WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer prevention action

  1. Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE SURGEON GENERAL’S CALL TO ACTION TO PREVENT SKIN CANCER From the Surgeon General Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer the ... be disfiguring and even deadly. Medical treatment for skin cancer is costly for individuals, families, and the nation. ...

  2. Disparity in cancer prevention and screening in aboriginal populations: recommendations for action

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, S; Shahid, R.K; Episkenew, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, cancer has occurred at a lower rate in aboriginal populations; however, it is now dramatically increasing. Unless preventive measures are taken, cancer rates among aboriginal peoples are expected to soon surpass those in non-aboriginal populations. Because a large proportion of malignant disorders are preventable, primary prevention through socioeconomic interventions, environmental changes, and lifestyle modification might provide the best option for reducing the increasing bur...

  3. Preventing an Impending Disaster. WHO DG Chan Urges Global Action to Fight Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WHO estimates that seven of every ten cancer deaths now occur in the developing world, amounting to 5.5 million cancer deaths annually. Dr. Chan warned that if no action is taken, cancer deaths in the developing world will continue to grow rapidly, reaching nearly 9 million in 2030. In the same period, cancer deaths in wealthy countries are expected to remain fairly stable.

  4. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  5. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Cancer ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  6. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Stomach Cancer Key Points Stomach (gastric) cancer is a ...

  7. Lowering the UK domestic radon Action Level to prevent more lung cancers-is it cost-effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case studies have shown that radon gas can accumulate within domestic properties at sufficiently high levels that it can cause lung cancer, and recent studies have suggested that this risk remains significant below the UK domestic Action Level of 200 Bq m-3. Raised radon levels can be reduced by engineering measures, and it has been shown that domestic radon remediation programmes in UK Affected Areas can result in reduced risks to the population and can be cost-effective. We consider here the benefits and costs of the domestic radon remediation programme in Northamptonshire, UK, and consider the implications for that programme of reducing the UK Action Level below its present value. A radon remediation programme based on an Action Level above 200 Bq m-3 will cost less and will target those most at risk, but will be less cost-effective and will lead to higher residual dose and greater risk of cancer in the remaining population. Reducing the Action Level below 200 Bq m-3 will prevent more cancers, but at significantly higher cost. It will also be less cost-effective, because remediation of a significant number of houses with moderate radon levels will provide only a modest health benefit to occupants. Overall, a completed radon remediation programme of the type implemented in Northamptonshire is most cost-effective for an Action Level between 200 and 300 Bq m-3. The implications for future health policy are discussed

  8. Cancer prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction A 44 year old woman attends your surgery,distressed by the fact that her closest friend has just been given a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. She wants to know how to minimise her risk of developing cancer.

  9. Waste prevention action nets

    OpenAIRE

    Corvellec, Hervé; Czarniawska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Although waste prevention is considered the best possible waste management option in the European waste hierarchy model, it is unclear what constitutes waste prevention. To address this lack of clarity, this text presents an analysis of four Swedish case studies of waste prevention: a waste management company selling waste prevention services; the possibility offered to Swedish households to opt out of receiving unaddressed promotional material; a car-sharing program; and a re-...

  10. Work at night and breast cancer - report on evidence-based options for preventive actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Hansen, Johnni; Kolstad, Henrik A.;

    2012-01-01

    the total number of years working night shift could be one future preventive recommendation for shift workers. The diurnal secretion of melatonin by the pineal gland with peak in secretory activity during the night is a good biochemical marker of the circadian rhythm. Disruption of the diurnal...

  11. Statins and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCI Division of Cancer Prevention Web site at http://prevention.cancer.gov on the Internet. More information on cholesterol-lowering drugs can be obtained from the FDA Web site at http://www.fda.gov on the Internet. Related Resources Causes and Prevention Posted: June 2, ...

  12. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. CANCER CAN BE PREVENTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Life style factors are contributing significantly in cancer prevention. With the intake of proper and balanced diet ,cancer prevention is possible. Many foods are associated either with incidence or prevention of cancer. Plant based foods like fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains rich in fiber, b-carotene, vitamins and antioxidants can prevent cancer. Fiber rich foods increase bowel movement, decreasing the absorption of cholesterol. Pumpkin, carrots contain b-carotenes. Leafy vegetables, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, peas and beans are rich in fiber and stimulate cancer preventing enzyme induction. Vitamin C rich citrus fruits can stimulate immune system. Garlic and onions can stimulate enzymes that can suppress tumor growth. Turmeric used in cooking can prevent colorectal cancer. Topical application of turmeric can prevent breast cancer in women. On the other hand, certain foods can cause cancer. Refined foods, high fat foods, deep fried foods, processed foods and low fiber foods increase cancer risk. Red meat, processed meat and barbeques contain a carcinogen called acrylamide. Foods prepared with hydrogenated fats contain transfats which increase risk for breast, ovarian, cervical and lung cancer. Consumption of alcohol increasing the risk for cancers of digestive system. LET US EAT RIGHT FOODS AND AVOID WRONG FOODS.

  14. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  15. Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about actively enrolling, ongoing, and completed clinical trials of cancer prevention, early detection, and supportive care, including phase I, II, and III agent and action trials and clinical trials management. |

  16. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship provides a strong foundation for scientists and clinicians to train in the field of cancer prevention and control. This structured, multidisciplinary program offers early career scientists from different health disciplines a variety of postdoctoral training opportunities . | Training to form a strong foundation in cancer prevention and control for scientists and clinicians.

  17. Biorepositories | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carefully collected and controlled high-quality human biospecimens, annotated with clinical data and properly consented for investigational use, are available through the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories listed in the charts below. Biorepositories Managed by the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories Supported by the Division of Cancer Prevention Related Biorepositories | Information about accessing biospecimens collected from DCP-supported clinical trials and projects.

  18. Can Ovarian Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Can ovarian cancer be found early? Can ovarian cancer be prevented? Most women have one or ... strategies for women with a family history of ovarian cancer or BRCA mutation If your family history ...

  19. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  20. Prevention strategies in prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Trottier, Greg; Lawrentschuk, N.; Fleshner, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer (pca) prevention has been an exciting and controversial topic since the results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (pcpt) were published. With the recently published results of the reduce (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) trial, interest in this topic is at a peak. Primary pca prevention will be unlikely to affect mortality significantly, but the reduction in overtreatment and the effect on quality of life from the avoidance of a cancer diagnosis are im...

  1. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quit General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are diseases in ... about how you might lower your risk of cancer. Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are two different ...

  2. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been widely used as food flavorings and folk medicines for thousands of years. Numerous studies have documented the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of spices, which might be related to prevention and treatment of several cancers, including lung, liver, breast, stomach, colorectum, cervix, and prostate cancers. Several spices are potential sources for prevention and treatment of cancers, such as Curcuma longa (tumeric), Nigella sativa (black cumin), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Allium sativum (garlic), Crocus sativus (saffron), Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Capsicum annum (chili pepper), which contained several important bioactive compounds, such as curcumin, thymoquinone, piperine and capsaicin. The main mechanisms of action include inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, migration and invasion of tumors, and sensitizing tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarized recent studies on some spices for prevention and treatment of cancers, and special attention was paid to bioactive components and mechanisms of action. PMID:27529277

  3. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  5. News | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    News about scientific advances in cancer prevention, program activities, and new projects are included here in NCI press releases and fact sheets, articles from the NCI Cancer Bulletin, and Clinical Trial News from the NCI website.

  6. Home | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Research The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into cancer. |

  7. Fast Action Can Prevent Sepsis Death: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_160574.html Fast Action Can Prevent Sepsis Death: CDC Know the signs of extreme response to ... treated long before it causes severe illness or death, U.S. health officials report. Sepsis, or septicemia, occurs ...

  8. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. This one-week intense learning session provides specialized instruction in the role of diet and bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer incidence and tumor behavior. |

  9. Cancer Prevention Overview (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large amount of arsenic has been linked to skin , bladder, and lung cancers. Studies have been done ...

  10. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostate cancer increases as men get older. Family history of prostate cancer A man whose father, brother, ... some foods, such as green vegetables, beans and orange juice. Folic acid is a man-made form ...

  11. Future directions in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Asad; Dunn, Barbara K; Greenwald, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Prevention of cancer remains the most promising strategy for reducing both its incidence and the mortality due to this disease. For more than four decades, findings from epidemiology, basic research and clinical trials have informed the development of lifestyle and medical approaches to cancer prevention. These include selective oestrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer, the 5-α-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride for prostate cancer, and the development of vaccines for viruses that are associated with specific cancers. Future directions include genetic, proteomic and other molecular approaches for identifying pathways that are associated with cancer initiation and development, as well as refining the search for immunologically modifiable causes of cancer. PMID:23151603

  12. Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or other cancers, including lymphoma, leukemia, melanoma, and cancers of the lung, bladder, pancreas, and colon and rectum ( 26 ). Overall, these nine ... the incidence and mortality of carcinoma of the pancreas in a randomized, controlled trial. Cancer 1999; 86(1):37-42. [PubMed Abstract] Virtamo ...

  13. Annual Advances in Cancer Prevention Lecture | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015 Keynote Lecture HPV Vaccination: Preventing More with Less A special keynote lecture became part of the NCI summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention in 2000. This lecture will be held on Thursday, July 23, 2015 at 3:00pm at Masur Auditorium, Building 10, NIH Main Campus, Bethesda, MD. This year’s keynote speaker is Dr. Douglas Lowy, NCI Acting Director. |

  14. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Casari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  15. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... linking the development of this disease, in many cases, with exposure to the hormone estrogen. The focus of recent breast cancer prevention studies has been on testing the effectiveness of drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). SERMs are ...

  16. Evaluation of Cataract Preventive Action of Phycocyanin

    OpenAIRE

    Kothadia AD; AM Shenoy; Shabaraya AR; Rajan MS; UM Viradia; Patel NH

    2011-01-01

    Phycocyanin is a biliprotein pigment found in blue-green algae Spirulina platensis, which have attracted attention because of their nutritional value and medicinal properties. This pigment has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activity in different experimental models. This data supports the view that phycocyanin may prevent cataract progression. Cataract preventive action of phycocyanin was evaluated against naphthalene and galactose induced cataract experimental models in ...

  17. Can Vulvar Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as the skin on the genital or anal area. Still, condoms do provide some protection against HPV, and they also protect against HIV and some ... cancers. They are also approved to help prevent anal and genital warts, as well ... cancers. More HPV vaccines are being developed and tested. For more ...

  18. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This may lead to liver cancer. Blood banks test all donated blood for hepatitis B, which greatly lowers the risk of getting the ... This may lead to liver cancer. Blood banks test all donated blood for hepatitis C, which ... infected with hepatitis B. It is caused by hepatitis D virus (HDV) ...

  19. Prevention strategies for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz-Dräger, B J; Lümmen, G; Bismarck, E; Fischer, C

    2012-12-01

    Through the last decade consideration of the role of vitamins and minerals in primary prevention of genitourinary tumors has dramatically changed. Despite all efforts efficacy of a specific compound has not been proven, so far. In consequence, recommendations for a use of vitamins or other supplements with the intention of prostate cancer prevention should be avoided today. In contrast, there is some evidence that life style modification might be helpful: recent investigations suggest that smoking may be involved in prostate cancer carcinogenesis. In addition, there is evidence that moderate food consumption, reduction of dairy products and an Asian or Mediterranean diet might not only prevent prostate cancer but also harbors additional beneficial effects on general health. This move from single compounds to more complex diets can be considered as a change of paradigm in prostate cancer prevention and could be the starting point of future epidemiological research. Disappointing findings with regards to nutritional cancer prevention contrast with a solid evidence concerning the efficacy of chemoprevention using 5a-reductase inhibitors: Long-term use of Finasteride and Dutasteride significantly reduces prostate cancer detection. Further candidate drugs are under investigation. However, translation of these findings into urological practice remains a matter of controversial discussion. PMID:23288209

  20. Evaluation of Cataract Preventive Action of Phycocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothadia AD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phycocyanin is a biliprotein pigment found in blue-green algae Spirulina platensis, which have attracted attention because of their nutritional value and medicinal properties. This pigment has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activity in different experimental models. This data supports the view that phycocyanin may prevent cataract progression. Cataract preventive action of phycocyanin was evaluated against naphthalene and galactose induced cataract experimental models in wistar rats at dose 200 mg/kg/day p.o and vitamin E was used as a reference standard. Phycocyanin treated animals showed no opacification in the lens and they also showed significantly increased level of glutathione (GSH, soluble proteins and water content as compared to positive control group in the lens in both the experimental models. Cataract preventive action of phycocyanin may be due to is antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity.

  1. Endometrial Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnant. This increases the risk of endometrial cancer. Tamoxifen Tamoxifen is one of a group of drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators , or SERMs. Tamoxifen acts like estrogen on some tissues in the ...

  2. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the risk of breast cancer: Having an abortion. Making diet changes such as eating less fat or more ... does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care. Reviewers and Updates Editorial Boards ...

  3. About DCP | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is the primary unit of the National Cancer Institute devoted to cancer prevention research. DCP provides funding and administrative support to clinical and laboratory researchers, community and multidisciplinary teams, and collaborative scientific networks. |

  4. Cancer Prevention and Interception: A New Era for Chemopreventive Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, Adriana; DeCensi, Andrea; Cavalli, Franco; Costa, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    At several recent, internationally attended scientific meetings, including the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR)'s "Shaping the Future of Cancer Prevention: A Roadmap for Integrative Cancer Science and Public Health" summit in Leesburg (VA) and the AACR Annual Meeting in New Orleans, the focus on cancer prevention to reduce cancer-related deaths was extensively discussed with renewed attention and emphasis. Cancer prevention should be actively proposed even to healthy individuals, and not just to individuals with high cancer risk. We discuss evaluation of a high cancer risk versus the relatively low risk for side effects of chemopreventive agents. The concept of cancer interception, which is halting transformed cells from becoming malignant cancers, should be adopted for cancer prevention. Potential prevention/interception actions include adopting healthy life style and avoiding carcinogens, repressing inflammation and pathologic angiogenesis, controlling metabolism, correcting insulin resistance and other metabolic alterations. Current drugs with limited toxicity can be repurposed to reduce cancer incidence. Aspirin is now being recommended for the prevention of colorectal cancer and it prevents other neoplasms as well. Metformin and β-blockers could be valuable for reducing pancreatic and breast cancer onset. On the basis of the evaluation of cancer risk, we here call for personalized approaches for cancer prevention and preventive interception and we envisage a list of measures and potential guidelines for preventive and interceptive strategies to reduce cancer burden. Investment into translational research to bring these approaches into public health policies and in the clinic is urgently needed. Clin Cancer Res; 22(17); 4322-7. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27220959

  5. Preventing Infections During Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Angela; Tai, Eric; Nielsen, Danielle Beauchesne; Shropshire, Sonya; Richardson, Lisa C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in oncology care, infections from both community and healthcare settings remain a major cause of hospitalization and death among patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Neutropenia (low white blood cell count) is a common and potentially dangerous side effect in patients receiving chemotherapy treatments and may lead to higher risk of infection. Preventing infection during treatment can result in significant decreases in morbidity and mortality for patients with cancer. As part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients public health campaign, a public-private partnership was formed between the CDC Foundation and Amgen, Inc. The CDC’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control developed and launched an interactive website, www.PreventCancerInfections.org, designed for patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. The site encourages patients to complete a risk assessment for developing neutropenia during their treatment. After completing the assessment, patients receive information about how to lower the risk for infection and keep themselves healthy while receiving chemotherapy. PMID:25095295

  6. Cancer treatment: preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are safe. DO NOT eat fish, eggs, or meat that is raw or undercooked. And DO NOT ... During or right after cancer treatment, call your health care provider right away if you have any of the signs of infection mentioned above. Getting ...

  7. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk? What Are the Symptoms? What Should I Know About Screening? Statistics Related Links Inside Knowledge Campaign What CDC Is Doing Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Printable Versions Standard quality PDF [PDF-877KB] High-quality PDF for professional ...

  8. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  9. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Ilaria Casari; Marco Falasca

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and d...

  10. Annual Advances in Cancer Prevention Lecture | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016 Keynote Lecture Polyvalent Vaccines Targeting Oncogenic Driver Pathways A special keynote lecture became part of the NCI Summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention in 2000. This lecture will be held on Thursday, July 21, 2016 at 1:30pm at Masur Auditorium, Building 10, NIH Main Campus, Bethesda, MD. This year’s keynote speaker is Dr. Mary L. (Nora) Disis, MD. |

  11. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... look for the gene mutations found in familial medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Because of this, most of the familial cases of MTC can be prevented or treated early by removing the thyroid gland. Once the disease is discovered in a family, the rest of ...

  12. CPFP Summer Curriculum: Molecular Prevention Course | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) one-week course on molecular aspects of cancer prevention follows the Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course. It provides a strong background about molecular biology and genetics of cancer, and an overview of cutting-edge research and techniques in the fields of molecular epidemiology, biomarkers, multi-omic, and translational research. The following topics will be typically presented: |

  13. Preventing Vomiting Caused by Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Cancer Treatment Request Permissions Print to PDF Preventing Vomiting Caused by Cancer Treatment November 2, 2015 ... Torisel) Topotecan (Hycamtin, Brakiva) Trastuzumab (Herceptin) Recommendations for preventing vomiting caused by chemotherapy and targeted therapy The ...

  14. Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is an informational bulletin about the problems associated with access to diagnosis and therapy of cancers in developing countries and the role of the Program of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) of the International Atomic Energy Agency

  15. Clinical Trials Management | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials. Protocol Information Office The central clearinghouse for clinical trials management within the Division of Cancer Prevention.Read more about the Protocol Information Office. | Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials.

  16. Survival in prostate cancer prevention trial detailed

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the NCI-sponsored Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, initial findings from a decade ago showed that the drug finasteride significantly reduced the risk of prostate cancer, but among those who did develop prostate cancer, paradoxically, the drug was asso

  17. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G; Nikolova, D; Simonetti, R G;

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  18. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G;

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  19. Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Harris, MD, MPH, MBA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network is a national network recently established to focus on developing new interventions and disseminating and translating proven interventions into practice to reduce cancer burden and disparities, especially among minority and medically underserved populations. Jointly funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network consists of sites administered through Prevention Research Centers funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The five sites are located in Kentucky, Massachusetts, South Carolina, Texas, Washington State, and West Virginia. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network’s intervention areas include primary prevention of cancer through healthy eating, physical activity, sun avoidance, tobacco control, and early detection of cancer through screening. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network uses the methods of community-based participatory research and seeks to build on the cancer-relevant systematic reviews of the Guide to Community Preventive Services. Initial foci for the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network’s research work groups include projects to increase screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers; to promote informed decision making for prostate cancer screening; and to validate educational materials developed for low-literacy populations.

  1. Prostate and Urologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of prostate and bladder cancer. | Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of prostate, bladder, and skin cancers.

  2. Breast and Gynecologic Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV | Prevention and early detection of breast, cervix, endometrial and ovarian cancers and their precursors.

  3. Preventive plan of action for the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Nanev, Lazar; Mrkev, Petre

    2000-01-01

    Both the overall and individual approach towards the preparation of the Plan of Action on Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency are based on the conception that prevention of juvenile delinquency is a set of ideas, scientifically confirmed and verified theories and standpoints on the ethology and phenomenology of this phenomenon as well as the actions and measures for its prevention and suppression. The prevention of juvenile delinquency is considered to be a system of actions and measures of th...

  4. Action, prevention and epidemiology of paediatric obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, Inge

    2005-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The overall aim of this paper is to describe important issues regarding paediatric obesity as a public health problem. This paper focuses on actions taken, and on the prevalence of obesity in children, teens and adults in Denmark. In addition, the paper describes some important...... prevention studies, all of which are performed outside Denmark. Thus, this paper is not a classical review but rather a highlight of some aspects that the author finds important. The latest Danish national figures show a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity, especially among young men-a sevenfold...... increase from 1987 to 2000 (0.7 to 4.9%). Among young women aged 16-24, the increase is threefold in the same period. Among teens, the prevalence has increased by 2-3 times in recent decades. Nevertheless, compared to other European countries and the US, Denmark has a relatively low prevalence of obesity...

  5. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WHEELER COSETTE M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.

  6. Friday's Agenda | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    TimeAgenda8:00 am - 8:10 amWelcome and Opening RemarksLeslie Ford, MDAssociate Director for Clinical ResearchDivision of Cancer Prevention, NCIEva Szabo, MD Chief, Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research GroupDivision of Cancer Prevention, NCI8:10 am - 8:40 amClinical Trials Statistical Concepts for Non-Statisticians |

  7. Gastric cancer: prevention, risk factors and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zali, Hakimeh; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Azodi, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Cancer starts with a change in one single cell. This change may be initiated by external agents and genetic factors. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and accounts for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year. In this review, different aspects of gastric cancer; including clinical, pathological characteristic of gastric cancer, etiology, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatme...

  8. Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( ... the factors that may affect your risk for breast cancer, and find out what you can do to ...

  9. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevention. No woman should die of cervical cancer. Doctors, nurses, and health systems can: Help women understand what ... Cancer Early Detection Program , Title X Family Planning Doctors, nurses, and health systems can Help women understand which ...

  10. Prevention program of cervical cancer - Enrique Pouey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the first basic objectives in the prevention of cervical cancer in Uruguay. The Papanicolaou test, the biopsia, and the colposcopy are important studies for the early cervical cancer detection

  11. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  12. 2014 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. 2015 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. 2013 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. 2016 News Articles | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Biometry Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Clinical Trials Node | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. News Archives | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Active Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Meetings and Events | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Nutritional Science Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Major Programs | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations, research networks, investigator-initiated grants, postdoctoral training, and specialized resources across the United States. |

  3. Perspectives for Cancer Prevention With Natural Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, A. R. M. Ruhul; KUCUK, Omer; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Dong M Shin

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Despite the estimated 565,650 deaths in 2008 of Americans as a result of cancer, it is mostly a preventable disease. Simply by modification of diet, maintenance of optimum body weight, and regular physical activity, 30% to 40% of all instances of cancer could be prevented. Modification of diet alone by increasing vegetable and fruit intake could prevent 20% or more of all cases of cancer and may potentially prevent approximatel...

  4. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  5. Optimizing mouse models for precision cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Magnen, Clémentine; Dutta, Aditya; Abate-Shen, Cory

    2016-03-01

    As cancer has become increasingly prevalent, cancer prevention research has evolved towards placing a greater emphasis on reducing cancer deaths and minimizing the adverse consequences of having cancer. 'Precision cancer prevention' takes into account the collaboration of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in influencing cancer incidence and aggressiveness in the context of the individual, as well as recognizing that such knowledge can improve early detection and enable more accurate discrimination of cancerous lesions. However, mouse models, and particularly genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models, have yet to be fully integrated into prevention research. In this Opinion article, we discuss opportunities and challenges for precision mouse modelling, including the essential criteria of mouse models for prevention research, representative success stories and opportunities for more refined analyses in future studies. PMID:26893066

  6. How to permanently build up the prevention of occupational cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As about 2 millions of workers are exposed to carcinogenic agents in different industrial sectors, this expert opinion proposes a presentation of the state of the art of the prevention of carcinogenic risks. The different parts address the contribution of experimental and epidemiologic studies to the knowledge and prevention of occupational cancers (sure and possible factors, classifications and regulations), the knowledge of exposures in working environments (exposure modalities and principle of assessment of exposures, traceability and retrospective assessment), the risk management within a company (identification, suppression and substitution, design of work equipment, prevention of exposure for the personnel of subcontracting companies and in the waste and recycling sectors), the evolution from risk perception to risk prevention, the various strategies for action and professional sectors (general regime, prevention policy of the French national fund of prevention for territorial and hospital public services, the taking into charge of cancers as occupational disease by agriculture regimes of social protection), and the taking into care and restorative actions (medical and legal follow up and remedy, taking inequities into account, acknowledgement of occupational cancers in Europe, critical discussion of the European policy on occupational cancer prevention, lessons learned from Giscop93 inquiry)

  7. Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program (Consortia) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five cancer research centers lead multiple collaborative networks to assess potential cancer preventive agents and to conduct early clinical development of promising preventive agents. Also called the Consortia for Early Phase Prevention Trials, the studies require extensive biomarker analysis, investigation of the biologic effects of the cancer preventive agents on their intended molecular targets and on multiple endpoints associated with carcinogenesis, and correlation with clinically relevant endpoints.  | Systematic early clinical development of promising preventive agents through five major medical research centers.

  8. Lifestyle changes for prevention of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Seyed Hesam Bani; Karimi, Samieh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer among women. Lifestyle changes are shown to be important in the prevention of breast cancer. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and vitamin and mineral use are key factors influencing the risk of breast cancer among women. Because these factors are related to each other, it is difficult to assess their individual roles in breast cancer. Some of these factors are alterable, meaning that women can decrease their risk...

  9. Research Networks Map | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.  Five Major Programs' sites are shown on this map. | The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.

  10. Prostate and Urologic Cancer Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Prostate and Urologic Cancer Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Active Prostate and Urologic Cancer Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Pancreatic Cancer Chemoprevention Translational Workshop | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursday, September 10th (6:00 to 9:30 PM) Welcome Barnett Kramer, MD, MPH (6:00 to 6:10 PM) Director of the Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI Introduction – Goals of the Workshop: ABCs of Cancer Prevention (Agents, Biomarkers, Cohorts) Mark Miller, PhD (6:10 to 6:25 PM) Program Director Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI |

  15. Cervical cancer: Can it be prevented?

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Pakhee

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer prevention requires a multipronged approach involving primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The key element under primary prevention is human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. So far, only prophylactic HPV vaccines which prevent HPV infection by one or more subtypes are commercially available. Therapeutic HPV vaccines which aid in clearing established infection are still under trial. Secondary prevention entails early detection of precancerous lesions and its success is...

  16. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  17. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-05

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  18. A Lot of Action, But Not in the Right Direction: Systematic Review and Content Analysis of Smartphone Applications for the Prevention, Detection, and Management of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Jacqueline Lorene; Yue, Rossini Ying Kwan; To, Matthew Jason; Deacken, Laetitia; Jadad, Alejandro R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobile phones have become nearly ubiquitous, offering a promising means to deliver health interventions. However, little is known about smartphone applications (apps) for cancer. Objective The purpose of this study was to characterize the purpose and content of cancer-focused smartphone apps available for use by the general public and the evidence on their utility or effectiveness. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the official application stores for the four major smartp...

  19. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus ( ... can do to decrease your chance of having cervical cancer. Also, tests done by your health care provider ...

  20. PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PREVENT program provides a structure for the introduction of new agents, drugs and vaccines to inhibit, retard or reverse the cancer process. The program was designed to optimize translational opportunities from discovery to the clinic, and provide a mechanism to identify and study efficacy and pharmacodynamics biomarkers that will help in phase II trials to evaluate drug effects.  | Research pipeline for new prevention interventions and biomarkers headed toward clinical trials.

  1. Overview of gastrointestinal cancer prevention in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Lee, Ho-Jae; Yoo, Jun Hwan; Ko, Weon Jin; Cho, Joo Young; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2015-12-01

    "War on cancer" was declared through the National Cancer Act by President Richard Nixon in 1971, but cancer statistics from the American Cancer Society and other sources indicated the failure of this war, suggesting instead focus on the message that a "prevention strategy" might be much more effective than cancer treatment. While cancer statistics notoriously showed sharp increases in incidence as well as in mortality concurrent with economic growth in Asia, fortunately Asian countries benefit from plentiful resources of natural compounds, which can prevent cancer. Just like cancer chemotherapeutics targeted to kill cancer cells in Western countries, natural agents activating molecular mechanisms for cancer prevention, reversion of premalignant tumors, and even ablation of cancer stem cells, are very abundant in Asia. Currently, these natural agents are under very active investigations targeting the hallmarks of cancer prevention, including selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells, suppression of growth factors or their signaling, suppression of cell proliferation and of cancer-promoting angiogenesis, induction of mesenchymal-epithelial transition, and disruption of the tumor microenvironment, developing promising cancer preventive agents. However, Asia is the most populous continent in the world and some Asian countries do not have the resources to implement cancer screening programs for early detection or treatment. In addition, despite the excellent cancer preventive screening strategies in some Asian countries, well-designed clinical trials for cancer prevention are somewhat delayed compared to Western countries. In this review article, several phytochemicals/phytoceuticals produced and studied in different Asian countries will be introduced, including Korean red ginseng (pride of Korea), curcumin (Indian spice for life), black or green tea (popular in Japan/Sri Lanka), genistein from tofu (famous Chinese food), diallylsulfide or S-allylcysteine (garlic

  2. Possibilities for the prevention of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of evidence suggest that the prevention of cancer is a practical possibility: first, our increasing knowledge of the causes of cancer, many of which can be avoided without difficulty, and second, evidence that all common cancers whose causes are still unknown vary in incidence with place, time or social group. Many known causes still exist, however, and are responsible for hundreds of thousands of cases annually throughout the world. Practical possibilities for prevention now and in the near future include changes in personal habits (tobacco, alcohol, diet), control of exposure to known cancer-producing substances (carcinogens) in both industry and the general environment, and immunization against viruses causing cancer. (author)

  3. Pancreatic cancer: Pathogenesis, prevention and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States with a very low survival rate of 5 years. To better design new preventive and/or therapeutic strategies for the fight against pancreatic cancer, the knowledge of the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer at the molecular level is very important. It has been known that the development and the progression of pancreatic cancer are caused by the activation of oncogenes, the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, and the deregulation of many signaling pathways among which the EGFR, Akt, and NF-κB pathways appear to be most relevant. Therefore, the strategies targeting EGFR, Akt, NF-κB, and their downstream signaling could be promising for the prevention and/or treatment of pancreatic cancer. In this brief review, we will summarize the current knowledge regarding the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of pancreatic cancer

  4. Public Health Action Model for Cancer Survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Angela R; Buchanan, Natasha D; Fairley, Temeika L; Lee Smith, Judith

    2015-12-01

    Long-term objectives associated with cancer survivors have been suggested by Healthy People 2020, including increasing the proportion of survivors living beyond 5 years after diagnosis and improving survivors' mental and physical health-related quality of life. Prior to reaching these objectives, several intermediate steps must be taken to improve the physical, social, emotional, and financial well-being of cancer survivors. Public health has a role in developing strategic, actionable, and measurable approaches to facilitate change at multiple levels to improve the lives of survivors and their families. The social ecological model has been used by the public health community as the foundation of multilevel intervention design and implementation, encouraging researchers and practitioners to explore methods that promote internal and external changes at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy levels. The survivorship community, including public health professionals, providers, policymakers, survivors, advocates, and caregivers, must work collaboratively to identify, develop, and implement interventions that benefit cancer survivors. The National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship highlights public health domains and associated strategies that can be the impetus for collaboration between and among the levels in the social ecological model and are integral to improving survivor outcomes. This paper describes the Public Health Action Model for Cancer Survivorship, an integrative framework that combines the National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship with the social ecological model to demonstrate how interaction among the various levels may promote better outcomes for survivors. PMID:26590641

  5. Recent trends in prevention of oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mangalath, Ummar; Aslam, Sachin Aslam; Abdul Khadar, Abdul Hafiz Kooliyat; Francis, Pulikkan George; Mikacha, Muhamed Shaloob Karimbil; Kalathingal, Jubin Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancers often occurs out of long standing potentially malignant lesions and conditions so called premalignant lesions and conditions. Oral precancer is a intermediate state with increased cancer rate which can be recognized and treated obviously with much better prognosis than a full blown malignancy. Oral cancer risk can be lowered or even prevented by simply understanding basic oral hygiene, different bacteria found in the mouth, and how diet influences oral cancers. Currently, researc...

  6. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approac | Conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers.

  7. Vitamin D and prevention of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JoEllen WELSH

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic data have demonstrated that breast cancer incidence is inversely correlated with indices of vitamin D status, including ultraviolet exposure, which enhances epidermal vitamin D synthesis. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is ex-pressed in mammary epithelial cells, suggesting that vitamin D may directly influ-ence sensitivity of the gland to transformation. Consistent with this concept, in vitro studies have demonstrated that the VDR ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), exerts negative growth regulatory effects on mammary epithelial ceils that contribute to maintenance of the differentiated phenotype. Furthermore, deletion of the VDR gene in mice alters the balance between proliferation and apoptosis in the mammary gland, which ultimately enhances its susceptibility to carcinogenesis.In addition, dietary supplementation with vitamin D, or chronic treatment with synthetic VDR agonists, reduces the incidence of carcinogen-induced mammary tumors in rodents. Collectively, these observations have reinforced the need to further define the human requirement for vitamin D and the molecular actions of the VDR in relation to prevention of breast cancer.

  8. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  9. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

  10. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-03-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  11. Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. PACT - IAEA Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) is the IAEA's response to the cancer challenge in developing countries. The long-term objective of PACT is Sustainable National Capacity for Cancer Care. The vision of PACT is to (a) build sustainable national cancer care infrastructure and capacity towards eventual self-sufficiency through South-South and North-South partnerships, (b) systematically plan and build capacity to diagnose and treat all patients with radiosensitive cancers, (c) focus on eliminating all cancer morbidity and mortality from unmet treatment needs among patients for whom radiotherapy is most effective and (d) deploy consistent and predictable resources and processes including investments from private donors to meet these objectives over a 5 to 10 year strategy. After the IAEA Board approval in 2004 the PACT office established early 2005. Engaged substantial steps followed to strategize and operationlise PACT. Public awareness campaign was initiated trough the public service announcements, web site development and national outreach seminars. Engagement with WHO, IARC, PAHO, ACS and others followed. The WHA resolution in May 2005 welcomes PACT and asks for a possible joint WHO-IAEA programme. PACT is being operationalised using specific mechanisms such as 'imPACT' (integrated missions of PACT). The 'imPACT' review will assist governments to review, analyse and formulate National Cancer Strategies and Action Plans for capacity building from prevention through palliation. It will also enable institutions to build and develop human resources and plans for capacity in radiation and nuclear oncology. The results of 'imPACT' will enable governments to work with partners, focus on centres of competence/reference to deliver quality cancer care, raise public awareness of cancer prevention, diagnosis and therapy and apply best practices, expand and continue professional development. The expected outcome will be integrated national strategies, action plans

  13. Analysis on Uncertain Information and Actions for Preventing Collision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡甚平; FANG; Quan-gen

    2007-01-01

    Discusses and analyzes the causes and characteristics of the uncertainties of the information and actions for preventing collision at sea on the basic knowledge of the collision avoidance. Describes the ways and functions of the investigations about the uncertainties of the information and actions of collision avoidance with the navigation simulators. Puts forward some suggestions for the officers to master the skills of the recognition of these uncertainties of the information and actions by the training with the simulator during the MET course.

  14. Kara Smigel Croker | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara Smigel Croker is the Communications Manager for the National Cancer Institute Division of Cancer Prevention. She coordinates and supports all aspects of communication, including media contacts, writing and editing of reports and responses, divisional websites, and social media. |

  15. Immunosuppressants in cancer prevention and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2013-01-01

    Rapalogs such as rapamycin (sirolimus), everolimus, temserolimus, and deforolimus are indicated for the treatment of some malignancies. Rapamycin is the most effective cancer-preventive agent currently known, at least in mice, dramatically delaying carcinogenesis in both normal and cancer-prone murine strains. In addition, rapamycin and everolimus decrease the risk of cancer in patients receiving these drugs in the context of immunosuppressive regimens. In general, the main concern about the ...

  16. Action, prevention and epidemiology of paediatric obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, Inge

    2005-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The overall aim of this paper is to describe important issues regarding paediatric obesity as a public health problem. This paper focuses on actions taken, and on the prevalence of obesity in children, teens and adults in Denmark. In addition, the paper describes some important...... increase from 1987 to 2000 (0.7 to 4.9%). Among young women aged 16-24, the increase is threefold in the same period. Among teens, the prevalence has increased by 2-3 times in recent decades. Nevertheless, compared to other European countries and the US, Denmark has a relatively low prevalence of obesity...

  17. Prevention of cancer and non-communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Geoffrey; Gupta, Prakash; Gomes, Fabio; Kerner, Jon; Parra, William; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Kim, Jeongseon; Moore, Malcolm; Sutcliffe, Catherine; Sutcliffe, Simon

    2012-01-01

    risk of cancer and other non-communicable diseases; 3) the role of infections in modifying the risk of cancer; and 4) the public policies and actions that can be implemented to effectively reduce the risk of cancer at population levels. Workshop discussions highlighted the need for high quality data on the prevalence of modifiable factors in different settings, as well as the social, economic and environmental drivers of these factors, in order to inform prevention and control programs. For some factors, further work needs to be done to develop simple and valid measurement tools. Given that many of these factors are common to both cancer and other non-communicable diseases, cancer prevention should be viewed within the broader perspective of the prevention of non-communicable diseases and should engage all relevant actors, including the general public, health and other professionals, workplaces and institutions, the media, civil society, schools, governments, industry, and multinational bodies. Many policies and plans have been implemented in various settings to control the drivers of modifiable factors and promote health and well-being. Mapping, analysis, and contextualization of those policies that are relevant would be helpful to promote action around cancer prevention in different settings. PMID:22631592

  18. Preventing Second Cancers in Colon Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this phase III trial, people who have had curative surgery for colon cancer will be randomly assigned to take sulindac and a placebo, eflornithine and a placebo, both sulindac and eflornithine, or two placebo pills for 36 months.

  19. Prevention of unethical actions in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solum, Eva Merethe; Slettebø, Ashild; Hauge, Solveig

    2008-07-01

    Ethical problems regularly arise during daily care in nursing homes. These include violation of patients' right to autonomy and to be treated with respect. The aim of this study was to investigate how caregivers emphasize daily dialogue and mutual reflection to reach moral alternatives in daily care. The data were collected by participant observation and interviews with seven caregivers in a Norwegian nursing home. A number of ethical problems linked to 10 patients were disclosed. Moral problems were revealed as the caregivers acted in ways that they knew were against patients' interest. We used a theoretical interpretation according to Habermas' discourse ethics on the importance of dialogue when deciding moral courses of action for patients. This theory has four basic requirements: communicative competence, equality, self-determination, and openness about motives. PMID:18515442

  20. Cervical cancer: Can it be prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pakhee

    2014-10-10

    Cervical cancer prevention requires a multipronged approach involving primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The key element under primary prevention is human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. So far, only prophylactic HPV vaccines which prevent HPV infection by one or more subtypes are commercially available. Therapeutic HPV vaccines which aid in clearing established infection are still under trial. Secondary prevention entails early detection of precancerous lesions and its success is determined by the population coverage and the efficacy of the screening technique. A number of techniques are in use, including cytology, visual inspection (using the naked eye, magnivisualizer, acetic acid and Lugol's iodine), HPV testing and a combination of these methods. Updated screening guidelines have been advocated by the American Cancer Society in light of the role of HPV on cervical carcinogenesis. Recent research has also focussed on novel biomarkers that can predict progression to cancer in screen positive women and help to differentiate those who need treatment from those who can be left for follow-up. Last but not the least, effective treatment of precancerous lesions can help to reduce the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and this constitutes tertiary prevention. A combination of these approaches can help to prevent the burden of cervical cancer and its antecedent morbidity and mortality, but all of these are not feasible in all settings due to resource and allocation constraints. Thus, all countries, especially low and middle income ones, have to determine their own cocktail of approaches that work before we can say with certainty that yes, cervical cancer can be prevented. PMID:25302177

  1. Hereditary colon Cancer: Recommendations for prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevention in individuals with hereditary risk of colon cancer, is subject to clinical and molecular facts because their behavior differs to sporadic cancer. Hereditary cancer diseases affecting the colon in particular linked to other locations or that are associated with pre-cancer (polyps, osteoma s, lentigines) phenotypic markers represent a dissimilar to those who present directly in colorectal cancer status or associated conditions. In the first, the presence of previous injury (phenotypes) allows us to identify, while the latter is essential to have other diagnostic pathway (genotypes) .The location of genomic alterations manages to delve into the problem and identify those who will develop disease. The perspective will be different in the general population and those who do not carry mutations in terms suggestions for prevention, both primary and secondary. Not always the mutation is detected and in these high-risk situations, the clinic is sovereign and agrees to keep all members of these events surveillance strict about not being able to characterize those who are carriers of alterations and our condition is different in the proposition of preventive attitudes: set from when control about which organs and often starts, suffer because of accelerated carcinogenesis. The presentation is focused on populations at increased risk of cancer colorectal, regarding the management of the suggestions for primary prevention, secondary prevention while analyzing the early diagnosis of the disease and the suggestion of treatment, compared to the general population management. Primary prevention, including chemo prevention are described. While in secondary prevention is emphasized to management time tracking, optimization diagnostics according to the pathology suspected, the most common therapeutic approaches and findings relating prophylactic surgery

  2. Scientific Scope | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of developing cancer and to find ways to reduce that risk. Through laboratory, clinical, and epidemiologic research, scientists have shown that the diseases of cancer occur not as single, catastrophic events, but rather as the result of a complex and long-evolving molecular process that can take decades. This long-term process of carcinogenesis provides time and opportunities to slow down, stop, or reverse the cellular changes that can become cancer. | DCP research spans the initiation of cancer and the occurrence of invasive disease in major organ sites. The overall goal is to detect changes and intervene early to prevent symptomatic disease and death.

