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Sample records for cancer precursor lesions

  1. Molecular analysis of precursor lesions in familial pancreatic cancer.

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    Tatjana Crnogorac-Jurcevic

    Full Text Available With less than a 5% survival rate pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC is almost uniformly lethal. In order to make a significant impact on survival of patients with this malignancy, it is necessary to diagnose the disease early, when curative surgery is still possible. Detailed knowledge of the natural history of the disease and molecular events leading to its progression is therefore critical.We have analysed the precursor lesions, PanINs, from prophylactic pancreatectomy specimens of patients from four different kindreds with high risk of familial pancreatic cancer who were treated for histologically proven PanIN-2/3. Thus, the material was procured before pancreatic cancer has developed, rather than from PanINs in a tissue field that already contains cancer. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling using such unique specimens was performed. Bulk frozen sections displaying the most extensive but not microdissected PanIN-2/3 lesions were used in order to obtain the holistic view of both the precursor lesions and their microenvironment. A panel of 76 commonly dysregulated genes that underlie neoplastic progression from normal pancreas to PanINs and PDAC were identified. In addition to shared genes some differences between the PanINs of individual families as well as between the PanINs and PDACs were also seen. This was particularly pronounced in the stromal and immune responses.Our comprehensive analysis of precursor lesions without the invasive component provides the definitive molecular proof that PanIN lesions beget cancer from a molecular standpoint. We demonstrate the need for accumulation of transcriptomic changes during the progression of PanIN to PDAC, both in the epithelium and in the surrounding stroma. An identified 76-gene signature of PDAC progression presents a rich candidate pool for the development of early diagnostic and/or surveillance markers as well as potential novel preventive/therapeutic targets for both familial and sporadic

  2. REPRODUCTIVE ASPECTS ASSOCIATED WITH PRECURSOR LESIONS FOR CERVICAL CANCER

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    Rogério Ferrari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between reproductive variables and theprecursor lesions for cervical cancer in women attended the clinic of the lower genitaltract pathology and colposcopy (PTGIC, packed in the complex regional healthCaceres city, southwest of Mato Grosso, in the year 2009.Methods:We conducted across sectional study with data collection from medical records of 142 women withabnormal cytology, colposcopy and positive underwent directed biopsy, taking intoaccount the reproductive variables.Results:indicate that the minimum age at menarchewas 9 years and maximum age was 17 years, mean 12.6 years; on the average paritywas 3.4 children, the use of hormonal contraceptive method corresponds to 34 5% and38.1% female sterilization research, 46.5% are or have use of contraception for a periodgreater than five years, with a mean of 4.7 years and 67.2% of women surveyed do notuse condoms. The variables were not significantly associated to cervical cancer.Conclusion:the characteristics of the women studied may serve as a basis for workdirected to this population in order to seek to minimize this problem.Although the dataobtained were satisfactory, it was possible to trace the profile of the reproductiveaspects of women in the Clinic ofPTGIC, there is a lack of association betweenreproductive aspects and findings of the cervical biopsy, it may be associated with somelimiting factors of the study that need to be balanced

  3. Claudin-4-targeted optical imaging detects pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions.

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    Neesse, Albrecht; Hahnenkamp, Anke; Griesmann, Heidi; Buchholz, Malte; Hahn, Stefan A; Maghnouj, Abdelouahid; Fendrich, Volker; Ring, Janine; Sipos, Bence; Tuveson, David A; Bremer, Christoph; Gress, Thomas M; Michl, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    Novel imaging methods based on specific molecular targets to detect both established neoplasms and their precursor lesions are highly desirable in cancer medicine. Previously, we identified claudin-4, an integral constituent of tight junctions, as highly expressed in various gastrointestinal tumours including pancreatic cancer. Here, we investigate the potential of targeting claudin-4 with a naturally occurring ligand to visualise pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions in vitro and in vivo by near-infrared imaging approaches. A non-toxic C-terminal fragment of the claudin-4 ligand Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE) was labelled with a cyanine dye (Cy5.5). Binding of the optical tracer was analysed on claudin-4 positive and negative cells in vitro, and tumour xenografts in vivo. In addition, two genetically engineered mouse models for pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and pancreatic cancer were used for in vivo validation. Optical imaging studies were conducted using 2D planar fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI) technology and 3D fluorescence-mediated tomography (FMT). In vitro, the peptide-dye conjugate showed high binding affinity to claudin-4 positive CAPAN1 cells, while claudin-4 negative HT1080 cells revealed little or no fluorescence. In vivo, claudin-4 positive tumour xenografts, endogenous pancreatic tumours, hepatic metastases, as well as preinvasive PanIN lesions, were visualised by FRI and FMT up to 48 h after injection showing a significantly higher average of fluorochrome concentration as compared with claudin-4 negative xenografts and normal pancreatic tissue. C-CPE-Cy5.5 combined with novel optical imaging methods enables non-invasive visualisation of claudin-4 positive murine pancreatic tumours and their precursor lesions, representing a promising modality for early diagnostic imaging.

  4. Cervical digital photography for screening of uterine cervix cancer and its precursor lesions in developing countries.

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    Hillmann, Elise de Castro; Dos Reis, Ricardo; Monego, Heleusa; Appel, Márcia; Hammes, Luciano Serpa; Rivoire, Waldemar Augusto; Capp, Edison

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate and to compare the performance of cervical digital photography (CDP) to the visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI) methods for screening the uterine cervix cancer and its precursor lesions in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was performed in Brazil. 176 women were evaluated by VIA, VILI, CDP with acetic acid and CDP with Lugol's iodine. Kappa statistic was used to estimate the interobserver and intermethod agreement. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of the four methods (VIA, VILI, CDP with acetic acid, CDP with Lugol's iodine) was calculated. Interobserver agreement for CDP with acetic acid was K = 0.441 and for CDP with Lugol's iodine was K = 0.533; intermethod agreement of VIA and CDP with acetic acid, K = 0.559; and of VILI and CDP with Lugol's iodine, K = 0.507. Sensitivity and specificity of CDP with acetic acid were 84.00 and 95.83 %, and of CDP with Lugol's iodine were 88.00 and 97.26 %, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of CDP with acetic acid and CDP with Lugol's iodine was 92.78 and 94.90 %, respectively. This was the first study to assess the CDP with Lugol's iodine performance, which had similar performance to the CDP with acetic acid. CDP is considered a promising method for screening the uterine cervix cancer and its precursor lesions in developing countries.

  5. Application of a global proteomic approach to archival precursor lesions: deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 and tissue transglutaminase 2 are upregulated in pancreatic cancer precursors

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    Cheung, Wang; Darfler, Marlene M; Alvarez, Hector

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is an almost uniformly fatal disease, and early detection is a critical determinant of improved survival. A variety of noninvasive precursor lesions of pancreatic adenocarcinoma have been identified, which provide a unique opportunity for intervention prior to onset ...... their overexpression in IPMNs. CONCLUSION: Global proteomics analysis using the Liquid Tissue workflow is a feasible approach for unbiased biomarker discovery in limited archival material, particularly applicable to precursor lesions of cancer......., and mass spectrometry to conduct a global proteomic analysis of an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Tissue microarrays comprised of 38 IPMNs were used for validation of candidate proteins. RESULTS: The proteomic analysis of the IPMN Liquid Tissue lysate resulted in identification of 1......,534 peptides corresponding to 523 unique proteins. A subset of 25 proteins was identified that had previously been reported as upregulated in pancreatic cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis for two of these, deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) and tissue transglutaminase 2 (TGM2), confirmed...

  6. The value of high-resolution anoscopy in the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in hiv-positive patients

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    Felicidad Gimenez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Anal cancer, although a still rare disease, is being observed in ascending rates among some population segments known to be at risk for the development of the disease. Human papillomavirus (HPV infection, immunodepression and anal intercourse are some factors associated with the development of the malignancy. Its similarities to cervical cancer have led to many studies aiming to establish guidelines for detecting and treating precursor lesions of anal cancer, with the goal of prevention. High-resolution anoscopy is routinely used for the diagnosis of anal cancer precursor lesions in many centers but the medical literature is still deficient concerning the role of this diagnostic modality. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate diagnostic validation and precision measures of high-resolution anoscopy in comparison to histopathological results of anal biopsies performed in HIV-positive patients treated at the Tropical Medicine Foundation of Amazonas, AM, Brazil. To observe any possible association between some risk factors for the development of anal cancer and the presence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions. METHODS: A hundred and twenty-eight HIV-positive patients were submitted to anal canal cytological sampling for the detection of HPV infection by a PCR based method. High-resolution anoscopy was then performed after topical application of acetic acid 3% in the anal canal for 2 minutes. Eventual acetowhite lesions that were detected were recorded in respect to location, and classified by their tinctorial pattern, distribution aspect, relief, surface and vascular pattern. Biopsies of acetowhite lesions were performed under local anesthesia and the specimens sent to histopathological analysis. The patients were interviewed for the presence of anal cancer risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalences of anal HPV infection and of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in the studied population were, respectively, 79% and 39.1%. High-resolution anoscopy

  7. CHOLECYSTOKININ RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST HALTS PROGRESSION OF PANCREATIC CANCER PRECURSOR LESIONS AND FIBROSIS IN MICE

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    Smith, Jill P.; Cooper, Timothy K.; McGovern, Christopher O.; Gilius, Evan L.; Zhong, Qing; Liao, Jiangang; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Matters, Gail L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Exogenous administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) induces hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the pancreas with an increase in DNA content. We hypothesized that endogenous CCK is involved with the malignant progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions and the fibrosis associated with pancreatic cancer. Methods The presence of CCK receptors in early PanIN lesions was examined by immunohistochemistry in mouse and human pancreas. Pdx1-Cre/LSL-KrasG12D transgenic mice were randomized to receive either untreated drinking water or water supplemented with a CCK-receptor antagonist (proglumide, 0.1mg/ml). Pancreas from mice were removed and examined histologically for number and grade of PanINs after 1, 2 or 4 months of antagonist therapy. Results Both CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were identified in early stage PanINs from mouse and human pancreas. The grade of PanIN lesions was reversed and progression to advanced lesions arrested in mice treated with proglumide compared to controls (p=0.004). Furthermore, pancreatic fibrosis was significantly reduced in antagonist-treated animals compared to vehicle (pitalic>0.001). Conclusions These findings demonstrate that endogenous CCK is in part responsible for the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. Use of CCK-receptor antagonists may have a role in cancer prophylaxis in high risk subjects, and may reduce fibrosis in the microenvironment. PMID:25058882

  8. Plasma protein profiling of patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas as potential precursor lesions of pancreatic cancer.

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    Ilies, Maria; Sappa, Praveen Kumar; Iuga, Cristina Adela; Loghin, Felicia; Gesell Salazar, Manuela; Weiss, Frank Ulrich; Beyer, Georg; Lerch, Markus M; Völker, Uwe; Mayerle, Julia; Hammer, Elke

    2018-02-01

    Efforts for the early diagnosis of the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have recently been driven to one of the precursor lesions, namely intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas (IPMN). Only a few studies have focused on IPMN molecular biology and its overall progression to cancer. Therefore, IPMN lacks comprehensive characterization which makes its clinical management controversial. In this study, we characterized plasma proteins in the presence of IPMNs in comparison to healthy controls, chronic pancreatitis, and PDAC by a proteomics approach using data-independent acquisition based mass spectrometry. We describe several protein sets that could aid IPMN diagnosis, but also differentiation of IPMN from healthy controls, as well as from benign and malignant diseases. Among all, high levels of carbonic anhydrases and hemoglobins were characteristic for the IPMN group. By employing ELISA based quantification we validated our results for human tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 (TIMP-1). We consider IPMN management directed towards an early potential cancer development a crucial opportunity before PDAC initiation and thus its early detection and cure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of serous precursor lesions in resected fallopian tubes from patients with benign diseases and a relatively low risk for ovarian cancer.

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    Nishida, Naoyo; Murakami, Fumihiro; Higaki, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    The frequency of ovarian cancers in Japan has increased; however, doubts have been raised concerning the mechanism by which high-grade serous adenocarcinomas (HGSCs) arise. Conventionally, HGSC is thought to originate from the ovarian surface epithelium or epithelial inclusion cyst. However, recent data indicate that HGSCs may in fact develop from precursor lesions in the fallopian tube, including epithelia with a p53 signature, serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs), secretory cell outgrowths (SCOUTs), and tubal intraepithelial lesions in transition (TILT). Here, we determined the frequency of these fallopian tube precursors in surgically excised samples from 123 patients with benign pelvic diseases. We identified 12 cases with a p53 signature (9.7%), 26 with observable SCOUTs (21.1%), and 4 with TILT (3.2%), but no STIC cases. Although the lifetime risk for developing ovarian cancer is only around 1.4% for women without germ-line mutations, it is important to evaluate the presence of precursor lesions to understand HGSC pathogenesis better. Taken together, salpingectomy appears to be an option for women who are past their childbearing age and plan to undergo elective pelvic surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the presence of these specific precursors post-salpingectomy in low-risk patients. © 2016 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. El cáncer cervicouterino y las lesiones precursoras: revisión bibliográfica Cervical-uterine cancer and precursor lesions: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guillermo Sanabria Negrín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de actualizar el estado del arte sobre el cáncer cervicouterino y las lesiones precursoras se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de los artículos publicados en los últimos 5 años, y de otros originales teniendo en cuenta su nivel de evidencia médica I - II. Se utilizaron los buscadores de la biblioteca Cochrane, Dynamed, Evidence-Based Medicine Updates, New England Journal of Medicine, J Clinical Oncology, Medscape, PubMed, PubMed Central y artículos de la Agencia Internacional del Cáncer de Francia. Se revisaron los siguientes aspectos: Definiciones, epidemiología, etiología, factores de riesgo, citología, colposcopia, histopatología, clasificaciones, estadios clínicos, tratamientos, prevención, promoción de salud y problemas sociales. El cáncer cervicouterino es una enfermedad prevenible y curable, multifactorial, trasmitida sexualmente por el Virus del Papiloma Humano, con alta incidencia y prevalencia, y a pesar de los programas de pesquisaje continúa siendo un problema de salud. Se necesita de monitoreo permanente del programa de detección precoz en todos los ámbitos y alternativas de pesquisaje, adecuadas localmente a las necesidades, y de fuertes prevención y tratamiento para poder disminuir la carga social y económica que de este problema se derivan.Aimed at knowing the state of the art of cervical-uterine cancer and precursor lesions a literature review was carried out supported on the articles published in the last five years and from other original sources considering the levels I-II of medical evidences. Health information sources from Cochrane, Dynamed, Evidence-Based Medicine Updates, New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Medscape, PubMed, Central PubMed and French International Cancer Agency were used to revise the following aspects: definitions, epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, cytology, colposcopy, histopathology, classifications, clinical stages, treatments

  11. Low NKp30, NKp46 and NKG2D expression and reduced cytotoxic activity on NK cells in cervical cancer and precursor lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Iglesias, Trinidad; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Toro-Arreola, Alicia del; Albarran-Somoza, Benibelks; Toro-Arreola, Susana del; Sanchez-Hernandez, Pedro E; Ramirez-Dueñas, Maria Guadalupe; Balderas-Peña, Luz Ma. Adriana; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo C

    2009-01-01

    Persistent high risk HPV infection can lead to cervical cancer, the second most common malignant tumor in women worldwide. NK cells play a crucial role against tumors and virus-infected cells through a fine balance between activating and inhibitory receptors. Expression of triggering receptors NKp30, NKp44, NKp46 and NKG2D on NK cells correlates with cytolytic activity against tumor cells, but these receptors have not been studied in cervical cancer and precursor lesions. The aim of the present work was to study NKp30, NKp46, NKG2D, NKp80 and 2B4 expression in NK cells from patients with cervical cancer and precursor lesions, in the context of HPV infection. NKp30, NKp46, NKG2D, NKp80 and 2B4 expression was analyzed by flow cytometry on NK cells from 59 patients with cervical cancer and squamous intraepithelial lesions. NK cell cytotoxicity was evaluated in a 4 hour CFSE/7-AAD flow cytometry assay. HPV types were identified by PCR assays. We report here for the first time that NK cell-activating receptors NKp30 and NKp46 are significantly down-regulated in cervical cancer and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) patients. NCRs down-regulation correlated with low cytolytic activity, HPV-16 infection and clinical stage. NKG2D was also down-regulated in cervical cancer patients. Our results suggest that NKp30, NKp46 and NKG2D down-regulation represent an evasion mechanism associated to low NK cell activity, HPV-16 infection and cervical cancer progression

  12. Molecular pathogenesis of precursor lesions of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

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    Biankin, Andrew V; Kench, James G; Dijkman, Floriaan P; Biankin, Sandra A; Henshall, Susan M

    2003-02-01

    Precursor lesions are assuming greater importance in the study of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. As pancreatic cancer is almost universally fatal due to late clinical presentation and biological aggressiveness, characterisation of its precursor lesions may create scope for early diagnosis and improved outcome with conventional therapies as well as the development of novel therapeutic and preventative strategies. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and intraductal papillary mucinous tumours (IPMTs) are thought to be precursor lesions of ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Recent work has focused on the molecular aberrations associated with these lesions leading to the formulation of a progression model for pancreatic cancer. Progressive histopathological changes along the progression model are associated with aberrations of cell cycle regulatory and growth factor signalling molecules that occur in pancreatic cancer at high frequency and are common to many cancers. Characterisation of these molecular aberrations provides scope for the development of novel diagnostic and treatment strategies that will ultimately impact on the outcome for people who develop pancreatic cancer.

  13. High prevalence and incidence of HPV-related anal cancer precursor lesions in HIV-positive women in the late HAART era.

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    Hidalgo-Tenorio, Carmen; de Jesus, Samantha E; Esquivias, Javier; Pasquau, Juan

    2017-12-02

    Anal cancer is one of the most common non-AIDS defining malignancies, especially in men who have sex with men and women living with HIV (WLHIV). To evaluate the prevalence and incidence of precursor lesions (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [HSIL]) and anal cancer in our cohort of women and to compare them to cervical lesions; to calculate the percentage of patients that acquire and clear oncogenic genotypes (HR-HPV) in the anal canal; and to determine predictive factors for anal HPV infection. Prospective-longitudinal study (May 2012-December 2016). At baseline (V1) and follow up visits, anal mucosa samples were taken in liquid medium for cytology and HPV PCR. In cases of abnormal anal cytology and/or positive HR-HPV PCR results, a high resolution anoscopy was performed. Patients were also referred to the gynaecologist. Ninety five women with an average age of 43.7years were included. At baseline, 11.6% had cervical abnormalities (4.1% CIN1, 2.2% CIN2/3, 1.1% cervical cancer), 64.3% anal abnormalities (50% LSIL/AIN1, 9.5% HSIL/AIN2/3 and 2.4% anal cancer) and 49.4% had HR-HPV genotypes. During 36months of follow up, the incidence of anal HSIL was 16×1,000 person-years; 14.8% acquired HR-HPV genotypes and 51.2% cleared them, P=.007. No patients presented CIN1/2/3/ or cervical cancer. In the multivariate analysis we found the following predictive factors for HR-HPV infection: smoking (RR: 1.55, 95%CI: 0.99-2.42), number of sexual partners >3 (RR: 1.69; 95%CI: 1.09-2.62), cervical and anal dysplasia (RR: 1.83; 95%CI: 1.26-2.67) and (RR: 1.55; 95%CI: 1.021-2.35), respectively. Despite clearance rates of anal oncogenic genotypes being higher than acquisition rates, prevalence and incidence of HSIL were still high and greater than cervical HSIL. Therefore, screening for these lesions should perhaps be offered to all WLHIV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights

  14. Imaging of precursor lesions of the female breast; Bildgebung und Vorgehen bei praeinvasiven Laesionen der Mamma

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    Weigel, Stefanie [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammografie; Decker, Thomas [Dietrich-Bonhoeffer-Klinikum Neubrandenburg, Neubrandenburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie; Heindel, Walter [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Referenzzentrum Mammografie; Muenster Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Fakultaet

    2012-06-15

    Precursor lesions of the breast are biologically and clinically heterogeneous neoplastic lesions with a varying risk for progression to an invasive breast cancer. This review presents definitions, diagnostic criteria and concepts for the clinical management of the following lesions: ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), flat epithelial atypia (FEA), lobular neoplasia (LN). (orig.)

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for esophageal squamous cell cancer and precursor lesions in Anyang, China: a population-based endoscopic survey

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    He, Z; Zhao, Y; Guo, C; Liu, Y; Sun, M; Liu, F; Wang, X; Guo, F; Chen, K; Gao, L; Ning, T; Pan, Y; Li, Y; Zhang, S; Lu, C; Wang, Z; Cai, H; Ke, Y

    2010-01-01

    Background: The etiology of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) in high prevalence regions of China remains unclear. Methods: Endoscopic biopsies were conducted among 7381 inhabitants aged from 25 to 65 of Anyang, China. Results: In this study, 2.57, 0.20 and 0.16% of the participants had mild, moderate and severe squamous dysplasia, respectively; 0.19 and 0.08% showed squamous carcinoma in situ and invasive ESCC. Using deep well (depth >100 meters) as water source (odds ratio=0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.54–0.96) was negatively associated with ESCC and its precursors, whereas tobacco and alcohol use were not significantly associated with ESCC. Conclusions: Water source and other factors in this region need further evaluation by longitudinal studies. PMID:20700119

  16. Augmented serum level of major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA) protein and reduced NKG2D expression on NK and T cells in patients with cervical cancer and precursor lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arreygue-Garcia, Naela A; Delgado-Rizo, Vidal; Garcia-Iglesias, Trinidad; Hernandez-Flores, Georgina; Toro-Arreola, Susana del; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Toro-Arreola, Alicia del; Cid-Arregui, Angel; Gonzalez-Ramella, Oscar; Jave-Suarez, Luis F; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Troyo-Sanroman, Rogelio; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. NK and cytotoxic T cells play an important role in the elimination of virus-infected and tumor cells through NKG2D activating receptors, which can promote the lysis of target cells by binding to the major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA) proteins. Increased serum levels of MICA have been found in patients with epithelial tumors. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of soluble MICA (sMICA) and NKG2D-expressing NK and T cells in blood samples from patients with cervical cancer or precursor lesions with those from healthy donors. Peripheral blood with or without heparin was collected to obtain mononuclear cells or sera, respectively. Serum sMICA levels were measured by ELISA and NKG2D-expressing immune cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Also, a correlation analysis was performed to associate sMICA levels with either NKG2D expression or with the stage of the lesion. Significant amounts of sMICA were detected in sera from nearly all patients. We found a decrease in the number of NKG2D-expressing NK and T cells in both cervical cancer and lesion groups when compared to healthy donors. Pearson analysis showed a negative correlation between sMICA and NKG2D-expressing T cells; however, we did not find a significant correlation when the analysis was applied to sMICA and NKG2D expression on NK cells. Our results show for the first time that high sMICA levels are found in sera from patients with both cervical cancer and precursor lesions when compared with healthy donors. We also observed a diminution in the number of NKG2D-expressing NK and T cells in the patient samples; however, a significant negative correlation between sMICA and NKG2D expression was only seen in T cells

  17. Measuring telomere length for the early detection of precursor lesions of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Shih-Wen; Wang, Guo-Qing; Wei, Wen-Qiang; Lu, Ning; Taylor, Philip R; Qiao, You-Lin; Dawsey, Sanford M; Abnet, Christian C; Freedman, Neal D; Murphy, Gwen; Risques, Rosana; Prunkard, Donna; Rabinovitch, Peter; Pan, Qin-Jing; Roth, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide; current early detection screening tests are inadequate. Esophageal balloon cytology successfully retrieves exfoliated and scraped superficial esophageal epithelial cells, but cytologic reading of these cells has poor sensitivity and specificity for detecting esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD), the precursor lesion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Measuring telomere length, a marker for chromosomal instability, may improve the utility of balloon cytology for detecting ESD and early ESCC. We examined balloon cytology specimens from 89 asymptomatic cases of ESD (37 low-grade and 52 high-grade) and 92 age- and sex-matched normal controls from an esophageal cancer early detection screening study. All subjects also underwent endoscopy and biopsy, and ESD was diagnosed histopathologically. DNA was extracted from the balloon cytology cells, and telomere length was measured by quantitative PCR. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted for telomere length as a diagnostic marker for high-grade dysplasia. Telomere lengths were comparable among the low- and high-grade dysplasia cases and controls, with means of 0.96, 0.96, and 0.92, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.55 for telomere length as a diagnostic marker for high-grade dysplasia. Further adjustment for subject characteristics, including sex, age, smoking, drinking, hypertension, and body mass index did not improve the use of telomere length as a marker for ESD. Telomere length of esophageal balloon cytology cells was not associated with ESCC precursor lesions. Therefore, telomere length shows little promise as an early detection marker for ESCC in esophageal balloon samples

  18. Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Cervix and its Precursor Lesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Baalbergen (Astrid)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ More than 2000 years have elapsed since the first description of cervical cancer by Hippocrates. Aretaeus, an ancient Greek physician practicing in the first century before Christ, described uterine cancer as superficial and deep ulcers, which later infiltrate the

  19. Cancer precursors epidemiology, detection, and prevention

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    Rohan, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic advances in our understanding of cancer causation have come from epidemiologic and laboratory research, particularly over the past two decades. These developments have included a broadening interest in the critical events that take place during the early stages of the dynamic multistep process leading to - vasive cancer. Increasingly, cancer epidemiologists are pursuing research into the origins and natural history of premalignant lesions, including intermediate or surrogate endpoints, a trend - celerated by the development of molecular technologies that are revolutionizing our understanding of the transformation of normal to malignant cells. There seems little doubt that this emerging knowledge will provide further insights not only into carcinogenic processes, but also into more sensitive methods of early detection and more effective means of prevention. In this book, Drs. Franco and Rohan have succeeded in prep- ing a comprehensive, timely, and critical review of the substantial progress that has ...

  20. Molecular cytogenetic evaluation of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma and precursor lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Dekken (Herman); J.C. Alers (Janneke); P.H.J. Riegman (Peter); C. Rosenberg; H.W. Tilanus (Hugo); K.J. Vissers (Kees)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractAnalyses of cancer incidence data in the United States and Western Europe revealed steadily rising rates over the past decades of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia. Genetic information on gastric cardia adenocarcinoma and its preneoplasias

  1. Precursors and preinvasive lesions of the breast: the role of molecular prognostic markers in the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zografos George C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Precursors and preinvasive lesions of the breast include atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, and lobular neoplasia (LN. There is a significant debate regarding the classification, diagnosis, prognosis and management of these lesions. This review article describes the current theories regarding the pathogenesis and molecular evolution of these lesions. It reviews the implication of a variety of molecules in the continuum of breast lesions: estrogen receptors (ER-alpha and ER-beta, c-erb-B2 (Her2/neu, p53, Ki-67, bcl-2, E-cadherin, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta, p27 (Kip1, p16 (INK4a, p21 (Waf1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. With respect to the aforementioned molecules, this article reviews their pathophysiological importance, and puts the stress on whether they confer additional risk for invasive breast cancer or not. This knowledge has the potential to be of importance in the therapeutic decisions presenting in the common clinical practice.

  2. Solitary sternal lesions in breast cancer. Lesiones esternales unicas en cancer de mama

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    Morales, R; Cano, R; Mendoza, G [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru); Guzman, C; Cotrina, M; Aguilar, C [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas, Lima (Peru)

    1993-12-01

    In a retrospective review of bone scans performed in 1740 patients with breast cancer from January 1988 to April 1993, twenty had a solitary sternal lesion. Etiology was found correlating this finding with pathology, x-rays and/or final outcome. Nineteen lesions were due to metastases and one to infection. This experience suggests that solitary sternal lesions in breast cancer patients are uncommon and are most frequently (95%) associated with malignant etiology. (Authors). 10 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Suppression of medulloblastoma lesions by forced migration of preneoplastic precursor cells with intracerebellar administration of the chemokine Cxcl3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Ceccarelli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma (MB, tumor of the cerebellum, remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in childhood.We previously showed, in a mouse model of spontaneous MB (Ptch1+/-/Tis21-/-, that a defect of the migration of cerebellar granule neuron precursor cells (GCPs correlates with an increased frequency of MB. This occurs because GCPs, rather than migrating internally and differentiating, remain longer in the proliferative area at the cerebellar surface, becoming targets of transforming insults. Furthermore, we identified the chemokine Cxcl3 as responsible for the inward migration of GCPs. As it is known that preneoplastic GCPs (pGCPs can still migrate and differentiate like normal GCPs, thus exiting the neoplastic program, in this study we tested the hypothesis that pGCPs within a MB lesion could be induced by Cxcl3 to migrate and differentiate. We observed that the administration of Cxcl3 for 28 days within the cerebellum of one-month-old Ptch1+/-/Tis21-/- mice, i.e., when MB lesions are already formed, leads to complete disappearance of the lesions. However, a shorter treatment with Cxcl3 (two weeks was ineffective, suggesting that the suppression of MB lesions is dependent on the duration of Cxcl3 application. We verified that the treatment with Cxcl3 causes a massive migration of pGCPs from the lesion to the internal granular layer (IGL, where they differentiate.Thus, the induction of migration of pGCPs in medulloblastoma lesions may open new ways to treat MB that exploit the plasticity of the pGCPs, forcing their differentiation. It remains to be tested whether this plasticity continues at advanced stages of medulloblastoma. If so, these findings would set a potential use of the chemokine Cxcl3 as therapeutic agent against MB development in human preclinical studies.

  4. Suppression of Medulloblastoma Lesions by Forced Migration of Preneoplastic Precursor Cells with Intracerebellar Administration of the Chemokine Cxcl3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Manuela; Micheli, Laura; Tirone, Felice

    2016-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB), tumor of the cerebellum, remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in childhood. We previously showed, in a mouse model of spontaneous MB ( Ptch1 +/- / Tis21 -/- ), that a defect of the migration of cerebellar granule neuron precursor cells (GCPs) correlates with an increased frequency of MB. This occurs because GCPs, rather than migrating internally and differentiating, remain longer in the proliferative area at the cerebellar surface, becoming targets of transforming insults. Furthermore, we identified the chemokine Cxcl3 as responsible for the inward migration of GCPs. As it is known that preneoplastic GCPs (pGCPs) can still migrate and differentiate like normal GCPs, thus exiting the neoplastic program, in this study we tested the hypothesis that pGCPs within a MB lesion could be induced by Cxcl3 to migrate and differentiate. We observed that the administration of Cxcl3 for 28 days within the cerebellum of 1-month-old Ptch1 +/- / Tis21 -/- mice, i.e., when MB lesions are already formed, leads to complete disappearance of the lesions. However, a shorter treatment with Cxcl3 (2 weeks) was ineffective, suggesting that the suppression of MB lesions is dependent on the duration of Cxcl3 application. We verified that the treatment with Cxcl3 causes a massive migration of pGCPs from the lesion to the internal granular layer, where they differentiate. Thus, the induction of migration of pGCPs in MB lesions may open new ways to treat MB that exploit the plasticity of the pGCPs, forcing their differentiation. It remains to be tested whether this plasticity continues at advanced stages of MB. If so, these findings would set a potential use of the chemokine Cxcl3 as therapeutic agent against MB development in human preclinical studies.

  5. Functional remineralization of dentin lesions using polymer-induced liquid-precursor process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anora K Burwell

    Full Text Available It was hypothesized that applying the polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP system to artificial lesions would result in time-dependent functional remineralization of carious dentin lesions that restores the mechanical properties of demineralized dentin matrix. 140 µm deep artificial caries lesions were remineralized via the PILP process for 7-28 days at 37°C to determine temporal remineralization characteristics. Poly-L-aspartic acid (27 KDa was used as the polymeric process-directing agent and was added to the remineralization solution at a calcium-to-phosphate ratio of 2.14 (mol/mol. Nanomechanical properties of hydrated artificial lesions had a low reduced elastic modulus (E(R = 0.2 GPa region extending about 70 μm into the lesion, with a sloped region to about 140 μm where values reached normal dentin (18-20 GPa. After 7 days specimens recovered mechanical properties in the sloped region by 51% compared to the artificial lesion. Between 7-14 days, recovery of the outer portion of the lesion continued to a level of about 10 GPa with 74% improvement. 28 days of PILP mineralization resulted in 91% improvement of E(R compared to the artificial lesion. These differences were statistically significant as determined from change-point diagrams. Mineral profiles determined by micro x-ray computed tomography were shallower than those determined by nanoindentation, and showed similar changes over time, but full mineral recovery occurred after 14 days in both the outer and sloped portions of the lesion. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis showed similar morphologies that were distinct from normal dentin with a clear line of demarcation between the outer and sloped portions of the lesion. Transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction showed that the starting lesions contained some residual mineral in the outer portions, which exhibited poor crystallinity. During remineralization

  6. Precancerous Lesions in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayez Sandouk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cause of cancer death in the world. The incidence rate (ASR and age distribution of this disease differ between most of African-Middle-Eastern (AMAGE and North America and Europe for many reasons. However, in all areas, “CRC” is considered as one of the most preventable cancers, because it might develop from variant processes like polyps and IBD in addition to the genetic pathogenesis which became very well known in this disease. We tried in this paper to review all the possible reasons of the differences in incidence and age between the west and AMAGE. Also we reviewed all the mutations that lead to the hereditary and familiar clustering of this disease with the correlations with the surrounding food and environment of different areas. Then, we focused on the precancerous pathology of this disease with special focusing on early detection depending on new endoscopy technology and most important genetic studies. We lastly reviewed the evidence of some of the surveillance and put suggestions about future surveillance programs and how important those programs are on the psychological aspect of the patients and their families.

