroid cancer. In our study, we analyzed these genetic alterations in 394 thyroid tissue samples (197 papillary carcinomas and 197 healthy). The somatic mutations and translocations were detected by Light Cycler melting method and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction techniques, respectively. In tumorous samples, 86 BRAF (44.2%), 5 NRAS (3.1%), 2 HRAS (1.0%) and 1 KRAS (0.5%) mutations were found, as well as 9 RET/PTC1 (4.6%) and 1 RET/PTC3 (0.5%) translocations. No genetic alteration was seen in the non tumorous control thyroid tissues. No correlation was detected between the genetic variants and the pathological subtypes of papillary cancer as well as the severity of the disease. Our results are only partly concordant with the data found in the literature.

  2. Resveratrol Oligomers for the Prevention and Treatment of Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Qiu Xue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene is a naturally derived phytoalexin stilbene isolated from grapes and other plants, playing an important role in human health and is well known for its extensive bioactivities, such as antioxidation, anti-inflammatory, anticancer. In addition to resveratrol, scientists also pay attention to resveratrol oligomers, derivatives of resveratrol, which are characterized by the polymerization of two to eight, or even more resveratrol units, and are the largest group of oligomeric stilbenes. Resveratrol oligomers have multiple beneficial properties, of which some are superior in activity, stability, and selectivity compared with resveratrol. The complicated structures and diverse biological activities are of significant interest for drug research and development and may provide promising prospects as cancer preventive and therapeutical agents. This review presents an overview on preventive or anticancer properties of resveratrol oligomers.

  3. COX2 genetic variation, NSAIDs, and advanced prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, I; Liu, X; Plummer, S J; Krumroy, L M; Casey, G; Witte, J S

    2007-08-20

    Collective evidence suggests that cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) plays a role in prostate cancer risk. Cyclooxygenase 2 is the major enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandins, which are potent mediators of inflammation. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the enzymatic activity of COX2 and long-term use of NSAIDs appears to modestly lower the risk of prostate cancer. We investigated whether common genetic variation in COX2 influences the risk of advanced prostate cancer. Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in COX2 were genotyped among 1012 men in our case-control study of advanced prostate cancer. Gene-environment interactions between COX2 polymorphisms and NSAID use were also evaluated. Information on NSAID use was obtained by questionnaire. Three SNPs demonstrated nominally statistically significant associations with prostate cancer risk, with the most compelling polymorphism (rs2745557) associated with a lower risk of disease (odds ratio (OR) GC vs GG=0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49-0.84; P=0.002). We estimated through permutation analysis that a similarly strong result would occur by chance 2.7% of the time. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use was associated with a lower risk of disease in comparison to no use (OR=0.67; 95% CI: 0.52-0.87). No significant statistical interaction between NSAID use and rs2745557 was observed (P=0.12). Our findings suggest that variation in COX2 is associated with prostate cancer risk.

  4. Cancer genetics and the cardiotoxicity of the therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Hind; Kolaja, Kyle L; Force, Thomas

    2013-01-22

    Cancer genomics has focused on the discovery of mutations and chromosomal structural rearrangements that either increase susceptibility to cancer or support the cancer phenotype. Protein kinases are the most frequently mutated genes in the cancer genome, making them attractive therapeutic targets for drug design. However, the use of some of the kinase inhibitors (KIs) has been associated with toxicities to the heart and vasculature, including acute coronary syndromes and heart failure. Herein we discuss the genetic basis of cancer, focusing on mutations in the kinase genome (kinome) that lead to tumorigenesis. This will allow an understanding of the real and potential power of modern cancer therapeutics. The underlying mechanisms that drive the cardiotoxicity of the KIs are also examined. The preclinical models for predicting cardiotoxicity, including induced pluripotent stem cells and zebrafish, are reviewed, with the hope of eventually being able to identify problematic agents before their use in patients. Finally, the use of biomarkers in the clinic is discussed, and newer strategies (i.e., metabolomics and enhanced imaging strategies) that may allow earlier and more accurate detection of cardiotoxicity are reviewed.

  5. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi; Maryam Zare; Mehrdad Mostaghaci; Amir Houshang Mehrparvar; Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad; Elham Naghshineh

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive corre...