  3. New Cancer Prevention and Control Central Institutional Review Board Established | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative announced the establishment of the Cancer Prevention and Control (CPC) CIRB January 14, extending the benefits of centralized review to investigators participating in clinical trials sponsored by the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). |

  4. CPFP Summer Curriculum: Principles and Practices of Cancer Prevention and Control Course | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program four-week summer course provides specialized instruction in the principles and practice of cancer prevention and control. Participants will gain a broad-based perspective on concepts, issues, and applications related to this field. The course typically covers the following topics: |

  5. Molecular Link between Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Grant

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as calcitriol, is a biologically active molecule required to maintain the physiological functions of several target tissues in the human body from conception to adulthood. Its molecular mode of action ranges from immediate nongenomic responses to longer term mechanisms that exert persistent genomic effects. The genomic mechanisms of vitamin D action rely on cross talk between 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 signaling pathways and that of other growth factors or hormones that collectively regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and cell survival. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate a role for vitamin D (calcitriol in modulating cellular growth and development. Vitamin D (calcitriol acts as an antiproliferative agent in many tissues and significantly slows malignant cellular growth. Moreover, epidemiological studies have suggested that ultraviolet-B exposure can help reduce cancer risk and prevalence, indicating a potential role for vitamin D as a feasible agent to prevent cancer incidence and recurrence. With the preventive potential of this biologically active agent, we suggest that countries where cancer is on the rise—yet where sunlight and, hence, vitamin D may be easily acquired—adopt awareness, education and implementation strategies to increase supplementation with vitamin D in all age groups as a preventive measure to reduce cancer risk and prevalence.

  6. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the US Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  7. Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that naturally contain vitamin D, such as fatty fish, fish liver oil, and eggs. However, most dietary vitamin ... prostate cancer. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 2005; 97(1–2):31–36. [PubMed Abstract] ...

  8. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjiang Pan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin.

  9. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G.; Nikolova, D.; Simonetti, R.G.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements in preventing gastrointestinal...... Database from inception to October 2007. We scanned reference lists and contacted pharmaceutical companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing antioxidant supplements to placebo/no intervention examining occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors (GB and...... high. Heterogeneity was low to moderate. Antioxidant supplements were without significant effects on gastrointestinal cancers (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.06). However, there was significant heterogeneity (I(2) = 54.0%, P = 0.003). The heterogeneity may have been explained by bias risk (low-bias risk...

  10. Red Wine Polyphenols for Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanjiang Pan; Cuirong Sun; Shan He

    2008-01-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been ...

  11. Prostate Cancer: Current Treatment and Prevention Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fang-zhi; Zhao, Xiao-kun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Prostate cancer is one of the life threatening disorders of male. Although, over the last two decades, a high rate of overdiagnosis, and overtreatment has lowered the incidence rate of prostate cancer, the treatment or prevention strategies are not enough to control the high rate of disease related mortality. Current medical treatment approaches include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, cryosurgery and other methods. These approaches are more or less effecti...

  12. Flavin-Dependent Enzymes in Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Wojcieszyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistical studies have demonstrated that various agents may reduce the risk of cancer’s development. One of them is activity of flavin-dependent enzymes such as flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOGS-OX1, FAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and flavin-dependent monoamine oxidase. In the last decade, many papers concerning their structure, reaction mechanism and role in the cancer prevention were published. In our work, we provide a more in-depth analysis of flavin-dependent enzymes and their contribution to the cancer prevention. We present the actual knowledge about the glucosinolate synthesized by flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOGS-OX1 and its role in cancer prevention, discuss the influence of mutations in FAD-dependent 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase on the cancer risk, and describe FAD as an important cofactor for the demethylation of histons. We also present our views on the role of riboflavin supplements in the prevention against cancer.

  13. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted. PMID:22583406

  14. Preventing aggressive prostate cancer with proven cardiovascular disease preventive methods

    OpenAIRE

    Moyad, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been the number one cause of death in the U.S. for 114 of the last 115 years. Risk factors for prostate cancer have primarily mirrored risk proven risk factors for CVD, especially aggressive disease. Obesity, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, metabolic syndrome, unhealthy dietary habits or caloric excess, lack of physical activity, and inflammation are just some of these shared risk factors. The evidence also suggests proven CVD preventive measures are identi...

  15. Two Outstanding Investigator Awards Go to Division of Cancer Prevention Grantees | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI's Outstanding Investigator Award supports accomplished leaders in cancer research, who are providing significant contributions toward understanding cancer and developing applications that may lead to a breakthrough in biomedical, behavioral, or clinical cancer research. The Award provides up to $600,000 in direct costs per year for 7 years, allowing substantial time for funded investigators to take greater risks and be more adventurous in their research. Two of these awards have been made to Division of Cancer Prevention investigators: |

  16. Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention: Insights from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT)

    OpenAIRE

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Dunn, Barbara K

    2013-01-01

    The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) was conducted to assess the efficacy of selenium and vitamin E alone, and in combination, on the incidence of prostate cancer. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial found that neither selenium nor vitamin E reduced the incidence of prostate cancer after seven years and that vitamin E was associated with a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer compared to placebo. The null result was ...

  17. BRCA1: a movement toward cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alli, Elizabeth; Ford, James M

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) was first identified in 1994 and has since been shown to encode a tumor suppressor protein that maintains genetic stability through DNA damage response pathways. Carriers of mutations in BRCA1 are predisposed to breast and ovarian cancer; however, their cancers lack the targets for existing anticancer drugs. We describe a novel chemoprevention approach that uses DNA repair-activating agents to enhance the repair of oxidative DNA damage and, in turn, prevent tumorigenesis in the presence of mutant BRCA1. PMID:27308455

  18. Preventive Care in Older Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Lisa M.; Ouellet, Jennifer Andreozzi; Dale, William; Fan, Lin; Mohile, Supriya Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study factors that influence receipt of preventive care in older cancer survivors. Methods We analyzed a nationally representative sample of 12,458 older adults from the 2003 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Factors associated with non-receipt of preventive care were explored among cancer and non-cancer survivors, using logistic regression. Results Among cancer survivors, 1,883 were diagnosed >one year at survey completion. A cancer history was independently associated with receipt of mammogram (AOR=1.57, 95%CI=1.34–1.85), flu shot (AOR=1.33, 95%CI=1.16–1.53), measurement of total cholesterol in the previous six months (AOR=1.20, 95%CI=1.07–1.34), pneumonia vaccination (AOR=1.33, 95%CI=1.18–1.49), bone mineral density (BMD) testing (AOR=1.38, 95%CI=1.21–1.56) and lower endoscopy (AOR=1.46, 95%CI=1.29–1.65). However, receipt of preventive care was not optimal among older cancer survivors with only 51.2% of female cancer survivors received a mammogram, 63.8% of all cancer survivors received colonoscopy, and 42.5% had BMD testing. Among cancer survivors, factors associated with non-receipt of mammogram included age ≥85 years (AOR=0.43, 95%CI=0.26–0.74) and scoring ≥three points on the Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (AOR=0.94, 95%CI=0.80–1.00). Factors associated with non-receipt of colonoscopy included low education (AOR=0.43, 95%CI=0.27–0.68) and rural residence (AOR=0.51, 95%CI=0.34–0.77). Factors associated with non-receipt of BMD testing included age ≥70 (AOR=0.59, 95%CI=0.39–0.90), African American race (AOR=0.51, 95%CI=0.27–0.95), low education (AOR=0.23, 95%CI=0.14–0.38) and rural residence (AOR=0.43, 95%CI=0.27–0.70). Conclusion Although older cancer survivors are more likely to receive preventive care services than other older adults, the prevalence of receipt of preventive care services is low. PMID:25547206

  19. Protocol Information Office | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIO Instructions and ToolsFind instructions, forms, and templates for the management of all types of Division of Cancer Prevention clinical trials.Clinical Trials Reference MaterialsModel clinical agreements, human subject protection and informed consent models, gender and minority inclusion information, and monitoring policy and guidelines. |

  20. Steps You Can Take to Prevent Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-02

    This podcast discusses the main steps people can take to reduce their risk of getting cancer.  Created: 2/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/2/2012.

  1. Probiotics, prebiotics and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambalam, Padma; Raman, Maya; Purama, Ravi Kiran; Doble, Mukesh

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third major cause of mortality among various cancer types in United States, has been increasing in developing countries due to varying diet and dietary habits and occupational hazards. Recent evidences showed that composition of gut microbiota could be associated with the development of CRC and other gut dysbiosis. Modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics and prebiotics, either alone or in combination could positively influence the cross-talk between immune system and microbiota, would be beneficial in preventing inflammation and CRC. In this review, role of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention of CRC has been discussed. Various epidemiological and experimental studies, specifically gut microbiome research has effectively improved the understanding about the role of probiotics and microbial treatment as anticarcinogenic agents. A few human studies support the beneficial effect of probiotics and prebiotics; hence, comprehensive understanding is urgent to realize the clinical applications of probiotics and prebiotics in CRC prevention. PMID:27048903

  2. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program Application Period is Open until August 25 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application period for the NCI Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) is open. Since 1987, CPFP has provided funding support for post-doctoral Fellows to train the next generation of researchers and leaders in the field. |

  3. Networks for prevention of violence: from utopia to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathie Njaine

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the experience of networks for the protection of people exposed to situations of violence or prevention networks. It is based on the concept created by Castells, who defines the information age. This study is part of the investigation "Successful experiences in the prevention of violence", carried out by the Latin-American Center for Studies on Violence Jorge Careli/ENSP-IFF/Fiocruz, in cooperation with the Secretariat for Health Survey of the Ministry of Health. The article analyzes the possibilities and limitations in the construction of networks for the prevention of violence, seeking to understand the sense of actions and movements carried out in networks. The method we used is a case study of two network initiatives in the Southern region of the country. In terms of results, in face of the difficulties of working in networks, we found it to be necessary: to break with sectorial and vertical actions; to promote constant communication and interchange of information; to permanently train the professionals and persons involved in the network, incorporating them into the protective and preventive actions; and to promote the participation of wide social sectors. In conclusion, one can affirm that the construction of a protection network involves complex steps, looking to the same problem with new eyes and a new vision for planting solutions.

  4. [Primary prevention of urologic tumors: prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz-Dräger, B J; Lümmen, G; Bismarck, E; Fischer, C

    2011-10-01

    Assessment of the role of vitamins and micronutrients in the primary prevention of prostate cancer has changed dramatically in the past 10 years. Efforts to confirm the efficacy of a single substance have not yet succeeded. Therefore, such recommendations should at present no longer be given. Consideration could even be given to discussing whether additional large-scale interventional studies are expedient in this regard. There is still solid evidence that a well-balanced moderate diet, reduced consumption of milk products, and an Asian or Mediterranean diet are not only beneficial for general good health but can also prevent the development of prostate cancer. This should be the focus of further epidemiological studies. Thus, one can certainly speak of a paradigm shift in the prevention of prostate cancer. In contrast, available data on chemoprevention with 5α-reductase inhibitors is unequivocal: intake of finasteride as well as dutasteride correlates with significantly decreased evidence for prostate cancer. Converting this result into urologic practice remains the topic of extensive controversy. PMID:21927877

  5. The frustrations of online students. Causes and preventative actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Borges Sáiz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The frustrations of online students, which are the result of repeated, serious and problematic situations, have not been studied sufficiently to date. Indeed, the consequences of student's frustrations can lead to a load that has to be borne by all the agents involved in the e-learning: students, teachers and institutions.This study highlights the inadequate actions, or complete lack thereof, in terms of each of the agents involved in e-learning, which lead to frustration and serious problems for the student in carrying out their activities. It also provides a list of useful actions to help prevent the causes of frustration identified.

  6. Rosemary and cancer prevention: preclinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Suong N T; Williams, Desmond B; Head, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in Australia. Nutrition, particularly intake of vegetables and certain plant components, has been reported to have a major role in cancer risk reduction. Recently, there has been a growing research interest in rosemary, a common household plant grown in many parts of the world. This study aims to review scientific evidence from all studies, published from 1996 to March 2010 that examined the protective effects of rosemary on colorectal cancer and other types of cancer. Literature evidence from animal and cell culture studies demonstrates the anticancer potential of rosemary extract, carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid. No evidence for other rosemary constituents was found. The reported anticancer properties were found to arise through the molecular changes in the multiple-stage process of cancer development, which are dose related and not tissue or species specific. This is evidenced by the ability of rosemary to suppress the development of tumors in several organs including the colon, breast, liver, stomach, as well as melanoma and leukemia cells. The results suggested that the different molecular targets modulated by rosemary and its active constituents are useful indicators of success in clinical cancer chemo-prevention trials. PMID:21955093

  7. Cancer preventive role of selected dietary factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Amitabha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary behavior seems to be an important modifiable determinant for the risk of cancer. The evidences from several epidemiological studies suggest that higher intakes of fruits and vegetables have been associated with lower risk of cancer. Dietary phenolic and polyphenolic substances, terpenoids, dietary fibers, fish oils, some micronutrients present in foods of both plant and animal origin, and a reduction of caloric intake appear to inhibit the process of cancer development. Many dietary factors possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and cause induction of phase II enzymes like glutathione-S-transferases. It has been suggested that cruciferous vegetables play an important role in cancer prevention, and their chemopreventive effects are due to high glucosinolate content which under enzymatic hydrolysis produces bioactive compound isothiocyanates. Further, isothiocyanates of a wide variety of cruciferous vegetables are powerful inhibitors of carcinogenesis in experimental animal models. Several flavonoids present in fruits, tea, soya beans, etc. may be useful as cancer preventive agents. Similarly, ellagic acid, perillyl alcohol and resveratrol found in various fruits may have chemoprotective effect. Moreover, different vanilloids such as curcumin and gingerol have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. Nevertheless, in spite of several studies, still the effects of various ingredients are not clearly distinguished. In human, little convincing evidence has been established for the proposed protective effects of dietary constituents. It is an important future research goal to provide necessary evidences to support the chemopreventive role of different dietary factors, and also to clarify misunderstandings in this perplexing area.

  8. Potential Targets for Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shamseddine

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The step-wise development of colorectal neoplasia from adenoma to carcinoma suggests that specific interventions could delay or prevent the development of invasive cancer. Several key factors involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis have already been identified including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, survivin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I. Clinical trials of COX-2 inhibitors have provided the “proof of principle” that inhibition of this enzyme can prevent the formation of colonic adenomas and potentially carcinomas, however concerns regarding the potential toxicity of these drugs have limited their use as a chemopreventative strategy. Curcumin, resveratrol and quercetin are chemopreventive agents that are able to suppress multiple signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis and hence are attractive candidates for further research.

  9. Should Male Circumcision be Advocated for Genital Cancer Prevention?

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Brian J.; Mindel, Adrian; Tobian, Aaron AR; Hankins, Catherine A.; Ronald H Gray; Bailey, Robert C.; Bosch, Xavier; Wodak, Alex D

    2012-01-01

    The recent policy statement by the Cancer Council of Australia on infant circumcision and cancer prevention and the announcement that the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine will be made available for boys in Australia prompted us to provide an assessment of genital cancer prevention. While HPV vaccination of boys should help reduce anal cancer in homosexual men and cervical cancer in women, it will have little or no impact on penile or prostate cancer. Male circumcision can reduc...

  10. Personalizing Lung Cancer Prevention Through a Reverse Migration Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Kathryn A.; Kim, Edward S.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Hong, Waun K.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer in the United States and worldwide. Tobacco use is the one of the primary causes of lung cancer and smoking cessation is an important step towards prevention, but patients who have quit smoking remain at risk for lung cancer. Finding pharmacologic agents to prevent lung cancer could potentially save many lives. Unfortunately, despite extensive research, there are no known effective chemoprevention agents for lung cancer. Clinical trials in the past, using a...

  11. Prevention of breast cancer in women with diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Dinah Sá Rezende Neta; Tailane Maria Araújo Fontenele; Grazielle Roberta Freitas da Silva; Kamila Cristiane de Oliveira Silva; Judite Oliveira Lima Albuquerque

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine the preventive actions of women with diabetes mellitus in the fight against breast cancer. It is a descriptive and exploratory study, with a quantitative approach, carried out in a Health Centre located in Teresina-PI, with 45 diabetic women. The results revealed an average age of 61 years. Characterized in different groups, such as mulatto (51.1%), retired (35.6%) or housewives (35.6%), with up to three years of study (64.4%) married / stable uni...

  12. A multifaceted perspective on skin cancer prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Reinau, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation has been acknowledged as the main culprit for the three major types of skin cancer which are among the most numerous (basal cell carcinoma [BCC], squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]) and most dangerous (cutaneous malignant melanoma) malignancies in Caucasian populations. The present thesis comprises six individual projects providing a multifaceted perspective on the prevention of these tumours. Project I evaluated a school-based sun safety educat...

  13. About the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention.Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials ProgramThe group jointly administers the Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program evaluating new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and technologies to identify premalignant lesions, and related cancers.  |

  14. ROLE OF LYCOPENE IN PREVENTING PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Tami Budirejeki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer in the United States in 2003. Prostate cancer is the second cause of death after lung cancer. The possibility of a man suffering from prostate cancer is about 3 %. Increasing age is the main risk factor for this disease. Eighty percent of prostate cancer patients aged over 65 years. Prostate cancer occurs due to accumulation of DNA damage. There are various mechanisms that cause DNA damage, one of them is due to oxidative stress. Imbalance levels of free radicals and antioxidant in tissues causes oxidative stress. Antioxidants are substance that has ability to neutralize free radicals. One of the powerful antioxidant is lycopene. It is belived have ability to prevent prostate cancer. Various studies and reviews have been conducted to determine the role of lycopene in the prevention of prostate cancer. Although most studies have found an association between the consumption of foods that contain lycopene with a reduced risk of prostate cancer, but few studies have found no such relationship. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  15. Cancer precursors epidemiology, detection, and prevention

    CERN Document Server

    Rohan, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic advances in our understanding of cancer causation have come from epidemiologic and laboratory research, particularly over the past two decades. These developments have included a broadening interest in the critical events that take place during the early stages of the dynamic multistep process leading to - vasive cancer. Increasingly, cancer epidemiologists are pursuing research into the origins and natural history of premalignant lesions, including intermediate or surrogate endpoints, a trend - celerated by the development of molecular technologies that are revolutionizing our understanding of the transformation of normal to malignant cells. There seems little doubt that this emerging knowledge will provide further insights not only into carcinogenic processes, but also into more sensitive methods of early detection and more effective means of prevention. In this book, Drs. Franco and Rohan have succeeded in prep- ing a comprehensive, timely, and critical review of the substantial progress that has ...

  16. Photocarcinogenesis and Skin Cancer Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebode, Christina; Lehmann, Janin; Emmert, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    In this review the basic principles of UV-induced carcinogenesis are summarized and the state of the art diagnosis and therapeutic strategies are discussed. The prevalent keratinocyte-derived neoplasms of the skin are basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Cutaneous melanoma is less frequent but associated with high mortality. Common risk factors for all three tumor entities include sun exposure and DNA-repair deficiencies. Photocarcinogenesis follows a multistep model of cancer development in which ultraviolet-induced DNA damage leads to mutations resulting in activation of oncogenes or silencing of tumor-suppressor genes. This ends in a cellular mutator phenotype even more prone to mutation acquisition. DNA repair, especially the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, counteracts mutation formation and skin cancer development. This is vividly demonstrated by the NER-defective disorder xeroderma pigmentosum. Primary skin cancer preventative strategies, therefore, include reduction of DNA photodamage by protection from the sun. Secondary preventative strategies include skin cancer screening. This implies standard examination techniques with the naked eye, an epiluminescence microscope, or digital epiluminescence microscopy. More advanced techniques include confocal laser scan microscopy. PMID:26977038

  17. Potential role of probiotics on colorectal cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uccello Mario

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer represents the most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract. Owing to differences in dietary habits and lifestyle, this neoplasm is more common in industrialized countries than in developing ones. Evidence from a wide range of sources supports the assumption that the link between diet and colorectal cancer may be due to an imbalance of the intestinal microflora. Discussion Probiotic bacteria are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a healthy benefit on the host, and they have been investigated for their protective anti-tumor effects. In vivo and molecular studies have displayed encouraging findings that support a role of probiotics in colorectal cancer prevention. Summary Several mechanisms could explain the preventive action of probiotics against colorectal cancer onset. They include: alteration of the intestinal microflora; inactivation of cancerogenic compounds; competition with putrefactive and pathogenic microbiota; improvement of the host’s immune response; anti-proliferative effects via regulation of apoptosis and cell differentiation; fermentation of undigested food; inhibition of tyrosine kinase signaling pathways.

  18. Joint Action European Partnership for Action Against Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jelenc, Marjetka; Van Hoof, Elke; Albreht, Tit; Meglič, Matic; Seljak, Marija; Krnel, Sandra Radoš

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a major European public health issue and represents the second most important cause of death and morbidity in Europe. Moreover, as a result of constant advances in medicine, medical technology and other sciences, and due to improvements in economic circumstances, cancer survival rates are increasing in Europe and prevalent cases (i.e. number of subjects who have experienced cancer) represent a growing proportion of the population. In order to tackle cancer efficiently throughout the...

  19. Role of Vitamin E in Prevention of Oral Cancer:-A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Iqubal, Md. Asad; Khan, Mobeen; Kumar, Prabhakar; Kumar, Anjani; Ajai, Kratika

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the major global threads to public health. The development of oral cancer is tobacco related mainly. Vitamin-E can inhibit reaction of the tobacco specific nitrosamine which undergoes specific activation, detoxification process. Dietary substitute such as vitamin-E can prevent oral cancer at a very early stage that is in premalignant lesions, in premalignant conditions. Main action of vitamin E includes increase immunity, controls free radicals mediated cell disturbances...

  20. Dance as a therapy for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Gurbuz; Ogce, Filiz

    2005-01-01

    Even though the field of medicine has developed tremendously, the wide variety of cancer is still among chronic and life threatening disease today. Therefore, the specialists constantly research and try every possible way to find cure or preventive ways to stop its further development. For this reason, studies concerning the chronic disease such as cancer have been spread to many different fields. In this regard, many other alternative ways besides medicine, are used in prevention of cancer. Nutritional therapy, herbal therapy, sportive activities, art therapy, music therapy, dance therapy, imagery, yoga and acupuncture can be given as examples. Among these, dance/movement therapy which deals with individuals physical, emotional, cognitive as well as social integration is widely used as a popular form of physical activity. The physical benefits of dance therapy as exercise are well documented. Studies have shown that physical activity is known to increase special neurotransmitter substances in the brain (endorphins), which create a state of well-being. And total body movement such as dance enhances the functions of other body systems, such as circulatory, respiratory, skeletal, and muscular systems. Regarding its unique connection to the field of medicine, many researches have been undertaken on the effects of dance/movement therapy in special settings with physical problems such as amputations, traumatic brain injury, and stroke, chronic illnesses such as anorexia, bulimia, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, asthma, AIDS, and arthritis. Today dance/movement therapy is a well recognized form of complementary therapy used in hospitals as well as at the comprehensive clinical cancer centres. PMID:16236009

  1. General population and HIV prevention: from risk to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paicheler Geneviève

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Since knowledge about AIDS transmission now appears to be very good, many observers are surprised that more people do not practice behavior, like safer sex, designed to minimize risk of contracting the disease. Still, previous studies have not shown that there is a direct link between knowledge and behavior. New models, based on people's concrete experiences, are therefore needed. The goal of this qualitative research, based on 61 in-depth interviews conducted in France, is to describe how people understand the threat of AIDS and how they face the risk of transmission in their sex lives. In order to understand preventive actions, we must study how information is interpreted and how knowledge is integrated, so that people perceive general or personal risk. We must also specify the way in which people distinguish between aspects of risk perception and vulnerability; feelings of personal control, constructed on the basis of social experiences; characteristics of situations; and finally, the dynamics of action. The proposed risk management model accounts for these diverse factors in elucidating the great diversity of actions reported. This dynamic, non-linear model is designed to capture both the impact of perceptive and cognitive elements on action and vice versa.

  2. EDUCATIONAL ACTIONS TO PREVENT DENGUE: EXPERIENCES AND STRATEGIES WITH ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamaria Rodrigues Garcia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Describe the activities performed on apublic specialized ambulatory care for dengue prevention among elderly. Case report: the epidemiological outlook of dengue is scaring being characterized as a public health problem. The elderly are most at risk for hospitalization and severe forms of the disease, thus health education activities are essential to improve awareness of the need to fight and prevent the disease. A Health Education project was created, evolving communication strategies to raise awareness on the issue. They were performed by a post graduate Gerontology group in activities such as interactive puppet show, myths and truths dynamic, informative folder, parody, posters, training seniors, caregivers and family members, internal and external health professionals, staff and residents of nearby long term care facilities. The materials were available in print and digital version. 2,500 elderly and 350 professionals were trained and encouraged to multiply the information and inspire adoption of preventive measures. The actions provided intergenerational interaction and empowerment of the elderly, whom trained, had the opportunity to exercise social participation and disseminate recommendations for other users. Conclusion: the project enabled the construction of knowledge through interactive educational activities that contributed to strengthen the individual and collective awareness, awareopinion leaderstothe importance of communication/education in the fight against dengue, which emphasized social responsibility in rescuing citizenship in a perspective thateach citizen is responsible for himself and for community. DESCRIPTORS: Dengue. Aged. Disease prevention. Health education.

  3. [Experience of stroke prevention-Enlightenment for cancer research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Weicheng

    2015-08-01

    Cancer, stroke and heart diseases are most common causes of death. This paper summarized the experience of stroke prevention, which is an enlightenment for cancer research. In addition, this paper also described the progress of cancer epidemiological research, particular the primary and second preventions in China. PMID:26733022

  4. Integrated Assessment of Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Desertification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, S.; Orr, B. J.; Vallejo, R.

    2009-12-01

    Recent advances in desertification and land degradation research have provided valuable conceptual and analytical frameworks, degradation indicators, assessment tools and surveillance systems with respect to desertification drivers, processes, and impacts. These findings, together with stakeholders’ perceptions and local/regional knowledge, have helped to define and propose measures and strategies to combat land degradation. However, integrated and comprehensive assessment and evaluation of prevention and restoration strategies and techniques to combat desertification is still lacking, and knowledge on the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the proposed strategies over a wide range of environmental and socio-economic conditions is very scarce. To address this challenge, we have launched a multinational project (PRACTICE - Prevention and Restoration Actions to Combat Desertification. An Integrated Assessment), funded by the European Commission, in order to link S & T advances and traditional knowledge on prevention and restoration practices to combat desertification with sound implementation, learning and adaptive management, knowledge sharing, and dissemination of best practices. The key activities for pursuing this goal are (1) to establish a platform and information system of long-term monitoring sites for assessing sustainable management and actions to combat desertification, (2) to define an integrated protocol for the assessment of these actions, and (3) to link project assessment and evaluation with training and education, adaptive management, and knowledge sharing and dissemination through a participatory approach involving scientists, managers, technicians, financial officers, and members of the public who are/were impacted by the desertification control projects. Monitoring sites are distributed in the Mediterranean Europe (Greece, Italy, Spain, and Portugal), Africa (Morocco, Namibia, South Africa), Middle East (Israel), China, and South and North

  5. "Cancer--Educate to Prevent"--high-school teachers, the new promoters of cancer prevention education campaigns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Barros

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and thus represents a priority for national public health programs. Prevention has been assumed as the best strategy to reduce cancer burden, however most cancer prevention programs are implemented by healthcare professionals, which constrain range and educational impacts. We developed an innovative approach for cancer prevention education focused on high-school biology teachers, considered privileged mediators in the socialization processes. A training program, "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" was applied, so that the teachers were able to independently develop and implement prevention campaigns focused on students and school-related communities. The program encompassed different educational modules, ranging from cancer biology to prevention campaigns design. Fifty-four teachers were empowered to develop and implement their own cancer prevention campaigns in a population up to five thousands students. The success of the training program was assessed through quantitative evaluation--questionnaires focused on teachers' cancer knowledge and perceptions, before the intervention (pre-test and immediately after (post-test. The projects developed and implemented by teachers were also evaluated regarding the intervention design, educational contents and impact on the students' knowledge about cancer. This study presents and discusses the results concerning the training program "Cancer, Educate to Prevent" and clearly shows a significant increase in teacher's cancer literacy (knowledge and perceptions and teachers' acquired proficiency to develop and deliver cancer prevention campaigns with direct impact on students' knowledge about cancer. This pilot study reinforces the potential of high-school teachers and schools as cancer prevention promoters and opens a new perspective for the development and validation of cancer prevention education strategies, based upon focused interventions in restricted

  6. [Significance of precision medicine in pancreatic cancer prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C F

    2016-03-23

    The morbidity and mortality of pancreatic cancer has been increasing year by year, however, the treatment progress and prevention effect were minimal. With the development of basic research, especially the advances of gene sequencing technology, it was possible to clarify the etiology and pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer, and achieve the first stage prevention. The discovery of pancreatic cancer exosomes of high sensitivity and specificity made early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (the second stage prevention) no longer a worldwide problem. The build of pancreatic cancer genotyping with clinical applicability made the precision treatment of pancreatic cancer (the third stage prevention) possible. Thus, the precision medicine which is based on advances of gene sequencing, popularity of the Internet and the big data technology has brought a ray of hope for the prevention and treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:26988819

  7. Study Hints At HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159696.html Study Hints at HPV Vaccine's Cancer Prevention Promise Fewer ... that can lead to cervical cancer, a new study shows. Canadian researchers found that young women who ...

  8. Biometry Meetings and Events | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Nutritional Science Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Diet and Cancer Prevention: Separating Fact from Myth

    OpenAIRE

    Bright-See, Elizabeth

    1985-01-01

    Public belief about the role of diet in cancer ranges from the opinion that cancer is genetically determined through to the idea that a specific diet will prevent all cancer. This article examines current knowledge about food additives, vitamins and nutritional pharmacology in relation to present knowledge of cancer incidence.

  11. Grant R01NS046606 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA138800 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA107408 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R21CA184788 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant U01DK048375 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA161534 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R21CA182111 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R03CA121827 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01NR014068 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant U01DK048377 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant U01DK048349 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R21CA185460 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01EB019337 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Active Nutritional Science Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Nutritional Science Meetings and Events | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Nutritional Science Funding Opportunities | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Towards research-tested smartphone applications for preventing breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Steven S; Thind, Herpreet; Liu, Benyuan; Wilson, Lt Col Candy

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to prevent breast cancer and other chronic illnesses have focused on promoting physical activity, healthy diet and nutrition, and avoidance of excessive alcohol consumption. Smartphone applications (apps) offer a low-cost, effective strategy for breast cancer prevention in women through behavioral change. However, there are currently no research-tested smartphone apps for breast cancer prevention that are suitable for women with varying levels of health literacy and eHealth literacy. ...

  8. Cancer Prevention Health Services Research: An Emerging Field

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hui; Tektiridis, Jennifer H.; Zhang, Ning; Chamberlain, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    In October 2009, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center hosted a symposium, “Future Directions in Cancer Prevention and Control: Workforce Implications for Training, Practice, and Policy.” This article summarizes discussions and an Internet and literature review by the symposium's Health Services Infrastructure Working Group. We agree on the need for the recognition of Cancer Prevention Health Services Research (CP-HSR) as a unified research field. With advances in cancer screening...

  9. CANCER IS PREVENTABLE- LET US TRY OUR LEVEL BEST

    OpenAIRE

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a chronic disease and the prevalence is increasing at a faster rate in recent years. Most of the cancers are incurable, treatment is very expensive and is not affordable even for above middle-class people. A strong correlation is observed between lifestyle factors and cancer incidence or prevention. Let us know about cancer prevention lifestyle focussing mainly on the role of physical activity and diet. Most of the people leading sedentary life style. There is an overall decline in ...

  10. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  11. Lay Representations of Cancer Prevention and Early Detection: Associations With Prevention Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen W. Sullivan, PhD, MPH

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe Common Sense Model of illness representations posits that how people think about an illness affects how they try to prevent the illness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prevention representations vary by cancer type (colon, lung, and skin cancer and whether representations are associated with relevant behaviors.MethodsWe analyzed data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 2005, a nationally representative survey of American adults (N = 5,586 conducted by telephone interview.ResultsRespondents reported that all 3 types of cancer can be prevented through healthy behaviors; however, fewer did so for colon cancer. More respondents reported screening as a prevention strategy for colon cancer than did so for lung or skin cancer. Representations were associated with colon cancer screening, smoking status, and sunscreen use.ConclusionRepresentations of cancer were associated with relevant health behaviors, providing a target for health messages and interventions.

  12. Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Funding Opportunities | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Active Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Significant cancer prevention factor extraction: an association rule discovery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Jesmin; Tickle, Kevin S; Ali, A B M Shawkat; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe

    2011-06-01

    Cancer is increasing the total number of unexpected deaths around the world. Until now, cancer research could not significantly contribute to a proper solution for the cancer patient, and as a result, the high death rate is uncontrolled. The present research aim is to extract the significant prevention factors for particular types of cancer. To find out the prevention factors, we first constructed a prevention factor data set with an extensive literature review on bladder, breast, cervical, lung, prostate and skin cancer. We subsequently employed three association rule mining algorithms, Apriori, Predictive apriori and Tertius algorithms in order to discover most of the significant prevention factors against these specific types of cancer. Experimental results illustrate that Apriori is the most useful association rule-mining algorithm to be used in the discovery of prevention factors. PMID:20703554

  16. Estrogens and Prostate Cancer: Etiology, Mediators, Prevention, and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shuk-Mei; Lee, Ming-tsung; Lam, Hung-Ming; Leung, Yuet-Kin

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between hormones and the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa) has been studied extensively. All the mainstay targets for hormonal PCa therapies are based on negating androgen action. Recent epidemiologic and experimental data have clearly pinpointed the key roles of estrogens in PCa development and progression. Racial and geographical differences, as well as age-associated changes, in estrogen synthesis and metabolism contribute significantly to the etiology by increasing the ratio of circulating estrogen to androgen, sex hormone binding globulin synthesis, and aromatase activity and reducing androgen glucuronidation and tissue bioactivation. Promotion of aberrant cell growth, evasion of apoptosis, increased oxidative stress and inflammation, and gains in adiposity and bioactivation to genotoxic carcinogens during adulthood are probable mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenicity, while “estrogen imprinting” via epigenetics in early-life also determines PCa risk. Although the effects of estrogens are known to be mediated by genomic actions of the two estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes (ERα and ERβ), other non-canonical mediators, including the different ERβ isoforms, membrane and mitochondrial ERs, and G protein-coupled receptor 30, may have major actions diverging from classical ER actions. These new discoveries have led to renewed interest among the public and the medicinal field in estrogens and antiestrogens as singular and adjuvant PCa treatment and prevention regimens. This review summarizes current knowledge on how different estrogens/antiestrogens/estrogen mimics contribute to prostate carcinogenesis, the roles of the different mediators of estrogen in the process, and the potentials of new estrogenic/antiestrogenic compounds as targeted therapies for prevention and treatment of PCa. PMID:21889723

  17. Selenium and Prostate Cancer Prevention: Insights from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly L. Nicastro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT was conducted to assess the efficacy of selenium and vitamin E alone, and in combination, on the incidence of prostate cancer. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial found that neither selenium nor vitamin E reduced the incidence of prostate cancer after seven years and that vitamin E was associated with a 17% increased risk of prostate cancer compared to placebo. The null result was surprising given the strong preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting chemopreventive activity of selenium. Potential explanations for the null findings include the agent formulation and dose, the characteristics of the cohort, and the study design. It is likely that only specific subpopulations may benefit from selenium supplementation; therefore, future studies should consider the baseline selenium status of the participants, age of the cohort, and genotype of specific selenoproteins, among other characteristics, in order to determine the activity of selenium in cancer prevention.

  18. Mechanisms of action of leptin in preventing gastric ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edward O. Adeyemi; Salim A. Bastaki; Irwin S. Chandranath; Mohammed Y. Hasan; Mohammed Fahim; Abdu Adem

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of leptin (1-20 μg/kg) on acidified ethanol (AE)- and indomethacin (Indo)-induced gastric lesions in rats and compare it with ranitidine, lansoprazole, and omeprazole and to determine its mechanisms of actions.METHODS: Gastric ulcers, which were approximately 1 mm in width, formed in the glandular portion of the gastric mucosa produced by oral administration of either AE or Indo were taken as ulcer index. The inhibitory effect of subcutaneous administration of leptin, two proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) lansoprazole and omeprazole, or H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine 30 min before AE or Indo was evaluated.A radioimmunoassay was used to determine the PGE2concentration in the homogenate of the glandular portion of the stomach. We performed histological study of the glandular stomach for the evaluation of total, acidic, and sulfated mucus content.RESULTS: Subcutaneous administration of leptin, two PPIs lansoprazole and omeprazole or H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine 30 min before AE or Indo produced a dosedependent and reproducible inhibition of gastric ulcers (GUs). This inhibition was found to be more potent than other antagonists used. In NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-pretreated animals, the ulcer prevention ability of leptin in AE-induced ulcer was significantly reduced,compared to rats without L-NAME pretreatment. However,the ulcer prevention ability of leptin was not altered by L-NAME treatment in Indo-induced ulcers. Leptin produced a dose-dependent increase in PGE2 level in the gastric glandular tissues. Leptin also increased mucus secretion.CONCLUSION: The results of the present study show that leptin inhibits GU formation by AE or Indo in a dosedependent and reproducible manner in rats. The results also suggest that leptin prevents ulcer formation by increasing the activities of the cyclo-oxygenase and/or nitric oxide pathways and by increasing mucus secretion.