  7. Precursor lesions of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma: morphological and molecular characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Amy L; Kurman, Robert J; Vang, Russell; Shih, Ie-Ming; Visvanathan, Kala

    2010-01-01

    The lack of proven screening tools for early detection and the high mortality of ovarian serous carcinoma (OSC), particularly high grade, have focused attention on identifying putative precursor lesions with distinct morphological and molecular characteristics. The finding of occult invasive and intraepithelial fallopian tube carcinomas in prophylactically removed specimens from asymptomatic high-risk BRCA 1/2-mutation carriers supports the notion of an origin for OSC in the fallopian tube. The intraepithelial carcinomas have been referred to as serous intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) but our own findings (unpublished data) and recent reports have drawn attention to a spectrum of changes that fall short of STICs that we have designated serous tubal intraepithelial lesions (STILs).

  8. Precursor Lesions of High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma: Morphological and Molecular Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Gross

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of proven screening tools for early detection and the high mortality of ovarian serous carcinoma (OSC, particularly high grade, have focused attention on identifying putative precursor lesions with distinct morphological and molecular characteristics. The finding of occult invasive and intraepithelial fallopian tube carcinomas in prophylactically removed specimens from asymptomatic high-risk BRCA 1/2-mutation carriers supports the notion of an origin for OSC in the fallopian tube. The intraepithelial carcinomas have been referred to as serous intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs but our own findings (unpublished data and recent reports have drawn attention to a spectrum of changes that fall short of STICs that we have designated serous tubal intraepithelial lesions (STILs.

  9. Metaplasia in the Stomach-Precursor of Gastric Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hiroto; Hayakawa, Yoku; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-09-27

    Despite a significant decrease in the incidence of gastric cancer in Western countries over the past century, gastric cancer is still one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Most human gastric cancers develop after long-term Helicobacter pylori infection via the Correa pathway: the progression is from gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, to cancer. However, it remains unclear whether metaplasia is a direct precursor of gastric cancer or merely a marker of high cancer risk. Here, we review human studies on the relationship between metaplasia and cancer in the stomach, data from mouse models of metaplasia regarding the mechanism of metaplasia development, and the cellular responses induced by H. pylori infection.

  10. Metaplasia in the Stomach—Precursor of Gastric Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Kinoshita

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite a significant decrease in the incidence of gastric cancer in Western countries over the past century, gastric cancer is still one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Most human gastric cancers develop after long-term Helicobacter pylori infection via the Correa pathway: the progression is from gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, to cancer. However, it remains unclear whether metaplasia is a direct precursor of gastric cancer or merely a marker of high cancer risk. Here, we review human studies on the relationship between metaplasia and cancer in the stomach, data from mouse models of metaplasia regarding the mechanism of metaplasia development, and the cellular responses induced by H. pylori infection.

  11. Lesões precursoras do câncer cervicouterino: evolução histórica e subsídios para consulta de enfermagem ginecológica Lesiones precursoras del cáncer cervical-útero: evolución histórica consolidando la consulta de enfermería ginecológica Cervical-uterine cancer precursor lesions: historical evolution supporting the gynecological nursing consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina de Melo Pessanha Carvalho

    2010-09-01

    ácticas de consulta de enfermería ginecológica con abordajes educativas, contemplando la población femenina en acciones preventivas y incentivo al tratamiento.Study emerged from an article of the master degree that illustrates the phases of the historical evolution of the precursor lesions of the cervical-uterine cancer. Thus, it is a question of the history about, delineating the relevance of this knowledge for the nurse's practice in care in the woman's health. The precursor lesions concept of the cervical-uterine cancer, initiates itself from the XIX century, beginning with studies of the cells altered. It had as objective: describe the diverse historical phases of the cervical-uterine cancer. A qualitative, descriptive-analytical study, using time cutting in the period of 1940 to 2008. The data were raised by means of bibliographical reference as primary spring and about the resource BIREME, By means of this study was possible to score the different classifications that already existed, highlighting the Brazilian Nomenclature was important to correspond the needs and the profile of the health of the women of Brazil. This study is the starting point to support the gynecological nursing consultation practices with educational approaches, contemplating the female population in preventive actions and incentive to the treatment.

  12. Influência da adequabilidade da amostra sobre a detecção das lesões precursoras do câncer cervical Influence of adequacy of the sample on detection of the precursor lesions of the cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Goreti Amaral

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar se a adequabilidade da amostra influencia na detecção das lesões precursoras do câncer do colo do útero. MÉTODOS: este foi um estudo de corte transversal, realizado no período de Janeiro de 2004 a Dezembro de 2005. Foram incluídos 10.951 resultados de exames citopatológicos cervicais, tendo como base usuárias do Sistema Único de Saúde de Goiânia, Goiás. Essas mulheres procuraram, espontaneamente, os serviços do Programa Saúde da Família ou Unidades Básicas de Saúde. A coleta foi feita por médicos e enfermeiros por meio da técnica convencional para rastreamento de câncer do colo do útero. Os esfregaços analisados foram classificados de acordo com o Sistema Bethesda, sendo a adequabilidade da amostra definida durante o escrutínio de rotina e categorizada como: satisfatória; satisfatória, porém apresentando fatores que prejudicam parcialmente a análise; e insatisfatória. Os resultados obtidos foram armazenados no programa Epi-Info 3.3.2. Para a comparação entre os resultados alterados e a adequabilidade da amostra dos esfregaços citopatológicos utilizou-se o teste do χ2. Foram consideradas significantes as diferenças em que a probabilidade de rejeição da hipótese de nulidade foi menor que 5% (pPURPOSE: to evaluate whether the sample adequacy influences the detection of precursor cervical cancer lesions. METHODS: a transversal study from January 2004 to December 2005. A number of 10,951 results of cervical cytotopathological exams from users of the National Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde, SUS in Goiânia, Goiás , Brazil, was studied. These women had spontaneously looked for the services from the Family Health Program or from the Basic Units of Health. Samples were collected by medical doctors and nurses, through the conventional technique to detect cervical cancer. The analyzed smears were classified by the Bethesda System, the sample adequacy being defined along the routine

  13. New technologies in cervical cancer precursor detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, M E; Blumenthal, P D

    2000-09-01

    The current literature reflects three routes toward improving cervical cancer screening. The first is to improve the test qualities of cytology-based screening. The use of liquid-based cytology and computerized analysis of Papanicolaou tests are examples of attempts at this approach. Secondly, through various combinations of parallel or sequential tests, either the sensitivity or the specificity of a given test could be improved depending on the tests chosen and the order in which they were performed (eg, Papanicolaou test followed by human papillomavirus [HPV] or vice versa). Several excellent studies have been published this year on the use of HPV DNA testing as a primary screening modality and as an adjunct to the triage of mildly abnormal cytologic findings. The recent literature also reflects increasing interest in visual inspection of the cervix and self-collected samples for HPV testing as an equally effective and viable alternative to cytology in low-resource settings. A third possibility is to make use of advances in digital and spectroscopic techniques. In these cost-conscious times, a significant number of articles address the cost-effectiveness of these technologies and the real value of cervical cancer screening. This article reviews the current literature concerning both the advent of new cervical cancer screening technologies and the rediscovery of old ones.

  14. First histologically confirmed case of a classic chordoma arising in a precursor benign notochordal lesion: differential diagnosis of benign and malignant notochordal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Takehiko; Yamato, Minoru; Saotome, Koichi

    2002-01-01

    The first histologically confirmed case of a classic chordoma arising in a precursor benign notochordal lesion is presented and the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant notochordal lesions is discussed. A 57-year-old man presented with a classic chordoma in the coccyx. The resected specimen demonstrated a small intraosseous benign notochordal lesion in the coccyx, which was adjacent to the classic chordoma. Also seen were two separate, similar benign lesions in the sacrum. The classic chordoma consisted of multiple lobules that were separated by thin fibrous septa and that showed cords or strands of atypical physaliphorous cells set within an abundant myxoid matrix. In contrast, the benign lesions consisted of intraosseous sheets of bland physaliphorous cells without any extracellular matrix. The affected bone trabeculae showed sclerotic reactions. It was concluded that benign and malignant notochordal lesions can be distinguished microscopically. (orig.)

  15. Histopathology of a benign bile duct lesion in the liver: Morphologic mimicker or precursor of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung-Bun

    2016-09-01

    A bile duct lesion originating from intrahepatic bile ducts is generally regarded as an incidental pathologic finding in liver specimens. However, a recent study on the molecular classification of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma has focused on the heterogeneity of this carcinoma and has suggested that the cells of different origins present in the biliary tree may have a major role in the mechanism of oncogenesis. In this review, benign intrahepatic bile duct lesions-regarded in the past as reactive changes or remnant developmental anomalies and now noted to have potential for developing precursor lesions of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma-are discussed by focusing on the histopathologic features and its implications in clinical practice.

  16. Defining the cellular precursors to human breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Patricia J.; Arendt, Lisa M.; Skibinski, Adam; Logvinenko, Tanya; Klebba, Ina; Dong, Shumin; Smith, Avi E.; Prat, Aleix; Perou, Charles M.; Gilmore, Hannah; Schnitt, Stuart; Naber, Stephen P.; Garlick, Jonathan A.; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Human breast cancers are broadly classified based on their gene-expression profiles into luminal- and basal-type tumors. These two major tumor subtypes express markers corresponding to the major differentiation states of epithelial cells in the breast: luminal (EpCAM+) and basal/myoepithelial (CD10+). However, there are also rare types of breast cancers, such as metaplastic carcinomas, where tumor cells exhibit features of alternate cell types that no longer resemble breast epithelium. Until now, it has been difficult to identify the cell type(s) in the human breast that gives rise to these various forms of breast cancer. Here we report that transformation of EpCAM+ epithelial cells results in the formation of common forms of human breast cancer, including estrogen receptor-positive and estrogen receptor-negative tumors with luminal and basal-like characteristics, respectively, whereas transformation of CD10+ cells results in the development of rare metaplastic tumors reminiscent of the claudin-low subtype. We also demonstrate the existence of CD10+ breast cells with metaplastic traits that can give rise to skin and epidermal tissues. Furthermore, we show that the development of metaplastic breast cancer is attributable, in part, to the transformation of these metaplastic breast epithelial cells. These findings identify normal cellular precursors to human breast cancers and reveal the existence of a population of cells with epidermal progenitor activity within adult human breast tissues. PMID:21940501

  17. Candida spp. in oral cancer and oral precancerous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Francesca; Colella, Giuseppe; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Rossiello, Raffaele; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Liguori, Giorgio

    2013-07-01

    To assess the presence of Candida spp. in lesions of the oral cavity in a sample of patients with precancer or cancer of the mouth and evaluate the limitations and advantages of microbiological and histological methods, 103 subjects with precancerous or cancerous lesions and not treated were observed between 2007 and 2009. The presence of Candida in the lesions was analyzed by microbiological and histological methods. Cohen's k statistic was used to assess the agreement between culture method and staining techniques. Forty-eight (47%) patients had cancer and 55 (53%) patients had precancerous lesions. Candida spp. were isolated from 31 (30%) patients with cancerous lesions and 33 (32%) with precancerous lesions. C. albicans was the most frequent species isolated in the lesions. The k value showed a fair overall agreement for comparisons between culture method and PAS (0.2825) or GMS (0.3112). This study supports the frequent presence of Candida spp. in cancer and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity. Both microbiological investigations and histological techniques were reliable for detection of Candida spp. It would be desirable for the two techniques to be considered complementary in the detection of yeast infections in these types of lesions.

  18. Differentiating laryngeal carcinomas from precursor lesions by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 3.0 T: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Sheng Shang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI has been introduced in head and neck cancers. Due to limitations in the performance of laryngeal DWI, including the complex anatomical structure of the larynx leading to susceptibility effects, the value of DWI in differentiating benign from malignant laryngeal lesions has largely been ignored. We assessed whether a threshold for the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC was useful in differentiating preoperative laryngeal carcinomas from precursor lesions by turbo spin-echo (TSE DWI and 3.0-T magnetic resonance. METHODS: We evaluated DWI and the ADC value in 33 pathologically proven laryngeal carcinomas and 17 precancerous lesions. RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 81.8%, 64.7%, 76.0% by laryngostroboscopy, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of conventional magnetic resonance imaging were 90.9%, 76.5%, 86.0%, respectively. Qualitative DWI analysis produced sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values of 100.0, 88.2, and 96.0%, respectively. The ADC values were lower for patients with laryngeal carcinoma (mean 1.195±0.32×10(-3 mm(2/s versus those with laryngeal precancerous lesions (mean 1.780±0.32×10(-3 mm(2/s; P<0.001. ROC analysis showed that the area under the curve was 0.956 and the optimum threshold for the ADC was 1.455×10(-3 mm(2/s, resulting in a sensitivity of 94.1%, a specificity of 90.9%, and an accuracy of 92.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some limitations, including the small number of laryngeal carcinomas included, DWI may detect changes in tumor size and shape before they are visible by laryngostroboscopy. The ADC values were lower for patients with laryngeal carcinoma than for those with laryngeal precancerous lesions. The proposed cutoff for the ADC may help distinguish laryngeal carcinomas from laryngeal precancerous lesions.

  19. Benign Proliferative Breast Lesions and Risk of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Erel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Benign breast lesions (BBL includes a wide variety of histologic entities, which have been broadly classified into non-proliferative lesions, proliferative lesions without atypia, and hyperplasia with atypia. With the increased use of mammography, more benign lesions are being detected, and in order to estimate the risk of breast cancer for specific histologic categories is of great importance to guide clinical management. Women with proliferative lesions without atypia are at slightly increased risk of subsequent breast cancer, whereas women with proliferative lesions with atypia have a higher risk. The risk is 1.5- 2-fold in women with proliferative lesions without atypia, 4-5-fold in women with proliferative lesions with atypia, and 8-10 fold in women with ductal carcinoma in situ. Age at diagnosis of BBL, menopausal status, family history of breast cancer in a first-degree relative, and time since BBL diagnosis on risk of breast cancer are important for risk evaluation. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(3.000: 155-167

  20. Neoplastic Multifocal Skin Lesions: Biology, Etiology, and Targeted Therapies for Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana R; Santos, Ana C; Sanchez-Lopez, Elena; Kovačević, Andjekla B; Espina, Marta; Calpena, Ana C; Veiga, Francisco J; Garcia, Maria L; Souto, Eliana B

    2018-01-01

    Neoplastic skin lesions are multifocal, diffuse skin infiltrations of particular relevance in the differential diagnosis of ulcerative, nodular, or crusting skin lesions. Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), namely, basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and also actinic keratosis (AK), are the most common malignant tumors in humans. BCCs do not proliferate rapidly and most of the times do not metastasize, while SCCs are more infiltrative, metastatic, and destructive. AKs are precursor lesions of cutaneous SCCs. The classical therapy of NMSCs makes use of photodynamic therapy associated with chemotherapeutics. With improved understanding of the pathological mechanisms of tumor initiation, progression, and differentiation, a case is made towards the use of targeted chemotherapy with the intent to reduce the cytotoxicity of classical treatments. The present review aims to describe the current state of the art on the knowledge of NMSC, including its risks factors, oncogenes, and skin carcinogenesis, discussing the classical therapy against new therapeutic options. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Low Cost Technology for Screening Early Cancerous Lesions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    [1] The detection rate for early cancerous lesions improved. 60% by unaided visual ... no agreement as how to screen and where to refer patients with oral cancer for ... External and internal examination of the oral cavity was done by the dentist ...

  2. HPV16-E2 induces prophase arrest and activates the cellular DNA damage response in vitro and in precursor lesions of cervical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuezhen; Toh, Shen Yon; He, Pingping; Lim, Thimothy; Lim, Diana; Pang, Chai Ling; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Thierry, Françoise

    2015-10-27

    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and is the precursor to cervical carcinoma. The completion of the HPV productive life cycle depends on the expression of viral proteins which further determines the severity of the cervical neoplasia. Initiation of the viral productive replication requires expression of the E2 viral protein that cooperates with the E1 viral DNA helicase. A decrease in the viral DNA replication ability and increase in the severity of cervical neoplasia is accompanied by simultaneous elevated expression of E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Here we reveal a novel and important role for the HPV16-E2 protein in controlling host cell cycle during malignant transformation. We showed that cells expressing HPV16-E2 in vitro are arrested in prophase alongside activation of a sustained DDR signal. We uncovered evidence that HPV16-E2 protein is present in vivo in cells that express both mitotic and DDR signals specifically in CIN3 lesions, immediate precursors of cancer, suggesting that E2 may be one of the drivers of genomic instability and carcinogenesis in vivo.

  3. DETECTION OF CANCEROUS LESION BY UTERINE CERVIX IMAGE SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Priya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper works at segmentation of lesion observed in cervical cancer, which is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. The purpose of segmentation is to determine the location for a biopsy to be taken for diagnosis. Cervix cancer is a disease in which cancer cells are found in the tissues of the cervix. The acetowhite region is a major indicator of abnormality in the cervix image. This project addresses the problem of segmenting uterine cervix image into different regions. We analyze two algorithms namely Watershed, K-means clustering algorithm, Expectation Maximization (EM Image Segmentation algorithm. These segmentations methods are carried over for the colposcopic uterine cervix image.

  4. Expression of C4.4A in precursor lesions of pulmonary adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Benedikte; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Illemann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    in precursor lesions of lung squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma was investigated by stainings with a specific anti-C4.4A antibody. In the transformation from normal bronchial epithelium to squamous cell carcinoma, C4.4A was weakly expressed in basal cell hyperplasia but dramatically increased...... in squamous metaplasia. This was confined to the cell membrane and sustained in dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and the invasive carcinoma. The induction of C4.4A already at the stage of hyperplasia could indicate that it is a marker of very early squamous differentiation, which aligns well with our earlier...... finding that C4.4A expression levels do not provide prognostic information on the survival of squamous cell carcinoma patients. In the progression from normal alveolar epithelium to peripheral adenocarcinoma, we observed an unexpected, distinct cytoplasmic staining for C4.4A in a fraction of atypical...

  5. Metastatic Breast Cancer or Multiple Myeloma? Camouflage by Lytic Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Hough

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a female with stage I infiltrating ductal carcinoma who received adjuvant therapy including trastuzumab. One year later she developed lytic lesions and was retreated with trastuzumab that was held after she developed symptomatic heart failure. Lytic lesions were attributed to relapse of breast cancer, and cardiac failure attributed to prior trastuzumab therapy. After complications necessitated multiple hospitalizations, a further workup revealed that the lytic lesions were not metastatic breast cancer but multiple myeloma. Her advanced multiple myeloma was associated with systemic amyloidosis involving gut and heart, which ultimately led to her demise. This report addresses the pitfalls of overlapping symptoms and the question of which patients with suspected metastatic disease should undergo a biopsy.

  6. Spectrum of rectal radiation lesions in cases of cancer cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, V.K.; Rohatgi, V.K.; Gupta, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The study was carried out in 70 cases of carcinoma cervix uteri, showing varying degree of proctitis following radiotherapy treatment for cervical cancer. Grossly, the rectal mucosa showed oedema, congestion, granular proctitis, ulceration, and microscopically stromal connective tissue as well as epithelial changes. The stromal changes have been emphasised as useful diagnostic criteria of radiation reaction. The familarity of these changes is considered necessary because it is imperative to know categorically that a given lesion is entirely or in part due to radiation or due to extension of adjacent tumour in the cervix. Further, this issue is very important in management of cases of cancer cervix. The criteria of distinguishing the lesions in the rectal tissue have been laid down. (auth.)

  7. Methylated Host Cell Gene Promoters and Human Papillomavirus Type 16 and 18 Predicting Cervical Lesions and Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Milutin Gašperov

    Full Text Available Change in the host and/or human papillomavirus (HPV DNA methylation profile is probably one of the main factors responsible for the malignant progression of cervical lesions to cancer. To investigate those changes we studied 173 cervical samples with different grades of cervical lesion, from normal to cervical cancer. The methylation status of nine cellular gene promoters, CCNA1, CDH1, C13ORF18, DAPK1, HIC1, RARβ2, hTERT1, hTERT2 and TWIST1, was investigated by Methylation Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSP. The methylation of HPV18 L1-gene was also investigated by MSP, while the methylated cytosines within four regions, L1, 5'LCR, enhancer, and promoter of the HPV16 genome covering 19 CpG sites were evaluated by bisulfite sequencing. Statistically significant methylation biomarkers distinguishing between cervical precursor lesions from normal cervix were primarily C13ORF18 and secondly CCNA1, and those distinguishing cervical cancer from normal or cervical precursor lesions were CCNA1, C13ORF18, hTERT1, hTERT2 and TWIST1. In addition, the methylation analysis of individual CpG sites of the HPV16 genome in different sample groups, notably the 7455 and 7694 sites, proved to be more important than the overall methylation frequency. The majority of HPV18 positive samples contained both methylated and unmethylated L1 gene, and samples with L1-gene methylated forms alone had better prognosis when correlated with the host cell gene promoters' methylation profiles. In conclusion, both cellular and viral methylation biomarkers should be used for monitoring cervical lesion progression to prevent invasive cervical cancer.

  8. Review of Atrophic Gastritis and Intestinal Metaplasia as a Premalignant Lesion of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yo Han; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are the main precursor lesions of gastric cancer as the incidence of gastric cancer increases in the gastric mucosa involved with AG and IM. The prevalence of AG and IM vary depending on countries, even it represents diverse results in the same nation. Usually AG is antecedent of IM but the etiologies of AG and IM are not always the same. The sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic methods to detect AG and IM are different. Furthermore, the management strategy of AG and IM has not been established, yet. Helicobacter pylori infection has been proved as the most important cause of AG and IM. Thus the eradication of H. pylori is very important to prevent the progression to gastric cancer which is still placed in the high rank in morbidity and mortality among cancers. However, the reversibility of AG and IM by eradication of H. pylori which was assumed to be certain by meta-analysis is; however, controversial now. Therefore, the understanding and early diagnosis of AG and IM are very important, especially, in high incidence area of gastric cancer such as Republic of Korea. PMID:25853101

  9. Laryngeal precursor lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlum, Camilla Slot; Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Kiss, Katalin

    2018-01-01

    ; estimates of interrater and intrarater agreements were calculated with kappa statistics. Results: The crude intrarater agreements using the WHOC 2005 were 0.93 for rater 1 and 0.62 for rater 2. The corresponding unweighted kappa values were 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86-0.95) for rater 1 and 0.......43 (95% CI, 0.35-0.54) for rater 2, whereas the standard linear weighted kappa values were 0.93 (95% CI, 0.90-0.97) for rater 1 and 0.60 (95% CI, 0.53-0.69) for rater 2. The crude interrater agreement for the WHOC 2005 was 0.57, with a corresponding unweighted kappa value 0.38 (95% CI, 0...

  10. Prevalência da infecção por Helicobacter pylori e das lesões precusoras do câncer gástrico em pacientes dispéticos Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer precursor lesions in patients with dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Bizarro Muller

    2007-06-01

    foi menor que 1. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência da infecção por H. pylori foi alta (76% e os indivíduos infectados apresentaram probabilidade 10 vezes maior para a ocorrência de lesão da mucosa gástrica. Gastrite crônica não-atrófica apresentou prevalência de 77%, gastrite atrófica 3% e metaplasia intestinal 15%. A infecção pelo H. pylori determinou uma probabilidade 3 vezes maior para o desenvolvimento de gastrite crônica não-atrófica e não determinou risco para a ocorrência de gastrite atrófica e metaplasia intestinal, sugerindo que possivelmente outros fatores de risco, além do H. pylori, estejam envolvidos no processo da carcinogênese gástrica.BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection has been considered to play significant role in gastric carcinogenesis, but only a minority of people who harbor this organism will develop gastric cancer. H. pylori infection first causes chronic non atrophic gastritis. Chronic non atrophic gastritis may evolve to atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia and finally to dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. AIMS: To estimate the prevalence of H. pylori infection and the precancerous gastric lesions and their relationship, in patients with dyspeptic symptoms who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at a reference center in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. METHODS: We analyzed gastric biopsies taken from corpus and antrum of patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for H. pylori detection, between 1994 and 2003. According to Sydney system, chronic non atrophic gastritis, atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were diagnosed by histological examination (H-E stain. The histological diagnoses were related to H. pylori infection status. RESULTS: Biopsies from 2,019 patients were included in the study. Patients mean age was 52 (±15 and 59% were female. Seventy six percent had H. pylori infection. Normal mucosa, chronic non atrophic gastritis, atrophic gastritis and intestinal

  11. Anal cancer precursor lesions in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients seen at a tertiary health institution in Brazil Lesões precursoras do câncer anal em pacientes HIV-positivos e HIV-negativos atendidos numa instituição de saúde terciária no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tramujas da Costa e Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL or anal cancer in patients attended at the Tropical Medicine Foundation of Amazonas. Methods: 344 patients consecutively attended at the institution, in 2007/2008, were distributed in the following strata according to presence/abscense of at risk conditions for anal cancer: Group 1 _ HIV-positive men-who-have-sex-with-men (101; Group 2 _ HIV-positive females (49; Group 3 _ patients without any at risk condition for anal cancer (53; Group 4 _ HIV-positive heterosexual men (38; Group 5 _ HIV-negative patients, without anoreceptive sexual habits, but with other at risk conditions for anal cancer (45; Group 6 _ HIV-negative men-who-have-sex-with-men (26; and Group 7 _ HIV-negative anoreceptive females (32. The histopathological results of biopsies guided by high-resolution anoscopy were analyzed by frequentist and bayesian statistics in order to calculate the point-prevalence of ASIL/cancer and observe any eventual preponderance of one group over the other. Results: The point-prevalence of ASIL for all the patients studied was 93/344 (27%, the difference between HIV-positive and negative patients being statistically significant (38.3% versus 13.5%; p Objetivo: Investigar a prevalência de lesões intraepiteliais escamosas anais (ASIL ou câncer anal em pacientes atendidos na Fundação de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas. Métodos: 344 pacientes consecutivamente atendidos na instituição, em 2007/2008, foram distribuídos nos seguintes estratos conforme a presença/ausência de fatores de risco para o câncer anal: Grupo 1 _ homens-que-fazem-sexo-com-homens HIV-positivos (101; Grupo 2 _ mulheres HIV-positivas (49; Grupo 3 _ pacientes sem condição de risco para o câncer anal (53; Grupo 4 _ homens heterossexuais HIV-positivos (38; Grupo 5 _ pacientes HIV-negativos, sem hábitos sexuais anorreceptivos, mas com outras condições de risco para o câncer anal (45

  12. Fallopian tube intraluminal tumor spread from noninvasive precursor lesions: a novel metastatic route in early pelvic carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijron, Jonathan G; Seldenrijk, Cornelis A; Zweemer, Ronald P; Lange, Joost G; Verheijen, René H M; van Diest, Paul J

    2013-08-01

    Pelvic serous carcinoma is usually advanced stage at diagnosis, indicating that abdominal spread occurs early in carcinogenesis. Recent discovery of a precursor sequence in the fallopian tube, culminating in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), provides an opportunity to study early disease events. This study aims to explore novel metastatic routes in STICs. A BRCA1 mutation carrier (patient A) who presented with a STIC and tubal intraluminal shedding of tumor cells upon prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (PBSO) instigated scrutiny of an additional 23 women who underwent a PBSO and 40 patients with pelvic serous carcinoma involving the tubes. Complete serial sectioning of tubes and ovaries of patient A did not reveal invasive carcinoma, but subsequent staging surgery showed disseminated abdominal disease. STIC, intraluminal tumor cells, and abdominal metastases displayed an identical immunohistochemical profile (p53/WT1/PAX8/PAX2) and TP53 mutation. In 16 serous carcinoma patients (40%) tubal intraluminal tumor cells were found, compared with none in the PBSO group. This is the first description of a STIC, which plausibly metastasized without the presence of invasion through intraluminal shedding of malignant surface epithelial cells in the tube and subsequently spread throughout the peritoneal cavity. These findings warrant a reconsideration of the malignant potential of STICs and indicate that intraluminal shedding could be a risk factor for early intraperitoneal metastasis. Although rare in the absence of invasive cancer, we show that intraluminal shedding of tumor cells in the fallopian tubes from serous carcinoma cases are common and a likely route of abdominal spread.

  13. Targeted Ultrasound for MR-Detected Lesions in Breast Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jung Hee; Han, Boo Kyung; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Ko, Kyung Ran; Choi, Nami

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of targeted ultrasound (US) in the identification of additional suspicious lesions found by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in breast cancer patients and the changes in treatment based on the identification of the lesions by the use of targeted US. One-hundred forty nine patients who underwent breast MR imaging for a preoperative evaluation of breast cancer between January 2002 and July 2004 were included in the study. We searched all cases for any additional lesions that were found initially by MR imaging and investigated the performance of targeted US in identifying the lesions. We also investigated their pathological outcomes and changes in treatment as a result of lesion identification. Of the 149 patients with breast cancer, additional suspicious lesions were detected with MR imaging in 62 patients (42%). Of the 69 additional lesions found in those 62 patients, 26 (38%) were confirmed as cancers by histology. Thirty-eight lesions in 31 patients were examined with targeted US and were histologically revealed as cancers in 18 (47%), high risk lesions in two (5%), benign lesions in 15 (39%), and unidentified lesions in three (8%). The cancer rate was statistically higher in lesions with a US correlate than in lesions without a US correlate (p = 0.028). Of 31 patients, the surgical plan was altered in 27 (87%). The use of targeted US justified a change in treatment for 22 patients (81%) and misled five patients (19%) into having an unnecessary surgical excision. Targeted US can play a useful role in the evaluation of additional suspicious lesions detected by MR imaging in breast cancer patients, but is limited in lesions without a US correlate

  14. Synchronous lobular carcinoma in situ and invasive lobular cancer: marker or precursor for invasive lobular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, A S; Xiang, D; Hockman, L; Arya, M; Jeffress, J; Wang, Z; Dale, P S

    2014-10-01

    Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a known risk factor for invasive breast carcinoma, but there is increasing data indicating a possible precursor relationship. This study investigates the incidence of lobular carcinoma in situ that occurs with invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Women diagnosed with ILC or LCIS from 2000 to 2010 were retrospectively identified and reviewed after institutional review board approval. This group was divided into two cohorts: ILC alone, and LCIS and ILC (ILC/LCIS). Patient demographics, disease characteristics, and treatment modalities were captured. p invasive ductal carcinoma at ∼40%. The association of pre-invasive and invasive lobular lesions should be further studied in a large scale prospective study to assess for a precursor relationship. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lasers and intense pulsed light (IPL) association with cancerous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Caerwyn; Town, Godfrey; Whittall, Rebecca; Tooze, Louise; Phillips, Jaymie

    2017-11-01

    The development and use of light and lasers for medical and cosmetic procedures has increased exponentially over the past decade. This review article focuses on the incidence of reported cases of skin cancer post laser or IPL treatment. The existing evidence base of over 25 years of laser and IPL use to date has not raised any concerns regarding its long-term safety with only a few anecdotal cases of melanoma post treatment over two decades of use; therefore, there is no evidence to suggest that there is a credible cancer risk. Although laser and IPL technology has not been known to cause skin cancer, this does not mean that laser and IPL therapies are without long-term risks. Light therapies and lasers to treat existing lesions and CO 2 laser resurfacing can be a preventative measure against BCC and SCC tumour formation by removing photo-damaged keratinocytes and encouraged re-epithelisation from stem cells located deeper in the epidermis. A review of the relevant literature has been performed to address the issue of long-term IPL safety, focussing on DNA damage, oxidative stress induction and the impact of adverse events.