  6. Genetic polymorphisms in the nucleotide excision repair pathway and lung cancer risk: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikako Kiyohara, Kouichi Yoshimasu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Various DNA alterations can be caused by exposure to environmental and endogenous carcinogens. Most of these alterations, if not repaired, can result in genetic instability, mutagenesis and cell death. DNA repair mechanisms are important for maintaining DNA integrity and preventing carcinogenesis. Recent lung cancer studies have focused on identifying the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in candidate genes, among which DNA repair genes are increasingly being studied. Genetic variations in DNA repair genes are thought to modulate DNA repair capacity and are suggested to be related to lung cancer risk. We identified a sufficient number of epidemiologic studies on lung cancer to conduct a meta-analysis for genetic polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair pathway genes, focusing on xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA, excision repair cross complementing group 1 (ERCC1, ERCC2/XPD, ERCC4/XPF and ERCC5/XPG. We found an increased risk of lung cancer among subjects carrying the ERCC2 751Gln/Gln genotype (odds ratio (OR = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.14 - 1.49. We found a protective effect of the XPA 23G/G genotype (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.59 - 0.95. Considering the data available, it can be conjectured that if there is any risk association between a single SNP and lung cancer, the risk fluctuation will probably be minimal. Advances in the identification of new polymorphisms and in high-throughput genotyping techniques will facilitate the analysis of multiple genes in multiple DNA repair pathways. Therefore, it is likely that the defining feature of future epidemiologic studies will be the simultaneous analysis of large samples.

  7. Molecular genetics and genomics progress in urothelial bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, George J

    2013-11-01

    The clinical management of solid tumor patients has recently undergone a paradigm shift as the result of the accelerated advances in cancer genetics and genomics. Molecular diagnostics is now an integral part of routine clinical management in lung, colon, and breast cancer patients. In a disappointing contrast, molecular biomarkers remain largely excluded from current management algorithms of urologic malignancies. The need for new treatment alternatives and validated prognostic molecular biomarkers that can help clinicians identify patients in need of early aggressive management is pressing. Identifying robust predictive biomarkers that can stratify response to newly introduced targeted therapeutics is another crucially needed development. The following is a brief discussion of some promising candidate biomarkers that may soon become a part of clinical management of bladder cancers.

  8. Strengthening cancer biology research, prevention, and control while reducing cancer disparities: student perceptions of a collaborative master's degree program in cancer biology, preventions, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillson, I A; Cousin, C E; Blancato, J K

    2013-09-01

    This article provides the findings of a survey of previous and current students in the UDC/GU-LCCC master's degree program. This master's degree program, Cancer Biology, Prevention, and Control is administered and taught jointly by faculty of a Minority Serving Institution, the University of the District of Columbia, and the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center to incorporate the strengths of a community-based school with a research intensive medical center. The program was initiated in 2008 through agreements with both University administrations and funding from the National Cancer Institute. The master's degree program is 36 credits with a focus on coursework in biostatistics, epidemiology, tumor biology, cancer prevention, medical ethics, and cancer outreach program design. For two semesters during the second year, students work full-time with a faculty person on a laboratory or outreach project that is a requirement for graduation. Students are supported and encouraged to transition to a doctoral degree after they obtain the master's and many of them are currently in doctorate programs. Since the inception of the program, 45 students have initiated the course of study, 28 have completed the program, and 13 are currently enrolled in the program. The survey was designed to track the students in their current activities, as well as determine which courses, program enhancements, and research experiences were the least and most useful, and to discern students' perceptions of knowledge acquired on various aspects of Cancer Biology Prevention, and Control Master's Program. Thirty of the 35 individuals to whom email requests were sent responded to the survey, for a response rate of 85.7%. The results of this study will inform the strengthening of the Cancer Biology program by the Education Advisory Committee. They can also be used in the development of comparable collaborative master's degree programs designed to address the significant disparities in prevalence of

  9. Tomato-based food products for prostate cancer prevention: what have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hsueh-Li; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Grainger, Elizabeth M; Wan, Lei; Francis, David M; Schwartz, Steven J; Erdman, John W; Clinton, Steven K