  19. Brochure on Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT): Building partnerships to stop the global cancer epidemic. Grant raising prospectus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) was created within the IAEA in 2004. PACT builds upon IAEA's extensive experience in cancer therapy and was designed to strengthen the links between technology transfer for radiotherapy and national capacity building in cancer prevention and control. While the IAEA continues to focus on technology transfer in radiotherapy and nuclear medicine, PACT is aimed at integrating radiotherapy into the broader cancer prevention and control framework. This includes cancer prevention, early detection, treatment and palliative care as well as broader challenges such as capacity building in infrastructure development and surveillance (including cancer registries). Only through collaboration with a broad range of stakeholders in cancer prevention and control will low and middle income countries be able to build effective programmes that reduce avoidable cancers and cancer in its later stages, and therefore improve survival and quality of life for cancer patients. PACT is therefore building partnerships with leading cancer organizations worldwide. Each organization is making a significant contribution in their respective areas of expertise within the broader cancer control framework. Outreach to more international organizations continues. Together with these other agencies, PACT seeks to comprehensively support cancer control needs in low and middle income countries over the next 10 to 20 years and beyond. PACT is seeking to accelerate widespread and sustained access to all essential cancer care services, and make cancer therapy more effective. Such an approach is widely acknowledged to be the only viable way to attract major donors (including development banks, international health philanthropies and other charities) either directly or through the IAEA. Partnering with other organizations also raises, or in many cases, establishes the IAEA's profile within the international public health arena. To lay the groundwork for

  20. Co-ordination and ecology in practical cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M A; Tsuda, H

    1998-10-01

    A great deal of information is already available regarding modifiable factors affecting cancer development in a negative or positive fashion. Thus, avoidance of harmful agents like tobacco, vaccination against virus infections, prompt treatment of inflammatory conditions and increased exposure to beneficial influences hold great promise for the achievement of effective prevention. However, this requires a co-ordinated strategy and an integration of efforts in epidemiological and biological research, medical practice and education, and is essential for optimal use of the resources available. In addition, more stress needs to be placed on community approaches. Concentration of particular attention on the 'ecological' interactions among a triad of the major areas of action: (1) information generation; (2) intervention efforts; (3) government policy, appears warranted. PMID:9884888

  1. Nutrition Frontiers E-Newsletter | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change. |

  2. Estudo da atitude e do conhecimento dos médicos não oncologistas em relação às medidas de prevenção e rastreamento do câncer Evaluation of non-oncologist physician's knowledge and attitude towards cancer screening and preventive actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Tomanik Cardozo de Mello Tucunduva

    2004-09-01

    these three cancer prevention guidelines: INCA, American Cancer Society and Canadian Task Force. RESULTS: The percentage of replied questionnaires was 58.3% (70 questionnaires. Mean age of physicians was 33.9 years; 57.1% were women and 10% smokers. Most of the current preventive practices adopted by the participating physicians (45.72% to 100% regarding the most common and preventable tumors (breast, cervix, prostate, colon and rectum and non-melanoma skin cancer did not agree with any of the guidelines mentioned above. When questioned about possible impediments for the appropriate practice of cancer prevention, 82.86% reported absence of health education agents working with the population, 77.14% scarceness of knowledge or training concerning prevention, and 70.15% lack of financial support for ordering tests. Frequently, whenever there was disagreement between the guidelines and the physician's current practices, preventive tests were ordered in excess of those recommended by the guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians had a tendency to order excessive laboratory tests, an action which can be related to lack of knowledge and to divergence among guidelines. A more intensive educational effort regarding cancer prevention, directed towards teaching physicians in training, seems to be warranted.

  3. From science to action and from action to science: the Nunavik Trichinellosis Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Larrat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. During the 1980s, walrus-meat consumption caused infections with the parasite Trichinella nativa in Nunavik inhabitants. In response to these events, stakeholders set up the community-based Nunavik Trichinellosis Prevention Program (NTPP. The objectives of the present communication are to review the NTPP, describe how science and action were interwoven in its development and identify its assets and limitations. Study design. Descriptive study. Methods. The NTPP relies on a pooled digestion assay of tongue samples taken from each harvested walrus. The public health recommendations depend on the results of the analyses: infected walrus meat should be destroyed; parasite-free meat may be eaten raw or cooked. Results. All communities involved in the walrus hunt participate in the NTPP and a high percentage of harvested walruses are included in the NTPP. Infected animals account for 2.9% of the walruses tested (20/694 since 1992. The NTPP permitted the early management of a trichinellosis event in 1997. Since then, it prevented the new occurrence of outbreaks related to walruses hunted by Nunavimmiut. Conclusions. The absence of recent major outbreaks of trichinellosis in Nunavik may reasonably be attributed to the NTPP. The success of the program stands on many facilitating factors such as the nature of the disease and its source, the existence of an efficient analytic method, the strong involvement of the different partners including direct resource users, as well as the comprehensive bidirectional science-to-action approach that has been followed.

  4. The Prevention of Liver Cancer by HBV Vaccine Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Xiong

    2002-01-01

    Objective To recognize the HBV vaccine program for prevention of the hepatic cancer.Methods To discuss the relation between the HBV and hepatic cancer arising, and to discuss the immunology respond of the HBV vaccine (HBV surface antigen protein) in our patient group. Result Our data indicates that the predisposing of the HBV infection is required for the hepatic cancer arising and for the high expression of the AFP gene, and our data indicates that the HBV vaccine can induce highly immuno respond in about 78.8 % of the adult for achieving the HBV prevention status and the hepatic cancer prevention status.

  5. Cancer and Disease Management: Indications for Action

    OpenAIRE

    Marybeth Regan

    1999-01-01

    In the US, 1 in 3 women and 1 in 2 men will be diagnosed with cancer at some point in their lives. More than 1.2 million individuals are diagnosed with cancer each year while it is estimated that 8.2 million Americans, alive today, have a history of cancer. Cancer diagnosis and treatment accounts for approximately 20% of all healthcare expenditures; this is estimated to be as high as 25% in the year 2010. Rising costs are a result of an aging population, environmental factors, and medical adv...

  6. Educating Cancer Prevention Researchers in Emerging Biobehavioral Models: Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Davila, Marivel; Kamrudin, Samira A.; Li, Dennis H.; Noor, Syed W.; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Chang, Shine; Cameron, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    To increase the adoption of transdisciplinary research methods among future cancer prevention investigators, faculty members from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a graduate-level course in biobehavioral methods in cancer prevention research. Two instructors paired by topic and area of expertise offered an hour-long lecture-based seminar every week for 15 weeks during the spring semester of 2010. Students and presenters both evaluated the overall course content and ...

  7. Preventing and Treating Prostate Cancer Spread to Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... options Preventing and treating prostate cancer spread to bones If prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it ... a vein and settle in areas of damaged bones (like those containing cancer spread). Once there, they give off radiation that ...

  8. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Approved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    On June 24, 2013, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Board of Scientific Advisors approved the creation of the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP). NCORP will bring state-of-the art cancer prevention, control, treatment and imaging clinical trials, cancer care delivery research, and disparities studies to individuals in their own communities. |

  9. The Complexities of Epidemiology and Prevention of Gastrointestinal Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Saba Haq; Shadan Ali; Fazlul H Sarkar; Ramzi Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Cancer epidemiology and prevention is one of the most well studied fields today. The more we can understand about the incidence and pathogenesis of this disease, the better we will be able to prevent it. Effective prevention strategies can decrease the mortality rate of cancer significantly; this is why it is important to delineate the underlying causes. It has been well recognized that genetic mutations, sporadic or hereditary, may lead to increased chance of tumorigenesis. Detecting genetic...

  10. Recording actions to prevent child morbidity in children's health cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Daniele de Souza; Santos, Nathanielly Cristina Carvalho de Brito; Costa, Dayse Kalyne Gomes da; Pereira, Mayara de Melo; Vaz, Elenice Maria Cecchetti; Reichert, Altamira Pereira da Silva

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the registering of preventative actions in relation to child morbidity using information regarding vaccinations, as well as iron and vitamin A supplements, which are recorded in children's health cards. This transversal study used a quantitative approach and was performed in Family Health Units in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba; the sampling was by convenience and totaled 116 children's health cards. The data was collected by observing the cards and the analysis was simple, statistical. The highest percentage of children had their vaccination cards up to date (92.2%) and those that did not were aged between 6 and 12 months: 78.9% of the cards did not have records relating to iron and vitamin A supplements and others only had records of one of the supplements being administered. The vaccination status of children in the first year of life was found to be satisfactory; however, discrepancies were observed in the recordings of the administration of iron and vitamin A supplements, which complicates monitoring performed by child health care professionals. It is hoped that this study will contribute to discussions and strategies aimed at improving the monitoring and recording of micronutrients in children's health cards. PMID:27383363

  11. Primary and Secondary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tárraga López, Pedro J; Juan Solera Albero; José Antonio Rodríguez-Montes

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cancer is a worldwide problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cancer in men, after lung and prostate cancer, and is the second most frequent cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the third cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most frequent cause of death by cancer if both genders are considered together. CRC represents approximately 10% of deaths b...

  12. Green tea compounds in breast cancer prevention and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Min-Jing; Yin, Yan-Cun; Wang, Jiao; Jiang, Yang-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. In recent years, many in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that green tea possesses anti-cancer effects. The epidemiological studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. Likewise, results from animal models about the preventive or therapeutic effects of green tea components are inconclusive. The mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence the risk of breast cancer in humans remain elusive mechanisms by which green...

  13. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  14. Preventive Effects of Cocoa and Cocoa Antioxidants in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angeles Martín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related mortality in the developed world. Carcinogenesis is a multistage process conventionally defined by the initiation, promotion and progression stages. Natural polyphenolic compounds can act as highly effective antioxidant and chemo-preventive agents able to interfere at the three stages of cancer. Cocoa has been demonstrated to counteract oxidative stress and to have a potential capacity to interact with multiple carcinogenic pathways involved in inflammation, proliferation and apoptosis of initiated and malignant cells. Therefore, restriction of oxidative stress and/or prevention or delayed progression of cancer stages by cocoa antioxidant compounds has gained interest as an effective approach in colorectal cancer prevention. In this review, we look over different in vitro and in vivo studies that have identified potential targets and mechanisms whereby cocoa and their flavonoids could interfere with colonic cancer. In addition, evidence from human studies is also illustrated.

  15. Employing the Church as a Marketer of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Coffey, Candice R.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church. PMID:23718957

  16. Review article about nutrition and primary prevention of oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Atena Shiva; Shahin Arab

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a worldwide problem that is caused by a variety of different factors increasing over a number of years. Oral cancer is a very prevalent disease and one of the most 10 common causes of death. It is important that the risk factors can be controlled. Selecting the correct health behaviors and preventing exposure to convinced environmental risk factors can help to prevent the expansion of cancer. Scientists guess that as many as 30-40 percent of all cancer-related deaths are caused by h...

  17. Role of Vitamin E in Prevention of Oral Cancer:-A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqubal, Md. Asad; Kumar, Prabhakar; Kumar, Anjani; Ajai, Kratika

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the major global threads to public health. The development of oral cancer is tobacco related mainly. Vitamin-E can inhibit reaction of the tobacco specific nitrosamine which undergoes specific activation, detoxification process. Dietary substitute such as vitamin-E can prevent oral cancer at a very early stage that is in premalignant lesions, in premalignant conditions. Main action of vitamin E includes increase immunity, controls free radicals mediated cell disturbances, maintains membrane integrity, inhibit cancer cell growth, cytotoxicity. Many past studies suggest the role of antioxidant (vitamin-E) in treatment of oral mucosal lesions particularly includes oral leukoplakia, oral lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis and oral cancer. Vitamin-E as an antioxidant helps in prevention and slow the growth of Head and Neck cancer, improve the effects of cancer chemotherapy and reduce the side effects from both chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer patients. As prevention modality use of Vitamin-E may be beneficial for human beings. PMID:25478472

  18. Role of vitamin e in prevention of oral cancer:-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqubal, Md Asad; Khan, Mobeen; Kumar, Prabhakar; Kumar, Anjani; Ajai, Kratika

    2014-10-01

    Oral cancer is one of the major global threads to public health. The development of oral cancer is tobacco related mainly. Vitamin-E can inhibit reaction of the tobacco specific nitrosamine which undergoes specific activation, detoxification process. Dietary substitute such as vitamin-E can prevent oral cancer at a very early stage that is in premalignant lesions, in premalignant conditions. Main action of vitamin E includes increase immunity, controls free radicals mediated cell disturbances, maintains membrane integrity, inhibit cancer cell growth, cytotoxicity. Many past studies suggest the role of antioxidant (vitamin-E) in treatment of oral mucosal lesions particularly includes oral leukoplakia, oral lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis and oral cancer. Vitamin-E as an antioxidant helps in prevention and slow the growth of Head and Neck cancer, improve the effects of cancer chemotherapy and reduce the side effects from both chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer patients. As prevention modality use of Vitamin-E may be beneficial for human beings. PMID:25478472

  19. Health initiatives for the prevention of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinert, Rüdiger; Breitbart, Eckhard W; Mohr, Peter; Volkmer, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent type of cancer in white population worldwide. However, because the most prominent risk factor-solar UV-radiation and/or artificial UV from sunbeds-is known, skin cancer is highly preventable be primary prevention. This prevention needs, that the public is informed by simple and balanced messages about the possible harms and benefits of UV-exposure and how a person should behave under certain conditions of UV-exposure. For this purpose information and recommendations for the public must be age- and target-group specific to cover all periods of life and to reach all sub-groups of a population, continuously. There is a need that political institutions together with Health Institutions and Societies (e.g., European Commission, WHO, EUROSKIN, ICNIRP, etc.), which are responsible for primary prevention of skin cancer, find a common language to inform the public, in order not to confuse it. This is especially important in connection with the ongoing Vitamin D debate, where possible positive effects of UV have to be balanced with the well known skin cancer risk of UV. A continuously ongoing evaluation of interventions and programs in primary prevention is a pre-requisite to assess the effectiveness of strategies. There is surely no "no message fits all" approach, but balanced information in health initiatives for prevention of skin cancer, which use evidence-base strategies, will further be needed in the future to reduce the incidence, morbidity and mortality skin cancer. PMID:25207383

  20. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude;

    2004-01-01

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural...... history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe....

  1. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuzick, J.; Thorat, M.A.; Andriole, G.; Brawley, O.W.; Brown, P.H.; Culig, Z.; Eeles, R.A.; Ford, L.G.; Hamdy, F.C.; Holmberg, L.; Ilic, D.; Key, T.J.; Vecchia, C. La; Lilja, H.; Marberger, M.; Meyskens, F.L.; Minasian, L.M.; Parker, C.; Parnes, H.L.; Perner, S.; Rittenhouse, H.; Schalken, J.A.; Schmid, H.P.; Schmitz-Drager, B.J.; Schroder, F.H.; Stenzl, A.; Tombal, B.; Wilt, T.J.; Wolk, A.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by prostate-speci

  2. Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djavan, Bob; Zlotta, Alexandre; Schulman, Claude; Teillac, Pierre; Iversen, Peter; Boccon Gibod, Laurent; Bartsch, Georg; Marberger, Michael

    Despite advances in the detection and management of prostate cancer, this disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men. Increasing attention has focused on the role of chemoprevention for prostate cancer, ie the administration of agents that inhibit 1 or more steps in the natural...... history of prostate carcinogenesis. We review prostate cancer chemoprevention studies in Europe....

  3. Cancer prevention: take charge of your lifestyle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitting smoking has a direct affect on your risk of cancer. Tobacco contains harmful chemicals that damage your cells and cause cancer growth. Harming your lungs is not the only concern. Smoking and tobacco use cause many types of cancer, such as: Lung ...

  4. Prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Cuzick (Jack); M.A. Thorat (Mangesh A); G. Andriole (Gerald); O.W. Brawley (Otis W); P.H. Brown (Powel H); Z. Culig (Zoran); R. Eeles (Rosalind); L.G. Ford (Leslie G); F. Hamdy (Freddie); L. Holmberg (Lars); D. Ilic (Dragan); T.J. Key (Timothy J); C.L. Vecchia (Carlo La); H. Lilja (Hans); M. Marberger (Michael); F.L. Meyskens (Frank L); L.M. Minasian (Lori M); C. Parker (C.); H.L. Parnes (Howard L); S. Perner (Sven); H. Rittenhouse (Harry); J.A. Schalken (J.); H.-P. Schmid (Hans-Peter); B.J. Schmitz-Dräger (Bernd J); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A. Stenzl (Arnulf); B. Tombal (Bertrand); T.J. Wilt (Timothy J.); K. Wolk (Kerstin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is a common malignancy in men and the worldwide burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, exercise, and weight control offer opportunities to reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by pr

  5. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world. One out of three new cancers is a skin cancer. More than 1 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell cancers [SCC]) occur annually. While the incidence rates for non-melanoma skin cancers continue to rise, there continues to be a substantial impact on morbidity, health and health care costs. |

  6. Cancer risk and prevention in a globalised world: solving the public policy mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R; Homberg, L; Purushotham, A D

    2012-09-01

    The world faces an unprecedented growth in cancer incidence over the next fifty years, the majority of the burden falling on low-middle income countries. At the same time as the changing demographic profiles, including global population ageing we are also seeing the rapid globalisation of pro-cancer behaviours and commodities such as tobacco. The human and economic impact will continue to be severe unless radical changes occur to current public policy mismatches in cancer prevention. At the same time high level political actions through bodies such as the UN suggest that supra-national approaches are needed to solve these issues. However, we argue that only local nation-state approaches can fundamentally address cancer risk and enhance prevention in a globalised world. PMID:22336662

  7. Retinoids and rexinoids in cancer prevention: from laboratory to clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uray, Iván P; Dmitrovsky, Ethan; Brown, Powel H

    2016-02-01

    Early in the age of modern medicine the consequences of vitamin A deficiency drew attention to the fundamental link between retinoid-dependent homeostatic regulation and malignant hyperproliferative diseases. The term "retinoid" includes a handful of endogenous and a large group of synthetic derivatives of vitamin A. These multifunctional lipid-soluble compounds directly regulate target genes of specific biological functions and critical signaling pathways to orchestrate complex functions from vision to development, metabolism, and inflammation. Many of the retinoid activities on the cellular level have been well characterized and translated to the regulation of processes like differentiation and cell death, which play critical roles in the outcome of malignant transformation of tissues. In fact, retinoid-based differentiation therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia was one of the first successful examples of molecularly targeted treatment strategies. The selectivity, high receptor binding affinity and the ability of retinoids to directly modulate gene expression programs present a distinct pharmacological opportunity for cancer treatment and prevention. However, to fully exploit their potential, the adverse effects of retinoids must be averted. In this review we provide an overview of the biology of retinoid (activated by nuclear retinoic acid receptors [RARs]) and rexinoid (engaged by nuclear retinoid X receptors [RXRs]) action concluded from a long line of preclinical studies, in relation to normal and transformed states of cells. We will also discuss the past and current uses of retinoids in the treatment of malignancies, the potential of rexinoids in the cancer prevention setting, both as single agents and in combinations. PMID:26970124

  8. Active Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Active Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Models for prevention and treatment of cancer: problems vs promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B; Danda, Divya; Gupta, Shan; Gehlot, Prashasnika

    2009-11-01

    Current estimates from the American Cancer Society and from the International Union Against Cancer indicate that 12 million cases of cancer were diagnosed last year, with 7 million deaths worldwide; these numbers are expected to double by 2030 (27 million cases with 17 million deaths). Despite tremendous technological developments in all areas, and President Richard Nixon's initiative in the 1974 "War against Cancer", the US cancer incidence is the highest in the world and the cancer death rate has not significantly changed in the last 50 years (193.9 per 100,000 in 1950 vs 193.4 per 100,000 in 2002). Extensive research during the same time, however, has revealed that cancer is a preventable disease that requires major changes in life style; with one third of all cancers assigned to Tobacco, one third to diet, and remaining one third to the environment. Approximately 20 billion dollars are spent annually to find a cure for cancer. We propose that our inability to find a cure to cancer lies in the models used. Whether cell culture or animal studies, no model has yet been found that can reproduce the pathogenesis of the disease in the laboratory. Mono-targeted therapies, till know in most cases, have done a little to make a difference in cancer treatment. Similarly, molecular signatures/predictors of the diagnosis of the disease and response are also lacking. This review discusses the pros and cons of current cancer models based on cancer genetics, cell culture, animal models, cancer biomarkers/signature, cancer stem cells, cancer cell signaling, targeted therapies, therapeutic targets, clinical trials, cancer prevention, personalized medicine, and off-label uses to find a cure for cancer and demonstrates an urgent need for "out of the box" approaches. PMID:19481061

  12. Natural Products as Promising Antitumoral Agents in Breast Cancer: Mechanisms of Action and Molecular Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonofiglio, Daniela; Giordano, Cinzia; De Amicis, Francesca; Lanzino, Marilena; Andò, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research over the past several decades has identified numerous dietary and phytochemical compounds that have chemopreventive potential and could represent an important source of anti-cancer lead molecules. In this scenario several nutritional factors have attracted considerable attention as modifiable risk factor in the prevention of breast cancer, the most frequently diagnosed cancer and a major cause of death among women worldwide. There is an immediate need for more effective and less toxic therapeutic and preventive strategies for breast cancers able also to counteract the recurrent phenomenon of resistance to hormonal and targeted therapy that represent the first-line treatment in the management of breast cancer patients. The present review focuses on chemopreventive and anti-cancer activities of different bioactive compounds obtained from dietary sources such as Omega-3 fatty acids, naturally present in fish, Resveratrol (3,5,40-trihydroxy-transstilbene), a phytoalexin found in grapes and Epigallocatechin Gallate, a polyphenolic compound found in green tea, or purified from medicinal plant (Oldenlandia Diffusa) and fruits (Ziziphus Jujube) highlighting their potential use in breast cancer treatment. Herein, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which the bioactive compounds can inhibit carcinogenesis by regulating antioxidant enzyme activities, and inducing antiproliferative and apoptotic effects in different breast cancer cell lines. Understanding the mechanism of action of dietary compounds or traditionally used herbs having potential preventive and therapeutic effects on cancer may provide a rationale for further translational studies. This review emphasizes the importance, in the next future, of a proper scientific validation of these natural bioactive compounds for clinical use in the therapeutic portfolio for breast cancer. PMID:26156544

  13. Priority actions of the different Regional Prevention Plans: common features and innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Russo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The National Prevention Plan (NPP 2010-2012, approved by the Agreement between the Government, the Regions and Autonomous Provinces of Trento and Bolzano on 29 April 2010, called for Regions to adopt, by 31/12/2010, the Regional Prevention Plan (RPP for implementing the interventions provided by the NPP 2010-2012.This article has considered and compared the different RPP’s. In an attempt to provide an outlook on the future medical prevention plans over the next few years in Italy, a comparison has been made between the RPP from 19 Regions and the Autonomous Province of Trento. This work has been focused on the actions identified in regional plans as a priority concerning the major common and innovative elements.The analysis of each RPP revealed a common plan to chronic degenerative diseases, because of the aging of the population in every Region of Italy. Other important common targets are: surveillance systems, vaccination programs and screening programs. Toscana and Liguria, more than other Regions, are engaged in the creation of networks involving various social actors. In some Regions there are projects aimed at eliminating social, economic or gender inequities, such as the project “women’s health” in the Region of Puglia. Toscana and Emilia-Romagna Plans pay attention to environment and pollution issues.Despite social, environmental and economic differences, the various Regions have common principles, concerning: life style, surveillance, vaccination and the screening for cancer.

  14. Protein found to promote DNA repair, prevent cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ An abundant chromosomal protein that binds to damaged DNA prevents cancer development by enhancing DNA repair, researchers at University of Texas reported on-line in the Proceedings of the National Academies of Science.

  15. Insurance, Distance Often Prevent Breast Reconstruction After Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160210.html Insurance, Distance Often Prevent Breast Reconstruction After Cancer Obstacles ... 2, 2016 TUESDAY, Aug. 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Insurance coverage and the distance to a doctor's office ...

  16. An Action Research Project to Determine the Utility of Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support for Elementary School Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman-Scott, Emily; Doyle, Beth; Brott, Pamelia

    2014-01-01

    A trio of researchers presents a case study from a practical, participatory action research project to demonstrate how one school district implemented a school-wide bullying prevention initiative for all elementary schools based on Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support (BP-PBS). The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the process of…

  17. Molecular epidemiology, prenatal exposure and prevention of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Molecular Epidemiology was originally conceived as a preventive approach, providing a valuable tool for investigating risk factors for cancer in vulnerable populations. Biomarkers can be used as early indicators of risk for preventative purposes and risk assessment. The present contribution mainly refers to in utero exposures to carcinogens, since humans are especially vulnerable during fetal development. Environmental exposures in utero can increase risks for both childhood and adult cancers...

  18. Cancer Preventive Mechanismsof the Green Tea Polyphenol (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Yu Zhang; Lei Chen

    2007-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that consumption of tea, especially green tea, is good for preventing cancer. To elucidate the cancer preventive mechanisms of green tea, much effort has been devoted to investigating the anticancer effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major component of green tea. It has been revealed that EGCG restrained carcinogenesis in a variety of tissues through inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), growth factor-related cell signaling,...

  19. Nutrients, foods, and colorectal cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S; Chan, Andrew T

    2015-05-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigations have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grains have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat have been associated with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, folate, fruits, and vegetables. Nutrients and foods also may interact, as a dietary pattern, to influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet likely influences colorectal carcinogenesis through several interacting mechanisms. These include the direct effects on immune responsiveness and inflammation, and the indirect effects of overnutrition and obesity-risk factors for colorectal cancer. Emerging evidence also implicates the gut microbiota as an important effector in the relationship between diet and cancer. Dietary modification therefore has the promise of reducing colorectal cancer incidence. PMID:25575572

  20. Role of phytochemicals in colon cancer prevention. A nutrigenomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erk, van M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Specific food compounds, especially from fruits and vegetables, may protect against development of colon cancer. In this thesis effects and mechanisms of various phytochemicals in relation to colon cancer prevention were studied through application of large-scale gene expression profiling. Expressio

  1. Opportunities and Challenges for Nutritional Proteomics in Cancer Prevention12

    OpenAIRE

    Romagnolo, Donato F.; Milner, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge gaps persist about the efficacy of cancer prevention strategies based on dietary food components. Adaptations to nutrient supply are executed through tuning of multiple protein networks that include transcription factors, histones, modifying enzymes, translation factors, membrane and nuclear receptors, and secreted proteins. However, the simultaneous quantitative and qualitative measurement of all proteins that regulate cancer processes is not practical using traditional protein met...

  2. Screening and prevention in women at increased breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.S. de

    2015-01-01

    The most frequent cancer among women in the Western world arises in the breast accounting for over 1.7 million new cases in 2012, a number which is still rising. Much attention is paid to the discovery of new ways to prevent breast cancer, as is the search for new treatment modalities with a minimum

  3. Lay Representations of Cancer Prevention and Early Detection: Associations With Prevention Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Helen W. Sullivan, PhD, MPH; Lila J. Finney Rutten, PhD, MPH; Bradford W. Hesse, PhD; Richard P. Moser, PhD; Alexander J. Rothman, PhD; Kevin D. McCaul, PhD

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The Common Sense Model of illness representations posits that how people think about an illness affects how they try to prevent the illness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prevention representations vary by cancer type (colon, lung, and skin cancer) and whether representations are associated with relevant behaviors. Methods We analyzed data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 2005), a nationally representative survey of American adults (N...

  4. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Majidi; Reza Ghiasvand; Maryam Hadji; Azin Nahvijou; Azam-Sadat Mousavi; Minoo Pakgohar; Nahid Khodakarami; Mehrandokht Abedini; Farnaz Amouzegar Hashemi; Marjan Rahnamaye Farzami; Reza Shahsiah; Sima Sajedinejhad; Mohammad Ali Mohagheghi; Fatemeh Nadali; Arash Rashidian

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV) have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor progn...

  5. Gastric Cancer: Descriptive Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Screening, and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Parisa; Islami, Farhad; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Neal D Freedman; Kamangar, Farin

    2014-01-01

    Less than a century ago, gastric cancer (GC) was the most common cancer in the United States and perhaps throughout the world. Despite its worldwide decline in incidence over the past century, GC remains a major killer across the globe. This article reviews the epidemiology, screening, and prevention of gastric cancer. We first discuss the descriptive epidemiology of GC, including its incidence, survival, and mortality, including trends over time. Next, we characterize the risk factors for ga...

  6. Rapalogs in cancer prevention: Anti-aging or anticancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2012-01-01

    Common cancer is an age-related disease. Slow aging is associated with reduced and delayed carcinogenesis. Calorie restriction (CR), the most studied anti-aging intervention, prevents cancer by slowing down the aging process. Evidence is emerging that CR decelerates aging by deactivating MTOR (Target of Rapamycin). Rapamycin and other rapalogs suppress cellular senescence, slow down aging and postpone age-related diseases including cancer. At the same time, rapalogs are approved for certain c...

  7. Dietary Polyphenols in Prevention and Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul K. Lall; Syed, Deeba N.; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Mohammad Imran Khan; Hasan Mukhtar

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent disease affecting males in many Western countries, with an estimated 29,480 deaths in 2014 in the US alone. Incidence rates for prostate cancer deaths have been decreasing since the early 1990s in men of all races/ethnicities, though they remain about 60% higher in African Americans than in any other group. The relationship between dietary polyphenols and the prevention of prostate cancer has been examined previously. Although results are sometimes incons...

  8. Elaine Trujillo, MS, RD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaine Trujillo is a Nutritionist with the NSRG, where she promotes the translation of information about bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer. She plans and directs nutritional programs such as the annual week-long Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum, and the lectureship program Stars in Nutrition and Cancer. She collaborates with other federal agencies, and is currently serving on the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Management Team. Ms. |

  9. Health beliefs and cancer prevention practices of Filipino American women

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Celine M

    2006-01-01

    Cancer is the number one cause of death among Asian Americans, and Filipino Americans are the second largest Asian American group in number. Filipino American women have relatively low rates of breast and colorectal cancer screening compared to their White counterparts; however, they experience higher numbers of late-stage diagnoses and mortality rates. Thus, early detection of cancer and maintenance of healthy prevention behaviors are very important. Little is known about this community's pr...

  10. 29 CFR Appendix to Subpart E of... - Exit Routes, Emergency Action Plans, and Fire Prevention Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exit Routes, Emergency Action Plans, and Fire Prevention..., and Fire Prevention Plans This appendix serves as a nonmandatory guideline to assist employers in.... Fire prevention housekeeping. The standard calls for the control of accumulations of flammable...

  11. A favorable view: progress in cancer prevention and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Clifton Leaf, in his article "Why We're Losing the War on Cancer," presents criticisms of past research approaches and the small impact of this research thus far on producing cures or substantially extending the life of many cancer patients. It is true that gains in long-term survival for people with advanced cancers have been modest, hindered in part by the heterogeneity of tumors, which allows the cancers to persist using alternate molecular pathways and so evade many cancer therapeutics. In contrast, clinical trials have demonstrated that it is possible to reduce the incidence or improve cancer survival through prevention and early detection. Strides have been made in preventing or detecting early the four deadliest cancers in the United States (i.e., lung, breast, prostate, and colorectal). For example, 7-year follow-up data from the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) provides evidence that tamoxifen reduces the occurrence of invasive breast tumors by more than 40%; recent studies using aromatase inhibitors and raloxifene are also promising. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) showed that finasteride reduced prostate cancer incidence by 25%, and the ongoing Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) is investigating selenium and vitamin E for prostate cancer prevention based on encouraging results from earlier studies. Living a healthy lifestyle, including regular physical activity, avoiding obesity, and eating primarily a plant-based diet has been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer. In addition, noninvasive stool DNA tests for early detection are being studied, which may lessen the reluctance of people to be screened for colorectal polyps and cancer. Behavioral and medical approaches for smoking prevention are ways to reduce the incidence of lung cancer, with antinicotine vaccines on the horizon that may help former smokers to avoid relapse. The US National Lung Screening Trial is testing whether early detection via

  12. Nutritional Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to | Establishing a comprehensive understanding of diet and food components in cancer risk and tumor cell behavior.

  13. Isoflavones - Mechanism of Action and Impact on Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Stubert, Johannes; Gerber, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Isoflavones are plant-derived substances with weak es-trogenic effects. Asian populations are high consumers of soy products which are rich in isoflavones. The lower breast cancer incidence in Asian women compared with Western women has been associated with the possibility of a preventive isoflavone effect on cancer risk. The aim of this review is to give an overview of current research data on the influence of isoflavones on the risk of primary breast cancer development as well as the risk o...

  14. Serum Oxidized Protein and Prostate Cancer Risk within the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, Ashraful; Ambrosone, Christine B; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Tangen, Cathy; Kristal, Alan; Lucia, Scott; Wang, Qiao; Kappil, Maya; Thompson, Ian; Hsing, Ann W.; Parnes, Howard; Lippman, Scott M.; Santella, Regina M.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the role of oxidative stress in prostate cancer risk, we analyzed serum levels of protein carbonyl groups in 1808 prostate cancer cases and 1805 controls, nested in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, a randomized, placebo-control trial that found finasteride decreased prostate cancer risk. There were no significant differences in protein carbonyl levels in baseline samples between those later diagnosed with prostate cancer and those without at the end of study biopsy. Adjusted ...

  15. Finasteride Concentrations and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Cindy H.; Price, Douglas K.; Cathee Till; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Xiaohong Chen; Leach, Robin J; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L.; Hsing, Ann W.; Ashraful Hoque; Tangen, Catherine M.; Lisa Chu; Parnes, Howard L.; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Reichardt, Juergen K. V.; Thompson, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying dru...

  16. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  17. Biorepositories for the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) and the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) has a serum and lymphocyte bank with specimens on more than 90% of the 33,000 women in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) and Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR). They also have tumor blocks on the majority of the breast cancers that have occurred in women on these studies. |

  18. Lorenzo Tomatis and primary prevention of environmental cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huff James

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The leading 20th century proponent for primary prevention of environmental cancer was Dr. Lorenzo Tomatis, the former Director of the International Agency for Research on Cancer and founder of the IARC Monographs program. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Tomatis – eminent scientist, scholar, teacher, humanitarian, and public health champion - and includes many perspectives that he promoted throughout his career, with original quotations from some of his scientific writings on primary prevention of environmental cancer. Any attempt by us to simply summarize his views would only detract from the power and logic of his language. “Cancer still remains a mainly lethal disease. Primary prevention remains the most relevant approach to reduce mortality through a reduction in incidence”1.

  19. Insect antimicrobial peptides: potential tools for the prevention of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonk, Miray; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Rahnamaeian, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Antimicrobial peptides/proteins (AMPs) are biologically active molecules with diverse structural properties that are produced by mammals, plants, insects, ticks, and microorganisms. They have a range of antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and even anticancer activities, and their biological properties could therefore be exploited for therapeutic and prophylactic applications. Cancer and cancer drug resistance are significant current health challenges, so the development of innovative cancer drugs with minimal toxicity toward normal cells and novel modes of action that can evade resistance may provide a new direction for anticancer therapy. The skin is the first line of defense against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection, and skin cancer is thus the most common type of cancer. The skin that has been exposed to sunlight is particularly susceptible, but lesions can occur anywhere on the body. Skin cancer awareness and self-efficacy are necessary to improve sun protection behavior, but more effective preventative approaches are also required. AMPs may offer a new prophylactic approach against skin cancer. In this mini review, we draw attention to the potential use of insect AMPs for the prevention and treatment of skin cancer. PMID:27418360

  20. Governance Structure | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognizing the importance of an integrated approach to preventative drug development, there is a unified Governance Structure for the PREVENT Program responsible for coordinating and integrating available resources. With the goal of reaching go/no-go decisions as efficiently as possible, the purpose is to ensure a pragmatic approach to drug development and a clear path to market. |

  1. Cancer screening, prevention, and treatment in people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lara C; Stefancic, Ana; Cunningham, Amy T; Hurley, Katelyn E; Cabassa, Leopodo J; Wender, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE People with mental illness die decades earlier in the United States compared with the general population. Most of this disparity is related to preventable and treatable chronic conditions, with many studies finding cancer as the second leading cause of death. Individual lifestyle factors, such as smoking or limited adherence to treatment, are often cited as highly significant issues in shaping risk among persons with mental illness. However, many contextual or systems-level factors exacerbate these individual factors and may fundamentally drive health disparities among people with mental illness. The authors conducted an integrative review to summarize the empirical literature on cancer prevention, screening, and treatment for people with mental illness. Although multiple interventions are being developed and tested to address tobacco dependence and obesity in these populations, the evidence for effectiveness is quite limited, and essentially all prevention interventions focus at the individual level. This review identified only one published article describing evidence-based interventions to promote cancer screening and improve cancer treatment in people with mental illness. On the basis of a literature review and the experience and expertise of the authors, each section in this article concludes with suggestions at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy levels that may improve cancer prevention, screening, and treatment in people with mental illness. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:133-151. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26663383

  2. Cancer Stem Cell Hypothesis: Implication for Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Meiliana; Nurrani Mustika Dewi; Andi Wijaya

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer is a disease of genomic instability, evasion of immune cells, and adaptation of the tumor cells to the changing environment. Genetic heterogeneity caused by tumors and tumor microenvironmental factors forms the basis of aggressive behavior of some cancer cell populations. CONTENT: Cancers arise in self-renewing cell populations and that the resulting cancers, like their normal organ counterparts, are composed of hierarchically organized cell populations. Self–renewing “...

  3. Moving Toward Bioadjuvant Approaches to Head and Neck Cancer Prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma affects >45,000 Americans annually. Patients who are successfully treated for their primary tumor are at high risk of developing a second primary tumor, making effective preventive strategies highly desirable for this disease. Although a landmark study in 1990 suggested some benefit of high-dose retinoids in head and neck cancer prevention, subsequent trials using more tolerable doses have shown limited clinical success. Newer preventive strategies have included bioadjuvant therapy combining retinoids with interferon and α-tocopherol, combinations of molecularly targeted agents, and oncolytic viruses. Furthermore, considerable evidence has supported a cancer protective role for several nutrients, including green tea and curcumin analogs. Natural compounds such as these with favorable long-term safety profiles might be particularly suited to the cancer prevention setting, in which patients will usually tolerate only moderate risk and toxicity

  4. Prevention of gastric cancer: diet modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Karagianni

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the available evidence a probable protective role of vegetables, especially allium vegetables, and fruit consumption against gastric cancer risk probably exist. It also seems probable that high salt intake increases gastric cancer risk. Furthermore, the available evidence, though limited, is suggestive of a protective role of pulses and foods containing selenium. Limited, but still suggestive evidence exists concerning an inverse association between chilli, processed meat, smoked foods and grilled or barbecued animal foods with gastric cancer risk. A great number of other dietary factors are being investigated, but it is still not safe to reach any conclusions concerning them.