  16. Altered growth pattern, not altered growth per se, is the hallmark of early lesions preceding cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doratiotto, S; Marongiu, F; Faedda, S; Pani, P; Laconi, E

    2009-01-01

    Many human solid cancers arise from focal proliferative lesions that long precede the overt clinical appearance of the disease. The available evidence supports the notion that cancer precursor lesions are clonal in origin, and this notion forms the basis for most of the current theories on the pathogenesis of neoplastic disease. In contrast, far less attention has been devoted to the analysis of the phenotypic property that serves to define these focal lesions, i.e. their altered growth pattern. In fact, the latter is often considered a mere morphological by-product of clonal growth, with no specific relevance in the process. In the following study, evidence will be presented to support the concept that focal growth pattern is an inherent property of altered cells, independent of clonal growth; furthermore, it will be discussed how such a property, far from being merely descriptive, might indeed play a fundamental role in the sequence of events leading to the development of cancer. Within this paradigm, the earliest steps of neoplasia should be considered and analysed as defects in the mechanisms of tissue pattern formation.

  17. Levels in neurotransmitter precursor amino acids correlate with mental health in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüfner, K; Oberguggenberger, A; Kohl, C; Geisler, S; Gamper, E; Meraner, V; Egeter, J; Hubalek, M; Beer, B; Fuchs, D; Sperner-Unterweger, B

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females. Approximately 30% of cancer patients develop depression or depressive adaptation disorder within 5 years post diagnosis. Low grade inflammation and subsequent changes in neurotransmitter levels could be the pathophysiological link. In the current study we investigated the association of neurotransmitter precursor amino acids with a diagnosis of depression or state anxiety in 154 subjects suffering from breast cancer (BCA(+)), depression (DPR(+)), both or neither. Sociodemographic parameters, severity of depressive symptoms, and state anxiety (ANX) were recorded. Neopterin, kynurenine/tryptophan and phenylalanine/tyrosine were analysed by HPLC or ELISA. Significantly higher serum neopterin values were found in DPR(+) patients (p = 0.034) and in ANX(+) subjects (p = 0.008), as a marker of Th1-related inflammation. The phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio (index of the catecholamine pathway) was associated with the factors "breast cancer" and "depression" and their interaction (all p depressive symptoms (r = 0.376, p precursor amino acids correlate with mental health, an effect which was much more pronounced in BCA(+) patients than in BCA(-) subjects. Aside from identifying underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, these results could be the basis for future treatment studies: in BCA(+) patients with depression the use of serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors might be recommended while in those with predominant anxiety selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors might be the treatment of choice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for cervical cancer and pre-cancerous lesions in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuza, Jean Damascène; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Muhimpundu, Marie Aimee; Pace, Lydia Eleanor; Ntaganira, Joseph; Riedel, David James

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer prevalence in Rwanda has not been well-described. Visual inspection with acetic acid or Lugol solution has been shown to be effective for cervical cancer screening in low resource settings. The aim of the study is to understand the prevalence and risk factors for cervical cancer and pre- cancerous lesions among Rwandan women between 30 and 50 old undergoing screening. This cross-sectional analytical study was done in 3 districts of Rwanda from October 2010 to June 2013. Women aged 30 to 50 years screened for cervical cancer by trained doctors, nurses and midwives. Prevalence of pre-cancerous and cancerous cervical lesions was determined. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess risk factors associated with cervical cancer. The prevalence of pre-cancer and invasive cervical cancer was 5.9% (95% CI 4.5, 7.5) and 1.7% (95% CI 0.9, 2.5), respectively. Risk factors associated with cervical cancer in multivariate analysis included initiation of sexual activity at less than 20 years (OR=1.75; 95% CI=(1.01, 3.03); being unmarried (single, divorced and widowed) (OR=3.29; 95% CI=( 1.26, 8.60)); Older age of participants (OR= 0.52; 95% CI= (0.28, 0.97)), older age at the first pregnancy (OR=2.10; 95% CI=(1.20, 3.67) and higher number of children born (OR=0.42; 95%CI =(0.23, 0.76)) were protective. Cervical cancer continues to be a public health problem in Rwanda, but screening using VIA is practical and feasible even in rural settings.

  19. Prevalence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer among patients with unsatisfactory colposcopic examination, without visible lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Rangel da Veiga

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer is a serious public health problem in Brazil. For patients with unsatisfactory colposcopic examinations without visible lesions, but with cervical cytological tests suggesting high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL, the national recommendation is to repeat cervical cytological tests after three months. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of HSIL and cancer among patients with initial cervical cytological tests suggestive of HSIL but with unsatisfactory colposcopic examinations without visible lesions, in order to contribute towards the discussion regarding a more effective clinical approach that might diminish the likelihood of patient abandonment of follow-up before appropriate diagnosis and treatment. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in Colposcopy Clinic of IFF/Fiocruz. METHOD: Patients admitted between December 1989 and April 2007 with cytological diagnoses of HSIL but with unsatisfactory colposcopic examinations without visible lesions underwent cervical cone biopsy. RESULTS: Sixty-five such patients were included, comprising 33.8% with HSIL and 4.6% with cancer, confirmed histologically. The other patients presented low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (26.1%, glandular dysplasia (1.5% and absence of disease (33.8%. CONCLUSION: The observed prevalence of cancer and HSIL does not seem to be enough to justify immediate referral for cone biopsies to investigate the cervical canal in these cases. The findings suggest that the recommendation of repeated cytological tests following an initial one with HSIL, among patients with unsatisfactory colposcopic examinations without visible lesions, is appropriate in our setting. Efforts are needed to ensure adherence to follow-up protocols in order to reduce the chances of losses.

  20. Ulcerative Cutaneous Lesions Synchronously Present with the Diagnosis of Primary Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoon Shaheen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The percentage of patients with lung cancer that develop skin metastases is low. The diagnosis is usually made using clinical information and skin biopsy in patients with suspicious skin lesions and history of smoking or lung cancer. The prognosis for patients having lung cancer with skin metastasis is very poor. We describe findings in a 70-year-old man with lung cancer with skin metastases. Interestingly, multiple skin lesions were the first manifestation of the underlying lung cancer. The prognosis for patients having lung cancer with skin metastasis is thus very poor.

  1. Cancer of the prostate presenting with diffuse osteolytic metastatic bone lesions: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segamwenge Innocent Lule

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men and the fifth most common cancer worldwide. In the USA it is more common in African-American men than in Caucasian men. Prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to bone and the lesions appear osteoblastic on radiographs. Presentation with diffuse osteolytic bone lesions is rare. We describe an unusual presentation of metastatic prostate cancer with diffuse osteolytic bone lesions. Case presentation A 65-year-old Namibian man presented with anemia, thrombocytopenia and worsening back pains. In addition he had complaints of effort intolerance, palpitations, dysuria and mild symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction. On examination he was found to be anemic, had a swollen tender right shoulder joint and spine tenderness to percussion. On digital rectal examination he had asymmetrical enlargement of the prostate which felt nodular and hard with diffuse firmness in some parts. His prostate-specific antigen was greater than 100ng/mL and he had diffuse osteolytic lesions involving the right humerus, and all vertebral, femur and pelvic bones. His screen for multiple myeloma was negative and the prostate biopsy confirmed prostate cancer. Conclusion Prostate cancer rarely presents with diffuse osteolytic bone lesions and should be considered in the differential diagnosis when evaluating male patients with osteolytic bone lesions.

  2. HPV16 RNA patterns defined by novel high-throughput RT-qPCR as triage marker in HPV-based cervical cancer precursor screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfler, Daniela; Böhmer, Gerd; von Wasielewski, Reinhard; Neumann, Heinrich; Halec, Gordana; Holzinger, Dana; Dondog, Bolormaa; Gissmann, Lutz; Pawlita, Michael; Schmitt, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Cervical cancer precursor screening by HPV testing has a low positive predictive value for advanced lesion. HPV16 RNA patterns characteristic for HPV16-transformed cells but based on laborious, cost-intensive singleplex NASBA reactions promised high value in triaging HPV16 DNA-positive women. We developed two high-throughput reverse transcriptase quantitative (RT-q) PCR assays for the HPV16 transcripts E6*I, E1^E4 and E1C and the cellular transcript ubiquitin C and analysed RNA of 158 singly HPV16 DNA-positive cervical cell samples archived in PreservCyt buffer for the presence of transformation-associated HPV16 RNA patterns, i.e., upregulation of E6*I relative to E1^E4 and/or presence of E1C. HPV16 RNA pattern analyses classified 85% of 58 samples diagnosed ≤CIN1 (no cytologically and histologically detectable cervical lesion or CIN grade 1) as negative and 90% of 59 samples diagnosed as ≥CIN3 (CIN grade 3 or invasive cancer) as positive. Among 41 CIN grade 2 samples representing an intermediate lesion group, 49% were HPV16 RNA patterns-positive. Interestingly, 3 of 4 HPV16 RNA patterns-positive lesions initially diagnosed as ≤CIN1 at follow-up 5-24 months later had progressed to ≥CIN2. We successfully developed and validated a second generation of HPV16 RNA patterns assay by rapid RT-qPCR as triage marker for HPV16 DNA-positive women offering clinical utility to distinguish between the need for immediate colposcopy and continued observation. Limited follow-up data suggests that HPV16 RNA patterns-positivity in ≤CIN1 lesions can predict disease progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Amyloid precursor protein regulates migration and metalloproteinase gene expression in prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Toshiaki; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama 350-1241 (Japan); Inoue, Satoshi, E-mail: INOUE-GER@h.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama 350-1241 (Japan); Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Department of Anti-Aging Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • APP knockdown reduced proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells. • APP knockdown reduced expression of metalloproteinase and EMT-related genes. • APP overexpression promoted LNCaP cell migration. • APP overexpression increased expression of metalloproteinase and EMT-related genes. - Abstract: Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a type I transmembrane protein, and one of its processed forms, β-amyloid, is considered to play a central role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. We previously showed that APP is a primary androgen-responsive gene in prostate cancer and that its increased expression is correlated with poor prognosis for patients with prostate cancer. APP has also been implicated in several human malignancies. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying the pro-proliferative effects of APP on cancers is still not well-understood. In the present study, we explored a pathophysiological role for APP in prostate cancer cells using siRNA targeting APP (siAPP). The proliferation and migration of LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells were significantly suppressed by siAPP. Differentially expressed genes in siAPP-treated cells compared to control siRNA-treated cells were identified by microarray analysis. Notably, several metalloproteinase genes, such as ADAM10 and ADAM17, and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes, such as VIM, and SNAI2, were downregulated in siAPP-treated cells as compared to control cells. The expression of these genes was upregulated in LNCaP cells stably expressing APP when compared with control cells. APP-overexpressing LNCaP cells exhibited enhanced migration in comparison to control cells. These results suggest that APP may contribute to the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells by modulating the expression of metalloproteinase and EMT-related genes.

  4. Implication for second primary cancer from visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions in betel-nut chewing related oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shyun-Yu; Feng, I-Jung; Wu, Yu-Wei; Chen, Ching-Yuan; Hsiung, Chao-Nan; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Che-Yi; Chang, Min-Te; Yu, Hsi-Chien; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Yen, Ching-Yu

    2017-07-01

    Visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions may be used to monitor for a second primary oral cancer. To control for bias, we focused on the visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions of patients with oral cancer with a positive betel-nut chewing habit. Visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions that can predict second primary oral cancers were studied. Nine hundred ninety-seven patients with positive betel-nut chewing habits and oral cancer were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. We analyzed the relevance of their visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesion incidence and relative clinicopathological variables to the development of a second primary oral cancer. Second primary oral cancer risk was significantly higher in patients with positive visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions (P oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions make it a potentially valuable marker in follow-ups of patients with a positive betel-nut chewing habit with oral cancer, especially young patients with heterogeneous leukoplakia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Monomorphic Epithelial Proliferations of the Breast: A Possible Precursor Lesion Associated With Ipsilateral Breast Failure After Breast Conserving Therapy in Patients With Negative Lumpectomy Margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, Neal S.; Kestin, Larry L.; Vicini, Frank A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is generally believed that ipsilateral breast failures (IBFs) after breast-conserving therapy (BCT) develop from incompletely eradicated carcinoma. We previously suggested that monomorphic epithelial proliferations (MEPs) in the breast may be a pool of partially transformed clones from which breast carcinomas can arise and that radiation therapy (RT) may also reduce the risk of IBF by eradicating MEPs. We examined salvage mastectomy specimens in patients experiencing an IBF to define the relationship between MEPs and IBFs and an additional potential mechanism for IBF risk reduction by RT. Methods and Materials: The location, number, and distribution of radiation changes and MEPs relative to 51 IBFs were mapped in salvage mastectomy specimens from BCT patients with adequately excised, initial carcinomas (negative lumpectomy margins). Results: All 51 salvage mastectomies had diffuse, late radiation changes. None had active fibrocystic lesions. MEPs were predominantly located in the immediate vicinity of the IBFs. A mean of 39% of MEP cases were located within the IBF, 46% were located within 2 cm of the IBF, and 14% were 2-3 cm from the IBF. Conclusions: MEPs appear to be a pool of partially transformed precursor lesions that can give rise to ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinomas (CAs). Many IBFs may arise from MEPs that reemerge after RT. Radiation may also reduce IBF risk after BCT (including in patients with negative margins) by primarily eradicating MEPs.

  6. Cervical cancer precursor lesions: significance for women in a referral center in brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Oliveira de Melo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Compreender o vivido de mulheres com lesões precursoras do câncer do colo do útero. Método: Fenomenológico, seguindo as etapas metódicas de redução, construção e destruição. Trata-se de um recorte de dissertação “O vivido de mulheres com lesões precursoras do câncer do colo do útero: do diagnóstico a terapêutica”. A interpretação dos dados deu-se pela análise compreensiva Heideggeriana. Resultados: Os fenômenos desvelados relacionavam-se com as dúvidas das mulheres pelo desconhecimento do diagnóstico; mudanças no relacionamento com parceiros; dificuldades em ter amigos; importância da família; estratégias de enfrentamento; relacionamento com profissionais de saúde e descrédito na assistência; vergonha e constrangimento na realização do papanicolaou e o medo da morte. Conclusão: Urge redimensionar o cuidar do ser-mulher com lesões precursoras do câncer do colo do útero e lança-se o desafio de compreender a necessidade dos profissionais de saúde, cuidarem na perspectiva heideggeriana, estabelecendo uma relação de ser-com-o-outro, valorizando-o como ser de possibilidades.

  7. Evaluation Methodology between Globalization and Localization Features Approaches for Skin Cancer Lesions Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, H. M.; Al-azawi, R. J.; Abdulhameed, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Huge efforts have been put in the developing of diagnostic methods to skin cancer disease. In this paper, two different approaches have been addressed for detection the skin cancer in dermoscopy images. The first approach uses a global method that uses global features for classifying skin lesions, whereas the second approach uses a local method that uses local features for classifying skin lesions. The aim of this paper is selecting the best approach for skin lesion classification. The dataset has been used in this paper consist of 200 dermoscopy images from Pedro Hispano Hospital (PH2). The achieved results are; sensitivity about 96%, specificity about 100%, precision about 100%, and accuracy about 97% for globalization approach while, sensitivity about 100%, specificity about 100%, precision about 100%, and accuracy about 100% for Localization Approach, these results showed that the localization approach achieved acceptable accuracy and better than globalization approach for skin cancer lesions classification.

  8. Detection of oral early cancerous lesion by using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography: mice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong-Yi; Chen, Ping-Hsien; Lee, Tzu-Han; Chang, Kuo-Wei; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2018-02-01

    Oral cancer is the 11th most common cancer worldwide, especially in a male adult. The median age of death in oral cancer was 55 years, 10-20 years earlier than other cancers. Presently, oral cancer is often found in late stage, because the lesion is often flat in early stage and is difficult to diagnose under traditional white light imaging. The only definitive method for determining cancer is an invasive biopsy and then using histology examination. How to detect precancerous lesions or early malignant lesions is an important issue for improving prognosis of oral cancer. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new optical tool for diagnosing early malignant lesions in the skin or gastrointestinal tract recently. Here we report a new method for detecting precancerous or early malignant oral lesions by using swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) with center-wavelength 1310 nm, bandwidth 110 nm and 100 kHz swept rate. We used all single-mode fiber design to detect the change of birefringence information in the epithelium structure. This system has an advantage that enables measurement of backscattered intensity and birefringence simultaneously with only one A-scan per transverse location. In preliminary result, we computed the slope of the every A-scan signal in tissue part using a linear-curve fitting in backscattered intensity and birefringence on the enface. In this research, we used an oral cancer mice model for observing the change of structure and birefringence properties in different stages of oral cancer mice. We presented the parametric enface imaging that can detect the early oral malignant lesions.

  9. Burden and incidence of human papillomavirus-associated cancers and precancerous lesions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, Malene F; Munk, Christian; von Buchwald, Christian

    2016-01-01

    the study period, and almost identical incidence rates were seen for women and men in the youngest birth cohorts. The current burden of HPV-associated lesions amounted to more than 5000 cases, the vast majority (85%) being severe precancerous lesions. The highest risk for HPV-associated cancers......AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers in Denmark between 1978 and 2011, estimate the current absolute annual number (burden) of HPV-associated cancers (HPVaCa) and their precancerous lesions, and assess whether...... there is socioeconomic inequality in the risk of HPV-associated cancers. METHODS: From four nationwide population-based registries, information was collected on HPVaCa diagnosed during 1978-2011 and age-standardised incidence rate for each site by calendar year and birth cohort was calculated. Furthermore, the current...

  10. TH-E-BRF-08: Subpopulations of Similarly-Responding Lesions in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C; Harmon, S; Perk, T; Jeraj, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In patients with multiple lesions, resistance to cancer treatments and subsequent disease recurrence may be due to heterogeneity of response across lesions. This study aims to identify subpopulations of similarly-responding metastatic prostate cancer lesions in bone using quantitative PET metrics. Methods: Seven metastatic prostate cancer patients treated with AR-directed therapy received pre-treatment and mid-treatment [F-18]NaF PET/CT scans. Images were registered using an articulated CT registration algorithm and transformations were applied to PET segmentations. Midtreatment response was calculated on PET-based texture features. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering was used to form groups of similarly-responding lesions, with the number of natural clusters (K) determined by the inconsistency coefficient. Lesion clustering was performed within each patient, and for the pooled population. The cophenetic coefficient (C) quantified how well the data was clustered. The Jaccard Index (JI) assessed similarity of cluster assignments from patient clustering and from population clustering. Results: 188 lesions in seven patients were identified for analysis (between 6 to 53 lesions per patient). Lesion response was defined as percent change relative to pre-treatment for 23 uncorrelated PET-based feature identifiers. . High response heterogeneity was found across all lesions (i.e. range ΔSUVmax =−95.98% to 775.00%). For intra-patient clustering, K ranged from 1–20. Population-based clustering resulted in 75 clusters, of 1-6 lesions each. Intra-patient clustering resulted in higher quality clusters than population clustering (mean C=0.95, range=0.89 to 1.00). For all patients, cluster assignments from population clustering showed good agreement to intra-patient clustering (mean JI=0.87, range=0.68 to 1.00). Conclusion: Subpopulations of similarly-responding lesions were identified in patients with multiple metastatic lesions. Good agreement was found between

  11. P63 marker Expression in Usual Skin Cancers Compared With Non Tumoral Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Esmaili

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-melanoma skin cancers including basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common cancers in human. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of P63 marker in usual skin cancers compared with non-tomoral skin lesions. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, sampling was performed from archival blocks of Shahid Mohammadi hospital patients during 2010-2011. 60 samples (including 30 samples of non tumoral skin lesions and 30 samples of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were studied and evaluation of p63 gene expression was done with Immunohistochemistry method. T-test and Chi-square were used for analysis of data. Results: P63 gene were expressed in 4 cases (13.33 % of non tumoral lesions and all tumoral lesions (100 %. In tumoral lesions, 5 cases (16.66 % showed 1+ severity experssion, 11 cases (36.66% 2 + severity experssion and 14 cases (46.66 % 3+severity experssion. All 4 non tumoral lesions shoed 1+ severity experssion of P63gene. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the incidence and severity of gene expression of P63 can be use for differentiation between basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma as well as non-tumoral skin lesions

  12. A study of precancerous lesions for oral cancer in Jamnagar city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeta Jha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral cancer is a common malignancy, ranking first among all cancers in Western and Asian countries. It is preceded by some benign lesions or conditions, which are termed precancerous. Only one-third of people at the precancerous stage of disease succumb to cancer, it would be of practical importance to identify individuals at risk among them. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate high risk factors for oral cancer, to evaluate clinical features and correlate various factors to precancerous lesions and to determine incidence rate and magnitude of precancerous lesions in general population. Methods: In the study, 17,692 residents from different wards of Jamnagar city are clinically assessed for presence of precancerous lesions and interviewed by cross-sectional study. Results: It was found that prevalence rate of leukoplakia was found 0.93% while of OSMF was 1.75% in study population. All persons with precancerous lesions have addictions like tobacco chewing/smoking. Out of 5,652 persons with poor oral hygiene, leukoplakia was found in 2.54%, while OSMF in 1.67%. Conclusion: This study concluded that prevalence rate of precancerous lesion in general population of Jamnagar city is high. It is associated with habits of tobacco chewing and cigarette smoking.

  13. Spontaneous chromosome aberrations in cancer cells. Evidence of existence of hidden genetic lesions in genetic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poryadkova-Luchnik, N.A.; Kuz'mina, E.G.

    1996-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations spontaneously observed in cancer cells were quantitively studied under the effect of non-mutagenic (suboptimal temperature, low content of propilgallate and caffeine) and mutagenic (ionizing radiation) factors. Human larynx cancer cells during several years or gamma-irradiation were used to carry out experiments. The experiments linked with cloning of the initial population and investigation into chromosome aberrations in 22 clones demonstrated persuasively the occurrence of latent genetic lesions in cancer cells

  14. Using an Internet-Based Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool to Improve Social-Cognitive Precursors of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Stephanie L; Klein, William M P; Ball, Linda; McGuire, Jaclyn; Colditz, Graham A; Waters, Erika A

    2017-08-01

    Internet-based cancer risk assessment tools might serve as a strategy for translating epidemiological risk prediction research into public health practice. Understanding how such tools affect key social-cognitive precursors of behavior change is crucial for leveraging their potential into effective interventions. To test the effects of a publicly available, Internet-based, breast cancer risk assessment tool on social-cognitive precursors of physical activity. Women (N = 132) aged 40-78 with no personal cancer history indicated their perceived risk of breast cancer and were randomly assigned to receive personalized ( www.yourdiseaserisk.wustl.edu ) or nonpersonalized breast cancer risk information. Immediately thereafter, breast cancer risk perceptions and physical activity-related behavioral intentions, self-efficacy, and response efficacy were assessed. Personalized information elicited higher intentions, self-efficacy, and response efficacy than nonpersonalized information, P values Internet-based risk assessment tools can produce beneficial effects on important social-cognitive precursors of behavior change, but lingering skepticism, possibly due to defensive processing, needs to be addressed before the effects can be maximized.

  15. Immunology and Immunotherapy of high grade cervical lesions and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos van Steenwijk, Peggy Jacqueline de

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The immune system plays an important role in the protection against HPV and failure of the immune system can lead to the development of cervical cancer. Immunotherapy aims at the restoration of an effective anti-tumour immunity. This

  16. Whole-Lesion Histogram Analysis of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient for the Assessment of Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yue; Shi, Hua; Chen, Ying; Liu, Song; Li, Weifeng; Jiang, Zhuoran; Wang, Huanhuan; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang; Ge, Yun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the application of whole-lesion histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of cervical cancer. A total of 54 women (mean age, 53 years) with cervical cancers underwent 3-T diffusion-weighted imaging with b values of 0 and 800 s/mm prospectively. Whole-lesion histogram analysis of ADC values was performed. Paired sample t test was used to compare differences in ADC histogram parameters between cervical cancers and normal cervical tissues. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to identify the optimal threshold of each parameter. All histogram parameters in this study including ADCmean, ADCmin, ADC10%-ADC90%, mode, skewness, and kurtosis of cervical cancers were significantly lower than those of normal cervical tissues (all P histogram analysis of ADC maps is useful in the assessment of cervical cancer.

  17. Cervical syphilitic lesions mimicking cervical cancer: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A woman presented to the hospital due to postcoital vaginal bleeding. The patient was initially diagnosed with cervical carcinoma by clinicians at a local hospital. However, a biopsy of the cervical lesions revealed chronic inflammation and erosion of the cervical mucosa, and the rapid plasma reagin ratio titer was 1:256. The patient was eventually diagnosed with syphilitic cervicitis and treated with minocycline 0.1 g twice a day. The patient was cured with this treatment.

  18. Identification of early cancerous lesion of esophagus with endoscopic images by hyperspectral image technique (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Shih-Hua; Chen, Weichung; Wu, I.-Chen; Wu, Ming Tsang; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a method to identify early esophageal cancer within endoscope using hyperspectral imaging technology. The research samples are three kinds of endoscopic images including white light endoscopic, chromoendoscopic, and narrow-band endoscopic images with different stages of pathological changes (normal, dysplasia, dysplasia - esophageal cancer, and esophageal cancer). Research is divided into two parts: first, we analysis the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images with different stages to know the spectral responses by pathological changes. Second, we identified early cancerous lesion of esophagus by principal component analysis (PCA) of the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images. The results of this study show that the identification of early cancerous lesion is possible achieve from three kinds of images. In which the spectral characteristics of NBI endoscopy images of a gray area than those without the existence of the problem the first two, and the trend is very clear. Therefore, if simply to reflect differences in the degree of spectral identification, chromoendoscopic images are suitable samples. The best identification of early esophageal cancer is using the NBI endoscopic images. Based on the results, the use of hyperspectral imaging technology in the early endoscopic esophageal cancer lesion image recognition helps clinicians quickly diagnose. We hope for the future to have a relatively large amount of endoscopic image by establishing a hyperspectral imaging database system developed in this study, so the clinician can take this repository more efficiently preliminary diagnosis.

  19. Topical photosan-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch early cancer lesions: an in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yih-Chih; Chang, Walter Hong-Shong; Chang, Junn-Liang; Liu, Kuang-Ting; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent cancer disease in recent years in Taiwan. The reason is the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people results in oral cancer becomes the fastest growth incident cancer amongst other major cancer diseases. In previous studies showed that photosan, haematoporphyrin derivative (HPD), has demonstrated effective PDT results on human head and neck disease studies. To avoid the systemic phototoxic effect of photosan, this study was designed to use a topical photosan-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical photosan-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when photosan reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of photosan gel. We found that photosan reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 13.5 min after topical application of photosan gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical photosan-mediated PDT (fluence rate: 600 mW/cm2; light exposure dose 200 J/cm2) using the portable Lumacare 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that topical photosan-mediated PDT was an applicable treatment modality for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions.

  20. CT findings of benign omental lesions following abdominal cancer surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Yun; Kim, Dong Won; Cho, Jin Han; Kwon, Hee Jin; Ha, Dong Ho; Oh, Jong Young [Diagnostic Radiology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The greater omentum is the largest peritoneal fold and can be the origin of primary pathologic conditions, as well as a boundary and conduit for disease processes. Most diseases involving the omentum manifest with nonspecific and overlapping features on computed tomography (CT). In particular, varying benign disease processes of traumatic, inflammatory, vascular, or systemic origin can occur in the omentum during the follow-up period after surgery for intra-abdominal malignancy. It can be challenging for radiologists due to various spectrum of CT findings. Thus, we reviewed the CT findings of various benign omental lesions after surgery for intra-abdominal malignancy.

  1. Detection of early lung cancer lesions in surgical resections and in bronchial and transbronchial biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rott, T.; Jerse, M.; Tercelj, M.; Erzen, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Overall bad prognosis of lung cancer is mostly due to too late detection of early lung cancer, which may be treated with good success. Therefore, different diagnostic methods are developing for more efficient detection of early lung cancer: besides modern radiological, bronchoscopic methods with additional fluorescence techniques, quantitative cytological investigations, also histological and molecular investigations are included. Histology may reveal early preinvasive lung cancer lesions, associated early during multistep lung carcinogenesis with molecular genetic changes. Patients and methods. Preinvasive epithelial lung cancer lesions we searched in two groups of patients. In the first group of 316 patients from the period March 2003 - August 2006, 498 bronchial and transbronchial biopsies were examined for squamous metaplasia and dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive tumours. In the second group of 238 patients from the period January 2004 - August 2006, resected primary lung tumours were analysed for preinvasive and invasive neuroendocrine tumours and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. Results. The most frequent changes in bronchial and transbronchial biopsies were squamous metaplasia (46.5%), simple or goblet cell hyperplasia of the bronchial epithelium (44.3%), malignant tumours (20.66%) and squamous dysplasia (16.1%), but rare carcinoma in situ (0.63%). Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia was found in 15 (6.3%) cases in the vicinity of 238 resected lung cancer specimens, carcinoid in 12 patients (5%), and mostly combined large cell neuroendocrine cancer in 21 patients (8.8%). Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia was found in 2 patients. Conclusions. Classical histological analysis should be focused on detection of early preinvasive epithelial lung cancer lesions. Additional available molecular investigations may reveal gradual genetic changes characteristic for a series of the preinvasive epithelial histological changes

  2. Investigation of relations between skin cancer lesions' images and their fluorescent spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, P.; Borisova, E.; Avramov, L.; Petkova, El.; Troyanova, P.

    2010-03-01

    This investigation is based on images obtained from healthy tissue and skin cancer lesions and their fluorescent spectra of cutaneous lesions derived after optical stimulation. Our analyses show that the lesions’ spectra of are different of those, obtained from normal tissue and the differences depend on the type of cancer. We use a comparison between these “healthy” and “unhealthy” spectra to define forms of variations and corresponding diseases. However, the value of the emitted light varies not only between the patients, but also depending on the position of the tested area inside of one lesion. These variations could be result from two reasons: different degree of damaging and different thickness of the suspicious lesion area. Regarded to the visible image of the lesion, it could be connected with the chroma of colour of the tested area and the lesion homogeneity that corresponds to particular disease. For our investigation, images and spectra of three non-melanoma cutanous malignant tumors are investigated, namely—basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and keratoacanthoma. The images were processed obtaining the chroma by elimination of the background—healthy tissue, and applying it as a basic signal for transformation from RGB to Lab colorimetric model. The chroma of the areas of emission is compared with the relative value of fluorescence spectra. Specific spectral features are used to develop hybrid diagnostic algorithm (including image and spectral features) for differentiation of these three kinds of malignant cutaneous pathologies.

  3. Pre-cancerous (DNA and chromosomal lesions in professional sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Significantly increased genomic instability in players of both sports was observed. Both repaired and repairable genetic damage cells were observed in different tissues of the same subject. The presence of such genetic damage implies that these players are at an individual risk from cancer- and age-related diseases.

  4. Bronchial Mucus Properties in Lung Cancer: Relationship with Site of Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gustavo Zayas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the biophysical properties of mucus from the left and right mainstem bronchi in patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy because of a unilateral radiological abnormality. It was hypothesized that abnormalities in the properties of mucus would be greater on the side with the lesion and that this would be most obvious in patients with unilateral lung cancer.