    2010-09-01

    Evidence derived from a vast array of laboratory studies and epidemiological investigations have implicated diets rich in fruits and vegetables with a reduced risk of certain cancers. However, these approaches cannot demonstrate causal relationships and there is a paucity of randomized, controlled trials due to the difficulties involved with executing studies of food and behavioral change. Rather than pursuing the definitive intervention trials that are necessary, the thrust of research in recent decades has been driven by a reductionist approach focusing upon the identification of bioactive components in fruits and vegetables with the subsequent development of single agents using a pharmacologic approach. At this point in time, there are no chemopreventive strategies that are standard of care in medical practice that have resulted from this approach. This review describes an alternative approach focusing upon development of tomato-based food products for human clinical trials targeting cancer prevention and as an adjunct to therapy. Tomatoes are a source of bioactive phytochemicals and are widely consumed. The phytochemical pattern of tomato products can be manipulated to optimize anticancer activity through genetics, horticultural techniques, and food processing. The opportunity to develop a highly consistent tomato-based food product rich in anticancer phytochemicals for clinical trials targeting specific cancers, particularly the prostate, necessitates the interactive transdisciplinary research efforts of horticulturalists, food technologists, cancer biologists, and clinical translational investigators.

  10. Population genetics of cancer cell clones: possible implications of cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naugler Christopher T

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population dynamics of the various clones of cancer cells existing within a tumour is complex and still poorly understood. Cancer cell clones can be conceptualized as sympatric asexual species, and as such, the application of theoretical population genetics as it pertains to asexual species may provide additional insights. Results The number of generations of tumour cells within a cancer has been estimated at a minimum of 40, but high cancer cell mortality rates suggest that the number of cell generations may actually be in the hundreds. Such a large number of generations would easily allow natural selection to drive clonal evolution assuming that selective advantages of individual clones are within the range reported for free-living animal species. Tumour cell clonal evolution could also be driven by variation in the intrinsic rates of increase of different clones or by genetic drift. In every scenario examined, the presence of cancer stem cells would require lower selection pressure or less variation in intrinsic rates of increase. Conclusions The presence of cancer stem cells may result in more rapid clonal evolution. Specific predictions from theoretical population genetics may lead to a greater understanding of this process.

  11. Nutrition and primary prevention of breast cancer: foods, nutrients and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Volker; Gonder, Ulrike

    2005-12-01

    Worldwide, each year approximately one million women are newly diagnosed with breast cancer (BC), in Germany 65 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants are registered, yearly. The fact that incidence has been rising in parallel with economic development indicates that environmental factors might play a role in the causation of BC. Migrational data have pointed to nutrition as one of the more relevant external factors involved. Preventive dietary advice often includes a reduction of alcohol, red meat and animal fat and increasing the intake of vegetables, fruit and fibre and lately, phyto-estrogens from various sources. Clearly, the scientific basis for these recommendations appears sparse. The available prospective data from epidemiological studies and interventional trials do not support the overall hypothesis that higher fat-intakes are a relevant risk factor for BC development, more important seems the relative distribution of various fatty acids. A non-vegetarian eating habit (consumption of animal products) per se does not elevate BC risk, while consumption of broiled or deep fried meats cannot be ruled out as a risk factor in genetically susceptible individuals. It appears prudent to abstain from regular and increased alcohol consumption. This should be particularly true for pubescent girls, in whom glandular breast tissue is particularly vulnerable. In general, if alcohol is consumed on a regular basis, a sufficient supply of fresh vegetables and fruit is essential. While there is no overall protective effect of a high fruit and vegetable consumption speculation remains over possible beneficial effects of certain subcategories, especially brassica vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage. In essence, regional differences in BC incidence are probably partially attributable to life long dietary habits. There is no need to adopt a foreign dietary plan in order to protect oneself against BC. Traditional western diets also have their beneficial ingredients

  12. Comparative evaluation of genetic assays to identify oral pre-cancerous fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, J.F.; Braakhuis, B.J.; Brink, A.; Broeckaert, M.A.; Beliën, J.A.M.; Meijer, G.A.; Kuik, D.J.; Leemans, C.R.; Bloemena, E.; van der Waal, I.; Brakenhoff, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinomas often develop in a pre-cancerous field, defined as mucosal epithelium with cancer-related genetic alterations, and which may appear as a clinically visible lesion. The test characteristics of three genetic assays that were developed to detect pre-cancerous f

  13. 76 FR 14034 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory Web-Based...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory Web-Based Application Form and Update Mailer Summary: In compliance with the requirement... included in the NCI Cancer Genetics Services Directory on NCI's Cancer.gov Web site. The...