  5. Population attributable fraction: planning of diseases prevention actions in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Leandro Fórnias Machado; Eluf, José

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidemiology is the study of occurrence, distribution and determinants of health-related events, including the application of that knowledge to the prevention and control of health problems. However, epidemiological studies, in most cases, have limited their research questions to determinants of health outcomes. Research related to the application of knowledge for prevention and control of diseases have been neglected. In this comment, we present a description of how population attributable fraction estimates can provide important elements for planning of prevention and control of diseases in Brazil. PMID:27305404

  6. Knowledge, attitude and preventive practices for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of the breast cancer in medical community. The study was carried out in the Department of Oncology, Service Hospital, Lahore and completed in one month. Subjects and Methods: About 200 female doctors and nurses of the Hospital were involved. Each subject was asked to fill up a pro forma designed to assess knowledge, risk factors and preventive practices of the breast cancer. Using non-probability convenience sampling technique, breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography was performed as screening of breast cancer. Results: A majority had good knowledge of the risk factors and screening method for the early detection of breast cancer. Majority had the consensus on the benefit of mammography. Conclusions: The study shows that although medical professionals had fairly good knowledge about screening methods and risk factors of breast cancer. Their preventive practices were scanty in high risk population and, therefore, physicians and nurses need proper training. (author)

  7. Salicylic acid: a link between aspirin, diet and the prevention of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, J R; Lawrence, J R

    2001-08-01

    Aspirin was introduced into clinical practice more than 100 years ago. This unique drug belongs to a family of compounds called the salicylates, the simplest of which is salicylic acid, the principal metabolite of aspirin. Salicylic acid is responsible for the anti-inflammatory action of aspirin, and may cause the reduced risk of colorectal cancer observed in those who take aspirin. Yet salicylic acid and other salicylates occur naturally in fruits and plants, while diets rich in these are believed to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. Serum salicylic acid concentrations are greater in vegetarians than non-vegetarians, and there is overlap between concentrations in vegetarians and those taking low-dose aspirin. We propose that the cancer-preventive action of aspirin is due to its principal metabolite, salicylic acid, and that dietary salicylates can have the same effect. It is also possible that natural salicylates contribute to the other recognized benefits of a healthy diet. PMID:11493722

  8. Let us prevent occupational cancers - Paris, 18-20 November 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document first presents and comments the proposals for action made by the colloquium scientific committee: improvement of the policy of information on risks, identification, suppression and substitution of carcinogenic products, improved action towards very small and medium-sized enterprises, and a better consideration of activities related to production (maintenance, cleaning and so on). The next part proposes large abstracts of contributions on various themes: current status (changes of institutions and practices of prevention, the CMR national plan, experience and action of a CHSCT of the oil industry sector), present issues (occupational cancers, detection of emerging pathologies in occupational environment), assessment of the number of occupational cancers, exposure characterization and assessment, mobilization and substitution, exposure tracing, information, training and awareness raising

  9. Apigenin: A Promising Molecule for Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Sanjeev; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Apigenin, a naturally occurring plant flavone, abundantly present in common fruits and vegetables is recognized as a bioactive flavonoid shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer properties. Epidemiologic studies suggest that a diet rich in flavones is related to a decreased risk of certain cancers, particularly cancers of the breast, digestive tract, skin, prostate and certain hematological malignancies. It has been suggested that apigenin may be protective in other dise...

  10. Garlic and onions: Their cancer prevention properties

    OpenAIRE

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Ross, Sharon A.; Milner, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiological studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majo...

  11. Nutrients, Foods, and Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Mingyang; Garrett, Wendy S.; Andrew T Chan

    2015-01-01

    Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigation have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grain have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, fo...

  12. Treating High-grade Lesions to Prevent Anal Cancer in HIV-infected People

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study, called the ANCHOR trial, will investigate whether screening and prevention methods similar to those used to prevent cervical cancer can help prevent anal cancer in HIV-infected men and women.

  13. Adherence to Diet and Physical Activity Cancer Prevention Guidelines and Cancer Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Lindsay N; Garcia, David O; Harris, Robin B; Oren, Eyal; Roe, Denise J; Jacobs, Elizabeth T

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have reported that adherence to health promotion guidelines for diet, physical activity, and maintenance of healthy body weight may decrease cancer incidence and mortality. A systematic review was performed to examine associations between adherence to established cancer prevention guidelines for diet and physical activity and overall cancer incidence and mortality. PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Reviews databases were searched following the current recommendations of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis Approach (PRISMA). Twelve studies met inclusion criteria for this review. High versus low adherence to established nutrition and physical activity cancer prevention guidelines was consistently and significantly associated with decreases of 10% to 61% in overall cancer incidence and mortality. Consistent significant reductions were also shown for breast cancer incidence (19%-60%), endometrial cancer incidence (23%-60%), and colorectal cancer incidence in both men and women (27%-52%). Findings for lung cancer incidence were equivocal, and no significant relationships were found between adherence and ovarian or prostate cancers. Adhering to cancer prevention guidelines for diet and physical activity is consistently associated with lower risks of overall cancer incidence and mortality, including for some site-specific cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(7); 1018-28. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27340121

  14. Future possibilities in the prevention of breast cancer: Fat and fiber and breast cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Prentice, Ross L.

    2000-01-01

    The potential for a reduction in dietary fat or for an increase in dietary fiber to reduce breast cancer risk has been debated for some years. It is argued here that available research data, even though extensive, leave open hypotheses ranging from little or no potential to major public health potential for breast cancer prevention by means of these dietary maneuvers. Some elements of a research strategy for testing these and other dietary breast cancer prevention hypotheses are described.

  15. Diet and Skin Cancer: The Potential Role of Dietary Antioxidants in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Rajani Katta; Danielle Nicole Brown

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer among Americans. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is the major risk factor for the development of NMSC. Dietary AOs may prevent free radical-mediated DNA damage and tumorigenesis secondary to UV radiation. Numerous laboratory studies have found that certain dietary AOs show significant promise in skin cancer prevention. These results have been substantiated by animal studies. In human studies, researchers have evaluated both oral AO...

  16. Broad targeting of angiogenesis for cancer prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongwei; Dabrosin, Charlotta; Yin, Xin; Fuster, Mark M; Arreola, Alexandra; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Generali, Daniele; Nagaraju, Ganji P; El-Rayes, Bassel; Ribatti, Domenico; Chen, Yi Charlie; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Nowsheen, Somaira; Amedei, Amedeo; Niccolai, Elena; Amin, Amr; Ashraf, S Salman; Helferich, Bill; Yang, Xujuan; Guha, Gunjan; Bhakta, Dipita; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Aquilano, Katia; Chen, Sophie; Halicka, Dorota; Mohammed, Sulma I; Azmi, Asfar S; Bilsland, Alan; Keith, W Nicol; Jensen, Lasse D

    2015-12-01

    Deregulation of angiogenesis--the growth of new blood vessels from an existing vasculature--is a main driving force in many severe human diseases including cancer. As such, tumor angiogenesis is important for delivering oxygen and nutrients to growing tumors, and therefore considered an essential pathologic feature of cancer, while also playing a key role in enabling other aspects of tumor pathology such as metabolic deregulation and tumor dissemination/metastasis. Recently, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis has become a clinical anti-cancer strategy in line with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery, which underscore the critical importance of the angiogenic switch during early tumor development. Unfortunately the clinically approved anti-angiogenic drugs in use today are only effective in a subset of the patients, and many who initially respond develop resistance over time. Also, some of the anti-angiogenic drugs are toxic and it would be of great importance to identify alternative compounds, which could overcome these drawbacks and limitations of the currently available therapy. Finding "the most important target" may, however, prove a very challenging approach as the tumor environment is highly diverse, consisting of many different cell types, all of which may contribute to tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, the tumor cells themselves are genetically unstable, leading to a progressive increase in the number of different angiogenic factors produced as the cancer progresses to advanced stages. As an alternative approach to targeted therapy, options to broadly interfere with angiogenic signals by a mixture of non-toxic natural compound with pleiotropic actions were viewed by this team as an opportunity to develop a complementary anti-angiogenesis treatment option. As a part of the "Halifax Project" within the "Getting to know cancer" framework, we have here, based on a thorough review of the literature, identified 10 important aspects of tumor angiogenesis and the

  17. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer: are we closer to reality?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Qasim, Asghar

    2012-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. An early detection of colorectal cancer determines therapeutic outcomes, while primary prevention remains a challenge. Our aim was to review the dietary, geographical and genetic factors in the causation and their possible role in the primary prevention of colorectal cancer. Data from experimental and clinical studies and population screening programmes were analysed to determine the factors responsible for causation of colorectal cancer. The role of dietary constituents, including the consumption of fat, red meat, fibre content, alcohol consumption, and other lifestyle issues, including obesity, lack of exercise and geographical variations in cancer prevalence were reviewed. The role of genetic and lifestyle factors in causation of colorectal cancer is evident from the experimental, clinical and population-based studies. Dietary factors, including the consumption of fat, fibre, red meat and alcohol, seem to have a significant influence in this regard. The role of micronutrients, vitamins, calcium may be relevant but remain largely unclear. In conclusion, there is ample evidence favouring the role of various dietary and lifestyle factors in the aetiology of colorectal cancer. Modification of these factors is an attractive option, which is likely to help in the primary prevention and reduced disease burden.

  18. Instructions for Applying | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is NOT a grant application - if successful, funds will not be transferred to your institution to support your project. Rather, this is an application to access the scientific capabilities and resources of the NCI with the goal of moving promising cancer chemopreventive agents into clinical testing. If successful, you will partner with the NCI in developing a drug development pipeline. | Apply to access the scientific capabilities and resources of the NCI with the goal of moving promising cancer chemopreventive agents into clinical testing.

  19. The threat of nuclear terrorism: Assessment and preventive action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the light of the events of 11 September, the General Conference requested the IAEA Director General to review thoroughly the activities and programmes of the Agency with a view to strengthening the Agency's work relevant to preventing acts of terrorism involving nuclear materials and other radioactive materials. That review is ongoing and the results will be presented in March to the Board of Governors, including proposals for revisions and updates on relevant programmes. It is underlined that preventing nuclear terrorism requires cooperation between States and with international organizations. The problem must be addressed in a comprehensive manner. The international community should therefore strive for strong, comprehensive, internationally accepted security systems

  20. Prostate cancer: a serious disease suitable for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, John M; Schulman, Claude; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Schröder, Fritz H

    2009-04-01

    Prostate cancer is among the most common causes of death from cancer in men, and accounts for 10% of all new male cancers worldwide. The diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer place a substantial physical and emotional burden on patients and their families, and have considerable financial implications for healthcare providers and society. Given that the risk of prostate cancer continues to increase with age, the burden of the disease is likely to increase in line with population life-expectancy. Reducing the risk of prostate cancer has gained increasing coverage in recent years, with proof of principle shown in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial with the type 2 5alpha-reductase (5AR) inhibitor, finasteride. The long latency period, high disease prevalence, and significant associated morbidity and mortality make prostate cancer a suitable target for a risk-reduction approach. Several agents are under investigation for reducing the risk of prostate cancer, including selenium/vitamin E and selective oestrogen receptors modulators (e.g. toremifene). In addition, the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events trial, involving >8000 men, is evaluating the effect of the dual 5AR inhibitor, dutasteride, on the risk of developing prostate cancer. A successful risk-reduction strategy might decrease the incidence of the disease, as well as the anxiety, cost and morbidity associated with its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:19302133

  1. Nutrition in the prevention of gastrointestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Diet has been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of gastrointestinal cancer for a long time. Initially, strong evidence of such effects was found in retrospective epidemiological studies. Dietary habits, in particular those from the distant past, are difficult to measure, however. Results f

  2. A national agenda for Latino cancer prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Gallion, Kipling J; Suarez, Lucina; Giachello, Aida L; Marti, Jose R; Medrano, Martha A; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Talavera, Gregory A; Trapido, Edward J

    2005-06-01

    Although cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and premature death among Latinos, there is limited knowledge of cancer-related issues and priorities of greatest significance to the Latino population, the largest minority group in the nation. This information is vital in helping to guide Latino cancer research, training, and awareness efforts at national, regional, and local levels. To help identify cancer issues of greatest relevance to Latinos, Redes En Accion, The National Hispanic/Latino Cancer Network, a major network among the National Cancer Institute's Special Populations Networks, conducted a survey of 624 key opinion leaders from around the country. Respondents were asked to rank the three cancer sites most important to Latinos in their region and the five issues of greatest significance for this population's cancer prevention and control. Recommendations were prioritized for three specific areas: 1) research, 2) training and/or professional education, and 3) awareness and/or public education. Among cancers, breast carcinoma was ranked number one, followed in order by cervical and lung carcinomas. The issues of greatest significance to Latinos were 1) access to cancer screening and care, 2) tobacco use, 3) patient-doctor communication, 4) nutrition, and 5) risk communication. This survey solicited information from scientists, health care professionals, leaders of government agencies, professional and community-based organizations, and other stakeholders in Latino health. The results laid the foundation for a national Redes En Accion Latino cancer agenda, thus providing a useful tool for individuals and organizations engaged in cancer prevention and control efforts among the Hispanic-Latino population. PMID:15822119

  3. TRICHOMONOSIS AND SUBSEQUENT RISK OF PROSTATE CANCER IN THE PROSTATE CANCER PREVENTION TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Alderete, John F.; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Hsing, Ann W.; Zenilman, Jonathan M; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    We previously observed a positive association between a history of trichomonosis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the protozoan, Trichomonas vaginalis, and prostate cancer risk in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. To determine the reproducibility of this finding, we conducted a second, prospective investigation of trichomonosis and prostate cancer in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Participants were men ≥55 years of age with no evidence of prostate cancer at enrollmen...

  4. Serum Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results From the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Brasky, Theodore M.; Till, Cathee; White, Emily; Neuhouser, Marian L; Song, Xiaoling; Goodman, Phyllis; Thompson, Ian M; King, Irena B.; Albanes, Demetrius; Kristal, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation may be involved in prostate cancer development and progression. This study examined the associations between inflammation-related phospholipid fatty acids and the 7-year-period prevalence of prostate cancer in a nested case-control analysis of participants, aged 55–84 years, in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial during 1994–2003. Cases (n = 1,658) were frequency matched to controls (n = 1,803) on age, treatment, and prostate cancer family history. Phospholipid fatty acids were ...

  5. Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers ... of prostate cancer mean to men who take vitamin E but who were not SELECT participants? The ...

  6. Pomegranate Extracts and Cancer Prevention: Molecular and Cellular Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Syed, Deeba N.; Chamcheu, Jean-Christopher; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    There is increased appreciation by the scientific community that dietary phytochemicals can be potential weapons in the fight against cancer. Emerging data has provided new insights into the molecular and cellular framework needed to establish novel mechanism-based strategies for cancer prevention by selective bioactive food components. The unique chemical composition of the pomegranate fruit, rich in antioxidant tannins and flavonoids has drawn the attention of many investigators. Polyphenol...

  7. Antioxidants Meet Molecular Targets for Cancer Prevention and Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Nihal; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    A fine balance between oxidants and antioxidants is required for the normal functioning of living systems. A deregulation of this balance has been implicated in many adverse effects and diseases, including cancer. Extensive research has been done in the area of cancer prevention and therapeutics by a wide range of antioxidants, especially naturally occurring and diet-based agents. However, additional efforts are still needed toward clinical development of the most promising antioxidant agents...

  8. Breast cancer prevention and theory of planned behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tsounis A.; Sarafis P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction:Breast cancer is considered to be one of the highest of all forms of cancer among women.Understanding the factors that influence the adoption of preventive behaviors in this particular area is very important. Aim:the aim of the present study is to identify the factors associated with mammography screening, according to the theory of the Planned Behavior framework. Method: the methodology which was used included a literature review of Greek and international bibliograp...

  9. Nutrition Frontiers - Summer 2016 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 7, Issue 3 The summer issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases the combined effects of ursolic acid and resveratrol for skin cancer, the potential chemopreventive effects of the dietary supplement 4-MU, and a method to monitor a heterocyclic aromatic amine in dyed hair. Learn about our spotlight investigators, Drs. Michael Caligiuri and Jianhua Yu, and their research on dietary components for cancer prevention, upcoming announcements and more. |

  10. Extending Cancer Prevention to Improve Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, Darcy A.; Peña-Purcell, Ninfa; Friedman, Daniela B.; Ory, Marcia; Flocke, Susan; Barni, Marie T.; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Consuming a diet that is rich in fruits and vegetables is critical for preventing cancer and cancer-related disparities. Food systems approaches that increase spatial-temporal, economic, and social access to fruits and vegetables may ultimately result in improved consumption patterns among Americans. Engaging the triad of Cooperative Extension Services, public health systems, and community health centers may yield maximal public health benefits from food systems interventions. These entities ...

  11. Impact of Soy Isoflavones on the Epigenome in Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pudenz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones (IF such as genistein are cancer preventive phytochemicals found in soy and other legumes. Epidemiological studies point to a reduced risk for hormone‑dependent cancers in populations following a typical Asian diet rich in soy products. IF act as phytoestrogens and prevent tumorigenesis in rodent models by a broad spectrum of bioactivities. During the past 10 years, IF were shown to target all major epigenetic mechanisms regulating gene expression, including DNA methylation, histone modifications controlling chromatin accessibility, and non-coding RNAs. These effects have been suggested to contribute to cancer preventive potential in in vitro and in vivo studies, affecting several key processes such as DNA repair, cell signaling cascades including Wnt-signaling, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, migration and invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, metastasis formation and development of drug-resistance. We here summarize the state-of-the-art of IF affecting the epigenome in major hormone-dependent, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tumor types and in in vivo studies on anti-cancer treatment or developmental aspects, and short-term intervention studies in adults. These data, while often requiring replication, suggest that epigenetic gene regulation represents an important novel target of IF and should be taken into consideration when evaluating the cancer preventive potential of IF in humans.

  12. Using implementation science to advance cancer prevention in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Sivaram, Sudha; Anderson, Benjamin O; Basu, Partha; Belinson, Jerome L; Bhatla, Neerja; D'Cruz, Anil; Dhillon, Preet K; Gupta, Prakash C; Joshi, Niranjan; Jhulka, P K; Kailash, Uma; Kapambwe, Sharon; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Kaur, Tanvir; Mathur, Prashant; Prakash, Anshu; Sankaranarayanan, R; Selvam, Jerard M; Seth, Tulika; Shah, Keerti V; Shastri, Surendra; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Srivastava, Anurag; Trimble, Edward; Rajaraman, Preetha; Mehrotra, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Oral, cervical and breast cancers, which are either preventable and/or amenable to early detection and treatment, are the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in India. In this paper, we describe implementation science research priorities to catalyze the prevention and control of these cancers in India. Research priorities were organized using a framework based on the implementation science literature and the World Health Organization's definition of health systems. They addressed both community-level as well as health systems-level issues. Community-level or "pull" priorities included the need to identify effective strategies to raise public awareness and understanding of cancer prevention, monitor knowledge levels, and address fear and stigma. Health systems-level or "push" and "infrastructure" priorities included dissemination of evidence- based practices, testing of point-of-care technologies for screening and diagnosis, identification of appropriate service delivery and financing models, and assessment of strategies to enhance the health workforce. Given the extent of available evidence, it is critical that cancer prevention and treatment efforts in India are accelerated. Implementation science research can generate critical insights and evidence to inform this acceleration. PMID:25987015

  13. Protein nitration and nitrosylation by NO-donating aspirin in colon cancer cells: Relevance to its mechanism of action

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Jennie L.; Ji, Ping; Ouyang, Nengtai; Kopelovich, Levy; Rigas, Basil

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide-donating aspirin (NO-ASA) is a promising agent for cancer prevention. Although studied extensively, its molecular targets and mechanism of action are still unclear. S-nitrosylation of signaling proteins is emerging as an important regulatory mechanism by NO. Here, we examined whether S-nitrosylation of the NF-κB, p53, and Wnt signaling proteins by NO-ASA might explain, in part, its mechanism of action in colon cancer. NO-ASA releases significant amounts of NO detected intracellul...

  14. Sponsoring Organization | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) project officers are responsible for the design and oversight of all aspects of the PLCO trial. These NCI components work directly with the Coordinating Center which provides support for development and implementation of the study protocol; and with the Principal Investigators from each of the Screening Centers to ensure that the technical aspects of the trial are carried out under rigorous scientific standards. |

  15. Cancer-associated thrombosis: prevention and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Brose, K.M.J.; Lee, A.Y.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with cancer are at high risk to develop venous thromboembolism, and they are also more likely to develop complications from anticoagulant treatment. Because little research has focused on the oncology population to date, the optimal methods of prophylaxis and treatment remain uncertain in some clinical situations. Currently, low molecular weight heparin and warfarin are the most frequently used pharmacologic agents; however, they have their limitations. Other therapeutic options, suc...

  16. Transforming Cancer Prevention through Precision Medicine and Immune-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensler, Thomas W; Spira, Avrum; Garber, Judy E; Szabo, Eva; Lee, J Jack; Dong, Zigang; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Hait, William N; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Davidson, Nancy E; Foti, Margaret; Lippman, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    We have entered a transformative period in cancer prevention (including early detection). Remarkable progress in precision medicine and immune-oncology, driven by extraordinary recent advances in genome-wide sequencing, big-data analytics, blood-based technologies, and deep understanding of the tumor immune microenvironment (TME), has provided unprecedented possibilities to study the biology of premalignancy. The pace of research and discovery in precision medicine and immunoprevention has been astonishing and includes the following clinical firsts reported in 2015: driver mutations detected in circulating cell-free DNA in patients with premalignant lesions (lung); clonal hematopoiesis shown to be a premalignant state; molecular selection in chemoprevention randomized controlled trial (RCT; oral); striking efficacy in RCT of combination chemoprevention targeting signaling pathway alterations mechanistically linked to germline mutation (duodenum); molecular markers for early detection validated for lung cancer and showing promise for pancreatic, liver, and ovarian cancer. Identification of HPV as the essential cause of a major global cancer burden, including HPV16 as the single driver of an epidemic of oropharyngeal cancer in men, provides unique opportunities for the dissemination and implementation of public health interventions. Important to immunoprevention beyond viral vaccines, genetic drivers of premalignant progression were associated with increasing immunosuppressive TME; and Kras vaccine efficacy in pancreas genetically engineered mouse (GEM) model required an inhibitory adjuvant (Treg depletion). In addition to developing new (e.g., epigenetic) TME regulators, recent mechanistic studies of repurposed drugs (aspirin, metformin, and tamoxifen) have identified potent immune activity. Just as precision medicine and immune-oncology are revolutionizing cancer therapy, these approaches are transforming cancer prevention. Here, we set out a brief agenda for the

  17. Review article about nutrition and primary prevention of oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atena Shiva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a worldwide problem that is caused by a variety of different factors increasing over a number of years. Oral cancer is a very prevalent disease and one of the most 10 common causes of death. It is important that the risk factors can be controlled. Selecting the correct health behaviors and preventing exposure to convinced environmental risk factors can help to prevent the expansion of cancer. Scientists guess that as many as 30-40 percent of all cancer-related deaths are caused by human behaviors such as smoking, consumption of alcohol, poor diet quality and physical inactivity. This result explains the tendency in the following behaviors that can influence the possibility of getting cancer, especially oral cancer in addition to providing information and classes about healthy eating habits and a subsequent healthy lifestyle at home. In fact, a diet rich in fresh fruits, whole grains and vegetables can decrease the risk of the oral cancer because of certain compounds such as vitamin C, E, carotenoids and lycopene. Moreover, limit consumption of meat, particularly processed meat, and replace it with vegetable proteins and fish (rich of omega 3 are helpful and effective.

  18. Fasting and Caloric Restriction in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Longo, Valter D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and among the leading major diseases in the world. It is anticipated to continue to increase because of the growth of the aging population and prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and/or poor dietary habits. Cancer treatment has remained relatively similar during the past 30 years with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery remaining the standard therapies although novel therapies are slowly replacing or complementing the standard ones. According to the American Cancer Society, the dietary recommendation for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is to increase calorie and protein intake. In addition, there are no clear guidelines on the type of nutrition that could have a major impact on cancer incidence. Yet, various forms of reduced caloric intake such as calorie restriction (CR) or fasting demonstrate a wide range of beneficial effects able to help prevent malignancies and increase the efficacy of cancer therapies. Whereas chronic CR provides both beneficial and detrimental effects as well as major compliance challenges, periodic fasting (PF), fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs), and dietary restriction (DR) without a reduction in calories are emerging as interventions with the potential to be widely used to prevent and treat cancer. Here, we review preclinical and preliminary clinical studies on dietary restriction and fasting and their role in inducing cellular protection and chemotherapy resistance. PMID:27557543

  19. Metformin: On Ongoing Journey across Diabetes, Cancer Therapy and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Strano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metabolism is the focus of intense research, which witnesses its key role in human tumors. Diabetic patients treated with metformin exhibit a reduced incidence of cancer and cancer-related mortality. This highlights the possibility that the tackling of metabolic alterations might also hold promising value for treating cancer patients. Here, we review the emerging role of metformin as a paradigmatic example of an old drug used worldwide to treat patients with type II diabetes which to date is gaining strong in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities to be included in clinical trials. Metformin is also becoming the focus of intense basic and clinical research on chemoprevention, thus suggesting that metabolic alteration is an early lesion along cancer transformation. Metabolic reprogramming might be a very efficient prevention strategy with a profound impact on public health worldwide.

  20. External Link Policy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following graphic notice means that you are leaving the DCP Web site: (link is external)This external link provides additional information that is consistent with the intended purpose of DCP.The National Cancer Institute (NCI) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal site.Linking to a non-federal site does not constitute an endorsement by HHS or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the site.You will be subject to the destination site |

  1. 1. HUMAN POPULATION MONITORING FOR CANCER PREVENTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Most of the chemicals classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as human carcinogens are mutagenic across test systems, cf. [www.epa.gov/gapdb ] and induce tumors at multiple sites in rodent species. They are therefore readity detected in short term tests for gene-tic and related effects (GRE), in animal carcinogenesis bioassays and in human monitoring studies. Carcinogens that are not genotoxic may be studied using new toxicogenomic approaches as will be discussed. A Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS) database is planned by the National Center for Toxicogenomics to contain information on such compounds. The 1992 Preamble to the IARC Monographs

  2. Primary Cancer Prevention by Green Tea, and Tertiary Cancer Prevention by the Combination of Green Tea Catechins and Anticancer Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiki, Hirota; Sueoka, Eisaburo; Watanabe, Tatsuro; Suganuma, Masami

    2015-01-01

    Green tea is a daily beverage, a non-oxidized non-fermented product containing at least four green tea catechins. Considering our first results when repeated applications of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) prevented tumor promotion in mouse skin, we have continued to look at green tea as a possible cancer preventive agent. 1) The 10-year prospective cohort study by Drs. K. Nakachi and K. Imai revealed that drinking 10 Japanese-size cups (120 mL/cup) of green tea per day delayed cancer ons...

  3. Current strategies for the prevention of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Advani P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pooja Advani, Alvaro Moreno-AspitiaDepartment of Hematology and Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USAAbstract: Due to the high incidence of breast cancer in the United States, optimal strategies for its prevention are imperative. This entails identification of women who are at an increased risk for breast cancer and an integrative approach that includes effective screening methods as well as nutritional, pharmacologic, and surgical management. Several breast cancer risk-assessment tools, such as the Gail and Claus models, can help clinicians determine the quantitative risk of breast cancer. The role of selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, for the prevention of breast cancer has been well established. Several other agents, such as aromatase inhibitors, are currently being investigated. The potential adverse effects of these chemopreventive agents, which include an impact on the quality of life, must be discussed with the patient before deciding on this approach. Additionally, breast cancer risk factors have been identified over the years; some of them are modifiable, but others are not. Although there is no conclusive evidence to suggest the protective role of specific dietary components, alcohol consumption and obesity are associated with an increased breast cancer risk; thus lifestyle changes can lead to a lower risk of developing breast cancer. Surgical approaches, including bilateral risk-reduction mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, are usually limited to women with a hereditary predisposition to development of breast cancer. The objective of this review is to summarize the various approaches directed at reducing the incidence of breast cancer.Keywords: chemoprevention, tamoxifen, raloxifene, prophylactic surgery

  4. Molecular targets of aspirin and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, L; Ai, G; Spitale, R C; Bhat, G J

    2014-07-01

    Salicylates from plant sources have been used for centuries by different cultures to treat a variety of ailments such as inflammation, fever and pain. A chemical derivative of salicylic acid, aspirin, was synthesised and mass produced by the end of the 19th century and is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. Its cardioprotective properties are well established; however, recent evidence shows that it can also act as a chemopreventive agent. Its antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory actions occur through the inhibition of cyclooxygenases. The precise mechanisms leading to its anticancer effects are not clearly established, although multiple mechanisms affecting enzyme activity, transcription factors, cellular signalling and mitochondrial functions have been proposed. This review presents a brief account of the major COX-dependent and independent pathways described in connection with aspirin's anticancer effects. Aspirin's unique ability to acetylate biomolecules besides COX has not been thoroughly investigated nor have all the targets of its primary metabolite, salicylic acid been identified. Recent reports on the ability of aspirin to acetylate multiple cellular proteins warrant a comprehensive study to investigate the role of this posttranslational modification in its anticancer effects. In this review, we also raise the intriguing possibility that aspirin may interact and acetylate cellular molecules such as RNA, and metabolites such as CoA, leading to a change in their function. Research in this area will provide a greater understanding of the mechanisms of action of this drug. PMID:24874482

  5. Nutrition Frontiers - Spring 2016 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 7, Issue 2 The spring issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases green tea's effect on human metabolism, fish oil — as a chemopreventive agent in myeloid leukemia and, with pectin, how they affect microRNA expression in the colon. Learn about our spotlight investigator, Dr. Richard Eckert, and his research on skin cancer prevention, upcoming announcements and more. |

  6. Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripamonti Carla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In breast cancer patients, bone is the most common site of metastases. Medical therapies are the basic therapy to prevent distant metastases and recurrence and to cure them. Radiotherapy has a primary role in pain relief, recalcification and stabilization of the bone, as well as the reduction of the risk of complications (e.g., bone fractures, spinal cord compression. Bisphosphonates, as potent inhibitors of osteoclastic-mediated bone resorption are a well-established, standard-of-care treatment option to reduce the frequency, severity and time of onset of the skeletal related events in breast cancer patients with bone metastases. Moreover bisphosphonates prevent cancer treatment-induced bone loss. Recent data shows the anti-tumor activity of bisphosphonates, in particular, in postmenopausal women and in older premenopausal women with hormone-sensitive disease treated with ovarian suppression. Pain is the most frequent symptom reported in patients with bone metastases, and its prevention and treatment must be considered at any stage of the disease. The prevention and treatment of bone metastases in breast cancer must consider an integrated multidisciplinary approach.

  7. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which mod...

  8. Tea Polyphenols and Their Roles in Cancer Prevention and Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Ping Dou

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Many plant-derived, dietary polyphenols have been studied for their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties against human cancers, including green tea polyphenols, genistein (found in soy, apigenin (celery, parsley, luteolin (broccoli, quercetin (onions, kaempferol (broccoli, grapefruits, curcumin (turmeric, etc. The more we understand their involved molecular mechanisms and cellular targets, the better we could utilize these “natural gifts” for the prevention and treatment of human cancer. Furthermore, better understanding of their structure-activity relationships will guide synthesis of analog compounds with improved bio-availability, stability, potency and specificity. This review focuses on green tea polyphenols and seeks to summarize several reported biological effects of tea polyphenols in human cancer systems, highlight the molecular targets and pathways identified, and discuss the role of tea polyphenols in the prevention and treatment of human cancer. The review also briefly describes several other dietary polyphenols and their biological effects on cancer prevention and chemotherapy.

  9. Dutasteride May Slow the Growth of Early-Stage Prostate Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    For men who are undergoing active surveillance for early-stage prostate cancer, the drug dutasteride (Avodart) could help control the disease and prevent the need for more aggressive treatments. |

  10. Breast cancer prevention and control programs in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlui, Maznah; Ramli, Sofea; Bulgiba, Awang M

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Malaysian females. The National Cancer Registry in 2003 and 2006 reported that the age standardized incidence of breast cancer was 46.2 and 39.3 per 100,000 populations, respectively. With the cumulative risk at 5.0; a woman in Malaysia had a 1 in 20 chance of developing breast cancer in her lifetime. The incidence of cancer in general, and for breast cancer specifically was highest in the Chinese, followed by Indians and Malays. Most of the patients with breast cancers presented at late stages (stage I: 15.45%, stage II: 46.9%, stage III: 22.2% and stage IV: 15.5%). The Healthy Lifestyles Campaign which started in the early nineties had created awareness on breast cancer and after a decade the effort was enhanced with the Breast Health Awareness program to promote breast self examination (BSE) to all women, to perform annual clinical breast examination (CBE) on women above 40 and mammogram on women above 50. The National Health Morbidity Survey in 2006 showed that the prevalence rate of 70.35% by any of three methods of breast screening; 57.1% by BSE, 51.8% by CBE and 7.6% by mammogram. The current screening policy for breast cancer focuses on CBE whereby all women at the age of 20 years and above must undergo breast examination by trained health care providers every 3 years for age between 20-39 years, and annually for age 40 and above. Several breast cancer preventive programs had been developed by various ministries in Malaysia; among which are the RM50 subsidy for mammogram by the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development and the SIPPS program (a call-recall system for women to do PAP smear and CBE) by the Ministry of Health. Measures to increase uptake of breast cancer screening and factors as to why women with breast cancer present late should be studied to assist in more development of policy on the prevention of breast cancer in Malaysia. PMID:22126511

  11. Behaviour among women in the scope of cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Słopiecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cytological examination is a simple and inexpensive method used in the prevention of cervical cancer. In Poland, too low proportions of women still have the test. Aim of the research : To analyse the attitudes towards cervical cancer prevention. Material and methods : Two hundred and ten hospitalized women were invited to take part in the investigation. The research used the diagnostic poll method, using the author’s original questionnaire form. The research was carried out in four gynaecological wards. Results : Of the women who participated in the research, 16.2% by the time of diagnosis had never received a Pap test. In the analysed group, 88.2% of women were not referred to a specialist for a Pap test. Among all respondents, only 35.7% underwent cervix cytology regularly, i.e. once a year or once every 2 years. Conclusions : The effort made by the women towards the attitudes of cervical cancer prevention was insufficient; still too many women had not reported to the specialist for taking material from the cervix, or did not do so regularly. A significant relation in the behaviour of women was found depending on their level of education and place of residence. Greater activity of nurses, midwives and family physicians in stimulating Polish women to participate in prevention programmes for cervical cancer is advisable. To increase the health awareness of girls and women, it is important to include in the curriculum, especially in secondary schools, the issues of prevention of female reproductive system cancer.

  12. Neurotransmission and cancer: implications for prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Hildegard M

    2008-08-01

    Published evidence compiled in this review supports the hypothesis that the development, progression, and responsiveness to prevention and therapy of the most common human cancers is strongly influenced, if not entirely orchestrated, by an imbalance in stimulatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. The neurotransmitters acetylcholine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline of the autonomic nervous system act as powerful upstream regulators that orchestrate numerous cell and tissue functions, by releasing growth factors, angiogenesis factors and metastasis factors, arachidonic acid, proinflammatory cytokines, and local neurotransmitters from cancer cells and their microenvironment. In addition, they modulate proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis of cancer directly by intracellular signaling downstream of neurotransmitter receptors. Nicotine and the tobacco-specific nitrosamines have the documented ability to hyperstimulate neurotransmission by both branches of the autonomic nervous system. The expression and function of these neurotransmitter pathways are cell type specific. Lifestyle, diet, diseases, stress, and pharmacological treatments modulate the expression and responsiveness of neurotransmitter pathways. Current preclinical testing systems fail to incorporate the modulating effects of neurotransmission on the responsiveness to anticancer agents and should be amended accordingly. The neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid has a strong inhibitory function on sympathicus-driven cancers whereas stimulators of cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A signaling have strong inhibitory function on parasympathicus-driven cancers. Marker-guided restoration of the physiological balance in stimulatory and inhibitory neurotransmission represents a promising and hitherto neglected strategy for the prevention and therapy of neurotransmitter-responsive cancers. PMID:18594207

  13. Eradication of H pylori for the prevention of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karolin Trautmann; Manfred Stolte; Stephan Miehlke

    2006-01-01

    Tnfection with H pylori is the most important known etiological factor associated with gastric cancer. While colonization of the gastric mucosa with H pylori results in active and chronic gastritis in virtually all individuals infected, the likelihood of developing gastric cancer depends on environmental, bacterial virulence and host specific factors. The majority of all gastric cancer cases are attributable to H pylori infection and therefore theoretically preventable. There is evidence from animal models that eradication of H pylori at an early time point can prevent gastric cancer development. However, randomized clinical trials exploring the prophylactic effect of H pylori eradication on the incidence of gastric cancer in humans remain sparse and have yielded conflicting results. Better markers for the identification of patientsat risk for H pylori induced gastric malignancy are needed to allow the development of a more efficient public eradication strategy. Meanwhile, screening and treatment of H pylori in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients as well as certain high-risk populations might be beneficial.

  14. Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task ...

  15. Knowledge of medical school students on breast cancer and cervical cancer, and their prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Liszcz; Badowska-Kozakiewicz, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer and cervical cancer are the most common cancers in women. Early diagnosis of the disease can reduce mortality, so it plays an important role in the field of prevention measures. An important aspect is education, the aim of which is to provide information on the risk factors for cervical cancer and breast cancer, as well as the possibility of eliminating them from the life of women, but also shaping women’s need to perform regular diagnostics. Aim of the resea...

  16. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Azam; Ghiasvand, Reza; Hadji, Maryam; Nahvijou, Azin; Mousavi, Azam-Sadat; Pakgohar, Minoo; Khodakarami, Nahid; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Amouzegar Hashemi, Farnaz; Rahnamaye Farzami, Marjan; Shahsiah, Reza; Sajedinejhad, Sima; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali; Nadali, Fatemeh; Rashidian, Arash; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Mogensen, Ole; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV) have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods: We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results: From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion: A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran.

  17. Priority Setting for Improvement of Cervical Cancer Prevention in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Majidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Organized cervical screening and vaccination against human papilloma virus (HPV have been successful interventions for prevention of invasive cervical cancer (ICC. Because of cultural and religious considerations, ICC has low incidence in Iran and many other Muslim countries. There is no organized cervical screening in these countries. Therefore, ICC is usually diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis in these countries. We performed a priority setting exercise and suggested priorities for prevention of ICC in this setting. Methods We invited experts and researchers to a workshop and asked them to list important suggestions for ICC prevention in Iran. After merging similar items and removing the duplicates, we asked the experts to rank the list of suggested items. We used a strategy grid and Go-zone analysis to determine final list of priorities for ICC prevention in Iran. Results From 26 final items suggested as priorities for prevention of ICC, the most important priorities were developing national guidelines for cervical screening and quality control protocol for patient follow-up and management of precancerous lesions. In addition, we emphasized considering insurance coverage for cervical screening, public awareness, and research priorities, and establishment of a cervical screening registry. Conclusion A comprehensive approach and implementation of organized cervical screening program is necessary for prevention of ICC in Iran and other low incidence Muslim countries. Because of high cost for vaccination and low incidence of cervical cancer, we do not recommend HPV vaccination for the time being in Iran.