  5. Human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination for the prevention of HPV 16/18 induced cervical cancer and its precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiner, Wolfgang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Essential precondition for the development of cervical cancer is a persistent human papillomavirus (HPV infection. The majority - approximately 70% - of cervical carcinomas is caused by two high-risk HPV types (16 and 18. Recently, two vaccines have been approved to the German market with the potential to induce protection against HPV 16 and HPV 18 among additional low-risk virus types. Objectives: To analyse whether HPV vaccination is effective with regard to the reduction of cervical cancer and precursors of cervical carcinoma (CIN, respectively? Does HPV vaccination represent a cost-effective alternative or supplement to present screening practice? Are there any differences concerning cost-effectiveness between the two available vaccines? Should HPV vaccination be recommended from a health economic point of view? If so, which recommendations can be conveyed with respect to a (reorganization of the German vaccination strategy? Which ethical, social and legal implications have to be considered? Methods: Based on a systematic literature review, randomized controlled trials (RCT looking at the effectiveness of HPV vaccination for the prevention of cervical carcinoma and its precursors - cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - have been identified. In addition, health economic models were identified to address the health economic research questions. Quality assessment of medical and economic literature was assured by application of general assessment standards for the systematic and critical appraisal of scientific studies. Results: Vaccine efficacy in prevention of CIN 2 or higher lesions in HPV 16 or HPV 18 negative women, who received all vaccination doses, ranges between 98% and 100%. Side effects of the vaccination are mainly associated with injection site reactions (redness, turgor, pain. No significant differences concerning serious complications between the vaccination- and the placebo-groups were reported. Results of base case

  6. PET-CT detection rate of primary breast cancer lesions. Correlation with the clinicopathological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Tomoko; Tozaki, Mitsuhiro; Fukuma, Eisuke

    2008-01-01

    One hundred and forty lesions of primary breast cancer underwent positron emission tomography (PET)-CT between June 2006 and May 2007. The PET-CT detection rate of primary breast cancer lesions was 72.1%. The detection rate was 52.1% for invasive cancer ≤20 mm, 92.8% for invasive breast cancers >20 mm, and these results were significant. In the present study, no significant relationship was observed between tumor types, however, invasive lobular carcinoma showed a lower detection rate, 58.3%. The PET-CT results were not significantly affected by either estrogen and progesterone receptors or distant metastasis. A significant correlation regarding the detection rate of PET-CT was found with HER2 status, tumor grade, and axillary lymph node status. The detection rate was 100% for invasive cancer ≤20 mm when the interval between prior diagnostic Mammotome biopsies and PET-CT was less than 3 weeks, 18.8% for invasive cancer ≤20 mm when the interval was more than 3 weeks, and these results were significant. Mammotome biopsies may therefore affect the detection rate of PET-CT. Invasive cancers ≤20 mm showed a low detection rate, therefore, it is considered to be insufficient to use PET-CT for the detection of early breast cancer. (author)

  7. Premalignant Lesions in the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziva Kirkali

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most malignant urologic disease. Different lesions, such as dysplasia in the tubules adjacent to RCC, atypical hyperplasia in the cyst epithelium of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and adenoma have been described for a number of years as possible premalignant changes or precursor lesions of RCC. In two recent papers, kidneys adjacent to RCC or removed from other causes were analyzed, and dysplastic lesions were identified and defined in detail. Currently renal intraepithelial neoplasia (RIN is the proposed term for classification. The criteria for a lesion to be defined as premalignant are (1 morphological similarity; (2 spatial association; (3 development of microinvasive carcinoma; (4 higher frequency, severity, and extent then invasive carcinoma; (5 progression to invasive cancer; and (6 similar genetic alterations. RIN resembles the neoplastic cells of RCC. There is spatial association. Progression to invasive carcinoma is described in experimental cancer models, and in some human renal tumors. Similar molecular alterations are found in some putative premalignant changes. The treatment for RCC is radical or partial nephrectomy. Preneoplastic lesions may remain in the renal remnant in patients treated by partial nephrectomy and may be the source of local recurrences. RIN seems to be a biologic precursor of some RCCs and warrants further investigation. Interpretation and reporting of these lesions would reveal important resources for the biological nature and clinical significance. The management of RIN diagnosed in a renal biopsy and partial nephrectomy needs to be answered.

  8. Early detection of breast cancer mass lesions by mammogram segmentation images based on texture features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, F.H.

    2012-01-01

    Mammography is at present one of the available method for early detection of masses or abnormalities which is related to breast cancer.The calcifications. The challenge lies in early and accurate detection to overcome the development of breast cancer that affects more and more women throughout the world. Breast cancer is diagnosed at advanced stages with the help of the digital mammogram images. Masses appear in a mammogram as fine, granular clusters, which are often difficult to identify in a raw mammogram. The incidence of breast cancer in women has increased significantly in recent years. This paper proposes a computer aided diagnostic system for the extraction of features like mass lesions in mammograms for early detection of breast cancer. The proposed technique is based on a four-step procedure: (a) the preprocessing of the image is done, (b) regions of interest (ROI) specification, (c) supervised segmentation method includes two to stages performed using the minimum distance (M D) criterion, and (d) feature extraction based on Gray level Co-occurrence matrices GLC M for the identification of mass lesions. The method suggested for the detection of mass lesions from mammogram image segmentation and analysis was tested over several images taken from A L-llwiya Hospital in Baghdad, Iraq.The proposed technique shows better results.

  9. Management of elderly patients with prostate cancer without metastatic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Naotaka; Akitake, Masakazu; Ikoma, Saya; Ri, Ken; Masuda, Katsuaki; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Iguchi, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    In order to assess the optimal management for elderly patients with localized and locally advanced prostate cancer (clinical stage: T1-T4N0M0), we reviewed the prognoses. From April 2000 to December 2008, we treated and followed up 175 patients aged 75 years, or older. In almost all of the patients above 79 years of age, endocrine therapy was selected. Among the 75 to 79-year-old patients, the proportion of radiation therapy, including external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-brachytherapy), as well as radical prostatectomy increased. The follow-up period for all the patients was 0 to 106 months (median, 32 months). In the low- and intermediate-risk group, the actuarial biochemical control rate at 60 months for radical prostatectomy and endocrine therapy was 100% and 90%, respectively, and no patients with EBRT combined with endocrine therapy, and HDR-brachytherapy had biochemical failure at 34 and 46 months, respectively. In the high-risk group with 75 to 79-year-old patients, the actuarial biochemical control rate at 60 months for EBRT combined with endocrine therapy, radical prostatectomy and endocrine therapy was 71.4%, 69.0% and 55.7%, respectively, while the actuarial biochemical control rate at 48 months for HDR-brachytherapy was 40.9%. In the high-risk group with patients above 79 years of age, the actuarial biochemical control rate at 60 months for endocrine therapy was 64.5%. Prostate cancer death was recognized only in 1 patient within the high-risk group, treated by endocrine therapy. In all the patients, the overall survival rate at 60 months for EBRT combined with endocrine therapy, HDR-brachytherapy, radical prostatectomy and endocrine therapy was 100%, 100%, 76.4% and 89.5%, respectively. The actuarial biochemical control rate and overall survival rate were not significant among the management options in each risk group. However, the 75 to 79-year-old patients within the high-risk group, who were treated with

  10. Oral mucosal lesions, microbial changes, and taste disturbances induced by adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Mouridsen, Henning T.; Bergmann, Olav Jonas

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine oral mucosal lesions, microbial changes, and taste disturbances induced by adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) in breast cancer patients during and 1 year after treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Forty-five consecutive breast cancer patients, eligible for adjuvant CT...... with cyclophosphamide, epirubicin or methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil were followed before, during, 6 months and 1 year after CT and were compared to a control group of 31 breast cancer patients not receiving adjuvant CT. RESULTS: During CT, oral mucosal lesions developed including erythema (n = 10, 22%) and ulceration...... (n = 7, 16%). Five patients (11%) were diagnosed with oral candidosis. Scores of dental bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation increased during CT and the oral microbial composition changed towards a more acidophilic flora. Taste disturbances were experienced by 84% (n = 38) of the patients...

  11. Helicobacter pylori associated chronic gastritis, clinical syndromes, precancerous lesions, and pathogenesis of gastric cancer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Jiro; Chen, Nancy; Amenta, Peter S; Fukui, Hirokazu; Oshima, Tadayuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Miwa, Hiroto; Lim, Kheng-Jim; Das, Kiron M

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is well known to be associated with the development of precancerous lesions such as chronic atrophic gastritis (AG), or gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM), and cancer. Various molecular alterations are identified not only in gastric cancer (GC) but also in precancerous lesions. H. pylori treatment seems to improve AG and GIM, but still remains controversial. In contrast, many studies, including meta-analysis, show that H. pylori eradication reduces GC. Molecular markers detected by genetic and epigenetic alterations related to carcinogenesis reverse following H. pylori eradication. This indicates that these changes may be an important factor in the identification of high risk patients for cancer development. Patients who underwent endoscopic treatment of GC are at high risk for development of metachronous GC. A randomized controlled trial from Japan concluded that prophylactic eradication of H. pylori after endoscopic resection should be used to prevent the development of metachronous GC, but recent retrospective studies did not show the tendency. Patients with precancerous lesions (molecular alterations) that do not reverse after H. pylori treatment, represent the “point of no return” and may be at high risk for the development of GC. Therefore, earlier H. pylori eradication should be considered for preventing GC development prior to the appearance of precancerous lesions. PMID:24833876

  12. Clinical and Radiological Discrimination of Solitary Pulmonary Lesions in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtaki, Yoichi; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Nagashima, Toshiteru; Nakazawa, Seshiru; Obayashi, Kai; Azuma, Yoko; Iijima, Misaki; Kosaka, Takayuki; Yajima, Toshiki; Ogawa, Hiroomi; Tsutsumi, Soichi; Arai, Motohiro; Mogi, Akira; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2018-04-01

    The lung is one of the most common organs of metastasis from colorectal cancer (CRC), and we have encountered lung cancer patients with a history of CRC. There have been few studies regarding methods used to discriminate between primary lung cancer (PLC) and pulmonary metastasis from CRC (PM-CRC) based only on preoperative findings. We retrospectively investigated predictive factors discriminating between these lesions in patients with a history of CRC. Between 2006 and 2015, 117 patients with a history of CRC (44 patients with 47 PLC and 73 patients with 102 PM-CRC) underwent subsequent or concurrent resection of pulmonary lesions. We compared the clinical and radiological characteristics of 100 patients with solitary lesions (43 PLC and 57 PM-CRC). Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we examined predictive factors for discrimination of these two lesions. All tumors with findings of ground-glass opacity (GGO) were PLC (n = 19). In a multivariate analysis of 81 radiologically solid tumors, two factors were found to be significant independent predictors of PLC: a history of stage I CRC and presence of pleural indentation. All tumors in 26 patients with either GGO or both a stage I CRC history and pleural indentation were PLC, while most tumors in patients without all three factors were PM-CRC (43/44; 97.7%). The presence or absence of GGO, pathological CRC stage, and pleural indentation could be useful factors to distinguish between PLC and PM-CRC.

  13. Helicobacter pylori associated chronic gastritis, clinical syndromes, precancerous lesions, and pathogenesis of gastric cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Jiro; Chen, Nancy; Amenta, Peter S; Fukui, Hirokazu; Oshima, Tadayuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Miwa, Hiroto; Lim, Kheng-Jim; Das, Kiron M

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is well known to be associated with the development of precancerous lesions such as chronic atrophic gastritis (AG), or gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM), and cancer. Various molecular alterations are identified not only in gastric cancer (GC) but also in precancerous lesions. H. pylori treatment seems to improve AG and GIM, but still remains controversial. In contrast, many studies, including meta-analysis, show that H. pylori eradication reduces GC. Molecular markers detected by genetic and epigenetic alterations related to carcinogenesis reverse following H. pylori eradication. This indicates that these changes may be an important factor in the identification of high risk patients for cancer development. Patients who underwent endoscopic treatment of GC are at high risk for development of metachronous GC. A randomized controlled trial from Japan concluded that prophylactic eradication of H. pylori after endoscopic resection should be used to prevent the development of metachronous GC, but recent retrospective studies did not show the tendency. Patients with precancerous lesions (molecular alterations) that do not reverse after H. pylori treatment, represent the "point of no return" and may be at high risk for the development of GC. Therefore, earlier H. pylori eradication should be considered for preventing GC development prior to the appearance of precancerous lesions.

  14. Characterisation of prostate cancer lesions in heterozygous Men1 mutant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigne, Christelle; Fontanière, Sandra; Carreira, Christine; Lu, Jieli; Tong, Wei-Ming; Fontanière, Bernard; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Zhang, Chang Xian; Frappart, Lucien

    2010-01-01

    Mutations of the MEN1 gene predispose to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome. Our group and others have shown that Men1 disruption in mice recapitulates MEN1 pathology. Intriguingly, rare lesions in hormone-dependent tissues, such as prostate and mammary glands, were also observed in the Men1 mutant mice. To study the occurrence of prostate lesions, we followed a male mouse cohort of 47 Men1 +/- mice and 23 age-matched control littermates, starting at 18 months of age, and analysed the prostate glands from the cohort. Six Men1 +/- mice (12.8%) developed prostate cancer, including two adenocarcinomas and four in situ carcinomas, while none of the control mice developed cancerous lesions. The expression of menin encoded by the Men1 gene was found to be drastically reduced in all carcinomas, and partial LOH of the wild-type Men1 allele was detected in three of the five analysed lesions. Using immunostaining for the androgen receptor and p63, a basal epithelial cell marker, we demonstrated that the menin-negative prostate cancer cells did not display p63 expression and that the androgen receptor was expressed but more heterogeneous in these lesions. Furthermore, our data showed that the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1B (p27), a Men1 target gene known to be inactivated during prostate cell tumorigenesis, was notably decreased in the prostate cancers that developed in the mutant mice. Our work suggests the possible involvement of Men1 inactivation in the tumorigenesis of the prostate gland

  15. Quantifying heterogeneity of lesion uptake in dynamic contrast enhanced MRI for breast cancer diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karahaliou, A; Skiadopoulos, S; Yiakoumelos, A; Costaridou, L; Vassiou, K; Kanavou, T

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigates whether texture features extracted from lesion kinetics feature maps can be used for breast cancer diagnosis. Fifty five women with 57 breast lesions (27 benign, 30 malignant) were subjected to dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) on 1.5T system. A linear-slope model was fitted pixel-wise to a representative lesion slice time series and fitted parameters were used to create three kinetic maps (wash out, time to peak enhancement and peak enhancement). 28 grey level co-occurrence matrices features were extracted from each lesion kinetic map. The ability of texture features per map in discriminating malignant from benign lesions was investigated using a Probabilistic Neural Network classifier. Additional classification was performed by combining classification outputs of most discriminating feature subsets from the three maps, via majority voting. The combined scheme outperformed classification based on individual maps achieving area under Receiver Operating Characteristics curve 0.960±0.029. Results suggest that heterogeneity of breast lesion kinetics, as quantified by texture analysis, may contribute to computer assisted tissue characterization in DCE-MRI.

  16. Human Papillomavirus types distribution among women with cervical preneoplastic, lesions and cancer in Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damião, Paciência de Almeida; Oliveira-Silva, Michelle; Moreira, Miguel Ângelo; Poliakova, Natalia; de Lima, Maria Emilia Rt; Chiovo, José; Nicol, Alcina Frederica

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among females in Angola and human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for the development of pre-cancerous squamous intraepithelial lesions. The diversity and frequency of HPV types in Angola has yet to be reported. To determine the frequency of HPV among women with squamous intraepithelial lesions from women in Luanda, Angola. Study participants included women diagnosed with cytological abnormalities that voluntarily provided Pap smears (n = 64). Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples for use as templates in the PCR amplification of HPV sequences. PCR products were sequenced to determine HPV type. HPV DNA was detected in 71.9% (46/64) in the samples. A higher diversity of HPV types was found in the cytological lesions, such as ASCUS and LSIL (HPV16, 6, 18, 31, 58, 66, 70 and 82, in order of frequency) than that detected for HSIL and SSC (HPV16, 18, 6 and 33). The most prevalent HPV type were: HPV16, HPV6 and HPV18. This is the first report on HPV type diversity and frequency in woman of Angola. The results suggest that large-scale studies across Africa would improve our understanding of interrelationship between HPV infections and cervical cancer. More directly, the identification of the HPV types most prevalent suggests that women in Angola would benefit from currently available HPV vaccines.

  17. Correlation of serum GP73, SOD and GPC3 contents with cell proliferation and angiogenesis in liver cancer lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Xin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of serum GP73, SOD and GPC3 contents with cell proliferation and angiogenesis in liver cancer lesion. Methods: Patients who were diagnosed with primary liver cancer in Jianghan Oilfield General Hospital between June 2014 and February 2017 were selected as liver cancer group, and healthy subjects who received physical examination in Jianghan Oilfield General Hospital during the same period were selected as control group. Serum was collected from two groups of subjects to determine the contents of GP73, SOD and GPC3; liver cancer lesion and adjacent lesion were collected from liver cancer group to determine the expression of cell proliferation molecules and angiogenesis molecules. Results: Serum GP73 and GPC3 levels of liver cancer group were obviously higher than those of control group while SOD content was obviously lower than that of control group; DNMT3B, STC2, SIRT6, LETM1, EphB4, SULT2B1, HIF-1α, VEGF, Ang-2, HGF and TGF-β1 protein expression levels in liver cancer lesion of liver cancer group were significantly higher than those in adjacent lesion; DNMT3B, STC2, SIRT6, LETM1, EphB4, SULT2B1, HIF-1α, VEGF, Ang-2, HGF and TGF-β1 protein expression levels in liver cancer lesion of liver cancer group were positively correlated with serum GP73 and GPC3 levels, and negatively correlated with serum SOD level. Conclusion: The changes of GP73, SOD and GPC3 levels in the serum of patients with liver cancer are closely related to the cell proliferation and angiogenesis in liver cancer lesion.

  18. Robustness of radiomic breast features of benign lesions and luminal A cancers across MR magnet strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Heather M.; Drukker, Karen; Edwards, Alexandra; Papaioannou, John; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2018-02-01

    Radiomics features extracted from breast lesion images have shown potential in diagnosis and prognosis of breast cancer. As clinical institutions transition from 1.5 T to 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it is helpful to identify robust features across these field strengths. In this study, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR images were acquired retrospectively under IRB/HIPAA compliance, yielding 738 cases: 241 and 124 benign lesions imaged at 1.5 T and 3.0 T and 231 and 142 luminal A cancers imaged at 1.5 T and 3.0 T, respectively. Lesions were segmented using a fuzzy C-means method. Extracted radiomic values for each group of lesions by cancer status and field strength of acquisition were compared using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for the null hypothesis that two groups being compared came from the same distribution, with p-values being corrected for multiple comparisons by the Holm-Bonferroni method. Two shape features, one texture feature, and three enhancement variance kinetics features were found to be potentially robust. All potentially robust features had areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) statistically greater than 0.5 in the task of distinguishing between lesion types (range of means 0.57-0.78). The significant difference in voxel size between field strength of acquisition limits the ability to affirm more features as robust or not robust according to field strength alone, and inhomogeneities in static field strength and radiofrequency field could also have affected the assessment of kinetic curve features as robust or not. Vendor-specific image scaling could have also been a factor. These findings will contribute to the development of radiomic signatures that use features identified as robust across field strength.

  19. Oral precancerous lesions: Problems of early detection and oral cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gileva, Olga S.; Libik, Tatiana V.; Danilov, Konstantin V.

    2016-08-01

    The study presents the results of the research in the structure, local and systemic risk factors, peculiarities of the clinical manifestation, and quality of primary diagnosis of precancerous oral mucosa lesions (OMLs). In the study a wide range of OMLs and high (25.4%) proportion of oral precancerous lesions (OPLs) in their structure was indicated. The high percentage of different diagnostic errors and the lack of oncological awareness of dental practitioners, as well as the sharp necessity of inclusion of precancer/cancer early detection techniques into their daily practice were noted. The effectiveness of chemilumenescence system of early OPLs and oral cancer detection was demonstrated, the prospects of infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool were also discussed.

  20. The hypoxic cancer secretome induces pre-metastatic bone lesions through lysyl oxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Thomas R; Rumney, Robin M H; Schoof, Erwin M

    2015-01-01

    Tumour metastasis is a complex process involving reciprocal interplay between cancer cells and host stroma at both primary and secondary sites, and is strongly influenced by microenvironmental factors such as hypoxia. Tumour-secreted proteins play a crucial role in these interactions and present...... morbidity and mortality. The molecular interactions governing the early events of osteolytic lesion formation are currently unclear. Here we show hypoxia to be specifically associated with bone relapse in patients with oestrogen-receptor negative breast cancer. Global quantitative analysis of the hypoxic...

  1. Goat red blood cells as precursor for iron oxide nanocrystal synthesis to develop nuclear targeted lung cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreevani, Vellingiri; Shanthi, Krishnamurthy; Kannan, Soundarapandian, E-mail: sk_protein@buc.edu.in

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Molecular approach of synthesis of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NC using goat blood as a bio-precursor. • The method is simple, efficient and environment friendly. • Synthesized nanocrystals were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, XRD, SEM, TEM, DLS and EDS. • Nanocrystals exhibited potent cytotoxicity against A549 cancer cell. • Nuclear targeting with expression of caspase-3, caspase-7 and Bcl-2 in A549 cancer cells. - Abstract: In this study, we synthesised iron oxide nanocrystals (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NC) from goat blood (bio-precursor) using red blood cells (RBC) lysis method (a molecular level approach) for the first time. The formation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NC was achieved through a single-phase chemical reduction method. The size distribution of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NC falls between 20–30 nm for pellet and 100–200 nm for lysate and were found to be crystalline. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NC demonstrated significant cytotoxicity on A549. We report the direct visualization of interactions between Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NC and the cancer cell nucleus. The active transport of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NC to the nucleus induces major changes to nuclear phenotype via nuclear envelope invaginations. We further examined the root cause for the involvement of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NC on the expression of caspase-3, caspase-7 and Bcl-2 in A549 cancer cells. This functional proteomic analysis clearly implies that the lung cancer cell proliferation is perfectly targeted by the biosynthesised Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-NC which could provide new insight for nuclear-targeted cancer therapy.

  2. DETECTION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS, APOPTOSIS AND MOLECULAR LESIONS IN HUMAN OVARIAN CANCER CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Falfushynska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate of gynaecological cancers. This is partly due to the lack of effective screening markers. Indices of oxidative stress are well-recognized prognostic criteria for tumorous transformation of tissue, but their value depends on the type of tumor and the stage of its development. Objective. The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship between antioxidant/pro-oxidant ratio and the signs of molecular lesions and apoptosis rate in blood of ovarian cancer patients and non-cancer ones. Results. The ovarian cancer group is marked by antioxidant/prooxidant balance shifting to oxidative damage in blood as the consequence of overexpression of oxyradicals (by 300%. Higher level of glutathione (by 366%, lower level of metallothioneins (by 65% as well as higher level of lipid peroxidation (by 174% and protein carbonyls (by 186% in blood of ovarian cancer patients compared to the normal ovarian group have been observed. The signs of cytotoxicity are determined in blood of ovarian cancer patients: an increased (compared to control level of DNA fragmentation (by 160%, choline esterase (up to twice, higher rate of both caspase dependent and caspase independent lysosomal mediated apoptosis. Conclusions. Cathepsin D activity both total and free, choline esterase activity, TBA-reactive substance and protein carbonyls level in blood could be used as the predictive markers of worse prognosis and the signs of human ovarian cancer.

  3. Differential diagnosis of solitary pulmonary inflammatory lesions and peripheral lung cancers with contrast-enhanced computed tomograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Zhi-gang; Sheng, Bo; Liu, Meng-qi; Lv, Fa-jin; Li, Qi; Ouyang, Yu, E-mail: cyscitg@163.com [Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Department of Radiology, Chongqing (China)

    2016-10-15

    Objectives: To clarify differences between solitary pulmonary inflammatory lesions and peripheral lung cancers with contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Methods: In total, 64 and 132 patients with solitary pulmonary inflammatory masses/nodules and peripheral lung cancers, respectively, were enrolled in this study. Their computed tomographic findings were summarized and compared retrospectively. Results: Compared with the peripheral lung cancers, the inflammatory lesions were located closer to the pleura (p<0.0001). The majority of the inflammatory lesions were patchy and oval-shaped (82.8%), whereas most of the tumors were lobulated (82.6%). Almost all the inflammatory cases were unclear (93.8%), whereas most of the tumors had speculated margins (72.7%). Computed tomography values were significantly higher for the inflammatory lesions than for the cancers (p<0.0001). More than half of the inflammatory lesions had defined necrosis (59.3%). Furthermore, 49.2% of the cancers enhanced inhomogeneously, but only 24.6% had ill-defined necrosis or cavities. The peripheral zones of 98.4% of the inflammatory lesions and 72.7% of the tumors were unclear, with peripheral scattered patches (92.2%) and beam-shaped opacity (66.7%) being the most common findings, respectively. Adjacent pleural thickening was more frequent for the inflammatory lesions than the cancers (95.3% vs. 21.1%, p<0.0001), whereas pleural indentation was found in 67.4% of the subjects with cancer. In addition, hilar (p=0.034) and mediastinal (p=0.003) lymphadenopathy were more commonly detected in the cancers than in the inflammatory cases. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced computed tomography findings for pulmonary inflammatory lesions and peripheral lung cancers were significantly different in many aspects. Developing a comprehensive understanding of these differences is helpful for directing their management. (author)

  4. Management for BI-RADS category 3 lesions detected in preoperative breast MR imaging of breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gweon, Hye Mi [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nariya; Kim, Soo-Yeon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Hye Ryoung [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Mirinae [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chu, Ajung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Eun Ju [Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    To retrospectively evaluate characteristics of and determine appropriate follow-up recommendations for BI-RADS category 3 lesions detected in preoperative MRI of breast cancer patients. BI-RADS category 3 assessments were identified from the breast MRI database for 5,110 consecutive breast cancer patients who had undergone preoperative MRI and surgery. Patient and lesion characteristics, malignancy rate, and interval between lesion detection and cancer diagnosis were analysed. Histopathological results or imaging at or after 2-year follow-up were used as reference standards. Of the 626 lesions, morphological features included a single focus in 26.5% (n = 166), multiple foci in 47.1% (n = 295), mass in 21.7% (n = 136) and non-mass enhancement in 4.6% (n = 29). Cancer was found in 0.8% (5/626) at a median interval of 50 months (range, 29-66 months). Malignancy rate according to morphological feature was: 1.8% (3/166) in a single focus, 0.7% (1/136) in mass and 3.4% (1/29) in non-mass enhancement. All detected cancers were stage 0 or IA. Annual follow-up might be adequate for BI-RADS category 3 lesions detected at preoperative MRI because of the 0.8% (5/626) malignancy rate, long interval between lesion detection and cancer diagnosis, and early stage of diagnosed cancers. (orig.)

  5. Effectiveness of Transoral Laser Microsurgery for Precancerous Lesions and Early Glottic Cancer Guided by Analysis of Voice Quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bahannan, A.; Slavíček, A.; Černý, L.; Vokřál, J.; Valenta, Zdeněk; Lohynská, R.; Chovanec, M.; Betka, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 6 (2014), s. 763-767 ISSN 1043-3074 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : cordectomy * voice analysis * glottic cancer * precancerous lesion * larynx Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 2.641, year: 2014

  6. Prognostic implication of the metastatic lesion-to-ovarian cancer standardised uptake value ratio in advanced serous epithelial ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hyun Hoon; Lee, Maria; Kim, Hee-Seung; Kim, Jae-Weon; Park, Noh-Hyun; Song, Yong Sang; Cheon, Gi Jeong

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic value of metabolic activity of metastatic lesions measured by 18 F-flurodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) uptake on preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with advanced serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Clinico-pathological variables and PET/CT parameters such as the maximum standardised uptake value of the ovarian cancer (SUV ovary ), metastatic lesions (SUV meta ), and the metastatic lesion-to-ovarian cancer standardised uptake value ratio (SUV meta /SUV ovary ) were assessed in International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage III, IV patients. Clinico-pathological data were retrospectively reviewed for 94 eligible patients. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 18.5 months (range, 6-90 months), and 57 (60.6%) patients experienced recurrence. Older age [P = 0.017, hazard ratio (HR) 1.036, 95% CI 1.006-1.066], residual disease after surgery (P = 0.024, HR 1.907, 95% CI 1.087-3.346), and high SUV meta /SUV ovary (P = 0.019, HR 2.321, 95% CI 1.148-4.692) were independent risk factors of recurrence. Patients with high SUV meta /SUV ovary showed a significantly worse PFS than those with low SUV meta /SUV ovary (P = 0.007, log-rank test). Preoperative SUV meta /SUV ovary was significantly associated with recurrence and has an incremental prognostic value for PFS in patients with advanced serous EOC. (orig.)

  7. Contralateral lesions detected by preoperative MRI in patients with recently diagnosed breast cancer: Application of MR CAD in differentiation of benign and malignant lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nariya; Kim, Sun Mi; Park, Jeong Seon; Jang, Mijung; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Chang, Jung Min; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To retrospectively investigate the added value of kinetic features measured by computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) for differentiating benign and malignant contralateral breast lesions detected by preoperative MRI in breast cancer patients. Methods: This study was approved by our institutional review board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Fifty-two breast MR images and their CAD kinetic features were obtained for 52 consecutive breast cancer patients with contralateral breast lesions detected by preoperative MRI and confirmed by excision (23 cancers and 29 benign lesions). Three experienced radiologists independently reviewed the MR images without CAD information and assessed probabilities of malignancy. Four weeks later, these probabilities were reanalyzed using stored CAD data. Diagnostic performances and detection rates of delayed washout components were compared between interpretations without and with CAD for each reader. Results: Use of MR CAD increased detection of washout component by 2.4- to 3.7-fold than visual assessment for enhancing contralateral lesions, which increased sensitivity (91% vs. 87% in reader 1; 96% vs. 74% in reader 2; 91% vs. 70% in reader 3) and decreased specificity, but statistical significance was only found for decreased specificity in one reader (52% vs. 28%, P = 0.039), and overall performance (areas under ROC curves 0.672 vs. 0.616 in reader 1; 0.624 vs. 0.603 in reader 2; 0.706 vs. 0.590 in reader 3) remained unimproved. Conclusion: Addition of MR CAD increased sensitivity and decreased specificity than radiologist's assessment alone for differentiating benign and malignant contralateral lesions in breast cancer patients and overall performance remained unimproved.

  8. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound for diagnosis of prostate cancer and kidney lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitterberger, Michael; Pelzer, Alexandre; Colleselli, Daniela; Bartsch, Georg; Strasser, Hannes; Pallwein, Leo; Aigner, Friedrich; Gradl, Johann; Frauscher, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of review: Conventional ultrasonography of both, kidney and prostate, is limited due to the poor contrast of B-mode imaging for parenchymal disease and limited sensitivity of colour Doppler for the detection of capillaries and deep pedicular vessels. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) overcomes these limitations. Recent findings: CEUS investigates the blood flow of the prostate, allows for prostate cancer visualization and for targeted biopsies. Comparisons between systematic and CEUS-targeted biopsies have shown that the targeted approach detects more cancers with a lower number of biopsy cores and with higher Gleason scores compared with the systematic approach. Also the kidney offers promising applications as CEUS improves the detection of abnormal microvascular and macrovascular disorders. Summary: In recent literature CEUS has shown its value for diagnosis of both, prostate cancer and kidney lesions. This paper describes recent improvements and future perspectives of CEUS

  9. CT evaluation of cavitary lung lesions: focused on lung cancer, tuberculosis and abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Rahn; Kim, Myung Gyu; Kang, Eun Young; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1992-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of cavitary lung lesions is frequently problematic. We studied 35 patients with cavitary lung lesions, consisting of lung cancer (17 patients), pulmonary tuberculosis (11 patients), and lung abscess (7 patients). We analysed CT scans in terms of irregularities of the cavity wall, maximum wall thickness, the presence of air-fluid level, location of the cavity within the mass, number of cavities within the mass, size of the cavity and the presence of calcification within the mass. Cancer cavity showed irregular inner (100%) and outer margins (100%), and thick wall (mean, 1.94 cm), eccentrical location (94%) and multiplicity within a mass (38%). Tuberculous cavity showed smooth inner (56%) and irregular outer margins (75%), thin wall (mean 0.96 cm), central location (62%), and multiplicity in one patient (36%). Abscess cavity showed irregular inner (57%) and outer margins (91%), relatively thin wall (mean 1.0 cm), central location (57%), and air-fluid level (86%). CT scan could differentiate malignant lesions from benign condition such as tuberculosis and lung abscess by observing characteristics of the cavities

  10. CT evaluation of cavitary lung lesions: focused on lung cancer, tuberculosis and abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Rahn; Kim, Myung Gyu; Kang, Eun Young; Suh, Won Hyuck [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-11-15

    Differential diagnosis of cavitary lung lesions is frequently problematic. We studied 35 patients with cavitary lung lesions, consisting of lung cancer (17 patients), pulmonary tuberculosis (11 patients), and lung abscess (7 patients). We analysed CT scans in terms of irregularities of the cavity wall, maximum wall thickness, the presence of air-fluid level, location of the cavity within the mass, number of cavities within the mass, size of the cavity and the presence of calcification within the mass. Cancer cavity showed irregular inner (100%) and outer margins (100%), and thick wall (mean, 1.94 cm), eccentrical location (94%) and multiplicity within a mass (38%). Tuberculous cavity showed smooth inner (56%) and irregular outer margins (75%), thin wall (mean 0.96 cm), central location (62%), and multiplicity in one patient (36%). Abscess cavity showed irregular inner (57%) and outer margins (91%), relatively thin wall (mean 1.0 cm), central location (57%), and air-fluid level (86%). CT scan could differentiate malignant lesions from benign condition such as tuberculosis and lung abscess by observing characteristics of the cavities.