  14. The role of chronic inflammation in the development of gastrointestinal cancers: reviewing cancer prevention with natural anti-inflammatory intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Jae; Park, Jong-Min; Han, Young Min; Gil, Hong Kwon; Kim, Jinhyung; Chang, Ji Young; Jeong, Migyeong; Go, Eun-Jin; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators alter the local environment of tumors, known as the tumor microenvironment. Mechanistically, chronic inflammation induces DNA damage, but understanding this hazard may help in the search for new chemopreventive agents for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer which attenuate inflammation. In the clinic, GI cancer still remains a major cause of cancer-associated mortality, chemoprevention with anti-inflammatory agents is thought to be a realistic approach to reduce GI cancer. Proton pump inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor necrosis factor-alpha, anti-sense targeted smad7 and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents have been investigated for their potential to prevent inflammation-based GI cancer. Besides these, a wide variety of natural products have also shown potential for the prevention of GI cancer. In this review, the authors will provide insights to explain the mechanistic connection between inflammation and GI cancer, as well as describe a feasible cancer prevention strategy based on anti-inflammatory treatments.

  15. Body Mass Index Genetic Risk Score and Endometrial Cancer Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Prescott

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified common variants that predispose individuals to a higher body mass index (BMI, an independent risk factor for endometrial cancer. Composite genotype risk scores (GRS based on the joint effect of published BMI risk loci were used to explore whether endometrial cancer shares a genetic background with obesity. Genotype and risk factor data were available on 3,376 endometrial cancer case and 3,867 control participants of European ancestry from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium GWAS. A BMI GRS was calculated by summing the number of BMI risk alleles at 97 independent loci. For exploratory analyses, additional GRSs were based on subsets of risk loci within putative etiologic BMI pathways. The BMI GRS was statistically significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk (P = 0.002. For every 10 BMI risk alleles a woman had a 13% increased endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 4%, 22%. However, after adjusting for BMI, the BMI GRS was no longer associated with risk (per 10 BMI risk alleles OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.07; P = 0.78. Heterogeneity by BMI did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06, and no effect modification was noted by age, GWAS Stage, study design or between studies (P≥0.58. In exploratory analyses, the GRS defined by variants at loci containing monogenic obesity syndrome genes was associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk independent of BMI (per BMI risk allele OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96; P = 2.1 x 10-5. Possessing a large number of BMI risk alleles does not increase endometrial cancer risk above that conferred by excess body weight among women of European descent. Thus, the GRS based on all current established BMI loci does not provide added value independent of BMI. Future studies are required to validate the unexpected observed relation between monogenic obesity syndrome genetic variants and endometrial cancer risk.

  16. Retinoids and rexinoids in cancer prevention: from laboratory to clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uray, Iván P; Dmitrovsky, Ethan; Brown, Powel H

    2016-02-01

    Early in the age of modern medicine the consequences of vitamin A deficiency drew attention to the fundamental link between retinoid-dependent homeostatic regulation and malignant hyperproliferative diseases. The term "retinoid" includes a handful of endogenous and a large group of synthetic derivatives of vitamin A. These multifunctional lipid-soluble compounds directly regulate target genes of specific biological functions and critical signaling pathways to orchestrate complex functions from vision to development, metabolism, and inflammation. Many of the retinoid activities on the cellular level have been well characterized and translated to the regulation of processes like differentiation and cell death, which play critical roles in the outcome of malignant transformation of tissues. In fact, retinoid-based differentiation therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia was one of the first successful examples of molecularly targeted treatment strategies. The selectivity, high receptor binding affinity and the ability of retinoids to directly modulate gene expression programs present a distinct pharmacological opportunity for cancer treatment and prevention. However, to fully exploit their potential, the adverse effects of retinoids must be averted. In this review we provide an overview of the biology of retinoid (activated by nuclear retinoic acid receptors [RARs]) and rexinoid (engaged by nuclear retinoid X receptors [RXRs]) action concluded from a long line of preclinical studies, in relation to normal and transformed states of cells. We will also discuss the past and current uses of retinoids in the treatment of malignancies, the potential of rexinoids in the cancer prevention setting, both as single agents and in combinations.