  18. [Prevention of cervical and breast cancer in health services and non-governmental organizations in the city of Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Marisa

    2013-08-01

    The article analyzes actions for the prevention of cervical and breast cancer in public, private, and employment-based health services and in non-governmental organizations in the city of Buenos Aires. The article seeks to reflect on the reach and limitations of the approaches implemented in the three subsectors of the health care system and the community to prevent women from suffering or eventually dying as a consequence of these diseases, in the fragmented context of a health system with great heterogeneity in access and deep social inequalities in the use of preventive actions. The study utilizes a broad definition of prevention which integrates education, awareness-building and early detection of pre-carcinogenic and carcinogenic lesions, among other medical and non-medical components. The results were obtained using semi-structured interviews with subjects from public hospitals, employment-based health care services, private medical companies and non-governmental organizations with work in cancer prevention. These results show that contrary to a comprehensive approach, each institution limits its actions to only one aspect of prevention, implementing predominately isolated or disconnected actions inadequate to generate an autonomous and well-informed demand for treatment and health care among women. PMID:23989627

  19. Dietary prevention of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric cancer with kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Migyeong; Park, Jong-Min; Han, Young-Min; Park, Kun Young; Lee, Don Haeng; Yoo, Joon-Hwan; Cho, Joo Young; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2015-10-01

    To prove whether dietary intervention can prevent Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer, we developed cancer preventive kimchi (cpKimchi) through special recipe and administered to chronic H. pylori-initiated, high salt diet-promoted, gastric tumorigenesis mice model. H. pylori-infected C57BL/6 mice were administered with cpKimchi mixed in drinking water up to 36 weeks. Gross and pathological gastric lesions were evaluated after 24 and 36 weeks, respectively and explored underlying molecular changes to explain efficacies. Cancer preventive actions of anti-inflammation and anti-mutagenesis were compared between standard recipe kimchi (sKimchi) and special recipe cpKimchi in in vitro H. pylori-infected cell model. The erythematous and nodular changes, mucosal ulcerative and erosive lesions in the stomach were noted at 24th weeks, but cpKimchi administration significantly ameliorated. After 36th weeks, scattered nodular masses, some ulcers, and thin nodular gastric mucosa were noted in H. pylori-infected mice, whereas these gross lesions were significantly attenuated in cpKimchi group. On molecular analysis, significant expressions of COX-2 and IL-6, activated NF-κB and STAT3, increased apoptosis, and marked oxidative stresses were noted in H. pylori-infected group relevant to tumorigenesis, but these were all significantly attenuated in cpKimchi group. cpKimchi extracts imparted significant selective induction of apoptosis only in cancer cells, led to inhibition of H. pylori-induced proliferation, while no cytotoxicity through significant HO-1 induction in non-transformed gastric cells. In conclusion, daily dietary intake of cpKimchi can be an effective way either to rejuvenate H. pylori-atrophic gastritis or to prevent tumorigenesis supported with the concerted actions of anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-mutagenic mechanisms. PMID:26317548

  20. Building risk-on-a-chip models to improve breast cancer risk assessment and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidi, Pierre-Alexandre; Leary, James; Lelièvre, Sophie A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Preventive actions for chronic diseases hold the promise of improving lives and reducing healthcare costs. For several diseases, including breast cancer, multiple risk and protective factors have been identified by epidemiologists. The impact of most of these factors has yet to be fully understood at the organism, tissue, cellular and molecular levels. Importantly, combinations of external and internal risk and protective factors involve cooperativity thus, synergizing or antagonizing disease onset. Models are needed to mechanistically decipher cancer risks under defined cellular and microenvironmental conditions. Here, we briefly review breast cancer risk models based on 3D cell culture and propose to improve risk modeling with lab-on-a-chip approaches. We suggest epithelial tissue polarity, DNA repair and epigenetic profiles as endpoints in risk assessment models and discuss the development of ‘risks-on-chips’ integrating biosensors of these endpoints and of general tissue homeostasis. Risks-on-chips will help identify biomarkers of risk, serve as screening platforms for cancer preventive agents, and provide a better understanding of risk mechanisms, hence resulting in novel developments in disease prevention. PMID:23681255

  1. Sulforaphane – a possible agent in prevention and therapy of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Tomczyk

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulforaphane (SFN is an isothiocyanate that is naturally present in cruciferous vegetables, with high concentration in broccoli. The results of the most recent studies indicate multi-targeted sulforaphane actions which may contribute to prevention and therapy of cancer. Protective properties of sulforaphane have been observed in every stage of carcinogenesis. The mechanism of protection against the initiation of carcinogenesis by SFN includes modulation of phase I and II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, as well as direct blocking of specific binding sites of carcinogens with the DNA molecule. As a result, sulforaphane inhibits DNA adduct formation, thus reducing the risk of mutations. Further sulforaphane activity is targeted at cancer cells and prevents their expansion due to regulation of proliferation and induction of differentiation or apoptosis. In vitro studies using various types of cancer cells have revealed the ability of SFN to arrest the cell cycle, particularly in G2/M, while SFN at higher concentration is shown to activate apoptotic pathways. The possible SFN anticancer effect in the progression stage of carcinogenesis has been proved by only a few studies, which provide evidence for its antiangiogenic and antimetastatic influence. Additionally, SFN exhibits anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects relevant to cancer prevention.Apart from the biological activity of SFN, this review also focuses on its bioavailability and tissue distribution as well as individuals’ genetic predispositions as significant factors influencing the potential efficiency of chemoprevention using this compound.

  2. Law 16.097 Prevention program of uterine cervix cancer in Uruguay: Uterine cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every year in Uruguay, is diagnosed around 600 new cases of cancer of uterine cervix. Next important information was related on this cancer and the evolution that will have the carrying of this illness, it was informed about the prevention, symptoms, I diagnose and treatment of the same one

  3. Diet, Supplement Use, and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results From the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kristal, Alan R.; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Neuhouser, Marian L; Goodman, Phyllis; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Albanes, Demetrius; Thompson, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined nutritional risk factors for prostate cancer among 9,559 participants in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (United States and Canada, 1994–2003). The presence or absence of cancer was determined by prostate biopsy, which was recommended during the trial because of an elevated prostate-specific antigen level or an abnormal digital rectal examination and was offered to all men at the trial's end. Nutrient intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and a str...

  4. The promise of omics-based approaches to cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerzaman, Daoud; Dunn, Barbara K; Lee, Maxwell; Chen, Qingrong; Yan, Chunhua; Ross, Sharon

    2016-02-01

    Cancer is a complex category of diseases caused in large part by genetic or genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic or epigenomic alterations in affected cells and the surrounding microenvironment. Carcinogenesis reflects the clonal expansion of cells that progressively acquire these genetic and epigenetic alterations-changes that, in turn, lead to modifications at the RNA level. Gradually advancing technology and most recently, the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS), combined with bioinformatics analytic tools, have revolutionized our ability to interrogate cancer cells. The ultimate goal is to apply these high-throughput technologies to the various aspects of clinical cancer care: cancer-risk assessment, diagnosis, as well as target identification for treatment and prevention. In this article, we emphasize how the knowledge gained through large-scale omics-oriented approaches, with a focus on variations at the level of nucleic acids, can inform the field of chemoprevention. PMID:26970123

  5. Annual Fasting; the Early Calories Restriction for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solat Eslami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Essentially, people’s diet and nutritional status has been changed substantially worldwide and several lines of evidence suggest that these changes are to the detriment of their health. Additionally, it has been well documented that unhealthy diet especially the fast foods, untraditional foods or bad-eating-habits influence the human gut microbiome. The gut microbiota shapes immune responses during human life and affects his/her metabolomic profiles. Furthermore, many studies highlight the molecular pathways that mediate host and symbiont interactions that regulate proper immune function and prevention of cancer in the body. Intriguingly, if cancer forms in a human body due to the weakness of immune system in detriment of microbiome, the removal of cancer stem cells can be carried out through early Calories Restriction with Annual Fasting (AF before tumor development or progress. Besides, fasting can b balance the gut microbiome for enhancement of immune system against cancer formation.

  6. Role of prevention and screening in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddireddi Reddi Rani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is a disease with poor prognosis and high mortality among gynaecological cancers due to inaccessibility of ovary for inspection or sampling and lack of proper screening methods. Strategies to detect early ovarian cancer include estimation of serum CA-125 and transvaginal ultrasound (TVS for morphological index. Studies have shown that screening of asymptomatic average risk post-menopausal women did not show any benefit and are associated with false positive results which may lead to unnecessary surgery and resultant morbidity. The risks outweigh benefits. Present recommendation is to screen high risk women especially hereditary cancers and offer risk reducing surgery when needed. Prophylactic salpingectomy/oophorectomy may offer the opportunity to prevent ovarian cancer. More trials and more research in newer biomarkers are needed. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 941-946

  7. Blood Type Influences Pancreatic Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variation in the gene that determines ABO blood type influences the risk of pancreatic cancer, according to the results of the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) for this highly lethal disease. The genetic variation, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), was discovered in a region of chromosome 9 that harbors the gene that determines blood type, the researchers reported August 2 online in Nature Genetics. |

  8. Educating cancer prevention researchers in emerging biobehavioral models: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Davila, Marivel; Kamrudin, Samira A; Li, Dennis H; Noor, Syed W; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Chang, Shine; Cameron, Carrie

    2011-12-01

    To increase the adoption of transdisciplinary research methods among future cancer prevention investigators, faculty members from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a graduate-level course in biobehavioral methods in cancer prevention research. Two instructors paired by topic and area of expertise offered an hour-long lecture-based seminar every week for 15 weeks during the spring semester of 2010. Students and presenters both evaluated the overall course content and delivery method, as well as each session. A total of 11 students and 22 presenters participated in the course. In each class session, one presenter was from a behavioral science background,and the other was from a biological sciences background. Both presenters and students expressed overall satisfaction with the content and format of the course. The presentation of topics from a transdisciplinary perspective and interaction with presenters from both biological and behavioral sciences are valuable and can help junior researchers prepare to meet the emerging challenges in cancer prevention research. PMID:21720937

  9. Continuing education in oral cancer prevention for dentists in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Juan; Varela-Centelles, Pablo; Tomás, Inmaculada; Seoane-Romero, Juan; Diz, Pedro; Takkouche, Bahi

    2012-09-01

    Continuing education (CE) can have a large impact on dentists' oral cancer attitudes, knowledge, and behavior. Reading scientific journals is a key component of CE. The objective of this study was to assess preventive and clinical attitudes of the participants in an educational intervention on oral cancer in Spain based on scientific journals. Members of the Spanish Board of Dentists and Stomatologists participated in an online, cross-sectional study, using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. There were 791 general dental practitioners (GDPs) invited to participate in the study. The large majority reported that they deliver tobacco-cessation counseling (93.6 percent) as well as advice on alcohol consumption (66.6 percent), but advice on vegetable intake was less frequently provided (42.4 percent). Alcohol intake advice, routine mucosa exploration, and biopsy performance on lesions suspicious of malignancy are preventive attitudes related to training. Compared with those who did not benefit from CE courses or did so only once, the GDPs who took four or more CE courses showed a doubling in the odds of giving alcohol advice to their patients and a tenfold increased odds of performing mucosa check on a routine basis; they were 3.5 times as likely to take biopsies of suspicious lesions. A longer experience as a GDP did not increase the probability of adopting preventive attitudes. In addition to presenting the results of this study, the article also discusses the general usefulness of other preventive measures in oral cancer. PMID:22942420

  10. Institutional actions based on nursing diagnoses for preventing falls in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Vivian Valcarenghi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to propose institutional actions based on nursing diagnoses for the prevention of falls in the elderly. Qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research, with 30 institutionalized senior citizens from Rio Grande, RS, Brazil. During data collection five instruments were applied from March to July 2009. One presents the elderly’s profile; aspects that favored the falls; nursing diagnoses; proposals for institutional actions to prevent falls. The nursing diagnoses were identified: impaired physical mobility, decreased ability to transfer, shower self-care deficit, dressing self-care deficit, impaired environmental interpretation syndrome, chronic confusion, impaired memory; syndrome of stress due to changes; risk of falls, risk of trauma. Through the identification of nursing diagnoses it was possible to make a proposal for institutional actions aimed at preventing falls in the elderly who reside in long-stay institutions.

  11. Opportunity for Collaboration: A Conceptual Model of Success in Tobacco Control and Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Frances A Stillman; Schmitt, Carol L.; Rosas, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Collaborations between cancer prevention and tobacco control programs can leverage scarce resources to address noncommunicable diseases globally, but barriers to cooperation and actual collaboration are substantial. To foster collaboration between cancer prevention and tobacco control programs, the Global Health Partnership conducted research to identify similarities and differences in how the 2 programs viewed program success. Methods Using concept mapping, cancer prevention and...

  12. EDUCATIONAL ASPECTS OF CERVICAL CANCER PREVENTION PROGRAM, BELÉM, PARÁ, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce Nascimento Pinheiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Health Education is primordial in primary care, can contribute to the success of the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program (CCPP. The objective of this study was to verify the women knowledge about cervical cancer and HPV virus, with emphasis on educational aspects. The study’s sample was represented by 157 women attending by the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program (CCPP of a public health unit in Belém/PA, in 2012. The age ranged from 17 to 80 years old, with a median of 37 years old, 60.5% of the people have not completed the high school and some of them has college, 71.3% had a family income of one minimum wage. Of all women, 10.2% were examined by Papanicolaou test for the first time, 56.1% for annual control. The spontaneous seeking by the examination was 79%. Among the women investigated, 0.6% have not known about the neoplasia. Part of them believes in cure and prevention of this disease, 79.6% and 89.2% of the women, respectively. 76.4% of the women have heard some information about HPV vírus and 40.2% about the vaccine. Therefore, is necessary to raise the level of knowing of women enrolled in Cervical Cancer Prevention Program (CCPP in the perspective of primary and secondary prevention of this neoplasia through of educational activities and the insertion of these actions in the elementary and high schools. These are important steps that can contribute with the Program in Belém, whose indices have been alarming.

  13. Radiological effects of Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident and preventive measures to decrease its action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of radiological effects of Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident in the USSR and preventive measures to decrease its action are given. Systematic medical examination of population and radiation situation in settlements of contaminated area confirmed efficiency of carried out preventive and protective measures. They include decontamination of settlements, removal of children and pregnant women for summer period rest, regular medical examination of local food-stuff, prohibition of conteminated food-stuff usage

  14. Actions of nurses and teachers in the prevention and combat of childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiane Dias da Rosa dos Santos; Camila Bueno Vitola; Isabel Cristinade Oliveira Arrieira; Maria Cristina da Silveira Chagas; Giovana Calcagno Gomes; Fabiani Weiss Pereira

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to know how nurses and teachers contribute to prevent and combat childhood obesity. It is a qualitative study, conducted in 2012, with data collected through interviews with three nurses from a basic health unit and eight teachers from a public school in southern Brazil. Thematic analysis pointed out as factors that contribute to childhood obesity eating unhealthy foods and the families’ food culture. As actions of prevention and combat there is the promotion o...

  15. Cialis (Tadalafil) Does Not Prevent Erectile Dysfunction in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prostate Cancer Study: Cialis (Tadalafil) Does Not Prevent Erectile Dysfunction in Prostate Cancer Patients Article date: April 4, ... that Cialis (tadalafil) does not help men avoid erectile dysfunction after radiation therapy for prostate cancer . Erection problems ...

  16. Cancer – Educate to Prevent” – High-School Teachers, the New Promoters of Cancer Prevention Education Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Ana; Moreira, Luís; Santos, Helena; Ribeiro, Nuno; Carvalho, Luís; Santos-Silva, Filipe

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and thus represents a priority for national public health programs. Prevention has been assumed as the best strategy to reduce cancer burden, however most cancer prevention programs are implemented by healthcare professionals, which constrain range and educational impacts. We developed an innovative approach for cancer prevention education focused on high-school biology teachers, considered privileged mediators in the socialization proce...

  17. Chinese Anti-Cancer Association as a non-governmental organization undertakes systematic cancer prevention work in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Tingting

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has become the first leading cause of death in the world, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Facing the increasing trend of cancer incidence and mortality, China issued and implemented “three-early (early prevention, early diagnosis and early treatment)” national cancer prevention plan. As the main body and dependence of social governance, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) take over the role of government in the field of cancer prevention and treatment. American Canc...

  18. Risk Factors, Preventive Practices, and Health Care Among Breast Cancer Survivors, United States, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Homan, Sherri G.; Kayani, Noaman; Yun, Shumei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We compared behavioral risk factors and preventive measures among female breast cancer survivors, female survivors of other types of cancers, and women without a history of cancer. Survivorship health care indicators for the 2 groups of cancer survivors were compared. Methods Using data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we calculated the proportion of women with risk factors and their engagement in preventive practices, stratified by cancer status (cancer ...

  19. PREVENTION OF DYSURIA AFTER HIFU THERAPY FOR PROSTATE CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yu. Shestaev; V. V. Protoshchak; L. M. Sinelnikov; V. A. Kardinalova; R. A. Yeloev

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to identify factors for the development of dysuria and its prevention in patients with prostate cancer (PC) after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy.Subjects and methods. In September 2008 to June 2013, the Clinic of Urology, S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy, treated 98 patients, by performing HIFU sessions on an Ablatherm apparatus (EDAP, France). All the patients underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) to reduce the volume of the ablated tissue. ...

  20. Mechanisms linking dietary fiber, gut microbiota and colon cancer prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Huawei; Lazarova, Darina L.; Bordonaro, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested that dietary fiber plays an important role in colon cancer prevention. These findings may relate to the ability of fiber to reduce the contact time of carcinogens within the intestinal lumen and to promote healthy gut microbiota, which modifies the host’s metabolism in various ways. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which dietary fiber-dependent changes in gut microbiota enhance bile acid deconjugation, produce short chain fatty acid...

  1. Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ripamonti Carla; Trippa Fabio; Barone Gloria; Maranzano Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    In breast cancer patients, bone is the most common site of metastases. Medical therapies are the basic therapy to prevent distant metastases and recurrence and to cure them. Radiotherapy has a primary role in pain relief, recalcification and stabilization of the bone, as well as the reduction of the risk of complications (e.g., bone fractures, spinal cord compression). Bisphosphonates, as potent inhibitors of osteoclastic-mediated bone resorption are a well-established, standard-of-care treat...

  2. Recent Progress in Cancer-Related Lymphedema Treatment and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Shaitelman, Simona F; Cromwell, Kate D.; Rasmussen, John C.; Stout, Nicole L; Armer, Jane M.; Lasinski, Bonnie B.; Cormier, Janice N

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the recent developments in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer-related lymphedema. Lymphedema incidence by tumor site is evaluated. Measurement techniques and trends in patient education and treatment are also summarized to include current trends in therapeutic and surgical treatment options as well as longer-term management. Finally, an overview of the policies related to insurance coverage and reimbursement will give the clinician an overv...

  3. Evaluating Bioactive Food Components in Obesity and Cancer Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, Kristi M.; Allison, David

    2015-01-01

    Research into bioactive food compounds (BFC) continues to evolve albeit with shared challenges among scientists in the fields of obesity and cancer treatment and prevention. Given the diversity of scientific disciplines involved in evaluating BFC, multi-disciplinary conferences provide opportunities to update the state of the science and critically discuss conceptual and methodological challenges encountered in studying BFC in both pre-clinical and clinical trials. This overview is an introdu...

  4. Prevention and Treatment of Atelectasis after Thoracotomy for Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yi; Zhao, Honglin; Xiaoming QIU; Wei, Sen; Li, Mei; Li, Zhigang; Chen, Gang; Daxing ZHU; Chen, Jun; Yongbo YANG; Zhou, Qinghua

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective Atelectasis is a common complication after thoracotomy, and it may threaten patients’ life if it was not treated correctly and properly. The aim of this article is to explore and discuss the prevention and treatment for atelectasis during the perioperative period, and also to explore new methods for reducing the perioperative mortality due to atelectasis after thoracotomy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 374 lung cancer patients who underwen...

  5. Nicotine prevents the apoptosis induced by menadione in human lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 50% of long-term cigarette smokers die prematurely from the adverse effects of smoking, including on lung cancer and other illnesses. Nicotine is a main component in tobacco and has been implicated as a potential factor in the pathogenesis of human lung cancer. However, the mechanism of nicotine action in the development of lung cancer remains largely unknown. In the present study, we designed a nicotine-apoptosis system, by pre-treatment of nicotine making lung cancer cell A549 to be in a physiological nicotine environment, and observed that nicotine promoted cell proliferation and prevented the menadione-induced apoptosis, and exerts its role of anti-apoptosis by shift of apoptotic stage induced by menadione from late apoptotic stage to early apoptotic stage, in which NF-κB was up-regulated. Interference analysis of NF-κB in A549 cells showed that knock down of NF-κB resulted in apoptosis promotion and counteracted the protective effect of nicotine. The findings suggest that nicotine has potential effect in lung cancer genesis, especially in patients with undetectable early tumor development and development of specific NF-κB inhibitors would represent a potentially exciting new pharmacotherapy for tobacco-related lung cancer

  6. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka;

    2014-01-01

    predominantly elderly community-dwelling women. Vitamin D₃ supplementation decreased cancer mortality and vitamin D supplementation decreased all-cause mortality, but these estimates are at risk of type I errors due to the fact that too few participants were examined, and to risks of attrition bias originating......BACKGROUND: The evidence on whether vitamin D supplementation is effective in decreasing cancers is contradictory. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of...... provided data for the analyses. All trials came from high-income countries. Most of the trials had a high risk of bias, mainly for-profit bias. Most trials included elderly community-dwelling women (aged 47 to 97 years). Vitamin D was administered for a weighted mean of six years. Fourteen trials tested...

  7. Behaviors, beliefs, and intentions in skin cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, R; Lee, C

    1990-08-01

    This study investigated knowledge, behaviors, and health beliefs of Australian university students (n = 312) regarding skin cancers and evaluated the effects of videotaped presentations. Students' knowledge and health beliefs were assessed, and they then viewed either an informational video, an emotionally involving video, or a control video. Knowledge and beliefs were assessed immediately and 10 weeks later. Postvideo skin protection intentions increased significantly from prevideo assessment among the two intervention groups compared to the controls. Maintenance of skin protection intentions was higher with the emotional video. Health belief variables, particularly perceived barriers, were significant predictors of knowledge, intention, and behavior. However, other variables such as skin type and previous experience with skin cancer were more important. Females had greater knowledge and stronger intentions to prevent skin cancer than males but reported fewer high-risk behaviors. PMID:2246784

  8. The mechanisms of photodynamic action for treating of cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Akopov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current views on mechanisms of therapeutic effect of photodynamic therapy for treating of cancer patients are represented. The history of formation and development of the method is described. The main requirements for agents used as photosensitizers are listed. Detailed review of main photosensitizers used in clinical practice in Russia and in foreign countries with their chemical structure, main spectral characteristics was performed. Methods of its application, therapeutic dose ranges, indications, specifi c pharmacokinetic properties and side-effects are briefl y outlined. Advantages and disadvantages of the most popular modern photosensitizers, main mechanisms of entry of photosensitizers of different chemical structure into cancer cells are observed. Three main possible component of anti-tumor effect: direct damage of cancer cells, impairment of vascular stroma of tumor and elimination of tumor due to immune cells are shown and closely discussed. Necrosis and apotosis of neovascular net which are main development trends of anti-tumor action for photodynamic therapy are noticed. 

  9. Prospective cohort study of comprehensive prevention to gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Qiang Guo; Peng Guan; Hai-Long Shi; Xuan Zhang; Bao-Sen Zhou; Yuan Yuan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the preliminary effects of comprehensive prevention of gastric cancer in Zhuanghe County epidemiologically.METHODS: Stratified sampling and cluster sampling were applied to define the intervention group and the control group. The prospective cohort study was used for evaluating the effect of preventing gastric cancer. The relative risk (RR)and attributable risk percent (AR %) of intervention on gastric cancer death were calculated. Potential years of life lost (PLYY) of the disease was analyzed, and the RR and AR %of PYLL were calculated. Survival analysis was applied among the screened patients.RESULTS: In the first 4 years after intervening, the relative risk (RR) of intervention on death was 0.5059 (95 % CI:0.3462~0.7392,P<0.05) with significance statistically. AR %of the intervention on death was 49.41%. The RR of intervention on cumulative PYLL was 0.6778 (95 % CI:0.5604~0.8198,P<0.05) with statistic significance. AR %of the intervention on cumulative PYLL was 30.32 %. The four-year survival rate of the screened patients was 0.6751(95 % CI: 0.5298~0.9047).CONCLUSION: The initiative intervention results showed that the intervention approach used in the trial was effective, it reduced mortality and increased survival rate, and alleviated the adverse effect of gastric cancer on the health and life of screened population.

  10. Helicobacter pylori eradication as a preventive tool against gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Goto, Yasuyuki; Nishio, Kazuko; Tanaka, Daisuke; Kawai, Sayo; Sakakibara, Hisataka; Kondo, Takaaki

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which increases the risk of gastric diseases, including digestive ulcers and gastric cancer, is highly prevalent in Asian countries. There is no doubt that eradication of the bacterium is effective as a treatment of digestive ulcer, but eradication aiming to reduce the gastric cancer risk is still controversial. Observational studies in Japan demonstrated that the eradication decreased the gastric cancer risk among 132 stomach cancer patients undergoing endoscopical resection (65 treated with omeprazol and antibiotics and 67 untreated). In Columbia, 976 participants were randomized into eight groups in a three-treatment factorial design including H. pylori eradication, resulting in significant regression in the H. pylori eradication group. A recent randomized study in China also showed a significant reduction of gastric cancer risk among those without any gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. Efficacy of eradication may vary in extent among countries with different incidence rates of gastric cancer. Since the lifetime cumulative risk (0 to 84 years old) of gastric cancer in Japan is reported to be 12.7% for males and 4.8% for females (Inoue and Tominaga, 2003), the corresponding values for H. pylori infected Japanese can be estimated at 21.2% in males and 8.0% in females under the assumptions that the relative risk for infected relative to uninfected is 5 and the proportion of those infected is 0.5. Both the fact that not all individuals are infected among those exposed and the knowledge that only a small percentage of individuals infected with the bacterium develop gastric cancer, indicate the importance of gene-environment interactions. Studies on such interactions should provide useful information for anti-H. pylori preventive strategies. PMID:15373702

  11. Knowledge, attitude, and behavior among Saudis toward cancer preventive practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandasamy Ravichandran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine self-reported knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices on cancer among Saudis. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from Saudis aged 15 years or more, who attended one of the randomly selected 20 Primary Health Centers (PHC or the four major private hospitals located in the Riyadh region, either as patients or their escorts. The association between the variables was evaluated by the Chi square test. Results: The study population consisted of 618 males and 719 females. Among the female respondents 23.1% reported that they practiced breast self-examination (BSE; 14.2 and 8.1%, respectively, had clinical breast examination (CBE and mammography. However, 10.0 and 16.1% of the females, aged 40 years and older, reported having had mammograms and CBE, respectively. The BSE performers were more educated, knew someone with cancer, and had heard of the cancer warning signal. Both educational level and ′heard of cancer warning signal′ were significantly related to CBE. Cancer information was received from television / radio by 65.1% and from the physician by 29.4%. Even though 69.4% believed that cancer could be detected early, a vast majority (95.8% felt early detection of cancer was extremely desirable and 55.1% said their participation was definite in any screening program. A majority of the respondents (92.6% insisted on the need for physician recommendation to participate and 78.1% expected that any such program should be conducted in the existing hospitals / clinics. Conclusion: Culturally sensitive health education messages should be tailored to fulfill the knowledge gap among all population strata. Saudis will benefit from partnerships between public health educators and media to speed up the dissemination of cancer information.

  12. Oral Cancer situation in the state of Bahia: estimates and action perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suélem Maria Santana Pinheiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is actually a challenge to Brazilian Public Health, once the number of new cases is growing in last decades. Some studies show that cancer was responsible for 12% of causa mortis in the World, achieving six millions of deaths per year. The aim of this study was to compare oral cancer estimates for Brasil and Bahia state in the years 2006/2007 and 2008/2009, to see the possible evolution of this pathology in the periods and, at same time, find perspectives of action for disease control. For this objective, it was searched the Instituto Nacional do Cancer database for oral cancer incidence estimates for the cited years, observing segregation for sex variable. This way, it was possible to compare both estimates. It was observed in Brasil an increase in the estimated crude incidence rates per 100.000 individuals, with a value of 3,58 in 2006/2007 going to 3,8 in 2008/2009 for females and 10,91 to 11,00 in males. In the state of Bahia, the estimated crude incidence rates increased 2,86 to 3,25 among females and 7,15 to 7,28 among males. However, specifically for the city of Salvador it was noted a decrease in incidence estimates, once the estimated crude incidence rate was 16,00 in 2006/2007 and 14,20 in 2008/2009 for males and 5,72 to 5,21 in females. Educative actions involving health professionals such as physicians, dentists, nurses, health agents and media campaigns that make possible early diagnosis and adoption of preventive measures, consequently improving survival rates and life quality in affected population

  13. Action Planning for Prevention and Recovery: A Self-Help Guide. Recovering Your Mental Health Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Mary Ellen

    Many people who have troubling emotional, psychiatric, or physical symptoms have made great advances in learning how to do things to help themselves get well and stay well. The action plans for prevention and recovery described in this booklet were devised by people who experience emotional or psychiatric symptoms. They developed ways to deal with…

  14. Circadian clock manipulation for cancer prevention and control and the relief of cancer symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrushesky, William J M; Grutsch, James; Wood, Patricia; Yang, Xiaoming; Oh, Eun-Young; Ansell, Christine; Kidder, Stephanie; Ferrans, Carol; Quiton, Dinah Faith T; Reynolds, Justin; Du-Quiton, Jovelyn; Levin, Robert; Lis, Christopher; Braun, Donald

    2009-12-01

    organization, which in turn is likely to help prevent and control human cancer. These drugs and strategies can, in turn, be used to make cancer patients with advanced disease feel and function more normally. PMID:19926611

  15. LEARNING AS A TOOL FOR CANCER PREVENTION THROUGH THE ACQUISITION OF NEW DIETARY HABITS AND BEHAVIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Brito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The need to promote knowledge of health entails, in part, by encouraging healthy eating habits. The creation of popular science materials, especially at schools, by promoting guidance for the eating habits is presented as an important tool. Foods that contain bioactive compounds are called nutraceutical foods and about 35% of various cancers occur due to inadequate diets. Conventional therapies are used in the treatment of cancer, even though they are efficient in fighting tumors, to cause many harmful effects to the patient, and therefore the researches for alternative therapies have increased. Especially those act strengthening the immunologic system. The mushrooms are able to modulate carcinogenesis in all stages of the disease through different mechanisms of action of the bioactive compounds, thus having an antitumor effect that is assigned to restore and improve the immune response through stimulation of cellular immunity which are present polysaccharides the composition of the mushrooms, such as beta-glucans that besides the anticancer effect, it still has activity as immunostimulant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, which are already used in Japan as drugs for treating cancer patients. The aim of this work was to use learning as a tool for acquiring habits and eating behaviors in the general community and ownership and acquisition of knowledge about the antitumor potential of bioactive compounds in foods which are applied in cancer prevention through the scientific dissemination / education. Because it is a popular science work using written material and the dissemination of the material make for yourself the methodology used for the dissemination of scientific knowledge. Thus, the inclusion of consumption of mushrooms in the diet may represent an important step in the cancer prevention as the best form of prevention, and therefore it shows the need for available information to everyone, as it has proposed this work, disclosure.

  16. Molecular markers and targets for colorectal cancer prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naveena B JANAKIRAM; Chinthalapally V RAO

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. If detected at an early stage, treatment often might lead to cure. As prevention is better than cure, epidemiological studies reveal that having a healthy diet often protects from pro-moting/developing cancer. An important consideration in evaluating new drugs and devices is determining whether a product can effectively treat a targeted disease. There are quite a number of biomarkers making their way into clinical trials and few are awaiting the preclinical efficacy and safety results to enter into clinical trials. Researchers are facing challenges in modifying trial design and defining the right control population, validating biomarker assays from the bio-logical and analytical perspective and using biomarker data as a guideline for decision making. In spite of following all guidelines, the results are disappointing from many of the large clinical trials. To avoid these disappointments, selection of biomarkers and its target drug needs to be evaluated in appropriate animal models for its toxicities and efficacies. The focus of this review is on the few of the potential molecular targets and their biomarkers in colorectal cancers. Strengths and limitations of biomarkers/surrogate endpoints are also discussed. Various pathways involved in tumor cells and the specific agents to target the altered molecular biomarkerin biomolecular pathwayare elucidated. Importance of emerging new platforms siRNAs and miRNAs technology for colorectal cancer therapeutics is reviewed.

  17. The Prevention of Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer: A Personal View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narod Steven

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Options for the prevention of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer include screening, preventive surgery and chemoprevention. Screening studies with magnetic resonance imaging of the breast are promising but the technology is not widespread and MRI is unlikely to be available as a screening tool in the near future. Prophylactic oophorectomy and mastectomy are effective preventive measures and are gaining in acceptance by patients and physicians. Preventive mastectomy is effective against both primary and contralateral breast cancer. Oophorectomy prevents ovarian cancer, and if done prior to menopause, will prevent breast cancer as well. Tamoxifen has been shown to prevent contralateral breast cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers but is not widely accepted as a means of primary prevention. Oral contraceptives and tubal ligation will reduce the risk of hereditary ovarian cancer and should be considered in women who wish to retain ovarian function.

  18. Reduction in the risk of prostate cancer: future directions after the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, E David; Andriole, Gerald L; Marberger, Michael; Rittmaster, Roger S

    2010-03-01

    The landmark Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) generated interest in the potential health benefits and cost of reducing prostate cancer risk--specifically, the potential role of 5alpha-reductase inhibitors. However, the PCPT raised several unanswered questions, including the cause and significance of the increased incidence of high-grade tumors associated with finasteride. In the present study, we review the PCPT findings and unanswered questions, next steps in this field, and ongoing prostate cancer prevention trials addressing these unanswered questions. Particular emphasis is placed on the design of the second large-scale trial of a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, the REduction by DUtasteride of prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial. PMID:20035983

  19. Prevention of Prostate Cancer: Outcomes of Clinical Trials and Future Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Ian; Kristal, Alan; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is an excellent target for prevention, to reduce both mortality and the burden of overdetection of potential inconsequential disease whose diagnosis increases cost, morbidity, and anxiety. The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial has demonstrated that finasteride significantly reduces the risk of prostate cancer but only low-grade disease; overall survival is unaffected. In the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) clinical trial, selenium had no effect on prosta...

  20. Enhancing a Cancer Prevention and Control Curriculum through Interactive Group Discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, L.P.; Gadalla, S M; Hamilton, J. G.; Heckman-Stoddard, B.M.; Kent, E.E.; Lai, G Y; Lin, S. W.; Luhn, P.; Faupel-Badger, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course (Principles course) is offered annually by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program. This four-week post-graduate course covers the spectrum of cancer prevention and control research (e.g. epidemiology, laboratory, clinical, social, and behavioral sciences) and is open to attendees from medical, academic, government, and related institutions across the world. In this report, we describe a new additio...

  1. Online Series presents The Impact of Obesity on Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is a critical public health problem which is worsening over time. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than one third (34.9% or 78.6 million) of U.S. adults are obese. Growing obesity incidence is associated with detrimental health consequences including cancer. Experts in the field of nutrition and cancer will present the latest data and future directions of research for this important topic. |

  2. Tool Weighs Benefits, Risks of Raloxifene or Tamoxifen to Prevent Breast Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have developed a benefit-risk index to help guide decisions on whether postmenopausal women at increased risk of developing breast cancer should take raloxifene or tamoxifen to reduce that risk. |

  3. Biorepository for Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PCPT biorepository and extended data was used to further explore the initial suggestion that some men taking finasteride were at risk of developing high-grade prostate cancers, and to look at the value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for early detection. Researchers showed that: |

  4. Additive and synergistic effect of phytochemicals in prevention of oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunira Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains is a practical strategy to optimize good health and to reduce the risk of various chronic diseases and cancer. There are approximately 5,000 individual phytochemicals which have been identified. These interfere with multiple important cellular pathways and play an important role in maintaining balance between health and disease. This article aims to provide awareness of various additive and synergistic effects of these natural occurring chemical substances (phytochemicals found in various fruits and vegetables. Their mechanism of action in preventing various chronic diseases and cancer is also been highlighted in this article. Grouping plant foods by color provides simplification, but it is also important as a method to help consumer′s make-wise food choices and promote health. We believe phytochemicals can be best acquired through whole-food consumption and not through the pills or an extracts.

  5. Association of Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostate Cancer: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Jeannette M.; Kristal, Alan R.; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Tangen, Catherine M.; Neuhouser, Marian L; Lin, Daniel W; White, Emily; Thompson, Ian M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer risk in 5,068 placebo-arm participants enrolled in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (1993–2003). These data include 1,225 men whose cancer was detected during the 7-year trial—556 detected for cause (following abnormal prostate-specific antigen or digital rectal examination) and 669 detected not for cause (without indication), as well as 3,843 men who had biopsy-proven absence of...

  6. Epidemiological study on cancer prevention by ginseng: are all kinds of cancers preventable by ginseng?

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, T K; Choi, S. Y.(Department of Physics, Chonbuk National University, 561-756, Jeonju, Republic of Korea); Yun, H Y

    2001-01-01

    In the light of experimental results, two case-control studies and one cohort study in a population of ginseng cultivation area were conducted to confirm whether ginseng has any anticarcinogenic effect on human cancers. All participants were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire to obtain the information on demographics, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and ginseng intake. In 905 pairs case-control study, 62% had a history of ginseng intake compared to 75% of the controls, a st...

  7. Frederick National Lab and the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network Award Fellowships for KRAS Research | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) recently formed a partnership with the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network (PanCAN) to award a one-year fellowship to two scientists whose research will help lead to new therapies for pancreatic cancer. The scientists will focus on KRAS, a gene in the RAS family that is mutated in 95 percent of pancreatic cancers, according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

  8. The dawn of a revolution in personalized lung cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri, Fadlo R

    2011-07-01

    Lung cancer prevention and early detection, which have fallen on hard times for more than the past 20 years, seem to have turned a corner toward better times ahead. Exciting new results of randomized controlled trials that targeted the arachidonic acid pathway, including a celecoxib trial reported by Mao and colleagues in this issue of the journal (beginning on page 984) and a trial of the prostacyclin analog iloprost, complement recently reported 20%-30% lung cancer mortality reductions, either with aspirin in targeting the arachidonic acid pathway or with computed tomography screening. The new results show encouraging activity personalized to former smokers and/or people expressing predictive biomarkers. These trials and technological advances in molecular profiling and imaging herald substantial clinical advances on the horizon of this field. PMID:21733817

  9. Prevention of erectile dysfunction after radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izak Faiena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing scrutiny of prostate cancer (PCa diagnosis and treatment, much attention has been given to the morbidity caused by radical prostatectomy (RP and/or radiotherapy (RT. One of the most common side-effects of either treatment is erectile dysfunction (ED. [1] Approximately, 40% of patients will experience ED after RT for PCa. The post-RT ED causes significant patient dissatisfaction with cancer treatment as well as decrease in patient and partner psychosocial function. [2] To address this issue in patients undergoing RT, Pisansky et al. [3] conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy of a phosphodiesterase enzyme-5 inhibitor (PDE5i, tadalafil, as a preventive measure for patients undergoing RT for PCa and found no difference in erectile function between the control and treatment groups.

  10. Biomarkers for diet and cancer prevention research: potentials and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cindy D DAVIS; John A MILNER

    2007-01-01

    As cancer incidence is projected to increase for decades there is a need for effec-tive preventive strategies. Fortunately, evidence continues to mount that altering dietary habits is an effective and cost-efficient approach for reducing cancer risk and for modifying the biological behavior of tumors. Predictive, validated and sensitive biomarkers, including those that reliably evaluate "intake" or exposure to a specific food or bioactive component, that assess one or more specific bio-logical "effects" that are linked to cancer, and that effectively predict individual "susceptibility" as a function of nutrient-nutrient interactions and genetics, are fundamental to evaluating who will benefit most from dietary interventions. These biomarkers must be readily accessible, easily and reliably assayed, and predictive of a key process(es) involved in cancer. The response to a food is determined not only by the effective concentration of the bioactive food component(s) reaching the target tissue, but also by the amount of the target requiring modification.Thus, this threshold response to foods and their components will vary from indi-vidual to individual. The key to understanding a personalized response is a greater knowledge of nutrigenomics, proteomics and metabolomics.