  11. Nuclear expression of Rac1 in cervical premalignant lesions and cervical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza-Catalán, Miguel A; Castañeda-Saucedo, Eduardo; Cristóbal-Mondragón, Gema R; Adame-Gómez, Jesús; Valle-Flores, Heidi N del; Coppe, José Fco; Sierra-López, Laura; Romero-Hernández, Mirna A; Carmen Alarcón-Romero, Luz del; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal expression of Rho-GTPases has been reported in several human cancers. However, the expression of these proteins in cervical cancer has been poorly investigated. In this study we analyzed the expression of the GTPases Rac1, RhoA, Cdc42, and the Rho-GEFs, Tiam1 and beta-Pix, in cervical pre-malignant lesions and cervical cancer cell lines. Protein expression was analyzed by immunochemistry on 102 cervical paraffin-embedded biopsies: 20 without Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (SIL), 51 Low- grade SIL, and 31 High-grade SIL; and in cervical cancer cell lines C33A and SiHa, and non-tumorigenic HaCat cells. Nuclear localization of Rac1 in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells was assessed by cellular fractionation and Western blotting, in the presence or not of a chemical Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Immunoreacivity for Rac1, RhoA, Tiam1 and beta-Pix was stronger in L-SIL and H-SIL, compared to samples without SIL, and it was significantly associated with the histological diagnosis. Nuclear expression of Rac1 was observed in 52.9% L-SIL and 48.4% H-SIL, but not in samples without SIL. Rac1 was found in the nucleus of C33A and SiHa cells but not in HaCat cells. Chemical inhibition of Rac1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells. Rac1 is expressed in the nucleus of epithelial cells in SILs and cervical cancer cell lines, and chemical inhibition of Rac1 reduces cellular proliferation. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Rho-GTPases in cervical cancer progression

  12. Chest wall – underappreciated structure in sonography. Part II: Non-cancerous lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Smereczyński

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The chest wall is a vast and complex structure, hence the wide range of pathological conditions that may affect it. The aim of this publication is to discuss the usefulness of ultrasound for the diagnosis of benign lesions involving the thoracic wall. The most commonly encountered conditions include sternal and costal injuries and thoracic lymphadenopathy. Ultrasound is very efficient in identifying the etiology of pain experienced in the anterior chest wall following CPR interventions. Both available literature and the authors’ own experience prompt us to propose ultrasound evaluation as the first step in the diagnostic workup of chest trauma, as it permits far superior visualization of the examined structures compared with conventional radiography. Sonographic evaluation allows correct diagnosis in the case of various costal and chondral defects suspicious for cancer. It also facilitates diagnosis of such conditions as degenerative lesions, subluxation of sternoclavicular joints (SCJs and inflammatory lesions of various etiology and location. US may be used as the diagnostic modality of choice in conditions following thoracoscopy or thoracotomy. It may also visualize the fairly common sternal wound infection, including bone inflammation. Slipping rib syndrome, relatively little known among clinicians, has also been discussed in the study. A whole gamut of benign lesions of thoracic soft tissues, such as enlarged lymph nodes, torn muscles, hematomas, abscesses, fissures, scars or foreign bodies, are all easily identified on ultrasound, just like in other superficially located organs.

  13. Quantitative performance evaluation of 124I PET/MRI lesion dosimetry in differentiated thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierts, R.; Jentzen, W.; Quick, H. H.; Wisselink, H. J.; Pooters, I. N. A.; Wildberger, J. E.; Herrmann, K.; Kemerink, G. J.; Backes, W. H.; Mottaghy, F. M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the quantitative performance of 124I PET/MRI for pre-therapy lesion dosimetry in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Phantom measurements were performed on a PET/MRI system (Biograph mMR, Siemens Healthcare) using 124I and 18F. The PET calibration factor and the influence of radiofrequency coil attenuation were determined using a cylindrical phantom homogeneously filled with radioactivity. The calibration factor was 1.00  ±  0.02 for 18F and 0.88  ±  0.02 for 124I. Near the radiofrequency surface coil an underestimation of less than 5% in radioactivity concentration was observed. Soft-tissue sphere recovery coefficients were determined using the NEMA IEC body phantom. Recovery coefficients were systematically higher for 18F than for 124I. In addition, the six spheres of the phantom were segmented using a PET-based iterative segmentation algorithm. For all 124I measurements, the deviations in segmented lesion volume and mean radioactivity concentration relative to the actual values were smaller than 15% and 25%, respectively. The effect of MR-based attenuation correction (three- and four-segment µ-maps) on bone lesion quantification was assessed using radioactive spheres filled with a K2HPO4 solution mimicking bone lesions. The four-segment µ-map resulted in an underestimation of the imaged radioactivity concentration of up to 15%, whereas the three-segment µ-map resulted in an overestimation of up to 10%. For twenty lesions identified in six patients, a comparison of 124I PET/MRI to PET/CT was performed with respect to segmented lesion volume and radioactivity concentration. The interclass correlation coefficients showed excellent agreement in segmented lesion volume and radioactivity concentration (0.999 and 0.95, respectively). In conclusion, it is feasible that accurate quantitative 124I PET/MRI could be used to perform radioiodine pre-therapy lesion dosimetry in DTC.

  14. Risk of invasive breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ in women with atypical papillary lesions of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneo, Kyle C; Dash, Rajesh C; Wilke, Lee G; Horton, Janet K; Koontz, Bridget F

    2012-09-01

    Benign papillary lesions of the breast include papilloma and papillomatosis. A retrospective analysis of patients with a papillary breast lesion diagnosed between October 1992 and December 2009 was performed. Patients were excluded if they had a previous or concurrent diagnosis of invasive or in situ cancer or less than 6 months of follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine the risk of developing subsequent malignancy. The log rank test was used to compare groups of patients. Median follow-up for the 167 patients included in the study was 4.6 years. Fifty-one patients had a papillary lesion with atypia and 116 patients had a papillary lesion without atypia. Patients with a papillary lesion with atypia were more likely to develop invasive or in situ breast cancer with a 5 year risk of 13.0% versus 4.6% in patients with no atypia (p = 0.03). © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A Radial Sclerosing Lesion Mimicking Breast Cancer on Mammography in a Young Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Furukawa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A spiculated mass on a mammogram is highly suggestive of malignancy. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with a radial sclerosing lesion that mimicked breast cancer on mammography. She visited her physician after palpating a lump in her left breast. Mammography showed architectural distortion in the upper inner quadrant of the left breast. Ultrasonography showed a low echoic area with an ambiguous boundary. Core needle biopsy was performed because of the suspicion of malignancy. Histological examination did not reveal any malignant cells. After 6 months, the breast lump became larger and the patient was referred to our hospital. Mammography performed in our hospital showed a spiculated mass, and therefore mammotome biopsy was performed. Histological examination revealed dense fibroelastic stroma with a wide variety of mastopathic changes, leading to a diagnosis of a radial sclerosing lesion. One year after the biopsy, the lump on her left breast had disappeared and mammography showed no spiculated mass.

  16. Fibrocystic change of the breast presenting as a focal lesion mimicking breast cancer in MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jeon-Hor; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Su, Min-Ying

    2008-12-01

    Focal fibrocystic change (FCC) of the breast is a rare form of FCC. Imaging presentations of focal FCC are not well known. This study aimed to analyze its MR imaging features. Eleven patients of pathology-proven focal FCC were retrospectively studied. Of the 11 patients, seven were mass (>or=5 mm), two showed multiple foci, and two were focus (Breast sonography suspected malignancy in seven patients (7/10, 70%). No statistically significant difference was found in the three diagnostic methods. In pathology, all 11 patients showed the typical pathological features of fibrocystic change, with mixed components of stromal fibrosis, cyst formation, apocrine metaplasia, adenosis, and/or focal sclerosing adenosis. In conclusion, MR imaging features of focal FCC usually present as a mass or focus lesion with rapid enhancement and washout kinetics that mimic a malignant breast lesion and lead to unnecessary operation, especially in patients with contralateral malignant breast cancer. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. 99mTc-Glucarate as a potential novel tracer of lung cancer lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, Juan P; Cabral, Pablo; Santander, Gianeya; Canepa, Jorge; Andruskevicius, Patricia; Piuma, Lourdes; Savio, Eduardo; Delgado, Lucia; Quagliata, Adriana; Alonso, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 80% of all lung malignant tumors and it usually presents at the moment of diagnosis as a locally advanced or metastatic disease. Surgery is not indicated in two thirds of them, being chemotherapy (QT) the accepted therapeutic approach. Only 30% of those patients respond to treatment whereas the remaining group will receive antineoplasic drugs without any therapeutic benefit but suffering their adverse effects. In this situation, it would be of clinical relevance to have a functional scintigraphic technique with the potential to evaluate in an early-phase the response to therapy. Our group has developed a clinical protocol to investigate if 99m Tc-Glucarate can be used to predict the response to QT in this group of patients. In order to accomplish this objective, we have to previously demonstrate that primary and secondary lesions of NSCLC can accumulate the radiotracer. The present case report describes for the first time in the indexed literature the use of 99m Tc-Glucarate as a functional marker of primary and secondary lesions of NSCLC (au)

  18. Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Screening and Treatment of Precancerous Lesions for Cervical Cancer Prevention in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mandeel, Hazem Mahmoud; Sagr, Emad; Sait, Khalid; Latifah, Hassan Mohamed; Al-Obaid, Abdulaziz; Al-Badawi, Ismail A; Alkushi, Abdulmohsen O; Salem, Hany; Massoudi, Nada S; Schunemann, Holger; Mustafa, Reem A; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common gynecological malignancy in Saudi women with an estimated incidence rate of 1.9 cases per 100 000 women-years. More than 40% of cervical cancer cases are diagnosed at advanced stages due to lack of a routine screening program in Saudi Arabia. Thus, national guidelines for routine screening and treatment of precancerous cervical lesions are needed. The Saudi Centre for Evidence-Based Healthcare invited a panel of local experts and partnered them with a team from McMaster University in Canada for methodological support, to develop national clinical practice guidelines on the screening and treatment of precancerous lesions for cervical cancer. After the panel identified key clinical questions, the McMaster University working group updated existing systematic reviews that had been used for the 2013 WHO Guidelines for screening and treatment of precancerous lesions for cervical cancer prevention. Recommendations were based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. Those recommendations took into account the available evidence, patient values and preferences, and resource use in the Saudi context. The panel provided recommendations on two major issues: screening for precancerous lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 & 3) and treatment of those lesions to prevent cervical cancer in women who tested positive after screening. The Saudi expert panel recommends using the HPV DNA test followed by colposcopy or cytology (Pap test) followed by colposcopy to screen for CIN2+ in women at risk of cervical cancer. The panel recommends cryotherapy or loop excision electrosurgery procedure (LEEP) over cold knife cone biopsy to treat women at risk of cervical cancer that tests positive for CIN2+. Universal screening for precancerous cervical dysplasia in women in Saudi Arabia is recommended using HPV testing and or cytology. Either cryotherapy or LEEP are preferred for treatment. National

  19. [The expression and significance of CD(276) and CD(133) in colorectal cancer and precancerous lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, G F; Huang, L N; Ren, J L; Hu, G M; Zheng, Z H; Wu, J X; Zhu, Y P; Tang, F A

    2018-06-01

    In order to study the significance of CD(276) and CD(133) in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC), the expression of CD(276) and CD(133) was detected by immunohistochemistry in CRC and precancerous lesions. The results showed that the intensity of CD(276) and CD(133) in CRC samples was higher than that in adenoma group and non-adenoma group. CD(276) and CD(133) single and double positive expression were significantly correlated with CRC lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and survival. CD(276) and CD(133) are significantly correlated to the development and progression of CRC and associated with poor prognosis.

  20. Prognostic implication of the metastatic lesion-to-ovarian cancer standardised uptake value ratio in advanced serous epithelial ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hyun Hoon; Lee, Maria; Kim, Hee-Seung; Kim, Jae-Weon; Park, Noh-Hyun; Song, Yong Sang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Gi Jeong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    To evaluate the prognostic value of metabolic activity of metastatic lesions measured by {sup 18}F-flurodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) uptake on preoperative positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with advanced serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Clinico-pathological variables and PET/CT parameters such as the maximum standardised uptake value of the ovarian cancer (SUV{sub ovary}), metastatic lesions (SUV{sub meta}), and the metastatic lesion-to-ovarian cancer standardised uptake value ratio (SUV{sub meta}/SUV{sub ovary}) were assessed in International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage III, IV patients. Clinico-pathological data were retrospectively reviewed for 94 eligible patients. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 18.5 months (range, 6-90 months), and 57 (60.6%) patients experienced recurrence. Older age [P = 0.017, hazard ratio (HR) 1.036, 95% CI 1.006-1.066], residual disease after surgery (P = 0.024, HR 1.907, 95% CI 1.087-3.346), and high SUV{sub meta}/SUV{sub ovary} (P = 0.019, HR 2.321, 95% CI 1.148-4.692) were independent risk factors of recurrence. Patients with high SUV{sub meta}/SUV{sub ovary} showed a significantly worse PFS than those with low SUV{sub meta}/SUV{sub ovary} (P = 0.007, log-rank test). Preoperative SUV{sub meta}/SUV{sub ovary} was significantly associated with recurrence and has an incremental prognostic value for PFS in patients with advanced serous EOC. (orig.)

  1. Development of system technology for radiation cancer therapy with the dexterous auto lesions tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungho; Jeong, Kyungmin; Jung, Seungho; Lee, Namho

    2013-01-01

    The project objectives are to establish the fundamental core technologies for precise auto lesions tracking radiation cancer therapy and developing related system technology as well. Radiation cancer therapy apparatus should be domestically produced to reduce medical expenses, hence advanced technologies are suggested and developed to make cost down medical expenses and save expenditure for importing 10 million dollars/set from overseas. To achieve these targets, we have carried out reviewing of domestic and foreign technology trend. Based on review of state-of-the-art technology, radiation sensory system is studied. 3m high precise image processing technique and intelligent therapy planning software are developed. Also precedent study on the redundant robot for dexterous motion control system has been performed for developing of radiation cancel therapy robot system

  2. Role of endoscopic ultrasonography in evaluation of metastatic lesions to the pancreas: a tertiary cancer center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiq, Muslim; Bhutani, Manoop S; Ross, William A; Raju, Gottumukkala S; Gong, Yun; Tamm, Eric P; Javle, Milind; Wang, Xuemei; Lee, Jeffrey H

    2013-04-01

    Metastatic lesions to the pancreas pose diagnostic challenges with regards to their differentiation from primary pancreatic cancer. Data on the yield of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration in detection of these lesions are limited. This is a retrospective review of 23 patients referred to a tertiary referral center for further evaluation of suspected pancreatic metastases. Main outcome measures were diagnostic yield of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration in evaluation of metastatic lesions to the pancreas. Of 644 patients, 23 (3.6%) undergoing EUS of the pancreas were diagnosed to have metastatic disease to the pancreas based on clinical, radiological, and cytological results. Mean (SD) age was 64.3 (11.7) years. Of the 23 patients, 18 (78.3%) were asymptomatic. Mean (SD) size of lesion on EUS was 39.1 (19.9) mm. A diagnosis of malignant lesion was made in 21 of 23 cases, with a diagnostic accuracy of 91.3%. Metastatic lesions to the pancreas present as incidental, solitary mass lesions on staging or surveillance imaging. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration is an important tool in the characterization and further differentiation of metastatic lesions to the pancreas from primary pancreatic cancer.

  3. Indeterminate lesions on planar bone scintigraphy in lung cancer patients: SPECT, CT or SPECT-CT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Punit; Kumar, Rakesh; Singh, Harmandeep; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Malhotra, Arun; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Thulkar, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the role of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT) and SPECT-CT of selected volume in lung cancer patients with indeterminate lesions on planar bone scintigraphy (BS). The data of 50 lung cancer patients (53 ± 10.3 years; range 30-75; male/female 38/12) with 65 indeterminate lesions on planar BS (January 2010 to November 2010) were retrospectively evaluated. All of them underwent SPECT-CT of a selected volume. SPECT, CT and SPECT-CT images were independently evaluated by two experienced readers (experience in musculoskeletal imaging, including CT: 5 and 7 years) in separate sessions. A scoring scale of 1 to 5 was used, in which 1 is definitely metastatic, 2 is probably metastatic, 3 is indeterminate, 4 is probably benign and 5 is definitely benign. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for each modality, taking a score ≤2 as metastatic. With receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, areas under the curve (AUC) were calculated for each modality and compared. Clinical and imaging follow-up and/or histopathology were taken as reference standard. For both readers SPECT was inferior to CT (P = 0.004, P = 0.022) and SPECT-CT (P = 0.003, P = 0.037). However, no significant difference was found between CT and SPECT-CT for reader 1 (P = 0.847) and reader 2 (P = 0.592). The findings were similar for lytic as well as sclerotic lesions. Moderate inter-observer agreement was seen for SPECT images (κ = 0.426), while almost perfect agreement was seen for CT (κ = 0.834) and SPECT-CT (κ = 0.971). CT alone and SPECT-CT are better than SPECT for accurate characterisation of indeterminate lesions on planar BS in lung cancer patients. CT alone is not inferior to SPECT-CT for this purpose and might be preferred because of shorter acquisition time and wider availability. (orig.)

  4. [A case of transverse colon cancer without a recurrence lesion after five years from resection of hepatic metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ami, Katsunori; Nakamura, Masahiro; Takasaki, Jun; Watayou, Yoshihisa; Amagasa, Hidetoshi; Ganno, Hideaki; Kurokawa, Toshiaki; Fukuda, Akira; Nagahama, Takeshi; Ando, Masayuki; Tei, Shikofumi; Okada, Youichi; Arai, Kuniyoshi

    2011-11-01

    The treatment of hepatic metastasis of colon cancer was in progress by new biochemical agents. Generally, a resection was the first alternative treatment against hepatic metastasis of colon cancer, but new antitumor agents were more effective than conventional antitumor agents. Disappearance of metastasis for colon cancer treated with only antitumor agents was commenced to report. We were experienced a case of transverse colon cancer without a recurrence lesion after five years from the resection of hepatic metastasis. A case was a 77-year-old man. He was operated against transverse colon cancer in February 2003. Pathological stage was ss, n0, Stage II. In April 2004, serum CEA was increased. CT examination was not detected a hepatic metastasis but ultrasound examination and MRI detected the metastasis at S7 lesion in the liver. In July 2004, he was admitted to S-1 and PSK until October 2004. In December 2004, the lesion of hepatic metastasis was reduced and serum CEA was decreased. But in September 2005, the metastatic lesion was re-grown. A resection for hepatic metastasis was executed in November 2005. After the resection for hepatic metastasis, he was admitted to UFT/ UZEL from January 2006 to October 2006. Present time( June 2011), the lesion of recurrence was not detected by several examinations (CT, MRI, Ultrasound etc).

  5. HER-2, ER, PR status concordance in primary breast cancer and corresponding metastatic lesion in lymph node in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min Hua; Hou, Chuan Ling; Wang, Cheng; Sun, Ai Jing

    2016-04-01

    To compare the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) in the primary site and the metastatic lesion of lymph nodes in invasive breast cancer for investigating whether the expression of these biomarkers in the primary site could act as a surrogate to the lymphatic metastatic lesion in the same patient. In lymphatic metastatic lesion and corresponding primary lesion of 107 cases of invasive breast cancer, ER and PR statuses were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). HER-2 expression level was evaluated by IHC and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In the primary lesions, 43.9% were ER positive; 46.7% were PR positive; 34.6% were HER-2 positive. In corresponding lymphatic metastatic lesions, the HER-2 status was concordant in 90 patients; 9 patients were diagnosed positive in metastatic lesion while negative in primary lesion; 8 patients were negative in metastatic lesion while positive in primary site (agreement, 84.1%; κ=0.647). A change in ER status was observed in 24 cases: 17 cases positive in metastatic site while negative in primary site; 7 cases negative in metastatic site while positive in primary site (agreement, 77.6%; κ=0.534). PR status discordance between the primary lesion and the metastatic regional lymph nodes was reported in 19 cases (agreement, 82.2%; κ=0.640). This study revealed that there was only a moderate concordance of ER, PR and HER-2 status between primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes. These results indicate that it was inappropriate to predict the status of ER, PR and HER-2 in metastatic lymph nodes based on the results of evaluation of that in primary lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Is oral cancer incidence among patients with oral lichen planus/oral lichenoid lesions underestimated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Moles, M A; Gil-Montoya, J A; Ruiz-Avila, I; Bravo, M

    2017-02-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid lesions (OLL) are considered potentially malignant disorders with a cancer incidence of around 1% of cases, although this estimation is controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the cancer incidence in a case series of patients with OLP and OLL and to explore clinicopathological aspects that may cause underestimation of the cancer incidence in these diseases. A retrospective study was conducted of 102 patients diagnosed with OLP (n = 21, 20.58%) or OLL (n = 81) between January 2006 and January 2016. Patients were informed of the risk of malignization and followed up annually. The number of sessions programmed for each patient was compared with the number actually attended. Follow-up was classified as complete (100% attendance), good (75-99%), moderate (25-74%), or poor (<25% attendance) compliance. Cancer was developed by four patients (3.9%), three males and one male. One of these developed three carcinomas, which were diagnosed at the follow-up visit (two in lower gingiva, one in floor of mouth); one had OLL and the other three had OLP. The carcinoma developed in mucosal areas with no OLP or OLL involvement in three of these patients, while OLP and cancer were diagnosed simultaneously in the fourth. Of the six carcinomas diagnosed, five (83.3%) were T1 and one (16.7%) T2. None were N+, and all patients remain alive and disease-free. The cancer incidence in OLP and OLL appears to be underestimated due to the strict exclusion criteria usually imposed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Descriptive data on cancerous lung lesions detected by auto-fluorescence bronchoscope: A five-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmitananda Thakur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Auto-fluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB has been used for the identification and localization of intra-epithelial pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions within the bronchus. Objectives: To determine the applicability of AFB for the detection and localization of precancerous and cancerous lesions, in addition to analyzing the morphologic presentation, their association to histological type and the variation between genders. Methods: A five-year study involving 4983 patients, who underwent routine bronchoscopy [B] examination in a local tertiary teaching hospital, was done. The B examination was performed under intratracheal lidocaine, and samples were obtained using suitable approach. One thousand four hundred and eighty-five pathologically confirmed lung cancer patients were included in the study. The following parameters were studied: Morphological presentation, biopsy sites, histology. Differences between the groups were analyzed using Chi square test. Result: One thousand four hundred and eighty-five patients who had hyperplasia or neoplastic lesions were further confirmed as lung cancer pathologically. Lung cancer was more commonly found in the right lung (51.58% vs. 42.82%. The lesion occurred more frequently in the upper lobe than the lower lobe (44.17% vs. 22.42%. Male patients with squamous cell carcinoma showed upper lobe involvement more commonly, while the left main bronchus was more commonly involved in female patients. Adenocarcinoma mostly involved lesion of the upper lobe. Squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma were the major proliferative types (80.15% and 76.16% respectively. Conclusion: AFB is efficient in the detection of pre-invasive and invasive lung lesions. The morphological presentation is associated to the histological type. There is variation in the presentation and histology of cancerous lung lesions between genders.

  8. Therapeutic immunization strategies against cervical cancer : induction of cell-mediated immunity in murine models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bungener, Laura Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study described in this thesis is the development of a therapeutic immunization strategy against cervical cancer and pre-malignant precursor lesions of cervical cancer (CIN lesions). Cervical cancer is caused by high risk human papillomavirus (HPV). Two of the early proteins of high

  9. Moderate Physical Activity Mediates the Association between White Matter Lesion Volume and Memory Recall in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian E Cooke

    Full Text Available Increased survival rates among breast cancer patients have drawn significant attention to consequences of both the presence of cancer, and the subsequent treatment-related impact on the brain. The incidence of breast cancer and the effects of treatment often result in alterations in the microstructure of white matter and impaired cognitive functioning. However, physical activity is proving to be a successful modifiable lifestyle factor in many studies that could prove beneficial to breast cancer survivors. This study investigates the link between white matter lesion volume, moderate physical activity, and cognition in breast cancer survivors following treatment compared to non-cancer age-matched controls. Results revealed that brain structure significantly predicted cognitive function via mediation of physical activity in breast cancer survivors. Overall, the study provided preliminary evidence suggesting moderate physical activity may help reduce the treatment related risks associated with breast cancer, including changes to WM integrity and cognitive impairment.

  10. Prospects in the Application of Photodynamic Therapy in Oral Cancer and Premalignant Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Rajan; Lee, Nathan V.; Liu, Kelly Y. P.; Poh, Catherine F.

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is a global health burden with significantly poor survival, especially when the diagnosis is at its late stage. Despite advances in current treatment modalities, there has been minimal improvement in survival rates over the last five decades. The development of local recurrence, regional failure, and the formation of second primary tumors accounts for this poor outcome. For survivors, cosmetic and functional compromises resulting from treatment are often devastating. These statistics underscore the need for novel approaches in the management of this deadly disease. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality that involves administration of a light-sensitive drug, known as a photosensitizer, followed by light irradiation of an appropriate wavelength that corresponds to an absorbance band of the sensitizer. In the presence of tissue oxygen, cytotoxic free radicals that are produced cause direct tumor cell death, damage to the microvasculature, and induction of inflammatory reactions at the target sites. PDT offers a prospective new approach in controlling this disease at its various stages either as a stand-alone therapy for early lesions or as an adjuvant therapy for advanced cases. In this review, we aim to explore the applications of PDT in oral cancer therapy and to present an overview of the recent advances in PDT that can potentially reposition its utility for oral cancer treatment. PMID:27598202

  11. The correlation between the ultrasonic elastic strain ratio of thyroid cancer and the malignant biological characteristics of cancer cells in the lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Li Ma; Rong Zhou; Yun-Zhu Li

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between the ultrasonic elastic strain ratio of thyroid cancer and the malignant biological characteristics of cancer cells in the lesions. Methods: A total of 90 patients with thyroid cancer who accepted surgical treatment in our hospital between March 2015 and September 2016 were selected as the observation group, and 50 patients who received surgery in our hospital during the same period and were with clear pathological diagnosis of thyroid...

  12. The role of positron emission tomography in the detection of incidental gastrointestinal tract lesions in patients examined for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Kazutoshi; Hata, Yoshinobu; Sakaguchi, Shinji; Takai, Yujiro; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Takagi, Keigo; Homma, Sakae

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinical characteristics of lung cancer patients with abnormal accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract by fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET). Of the 968 consecutive patients with primary lung cancer who underwent PET from October 2005 through September 2009, 26 patients had local abnormal accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract. We retrospectively compared the localization of abnormal accumulation in the gastrointestinal tract, standardized uptake value (SUV)max (1 hour), and the final clinical diagnosis. The site of abnormal accumulation was the esophagus in 1 case, the stomach in 8 and the small intestine to large intestine in 17. In 15 out of 26 (57%) cases with true PET positive results, there was esophageal cancer in 1 case, gastric cancer in 2, gastrointestinal stromal tumor in 1, colon cancer in 8, and 1 each of metastasis to the stomach, small intestine and large intestine from lung cancer. In 11 cases with false PET-positive results, there was a stomach polyp in 1 case, gastritis in 3, colon polyp in 1, diverticulitis in 1 and normal physiologic accumulation in 5. There were no differences in mean SUVmax among malignant lesions, benign lesions, and normal physiologic accumulation. We should perform endoscopy of the digestive tract to detect malignant lesions with high incidence rates when PET shows localalized abnormal accumulation in the gastrointestinal, tract in patients with lung cancer. (author)

  13. The prognostic effect of subpleural lesions in early stage non-small cell lung cancer: preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Jun; Lee, Hyung Sik; Hur, Won Joo; Lee, Ki Nam; Choi, Pill Jo

    1998-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the impact of subpleural lesions of early stage non-small cell lung cancer on the patterns of failure to support selection of postoperative adjuvant therapy. The study included 91 patients who underwent surgery for early stage non-small cell lung cancer at Donga University hospital from Dec 1990 to Sep 1996. Twenty five patients were excluded due to postoperative mortality (four patients, 4.4%) and stage III (21 patients). Of 66 patients, 22 patients were subpleural lesions (15 patients in stage I, and seven patients in stage II). Postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy was given to seven patients with T2N1 disease. The median follow-up duration was 29.5 months (range; 8-84 months). The overall survival rate was 69.5% at 3 years. For all patients who presented with (22 patients) and without (44 patients) subpleural lesions, 3-year overall survival rates were 35.5% and 84.6%, respectively (p=0.0017). For stage I patients who presented with (15 patients) and without (29 patients) subpleural lesions, 3-year overall survival rates were 33.1% and 92.3%, respectively (p=0.001). For stage II patients who presented with (7 patients) and without (15 patients) subpleural lesions, 3-year overall survival rates were 53.3% and 45.7%, respectively (p=0.911). For patients with T2NO disease (34 patients) who presented with (11 patients) and without (23 patients) subpleural lesions, 3-year overall survival rates were 27.3% and 90.3%,respectively (p=0.009).These observations suggest that the subpleural lesion play an important role as a prognostic factor for early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Especially for T2NO disease, patients with subpleural lesions showed significantly lower survival rate than those without that

  14. Prevalence of pre-cancerous lesions and cervical cancer in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To describe the age-specific prevalence rates of cancer of the cervix in South African women presenting for screening. Design. A multicentre prevalence survey in 10 geographically defined areas following a common core protocol. Services were located in existing service sites, with the exception of ...

  15. Aggressiveness Niche: Can It Be the Foster Ground for Cancer Metastasis Precursors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael M. ElShamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between tumor initiation and tumor progression can follow a linear projection in which all tumor cells are equally endowed with the ability to progress into metastasis. Alternatively, not all tumor cells are equal genetically and/or epigenetically, and only few cells are induced to become metastatic tumor cells. The location of these cells within the tumor can also impact the fate of these cells. The most inner core of a tumor where an elevated pressure of adverse conditions forms, such as necrosis-induced inflammation and hypoxia-induced immunosuppressive environment, seems to be the most fertile ground to generate such tumor cells with metastatic potential. Here we will call this necrotic/hypoxic core the “aggressiveness niche” and will present data to support its involvement in generating these metastatic precursors. Within this niche, interaction of hypoxia-surviving cells with the inflammatory microenvironment influenced by newly recruited mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs, and other types of cells and the establishment of bidirectional interactions between them elevate the aggressiveness of these tumor cells. Additionally, immune evasion properties induced in these cells most likely contribute in the formation and maintenance of such aggressiveness niche.

  16. Large Population-Based Study Reveals Disparities in Myeloma Precursor Disease | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a cancer of plasma cells, which are antibody-producing white blood cells. Patients with MM have a characteristic excess of monoclonal antibodies, so called M proteins, in their serum, urine, or both and plasma cell infiltration into their bone marrow at multiple sites. African Americans are more than twice as likely as whites to develop MM, but the reason for this higher prevalence is not entirely clear. Since MM is nearly always preceded by the premalignant condition monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), Ola Landgren, M.D., Ph.D., a Senior Investigator in CCR’s Lymphoid Malignancies Branch, and colleagues from NCI’s Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, the Mayo Clinic, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), wanted to determine whether there were also disparities in MGUS prevalence or in biomarkers associated with a high risk of MGUS progression to MM.

  17. Predicting risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer and premalignant skin lesions in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwin, Helen R; Jones, Peter W; Harden, Paul N; Ramsay, Helen M; Hawley, Carmel M; Nicol, David L; Fryer, Anthony A

    2009-06-15

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and associated premalignant lesions represent a major complication after transplantation, particularly in areas with high ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. The American Society of Transplantation has proposed annual NMSC screening for all renal transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to develop a predictive index (PI) that could be used in targeted screening. Data on patient demographics, UVR exposure, and other clinical parameters were collected on 398 adult recipients recruited from the Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane. Structured interview, skin examination, biopsy of lesions, and review of medical/pathologic records were performed. Time to presentation with the first NMSC was assessed using Cox's regression models and Kaplan-Meier estimates used to assess detection of NMSC during screening. Stepwise selection identified age, outdoor UVR exposure, living in a hot climate, pretransplant NMSC, childhood sunburning, and skin type as predictors. The PI generated was used to allocate patients into three screening groups (6 months, 2 years, and 5 years). The survival curves of these groups were significantly different (PPI to enable development of targeted NMSC surveillance strategies.