  17. Time issues in multilevel interventions for cancer treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeffrey; Prabhu Das, Irene; Johnson, Timothy P

    2012-05-01

    The concept of time introduces important complexities in estimating intervention effects, program and evaluation design, and measurement and analysis of individual change in multilevel interventions (MLIs). Despite growing recognition that time is a critical element for assessing both individual-level outcomes and higher-level changes in organizational, community, and policy contexts, most MLI designs and evaluations have not addressed these issues. In this chapter we discuss 1) conceptualizing disease life-course and treatment theory in MLIs, 2) approaches to incorporating time in research and program design for MLIs in cancer treatment and prevention, 3) analysis of time-varying multilevel data in the context of cancer treatment and prevention, and 4) resource considerations and trade-offs of incorporating time as a dimension of MLIs and analysis. Although analytic techniques for analyzing time-related phenomena are becoming more available and powerful, there has not been corresponding progress made in the development of theory to guide the application of these techniques in program design and implementation.

  18. Genetic epidemiology and preventive healthcare in multiethnic societies: the hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Piero C; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Bakker, Egbert

    2014-06-11

    Healthy carriers of severe Hemoglobinopathies are usually asymptomatic and only efficiently detected through screening campaigns. Based upon epidemiological data, screenings have been offered for decades to populations of endemic Southern Europe for primary prevention of Thalassemia Major, while for many populations of the highly endemic African and Asian countries prevention for Sickle Cell Disease and Thalassemia Major is mainly unavailable. The massive migrations of the last decades have brought many healthy carriers of these diseases to live and reproduce in non-endemic immigration areas changing the epidemiological pattern of the local recessive diseases and bringing an urgent need for treatment and primary prevention in welfare countries. Nonetheless, no screening for an informed reproductive choice is actively offered by the healthcare systems of most of these welfare countries. As a consequence more children affected with severe Hemoglobinopathies are born today in the immigration countries of Northern Europe than in the endemic Southern European area. Following the Mediterranean example, some countries like the UK and The Netherlands have been offering early pregnancy carrier screening at different levels and/or in specific areas but more accessible measures need to be taken at the national level in all immigration countries. Identification of carriers using simple and inexpensive methods should be included in the Rhesus and infectious diseases screening which is offered early in pregnancy in most developed countries. This would allow identification of couples at risk in time for an informed choice and for prenatal diagnosis if required before the first affected child is born.

  19. Human endogenous retroviruses and cancer prevention: evidence and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cegolon Luca

    2013-01-01

    as other tumors like sarcoma, lymphoma, bladder and breast cancer. An amino acid sequence similar to HERV-K-MEL, recognized to cause a significant protective effect against melanoma, is shared by the antigenic determinants expressed by some vaccines such as BCG, vaccinia virus and the yellow fever virus. HERV-K are also reactivated in the majority of human breast cancers. Monoclonal and single-chain antibodies against the HERV-K Env protein recently proved capable of blocking the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro, inhibiting tumor growth in mice bearing xenograft tumors. Summary A recent epidemiological study provided provisional evidence of how melanoma risk could possibly be reduced if the yellow fever virus vaccine (YFV were received at least 10 years before, possibly preventing tumor initiation rather than culling melanoma cells already compromised. Further research is recommended to confirm the temporal pattern of this protection and eliminate/attenuate the potential role of relevant confounders as socio-economic status and other vaccinations. It appears also appropriate to examine the potential protective effect of YFV against other malignancies expressing high levels of HERV-K antigens, namely breast cancer, sarcoma, lymphoma and bladder cancer. Tumor immune-therapy, as described for the monoclonal antibodies against breast cancer, is indeed considered more complex and less advantageous than immune-prevention. Cellular immunity possibly triggered by vaccines as for YFV might also be involved in anti-cancer response, in addition to humoral immunity.

  20. Indian Perspective of Strengthening Priorities in Cancer Prevention: Connecting the Missing Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Phulambrikar

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is now the third leading cause of death worldwide. This paper identifies several preventive measures that offer the most feasible approach to mitigate the anticipated global increase in cancer in countries that can least afford it.