  11. The microbiome and its potential as a cancer preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultman, Scott J

    2016-02-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that microbiota inhabiting our bodies influence cancer predisposition and etiology. In addition to pathogens with oncogenic properties, commensal and symbiotic microbiota have tumor-suppressive properties. Diet and other environmental factors can modulate the abundance of certain members of microbial communities within the gastrointestinal tract and at other anatomical sites. Furthermore, some dietary factors are metabolized by commensal/symbiotic gut microbiota into bioactive food components believed to prevent cancer. For example, dietary fiber undergoes bacterial fermentation in the colon to yield butyrate, which is a short-chain fatty acid and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that suppresses the viability and growth of colorectal cancer cell lines. A recent study using gnotobiotic mouse models demonstrates that fiber can protect against colorectal tumorigenesis in a microbiota- and butyrate-dependent manner that involves the Warburg effect. This and other examples suggest that some of the inter-individual variation observed in epidemiology and intervention studies that have investigated associations between diet and cancer risk might be explained by differences in microbiota among the participants. Data from basic research studies also support the idea that probiotics and prebiotics could be plausible chemoprevention strategies that may be utilized to a greater extent in the future. PMID:26970128

  12. Targeting NK-1 Receptors to Prevent and Treat Pancreatic Cancer: A New Therapeutic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer related-deaths in both men and women, and the 1- and 5-year relative survival rates are 25% and 6%, respectively. It is known that smoking, alcoholism and psychological stress are risk factors that can promote PC and increase PC progression. To date, the prevention of PC is crucial because there is no curative treatment. After binding to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor (a receptor coupled to the stimulatory G-protein Gαs that activates adenylate cyclase), the peptide substance P (SP)—at high concentrations—is involved in many pathophysiological functions, such as depression, smoking, alcoholism, chronic inflammation and cancer. It is known that PC cells and samples express NK-1 receptors; that the NK-1 receptor is overexpressed in PC cells in comparison with non-tumor cells, and that nanomolar concentrations of SP induce PC cell proliferation. By contrast, NK-1 receptor antagonists exert antidepressive, anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory effects and anti-alcohol addiction. These antagonists also exert an antitumor action since in vitro they inhibit PC cell proliferation (PC cells death by apoptosis), and in a xenograft PC mouse model they exert both antitumor and anti-angiogenic actions. NK-1 receptor antagonists could be used for the treatment of PC and hence the NK-1 receptor could be a new promising therapeutic target in PC

  13. Targeting NK-1 Receptors to Prevent and Treat Pancreatic Cancer: A New Therapeutic Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Miguel, E-mail: mmunoz@cica.es [Research Laboratory on Neuropeptides (IBIS), Virgen del Rocío University Hospital, 41013 Sevilla (Spain); Coveñas, Rafael [Laboratory of Neuroanatomy of the Peptidergic System (Lab. 14), Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla y León (INCYL), University of Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2015-07-06

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer related-deaths in both men and women, and the 1- and 5-year relative survival rates are 25% and 6%, respectively. It is known that smoking, alcoholism and psychological stress are risk factors that can promote PC and increase PC progression. To date, the prevention of PC is crucial because there is no curative treatment. After binding to the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor (a receptor coupled to the stimulatory G-protein Gαs that activates adenylate cyclase), the peptide substance P (SP)—at high concentrations—is involved in many pathophysiological functions, such as depression, smoking, alcoholism, chronic inflammation and cancer. It is known that PC cells and samples express NK-1 receptors; that the NK-1 receptor is overexpressed in PC cells in comparison with non-tumor cells, and that nanomolar concentrations of SP induce PC cell proliferation. By contrast, NK-1 receptor antagonists exert antidepressive, anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory effects and anti-alcohol addiction. These antagonists also exert an antitumor action since in vitro they inhibit PC cell proliferation (PC cells death by apoptosis), and in a xenograft PC mouse model they exert both antitumor and anti-angiogenic actions. NK-1 receptor antagonists could be used for the treatment of PC and hence the NK-1 receptor could be a new promising therapeutic target in PC.

  14. Research policy and review 16. Geographical disparities in state cancer-prevention policies: the need for strong federal intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, M.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of changes in cancer mortality rates and cancer prevention programs shows that the states that experienced the sharpest increase in cancer mortality during the last thirty years have the weakest cancer-prevention programs. The federal government should intervene to increase cancer prevention, especially in these laggard states.

  15. Opportunities for Cancer Prevention Using Employee Wellness Programs: The Case of Kansas State Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Siu-kuen Azor; Engelman, Kimberly; Shireman, Theresa I.; Hunt, Suzanne; Ellerbeck, Edward F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The utility of employee wellness programs (EWPs) in cancer prevention and control is not well established. Purpose: This project is to determine the potential value of EWPs in preventing cancer by examining the characteristics of EWP participants and their prevalence of cancer risk factors. Methods: A secondary data analysis of health…

  16. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi; Maryam Zare; Mehrdad Mostaghaci; Amir Houshang Mehrparvar; Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad; Elham Naghshineh

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive corre...

  17. Depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts, generators of cancer initiation: their minimization leads to cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, Ercole L; Rogan, Eleanor G

    2016-12-01

    Estrogens can initiate cancer by reacting with DNA. Specific metabolites of endogenous estrogens, the catechol estrogen-3,4-quinones, react with DNA to form depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts. Loss of these adducts leaves apurinic sites in the DNA, generating mutations that can lead to the initiation of cancer. A variety of endogenous and exogenous factors can disrupt estrogen homeostasis, which is the normal balance between estrogen activating and protective enzymes. In fact, if estrogen metabolism becomes unbalanced and generates excessive catechol estrogen 3,4-quinones, formation of depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts increases and the risk of initiating cancer is greater. The levels of depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts are high in women diagnosed with breast cancer and those at high risk for the disease. High levels of depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts before the presence of breast cancer indicates that adduct formation is a critical factor in breast cancer initiation. Women with thyroid or ovarian cancer also have high levels of estrogen-DNA adducts, as do men with prostate cancer or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts are initiators of many prevalent types of human cancer. These findings and other discoveries led to the recognition that reducing the levels of estrogen-DNA adducts could prevent the initiation of human cancer. The dietary supplements N-acetylcysteine and resveratrol inhibit formation of estrogen-DNA adducts in cultured human breast cells and in women. These results suggest that the two supplements offer an approach to reducing the risk of developing various prevalent types of human cancer. Graphical abstract Major metabolic pathway in cancer initiation by estrogens. PMID:26979321

  18. DUAL THEORY OF ACTION IONIZING RADIATION AND SPONTANEOUS CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Gubin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for radiogenic increasing of mortality was proposed, taking into account spontaneous background damages of the genetic material, that always occur in cells due to the influence of non-radiation internal and environmental factors. The model is based on the representation of indistinguishability between radiogenic andspontaneous cancers and on the postulates of the Kellerer-Rossi dual action theory. It was proposed that duringformation of premalignant damages dual interactions occur both between primary radiation damages, and betweenradiation and spontaneous primary damages (hybrid interactions. The role of the latter is particularly important at low levels exposure that corresponds to a linear dependence of cancer incidence on dose. Their significance is indicated by the following factor: at the adopted value of the nominal (radiation risk factor (0,05 Sv-1 and cancer mortality share among the population (0,15–0,2, the contribution of non-radiative carcinogenic factors for the total life is equivalent to radiation dose of 3–4 Sv or radiation at a constant dose rate of 40–50 mSv / year.The model assumes formation in DNA of both spaced apart (single damages with high probability of recovery, and nearby (double damages, which are more likely to interact, entering into the permanent state. Permanent damages being formed in certain portions of DNA can be inherited to daughter cells as premalignant defects. The relative role of spontaneous primary damages is greater the more single damages are formed as compared to double ones within the area of potential interaction.It was shown within this model that the presence of background cancer mortality for initial and finite population in the used by ICRP expression for interpopulation risk transfer has logical and biophysical justifications. Accounting of spontaneous primary damages and hybrid interactions enhances the capabilities for development of radiation risk models.

  19. Actions of nurses and teachers in the prevention and combat of childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Dias da Rosa dos Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to know how nurses and teachers contribute to prevent and combat childhood obesity. It is a qualitative study, conducted in 2012, with data collected through interviews with three nurses from a basic health unit and eight teachers from a public school in southern Brazil. Thematic analysis pointed out as factors that contribute to childhood obesity eating unhealthy foods and the families’ food culture. As actions of prevention and combat there is the promotion of breast feeding, the mother’s educational process and the use of recreational activities that promote children’s learning about obesity. It was concluded that joint and systematic actions among nurses and teachers are important to fight childhood obesity.

  20. Advances in breast cancer treatment and prevention: preclinical studies on aromatase inhibitors and new selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensive basic and clinical research over the past 20 years has yielded crucial molecular understanding into how estrogen and the estrogen receptor act to regulate breast cancer and has led to the development of more effective, less toxic, and safer hormonal therapy agents for breast cancer management and prevention. Selective potent aromatase inhibitors are now challenging the hitherto gold standard of hormonal therapy, the selective estrogen-receptor modulator tamoxifen. Furthermore, new selective estrogen-receptor modulators such as arzoxifene, currently under clinical development, offer the possibility of selecting one with a more ideal pharmacological profile for treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Two recent studies in preclinical model systems that evaluate mechanisms of action of these new drugs and suggestions about their optimal clinical use are discussed

  1. Predicting and optimizing lifetime performance of existing steel bridges under preventive and essential maintenance actions

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, Luís A.C; Frangopol, Dan M.; Cruz, Paulo J. S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the lifetime performance of existing steel bridges under preventive and essential maintenance actions is analyzed. Performance is measured by the reliability index (resulting from structural analysis) and the condition index (resulting from visual inspections). The analysis of performance using these two indicators allows the incorporation of the results of visual inspections in the assessment of the safety of a structure, resulting in a more accurate prediction of the need to ...

  2. Uranium Mill Tailings remedial action project waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this plan is to establish a waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness (WM/PPA) program for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The program satisfies DOE requirements mandated by DOE Order 5400.1. This plan establishes planning objectives and strategies for conserving resources and reducing the quantity and toxicity of wastes and other environmental releases

  3. Application of the Theory of Reason Action for Preventing of Ecstasy Abuse among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Barati; Hamid ollah Allahverdipour; Babak Moinei; Abdollah Farhadinasab; Hosin Mahjub; Farzad Jalilian

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was assessed the effect of educational program for preventing of ecstasy abuse among college students in Hamadan based on Theory of Reason Action (TRA). Method: A quasi-experimental study carried out in college students. A total number of 140 students were selected through randomized cluster sampling and randomly assigned to the intervention (n=70) and the control (n=70) groups. Data-gathering tools consisted of a two-part questionnaire: Knowledge of...

  4. Born Toon Soon: Care before and between pregnancy to prevent preterm births: from evidence to action

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Sohni V; Mason, Elizabeth Mary; Howson, Christopher P; Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2013-01-01

    Providing care to adolescent girls and women before and between pregnancies improves their own health and wellbeing, as well as pregnancy and newborn outcomes, and can also reduce the rates of preterm birth. This paper has reviewed the evidence based interventions and services for preventing preterm births; reported the findings from research priority exercise; and prescribed actions for taking this call further. Certain factors in the preconception period have been shown to increase the risk...

  5. Implications of climate change for skin cancer prevention in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, Jen

    2011-12-01

    It is estimated that nearly 450,000 Australians get skin cancer every year. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight has been identified as the cause of more than 95% of skin cancers in Australia. Accordingly, the focus of skin cancer prevention programs is reducing exposure to UV radiation. In Victoria, improvements in sun protection behaviours and reductions in sunburn and melanoma incidence rates among younger people have been observed since the SunSmart program was established in 1988. However, climate change has the potential to undermine these successes. First, surface UVB radiation is dependent on stratospheric total ozone amounts. While signs of impact of international restrictions on the production of ozone-depleting substances have been observed, improvements have not yet returned ozone to pre-1970s levels. Interactions between ozone depletion and climate change may slow the recovery of the ozone layer and compound increases in UV radiation at some latitudes. Before recovery, it is expected that higher levels of UV radiation will continue in most Australian regions, with an associated higher risk of skin cancer. Indeed, recent data show increases in surface UV radiation throughout Australia since the 1970s. Second, mean temperatures in Australia have increased over the past 30 years and are projected to rise further by 2030. Australian data shows that with higher temperatures, adults spend more time outdoors, are less likely to wear covering clothing and more likely to be sunburnt. Hence, rising temperatures can be expected to result in increases in sun exposure, sunburn and correspondingly, skin cancer risk. PMID:22518918

  6. Anti-cancer and potential chemopreventive actions of ginseng by activating Nrf2 (NFE2L2) anti-oxidative stress/anti-inflammatory pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Qing; Saw Constance; Kong Ah-Ng Tony

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This article reviews recent basic and clinical studies of ginseng, particularly the anti-cancer effects and the potential chemopreventive actions by activating the transcriptional factor, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2 or NFE2L2)-mediated anti-oxidative stress or anti-inflammatory pathways. Nrf2 is a novel target for cancer prevention as it regulates the antioxidant responsive element (ARE), a critical regulatory element in the promoter region of genes encoding cel...

  7. RXP-E: a connexin43-binding peptide that prevents action potential propagation block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewandowski, Rebecca; Procida, Kristina; Vaidyanathan, Ravi;

    2008-01-01

    . Separately, RXP-E was concatenated to a cytoplasmic transduction peptide (CTP) for cytoplasmic translocation (CTP-RXP-E). The effect of RXP-E on action potential propagation was assessed by high-resolution optical mapping in monolayers of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, containing approximately 20% of...... randomly distributed myofibroblasts. In contrast to control experiments, when heptanol (2 mmol/L) was added to the superfusate of monolayers loaded with CTP-RXP-E, action potential propagation was maintained, albeit at a slower velocity. Similarly, intracellular acidification (pH(i) 6.2) caused a loss of...... action potential propagation in control monolayers; however, propagation was maintained in CTP-RXP-E-treated cells, although at a slower rate. Patch-clamp experiments revealed that RXP-E did not prevent heptanol-induced block of sodium currents, nor did it alter voltage dependence or amplitude of Kir2...

  8. Prevention and treatment of cancers by immune modulating nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Mohammed, Altaf; Madka, Venkateshwar; Kumar, Gaurav; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological and laboratory data support the protective effects of bioactive nutrients in our diets for various diseases. Along with various factors, such as genetic history, alcohol, smoking, exercise, and dietary choices play a vital role in affecting an individual's immune responses toward a transforming cell, by either preventing or accelerating a neoplastic transformation. Ample evidence suggests that dietary nutrients control the inflammatory and protumorigenic responses in immune cells. Immunoprevention is usually associated with the modulation of immune responses that help in resolving the inflammation, thus improving clinical outcome. Various metabolic pathway-related nutrients, including glutamine, arginine, vitamins, minerals, and long-chain fatty acids, are important components of immunonutrient mixes. Epidemiological studies related to these substances have reported different results, with no or minimal effects. However, several studies suggest that these nutrients may have immune-modulating effects that may lower cancer risk. Preclinical studies submit that most of these components may provide beneficial effects. The present review discusses the available data, the immune-modulating functions of these nutrients, and how these substances could be used to study immune modulation in a neoplastic environment. Further research will help to determine whether the mechanistic signaling pathways in immune cells altered by nutrients can be exploited for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:26833775

  9. New concepts and challenges in the clinical translation of cancer preventive therapies: the role of pharmacodynamic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Karen; Rufini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of therapeutic cancer prevention strategies has enormous potential for reducing cancer incidence and related mortality. Trials of drugs including tamoxifen and aspirin have led the way in demonstrating proof-of-principle that prevention of breast and colorectal cancer is feasible. Many other compounds ranging from drugs in widespread use for various indications, including metformin, bisphosphonates, and vitamin D, to dietary agents such as the phytochemicals resveratrol and curcumin, show preventive activity against several cancers in preclinical models. Notwithstanding the wealth of opportunities, major challenges have hindered the development process and only a handful of therapies are currently approved for cancer risk reduction. One of the major obstacles to successful clinical translation of promising preventive agents is a lack of pharmacodynamic biomarkers to provide an early read out of biological activity in humans and for optimising doses to take into large scale randomised clinical trials. A further confounding factor is a lack of consideration of clinical pharmacokinetics in the design of preclinical experiments, meaning results are frequently reported from studies that use irrelevant or unachievable concentrations. This article focuses on recent findings from investigations with dietary-derived agents to illustrate how a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of action, using models that mimic the clinical scenario, together with the development of compound-specific accompanying pharmacodynamic biomarkers could accelerate the developmental pipeline for preventive agents and maximise the chances of success in future clinical trials. Moreover, the concept of a bell-shaped dose-response curve for therapeutic cancer prevention is discussed, along with the need to rethink the traditional 'more is better' approach for dose selection. PMID:26635905

  10. Application of the Theory of Reason Action for Preventing of Ecstasy Abuse among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Barati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present study was assessed the effect of educational program for preventing of ecstasy abuse among college students in Hamadan based on Theory of Reason Action (TRA. Method: A quasi-experimental study carried out in college students. A total number of 140 students were selected through randomized cluster sampling and randomly assigned to the intervention (n=70 and the control (n=70 groups. Data-gathering tools consisted of a two-part questionnaire: Knowledge of ecstasy abuse consequences and one scale for measuring TRA variables. Respondents in the control and experimental groups completed questionnaires at before and two months after intervention. Results: The results showed that among constructs of the theory of reason action, subjective norms were better predictor of ecstasy abuse. There were significant differences between the scores of reason action constructs namely: attitude against drug abuse, subjective norms and intention of ecstasy abuse with consideration of group (witness and experimental. Conclusion: With regard to the results of the current study, special education based on Theory of Reasoned Action is effective in improving of attitude, subjective norm and behavioral intention of students. Therefore it is highly recommended that TRA education can be use for preventing of drug abuse education programs.

  11. Finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy H Chau

    Full Text Available In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT, finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying drug concentrations.Data for this nested case-control study are from the PCPT. Cases were drawn from men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer and matched controls. Finasteride concentrations were measured using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry validated assay. The association of serum finasteride concentrations with prostate cancer risk was determined by logistic regression. We also examine whether polymorphisms in the enzyme target and metabolism genes of finasteride are related to drug concentrations using linear regression.Among men with detectable finasteride concentrations, there was no association between finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk, low-grade or high-grade, when finasteride concentration was analyzed as a continuous variable or categorized by cutoff points. Since there was no concentration-dependent effect on prostate cancer, any exposure to finasteride intake may reduce prostate cancer risk. Of the twenty-seven SNPs assessed in the enzyme target and metabolism pathway, five SNPs in two genes, CYP3A4 (rs2242480; rs4646437; rs4986910, and CYP3A5 (rs15524; rs776746 were significantly associated with modifying finasteride concentrations. These results suggest that finasteride exposure may reduce prostate cancer risk and finasteride concentrations are affected by genetic variations in genes responsible for altering its metabolism pathway.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00288106.

  12. Human endogenous retroviruses and cancer prevention: evidence and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cegolon Luca

    2013-01-01

    as other tumors like sarcoma, lymphoma, bladder and breast cancer. An amino acid sequence similar to HERV-K-MEL, recognized to cause a significant protective effect against melanoma, is shared by the antigenic determinants expressed by some vaccines such as BCG, vaccinia virus and the yellow fever virus. HERV-K are also reactivated in the majority of human breast cancers. Monoclonal and single-chain antibodies against the HERV-K Env protein recently proved capable of blocking the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro, inhibiting tumor growth in mice bearing xenograft tumors. Summary A recent epidemiological study provided provisional evidence of how melanoma risk could possibly be reduced if the yellow fever virus vaccine (YFV were received at least 10 years before, possibly preventing tumor initiation rather than culling melanoma cells already compromised. Further research is recommended to confirm the temporal pattern of this protection and eliminate/attenuate the potential role of relevant confounders as socio-economic status and other vaccinations. It appears also appropriate to examine the potential protective effect of YFV against other malignancies expressing high levels of HERV-K antigens, namely breast cancer, sarcoma, lymphoma and bladder cancer. Tumor immune-therapy, as described for the monoclonal antibodies against breast cancer, is indeed considered more complex and less advantageous than immune-prevention. Cellular immunity possibly triggered by vaccines as for YFV might also be involved in anti-cancer response, in addition to humoral immunity.

  13. Human endogenous retroviruses and cancer prevention: evidence and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and breast cancer. An amino acid sequence similar to HERV-K-MEL, recognized to cause a significant protective effect against melanoma, is shared by the antigenic determinants expressed by some vaccines such as BCG, vaccinia virus and the yellow fever virus. HERV-K are also reactivated in the majority of human breast cancers. Monoclonal and single-chain antibodies against the HERV-K Env protein recently proved capable of blocking the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro, inhibiting tumor growth in mice bearing xenograft tumors. A recent epidemiological study provided provisional evidence of how melanoma risk could possibly be reduced if the yellow fever virus vaccine (YFV) were received at least 10 years before, possibly preventing tumor initiation rather than culling melanoma cells already compromised. Further research is recommended to confirm the temporal pattern of this protection and eliminate/attenuate the potential role of relevant confounders as socio-economic status and other vaccinations. It appears also appropriate to examine the potential protective effect of YFV against other malignancies expressing high levels of HERV-K antigens, namely breast cancer, sarcoma, lymphoma and bladder cancer. Tumor immune-therapy, as described for the monoclonal antibodies against breast cancer, is indeed considered more complex and less advantageous than immune-prevention. Cellular immunity possibly triggered by vaccines as for YFV might also be involved in anti-cancer response, in addition to humoral immunity

  14. Possibilities for teacher’s preventive actions in regard bullying behavior of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Marija R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of school bullying is an important task of modern educational process, given the seriousness of its consequences for students who behave violently and for those who are exposed to bullying, as well as for other classmates. A teacher, who in comparison with other school staff is in daily contact with students, has an extremely important role in prevention of bullying and in creating encouraging school climate. Through systematized and critical reflection on the views of numerous authors, this article aims at pointing out importance of certain aspects of teachers‘ role in prevention of bullying, and importance of creating a positive school climate as an important prerequisite for preventive activity of teachers, as well as at emphasizing possible obstacles to adequate preventive actions of teachers. In the last section, changes made in recent years in Serbia in regard to prevention of bullying behavior of students in the education system are considered. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179013: Održivost identiteta Srba i nacionalnih manjina u pograničnim opštinama istočne i jugoistočne Srbije

  15. [The 50-year-old women or older: preventive actions to the HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Daniela Angelo de Lima; Praça, Neide de Souza

    2010-06-01

    The present study is a qualitative research which aimed to verify the adoption of preventive measures on the transmission of HIV in 50-year-old women or older, who lived in poor communities and were assisted by the Family Health Program in São Paulo, Brazil. Medical Anthropology has been adopted as a theoretical reference, as well as the Discourse of the Collective Individual for data analysis. Thirteen women were interviewed and three discourses were presented: prevention appreciation, invisibility of HIV/AIDS and the rejection of the use of condom. The analysis showed that the group did not realize the risk of contamination through sexual intercourse due to their trust in the partner's loyalty. The casual use of condoms was taken into consideration just out of curiosity. The preventive actions adopted need more scientific support. The results point out the necessity of planning and implementing interventions which are culturally based and directed to the studied segment. PMID:21500513

  16. Active NCI Community Oncology Research Program Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Introducing Students to Cancer Prevention Careers through Programmed Summer Research Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Carrie; Collie, Candice L.; Chang, Shine

    2012-01-01

    Training programs in cancer prevention research play an important role in addressing impending shortages in the cancer prevention workforce. Published reports on the effectiveness of these programs, however, often focus on a program’s success in recruiting and retaining a demographically diverse trainee population or on academic successes of the trainees, in general. Little has been reported about programs’ success in stimulating long-term interest in cancer prevention per se, whether in rese...

  19. Cancers prevented in Australia in 2010 through the consumption of aspirin

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Louise F.; Green, Adele C.; Kendall, Bradley J; Jordan, Susan J.; Nagle, Christina M; Bain, Christopher J; Neale, Rachel E; Whiteman, David C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the proportion and number of cancers in Australia in 2010 that may have been prevented from occurring due to daily use of aspirin in the population. Methods We calculated the Prevented Fraction (PF) of colorectal and oesophageal cancers using standard formulae. The PF is the proportion of the hypothetical total load of cancer in the population that was prevented by exposure to aspirin. The formula incorporates estimates of the prevalence of aspirin use in Australian adu...

  20. Environmental carcinogenic agents and cancer prevention. Risk assessment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many agents in our environment have been established as being carcinogenic, and in most cases, the carcinogenic properties of these agents were identified because of high-dose occupational or accidental exposure. Risk characterization, taking into account the dose-response relationship, and exposure assessment are essential for risk assessment and subsequent cancer prevention. Based on scientific risk assessment, risk management should be conducted practically by considering the economic, social, political, and other technical issues and by balancing the risks and benefits. Asbestos and environmental tobacco smoke are typical examples of established carcinogenic agents in the general environment, contributing to low-dose exposure. Further epidemiological studies are required to investigate the carcinogenicity of low-dose exposure to known carcinogenic agents such as arsenic and cadmium through dietary intake, radiation via medical and natural exposure, and air pollution due to diesel exhaust. In contrast, occupational chemical exposure to 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane, whose carcinogenicity had not been established, was suggested to cause cholangiocarcinoma among workers involved in offset color proof-printing only after a rare situation of high-dose exposure was unveiled. Continuous monitoring of unusual cancer occurrences in target populations such as workers in occupational and regional settings as well as exposure reduction to suspected carcinogenic agents to levels as low as reasonably achievable is essential for reducing the risk of cancer due to environmental carcinogens. (author)

  1. Implications of Helicobacter pylori infection for stomach cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Karen J.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has implicated Helicobacter pylori, an established cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer, in the etiology of gastric cancer. Control of this infection would reduce the occurrence of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and might substantially lower the risk of stomach cancer as well. The public health impact of this infectious agent warrants efforts to identify preventive measures. This paper reviews the evidence linking H. pylori infection to gastric cancer and evaluates the potential for control in high-risk populations. Current obstacles to H. pylori control are discussed, including the link to poor socioeconomic conditions, difficulty in identifying incident cases, lack of natural immunity to reinfection, limited effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in high-prevalence populations, and incomplete knowledge regarding the reservoir of infection, mode of transmission, host susceptibility factors, and the potential for developing an effective vaccine. Worthwhile avenues of research include studies designed to identify modifiable risk factors for acquisition of the infection, modifiable host factors that may increase resistance to chronic infection, more effective antibiotic therapies, and effective vaccines.

  2. Prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Agnes Y Y

    2014-12-01

    Robust evidence remains scarce in guiding best practice in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients living with cancer. Recommendations from major consensus guidelines are largely based on extrapolated data from trials performed mostly in noncancer patients, observational studies and registries, studies using surrogate outcomes, and underpowered randomized controlled trials. Nonetheless, a personalized approach based on individual risk assessment is uniformly recommended for inpatient and outpatient thromboprophylaxis and there is consensus that anticoagulant prophylaxis is warranted in selected patients with a high risk of thrombosis. Prediction tools for estimating the risk of thrombosis in the hospital setting have not been validated, but the use of prophylaxis in the ambulatory setting in those with a high Khorana score is under active investigation. Symptomatic and incidental thrombosis should be treated with anticoagulant therapy, but little is known about the optimal duration. Pharmacologic options for prophylaxis and treatment are still restricted to unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparin, and vitamin K antagonists because there is currently insufficient evidence to support the use of target-specific, non-vitamin K-antagonist oral anticoagulants. Although these agents offer practical advantages over traditional anticoagulants, potential drug interaction with chemotherapeutic agents, gastrointestinal problems, hepatic and renal impairment, and the lack of rapid reversal agents are important limitations that may reduce the efficacy and safety of these drugs in patients with active cancer. Clinicians and patients are encouraged to participate in clinical trials to advance the care of patients with cancer-associated thrombosis. PMID:25696871

  3. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  4. Dietary compound isoliquiritigenin prevents mammary carcinogenesis by inhibiting breast cancer stem cells through WIF1 demethylation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Neng; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Yu; Xie, Xiaoming; Shen, Jiangang; Peng, Cheng; You, Jieshu; Peng, Fu; Tang, Hailin; Guan, Xinyuan; Chen, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered as the root of mammary tumorigenesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that ISL efficiently limited the activities of breast CSCs. However, the cancer prevention activities of ISL and its precise molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we report a novel function of ISL as a natural demethylation agent targeting WIF1 to prevent breast cancer. ISL administration suppressed in vivo breast cancer initiation and progression, accompanied b...

  5. Diet Modulation is an Effective Complementary Agent in Preventing and Treating Breast Cancer Lung Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xiangmin; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Wang, Dezhi; Siegal, Gene P.; Hardy, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    A significant percentage of breast cancer victims will suffer from metastases indicating that new approaches to preventing breast cancer metastasis are thus needed. Dietary stearate and chemotherapy have been shown to reduce breast cancer metastasis. We tested the complementary use of dietary stearate with a taxol-based chemotherapy which work through separate mechanisms to reduce breast cancer metastasis. We therefore carried out a prevention study in which diets were initiated prior to huma...

  6. Geocoding and Social Marketing in Alabama’s Cancer Prevention Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Julianna W. Miner, MPH; Arica White, MPH; Anne E. Lubenow, MPH; Sally Palmer

    2005-01-01

    The Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH) is collaborating with the National Cancer Institute to develop detailed profiles of underserved Alabama communities most at risk for cancer. These profiles will be combined with geocoded data to create a pilot project, Cancer Prevention for Alabama’s Underserved Populations: A Focused Approach. The project's objectives are to provide the ADPH's cancer prevention programs with a more accurate and cost-effective means of planning, implementing, and...

  7. Preventative therapies for healthy women at high risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sestak I

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ivana Sestak Centre for Cancer Prevention, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London, UKAbstract: Tamoxifen has been shown to reduce the risk of developing estrogen receptor (ER-positive breast cancer by at least 50%, in both pre- and postmenopausal women. The current challenge is to find new agents with fewer side effects and to find agents that are specifically suitable for premenopausal women with ER-negative breast cancer. Other selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs, such as raloxifene, arzoxifene, and lasofoxifene, have been shown to reduce the incidence of breast cancer by 50%–80%. SERMs are interesting agents for the prevention of breast cancer, but longer follow-up is needed for some of them for a complete risk–benefit profile of these drugs. Aromatase inhibitors have emerged as new drugs in the prevention setting for postmenopausal women. In the Mammary Prevention 3 (MAP3 trial, a 65% reduction in invasive breast cancer with exemestane was observed, and the Breast Cancer Intervention Study-II trial, which compared anastrozole with placebo, reported a 60% reduction in those cancers. Although SERMs and aromatase inhibitors have been proven to be excellent agents in the preventive setting specifically for postmenopausal women and ER-positive breast cancer, newer agents have to be found specifically for ER-negative breast cancers, which mostly occur in premenopausal women. Keywords: breast cancer, preventive therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, aromatase inhibitors, high-risk women

  8. Joint actions of environmental nonionizing electromagnetic fields and chemical pollution in cancer promotion.

    OpenAIRE

    Adey, W. R.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of environmental electromagnetic (EM) field interactions in tissues have contributed to a new understanding of both normal growth and the biology of cancer in cell growth. From cancer research comes a floodtide of new knowledge about the disruption of communication by cancer-promoting chemicals with an onset of unregulated growth. Bioelectromagnetic research reveals clear evidence of joint actions at cell membranes of chemical cancer promoters and environmental electromagnetic fields....

  9. Molecular targets of dietary agents for prevention and therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B; Shishodia, Shishir

    2006-05-14

    While fruits and vegetables are recommended for prevention of cancer and other diseases, their active ingredients (at the molecular level) and their mechanisms of action less well understood. Extensive research during the last half century has identified various molecular targets that can potentially be used not only for the prevention of cancer but also for treatment. However, lack of success with targeted monotherapy resulting from bypass mechanisms has forced researchers to employ either combination therapy or agents that interfere with multiple cell-signaling pathways. In this review, we present evidence that numerous agents identified from fruits and vegetables can interfere with several cell-signaling pathways. The agents include curcumin (turmeric), resveratrol (red grapes, peanuts and berries), genistein (soybean), diallyl sulfide (allium), S-allyl cysteine (allium), allicin (garlic), lycopene (tomato), capsaicin (red chilli), diosgenin (fenugreek), 6-gingerol (ginger), ellagic acid (pomegranate), ursolic acid (apple, pears, prunes), silymarin (milk thistle), anethol (anise, camphor, and fennel), catechins (green tea), eugenol (cloves), indole-3-carbinol (cruciferous vegetables), limonene (citrus fruits), beta carotene (carrots), and dietary fiber. For instance, the cell-signaling pathways inhibited by curcumin alone include NF-kappaB, AP-1, STAT3, Akt, Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), caspases, PARP, IKK, EGFR, HER2, JNK, MAPK, COX2, and 5-LOX. The active principle identified in fruit and vegetables and the molecular targets modulated may be the basis for how these dietary agents not only prevent but also treat cancer and other diseases. This work reaffirms what Hippocrates said 25 centuries ago, let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food. PMID:16563357

  10. Colorectal cancer screening: Time for action in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is now the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. According to the Iranian Annual National Cancer Registration Report, CRC is the third most common cancer in Iranian women and fifth in men. The incidence of CRC has increased during the last 25 years. CRC screening is an efficient way to reduce the burden of CRC through detection of precursor lesions of cancer or early stage cancer. Iran may benefit even more from screening programs. According to...

  11. Cancer preventive properties of ginger: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Yogeshwer; Singh, Madhulika

    2007-05-01

    Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinalis, one of the most widely used species of the ginger family, is a common condiment for various foods and beverages. Ginger has a long history of medicinal use dating back 2500 years. Ginger has been traditionally used from time immemorial for varied human ailments in different parts of the globe, to aid digestion and treat stomach upset, diarrhoea, and nausea. Some pungent constituents present in ginger and other zingiberaceous plants have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and some of them exhibit cancer preventive activity in experimental carcinogenesis. The anticancer properties of ginger are attributed to the presence of certain pungent vallinoids, viz. [6]-gingerol and [6]-paradol, as well as some other constituents like shogaols, zingerone etc. A number of mechanisms that may be involved in the chemopreventive effects of ginger and its components have been reported from the laboratory studies in a wide range of experimental models. PMID:17175086

  12. Genital HPV: links to cervical cancer, treatment, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, L A

    2001-01-01

    Human papillomavirus is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted viruses. It consists of over 230 different subtypes and infects the squamous epithelial cells in humans producing cutaneous, mucosal, and epidermodysplasia verruciformis type infections. There are several risk factors for human papillomavirus infections. These include a sexually active life-style beginning at a young age, having multiple lifetime sex partners, having sex with a partner with genital warts, and long term oral contraceptive use. Approximately 80% of sexually active individuals acquire the virus in their lifetime. Clinical and laboratory detection of the virus consists of macroscopic, serologic, and molecular techniques. Although removal of the lesions is preferable, treatment of human papillomavirus infections may include cryotherapy, loop electrosurgical excision procedure, laser surgery, and drug therapy. Certain human papillomavirus subtypes, particularly human papillomavirus 16, have been linked to cervical cancer, therefore, prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines are currently being developed to prevent or fight the virus. PMID:11517629

  13. Berry fruits for cancer prevention: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P

    2008-02-13

    Overwhelming evidence suggests that edible small and soft-fleshed berry fruits may have beneficial effects against several types of human cancers. The anticancer potential of berries has been related, at least in part, to a multitude of bioactive phytochemicals that these colorful fruits contain, including polyphenols (flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, ellagitannins, gallotannins, phenolic acids), stilbenoids, lignans, and triterpenoids. Studies show that the anticancer effects of berry bioactives are partially mediated through their abilities to counteract, reduce, and also repair damage resulting from oxidative stress and inflammation. In addition, berry bioactives also regulate carcinogen and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, various transcription and growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, and subcellular signaling pathways of cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor angiogenesis. Berry phytochemicals may also potentially sensitize tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents by inhibiting pathways that lead to treatment resistance, and berry fruit consumption may provide protection from therapy-associated toxicities. Although a wide variety of berry fruits are consumed worldwide, this paper focuses on those commonly consumed in North America, namely, blackberries, black raspberries, blueberries, cranberries, red raspberries, and strawberries. In addition, a large body of studies on singly purified berry bioactives is available, but this paper focuses on studies of "whole berries" per se, that is, as berry extracts and purified fractions, juices, and freeze-dried powders. Potential mechanisms of anticancer action and bioavailability of berry phenolics, as well as gaps in knowledge and recommendations for future berry research, are also briefly discussed. PMID:18211019

  14. Preventing skin cancer: findings of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services On reducing Exposure to Ultraviolet Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiya, Mona; Glanz, Karen; Briss, Peter; Nichols, Phyllis; White, Cornelia; Das, Debjani

    2003-10-17

    Rates of skin cancer, the most common cancer in the United States, are increasing. The most preventable risk factor for skin cancer is unprotected ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Seeking to identify effective approaches to reducing the incidence of skin cancer by improving individual and community efforts to reduce unprotected UV exposure, the Task Force on Community Preventive Services conducted systematic reviews of community interventions to reduce exposure to ultraviolet light and increase protective behaviors. The Task Force found sufficient evidence to recommend two interventions that are based on improvements in sun protective or "covering-up" behavior (wearing protective clothing including long-sleeved clothing or hats): educational and policy approaches in two settings--primary schools and recreational or tourism sites. They found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of a range of other population-based interventions and recommended additional research in these areas: educational and policy approaches in child care centers, secondary schools and colleges, recreational or tourism sites for children, and workplaces; interventions conducted in health-care settings and targeted to both providers and children's parents or caregivers; media campaigns alone; and community wide multicomponent interventions. This report also presents additional information regarding the recommended community interventions, briefly describes how the reviews were conducted, provides resources for further information, and provides information that can help in applying the interventions locally. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force conducted a systematic review of counseling by primary care clinicians to prevent skin cancer (CDC. Counseling to prevent skin cancer: recommendation and rationale of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. MMWR 2003;52[No. RR-15]:13-17), which is also included in this issue, the first jointly released findings from the Task Force on Community

  15. Cyclin E Transgenic Mice: Discovery Tools for Lung Cancer Biology, Therapy, and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Freemantle, Sarah J.; Dmitrovsky, Ethan

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States and many other countries. This fact underscores the need for clinically relevant models to increase our understanding of lung cancer biology and to help design and implement preventive and more-effective therapeutic interventions for lung cancer. New murine transgenic models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been engineered for this purpose. In one such model, overexpression of the cell-cycle regulator ...

  16. Tamoxifen Action in ER-Negative Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Manna, Subrata; Holz, Marina K.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease. Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator and is mainly indicated for the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women and postsurgery neoadjuvant therapy in ER-positive breast cancers. Interestingly, 5–10% of the ER-negative breast cancers have also shown sensitivity to tamoxifen treatment. The involvement of molecular markers and/or signaling pathways independent of ER signaling has been implicated in tamoxifen sensitivi...