  18. The relevance of piroxicam for the prevention and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer and its precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Elena; Paternò, Evelin Jasmine; Candi, Eleonora; Falconi, Mattia; Costanza, Gaetana; Diluvio, Laura; Terrinoni, Alessandro; Bianchi, Luca; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Piroxicam (PXM), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is an enolic benzothiazine and a potent member of the oxicam series. The drug suppresses the synthesis of proinflammatory enzymes, such as cyclo-oxygenases-1 and -2 (COX-1 and 2), downregulates the production of prostaglandins (PGs) and tromboxanes, and inhibits polyamines production by blocking ornithine decarboxylase induction involved in nonmelanoma skin carcinogenesis. In addition, PXM is able to induce tumor cell apoptosis and suppresses metalloproteinase 2 activities. Skin carcinogenesis is a multistep process in which the accumulation of genetic events leads to a gradually dysplastic cellular expression, deregulation of cell growth, and carcinomatous progression. COX-1 upregulation plays a significant role in PG and vascular epidermal growth factor production supporting tumor growth. Increased level of PGs in premalignant and/or malignant cutaneous tumors is also favored by upregulation of COX-2 and downregulation of the tumor suppressor gene 15-hydroxy-prostaglandin dehydrogenase. Chemoprevention can be a hopeful approach to inhibit carcinoma occurrence before an invasive tumor develops. The chemopreventive effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on nonmelanoma skin cancers has been established. In this study, we highlighted the different modalities of action of PXM on the pathogenesis of nonmelanoma skin cancer, analyzing and evaluating binding modes and energies between COX-1 or COX-2 and PXM by protein-ligand molecular docking. Our clinical experience about the local use of PXM on actinic keratoses and field cancerization is also reported, confirming its efficacy as target therapy.

  19. Differentiation of prostate cancer lesions in the Transition Zone by diffusion-weighted MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Bao

    Full Text Available Objective: To differentiate prostate cancer lesions in transition zone by diffusion-weighted-MRI (DW-MRI. Methods: Data from a total of 63 patients who underwent preoperative DWI (b of 0–1000 s/mm2 were prospectively collected and processed by a monoexponential (DWI model and compared with a biexponential (IVIM model for quantitation of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs, perfusion fraction f, diffusivity D and pseudo-diffusivity D*. Histogram analyses were performed by outlining entire-tumor regions of interest (ROIs. These parameters (separately and combined in a logistic regression model were used to differentiate lesions depending on histopathological analysis of Magnetic Resonance/transrectal Ultrasound (MR/TRUS fusion-guided biopsy. The diagnostic ability of differentiate the PCa from BHP in TZ was analyzed by ROC regression. Histogram analysis of quantitative parameters and Gleason score were assessed with Spearman correlation. Results: Thirty (30 foci cases of PCa in PZ and 33 (36 foci cases of BPH were confirmed by pathology. Mean ADC, median ADC, 10th percentile ADC, 90th percentile ADC, kurtosis and skewness of ADC and mean D values, median D and 90th percentile D differed significantly between PCa and BHP in TZ. The highest classification accuracy was achieved by the mean ADC (0.841 and mean D (0.809. A logistic regression model based on mean ADC and mean D led to an AUC of 0.873, however, the difference is not significant. There were 7 Gleason 6 areas, 9 Gleason 7 areas, 8 Gleason 8 areas, 5 Gleason 9 areas and 2 Gleason 10 areas detected from the 31 prostate cancer areas, the mean Gleason value was(7.5 ± 1.2. The mean ADC and mean D had correlation with Gleason score(r = −0.522 and r = −0.407 respectively, P < 0.05. Conclusion: The diagnosis efficiency of IVIM parameters was not superior to ADC in the diagnosis of PCa in TZ. Moreover, the combination of mean ADC and mean D did not

  20. CyberKnife robotic image-guided stereotactic radiotherapy for oligometastic cancer. A prospective evaluation of 95 patients/118 lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jereczek-Fossa, B.A.; Bossi-Zanetti, I.; Mauro, R. [European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Milan Univ. (Italy); Beltramo, G.; Bianchi, L.C. [CyberKnife Center CDI, Milan (Italy); Fariselli, L. [Carlo Besta Neurological Institute Foundation, Milan (Italy). Radiotherapy Unit; Fodor, C. [European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Fossati, P.; Orecchia, R. [European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Radiotherapy; National Center for Oncological Hadrontherapy (CNAO) Foundation, Pavia, Milan (Italy); Milan Univ. (Italy); Baroni, G. [National Center for Oncological Hadrontherapy (CNAO) Foundation, Pavia, Milan (Italy); Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dept. of Bioengineering

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of robotic CyberKnife (Accuray Inc. Sunnyvale, USA)-based stereotactic radiotherapy (CBK-SRT) for oligometastic cancer patients. Patients and methods: Between May 2007 and December 2009, 95 patients with a total of 118 lesions underwent CBK-SRT (median dose 24 Gy in 3 fractions). Inclusion criteria: adult patients with limited volume cancer; suitability for SRT but not for other local therapies. Primary diagnoses included breast, lung, head and neck, gastrointestinal and other malignancies. Prostate cancer patients were excluded. Concomitant systemic therapy was given in 40 % of cases and median follow-up was 12 months. Toxicity and tumor response were evaluated using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC) Scale and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors RECIST. Results: Toxicity was rare and observed mainly in patients with comorbidities or uncontrolled cancer. Out of 87 evaluable lesions, complete radiological response, partial response, stabilization and progressive disease were observed in 15 (17 %), 25 (29 %), 34 (39 %) and 13 (15 %) lesions, respectively. Upon restricting the analysis to lesions treated with CBK-SRT alone (no concomitant therapy), response- and local control (LC) rates remained similar. Actuarial 3-year in-field progression-free survival- (i.e. LC), progression-free survival- (PFS) and overall-survival (OS) rates were 67.6, 18.4, and 31.2 %, respectively. LC was reduced in cases of early recurrence. OS- and cause-specific survival (CSS) rates were significantly lower in patients treated for visceral lesions. Failures were predominantly out-field. Conclusion: CBK-SRT is a feasible therapeutic approach for oligometastastic cancer patients that provides long-term in-field tumor control with a low toxicity profile. Further investigations should focus on dose escalation and optimization of the combination with systemic therapies. (orig.)

  1. [Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis on the association between consumption of fried food and both esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L W; Liu, S Z; Zhang, M; Chen, Q; Zhang, S K; Sun, X B

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To investigate the effect of fried food intake on the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions. Methods: From 2005 to 2013, all the residents aged 40-69 years from 11 counties (cities) where cancer screening of upper gastrointestinal cancer had been conducted in rural areas of Henan province, were recruited as the subjects of study. Information on demography and lifestyle was collected. The residents under study were screened with iodine staining endoscopic examination and biopsy samples were diagnosed pathologically, under standardized criteria. Subjects with high risk were divided into the groups based on their different pathological degrees. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the frequency of fried food intake and esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions. Results: A total number of 8 792 cases with normal esophagus, 3 680 with mild hyperplasia, 972 with moderate hyperplasia, 413 with severe hyperplasia carcinoma in situ, and 336 cases of esophageal cancer were recruited. Results from multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, when compared with those who did not eat fried food, the intake of fried food (food appeared a risk factor for both esophageal cancer and precancerous lesions.

  2. Radiation therapy for metastatic lesions from breast cancer. Breast cancer metastasis to bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Shinya; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes radiation therapy in the treatment of bone metastases from breast cancer. Bone metastasis occurs in approximately 70% of breast cancer patients, and the goals of radiation therapy for bone metastasis are: palliation of pain, prevention and treatment of neuropathic symptoms, and prevention of pathologic fractures. The prognosis of bone metastasis from breast cancer is known to be better than that of bone metastasis from other solid tumors. Local-field radiation, hemibody (or wide-field) radiation, and systemic radionuclide treatment are the major methods of radiation therapy for pain palliation. Although many studies have shown that breast cancer is more responsive to radiation therapy for pain palliation than other solid tumors, some studies found no significant difference. Local-field radiation therapy, which includes multi-fraction irradiation and single-fraction irradiation, is currently the most generally used method of radiotherapy for pain palliation. Pain palliation has been reported to be achieved in approximately 80% to 90% of patients treated with local-field external beam irradiation. Three types of multi-fraction irradiation therapy are administered depending on the prognosis: high-dose fraction irradiation (36-50 Gy/12-25 Fr/2.4-5 wk), short-course irradiation (20-30 Gy/10-15 Fr/2-3 wk), and ultra-short-course irradiation (15-25 Gy/2-5 Fr/1 wk). The most common irradiation schedule is 30 Gy/10 Fr/2 wk. Although many reports indicate no significant difference in pain palliation according to the dose, the percentage of patients who show a complete cure is significantly higher in those treated with doses of 30 Gy or more, and thus the total irradiation dose should be at least 30 Gy. High-dose fraction irradiation is indicated for patients with an expected survival time of 6 months or more while short-course or single-fraction irradiation is indicated for those with an expected survival time of 3 months or more. Single

  3. Human Papilloma Virus 16 and 18 Association in Cervical Intraepithelial Lesions and Cervical Cancers by In Situ Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty Manisa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To correlate the association of high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV 16, 18 in cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancers by in-situ hybridization (ISH technique. Study Group: Cervical biopsy and hysterectomy specimen of 78 young and adult women, attending Hi-Tech Medical College and Hospital, Bhubaneswar, who were clinically or cytologically suspected of cervical intraepithelial lesion or cervical cancer were taken as source of target viral DNA. Material: Formalin 10% as fixative H & E stain as routine staining agent In-situ hybridization kit for HPV 16 and 18 DNA. Method: After following standard protocol for surgical grossing, HPV 16, 18 In-situ hybridization kit was used on paraffin embedded tissue sections. Results: The percentage of positive cases was highest in cervical cancer patients followed by cervical intraepithelial lesions, high grade, and low grade. Conclusion: This study has been carried out for the first in our state and our results show high degree of positivity of HPV 16/18 in females with cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancers attending our tertiary care hospital.

  4. Radiation therapy for metastatic lesions from breast cancer. Breast cancer metastasis to bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Shinya; Hoshi, Hiroaki [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    This paper summarizes radiation therapy in the treatment of bone metastases from breast cancer. Bone metastasis occurs in approximately 70% of breast cancer patients, and the goals of radiation therapy for bone metastasis are: palliation of pain, prevention and treatment of neuropathic symptoms, and prevention of pathologic fractures. The prognosis of bone metastasis from breast cancer is known to be better than that of bone metastasis from other solid tumors. Local-field radiation, hemibody (or wide-field) radiation, and systemic radionuclide treatment are the major methods of radiation therapy for pain palliation. Although many studies have shown that breast cancer is more responsive to radiation therapy for pain palliation than other solid tumors, some studies found no significant difference. Local-field radiation therapy, which includes multi-fraction irradiation and single-fraction irradiation, is currently the most generally used method of radiotherapy for pain palliation. Pain palliation has been reported to be achieved in approximately 80% to 90% of patients treated with local-field external beam irradiation. Three types of multi-fraction irradiation therapy are administered depending on the prognosis: high-dose fraction irradiation (36-50 Gy/12-25 Fr/2.4-5 wk), short-course irradiation (20-30 Gy/10-15 Fr/2-3 wk), and ultra-short-course irradiation (15-25 Gy/2-5 Fr/1 wk). The most common irradiation schedule is 30 Gy/10 Fr/2 wk. Although many reports indicate no significant difference in pain palliation according to the dose, the percentage of patients who show a complete cure is significantly higher in those treated with doses of 30 Gy or more, and thus the total irradiation dose should be at least 30 Gy. High-dose fraction irradiation is indicated for patients with an expected survival time of 6 months or more while short-course or single-fraction irradiation is indicated for those with an expected survival time of 3 months or more. Single

  5. Human papilloma virus--role in precancerous and cancerous oral lesions of tobacco chewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zil-A-Rubab; Baig, Saeeda; Siddiqui, Ayesha; Nayeem, Amena; Salman, Mohammad; Qidwai, Moiz Ahmed; Mallick, Raiya; Qidwai, Samrah

    2013-10-01

    Human papilloma viruses (HPV), members of the papillomaviridae family, infects squamous epithelial cells of cevix, lower genitalia, and oral cavity. The association of HPV with oropharyngeal carcinogenesis is well documented.The incidence of oral cancer ranks second in Karachi South in both genders according to World Health Organization (WHO) statistics. This is attributed to the popularity of chewable tobacco products among the general population. Studies on Gutka-eaters in a set population of Karachi showed high frequency of HPV (17%) and high prevalence of HPV in squamous cell carcinoma in Pakistani patients (68%). The exposure of oral mucosa to chewable tobacco causes abrasions making it susceptible to HPV. This review strives to summarise the role of HPV in chewable tobacco-related precancerous and cancerous lesions. The literature of about a decade was retrieved from Google and pubMed with the under mentioned key words. It was found that the use of chewable tobacco products, especially Gutka, may increase the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

  6. The relevance of piroxicam for the prevention and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer and its precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campione E

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Elena Campione,1 Evelin Jasmine Paternò,2 Eleonora Candi,3,4 Mattia Falconi,5 Gaetana Costanza,2 Laura Diluvio,1 Alessandro Terrinoni,4 Luca Bianchi,1 Augusto Orlandi2,6,7 1Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, 3Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 4Biochemistry Laboratory IDI-IRCCS, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 5Department of Biology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 6Institute of Anatomic Pathology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, 7Tor Vergata University-Policlinic of Rome, Rome, Italy Abstract: Piroxicam (PXM, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is an enolic benzothiazine and a potent member of the oxicam series. The drug suppresses the synthesis of proinflammatory enzymes, such as cyclooxygenases-1 and -2 (COX-1 and 2, downregulates the production of prostaglandins (PGs and tromboxanes, and inhibits polyamines production by blocking ornithine decarboxylase induction involved in nonmelanoma skin carcinogenesis. In addition, PXM is able to induce tumor cell apoptosis and suppresses metalloproteinase 2 activities. Skin carcinogenesis is a multistep process in which the accumulation of genetic events leads to a gradually dysplastic cellular expression, deregulation of cell growth, and carcinomatous progression. COX-1 upregulation plays a significant role in PG and vascular epidermal growth factor production supporting tumor growth. Increased level of PGs in premalignant and/or malignant cutaneous tumors is also favored by upregulation of COX-2 and downregulation of the tumor suppressor gene 15-hydroxy-prostaglandin dehydrogenase. Chemoprevention can be a hopeful approach to inhibit carcinoma occurrence before an invasive tumor develops. The chemopreventive effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on nonmelanoma skin cancers has been established. In this study, we highlighted the different modalities of action

  7. Management of Preinvasive Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrono, Maria G; Corzo, Camila; Iniesta, Maria; Ramirez, Pedro T

    2017-12-01

    Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma is considered the precursor lesion of high-grade serous carcinoma, and found in both low-risk and high-risk populations. Isolated serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas in patients with BRCA1/2 mutations are detected in ∼2% of patients undergoing risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and even with removal of the tubes and ovaries the rate of developing primary peritoneal carcinoma following remains up to 7.5%. Postoperative recommendations after finding incidental STICs remain unclear and surgical staging, adjuvant chemotherapy, or observation have been proposed. Discovery of STIC should prompt consideration of hereditary cancer program referral for BRCA1/2 mutation screening.

  8. Mucosal Proliferations in Completely Examined Fallopian Tubes Accompanying Ovarian Low-grade Serous Tumors: Neoplastic Precursor Lesions or Normal Variants of Benign Mucosa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsky, Rebecca J; Price, Matt A; Zaloudek, Charles J; Rabban, Joseph T

    2018-05-01

    Malignant transformation of the fallopian tube mucosa, followed by exfoliation of malignant cells onto ovarian and/or peritoneal surfaces, has been implicated as the origin of most pelvic high-grade serous carcinoma. Whether a parallel pathway exists for pelvic low-grade serous tumors [ovarian serous borderline tumor (SBT) and low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC)] remains to be fully elucidated. The literature is challenging to interpret due to variation in the diagnostic criteria and terminology for cytologically low-grade proliferations of the fallopian tube mucosa, as well as variation in fallopian tube specimen sampling. Recently, a candidate fallopian tube precursor to ovarian SBT, so-called papillary tubal hyperplasia, was described in advanced stage patients. The current study was designed to identify fallopian tube mucosal proliferations unique to patients with low-grade serous ovarian tumors (serous cystadenoma, SBT, LGSC) and to determine if they may represent precursors to the ovarian tumors. Fallopian tubes were thinly sliced and entirely examined microscopically, including all of the fimbriated and nonfimbriated portions of the tubes, from patients with ovarian serous cystadenoma (35), SBT (61), and LGSC (11) and from a control population of patients with ovarian mucinous cystadenoma (28), mature cystic teratoma (18) or uterine leiomyoma (14). The slides of the fallopian tubes were examined in randomized order, without knowledge of the clinical history or findings in the ovaries or other organs. Alterations of the mucosa of the fallopian tube were classified as type 1: nonpapillary proliferation of cytologically bland tubal epithelium exhibiting crowding, stratification, and/or tufting without papillary fibrovascular cores or as type 2: papillary alterations consisting of a fibrovascular core lined by a cytologically bland layer of tubal epithelium. A third abnormality, type 3, consisted of detached intraluminal papillae, buds, or nests of epithelium that

  9. Investigating the cognitive precursors of emotional response to cancer stress: re-testing Lazarus's transactional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert-Williams, N J; Morrison, V; Wilkinson, C; Neal, R D

    2013-02-01

    Lazarus's Transactional Model of stress and coping underwent significant theoretical development through the 1990s to better incorporate emotional reactions to stress with their appraisal components. Few studies have robustly explored the full model. This study aimed to do so within the context of a major life event: cancer diagnosis. A repeated measures design was used whereby data were collected using self-report questionnaire at baseline (soon after diagnosis), and 3- and 6-month follow-up. A total of 160 recently diagnosed cancer patients were recruited (mean time since diagnosis = 46 days). Their mean age was 64.2 years. Data on appraisals, core-relational themes, and emotions were collected. Data were analysed using both Spearman's correlation tests and multivariate regression modelling. Longitudinal analysis demonstrated weak correlation between change scores of theoretically associated components and some emotions correlated more strongly with cognitions contradicting theoretical expectations. Cross-sectional multivariate testing of the ability of cognitions to explain variance in emotion was largely theory inconsistent. Although data support the generic structure of the Transactional Model, they question the model specifics. Larger scale research is needed encompassing a wider range of emotions and using more complex statistical testing. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ON THIS SUBJECT?: • Stress processes are transactional and coping outcome is informed by both cognitive appraisal of the stressor and the individual's emotional response (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). • Lazarus (1999) made specific hypotheses about which particular stress appraisals would determine which emotional response, but only a small number of these relationships have been robustly investigated. • Previous empirical testing of this theory has been limited by design and statistical limitations. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD?: • This study empirically investigates the cognitive precedents of a

  10. Immunohistochemical staining of precursor forms of prostate-specific antigen (proPSA) in metastatic prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parwani, Anil V; Marlow, Cameron; Demarzo, Angelo M; Mikolajczyk, Stephen D; Rittenhouse, Harry G; Veltri, Robert W; Chan, Theresa Y

    2006-10-01

    Precursors of prostate-specific antigen (proPSA) have been previously shown to be more concentrated in prostate cancer tissue. This study characterizes the immunohistochemical staining (IHS) of proPSA forms in metastatic prostate cancer compared with prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP). A tissue microarray, consisting of 74 cases of metastatic prostate carcinoma and control tissues, was used. IHS, using monoclonal antibodies against proPSA with a truncated proleader peptide containing 2 amino acids ([-2]pPSA), native ([-5/-7]pPSA), PSA, and PAP, was analyzed. The monoclonal antibodies were specific for both benign and malignant prostatic glandular tissue. IHS with [-5/-7]pPSA showed the least number of cases with negative staining (3%), and the most number of cases with moderate or strong staining (76%). In the 60 cases where all 4 stains could be evaluated, none of them were negative for proPSA and positive for PSA or PAP, and all 7 cases that were negative for both PSA and PAP showed IHS to proPSA. [-5/-7]pPSA (native proPSA) may be a better marker than PSA and PAP in characterizing metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma, with most of the cases showing positivity for the marker. Even cases that were negative for PSA and PAP, were reactive for proPSA. Such enhanced detection is particularly important in poorly differentiated carcinomas involving metastatic sites where prostate carcinoma is a consideration. A panel of markers, including proPSA, should be performed when metastatic prostate carcinoma is in the differential diagnosis.

  11. Fertility-sparing treatment of endometrial cancer precursors among young women: a reproductive point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, E; Maniglio, P; Frega, A; Marci, R; Caserta, D; Moscarini, M

    2012-12-01

    Early-stage endometrial cancer and complex atypical hyperplasia are treated with hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. An emerging issue among younger women affected is the possibility of a fertility-sparing treatment with progestative therapy and close follow-up. To assess the possibility of conceiving after a diagnosis of atypical endometrial hyperplasia among women younger than 40 years old, in term of delaying definitive treatment and achieving pregnancy. 15 women younger than 40 years old with complex CAH or early carcinoma of the endometrium and a wish to preserve fertility. Progestins were administered orally for at least a 12 weeks period. Endometrial biopsies were used at follow-up. In 11 women, a complete pathological remission of the disease was observed. 4 pregnancies were attained in 4 women. 3 showed progression and underwent definitive surgery at 18 months. 1 showed no response at 24 months and 3 cycles and was counseled to receive a hysterectomy. A conservative approach in patients younger than 40 years appears a valid option, and a progestative therapy trial should be attempted whether a valid consensus is attained. Considering the risk to find AEH at biopsies and eventually a carcinoma at hysterectomy (25% of cases) a careful management is strictly required.

  12. Epithelial expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer/CD147 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in neoplasms and precursor lesions derived from cutaneous squamous cells: An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayva, Sebnem Kupana; Karabulut, Ayse Anil; Akatli, Ayşe Nur; Atasoy, Pinar; Bozdogan, Onder

    2013-10-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (CD147) is a transmembrane glycoprotein involved in the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The study investigated CD147 and MMP-2 expression in epidermis of cutaneous squamous lesions. CD147 and MMP-2 expressions were evaluated immunohistochemically in 44 specimens: 18 actinic keratoses (AK), 6 squamous cell carcinomas in situ (SCCIS), 13 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC; peritumoral and invasive portions assessed), and 7 normal skins. Patterns of expression were assessed, with MMP-2 in nuclei (MMP-2n) and cytoplasm (MMP-2c) evaluated separately. The expression of each marker was quantified using a calculated immunohistochemical/histologic score (H-score). Correlations were analyzed for the marker H-scores in each study group. Associations between H-scores and histopathologic parameters were also evaluated. CD147 H-score was the highest in SCC (invasive islands), followed by AK, SCCIS, and control specimens, respectively. MMP-2n and MMP-2c H-scores were the highest in AK, followed by SCCIS, SCC, and control specimens, respectively. MMP-2c and MMP-2n H-scores were significantly higher in peritumoral epidermis than in invasive islands of SCC. MMP-2c and CD147 H-scores were positively correlated in the peritumoral SCCs. CD147 H-score was positively correlated with tumor differentiation in SCC. The findings suggest that overexpression of CD147 plays a role in the development of SCC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Total lesion glycolysis (TLG) as an imaging biomarker in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with regorafenib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yoojoo; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Bang, Ji-In; Paeng, Jin Chul; Han, Sae-Won; Kim, Jee Hyun; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo; Kim, Tae-You

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate whether fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) could predict treatment outcome of regorafenib in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Previously treated refractory mCRC patients were enrolled into a prospective biomarker study of regorafenib. For this sub-study, the results of FDG PET/CT scans at baseline and after two cycles of treatment were analyzed. Various metabolic parameters obtained from PET images were analyzed in relation to treatment outcome. A total of 40 patients were evaluable for PET image analysis. Among various PET parameters, total lesion glycolysis (TLG) measured in the same target lesions for RECIST 1.1 analysis were the most significant in predicting prognosis, with the lowest p-value observed in TLG calculated using the margin threshold of 40 % (TLG 40 % ). Further analysis using TLG 40 % showed significantly longer overall survival (OS) in patients with lower baseline TLG 40 % (<151.8) (p = 0.003, median 14.2 vs. 9.1 months in <151.8 and ≥151.8, respectively). Patients showing higher decrease in TLG 40 % after treatment showed significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.001, median 8.0 vs. 2.4 months in % ΔTLG 40 % < -9.6 % and ≥ -9.6 %, respectively) and OS (p = 0.002, median 16.4 vs. 9.1 months in % ΔTLG 40 % < -9.6 % and ≥ -9.6 %, respectively). The same cutoff could discriminate patients with longer survival among the patients who were under the stable disease category according to RECIST 1.1 (median PFS 8.4 vs. 6.8 months, p = 0.020; median OS 18.3 vs. 11.5 months, p = 0.049). Measurement of TLG can predict treatment outcome of regorafenib in mCRC. (orig.)

  14. Intratumoral conversion of adrenal androgen precursors drives androgen receptor-activated cell growth in prostate cancer more potently than de novo steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Jinpei; Hofland, Johannes; Erkens-Schulze, Sigrun; Dits, Natasja F J; Steenbergen, Jacobie; Jenster, Guido; Homma, Yukio; de Jong, Frank H; van Weerden, Wytske M

    2013-11-01

    Despite an initial response to hormonal therapy, patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC) almost always progress to castration-resistant disease (CRPC). Although serum testosterone (T) is reduced by androgen deprivation therapy, intratumoral T levels in CRPC are comparable to those in prostate tissue of eugonadal men. These levels could originate from intratumoral conversion of adrenal androgens and/or from de novo steroid synthesis. However, the relative contribution of de novo steroidogenesis to AR-driven cell growth is unknown. The relative contribution of androgen biosynthetic pathways to activate androgen receptor (AR)-regulated cell growth and expression of PSA, FKBP5, and TMPRSS2 was studied at physiologically relevant levels of adrenal androgen precursors and intermediates of de novo androgen biosynthesis in human prostate cancer cell lines, PC346C, VCaP, and LNCaP. In PC346C and VCaP, responses to pregnenolone and progesterone were absent or minimal, while large effects of adrenal androgen precursors were found. VCaP CRPC clones overexpressing CYP17A1 did not acquire an increased ability to use pregnenolone or progesterone to activate AR. In contrast, all precursors stimulated growth and gene expression in LNCaP cells, presumably resulting from the mutated AR in these cells. Our data indicate that at physiological levels of T precursors PC cells can generally convert adrenal androgens, while de novo steroidogenesis is not generally possible in PC cells and is not able to support AR transactivation and PC growth. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. FDG-PET/CT detection of very early breast cancer in women with breast microcalcification lesions found in mammography screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Nang-Jing; Chou, Chen-Pin; Pan, Huay-Ben; Chang, Tsung-Hsien; Hu, Chin; Chiu, Yu-Li; Fu, Ting-Ying; Chang, Hong-Tai

    2015-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of positron emission tomography/computed tomography with the glucose analogue 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET/CT) in Taiwanese women with early breast cancer detected by mammography screening. Dual-time-point imaging of whole-body supine and breast prone scans using FDG-PET/CT were performed sequentially in the pre-operative stage. A total of 11,849 patients underwent screening mammography, of whom 1,209 (10.2%) displayed positive results. After further investigation, 54 patients underwent FDG-PET/CT. Post-operative pathology examinations revealed malignancies in 26 lesions, including invasive breast cancer in 11 cases and non-invasive breast cancer in 15 cases, as well as benign disease in 30 lesions. The FDG-PET/CT findings from the whole-body scans were positive for 9 of 11 invasive breast cancers (81.8%) and 3 of 15 non-invasive cancers (20%), and they were negative for all benign lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of FDG-PET/CT with whole-body supine imaging were 46.2%, 100%, 100% and 68.2%, respectively. Breast prone imaging revealed another patient with ductal carcinoma in situ, increasing the sensitivity to 50%. Importantly, positive PET findings were significantly correlated with tumour histology (P = 0.006), tumour size (P = 0.039) and Ki-67 expression (P = 0.011). FDG-PET/CT with whole-body scanning demonstrated high sensitivity to invasive breast cancer, limited sensitivity to non-invasive breast cancer, and high specificity for breast cancer. FDG-PET/CT might be useful for differentiating tumour invasiveness. However, the good PPV but poor NPV do not allow the physician to discard the biopsy.

  16. Establishing the distribution of satellite lesions in intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer: implications for focused radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, J V; Margolis, D J; Wang, P-C; Reiter, R E; Huang, J; Steinberg, M L; Kamrava, M

    2017-06-01

    In focused radiotherapy for prostate cancer (PC), a full dose of radiation is delivered to the index lesion while reduced dose is delivered to the remaining prostate to reduce morbidity. As PC is commonly multifocal, we investigated whether baseline clinical characteristics or multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) may be useful to predict the actual pathologic distribution of PC in men with intermediate- or high-risk PC, which may better inform how to deliver focused radiotherapy. A retrospective single-institutional study was performed on 71 consecutive men with clinically localized, intermediate- or high-risk PC who underwent mpMRI followed by radical prostatectomy (RP) from January 2012 to December 2012. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate preoperative predictors for satellite lesions. Performance characteristics of mpMRI to detect satellite lesions and the extent of prostate disease (one hemi-gland vs both) were also evaluated. In all, 50.7% had satellite lesions on mpMRI. On RP specimen analysis, 66.2% had satellite lesions and 55.3% of these satellite lesions had pathologic Gleason score (pGS)⩾3+4. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy for mpMRI detecting a satellite lesion being present in the RP specimen were 59.6%, 66.7%, 77.8%, 45.7% and 62.0%, respectively. The presence of MRI satellite lesions was the only preoperative predictor significantly associated with finding satellite lesions on final pathology (hazard ratio (HR), 2.95, P=0.040). There was agreement in 76.1% of the entire cohort for unilateral vs bilateral disease when incorporating both biopsy and mpMRI information and comparing with the RP specimen. In intermediate risk or greater PC, only the presence of mpMRI satellite lesions could predict for pathologic satellite lesions. While combining biopsy and mpMRI information may improve preoperative disease localization, the relatively high incidence of

  17. Oropharynx lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as papilloma) Fungal infections (such as candida) Histoplasmosis Oral lichen planus Precancerous sore (leukoplakia) Viral infections (such as Herpes simplex) Risks Risks of the procedure may ... Throat lesion biopsy; Biopsy - mouth or throat; Mouth lesion biopsy; Oral cancer - biopsy ...

  18. Repositioning chloroquine and metformin to eliminate cancer stem cell traits in pre-malignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; López-Bonetc, Eugeni; Cufí, Sílvia; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Del Barco, Sonia; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Menendez, Javier A

    2011-01-01

    Ideal oncology drugs would be curative after a short treatment course if they could eliminate epithelium-originated carcinomas at their non-invasive, pre-malignant stages. Such ideal molecules, which are expected to molecularly abrogate all the instrumental mechanisms acquired by migrating cancer stem cells (CSCs) to by-pass tumour suppressor barriers, might already exist. We here illustrate how system biology strategies for repositioning existing FDA-approved drugs may accelerate our therapeutic capacity to eliminate CSC traits in pre-invasive intraepithelial neoplasias. First, we describe a signalling network signature that overrides bioenergetics stress- and oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) phenomena in CSCs residing at pre-invasive lesions. Second, we functionally map the anti-malarial chloroquine and the anti-diabetic metformin ("old drugs") to their recently recognized CSC targets ("new uses") within the network. By discussing the preclinical efficacy of chloroquine and metformin to inhibiting the genesis and self-renewal of CSCs we finally underscore the expected translational impact of the "old drugs-new uses" repurposing strategy to open a new CSC-targeted chemoprevention era. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. iROLL: does 3-D radioguided occult lesion localization improve surgical management in early-stage breast cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemel, Christina; Cramer, Andreas; Grossmann, Christoph; Kajdi, Georg W; Malzahn, Uwe; Lamp, Nora; Langen, Heinz-Jakob; Schmid, Jan; Buck, Andreas K; Grimminger, Hanns-Jörg; Herrmann, Ken

    2015-10-01

    To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of 3-D radioguided occult lesion localization (iROLL) and to compare iROLL with wire-guided localization (WGL) in patients with early-stage breast cancer undergoing breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). WGL (standard procedure) and iROLL in combination with SLNB were performed in 31 women (mean age 65.1 ± 11.2 years) with early-stage breast cancer and clinically negative axillae. Patient comfort in respect of both methods was assessed using a ten point scale. SLNB and iROLL were guided by freehand SPECT (fhSPECT). The results of the novel 3-D image-based method were compared with those of WGL, ultrasound-based lesion localization, and histopathology. iROLL successfully detected the malignant primary and at least one sentinel lymph node in 97% of patients. In a single patient (3%), only iROLL, and not WGL, enabled lesion localization. The variability between fhSPECT and ultrasound-based depth localization of breast lesions was low (1.2 ± 1.4 mm). Clear margins were achieved in 81% of the patients; however, precise prediction of clear histopathological surgical margins was not feasible using iROLL. Patients rated iROLL as less painful than WGL with a pain score 0.8 ± 1.2 points (p localizing early-stage breast cancer in the course of breast-conserving surgery, and is a suitable replacement for WGL. As a single image-based procedure for localization of breast lesions and sentinel nodes, iROLL may improve the entire surgical procedure. However, no advantages of the image-guided procedure were found with regard to prediction of complete tumour resection.

  20. iROLL: does 3-D radioguided occult lesion localization improve surgical management in early-stage breast cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemel, Christina; Kajdi, Georg W.; Schmid, Jan; Buck, Andreas K.; Herrmann, Ken [University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Cramer, Andreas; Grossmann, Christoph; Grimminger, Hanns-Joerg [Missionsaerztliches Klinikum Wuerzburg, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Malzahn, Uwe [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Clinical Epidemiology and Biometry, Wuerzburg (Germany); Lamp, Nora [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Pathology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Langen, Heinz-Jakob [Missionsaerztliches Klinikum Wuerzburg, Department of Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    To prospectively evaluate the feasibility of 3-D radioguided occult lesion localization (iROLL) and to compare iROLL with wire-guided localization (WGL) in patients with early-stage breast cancer undergoing breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). WGL (standard procedure) and iROLL in combination with SLNB were performed in 31 women (mean age 65.1 ± 11.2 years) with early-stage breast cancer and clinically negative axillae. Patient comfort in respect of both methods was assessed using a ten point scale. SLNB and iROLL were guided by freehand SPECT (fhSPECT). The results of the novel 3-D image-based method were compared with those of WGL, ultrasound-based lesion localization, and histopathology. iROLL successfully detected the malignant primary and at least one sentinel lymph node in 97 % of patients. In a single patient (3 %), only iROLL, and not WGL, enabled lesion localization. The variability between fhSPECT and ultrasound-based depth localization of breast lesions was low (1.2 ± 1.4 mm). Clear margins were achieved in 81 % of the patients; however, precise prediction of clear histopathological surgical margins was not feasible using iROLL. Patients rated iROLL as less painful than WGL with a pain score 0.8 ± 1.2 points (p < 0.01) lower than the score for iROLL. iROLL is a well-tolerated and feasible technique for localizing early-stage breast cancer in the course of breast-conserving surgery, and is a suitable replacement for WGL. As a single image-based procedure for localization of breast lesions and sentinel nodes, iROLL may improve the entire surgical procedure. However, no advantages of the image-guided procedure were found with regard to prediction of complete tumour resection. (orig.)

  1. Lobular neoplasia found on breast biopsy: marker of increased risk of malignancy or direct pre-cancerous lesion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kornafel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the imaging symptoms and microscopic findings in females with lobular neoplasia (LN found on biopsy. 1,478 women who underwent primary open biopsy or surgical excision after percutaneous biopsy were reviewed. In 24 of them (1.6%, LN was found. In four patients, excisional biopsy with hook-wire localization was done primarily due to the radial scar. In 20 females, surgical excision of BIRADS 4 lesion was performed because of the presence of LN in specimens from the vacuum-assisted or core-needle percutaneous biopsy. Postoperative pathologic findings were compared to the radiological symptoms. In 13 women, LN did not produce any radiological symptoms and was an additional histologic finding existing near the other lesion: fibroadenoma and radial scar. In none of these lesions was an invasive cancer noticed. In one single patient, ductal carcinoma in situ was observed in the other segment of the breast. Invasive ductal cancer developed in the contralateral breast in one patient. In 11 patients, LN was diagnosed due to radiological symptoms produced by itself. In this group, the invasive lobular cancer was found in seven lesions (64%. Our finding suggests that LN producing suspicious radiological symptoms can be a different biologic type of this lesion when compared asymptomatic LN diagnosed which is usually found on biopsy as additional microscopic pathology. Symptomatic LN is probably associated with a higher potential of malignant transformation. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 417–424

  2. Differentiation of prostate cancer lesions with high and with low Gleason score by diffusion-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Sebastiano; Broennimann, Michael; Vermathen, Peter; Thoeny, Harriet C. [Inselspital University Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic, Pediatric, and Interventional Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Boxler, Silvan [Inselspital, Inselspital University Hospital, Department of Urology, Bern (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    To differentiate prostate cancer lesions with high and with low Gleason score by diffusion-weighted-MRI (DW-MRI). This prospective study was approved by the responsible ethics committee. DW-MRI of 84 consenting prostate and/or bladder cancer patients scheduled for radical prostatectomy were acquired and used to compute apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM: the pure diffusion coefficient D{sub t}, the pseudo-diffusion fraction F{sub p} and the pseudo-diffusion coefficient D{sub p}), and high b value (as acquired and Hessian filtered) parameters within the index lesion. These parameters (separately and combined in a logistic regression model) were used to differentiate lesions depending on whether whole-prostate histopathological analysis after prostatectomy determined a high (≥7) or low (6) Gleason score. Mean ADC and D{sub t} differed significantly (p of independent two-sample t test < 0.01) between high- and low-grade lesions. The highest classification accuracy was achieved by the mean ADC (AUC 0.74) and D{sub t} (AUC 0.70). A logistic regression model based on mean ADC, mean F{sub p} and mean high b value image led to an AUC of 0.74 following leave-one-out cross-validation. Classification by IVIM parameters was not superior to classification by ADC. DW-MRI parameters correlated with Gleason score but did not provide sufficient information to classify individual patients. (orig.)

  3. Total lesion glycolysis (TLG) as an imaging biomarker in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with regorafenib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yoojoo; Lee, Kyung-Hun [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, 101 Daehang-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Ji-In; Paeng, Jin Chul [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 101 Daehang-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sae-Won [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, 101 Daehang-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jee Hyun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Geyonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Gyeong Hoon [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-You [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, 101 Daehang-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    This study was performed to evaluate whether fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) could predict treatment outcome of regorafenib in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Previously treated refractory mCRC patients were enrolled into a prospective biomarker study of regorafenib. For this sub-study, the results of FDG PET/CT scans at baseline and after two cycles of treatment were analyzed. Various metabolic parameters obtained from PET images were analyzed in relation to treatment outcome. A total of 40 patients were evaluable for PET image analysis. Among various PET parameters, total lesion glycolysis (TLG) measured in the same target lesions for RECIST 1.1 analysis were the most significant in predicting prognosis, with the lowest p-value observed in TLG calculated using the margin threshold of 40 % (TLG{sub 40} {sub %}). Further analysis using TLG{sub 40} {sub %} showed significantly longer overall survival (OS) in patients with lower baseline TLG{sub 40} {sub %} (<151.8) (p = 0.003, median 14.2 vs. 9.1 months in <151.8 and ≥151.8, respectively). Patients showing higher decrease in TLG{sub 40} {sub %} after treatment showed significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.001, median 8.0 vs. 2.4 months in % ΔTLG{sub 40} {sub %} < -9.6 % and ≥ -9.6 %, respectively) and OS (p = 0.002, median 16.4 vs. 9.1 months in % ΔTLG{sub 40} {sub %} < -9.6 % and ≥ -9.6 %, respectively). The same cutoff could discriminate patients with longer survival among the patients who were under the stable disease category according to RECIST 1.1 (median PFS 8.4 vs. 6.8 months, p = 0.020; median OS 18.3 vs. 11.5 months, p = 0.049). Measurement of TLG can predict treatment outcome of regorafenib in mCRC. (orig.)

  4. Metastasectomy of Abdominal Wall Lesions due to Prostate Cancer Detected Through PET/CT Gallium 68-PMSA: First Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Claudia; Ramirez, Angie; Varela, Rodolfo; Godoy, Fabian; Vargas, Rafael; Forero, Jorge; Rojas, Andres; Roa, Carmen; Céspedes, Carlos; Ramos, Jose; Cabrera, Marino; Calderon, Andres

    2017-05-01

    Introducing the topic of abdominal wall metastasis secondary to prostate cancer with a reminder of the disease's rarity, being the first published case. This article is about a 66 year old patient diagnosed with prostate cancer [cT2aNxMx iPSA: 5,6 ng/ml Gleason 3+3, (Grade 1 Group)], treated with radical prostatectomy as well as accompanied with amplified pelvic lymphadenectomy, who subsequently presented metastatic lesions to the abdominal wall diagnosed with PET/CT Gallium 68-PMSA technique and treated with abdominal metastasectomy with adequate short term results.

  5. Effects of endocrine therapy on the primary lesion in patients with prostatic cancer. Evaluation with Gd-dynamic subtraction MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizako, Takeshi; Watanabe, Yuji; Dohke, Masako

    2000-01-01

    The effects of endocrine therapy on prostate cancer were assessed by using Gd-dynamic subtraction MRI (DSMRI). The 36 lesions showed early enhancement before therapy were treated with endocrine therapy. The criteria used for the assessment of therapeutic effect was; the degree of early enhancement could decrease with the viability of cancer reduced by treatment. According to this criteria, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 35.7% (5/14), 81.8% (18/22), and 58.3% (21/36). In conclusion, interval decrease of early enhancement could be a indicator of therapeutic effect. (author)

  6. Metastasectomy of Abdominal Wall Lesions due to Prostate Cancer Detected Through PET/CT Gallium 68-PMSA: First Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ochoa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introducing the topic of abdominal wall metastasis secondary to prostate cancer with a reminder of the disease's rarity, being the first published case. This article is about a 66 year old patient diagnosed with prostate cancer [cT2aNxMx iPSA: 5,6 ng/ml Gleason 3+3, (Grade 1 Group], treated with radical prostatectomy as well as accompanied with amplified pelvic lymphadenectomy, who subsequently presented metastatic lesions to the abdominal wall diagnosed with PET/CT Gallium 68-PMSA technique and treated with abdominal metastasectomy with adequate short term results.

  7. Synthetic Peptide Drugs for Targeting Skin Cancer: Malignant Melanoma and Melanotic Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Alex N; Rout, Bhimsen; Qi, Mei Bigliardi; Bigliardi, Paul L

    2017-01-01

    Peptides play decisive roles in the skin, ranging from host defense responses to various forms of neuroendocrine regulation of cell and organelle function. Synthetic peptides conjugated to radionuclides or photosensitizers may serve to identify and treat skin tumors and their metastatic forms in other organs of the body. In the introductory part of this review, the role and interplay of the different peptides in the skin are briefly summarized, including their potential application for the management of frequently occurring skin cancers. Special emphasis is given to different targeting options for the treatment of melanoma and melanotic lesions. Radionuclide Targeting: α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is the most prominent peptide for targeting of melanoma tumors via the G protein-coupled melanocortin-1 receptor that is (over-)expressed by melanoma cells and melanocytes. More than 100 different linear and cyclic analogs of α-MSH containing chelators for 111In, 67/68Ga, 64Cu, 90Y, 212Pb, 99mTc, 188Re were synthesized and examined with experimental animals and in a few clinical studies. Linear Ac-Nle-Asp-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Lys-NH2 (NAP-amide) and Re-cyclized Cys- Cys-Glu-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Cys-Arg-Pro-Val-NH2 (Re[Arg11]CCMSH) containing different chelators at the N- or C-terminus served as lead compounds for peptide drugs with further optimized characteristics. Alternatively, melanoma may be targeted with radiopeptides that bind to melanin granules occurring extracellularly in these tumors. Photosensitizer targeting: A more recent approach is the application of photosensitizers attached to the MSH molecule for targeted photodynamic therapy using LED or coherent laser light that specifically activates the photosensitizer. Experimental studies have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach as a more gentle and convenient alternative compared to radionuclides. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Continuously moving table MRI with sliding multislice for rectal cancer staging: Image quality and lesion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Tobias; Ludwig, Ute; Pache, Gregor; Fautz, Hans-Peter; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Schaefer, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine image quality and lesion detection of sliding multislice (SMS), a recently developed moving table MRI technique, in patients with rectal cancer. Materials and methods: Twenty-seven paired SMS (Avanto, Siemens Medical Solutions) and MDCT (Sensation 64, Siemens Medical Solutions) examinations of abdomen and pelvis were performed in patients with rectal cancer and compared for detection of liver, lymph node and bone metastases by two independent observers. A contrast-enhanced, fat saturated 2D gradient echo sequence (TE, 2.0 ms; TR, 102 ms; slice, 5 mm) was acquired with SMS and a standard contrast-enhanced protocol (100 ml 2.5 ml/s; slice, 5 mm) was used for abdominal MDCT. Standard of reference consisted of a consensus evaluation of SMS, MDCT, and all available follow-up examinations after a period of 6 months. Artifact burden and image quality of SMS was assessed in comparison to stationary gradient echo sequences obtained in an age-matched group of 27 patients. Results: Whereas SMS achieved a mean quality score of 3.65 (scale, 0-4) for the liver, representing very good diagnostic properties, strong breathing artifacts in the intestinal region were observed in 19 cases by both observers. The retroperitoneum still achieved a mean quality score of 3.52, although breathing artifacts were noted in 12 and 15 cases (observers 1 and 2, respectively). The sensitivities of SMS to detect hepatic metastases were 91.2% and 94.1% for both observers, respectively, compared to 98.5%/98.5% for MDCT. The sensitivities for lymph node metastases were 87.5%/81.3% for SMS compared to 78.1%/81.3% for MDCT. The sensitivities for bone metastases were 91.7%/100% for SMS compared to 8.3%/16.7% for MDCT. Conclusion: With slightly reduced image quality in the intestinal region, SMS exhibits equal detection of lymph node and liver metastases compared to MDCT. SMS MRI proved to be superior to MDCT in detection of bone metastases.

  9. The value of ultrasound contrast for assessing cancer cell proliferation and invasion function as well as angiogenesis in lesions of in patients with gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the value of ultrasound contrast for assessing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as angiogenesis in lesions of in patients with gastric cancer. Methods: A total of 39 patients with gastric cancer and 48 patients with gastric ulcer who were treated in our hospital between August 2012 and May 2016 were included in gastric cancer group and gastric ulcer group respectively, and 50 healthy subjects who accepted gastroscopy in our hospital during the same period were included in normal control group. The day after admission, color Doppler diasonograph was used to test the gastric ultrasound contrast parameters; fluorescence quantitative PCR method was used to detect the proliferation and invasion gene mRNA expression in stomach tissue; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect the serum angiogenesis index levels. Results: Ultrasound contrast parameters ET and TTP levels of gastric cancer group and gastric ulcer group were significantly lower than those of normal control group, and ultrasound contrast parameters ET and TTP levels of gastric cancer group were significantly lower than those of gastric ulcer group; Stat3, Survivin, Bcl-2, 毬-catenin, eIF4E, CD44, UHRF1 and c-met mRNA expression in tissue as well as VEGF, EGFR, HIF-毩 and Ang-2 levels in serum of gastric cancer group were higher than those of gastric ulcer group and normal control group while E-cadherin mRNA expression in tissue was lower than those of gastric ulcer group and normal control group; Spearman correlation analysis showed that ultrasound contrast parameters ET and TTP levels were correlated with the cancer cell proliferation and invasion function as well as angiogenesis indexes in lesions. Conclusion: Ultrasound contrast parameters can accurately assess the malignant degree of gastric cancer, and is expected to become the reliable means for early diagnosis and treatment guidance of gastric cancer in the future.

  10. Treatment to sustain a Th17-type phenotype to prevent skewing toward Treg and to limit premalignant lesion progression to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M Rita I; Levingston, Corinne A; Johnson, Sara D

    2016-05-15

    While immune suppression is a hallmark of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HSNCC), the immunological impact of premalignant oral lesions, which often precedes development of HNSCC, is unknown. The present study assessed the changes in splenic and draining lymph node CD4(+) cell populations and their production of select cytokines that occur in mice with carcinogen-induced premalignant oral lesions and the changes that occur as lesions progress to oral cancer. These studies found skewing toward Th1 and Th17-type phenotypes in the spleen and lymph nodes of mice with premalignant oral lesions and a shift to Treg as lesions progress to cancer. Since the role of Th17 cells in the progression from premalignant lesions to cancer is not clear, studies determined the immunological and clinical effect of treating mice bearing premalignant oral lesions with a TGF-β type 1 receptor inhibitor plus IL-23 as an approach to sustain the Th17 phenotype. These studies showed that the treatment approach not only sustained the Th17 phenotype, but also increased distal spleen cell and regional lymph node cell production of other stimulatory/inflammatory mediators and slowed premalignant lesion progression to cancer. © 2016 UICC.

  11. Apparent diffusion coefficient values of diffusion-weighted imaging for distinguishing focal pulmonary lesions and characterizing the subtype of lung cancer: a meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Guohua; Jia, Zhiyun; Deng, Houfu [Sichuan University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, West China Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2016-02-15

    The potential performance of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for distinguishing malignant and benign pulmonary lesions, further characterizing the subtype of lung cancer was assessed. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, EBSCO, and three Chinese databases were searched to identify eligible studies on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of focal pulmonary lesions. ADC values of malignant and benign lesions were extracted by lesion type and statistically pooled based on a linear mixed model. Further analysis for subtype of lung cancer was also performed. The methodological quality was assessed using the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies tool. Thirty-four articles involving 2086 patients were included. Malignant pulmonary lesions have significantly lower ADC values than benign lesions [1.21 (95 % CI, 1.19-1.22) mm{sup 2}/s vs. 1.76 (95 % CI, 1.72-1.80) mm{sup 2}/s; P < 0.05]. There is a significant difference between ADC values of small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (P < 0.05), while the differences were not significant among histological subtypes of lung cancer. The methodological quality was relatively high, and the data points from Begg's test indicated that there was probably no obvious publication bias. The ADC value is helpful for distinguishing malignant and benign pulmonary lesions and provides a promising method for differentiation of SCLC from NSCLC. (orig.)

  12. Indomethacin Treatment of Mice with Premalignant Oral Lesions Sustains Cytokine Production and Slows Progression to Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sara D; Young, M Rita I

    2016-01-01

    Current treatment options for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients are often ineffective due to tumor-localized and systemic immunosuppression. Using the 4-NQO mouse model of oral carcinogenesis, this study showed that premalignant oral lesion cells produce higher levels of the immune modulator, PGE 2 , compared to HNSCC cells. Inhibiting prostaglandin production of premalignant lesion cells with the pan-cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin stimulated their induction of spleen cell cytokine production. In contrast, inhibiting HNSCC prostaglandin production did not stimulate their induction of spleen cell cytokine production. Treatment of mice bearing premalignant oral lesions with indomethacin slowed progression of premalignant oral lesions to HNSCC. Flow cytometric analysis of T cells in the regional lymph nodes of lesion-bearing mice receiving indomethacin treatment showed an increase in lymph node cellularity and in the absolute number of CD8 + T cells expressing IFN-γ compared to levels in lesion-bearing mice receiving diluent control treatment. The cytokine-stimulatory effect of indomethacin treatment was not localized to regional lymph nodes but was also seen in the spleen of mice with premalignant oral lesions. Together, these data suggest that inhibiting prostaglandin production at the premalignant lesion stage boosts immune capability and improves clinical outcomes.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA mutations in preneoplastic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract: A biomarker for the early detection of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery Elizabeth A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA are common in many human cancers. We have described an oligonucleotide microarray ("MitoChip" for rapid sequencing of the entire mitochondrial genome (Zhou et al, J Mol Diagn 2006, facilitating the analysis of mtDNA mutations in preneoplastic lesions. We examined 14 precancerous lesions, including seven Barrett esophagus biopsies, with or without associated dysplasia; four colorectal adenomas; and three inflammatory colitis-associated dysplasia specimens. In all cases, matched normal tissues from the corresponding site were obtained as germline control. MitoChip analysis was performed on DNA obtained from cryostat-embedded specimens. Results A total of 513,639 bases of mtDNA were sequenced in the 14 samples, with 490,224 bases (95.4% bases assigned by the automated genotyping software. All preneoplastic lesions examined demonstrated at least one somatic mtDNA sequence alteration. Of the 100 somatic mtDNA alterations observed in the 14 cases, 27 were non-synonymous coding region mutations (i.e., resulting in an amino acid change, 36 were synonymous, and 37 involved non-coding mtDNA. Overall, somatic alterations most commonly involved the COI, ND4 and ND5 genes. Notably, somatic mtDNA alterations were observed in preneoplastic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract even in the absence of histopathologic evidence of dysplasia, suggesting that the mitochondrial genome is susceptible at the earliest stages of multistep cancer progression. Conclusion Our findings further substantiate the rationale for exploring the mitochondrial genome as a biomarker for the early diagnosis of cancer, and confirm the utility of a high-throughput array-based platform for this purpose from a clinical applicability standpoint.

  14. Spectrum of thyroid lesions in hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia over 11years and a review of thyroid cancers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Nor Hayati; Omar, Effat; Naing, Nyi Nyi

    2009-01-01

    Endemic goitre is a major concern in many nations including Malaysia. Seven states in the country have been identified by Ministry of Health of Malaysia to have high incidence of goitre and one of these is Kelantan. This is a retrospective study over an 11-year period from 1994 to 2004 on all thyroid specimens submitted to the Pathology Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), in Kelantan. Epidemiological data were retrieved from the patients' records and pathology findings from the pathology reports. During this period, Department of Pathology HUSM received a total of 1,486 thyroid specimens. The female to male ratio was 6:1 and the median age was 40.0 years. The duration of goitre ranged from one to 15 years. Histopathological examination showed 71.9 percent were non-neoplastic and 28.1 percent neoplastic lesions. The hospital-based incidence of nodular hyperplasia was 9.9 per 100,000 admitted patients per year. The hospital-based incidence of all types of malignant thyroid cancers was 3.5 per 100,000. The most common malignancy was papillary carcinoma 76.6 percent. The majority of the cancers (59.5 percent) occurred in a background of nodular hyperplasia. Thyroid cancers made up 4.9 percent of all cancers seen in HUSM. This study suggests that malignant thyroid lesions arising from multi-nodular goitre are high in a population living in an iodine-deficiency area.

  15. Whole-lesion apparent diffusion coefficient histogram analysis: significance in T and N staging of gastric cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Song; Zhang, Yujuan; Chen, Ling; Guan, Wenxian; Guan, Yue; Ge, Yun; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang

    2017-10-02

    Whole-lesion apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis has been introduced and proved effective in assessment of multiple tumors. However, the application of whole-volume ADC histogram analysis in gastrointestinal tumors has just started and never been reported in T and N staging of gastric cancers. Eighty patients with pathologically confirmed gastric carcinomas underwent diffusion weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging before surgery prospectively. Whole-lesion ADC histogram analysis was performed by two radiologists independently. The differences of ADC histogram parameters among different T and N stages were compared with independent-samples Kruskal-Wallis test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate the performance of ADC histogram parameters in differentiating particular T or N stages of gastric cancers. There were significant differences of all the ADC histogram parameters for gastric cancers at different T (except ADC min and ADC max ) and N (except ADC max ) stages. Most ADC histogram parameters differed significantly between T1 vs T3, T1 vs T4, T2 vs T4, N0 vs N1, N0 vs N3, and some parameters (ADC 5% , ADC 10% , ADC min ) differed significantly between N0 vs N2, N2 vs N3 (all P histogram parameters held great potential in differentiating different T and N stages of gastric cancers preoperatively.

  16. Detection of human papillomavirus in nonmelanoma skin cancer lesions and healthy perilesional skin in kidney transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat-García, J; Morales Suárez-Varela, M; Vilata-Corell, J J; Marquina-Vila, A

    2014-04-01

    The influence of human papillomavirus (HPV) on the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is a topic of debate. HPV types from the beta genus (HPV-β) have been most frequently associated with the development of skin cancer. To analyze the prevalence and range of HPV types in NMSC lesions and healthy perilesional skin in immunodepressed and immunocompetent patients and to evaluate the influence of various clinical factors on the prevalence of HPV in skin cancer. Nested polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to detect HPV in 120 NMSC samples obtained by biopsy from 30 kidney transplant recipients and 30 immunocompetent patients. In all cases, a sample was taken from the tumor site and the surrounding healthy skin. Potential confounders were assessed and the data analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. HPV DNA was detected in 44 (73.3%) of the 60 samples from immunodepressed patients and in 32 (53.3%) of the 60 samples from immunocompetent patients (adjusted odds ratio, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.2-9.6). In both groups of patients, HPV was more common in healthy perilesional skin than in lesional skin. HPV-β was the most common type isolated. We found a wide range of HPV types (mostly HPV-β) in the skin of kidney transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients with skin cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  17. Early lesion-specific 18F-FDG PET response to chemotherapy predicts time to lesion progression in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygård, Lotte; Vogelius, Ivan Richter; Fischer, Barbara M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We hypothesize that the lesion-to-lesion variability in FDG-PET response after one cycle of chemotherapy for NSCLC in an individual patient may inform radiation dose redistribution. To test this hypothesis, we investigate if time to lesion-progression in patients with mult...... patient response involves a loss of biological information on heterogeneity between lesions. Poor lesion-specific response after one cycle chemotherapy may identify lesions that would benefit from an individualized radiotherapy strategy.......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We hypothesize that the lesion-to-lesion variability in FDG-PET response after one cycle of chemotherapy for NSCLC in an individual patient may inform radiation dose redistribution. To test this hypothesis, we investigate if time to lesion-progression in patients...... with multiple lesions is dependent on lesion-specific response to chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 81 patients with 184 lesions referred to curative chemo-radiotherapy for NSCLC 2010-2012. (18)F-FDG PET scans were performed at diagnosis and after one series of chemotherapy. Response of each...

  18. Significance of localization of nonpalpable breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Ki Keun; Choi, Hyun Ju [Yongdong Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-12-15

    As mammography has become more popular for the evaluation of breast symptoms and for the screening of asymptomatic women, the smaller lesions are being detected before they become palpable, therefore preoperative localization became necessary. This has led to the development of several methods for preoperative localization of nonpalpable lesions. Authors analyzed 50 cases with preoperative localization in 45 patients which had abnormal findings on film mammogram or ultrasonomammogram since October 1985 through March 1990 at Yongdong Severance Hospital, College of Medicine, Yonsei University. The results were as follows: 1. Techniques of localization were spot method in 8 cases, conventional needle localization method in 38 cases and Kopan's needle localization method in 4 cases. 2. The most common mammographic indication for localization was focal calcifications in 29 cases(58%), which was followed by a newly developed mass in 25 cases(50%). 3. Outcome of pathologically confirmed diagnosis put into benign lesions in 37 cases(74%) and malignant lesions in 13 cases(26%). 4. Among the cases with localization of lesions which has suggested as benign lesions in film and ultrasonomammogram,all cases(100%) were confirmed in benign lesions pathologically. Among the cases with localization of lesions which has suggested as malignant lesions in film and ultrasonomammogram, pathologic malignant has been proved of 44% and possible histopathologic precursor of malignant was resulted in 25% such as atypical hyperplasia and adenosis. Conclusively, authors consider that the abnormal areas should be removed in their entirety with the sacrifice of minimum volume of contiguous normal breast tissue through the preoperative localization, hence our preoperative localization has contributed favorable prognosis based on material lesions in early stage breast cancer.

  19. Significance of localization of nonpalpable breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Ki Keun; Choi, Hyun Ju

    1990-01-01

    As mammography has become more popular for the evaluation of breast symptoms and for the screening of asymptomatic women, the smaller lesions are being detected before they become palpable, therefore preoperative localization became necessary. This has led to the development of several methods for preoperative localization of nonpalpable lesions. Authors analyzed 50 cases with preoperative localization in 45 patients which had abnormal findings on film mammogram or ultrasonomammogram since October 1985 through March 1990 at Yongdong Severance Hospital, College of Medicine, Yonsei University. The results were as follows: 1. Techniques of localization were spot method in 8 cases, conventional needle localization method in 38 cases and Kopan's needle localization method in 4 cases. 2. The most common mammographic indication for localization was focal calcifications in 29 cases(58%), which was followed by a newly developed mass in 25 cases(50%). 3. Outcome of pathologically confirmed diagnosis put into benign lesions in 37 cases(74%) and malignant lesions in 13 cases(26%). 4. Among the cases with localization of lesions which has suggested as benign lesions in film and ultrasonomammogram,all cases(100%) were confirmed in benign lesions pathologically. Among the cases with localization of lesions which has suggested as malignant lesions in film and ultrasonomammogram, pathologic malignant has been proved of 44% and possible histopathologic precursor of malignant was resulted in 25% such as atypical hyperplasia and adenosis. Conclusively, authors consider that the abnormal areas should be removed in their entirety with the sacrifice of minimum volume of contiguous normal breast tissue through the preoperative localization, hence our preoperative localization has contributed favorable prognosis based on material lesions in early stage breast cancer

  20. Cytoplasmic Drosha Is Aberrant in Precancerous Lesions of Gastric Carcinoma and Its Loss Predicts Worse Outcome for Gastric Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hailong; Hou, Yixuan; Xu, Liyun; Zeng, Zongyue; Wen, Siyang; Du, Yan-E; Sun, Kexin; Yin, Jiali; Lang, Lei; Tang, Xiaoli; Liu, Manran

    2016-04-01

    The nuclear localization of Drosha is critical for its function as a microRNA maturation regulator. Dephosphorylation of Drosha at serine 300 and serine 302 disrupts its nuclear localization, and aberrant distribution of Drosha has been detected in some tumors. The purpose of the present study was to assess cytoplasmic/nuclear Drosha expression in gastric cancer carcinogenesis and progression. Drosha expression and its subcellular location was investigated by immunohistochemical staining of a set of tissue microarrays composed of normal adjacent tissues (374), chronic gastritis (137), precancerous lesions (94), and gastric adenocarcinoma (829) samples, and in gastric cancer cell lines with varying differentiation by immunofluorescence and western blot assay. Gradual loss of cytoplasmic Drosha was accompanied by tumor progression in both gastric cancer tissues and cell lines, and was inversely associated with tumor volume (P = 0.002), tumor grade (P gastric cancer. High levels of cytoplasmic Drosha predicted longer survival (LR = 7.088, P = 0.008) in gastric cancer patients. Our data provide novel insights into gastric cancer that cytoplasmic Drosha potentially plays a role in preventing carcinogenesis and tumor progression, and may be an independent predictor of patient outcome.