  17. A Natural Wonder Drug Helps to Prevent Cancer: Garlic Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran MIRUNALINI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is one of the oldest and popular spices in the World that also contain very good nutritional value. Garlic has a wide spectrum of actions not only is it antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiprotozoan but it also has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular and immune systems. They contain unique oil which is very easily digested and is stable to oxidative stress and for this reasons they are useful and healthy for consumption. Several epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that garlic oil has been thought to bring about its anticarcinogenic effect and other pharmacological properties through a number of mechanisms, such as the scavenging of radicals, increasing glutathione levels, increasing the activities of enzymes such as glutathione S transferase, catalase, incubation of cytochrome p450 2E1, DNA repair mechanisms, prevention of chromosomal damage etc. Future research should standardize the dosage of garlic and type. Several hypotheses suggest that the anticancer mechanism may be due to DNA repair mechanism, prevention of chromosomal damage, antiproliferative effect and alteration of the cell cycle. Garlic and garlic oil should be considered as one of the most valuable food for good quality of life in general.

  18. CONSENSUS REPORT: Recognizing non-melanoma skin cancer, including actinic keratosis, as an occupational disease - A Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, S M; Trakatelli, M; Gehring, R; Finlay, K; Fionda, C; Wittlich, M; Augustin, M; Hilpert, G; Barroso Dias, J M; Ulrich, C; Pellacani, G

    2016-04-01

    1. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is by far the most common cancer diagnosed in westernized countries, and one of the few almost preventable cancers if detected and treated early as up to 90% of NMSC may be attributed to excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation. 2. The incidence of NMSC is increasing: 2-3 million people are diagnosed worldwide annually, with an average yearly increase of 3-8% among white populations in Australia, Europe, the US and Canada over the last 30 years. 3. The link between solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and certain forms of NMSC is clearly recognized. It is estimated that outdoor workers are exposed to an UV radiation dose 2-3 times higher than indoor workers, and there is a growing body of research linking UV radiation exposure in outdoor workers to NMSC: I. Occupationally UV-exposed workers are at least at a 43% higher risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and almost doubled risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) compared to the average population, with risk increasing with decreasing latitude. II. The risk for BCC, SCC and actinic keratosis (AK) among workers who have worked outdoors for more than 5 years is 3-fold higher than the risk among those with no years of working outdoors. 4. Primary prevention, early detection, treatment and regular follow-up of skin cancer (NMSC and melanoma) are shown to be beneficial from a health economic perspective. 5. Action is needed at international, European and national level to legislate for recognizing AK and NMSC as an occupational disease, which has the potential to improve access to compensation and drive preventative activities. 6. This report is a Call to Action for: I. The engagement of key stakeholders, including supranational institutions, national governments, trade organizations, employers, workers and patient organizations to drive change in prevention and protection of at-risk groups. II. Employers should be obliged to prevent outdoor worker's UV exposure from exceeding limit values

  19. Enhancing pressure ulcer prevention using wound dressings: what are the modes of action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Evan; Pedersen, Justin; Bill, Brian; Black, Joyce; Alves, Paulo; Brindle, C Tod; Dealey, Carol; Santamaria, Nick; Clark, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Recent clinical research has generated interest in the use of sacral wound dressings as preventive devices for patients at risk of ulceration. This study was conducted to identify the modes of action through which dressings can add to pressure ulcer prevention, for example, shear and friction force redistribution and pressure distribution. Bench testing was performed using nine commercially available dressings. The use of dressings can reduce the amplitude of shear stress and friction reaching the skin of patients at risk. They can also effectively redirect these forces to wider areas which minimises the mechanical loads upon skeletal prominences. Dressings can redistribute pressure based upon their effective Poisson ratio and larger deflection areas, providing greater load redistribution. PMID:23905962

  20. Use of noninsulin anti diabetics for prevention and treatment of cancer- narrative review article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Raana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence shows that cancer and diabetes are major causes of death in the world. Type2 diabetes increases the risk of cancer-specific mortality. This review relates diabetic therapies, diabetes and cancer.All published papers in this field were searched, looking into such databases as Science Direct, ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed and Scopus.In cancer patients, metformin improves patient outcome and reduces cancer risk. Sulfonylureas may increase risk of cancer, but decreased risk of cancer is associated with thiazolidinediones in type 2 diabetic subjects. Metformin lowers circulating insulin and it may be important for treatment of hyperinsulinemia-associated cancers, such as colon and breast cancer.However, laboratory investigations and large-scale population based studies are required for further investigation of association of cancer-preventive, anti-cancer and cancer-mortality of noninsulin antidiabetics.

  1. Predicting the physiological relevance of in vitro cancer preventive activities of phytochemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lynne M HOWELLS; Elena P MOISEEVA; Christopher P NEAL; Bethany E FOREMAN; Catherine K ANDREADI; Yi-yang SUN; E Ann HUDSON; Margaret M MANSON

    2007-01-01

    There is growing interest in the ability of phytochemicals to prevent chronic diseases, such as cancer and heart disease. However, some of these agents have poor bioavailability and many of the in-depth studies into their mechanisms of action have been carried out in vitro using doses which are unachievable in humans. In order to optimize the design of chemopreventive treatment, it is impor-tant to determine which of the many reported mechanisms of action are clinically relevant. In this review we consider the physiologically achievable doses for afew of the best studied agents (indole-3-carbinol, diindolylmethane, curcumin,epigallocatechin-3-gallate and resveratrol) and summarize the data derived froms tudies using these low concentrations in cell culture. We then cite examples of in vitro effects which have been observed in vivo. Finally, the ability of agent combinations to act synergistically or antagonistically is considered. We con-clude that each of the compounds shows an encouraging range of activities in vitro at concentrations which are likely to be physiologically relevant. There arealso many examples of in vivo studies which validate in vitro observations. An important consideration is that combinations of agents can result in significant activity at concentrations where any single agent is inactive. Thus, for each of the compounds reviewed here, in vitro studies have provided useful insights into their mechanisms of action in humans. However, data are lacking on the full range of activities at low doses in vitro and the benefits or otherwise of combinations invivo.

  2. Environmental risk factors of cancer and their primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, J W; Smyk, B

    1993-01-01

    The evaluation of the influence of different environmental carcinogenic factors requires interdisciplinary cooperation. Related studies include epidemiological surveys and air, water and soil, chemical, toxicological, and microbiological analyses, supplemented by experimental verification of suspected ecological pathogens and cofactors. A balance of carcinogens and protective agents in the external environment and in the human body is recommended for an ecologically oriented prevention. Toxicological control of the food chain using modern technology (Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), nuclear activation analysis, and induced coupled plasma) should be integrated with microanalyses at the cellular level (by X-ray scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic response, PIXE, and spontaneous and delayed chemiluminescence for balance of free-radicals and their scavengers). A pilot cross-disciplinary study conducted in the area of a "cluster" of human neoplasms and cattle leukemia, in comparison with control villages in Poland, showed an excess in Pb, Hg, Ni, Rb, K, Mn, Cr, and Zn, accompanied by a nutritional deficiency in Mg, Ca, Fe, Co, and Se in the food chain of the "cluster." The living and breeding houses in this area were significantly more contaminated with the toxicogenic molds Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium meleagrinum and by nitrate and nitrite in the drinking water. Our experiments showed that selenium deficiency stimulated the growth of fungi and some bacteria and increased the immunosuppressive and teratogenic effects of aflatoxin B1. New methods of protection of the indoor environment against microbiological contamination and laser-related biotechnology for nutritional prevention of selenium deficiency and associated risk of neoplasms have been introduced. Primary prevention requires a large scale application of highly sensitive methods for early detection of risk factors in the environment, food, water, and at the personal level, as well as

  3. Cancer prevention as part of precision medicine: 'plenty to be done'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bernard W; Bray, Freddie; Forman, David; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Straif, Kurt; Ullrich, Andreas; Wild, Christopher P

    2016-01-01

    Cancer burden worldwide is projected to rise from 14 million new cases in 2012 to 24 million in 2035. Although the greatest increases will be in developing countries, where cancer services are already hard pressed, even the richest nations will struggle to meet demands of increasing patient numbers and spiralling treatment costs. No country can treat its way out of the cancer problem. Consequently, cancer control must combine improvements in treatment with greater emphasis on prevention and early detection. Cancer prevention is founded on describing the burden of cancer, identifying the causes and evaluating and implementing preventive interventions. Around 40-50% of cancers could be prevented if current knowledge about risk factors was translated into effective public health strategies. The benefits of prevention are attested to by major successes, for example, in tobacco control, vaccination against oncogenic viruses, reduced exposure to environmental and occupational carcinogens, and screening. Progress is still needed in areas such as weight control and physical activity. Fresh impetus for prevention and early detection will come through interdisciplinary approaches, encompassing knowledge and tools from advances in cancer biology. Examples include mutation profiles giving clues about aetiology and biomarkers for early detection, to stratify individuals for screening or for prognosis. However, cancer prevention requires a broad perspective stretching from the submicroscopic to the macropolitical, recognizing the importance of molecular profiling and multisectoral engagement across urban planning, transport, environment, agriculture, economics, etc., and applying interventions that may just as easily rely on a legislative measure as on a molecule. PMID:26590901

  4. Screening for Ovarian Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Screening for Ovarian Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement The full report is titled “Screening for Ovarian Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement.” ...

  5. Serum estrogen levels and prostate cancer risk in the prostate cancer prevention trial: a nested case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Song; Till, Cathee; Kristal, Alan R.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Hsing, Ann W.; Tangen, Catherine M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Reichardt, Juergen K. V.; Tang, Li; Neuhouser, Marian L; Santella, Regina M.; William D Figg; Price, Douglas K.; Parnes, Howard L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Finasteride reduces prostate cancer risk by blocking the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. However, whether finasteride affects estrogens levels or change in estrogens affects prostate cancer risk is unknown. Methods These questions were investigated in a case–control study nested within the prostate cancer prevention trial (PCPT) with 1,798 biopsy-proven prostate cancer cases and 1,798 matched controls. Results Among men on placebo, no relationship of serum estroge...

  6. HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPES 16, 18 AND 31 SEROSTATUS AND PROSTATE CANCER RISK IN THE PROSTATE CANCER PREVENTION TRIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Hoque, Ashraful M.; Hsing, Ann W.; Thompson, Ian M; Zenilman, Jonathan M; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Since human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was first identified as a risk factor for cervical cancer, several seroepidemiologic and tissue-based studies have investigated HPV in relation to prostate cancer, another common genitourinary malignancy, with mixed results. To further inform this potential association, we conducted a large, prospective investigation of HPV types 16, 18, and 31 in relation to risk of prostate cancer in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT). Cases were a sample ...

  7. Antiemetic Therapy With or Without Olanzapine in Preventing Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients With Cancer Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This randomized phase III trial studies antiemetic therapy with olanzapine to see how well they work compared to antiemetic therapy alone in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with cancer receiving highly emetogenic (causes vomiting) chemotherapy. Antiemetic drugs, such as palonosetron hydrochloride, ondansetron, and granisetron hydrochloride, may help lessen or prevent nausea and vomiting in patients treated with chemotherapy. |

  8. Cancer Driver Log (CanDL): Catalog of Potentially Actionable Cancer Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Senthilkumar; Miya, Jharna; Kautto, Esko; Zhu, Eliot; Samorodnitsky, Eric; Datta, Jharna; Reeser, Julie W; Roychowdhury, Sameek

    2015-09-01

    Massively parallel sequencing technologies have enabled characterization of genomic alterations across multiple tumor types. Efforts have focused on identifying driver mutations because they represent potential targets for therapy. However, because of the presence of driver and passenger mutations, it is often challenging to assign the clinical relevance of specific mutations observed in patients. Currently, there are multiple databases and tools that provide in silico assessment for potential drivers; however, there is no comprehensive resource for mutations with functional characterization. Therefore, we created an expert-curated database of potentially actionable driver mutations for molecular pathologists to facilitate annotation of cancer genomic testing. We reviewed scientific literature to identify variants that have been functionally characterized in vitro or in vivo as driver mutations. We obtained the chromosome location and all possible nucleotide positions for each amino acid change and uploaded them to the Cancer Driver Log (CanDL) database with associated literature reference indicating functional driver evidence. In addition to a simple interface, the database allows users to download all or selected genes as a comma-separated values file for incorporation into their own analysis pipeline. Furthermore, the database includes a mechanism for third-party contributions to support updates for novel driver mutations. Overall, this freely available database will facilitate rapid annotation of cancer genomic testing in molecular pathology laboratories for mutations. PMID:26320871

  9. Cancer chemoprevention by phytochemicals. Expectation for phytochemicals as preventive agents against radiation-induced carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is growing evidence from the studies using animal models that phytochemicals in plants have preventive effect on cancer induction, which is mediated by polyphenol anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory functions. Some phytochemicals such as curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate have been moved onto clinical trials. These phytochemicals are also expected to reduce the deleterious effect of radiation, and to be a powerful tool for the prevention of radiation carcinogenesis. In this review, we summarized the general concept of cancer chemoprevention and usefulness of phytochemicals as cancer preventive agents, and pointed out their possibilities for prevention of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. (author)

  10. Effectiveness of an Ongoing, Community-Based Breast Cancer Prevention Program for Korean American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun; Choi, Ga-Young; Cho, Ji Young

    2016-02-01

    The study evaluates the effectiveness of an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program offered by a local social services agency in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Korean American women who participated in this breast cancer prevention program were compared with those who did not participate in their knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors. The study found that the intervention group was more knowledgeable on breast cancer and related services and reported more positive attitudes toward breast cancer screening services than the comparison group. The participants in the intervention group were also more likely to plan to receive a mammogram than those in the comparison group. However, significant differences were not observed in the two groups in their intention to receive a clinical breast examination. The study findings suggest that an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program can be an effective method of addressing breast cancer prevention disparities observed among Korean American women. PMID:26946886

  11. A Woman-centered Educational Program for Primary Prevention of Lung Cancer in a Cuban Municipality, 2012--2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Abel; Castillo, Zeida; Pérez, Julia; Abeledo, Ahyní

    2015-10-01

    Lung cancer educational programs seek the involvement of different groups in efforts to promote healthier habits and lifestyles. Women are primary agents for targeting prevention actions because of their ability to foster healthy lifestyles within their families. The purpose of this study was to develop a woman-centered educational program to strengthen knowledge and promote responsible behavior aimed at primary prevention of lung cancer. Based on identified learning needs in 133 female participants concerning lung cancer self care, healthy habits and communication skills about self care, a ten-workshop series was designed and validated by specialists and users. Before intervention, 82% of participants were highly aware of smoking-related harm, but only 26% were highly aware of healthy environmental management practices at home and 14% were knowledgeable about self care. Differences in both awareness and practice of health-promoting behaviors were observed by the end of the training: those highly aware of smoking-related harm rose to 86.5%, and those highly aware of environmental management and self care increased to 66.2% and 83.5%, respectively. The proportions reporting acceptable levels of environmental management and self-care practices increased to 86.5% (from 0%) and 91% (from 3.8%), respectively. One year later, a positive impact on families was confirmed, predominantly on children. We conclude that such a woman-centered educational program can increase awareness and promote healthy behaviors aimed at lung cancer prevention. Women's ability to communicate and share lessons learned within their families should be considered in designing community health education programs. KEYWORDS Lung cancer, health education, disease prevention, primary prevention, health promotion, Cuba. PMID:26947281

  12. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Zare Sakhvidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between PM and self-efficacy, response efficacy, and the cancer preventive behaviors. Meanwhile, statistically significant negative correlations were found between PM, cost, and reward. Conclusions. Among available PMT constructs, only self-efficacy and cost were significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Protection motivation model based health promotion interventions with focus on self-efficacy and cost would be desirable in the case of occupational cancers prevention.

  13. Vitamin D3 in cancer prevention and therapy: the nutritional issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirumbolo, Salvatore

    2015-09-01

    The action of vitamin D3, in its biological form 1α,25(OH)2vitD3 or calcitriol, may be summarized as a steroid-like hormone able to modulate basic functions of cell encompassing energy balance, stress response, mitochondria biogenesis, intracellular calcium oscillations, and replication/apoptosis mechanisms leading to cell survival. Moreover, calcitriol exerts a potent role as an innate and adaptive immune cytokine as immunity is closely related to self-maintenance through its energetic/metabolic balance and homeostasis of cell turnover. Therefore, vitamin D might be the ancestral form of survival hormones developed with calcified vertebrate bearing skeleton in order to survive far from water. This characteristic may suggest that the role of dietary vitamin D in preventing cancer is simply ancillary to the many factors playing a major role in contrasting impairment in energy balance and cell survival. Most probably, the immune role of calcitriol might be included in the maintenance, mostly by adipose tissue, of an anti-inflammatory, tolerant immune status, depending on the immune tolerance and modulation from the gut. A balance closely modulated by the leptin axis, which when impairments in metabolism occur, such as in insulin resistance or obesity, calcitriol is unable to face at this imbalance, while leptin plays a major role and cancer progression may be promoted. Furthermore, this mechanism promotes epithelial/mesenchymal transition-mediated fibrosis, leading to cancer resistance to immune control and drug action. Interestingly, this pathologic picture is triggered by deficiency in vitamin D from the diet. Therefore, a dietary habit including vitamin D sources, besides flavonoids, may ameliorate lifestyle and health span in most individuals, depending on their genetic background. PMID:26057218

  14. Long-term survival of participants in the prostate cancer prevention trial

    OpenAIRE

    Silberstein, Jonathan L.; Sartor, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) is a seminal study in the field of urology. More than 10 years after its initial publication, updated data from this trial continue to shape our understanding of prostate cancer. Among the major findings from the PCPT has been the demonstration that prostate cancer is common in men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) once thought to be in the normal range,1 finasteride prevents the development of benign prostatic hypertrophy,2 it increases the sens...

  15. Measuring Health Belief Model components in adopting preventive behaviors of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Namdar; Shiva Bigizadeh; Mohammad Mehdi Naghizadeh

    2012-01-01

    Background & Objective: Cervical cancer is the second prevalent women cancer in the world. This cancer is found preventable because of having the prolong time before the appearance, its complications and the available proper screening program and possibility of the primary lesion treatment. Since the Health Belief Model is one of the applicable praxeology model in health education to prevent and control of diseases. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the Health Belief Model componen...

  16. A NATURAL WAY TO CANCER PREVENTION AND THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Anupama Sharma; Renu Bist; Poonam

    2013-01-01

    In economically developing countries, the global burden of cancer persists to increase chiefly because of the aging and growth of the world population along with an increasing implementation of cancercausing behaviors, particularly smoking, physical inactivity and fast food. Cancer group accounts approximately 13% of all deaths each year with the most common being: lung cancer (1.3 million deaths), stomach cancer (803,000 deaths), colorectal cancer (639,000 deaths), liver cancer (610,000 deat...

  17. GLB prevents tumor metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma by inhibiting tumor adhesion actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan PAN; Qian-liu SONG; Yan-hua LIN; Ning LU; He-ming YU; Xue-jun LI

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the inhibitory effect of a new compound of GLB on tumor metastasis in vivo and analyze its actions on tumor cell adhesion to clarify its mechanism.Methods: The effect of GLB on tumor metastasis was analyzed by Lewis lung carcinoma model.The pathological morphology of lung alveolar was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin staining.The effect of GLB on the proliferation of human prostate cancer cell (PC-3M, with a high metastatic characteristic) was studied using the MTT method, and its actions on PC-3M cell adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and laminin were analyzed in vitro.Lewis lung carcinoma metastasis significantly (P<0.05).Simultaneously, GLB could mitigate the damage of lung alveolar caused by metastasic tumor deposits.In vitro, GLB inhibited dramatically the adhesion of PC-3M cells to HUVEC (P<0.01) and laminin (P<0.05), without cytotoxic or anti-proliferative action on PC-3M cells.Conclusion: GLB has anti-tumor metastatic activity, which partly depends on its inhibition of tumor adhesion.

  18. Oral Mucositis Prevention and Management by Therapeutic Laser in Head and Neck Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Fekrazad, Reza; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Oral mucositis is considered a severe complication in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy for head and neck cancer. The aim of this review study was to assess the effect of low level laser therapy for prevention and management of oral mucositis in cancer patients.

  19. American Society of Clinical Oncology Statement: Human Papillomavirus Vaccination for Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Howard H; Chuang, Linus T; duPont, Nefertiti C; Eng, Cathy; Foxhall, Lewis E; Merrill, Janette K; Wollins, Dana S; Blanke, Charles D

    2016-05-20

    American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the leading medical professional oncology society, is committed to lessening the burden of cancer and as such will promote underused interventions that have the potential to save millions of lives through cancer prevention. As the main providers of cancer care worldwide, our patients, their families, and our communities look to us for guidance regarding all things cancer related, including cancer prevention. Through this statement and accompanying recommendations, ASCO hopes to increase awareness of the tremendous global impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) -caused cancers, refocus the discussion of HPV vaccination on its likely ability to prevent millions of cancer deaths, and increase HPV vaccination uptake via greater involvement of oncology professionals in ensuring accurate public discourse about HPV vaccination and calling for the implementation of concrete strategies to address barriers to vaccine access and acceptance. PMID:27069078

  20. The art of casting nets: fishing for the prize of personalized cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, David J; Chiang, Emily C; Bostwick, David G

    2008-01-01

    Now, more than ever, there is great need for personalized cancer prevention. We define personalized cancer prevention as a strategy that will enable each person to reduce his or her risk for lethal cancer by matching the dose, duration, and timing of an intervention with their own cancer risk profile. Most research studies provide us with data on the average person. But who is the average person anyway? The central tenet of personalized cancer prevention is that average is overrated. In this article, we frame what are the major obstacles to developing personalized cancer-reducing interventions: the lack of validated, non-invasive stratifiers of risk; the U-shaped dose response between cancer-fighting nutrients (e.g., selenium) and DNA damage, meaning that more of a good thing is not necessarily a good thing; the relatively brief duration of interventions evaluated in human prevention trials; the challenge of finding populations in which the impact of early life interventions on the incidence of cancers affecting older adults can be studied; and the interindividual differences in gene expression that may influence a person's response to a particular nutrient. Moreover, we contend that those who study personalized cancer prevention will need a unique constellation of expertise, including an understanding of cancer and aging, a passion for prevention, and proven health communication skills. We propose that becoming cross-trained in cancer and aging and taking more responsibility for communicating health-related research to the public in the proper context are two of the most important ways scientists can move us all closer to the goal of personalized cancer prevention. Every fisherman knows that where he casts his net determines his catch. Now, we ask: When it comes to solving the cancer problem, where should we be casting our nets? PMID:18444129

  1. Cancer, Employment, and American Indians: A Participatory Action Research Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sharon R.; Finifrock, DeAnna; Marshall, Catherine A.; Jaakola, Julia; Setterquist, Janette; Burross, Heidi L.; Hodge, Felicia Schanche

    2011-01-01

    American Indian cancer survivors are an underserved and understudied group. In this pilot study we attempted to address, through participatory action research, missing information about those factors that serve to either facilitate employment or hinder it for adult cancer survivors. One task of the study was to develop and/or modify…

  2. Targeted therapies in epithelial ovarian cancer: Molecular mechanisms of action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroaki; Itamochi

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death in women with gynecological cancer. Most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage and have a poor prognosis.Currently, surgical tumor debulking, followed by platinum- and taxane-based chemotherapy is the standard treatment for advanced ovarian cancer. However, these patients are at great risk of recurrence and emerging drug resistance. Therefore, novel treatment strategies are required to improve outcomes for women with advanced ovarian cancer. A variety of molecular targeted agents, the majority of which are monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule protein-kinase inhibitors, have been explored in the management of ovarian cancer. The targets of these agents include angiogenesis, the human epidermal growth factor receptor family, ubiquitinproteasome pathway, epigenetic modulators, poly(ADPribose) polymerase (PARP), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, which are aberrant in tumor tissue. The antiangiogenic agent, bevacizumab, has been reported as the most effective targeted agent and should be included in the standard chemotherapeutic regimen for advanced ovarian cancer. PARP inhibitors, which are mainly used in breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene-mutated patients, and mTOR inhibitors are also attractive treatment strategies, either alone or combination with chemotherapy, for ovarian cancer. Understanding the tumor molecular biology and identification of predictive biomarkers are essential steps for selection of the best treatment strategies. This article reviews the molecular mechanisms of the most promising targeted agents that are under early phase clinical evaluation for ovarian cancer.

  3. The National LGBT Cancer Action Plan: A White Paper of the 2014 National Summit on Cancer in the LGBT Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolies, Liz; Sigurdsson, Hrafn Oli; Walland, Jonathan; Radix, Asa; Rice, David; Buchting, Francisco O.; Sanchez, Nelson F.; Bare, Michael G.; Boehmer, Ulrike; Cahill, Sean; Griebling, Tomas L.; Bruessow, Diane; Maingi, Shail

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite growing social acceptance of lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, and transgender (LGBT) persons and the extension of marriage rights for same-sex couples, LGBT persons experience stigma and discrimination, including within the healthcare system. Each population within the LGBT umbrella term is likely at elevated risk for cancer due to prevalent, significant cancer risk factors, such as tobacco use and human immunodeficiency virus infection; however, cancer incidence and mortality data among LGBT persons are lacking. This absence of cancer incidence data impedes research and policy development, LGBT communities' awareness and activation, and interventions to address cancer disparities. In this context, in 2014, a 2-day National Summit on Cancer in the LGBT Communities was convened by a planning committee for the purpose of accelerating progress in identifying and addressing the LGBT communities' concerns and needs in the spheres of cancer research, clinical cancer care, healthcare policy, and advocacy for cancer survivorship and LGBT health equity. Summit participants were 56 invited persons from the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada, representatives of diverse identities, experiences, and knowledge about LGBT communities and cancer. Participants shared lessons learned and identified gaps and remedies regarding LGBT cancer concerns across the cancer care continuum from prevention to survivorship. This white paper presents background on each of the Summit themes and 16 recommendations covering the following: sexual orientation and gender identity data collection in national and state health surveys and research on LGBT communities and cancer, the clinical care of LGBT persons, and the education and training of healthcare providers.

  4. Health-related knowledge of primary prevention of cancer in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana Rute; Silva, Susana; Moura-Ferreira, Pedro; Villaverde-Cabral, Manuel; Santos, Osvaldo; do Carmo, Isabel; Barros, Henrique; Lunet, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of new cases of cancer highlights the relevance of primary prevention for cancer control, which is influenced, among other factors, by the population's health-related knowledge. Therefore, we aimed to describe cancer-related knowledge in Portugal, including perception of risk, awareness of cancer causes and preventive behaviours. We evaluated 1624 Portuguese-speaking dwellers, aged between 16 and 79 years, through face-to-face interviews conducted using a structured questionnaire. We computed adjusted (sex, age, education) regression coefficients and prevalence ratios, using linear and Poisson regression, respectively, to quantify associations with cancer-specific knowledge. The proportions of nonresponse ranged from 13.4 to 63.5% for the most frequent cancer in Portugal and the leading cause of cancer, respectively. The mean of the estimated lifetime risk of cancer in the Portuguese population was 37.0%. A total of 47.5% of the respondents identified breast cancer as the most frequent in Portugal, 72.0% named lifestyles as the leading cause of cancer and 40.2% selected not smoking as the most important preventive behaviour. Lower levels of education were associated with higher proportions of nonresponse, but not consistently with inaccurate knowledge. Men provided lower estimates of the lifetime risk of cancer, indicated breast cancer less frequently and more often lung cancer as the most frequent, and were more likely to select not smoking as the most important preventive behaviour. The present study provides relevant data on knowledge of cancer prevention, which may be used for the planning and evaluation of awareness-raising and primary prevention interventions in Portugal. PMID:25642793

  5. A NATURAL WAY TO CANCER PREVENTION AND THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Sharma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In economically developing countries, the global burden of cancer persists to increase chiefly because of the aging and growth of the world population along with an increasing implementation of cancercausing behaviors, particularly smoking, physical inactivity and fast food. Cancer group accounts approximately 13% of all deaths each year with the most common being: lung cancer (1.3 million deaths, stomach cancer (803,000 deaths, colorectal cancer (639,000 deaths, liver cancer (610,000 deaths, and breast cancer (519,000 deaths. In India, the rate of oral, oesophagus and cervical cancers are some highest in the world according to 2011 Statistics. Various treatments are used to cure some cancers, but the battle against this disease is ongoing. The source of biologically active compounds originally isolated from plants. These natural compounds can acts as anti cancerous agents. Hence, the current study focuses on the use of 15 different natural products in the treatment of cancer.

  6. Creating community action plans for obesity prevention using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, A; Mavoa, H M; Bell, A C;

    2009-01-01

    Community-based interventions are an important component of obesity prevention efforts. The literature provides little guidance on priority-setting for obesity prevention in communities, especially for socially and culturally diverse populations. This paper reports on the process of developing...... prioritized, community-participatory action plans for obesity prevention projects in children and adolescents using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework. We combined stakeholder engagement processes, the ANGELO Framework (scans for environmental barriers, targeted behaviours...

  7. Clonal status of actionable driver events and the timing of mutational processes in cancer evolution

    OpenAIRE

    McGranahan, Nicholas; Favero, Francesco; de Bruin, Elza C.; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Szallasi, Zoltan; Swanton, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Deciphering whether actionable driver mutations are found in all or a subset of tumor cells will likely be required to improve drug development and precision medicine strategies. We analyzed nine cancer types to determine the subclonal frequencies of driver events, to time mutational processes during cancer evolution, and to identify drivers of subclonal expansions. Although mutations in known driver genes typically occurred early in cancer evolution, we also identified later subclonal “actio...

  8. Reducing cyberbullying: A theory of reasoned action-based video prevention program for college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, Ashley N; Kelley, Michelle L; Pearson, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of cyberbullying prevention/intervention programs. The goals of the present study were to develop a Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)-based video program to increase cyberbullying knowledge (1) and empathy toward cyberbullying victims (2), reduce favorable attitudes toward cyberbullying (3), decrease positive injunctive (4) and descriptive norms about cyberbullying (5), and reduce cyberbullying intentions (6) and cyberbullying behavior (7). One hundred sixty-seven college students were randomly assigned to an online video cyberbullying prevention program or an assessment-only control group. Immediately following the program, attitudes and injunctive norms for all four types of cyberbullying behavior (i.e., unwanted contact, malice, deception, and public humiliation), descriptive norms for malice and public humiliation, empathy toward victims of malice and deception, and cyberbullying knowledge significantly improved in the experimental group. At one-month follow-up, malice and public humiliation behavior, favorable attitudes toward unwanted contact, deception, and public humiliation, and injunctive norms for public humiliation were significantly lower in the experimental than the control group. Cyberbullying knowledge was significantly higher in the experimental than the control group. These findings demonstrate a brief cyberbullying video is capable of improving, at one-month follow-up, cyberbullying knowledge, cyberbullying perpetration behavior, and TRA constructs known to predict cyberbullying perpetration. Considering the low cost and ease with which a video-based prevention/intervention program can be delivered, this type of approach should be considered to reduce cyberbullying. PMID:26349445

  9. Construction safety: Can management prevent all accidents or are workers responsible for their own actions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction industry has struggled for many years with the answer to the question posed in the title: Can Management Prevent All Accidents or Are Workers Responsible for Their Own Actions? In the litigious society that we live, it has become more important to find someone open-quotes at faultclose quotes for an accident than it is to find out how we can prevent it from ever happening again. Most successful companies subscribe to the theme that open-quotes all accidents can be prevented.close quotes They institute training and qualification programs, safe performance incentives, and culture-change-driven directorates such as the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP); yet we still see construction accidents that result in lost time, and occasionally death, which is extremely costly in the shortsighted measure of money and, in real terms, impact to the worker''s family. Workers need to be properly trained in safety and health protection before they are assigned to a job that may expose them to safety and health hazards. A management committed to improving worker safety and health will bring about significant results in terms of financial savings, improved employee morale, enhanced communities, and increased production. But how can this happen, you say? Reduction in injury and lost workdays are the rewards. A decline in reduction of injuries and lost workdays results in lower workers'' compensation premiums and insurance rates. In 1991, United States workplace injuries and illnesses cost public and private sector employers an estimated $62 billion in workers'' compensation expenditures

  10. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of gastrointestinal cancers (Letter)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G;

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress can cause cancer. Our aim was to establish whether antioxidant supplements reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer and mortality.......Oxidative stress can cause cancer. Our aim was to establish whether antioxidant supplements reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer and mortality....

  11. Withania somnifera: From prevention to treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliyaguru, Dushani L; Singh, Shivendra V; Kensler, Thomas W

    2016-06-01

    The identification of bioactive molecules that have potential to interrupt carcinogenesis continues to garner research interest. In particular, molecules that have dietary origin are most attractive because of their safety, cost-effectiveness and feasibility of oral administration. Nutraceuticals have played an important role in the overall well-being of humans for many years, with or without rigorous evidence backing their health claims. Traditional medicine systems around the world have utilized plants that have medicinal properties for millennia, providing an opportunity for modern day researchers to assess their efficacies against ailments such as cancer. Withania somnifera (WS) is a plant that has been used in Ayurveda (an ancient form of medicine in Asia) and in the recent past, has been demonstrated to have anti-tumorigenic properties in experimental models. While scientific research performed on WS has exploded in the past decade, much regarding the mode of action and molecular targets involved remains unknown. In this review, we discuss the traditional uses of the plant, the experimental evidence supporting its chemopreventive potential as well as roadblocks that need to be overcome in order for WS to be evaluated as a chemopreventive agent in humans. PMID:26718910

  12. Geocoding and Social Marketing in Alabama’s Cancer Prevention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianna W. Miner, MPH

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Alabama Department of Public Health (ADPH is collaborating with the National Cancer Institute to develop detailed profiles of underserved Alabama communities most at risk for cancer. These profiles will be combined with geocoded data to create a pilot project, Cancer Prevention for Alabama’s Underserved Populations: A Focused Approach. The project's objectives are to provide the ADPH's cancer prevention programs with a more accurate and cost-effective means of planning, implementing, and evaluating its prevention activities in an outcomes-oriented and population-appropriate manner. The project links geocoded data from the Alabama Statewide Cancer Registry with profiles generated by the National Cancer Institute’s cancer profiling system, Consumer Health Profiles. These profiles have been successfully applied to market-focused cancer prevention messages across the United States. The ADPH and the National Cancer Institute will evaluate the efficacy of using geocoded data and lifestyle segmentation information in strategy development and program implementation. Alabama is the first state in the nation not only to link geocoded cancer registry data with lifestyle segmentation data but also to use the National Cancer Institute’s profiles and methodology in combination with actual state data.

  13. Minimizing the cancer-promotional activity of cox-2 as a central strategy in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    factors such as IGF-I increase cox-2 expression by several complementary mechanisms; hence, decreased cox-2 activity may play a role in the remarkably low mortality from "Western" cancers enjoyed by Third World cultures in which systemic growth factor activity was minimized by quasi-vegan diets complemented by leanness and excellent muscle insulin sensitivity. Practical strategies for achieving a modest degree of calorie restriction may also have potential for down-regulating cox-2 expression while decreasing cancer risk. Soy isoflavones, linked to reduced cancer risk in Asian epidemiology, may suppress cox-2 induction by activating ERbeta. In aggregate, these considerations suggest that a comprehensive lifestyle strategy targeting cox-2 expression and bioactivity may have tremendous potential for cancer prevention. PMID:22001128

  14. Models For Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: Problems vs Promises

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Bharat B.; Danda, Divya; Gupta, Shan; Gehlot, Prashasnika

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates from the American Cancer Society and from the International Union Against Cancer indicate that 12 million cases of cancer were diagnosed last year, with 7 million deaths worldwide; these numbers are expected to double by 2030 (27 million cases with 17 million deaths). Despite tremendous technological developments in all areas, and President Richard Nixon’s initiative in the 1974 “War against Cancer”, the US cancer incidence is the highest in the world and the cancer death ra...

  15. Lowering the UK domestic radon action level to reduce radiation-induced lung cancer in general population: when and where is it cost effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case studies have shown that radon gas can be present within domestic properties at sufficiently high levels that it can significantly increase the risk of lung cancer in occupants. Recently, Darby et al. (2006) have shown that this risk exists at radon concentrations as low as 100 Bq·m-3, which is below the UK domestic Action Level of 200 Bq·m-3. As a result, there have been suggestions that national domestic Action Levels should be reduced. This paper considers the benefits and costs of the domestic radon remediation programmes in the UK, when a range of Action Levels from 125 Bq·m-3 to 600 Bq·m-3 are applied. The variations of total cost, cost-effectiveness, dose reduction and lung cancers saved for each proposed action level, and the proportion of houses over the proposed action level, were estimated. The study shows that, for an Action Level above 200 Bq·m-3, a completed domestic radon remediation programme in Northamptonshire, where 6.3% of existing houses have initial radon levels over 200 Bq·m-3, will cost less and will target those most at risk, but will be less cost effective. In addition, a higher Action Level leaves a higher residual dose and greater risk of cancer in the population living in unremediated homes. Reducing the Action Level below 200 Bq·m-3 will prevent more cancers, but at significantly higher cost. It will be less cost-effective, because a significant number of houses with moderate radon levels will be remediated with modest health benefit to occupants. The study suggests that a completed radon remediation programme is most cost-effective with an action level of around 250 to 300 Bq·m-3. The finding appears to be independent of the percentage of houses over the Action Level. This has clear implications for future health policy. (author)

  16. Effect of Carrot Intake in the Prevention of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Jalali, Ali; MOMAYYEZI, MAHDIEH; Bazm, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality, with the incidence and mortality being higher in men than in women. Various studies have shown that eating carrots may play a major role in the prevention of gastric cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the relationship between carrot consumption and gastric cancer. Materials and Methods We searched multiple databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Persian databases like...

  17. Vitamin D: Are We Ready to Supplement for Breast Cancer Prevention and Treatment?

    OpenAIRE

    Crew, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a potentially modifiable risk factor that may be targeted for breast cancer prevention and treatment. Preclinical studies support various antitumor effects of vitamin D in breast cancer. Numerous observational studies have reported an inverse association between vitamin D status, including circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels, and breast cancer risk. The relationship between vitamin D and mammographic density, a strong predictor of breast cancer risk, remai...

  18. The BRCA1/2 pathway prevents hematologic cancers in addition to breast and ovarian cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that inactivation of virtually any component within the pathway containing the BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins would increase the risks for lymphomas and leukemias. In people who do not have BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations, the encoded proteins prevent breast/ovarian cancer. However BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins have multiple functions including participating in a pathway that mediates repair of DNA double strand breaks by error-free methods. Inactivation of BRCA1, BRCA2 or any other critical protein within this 'BRCA pathway' due to a gene mutation should inactivate this error-free repair process. DNA fragments produced by double strand breaks are then left to non-specific processes that rejoin them without regard for preserving normal gene regulation or function, so rearrangements of DNA segments are more likely. These kinds of rearrangements are typically associated with some lymphomas and leukemias. Literature searches produced about 2500 epidemiology and basic science articles related to the BRCA pathway. These articles were reviewed and copied to a database to facilitate access. Meta-analyses of statistical information compared risks for hematologic cancers vs. mutations for the components in a model pathway containing BRCA1/2 gene products. Deleterious mutations of genes encoding proteins virtually anywhere within the BRCA pathway increased risks up to nearly 2000 fold for certain leukemias and lymphomas. Cancers with large increases in risk included mantle cell lymphoma, acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and prolymphocytic leukemia. Mantle cell lymphoma is defined by a characteristic rearrangement of DNA fragments interchanged between chromosomes 11 and 14. DNA translocations or rearrangements also occur in significant percentages of the other cancers. An important function of the BRCA pathway is to prevent a subgroup of human leukemias and lymphomas that may

  19. Efficiency of preventive actions for landslides and flooding - evaluation of Scandinavian practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R.; Andersson-sköld, Y. B.; Nyberg, L.; Johansson, M.; Persson, E.

    2011-12-01

    Author: Ramona Bergman, Yvonne Andersson-Sköld, Lars Nyberg, Magnus Johansson, Erik Persson Preventive actions can be, and are frequently, taken to reduce accidents and their consequences in different ways. The MSB funded research programme "Effects of Society's Security actions" (ESS, 2009-2013) aims to study the relationship between such actions and their effects. The program is divided into three subgroups: Frequent accidents Natural hazards (such as flooding, erosion and landslide) Chemical and landfill accidents The results presented here covers natural hazards with focus on land slides and flooding. The results are based on Swedish/Scandinavian contexts. Natural events such as erosion, flooding and land slides are common, but the number of accidents (events causing severe negative impact) is rare. Therefore, in such analysis there is limited data and other information available which can be used for example in statistical analysis of actions and their effects. Instead, the analysis must be based on other information. Therefore, the analysis may have to include aspects that only can be assessed by scenario and "what-if" analyses. In this project the main method has been interviews with officials in Swedish municipalities and national agencies in Sweden and Norway. The two levels are chosen since policies are taken on national (or international) level, while the key actions and actors are on the municipal level. The interviews cover experiences and potential scenarios. In all municipalities, one politician and officials working with planning and rescue service have been interviewed. The study covers hazard and risk mapping, follow up of such maps, physical planning and lessons learned from previous events and activities. The final outcome of the research will be a review of what is found to be well functioning, identification of weak points and recommendations for the management of landslides, erosion and flooding. The present results indicate that hazard

  20. Using participatory action research to prevent suicide in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Adele; Dudgeon, Pat; Holland, Christopher; Kelly, Kerrie; Scrine, Clair; Walker, Roz

    2014-10-01

    The National Empowerment Project is an innovative Aboriginal-led community empowerment project that has worked with eight Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities across Australia over the period 2012-13. The aim of the Project was to develop, deliver and evaluate a program to: (1) promote positive social and emotional well-being to increase resilience and reduce the high reported rates of psychological distress and suicide among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; and (2) empower communities to take action to address the social determinants that contribute to psychological distress, suicide and self-harm. Using a participatory action research approach, the communities were supported to identify the risk factors challenging individuals, families and communities, as well as strategies to strengthen protective factors against these challenges. Data gathered during Stage 1 were used to develop a 12-month program to promote social and emotional well-being and build resilience within each community. A common framework, based on the social and emotional well-being concept, was used to support each community to target community-identified protective factors and strategies to strengthen individual, family and community social and emotional well-being. Strengthening the role of culture is critical to this approach and marks an important difference between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous mental health promotion and prevention activities, including suicide prevention. It has significant implications for policy makers and service providers and is showing positive impact through the translation of research into practice, for example through the development of a locally run empowerment program that aims to address the social determinants of health and their ongoing negative impact on individuals, families and communities. It also provides a framework in which to develop and strengthen culture, connectedness and foster self

  1. Evaluation of changes in the attitudes and behaviors of relatives of lung cancer patients toward cancer prevention and screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Koca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer diagnosis affects all the relatives living with the patient; however, whether the behavior of family members changes or not is unknown. To end this we evaluated the relatives of lung cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Forty-one questions were used to collect data from the relatives of lung cancer patients who had been living with them for at least one year, to evaluate changes in their attitudes and behaviors related to cancer prevention. Results: The study included 246 lung cancer patients′ relatives, of them 172 (69.9% were women and 74 (30.1% were men. The median age was 46 years (range: 20-83 years. Patients and their relatives had been living together for an average of 28 years (range: 1-68 years, and 88 (35.7% of the patients′ relatives were their children. We found changes in the attitudes and behaviors toward prevention and screening for cancer in 92 (37.4% of the relatives. Fifty-two (21.1% of them changed their smoking habits, 34 (13.8% altered their eating habits, 25 (10.2% changed their exercise habits, 13 (5.3% visited a doctor due to a suspicion of having cancer, 12 (4.9% changed their lifestyles, seven (2.8% underwent cancer screening tests, three (1.2% started using alternative medicines, and three (1.2% started using vitamins for cancer prevention. Conclusions: Important changes occur in the attitudes and behaviors of patients′ relatives toward cancer prevention and screening after the patients are diagnosed with lung cancer. Being aware of how patients′ relatives react to a family member′s cancer diagnosis may provide healthcare professionals with more incentive to address the relatives′ special needs.

  2. New Methods to Screen for Cancer Drugs and to Evaluate their Mechanism of Action

    OpenAIRE

    Rickardson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Cancer is a common disease and due to problems with resistance against cancer drugs and the limited benefit from chemotherapy in many diagnoses, there is a need to develop new cancer drugs. In this thesis new methods to screen for cancer drugs and to evaluate their mechanism of action are discussed. In Paper I, it was found that by studying the gene expression of a cell line panel and combining the data with sensitivity data of a number of cytotoxic drugs, it was possible to cluster compounds...

  3. Global epidemiology, risk factors and prevention of oral cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Newell Johnson

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Globacan [2002] database from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, shows 400,318 cases of oral and pharyngeal [excluding nasopharynx] cancer in the world annually, and 221,917 deaths.

  4. Estrogen receptor prevents p53-dependent apoptosis in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Shannon T.; Shin, Hyunjin; Westerling, Thomas; Liu, Xiaole Shirley; Brown, Myles

    2012-01-01

    More than two-thirds of breast cancers express the estrogen receptor (ER) and depend on estrogen for growth and survival. Therapies targeting ER function, including aromatase inhibitors that block the production of estrogens and ER antagonists that alter ER transcriptional activity, play a central role in the treatment of ER+ breast cancers of all stages. In contrast to ER− breast cancers, which frequently harbor mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor, ER+ breast cancers are predominantly wild...

  5. Independent Association of Postdoctoral Training with Subsequent Careers in Cancer Prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Faupel-Badger

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the career paths of alumni from the National Cancer Institute (NCI Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP, a structured in-house postdoctoral training program of 3-4 years duration, and specifically what proportion of the alumni were currently performing cancer prevention-related activities. The analyses here included 119 CPFP alumni and 85 unsuccessful CPFP applicants, all of whom completed postdoctoral training between 1987-2011 and are currently employed. Postdoctoral training experiences and current career outcomes data were collected via online surveys. Differences between groups were assessed using chi-square and Fisher's exact test p-values and subsequent regression analyses adjusted for differences between the groups. Compared to 15.3% of unsuccessful CPFP applicants, 52.1% of CPFP alumni (odds ratio [OR] = 4.99, 95% confidence interval [95% CI: 1.91-13.0 were currently spending the majority of their time working in cancer prevention. Among those doing any cancer prevention-focused work, 54.3% of CPFP alumni spent the majority of their time performing cancer prevention research activities when compared to 25.5% of unsuccessful applicants (OR = 4.26, 95% CI: 1.38-13.2. In addition to the independent effect of the NCI CPFP, scientific discipline, and employment sector were also associated with currently working in cancer prevention and involvement in cancer prevention research-related activities. These results from a structured postdoctoral training program are relevant not only to the cancer prevention community but also to those interested in evaluating alignment of postdoctoral training programs with available and desired career paths more broadly.

  6. Independent Association of Postdoctoral Training with Subsequent Careers in Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica M.; Nelson, David E.; Izmirlian, Grant; Ross, Katherine H.; Raue, Kimberley; Tsakraklides, Sophia; Miyaoka, Atsushi; Spiegelman, Maura

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the career paths of alumni from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP), a structured in-house postdoctoral training program of 3–4 years duration, and specifically what proportion of the alumni were currently performing cancer prevention-related activities. The analyses here included 119 CPFP alumni and 85 unsuccessful CPFP applicants, all of whom completed postdoctoral training between 1987–2011 and are currently employed. Postdoctoral training experiences and current career outcomes data were collected via online surveys. Differences between groups were assessed using chi-square and Fisher’s exact test p-values and subsequent regression analyses adjusted for differences between the groups. Compared to 15.3% of unsuccessful CPFP applicants, 52.1% of CPFP alumni (odds ratio [OR] = 4.99, 95% confidence interval [95% CI): 1.91–13.0) were currently spending the majority of their time working in cancer prevention. Among those doing any cancer prevention-focused work, 54.3% of CPFP alumni spent the majority of their time performing cancer prevention research activities when compared to 25.5% of unsuccessful applicants (OR = 4.26, 95% CI: 1.38–13.2). In addition to the independent effect of the NCI CPFP, scientific discipline, and employment sector were also associated with currently working in cancer prevention and involvement in cancer prevention research-related activities. These results from a structured postdoctoral training program are relevant not only to the cancer prevention community but also to those interested in evaluating alignment of postdoctoral training programs with available and desired career paths more broadly. PMID:26659381

  7. Protein nitration and nitrosylation by NO-donating aspirin in colon cancer cells: Relevance to its mechanism of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitric oxide-donating aspirin (NO-ASA) is a promising agent for cancer prevention. Although studied extensively, its molecular targets and mechanism of action are still unclear. S-nitrosylation of signaling proteins is emerging as an important regulatory mechanism by NO. Here, we examined whether S-nitrosylation of the NF-κB, p53, and Wnt signaling proteins by NO-ASA might explain, in part, its mechanism of action in colon cancer. NO-ASA releases significant amounts of NO detected intracellularly in HCT116 and HT-29 colon cells. Using a modified biotin switch assay we demonstrated that NO-ASA S-nitrosylates the signaling proteins p53, β-catenin, and NF-κB, in colon cancer cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. NO-ASA suppresses NF-κB binding to its cognate DNA oligonucleotide, which occurs without changes in the nuclear levels of the NF-κB subunits p65 and p50 and is reversed by dithiothreitol that reduces -S-NO to -SH. In addition to S-nitrosylation, we documented both in vitro and in vivo widespread nitration of tyrosine residues of cellular proteins in response to NO-ASA. Our results suggest that the increased intracellular NO levels following treatment with NO-ASA modulate cell signaling by chemically modifying key protein members of signaling cascades. We speculate that S-nitrosylation and tyrosine nitration are responsible, at least in part, for the inhibitory growth effect of NO-ASA on cancer cell growth and that this may represent a general mechanism of action of NO-releasing agents.

  8. Protein nitration and nitrosylation by NO-donating aspirin in colon cancer cells: Relevance to its mechanism of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jennie L.; Ji, Ping; Ouyang, Nengtai [Division of Cancer Prevention, Stony Brook University, HSC, T17-080, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8173 (United States); Kopelovich, Levy [Division of Cancer Prevention NCI, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Rigas, Basil, E-mail: basil.rigas@stonybrook.edu [Division of Cancer Prevention, Stony Brook University, HSC, T17-080, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8173 (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Nitric oxide-donating aspirin (NO-ASA) is a promising agent for cancer prevention. Although studied extensively, its molecular targets and mechanism of action are still unclear. S-nitrosylation of signaling proteins is emerging as an important regulatory mechanism by NO. Here, we examined whether S-nitrosylation of the NF-{kappa}B, p53, and Wnt signaling proteins by NO-ASA might explain, in part, its mechanism of action in colon cancer. NO-ASA releases significant amounts of NO detected intracellularly in HCT116 and HT-29 colon cells. Using a modified biotin switch assay we demonstrated that NO-ASA S-nitrosylates the signaling proteins p53, {beta}-catenin, and NF-{kappa}B, in colon cancer cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. NO-ASA suppresses NF-{kappa}B binding to its cognate DNA oligonucleotide, which occurs without changes in the nuclear levels of the NF-{kappa}B subunits p65 and p50 and is reversed by dithiothreitol that reduces -S-NO to -SH. In addition to S-nitrosylation, we documented both in vitro and in vivo widespread nitration of tyrosine residues of cellular proteins in response to NO-ASA. Our results suggest that the increased intracellular NO levels following treatment with NO-ASA modulate cell signaling by chemically modifying key protein members of signaling cascades. We speculate that S-nitrosylation and tyrosine nitration are responsible, at least in part, for the inhibitory growth effect of NO-ASA on cancer cell growth and that this may represent a general mechanism of action of NO-releasing agents.

  9. Knowledge and views of secondary school students in Kuala Lumpur on cervical cancer and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashwan, Hesham; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Sawalludin, Nurhidayah

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in women worldwide. Persistent infection with a human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause for cervical cancer. Vaccination and Pap smear screening are the best methods for prevention of the disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge and views of upper secondary school female students in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, toward prevention of cervical cancer. This study was conducted from April 2009 to September 2009 in 8 schools in Kuala Lumpur area using pre-tested and validated questionnaires. Results indicated that the respondents had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention although the majority of students (80.4%) had heard about the disease. The level of knowledge of cervical cancr and its prevention was significantly higher among students from the science stream (pstudents from the art stream. Most students (69.3%) agreed to take the vaccination if the service was available in schools. A high percentage of students (82.2%) agreed that the vaccination should be compulsory to the students. In conclusion, most students had low knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention but they had positive attitude toward vaccination and agreed that vaccination should be compulsory. Therefore, suitable educational programmes should be developed to improve the knowledge of secondary school students on the prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:23725172

  10. Aspirin, lysine, mifepristone and doxycycline combined can effectively and safely prevent and treat cancer metastasis: prevent seeds from gemmating on soil

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Liyuan; Dong, Haiyan; Xu, Huo; Ma, Ji; Zhu, Yewei; Lu, Yusheng; Wang, Jichuang; Zhang, Ting; Li, Tao; Xie, Jingjing; Xu, Bo; Xie, Fangwei; Gao, Yu; Shao, Jingwei; Tu, Xiaohuang

    2015-01-01

    Recent scientific advances have increased our understanding of the cancer metastatic complexities and provided further impetus for new combination therapies to prevent cancer metastasis. Here, we demonstrated that a combination (HAMPT) of aspirin, lysine, mifepristone and doxycycline can effectively and safely prevent cancer metastasis. The pharmaceutically-formulated HAMPT inhibited adhesion of cancer cells to either endothelial cells or extracellular matrix via down-regulating cell adhesion...

  11. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of cancer prevention by dietary phytochemicals: From experimental models to clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Girish B; Hudlikar, Rasika R; Kumar, Gaurav; Gandhi, Khushboo; Mahimkar, Manoj B

    2016-02-26

    Chemoprevention is one of the cancer prevention approaches wherein natural/synthetic agent(s) are prescribed with the aim to delay or disrupt multiple pathways and processes involved at multiple steps, i.e., initiation, promotion, and progression of cancer. Amongst environmental chemopreventive compounds, diet/beverage-derived components are under evaluation, because of their long history of exposure to humans, high tolerability, low toxicity, and reported biological activities. This compilation briefly covers and compares the available evidence on chemopreventive efficacy and probable mechanism of chemoprevention by selected dietary phytochemicals (capsaicin, curcumin, diallyl sulphide, genistein, green/black tea polyphenols, indoles, lycopene, phenethyl isocyanate, resveratrol, retinoids and tocopherols) in experimental systems and clinical trials. All the dietary phytochemicals covered in this review have demonstrated chemopreventive efficacy against spontaneous or carcinogen-induced experimental tumors and/or associated biomarkers and processes in rodents at several organ sites. The observed anti-initiating, anti-promoting and anti-progression activity of dietary phytochemicals in carcinogen-induced experimental models involve phytochemical-mediated redox changes, modulation of enzymes and signaling kinases resulting to effects on multiple genes and cell signaling pathways. Results from clinical trials using these compounds have not shown them to be chemopreventive. This may be due to our: (1) inability to reproduce the exposure conditions, i.e., levels, complexity, other host and lifestyle factors; and (2) lack of understanding about the mechanisms of action and agent-mediated toxicity in several organs and physiological processes in the host. Current research efforts in addressing the issues of exposure conditions, bioavailability, toxicity and the mode of action of dietary phytochemicals may help address the reason for observed mismatch that may ultimately

  12. Cancers in Australia attributable to exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation and prevented by regular sunscreen use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Wilson, Louise F; Green, Adele C; Bain, Christopher J; Fritschi, Lin; Neale, Rachel E; Whiteman, David C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the proportion and numbers of cancers occurring in Australia attributable to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and the proportion and numbers prevented by regular sun protection factor (SPF) 15+ sunscreen use. Methods We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) and numbers of melanomas and keratinocyte cancers (i.e. basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas) due to exposure to ambient UVR resulting from residing in Australia versus residing in the UK (for melanoma) or Scandinavia (for keratinocyte cancers). We also estimated the prevented fraction (PF): the proportion of cancers that would have occurred but were likely prevented by regular sunscreen use. Results An estimated 7,220 melanomas (PAF 63%) and essentially all keratinocyte cancers occurring in Australia were attributable to high ambient UVR levels in Australia. We estimated that regular sunscreen use prevented around 14,190 (PF 9.3%) and 1,730 (PF 14%) people from developing SCC and melanoma, respectively. Conclusions Although our approach was conservative, a high proportion of skin cancers in Australia are attributable to high ambient levels of UVR. Prevailing levels of sunscreen use probably reduced skin cancer incidence by 10–15%. Implications Most skin cancers are preventable. Sunscreen should be a component of a comprehensive sun protection strategy. PMID:26437734

  13. Challenges in Prevention and Care Delivery for Women with Cervical Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Thomas C.; Ghebre, Rahel

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all cases of invasive cervical cancer are associated with infection by high-risk strains of human papilloma virus. Effective primary and secondary prevention programs, as well as effective treatment for early-stage invasive cancer have dramatically reduced the burden of cervical cancer in high-income countries; 85% of the mortality from cervical cancer now occurs in low- and middle-income countries. This article provides an overview of challenges to cervical cancer care in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and identifies areas for programmatic development to meet the global development goal to reduce cancer-related mortality. Advanced stage at presentation and gaps in prevention, screening, diagnostic, and treatment capacities contribute to reduced cervical cancer survival. Cost-effective cervical cancer screening strategies implemented in low resource settings can reduce cervical cancer mortality. Patient- and system-based barriers need to be addressed as part of any cervical cancer control program. Limited human capacity and infrastructure in SSA are major barriers to comprehensive cervical cancer care. Management of early-stage, locally advanced or metastatic cervical cancer involves multispecialty care, including gynecology oncology, medical oncology, radiology, pathology, radiation oncology, and palliative care. Investment in cervical cancer care programs in low- and middle-income countries will need to include effective recruitment programs to engage women in the community to access cancer screening and diagnosis services. Though cervical cancer is a preventable and treatable cancer, the challenges to cervical control in SSA are great and will require a broadly integrated and sustained effort by multiple stakeholders before meaningful progress can be achieved. PMID:27446806

  14. Challenges in Prevention and Care Delivery for Women with Cervical Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Thomas C; Ghebre, Rahel

    2016-01-01

    Virtually all cases of invasive cervical cancer are associated with infection by high-risk strains of human papilloma virus. Effective primary and secondary prevention programs, as well as effective treatment for early-stage invasive cancer have dramatically reduced the burden of cervical cancer in high-income countries; 85% of the mortality from cervical cancer now occurs in low- and middle-income countries. This article provides an overview of challenges to cervical cancer care in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and identifies areas for programmatic development to meet the global development goal to reduce cancer-related mortality. Advanced stage at presentation and gaps in prevention, screening, diagnostic, and treatment capacities contribute to reduced cervical cancer survival. Cost-effective cervical cancer screening strategies implemented in low resource settings can reduce cervical cancer mortality. Patient- and system-based barriers need to be addressed as part of any cervical cancer control program. Limited human capacity and infrastructure in SSA are major barriers to comprehensive cervical cancer care. Management of early-stage, locally advanced or metastatic cervical cancer involves multispecialty care, including gynecology oncology, medical oncology, radiology, pathology, radiation oncology, and palliative care. Investment in cervical cancer care programs in low- and middle-income countries will need to include effective recruitment programs to engage women in the community to access cancer screening and diagnosis services. Though cervical cancer is a preventable and treatable cancer, the challenges to cervical control in SSA are great and will require a broadly integrated and sustained effort by multiple stakeholders before meaningful progress can be achieved. PMID:27446806

  15. 20-years of population-based cancer registration in hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention in the Gambia, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrima Bah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS was designed as a randomised control trial of infant hepatitis B vaccination applied to public health policy, with the main goal of preventing primary liver cancer later in adult life in The Gambia. To that effect, the National Cancer Registry of The Gambia (NCR, a population-based cancer registry (PBCR, was established in 1986 to actively collect data on all cancer diagnosis nation-wide. We extracted 20-years (1990-2009 of data to assess for the first time, the evolution of the most common cancers, also describe and demonstrate the role of the PBCR in a hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention programme in this population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimated Age-Standardised Incidence Rates (ASR (W of the most common cancers registered during the period by gender. The registration period was divided into four 5-year intervals and incidence rates were estimated for each interval. The most common cancers in males were liver, prostate, lung plus bronchus, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and stomach, accounting for 60%, 5%, 4%, 5% and 3%, respectively. Similarly, cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, breast and NHL, were the most common in females, accounting for 33%, 24%, 11% and 4% of the female cancers, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer incidence has remained relatively stable over time, but as shown elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa the disease is a threat in The Gambia. The infection related cancers which are mostly preventable (HBV in men and HPV/HIV in women were the most common. At the moment the data is not enough to detect an effect of hepatitis B vaccination on liver cancer incidence in The Gambia. However, we observed that monitoring case occurrence through PBCR is a key public health pre-requisite for rational planning and implementation of targeted interventions for improving the health of the population.

  16. The National Cancer Institute's PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program: overview, current projects, animal models, agent development strategies, and molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Robert H; Suen, Chen S; Holmes, Cathy A; Fay, Judith R; Steele, Vernon E

    2016-02-01

    The PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) is a National Cancer Institute, Division of Cancer Prevention (NCI, DCP)-supported program whose primary goal is to bring new cancer preventive interventions (small molecules and vaccines) and biomarkers through preclinical development towards clinical trials by creating partnerships between the public sector (eg, academia, industry) and DCP. PREVENT has a formalized structure for moving interventions forward in the prevention pipeline using a stage-gate process with go/no go decision points along the critical path for development. This review describes the structure of the program, its focus areas, and provides examples of projects currently in the pipeline. PMID:26970137

  17. PREVENTION OF DYSURIA AFTER HIFU THERAPY FOR PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Shestaev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify factors for the development of dysuria and its prevention in patients with prostate cancer (PC after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy.Subjects and methods. In September 2008 to June 2013, the Clinic of Urology, S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy, treated 98 patients, by performing HIFU sessions on an Ablatherm apparatus (EDAP, France. All the patients underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP to reduce the volume of the ablated tissue. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 29 patients underwent TURP 3 days before HIFU therapy; 2 69 did this 1 month before major surgery. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups: 1 after ultrasound ablation, a urethral catheter was inserted for 10 days; 2 epicystostoma was applied, followed by its overlapping on day 3 postablation and spontaneous urination. The postoperative incidence of dysuria was estimated from subjective (complaints, voiding diary, and Inter-national Prostate Symptom Score and objective (uroflowmetry, small pelvic ultrasonography with determination of residual urine volume criteria.Results. In the patients who had undergone TURP one month before HIFU therapy, grades I–II urinary incontinence and urethral pros-tatic stricture occurred much less infrequently than in those who had undergone this maneuver 3 days prior to major surgery. Urinary in-continence and urethral prostatic stricture occurred 2-fold more frequently after TURP being carried out 3 days before HIFU therapy than after the urethral catheter being inserted. TURP performed one month before HIFU therapy showed no great difference in the incidence complications regardless of the type of bladder drainage.Conclusion. The short interval between TURP and HIFU therapy for PC increases the risk of postoperative dysuric events. The optimal time to perform TURP prior to HIFU therapy is 1 month.

  18. PREVENTION OF DYSURIA AFTER HIFU THERAPY FOR PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Shestaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify factors for the development of dysuria and its prevention in patients with prostate cancer (PC after high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy.Subjects and methods. In September 2008 to June 2013, the Clinic of Urology, S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy, treated 98 patients, by performing HIFU sessions on an Ablatherm apparatus (EDAP, France. All the patients underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP to reduce the volume of the ablated tissue. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 29 patients underwent TURP 3 days before HIFU therapy; 2 69 did this 1 month before major surgery. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups: 1 after ultrasound ablation, a urethral catheter was inserted for 10 days; 2 epicystostoma was applied, followed by its overlapping on day 3 postablation and spontaneous urination. The postoperative incidence of dysuria was estimated from subjective (complaints, voiding diary, and Inter-national Prostate Symptom Score and objective (uroflowmetry, small pelvic ultrasonography with determination of residual urine volume criteria.Results. In the patients who had undergone TURP one month before HIFU therapy, grades I–II urinary incontinence and urethral pros-tatic stricture occurred much less infrequently than in those who had undergone this maneuver 3 days prior to major surgery. Urinary in-continence and urethral prostatic stricture occurred 2-fold more frequently after TURP being carried out 3 days before HIFU therapy than after the urethral catheter being inserted. TURP performed one month before HIFU therapy showed no great difference in the incidence complications regardless of the type of bladder drainage.Conclusion. The short interval between TURP and HIFU therapy for PC increases the risk of postoperative dysuric events. The optimal time to perform TURP prior to HIFU therapy is 1 month.

  19. Venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: risk assessment, prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukaye, Deepali N; Brink, Heidi; Baliga, Ragavendra

    2016-03-01

    Thrombosis and thromboembolic events contribute to significant morbidity in cancer patients. Venous thrombosis embolism (which includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) accounts for a large percentage of thromboembolic events. Appropriate identification of cancer patients at high risk for venous thromboembolism and management of thromboembolic event is crucial in improving the quality of care for cancer patients. However, thromboembolism in cancer patients is a complex problem and the management has to be tailored to each individual. The focus of this review is to understand the complex pathology, physiology and risk factors that drive the process of venous thrombosis and embolism in cancer patients and the current guidelines in management. PMID:26919091

  20. Reversing Cancer Multidrug Resistance in Xenograft Models via Orchestrating Multiple Actions of Functional Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Debin; Wang, Tingfang; Su, Zhigui; Xue, Lingjing; Mo, Ran; Zhang, Can

    2016-08-31

    A multistimuli responsive drug delivery system (DDS) based on sulfhydryl and amino-cofunctionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (SH/NH2-MSNs) has been developed, in which the multifunctional hyaluronic acid (HA) derivatives were grafted onto the SH/NH2-MSNs by disulfide bonds for targeting delivery, controlling drug release and reversing multidrug resistance (MDR). The doxorubicin (Dox) loaded multifunctional HA derivatives modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Dox/HHS-MSNs) were enzyme and redox sensitive, which could respond to the intracellular stimuli of hyaluronidase (HAase) and glutathione (GSH) successively and prevent drug leakage before reaching the tumor tissues. The cellular uptake experiments showed that Dox/HHS-MSNs were vulnerable to be endocytosed into the Dox-resistant human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7/ADR) cells, efficiently realized the endolysosomal escape and remained in the cytoplasm. Because of orchestrating multiple actions above including active targeting, endolysosomal escape and efficient multilevel drug release, Dox/HHS-MSNs could induce the strongest apoptosis and cytotoxicity of MCF-7/ADR cells. Furthermore, a series of in vivo studies on MCF-7/ADR tumor-bearing xenograft mouse models demonstrated that Dox/HHS-MSNs possessed the enhanced tumor-targeting capacity and the best therapeutic efficacy to reverse cancer MDR. PMID:27420116

  1. Preventative therapies for healthy women at high risk of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamoxifen has been shown to reduce the risk of developing estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer by at least 50%, in both pre- and postmenopausal women. The current challenge is to find new agents with fewer side effects and to find agents that are specifically suitable for premenopausal women with ER-negative breast cancer. Other selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as raloxifene, arzoxifene, and lasofoxifene, have been shown to reduce the incidence of breast cancer by 50%–80%. SERMs are interesting agents for the prevention of breast cancer, but longer follow-up is needed for some of them for a complete risk–benefit profile of these drugs. Aromatase inhibitors have emerged as new drugs in the prevention setting for postmenopausal women. In the Mammary Prevention 3 (MAP3) trial, a 65% reduction in invasive breast cancer with exemestane was observed, and the Breast Cancer Intervention Study-II trial, which compared anastrozole with placebo, reported a 60% reduction in those cancers. Although SERMs and aromatase inhibitors have been proven to be excellent agents in the preventive setting specifically for postmenopausal women and ER-positive breast cancer, newer agents have to be found specifically for ER-negative breast cancers, which mostly occur in premenopausal women

  2. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  3. DCP's Early Detection Research Guides Future Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early detection research funded by the NCI's Division of Cancer Prevention has positively steered both public health and clinical outcomes, and set the stage for findings in the next generation of research. |

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer? Cancer Statistics Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview– ... Resources What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for ... Cancer What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Cancer Prevention Overview– ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  8. Occupational cancers with chemical exposure and their prevention in Korea: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Kyung-Taek

    2013-01-01

    The usage and types of chemicals being developed, with diversified new exposure of workers, are of natural concern to occupational disease. In Korea, with industrialization, application of many chemicals has increased. A large proportion of mortality and disease is due to cancer, and the causal hazardous agents include chemical agents, like heavy metals and so on. Due to the long latency period with malignancies and the fact they are usually found after workers' retirement, it is suggested that management policies must be established to prevent occupational cancers occurring among workers in Korea. To give a general description about the efforts to prevent the occupational cancer with exposure to chemicals, articles on the trends of occupational cancers were reviewed and summarized with related research and efforts for prevention in Korea. It is important to improve the understanding of occupational cancer and help to maintain sustainable and appropriate measures to guarantee workers safety and health. PMID:23886117

  9. Modulatory effects of polyphenols on apoptosis induction: relevance for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Archivio, Massimo; Santangelo, Carmela; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Varì, Rosaria; Filesi, Carmela; Masella, Roberta; Giovannini, Claudio

    2008-03-01

    Polyphenols, occurring in fruit and vegetables, wine, tea, extra virgin olive oil, chocolate and other cocoa products, have been demonstrated to have clear antioxidant properties in vitro, and many of their biological actions have been attributed to their intrinsic reducing capabilities. However, it has become clear that, in complex biological systems, polyphenols exhibit several additional properties which are yet poorly understood. Apoptosis is a genetically controlled and evolutionarily conserved form of cell death of critical importance for the normal embryonic development and for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis in the adult organism. The malfunction of the death machinery may play a primary role in various pathological processes, since too little or too much apoptosis can lead to proliferative or degenerative diseases, respectively. Cancer cells are characterized by a deregulated proliferation, and/or an inability to undergo programmed cell death. A large body of evidence indicates that polyphenols can exert chemopreventive effects towards different organ specific cancers, affecting the overall process of carcinogenesis by several mechanisms: inhibition of DNA synthesis, modulation of ROS production, regulation of cell cycle arrest, modulation of survival/proliferation pathways. In addition, polyphenols can directly influence different points of the apoptotic process, and/or the expression of regulatory proteins. Although the bulk of data has been obtained in in vitro systems, a number of clinical studies suggesting a preventive and therapeutic effectiveness of polyphenols in vivo is available. However, a deeper knowledge of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the modulation of apoptosis by polyphenols, and their real effectiveness, is necessary in order to propose them as potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic candidates for cancer treatment. PMID:19325744

  10. Modulatory Effects of Polyphenols on Apoptosis Induction: Relevance for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Giovannini

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols, occurring in fruit and vegetables, wine, tea, extra virgin olive oil, chocolate and other cocoa products, have been demonstrated to have clear antioxidant properties in vitro, and many of their biological actions have been attributed to their intrinsic reducing capabilities. However, it has become clear that, in complex biological systems, polyphenols exhibit several additional properties which are yet poorly understood. Apoptosis is a genetically controlled and evolutionarily conserved form of cell death of critical importance for the normal embryonic development and for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis in the adult organism. The malfunction of the death machinery may play a primary role in various pathological processes, since too little or too much apoptosis can lead to proliferative or degenerative diseases, respectively. Cancer cells are characterized by a deregulated proliferation, and/or an inability to undergo programmed cell death. A large body of evidence indicates that polyphenols can exert chemopreventive effects towards different organ specific cancers, affecting the overall process of carcinogenesis by several mechanisms: inhibition of DNA synthesis, modulation of ROS production, regulation of cell cycle arrest, modulation of survival/proliferation pathways. In addition, polyphenols can directly influence different points of the apoptotic process, and/or the expression of Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9 214 regulatory proteins. Although the bulk of data has been obtained in in vitro systems, a number of clinical studies suggesting a preventive and therapeutic effectiveness of polyphenols in vivo is available. However, a deeper knowledge of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the modulation of apoptosis by polyphenols, and their real effectiveness, is necessary in order to propose them as potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic candidates for cancer treatment.

  11. Influence of sex hormone and cancer prevention by soy products on liver and breast cancers in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer development has been well documented by a combination of genetic events and environmental factors. Initiation of cancer cells to clinical cancers is a life long event. The events are classified as initiation of transformed cell, promotion and progression. Gender is another key factor for the occurrence of solid cancers in liver and stomach in the males and thyroid in the females. Development of cancers may be intervened by consumption of foods and food additives containing proven anti-cancerous chemicals. In this review application of soy products of miso and isoflavones have been assessed in terms of prevention and diminution of cancer in experimental models on liver tumors in mice and breast carcinomas in rats. (author)

  12. Food-Based Cancer Prevention Strategies: Is There a Future for Human Studies? | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker Steven K. Clinton, MD, PhD John B. and Jane T. McCoy Chair in Cancer Research The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center Professor, Division of Medical Oncology The Ohio State University School of Medicine |

  13. Tomato Lycopene and Lung Cancer Prevention: From Experimental to Human Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Assunta Catalano; Rossella E. Simone; Paola Palozza; Maria Cristina Mele

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that tomato lycopene may be preventive against the formation and the development of lung cancer. Experimental studies demonstrated that lycopene may inhibit the growth of several cultured lung cancer cells and prevent lung tumorigenesis in animal models through various mechanisms, including a modulation of redox status, cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induction, a regulation of growth factor signaling, changes in cell growth-related enzymes, an enhancement of g...

  14. Newspaper Coverage of Cancer Prevention: Multilevel Evidence for Knowledge Gap Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Slater, Michael D.; Hayes, Andrew F.; Reineke, Jason B.; Long, Marilee A.; Bettinghaus, Erwin P.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research on knowledge gap effects, in health as well as in other domains, has focused largely on assessing individual-level differences in exposure to news based on self-report of media use. Inherent inferential limitations of this approach are addressed by testing the hypothesis that the relationship between education and cancer prevention knowledge will be moderated by regional differences in U.S. news coverage of cancer prevention. The study also tests, using these methods, findings ...

  15. Lifestyle and dietary factors in the prevention of lethal prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Kathryn M.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2012-01-01

    The prevention of lethal prostate cancer is a critical public health challenge that would improve health and reduce suffering from this disease. In this review, we discuss the evidence surrounding specific lifestyle and dietary factors in the prevention of lethal prostate cancer. We present a summary of evidence for the following selected behavioral risk factors: obesity and weight change, physical activity, smoking, antioxidant intake, vitamin D and calcium, and coffee intake.

  16. Lifestyle and dietary factors in the prevention of lethal prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kathryn M Wilson; Edward L Giovannucci; Lorelei A Mucci

    2012-01-01

    The prevention of lethal prostate cancer is a critical public health challenge that would improve health and reduce suffering from this disease.In this review,we discuss the evidence surrounding specific lifestyle and dietary factors in the prevention of lethal prostate cancer.We present a summary of evidence for the following selected behavioral risk factors:obesity and weight change,physical activity,smoking,antioxidant intake,vitamin D and calcium,and coffee intake.

  17. Fruits and vegetables in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Veer, van 't, P.; Jansen, M.C.F.; Klerk, M.; Kok, F. J.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: We quantified the public health benefit of fruits and vegetables on the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD), using currently available human data. Design: We reviewed over 250 observational studies on cancer and CVD. Relative risks (RRs) for high versus low intake of fruits and vegetables were obtained. The preventable proportion of chronic diseases, i.e. the per cent of cases attributable to low consumption of fruits and vegetables, was estimated using three scen...

  18. Differences in school environment, school policy and actions regarding overweight prevention between Dutch schools. A nationwide survey

    OpenAIRE

    Buijs Goof; Rutz Suzanne I; Middelbeek Lideke; Scholtens Salome; Bemelmans Wanda JE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Schools are regarded as an important setting for the prevention of overweight. This study presents a nationally representative picture of the obesogenity of the school environment, the awareness of schools regarding overweight, and actions taken by the schools aiming at overweight prevention. In addition, differences between school levels were studied. Methods In 2006-2007, questionnaires were sent to all Dutch secondary schools (age group 12-18 years). Prevalences of the ...

  19. Tomato Lycopene and Lung Cancer Prevention: From Experimental to Human Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing evidence suggests that tomato lycopene may be preventive against the formation and the development of lung cancer. Experimental studies demonstrated that lycopene may inhibit the growth of several cultured lung cancer cells and prevent lung tumorigenesis in animal models through various mechanisms, including a modulation of redox status, cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induction, a regulation of growth factor signaling, changes in cell growth-related enzymes, an enhancement of gap junction communication and a prevention of smoke-induced inflammation. In addition, lycopene also inhibited cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Several lycopene metabolites have been identified, raising the question as to whether the preventive effects of lycopene on cancer risk is, at least in part, due to its metabolites. Despite these promising reports, it is difficult at the moment to directly relate available experimental data to human pathophysiology. More well controlled clinical intervention trials are needed to further clarify the exact role of lycopene in the prevention of lung cancer cell growth. Such studies should take into consideration subject selection, specific markers of analysis, the levels of carotenoids being tested, metabolism and isomerization of lycopene, interaction with other bioactive food components. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of lycopene, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between lycopene consumption and human cancer risk

  20. Tomato Lycopene and Lung Cancer Prevention: From Experimental to Human Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palozza, Paola, E-mail: p.palozza@rm.unicatt.it; Simone, Rossella E.; Catalano, Assunta [Institute of General Pathology, School of Medicine, Catholic University, L. Go F. Vito, Rome 1 00168 (Italy); Mele, Maria Cristina [Institute of Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Catholic University, L. Go F. Vito, Rome 1 00168 (Italy)

    2011-05-11

    Increasing evidence suggests that tomato lycopene may be preventive against the formation and the development of lung cancer. Experimental studies demonstrated that lycopene may inhibit the growth of several cultured lung cancer cells and prevent lung tumorigenesis in animal models through various mechanisms, including a modulation of redox status, cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induction, a regulation of growth factor signaling, changes in cell growth-related enzymes, an enhancement of gap junction communication and a prevention of smoke-induced inflammation. In addition, lycopene also inhibited cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Several lycopene metabolites have been identified, raising the question as to whether the preventive effects of lycopene on cancer risk is, at least in part, due to its metabolites. Despite these promising reports, it is difficult at the moment to directly relate available experimental data to human pathophysiology. More well controlled clinical intervention trials are needed to further clarify the exact role of lycopene in the prevention of lung cancer cell growth. Such studies should take into consideration subject selection, specific markers of analysis, the levels of carotenoids being tested, metabolism and isomerization of lycopene, interaction with other bioactive food components. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of lycopene, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between lycopene consumption and human cancer risk.