  1. Prevalence of cervical neoplastic lesions and Human Papilloma Virus infection in Egypt: National Cervical Cancer Screening Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El All, Howayda S; Refaat, Amany; Dandash, Khadiga

    2007-01-01

    Background Data from Egyptian studies provide widely varying estimates on the prevalence of pre-malignant and malignant cervical abnormalities and human papilloma virus (HPVs) infection. To define the prevalence and risk factors of pre-invasive and invasive cervical cancer (cacx), a community based full-scale cross sectional, household survey including 5453 women aged between 35 and 60 years was conducted. Methods The study period was between February 2000 and December 2002. Initially, conventional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears were evaluated using the Bethesda system (TBS), followed by colposcopic guided biopsy (CGB) for all epithelial abnormalities (EA). In a third step, HPV was tested on all EA by in-situ hybridization (ISH) using first the broad spectrum HPV probe recognizing HPVs 6, 11, 16, 18, 30, 31, 35, 45, 51 and 52 followed by subtyping with probes 6/11, 16/18 and 31/33. Lastly, unequivocal cases were immunostained for herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Results EA representing 7.8% (424/5453), were categorized into atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (34.4%), atypical glandular cell of undetermined significance (AGCUS) (15.3%), combined ASCUS and AGCUS (3.1%), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) (41.0%), high grade SIL (5.2%) and invasive lesions (1%). CGB of EA (n = 281) showed non neoplastic lesions (12.8%), atypical squamous metaplasia (ASM) (19.2%), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I (CIN) (44.4%), CIN II (4.4%), CINIII (2.8%), endocervical lesions (5.2%), combined squamous and endocervical lesions (10.0%), invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (0.02%) and extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma (MZBCL) (0.02%). The overall predictive value of cytology was 87% while the predictive value for high grade lesions was 80%. On histological basis, HPVs were present in 94.3% of squamous lesions while it was difficult to be identified in endocervical ones. ISH

  2. Prevalence of cervical neoplastic lesions and Human Papilloma Virus infection in Egypt: National Cervical Cancer Screening Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandash Khadiga

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from Egyptian studies provide widely varying estimates on the prevalence of pre-malignant and malignant cervical abnormalities and human papilloma virus (HPVs infection. To define the prevalence and risk factors of pre-invasive and invasive cervical cancer (cacx, a community based full-scale cross sectional, household survey including 5453 women aged between 35 and 60 years was conducted. Methods The study period was between February 2000 and December 2002. Initially, conventional Papanicolaou (Pap smears were evaluated using the Bethesda system (TBS, followed by colposcopic guided biopsy (CGB for all epithelial abnormalities (EA. In a third step, HPV was tested on all EA by in-situ hybridization (ISH using first the broad spectrum HPV probe recognizing HPVs 6, 11, 16, 18, 30, 31, 35, 45, 51 and 52 followed by subtyping with probes 6/11, 16/18 and 31/33. Lastly, unequivocal cases were immunostained for herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2, cytomegalovirus (CMV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Results EA representing 7.8% (424/5453, were categorized into atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS (34.4%, atypical glandular cell of undetermined significance (AGCUS (15.3%, combined ASCUS and AGCUS (3.1%, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL (41.0%, high grade SIL (5.2% and invasive lesions (1%. CGB of EA (n = 281 showed non neoplastic lesions (12.8%, atypical squamous metaplasia (ASM (19.2%, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I (CIN (44.4%, CIN II (4.4%, CINIII (2.8%, endocervical lesions (5.2%, combined squamous and endocervical lesions (10.0%, invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC (0.02% and extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma (MZBCL (0.02%. The overall predictive value of cytology was 87% while the predictive value for high grade lesions was 80%. On histological basis, HPVs were present in 94.3% of squamous lesions while it was difficult to be identified in endocervical ones. ISH revealed

  3. Influence of long-term colonoscopic surveillance on incidence of colorectal cancer and death from the disease in patients with precursors (adenomas)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole Dan; Kronborg, Ole; Fenger, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Case-control studies and short term prospective studies have suggested that selected groups of patients with precursors of colorectal cancer may benefit from colonoscopic surveillance after initial removal of adenomas. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate such a possible benefit from...... long term (1-24 years) colonoscopic surveillance in a population of patients with all types of adenomas regardless of size and way of removal. Two thousand and forty-one patients with a first time diagnosis of colorectal adenoma were included in prospective surveillance between year 1978 and 2002. All...

  4. Fluorescence Imaging Analysis of Upstream Regulators and Downstream Targets of STAT3 in Melanoma Precursor Lesions Obtained from Patients Before and After Systemic Low-Dose Interferon-α Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Pfaff Smith

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Atypical nevi are the precursors and risk markers of melanoma. Apart from persistently monitoring these nevocytic lesions and resecting them at the earliest signs of clinical changes, there is as yet no systemic clinical treatment available to interfere with their progression to melanoma. To explore clinical treatments that might interfere with and possibly prevent atypical nevus progression, a previous study documented that 3 months systemic low-dose interferon-α (IFN-α treatment of patients with a clinical history of melanoma and numerous atypical nevi, led to inactivation of the STAT1 and STAT3 transcription factors in atypical nevi. Based upon this finding, we initiated a second study to determine whether systemic low-dose IFN-α treatment also impairs the expression of upstream regulators and downstream targets of STAT1 and STAT3 in atypical nevi. Using cyanine dye-conjugated antibodies, fluorescence imaging analysis revealed expression of JAK2, JNK1, AKT1, NF-κB, and IFN-αβ receptor in benign and atypical nevi, and early- and advanced-stage melanomas. To determine possible changes in the level of expression of these molecules in atypical nevi, excised before and after 3 months of systemic low-dose IFN-α treatment, newly designed optical imaging software was used to quantitate the captured fluorescent hybridization signals on a cell-by-cell basis and across an entire nevus section. The results of this analysis did not provide evidence that systemic low-dose IFN-α treatment alters the level of expression of upstream regulators or downstream targets of STAT1 and STAT3.

  5. Screening for gastric cancer and surveillance of premalignant lesions: a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areia, Miguel; Carvalho, Rita; Cadime, Ana Teresa; Rocha Gonçalves, Francisco; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário

    2013-10-01

    Cost-effectiveness studies are highly dependent on the models, settings, and variables used and should be based on systematic reviews. We systematically reviewed cost-effectiveness studies that address screening for gastric cancer and/or surveillance of precancerous conditions and lesions. A systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies was performed by conducting a sensitive search in seven databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Current Contents Connect, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Academic Search Complete, and CINAHL Plus), independently evaluated by two investigators. Articles were evaluated for type of study, perspective, model, intervention, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, clinical or cost variables, and quality, according to published guidelines. From 2395 abstracts, 23 articles were included: 19 concerning population screening and 4 on following up premalignant lesions. Studies on Helicobacter pylori screening concluded that serology was cost-effective, depending on cancer incidence and endoscopy cost (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: 6264-25,881), and eradication after endoscopic resection was also cost-effective (dominant) based on one study. Studies on imaging screening concluded that endoscopy was more cost-effective than no screening (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: 3376-26,836). Articles on follow-up of premalignant lesions reported conflicting results (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: 1868-72,519 for intestinal metaplasia; 18,600-39,800 for dysplasia). Quality assessment revealed a unanimous lack of a detailed systematic review and fulfillment of a median number of 23 items (20-26) of 35 possible ones. The available evidence shows that Helicobacter pylori serology or endoscopic population screening is cost-effective, while endoscopic surveillance of premalignant gastric lesions presents conflicting results. Better implementation of published guidelines and accomplishment of systematic detailed reviews are needed

  6. The value of thyroglobulin in washout of fine needle aspirate from 16 cervical lesions in patients with thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familiar Casado, Cristina; Antón Bravo, Teresa; Moraga Guerrero, Inmaculada; Ramos Carrasco, Araceli; García García, Carmen; Villanueva Curto, Santiago

    2013-11-01

    Thyroglobulin in the needle washout (Tg-FNA) and cytology of fine needle aspiration (cyto-FNA) are recommended for diagnosis of metastatic lymphadenopathies and recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the value of these procedures in 16 cervical masses from patients with thyroid cancer of the follicular epithelium (TC). The study included six patients with TC and cervical lymphadenopathies evaluated before initial thyroid surgery and 10 patients followed up after TC surgery with cervical lumps discovered. FNA was performed in all 16 masses. Results of cyto-FNA, Tg-FNA and of the combined tests were compared to the final diagnosis of each lesion. Among 10 lesions proven to be malignant at surgery, cyto-FNA, Tg-FNA and the combination of both allowed for adequate diagnosis in 7, 9, and 10 cases respectively. Among 6 lesions considered to be benign, cyto-FNA was able to confirm diagnosis in 4, was non-diagnostic in one, and was falsely negative in the remaining case, while Tg-FNA was below the established cut-off value (to consider malignancy) in all cases. In patients with TC and suspect cervical masses, Tg-FNA improved the diagnostic yield of cyto-FNA alone, thus warranting its routine recommendation when FNA is performed. However, universal standardization of the technique and definition of valid cut-off thyroglobulin values (depending on the immunoassay used) above which the lesion should be considered to be malignant are still pending. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Whole-lesion ADC histogram and texture analysis in predicting recurrence of cervical cancer treated with CCRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jie; Zhu, Lijing; Zhu, Li; Xie, Li; Wang, Huanhuan; Liu, Song; Yan, Jing; Liu, Baorui; Guan, Yue; He, Jian; Ge, Yun; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2017-11-03

    To explore the value of whole-lesion apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram and texture analysis in predicting tumor recurrence of advanced cervical cancer treated with concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT). 36 women with pathologically confirmed advanced cervical squamous carcinomas were enrolled in this prospective study. 3.0 T pelvic MR examinations including diffusion weighted imaging (b = 0, 800 s/mm 2 ) were performed before CCRT (pre-CCRT) and at the end of 2nd week of CCRT (mid-CCRT). ADC histogram and texture features were derived from the whole volume of cervical cancers. With a mean follow-up of 25 months (range, 11 ∼ 43), 10/36 (27.8%) patients ended with recurrence. Pre-CCRT 75th, 90th, correlation, autocorrelation and mid-CCRT ADC mean , 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, autocorrelation can effectively differentiate the recurrence from nonrecurrence group with area under the curve ranging from 0.742 to 0.850 (P values range, 0.001 ∼ 0.038). Pre- and mid-treatment whole-lesion ADC histogram and texture analysis hold great potential in predicting tumor recurrence of advanced cervical cancer treated with CCRT.

  8. Association of Ki-67, p53, and bcl-2 expression of the primary non-small-cell lung cancer lesion with brain metastatic lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, Robbin S.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Hachiya, Tsutomu; Milas, Ivan; Ro, Jae Y.; Langford, Lauren; Sawaya, Raymond; Putnam, Joe B.; Allen, Pamela; Cox, James D.; McDonnell, Timothy J.; Brock, William; Hong, Waun K.; Roth, Jack A.; Milas, Luka

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The study was conducted to determine whether immunohistochemical analysis of Ki-67, p53, and bcl-2 in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer is associated with a higher rate of brain metastases and whether the intrapatient expression of these biomarkers (in the primary tumors vs. brain lesions) is similar. Methods and Materials: At the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, tumors from 29 case patients with primary lung tumor and brain metastasis and 29 control patients with primary lung tumor but no brain metastasis were resected and examined for immunohistochemical expression. Ki-67, p53, and bcl-2 were analyzed in resected primary lung, lymph node, and metastatic brain tumors. Each control patient was matched by age, gender, and histology to a patient with brain metastasis. Results: No significant differences in patient survival characteristics were detected between the case group and control group. Also, difference in patient outcome between the two groups was not generally predicted by biomarker analysis. However, when the groups were combined, the biomarker analysis was predictive for certain patient outcome end points. Using median values as cutoff points between low and high expression of biomarkers, it was observed that high expression of Ki-67 (>40%) in lung primaries was associated with poorer disease-free survival (p=0.04), whereas low expression of p53 in lung primaries was associated with poorer overall survival (p=0.04), and these patients had a higher rate of nonbrain distant metastases (p=0.02). The patients with brain metastases were particularly prone to developing nonbrain distant metastases if the percentage of p53-positive cells in brain metastases was low (p=0.01). There was a positive correlation in the expression of Ki-67 (p=0.02) (r 2 =0.1608), as well as p53 (p 2 =0.7380), between lung primaries and brain metastases. Compared to Ki-67 and p53, bcl-2 was the least predictive. Conclusion: Differences in biomarker expression between the

  9. Treating High-grade Lesions to Prevent Anal Cancer in HIV-infected People

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study, called the ANCHOR trial, will investigate whether screening and prevention methods similar to those used to prevent cervical cancer can help prevent anal cancer in HIV-infected men and women.

  10. Treatment of intra-epitelial lesions and cervical cancer during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Lippi Ciantelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cervical cancer is the most common type of cancer found during pregnancy. The estimated frequency is one case to 1.000 to 5.000 pregnancies, however, only 3% of cervical cancers are diagnosed during pregnancy. Considering there are still discussions regarding how to conduct this type of situation, the authors report in this article the literature update on the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer discovered during pregnancy.

  11. The diagnostic value of indeterminate lung lesions on staging chest computed tomographies in patients with colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette Williaume; Bulut, Orhan; Jess, Per

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Selection of pulmonary staging modality in colorectal cancer surgery is controversial. Computed tomography (CT) clearly outperforms x-ray in terms of sensitivity, but findings of indeterminate lung lesions remain a problem. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the significance...... metastases was significantly related to positive nodal status at operation and elevated carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level at follow-up (p ... tenth into other lung malignancies, which were most often diagnosed in the second year after surgery. The development of lung metastases was significantly related to positive nodal disease and postoperative CEA elevation....

  12. Prevalence of Specific Types of Human Papiloma Virus in Cervical Intraepithelial Lesions and Cervical Cancer in Macedonian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksioska-Papestiev, Irena; Chibisheva, Vesna; Micevska, Megi; Dimitrov, Goran

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Cervical cancer is a malignancy originating in the transformation zone of the cervix, most commonly in the squamous cells. It is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide, and the third most common cause of female cancer death. Genital human papilloma viruses (HPV) are sexually transmitted and approximately 630 milion people worldwide are infected. More than 200 genotypes, subtypes and variants have been reported, 13-15 being oncogenic type, which could be responsible for cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) or cancer. Aim Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of this infection and to identify specific types of human papiloma virus in cervical intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer in Macedonian women. Material and methods The study was conducted at the University Clinic for Obstetrics and Gynecology, Skopje, Macedonia, in a period of four years. The study was performed on a cohort of 1895, 18 - 73 year old patients who during primary examination had already abnormal PAP smear test. Cervical cells were collected in the lithotomy gynecological position of the patient, using endocervical cytobrush and cotton-tipped swab, and both were placed in sterile test tube with phosphate buffered saline. Samples were stored at temperature of 2 - 8 °C and Human Pappiloma Virus (HPV) genotyping was analyzed within 7 days by multiple Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods. Results The mean age of enrolled women was 40,8 years±10.36 SD(minimum of 18 and maximum 73 years. Among the patients, the presence of HPV by using PCR was detected in 40,68 % (769 patients) and was highly associated with cervical abnormalities. The prevalence of HPV was highest (82,1%) in women aged 20-years or less and it decreased with age and was lowest (19,9%) among patients older than 50 years. The prevalence of oncogenic types of the virus was higher if the cytologic diagnosis is CIN 3/Carcinoma in situ (CIS). In these patients detection of high risk HPV was in 79

  13. Positive predictive value of additional synchronous breast lesions in whole-breast ultrasonography at the diagnosis of breast cancer: clinical and imaging factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ah Hyun; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Park, Hee Jung

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of bilateral whole-breast ultrasonography (BWBU) for detection of synchronous breast lesions on initial diagnosis of breast cancer and evaluate factors affecting the PPV of BWBU according to varying clinicoimaging factors. A total of 75 patients who had synchronous lesions with pathologic confirmation at the initial diagnosis of breast cancer during January 2007 and December 2007 were included. The clinical factors of the patients were evaluated. One observer retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies of the index breast cancer lesion and the synchronous lesion. The PPV for additional biopsy was calculated for BWBU and various clinical and imaging factors affecting the PPV for BWBU were evaluated. The overall PPV for additional biopsy was 25.7% (18 of 70). The PPV for synchronous lesions detected both on mammography and BWBU, and detected only on BWBU, was 76.9% (10 of 13) and 14.3% (7 of 49), respectively. There was no clinical factor affecting the PPV for BWBU. Among the imaging factors, ipsilateral location of the synchronous lesion to the index lesion (P=0.06) showed a marginal statistically significant correlation with malignancy in the synchronous breast lesion. A mass with calcification on mammography presentation (P<0.01), presence of calcification among the ultrasonography findings (P<0.01), and high Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System final assessment (P<0.01) were imaging factors that were associated with malignancy in the additional synchronous lesion. BWBU can detect additional synchronous malignancy at the diagnosis of breast cancer with a relatively high PPV, especially when mammography findings are correlated with ultrasonographic findings.

  14. Relationship of preoperative gastric cancer CT enhancement ratio and perfusion parameters with serum tumor marker levels and proliferation molecule expression in tumor lesions

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    Yong-Hong Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship of preoperative gastric cancer CT enhancement ratio and perfusion parameters with serum tumor marker levels and proliferation molecule expression in tumor lesions. Methods: A total of 68 patients with gastric cancer treated in the Second Hospital of Yulin City between May 2012 and May 2016 were chosen as observation group and sub-divided into early and middle gastric cancer group (n=41 and advanced gastric cancer group (n=27 according to the tumor stage; 50 patients diagnosed with benign gastric diseases in our hospital during the same period were selected as benign gastric lesion group. CT enhancement rate and perfusion parameters of three groups of patients were detected by CT scan, serum tumor marker levels were evacuated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and the proliferation gene mRNA expression levels were detected by RTPCR method. Results: CER, AF, BV and CL levels of advanced gastric cancer group were higher than those of early and middle gastric cancer group and benign gastric lesion group; serum CA72-4, CA19-9, CA125 and CEA contents of advanced gastric cancer group were higher than those of early and middle gastric cancer group and benign gastric lesion group; CADM1, miRNA-34a and Cystatin M mRNA expression in tissue of advanced gastric cancer group were lower than those of early and middle gastric cancer group and benign gastric lesion group while Survivin and I2PP2A mRNA expression were higher than those of early and middle gastric cancer group and benign gastric lesion group. The Pearson test showed that the CT enhancement rate and perfusion parameters in patients with gastric cancer are directly correlated with the serum tumor marker levels and the proliferation gene expression in tumor lesions. Conclusion: Preoperative gastric cancer CT enhancement rate and perfusion parameters are directly related to the tumor malignancy, and can be used as a reliable method for the long-term tumor

  15. Estimation of the overall burden of cancers, precancerous lesions, and genital warts attributable to 9-valent HPV vaccine types in women and men in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwig , Susanne; St Guily , Jean Lacau; Dominiak-Felden , Géraldine; Alemany , Laia; De Sanjosé , Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Background In addition to cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for a significant proportion of cancers and precancerous lesions of the vulva, vagina, anus, penis, head and neck, as well as genital warts. We estimated the annual number of new cases of these diseases attributable to 9-valent HPV vaccine types in women and men in Europe. Methods The annual number of new cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and selected head and neck sites in the population of ...

  16. The correlation between the ultrasonic elastic strain ratio of thyroid cancer and the malignant biological characteristics of cancer cells in the lesions

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    Li Ma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation between the ultrasonic elastic strain ratio of thyroid cancer and the malignant biological characteristics of cancer cells in the lesions. Methods: A total of 90 patients with thyroid cancer who accepted surgical treatment in our hospital between March 2015 and September 2016 were selected as the observation group, and 50 patients who received surgery in our hospital during the same period and were with clear pathological diagnosis of thyroid adenoma were selected as the control group. According to the median of ultrasonic elastic strain ratio, the observing group were further divided into high elastic strain ratio group and low elastic strain ratio group (n=45. RT-PCR was used to determine the mRNA expression of proliferation genes, invasion genes and autophagy genes in lesions of all groups of patients. Results: The mean elastic strain ratio of observation group was significantly lower than that of control group. Proliferation gene FOXA1 mRNA expression in lesions of low elastic strain ratio group and high elastic strain ratio group were higher than those of control group while PP4R1 and Smac mRNA expression were lower than those of control group, and as the elastic strain ratio decreased, the FOXA1 mRNA expression increased while PP4R1 and Smac mRNA expression decreased; invasion genes BCORL1, SATB1, Twist1 and CXCR4 mRNA expression in lesions of low elastic strain ratio group and high elastic strain ratio group were higher than those of control group, and as the elastic strain ratio decreased, the BCORL1, SATB1, Twist1 and CXCR4 mRNA expression increased; autophagy genes ARHI, Beclin1, LC3 and PTEN mRNA expression in lesions of low elastic strain ratio group and high elastic strain ratio group were lower than those of control group, and as the elastic strain ratio decreased, the ARHI, Beclin1, LC3 and PTEN mRNA expression decreased. Conclusion: The ultrasonic elastic strain ratio of thyroid cancer is

  17. Effectiveness of systematic chromoendoscopy for diagnosis of early cancer and gastric premalignant lesions. Results of two consecutive screening campaigns in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emura, Fabian; Mejia, Juan; Mejia, Marcela; Osorio, Camilo

    2010-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the most common malignancy in South America and East Asia. In addition to the high mortality, in Colombia a great disvantage is the lack of data regarding premalignant lesions and early cancer. Aim: To evaluate the usefulness of systematic chromoendoscopy in the prevalence of early cancer and gastric premalignant lesions. A total of 950 were invited to participate, 800 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and finally 650 were analyzed. Results: None of participants had normal gastric mucosa. Mild antrum gastritis was found in 21.8% (142/650), meanwhile moderate or severe antrum gastritis in 77.4% (508/650). Atrophy and metaplasia was found in 14.5% (94/650) and 15.5% (101/650) respectively. H Pilory infection was found in 7.3%, 79.3% 75.5% 57.4% y 0% of subjects with mild, moderate and severe, atrophy, metaplasia and dysplasia respectively. Gastric premalignant lesion was found in 30% (195/650). Two subjects were diagnosed as early gastric cancer and treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) with curability as final result. Conclusions: By systematic chromoendoscopy this series has demonstrated that 1/325 healthy volunteers had early gastric cancer and that 1/33 had a premalignant lesion explaining in part the high prevalence of gastric cancer in the region. Bases on this series, gastric cancer is diagnosable and curable among healthy volunteers in Colombia.

  18. CLINICAL CASE OF A MASSIVE ISOLA TED METASTATIC ADRENAL LESION IN COLORECT AL CANCER

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    I. P. Moshurov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe liver, lungs, parietal and visceral peritoneum have traditionally been considered to be the main target organs of metastatic colorectal cancer. The isolated adrenal metastasis in colorectal cancer is rare, in the literature there are single observations of clinical cases of successful surgical treatment of such patients. This article presents the clinical observation of successful surgical treatment of patients with colorectal cancer with massive isolated adrenal metastases.

  19. Coordinating Center: Molecular and Cellular Findings of Screen-Detected Lesions | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Molecular and Cellular Characterization of Screen‐Detected Lesions ‐ Coordinating Center and Data Management Group will provide support for the participating studies responding to RFA CA14‐10. The coordinating center supports three main domains: network coordination, statistical support and computational analysis and protocol development and database support. Support for

  20. Thermoset precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Y.

    1983-04-01

    This invention pertains to a distinctive thermoset precursor which is prepared by mixing a resin composition (A) which can be hardened by ionizing radiation, and a resin composition (B) which can be hardened by heat but cannot be hardened by, or is resistant to, ionizing radiation, and by coating or impregnating a molding or other substrate with a sheet or film of this mixture and irradiating this with an ionizing radiation. The principal components of composition (A) and (B) can be the following: (1) an acrylate or methacrylate and an epoxy resin and an epoxy resin hardener; (2) an unsaturated polyester resin and epoxy resin and an epoxy resin hardener; (3) a diacrylate or dimethacrylate or polyethylene glycol and an epoxy resin; (4) an epoxy acrylates or epoxy methacrylate obtained by the addition reaction of epoxy resin and acrylic or methacrylic acid

  1. Complete resection of the primary lesion improves survival of certain patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikaishi, Yasuhiro; Shinohara, Shinji; Kuwata, Taiji; Takenaka, Masaru; Oka, Soichi; Hirai, Ayako; Yoneda, Kazue; Kuroda, Kouji; Imanishi, Naoko; Ichiki, Yoshinobu; Tanaka, Fumihiro

    2017-12-01

    The standard treatment for patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is systemic chemotherapy. However, certain patients, such as those with oligometastasis or M1a disease undergo resection of the primary lesion. We conducted a retrospective review of the records of 1,471 consecutive patients with NSCLC who underwent resection of the primary lesion for between June 2005 and May 2016. The present study included 38 patients with stage IV NSCLC who underwent complete resection of the primary lesion as first-line treatment. The median follow-up duration for the 38 patients (27 men) was 17.7 months (range, 1-82.3 months). The T factors were T1/T2/T3/T4 in 4/16/12/6 patients, respectively. The N factors were N0/N1/N2/N3 in 16/8/12/2 patients, respectively. The M factors were M1a/M1b/M1c in 19/13/6 patients, respectively. Of the 19 M1a patients, 11 were classified as cM0. We introduced the novel classification M-better/M-worse. M-better includes cM0 patients and M1b and M1c patients in whom all lesions have been locally controlled. M-worse includes cM1a patients and M1b and M1c patients in whom lesions cannot be locally controlled. The new M-better/M-worse statuses were 24/14 patients, respectively. The histology of NSCLC was adenocarcinoma/squamous cell carcinoma/others in 30/5/3 patients, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rate was 29%, and the median survival time was 725 days. Squamous cell carcinoma and M-worse were significant factors predicting poor outcomes (P=0.0017, P=0.0007, respectively). Even for stage IV NSCLC patients, resection of the primary lesion may be beneficial, especially for those with M-better status and those not diagnosed with squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC).

  2. Oncogenic human papilloma virus and cervical pre-cancerous lesions in brothel-based sex workers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalesh Sarkar

    Full Text Available Summary: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in brothel-based sex workers of West Bengal, Eastern India, to determine their oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV status and the presence of pre-cancerous lesions. A total of 229 sex workers from three districts of West Bengal participated in the study. All the study participants were interviewed with the aid of a pre-tested questionnaire to determine their sociodemographics, risk behaviour and risk perceptions after obtaining informed verbal consent. The interview was followed by collection of cervical cells from all participants using a disposable vaginal speculum and cervical cytobrush. Oncogenic HPV DNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. A simultaneous Papanicolaou test (‘Pap smear’ was performed to detect cervical cytological abnormalities. Overall, the prevalence of oncogenic HPV was found to be 25% (58/229 among the studied population. A subset (n = 112 of the sample was tested separately to determine the existence and magnitude of HPV genotypes 16 and 18. The results showed that genotype 16 was prevalent in 10% (11/112, genotype 18 in 7% (8/112 and both genotype 16 and 18 in 7% (8/112. The HPV prevalence rate showed a decreasing trend with age, being 71.4% in the 10–19 years age group, 32.3% in the 20–29 years age group, 18.3% in the 30–39 years age group and 2.5% in the ≥40 years age group (statistically significant differences, P ≤ 0.00001. Considering the duration of sex work, oncogenic HPV prevalence was found to be 55% (n = 21 and 19% (n = 35 in sex workers with a sex working duration of ≤1 year and >1 year, respectively. This difference was found to be statistically significant both by univariate and multivariate analysis. In this study, it was observed that sex workers with an average number of daily clients of six or more had an HPV prevalence of 67% (n = 6, those with four to five clients had a prevalence of 45% (n

  3. Targetable kinase-activating lesions in Ph-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publication Abstract:  Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL) is characterized by a gene-expression profile similar to that of BCR-ABL1-positive ALL, alterations of lymphoid transcription factor genes, and a poor outcome. The frequency and spectrum of genetic alterations in Ph-like ALL and its responsiveness to tyrosine kinase inhibition are undefined, especially in adolescents and adults. We performed genomic profiling of 1725 patients with precursor B-cell ALL and detailed genomic analysis of 154 patients with Ph-like ALL.

  4. Combined Inhibition of the BMP pathway and the RANK-RANKL axis in a Mixed Lytic/blastic Prostate Cancer Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Mandeep S.; Alaee, Farhang; Petrigliano, Frank A.; Sugiyama, Osamu; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; Stout, David; Dougall, William C.; Lieberman, Jay R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of combined inhibition of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) activity in a mixed lytic/blastic prostate cancer lesion in bone. Human prostate cancer cells (C4 2b) were injected into immunocompromised mice using an intratibial injection model to create mixed lytic/blastic lesions. RANK-Fc, a recombinant RANKL antagonist, was injected subcutaneously three times a week (10mg/kg) to inhibit RANKL and subsequent formation, function and survival of osteoclasts. Inhibition of BMP activity was achieved by transducing prostate cancer cells ex vivo with a retroviral vector expressing noggin (retronoggin; RN). There were three treatment groups (RANK-Fc treatment, RN treatment and combined RN and RANK-Fc treatment) and two control groups (untreated control and empty vector control for the RN treatment group). The progression of bone lesion and tumor growth was evaluated using plain radiographs, hind limb tumor size, 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose and 18F-fluoride micro PET-CT, histology and histomorphometry. Treatment with RANK-Fc alone inhibited osteolysis and transformed a mixed lytic/blastic lesion into an osteoblastic phenotype. Treatment with RN alone inhibited the osteoblastic component in a mixed lytic/blastic lesion and resulted in formation of smaller osteolytic bone lesion with smaller soft tissue size. The animals treated with both RN and RANK-Fc demonstrated delayed development of bone lesions, inhibition of osteolysis, small soft tissue tumors and preservation of bone architecture with less tumor induced new bone formation. This study suggests that combined inhibition of the RANKL and the BMP pathway may be an effective biologic therapy to inhibit the progression of established mixed lytic/blastic prostate cancer lesions in bone. PMID:21073986

  5. PKC signaling is involved in the regulation of progranulin (acrogranin/PC-cell-derived growth factor/granulin-epithelin precursor) protein expression in human ovarian cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Cueto, Laura; Arechavaleta-Velasco, Fabian; Diaz-Arizaga, Adriana; Dominguez-Lopez, Pablo; Robles-Flores, Martha

    2012-07-01

    Overexpression of progranulin (also named acrogranin, PC-cell-derived growth factor, or granulin-epithelin precursor) is associated with ovarian cancer, specifically with cell proliferation, malignancy, chemoresistance, and shortened overall survival. The objective of the current study is to identify the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of progranulin expression in ovarian cancer cell lines. We studied the relation of protein kinase C (PKC), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase A, P38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and Akt pathways on the modulation of progranulin expression levels in NIH-OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cell lines. The different pathways were examined using pharmacological inhibitors (calphostin C, LY294002, H89, SB203580, PD98059, and Akt Inhibitor), and mRNA and protein progranulin expression were analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot techniques, respectively. Inhibition of PKC signal transduction pathway by calphostin C decreased in a dose-dependent manner protein but not mRNA levels of progranulin in both ovarian cancer cell lines. LY294002 but not wortmannin, which are phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors, also diminished the expression of progranulin in both cell lines. In addition, LY294002 treatment produced a significant reduction in cell viability. Inhibition of protein kinase A, P38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and Akt did not affect progranulin protein expression. These results suggest that the PKC signaling is involved in the regulation of progranulin protein expression in 2 different ovarian cancer cell lines. Inhibiting these intracellular signal transduction pathways may provide a future therapeutic target for hindering the cellular proliferation and invasion in ovarian cancer produced by progranulin.

  6. Evaluation of selenium in biological sample of arsenic exposed female skin lesions and skin cancer patients with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolachi, Nida F.; Kazi, Tasneem G., E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com; Wadhwa, Sham K.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Baig, Jameel A.; Khan, Sumaira; Shah, Faheem

    2011-08-01

    The antagonistic effects between selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) suggest that low Se status plays an important role in arsenism development. The objective of present study was to assess Se contents in biological samples of As exposed females have skin lesions and cancer with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients. The biological samples (blood and scalp hair) of As exposed group comprises, female skin cancer (ESC) patients admitted in cancer hospitals have skin lesions (ESL) and exposed referents have not both diseases (ER), belongs to As exposed area of Pakistan. For comparative purposes, age matched female skin cancerous patient (RP) and non-cancerous females (NER) belong to non-exposed areas were also selected. The As and Se in acid digests of biological samples were pre-concentrated by complexing with chelating agent (ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate), and resulted complexes were extracted into non-ionic extractant (Triton X-114), prior to analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The enhancement factor of about 25 was obtained by pre-concentrating 10 mL of sample solutions. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by using certified reference material (BCR 397) with certified values for Se and As and standard addition method at three concentration levels in real samples. No significant differences was observed (p > 0.05) when comparing the values obtained by the proposed method, added and certified values of both elements. The biological samples of ESC patients had 2-3 folds higher As and lower Se levels as compared to RP (p < 0.001). Understudied exposed referents have high level of As and lower Se contents as compared to referents subjects of non-exposed area (p < 0.01). The higher concentration of As and lower levels of Se in biological samples of cancerous patients are consisted with reported studies. - Research Highlights: {yields} Advance extraction method for the enrichment of arsenic and selenium in biological

  7. Evaluation of selenium in biological sample of arsenic exposed female skin lesions and skin cancer patients with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolachi, Nida F.; Kazi, Tasneem G.; Wadhwa, Sham K.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Baig, Jameel A.; Khan, Sumaira; Shah, Faheem

    2011-01-01

    The antagonistic effects between selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) suggest that low Se status plays an important role in arsenism development. The objective of present study was to assess Se contents in biological samples of As exposed females have skin lesions and cancer with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients. The biological samples (blood and scalp hair) of As exposed group comprises, female skin cancer (ESC) patients admitted in cancer hospitals have skin lesions (ESL) and exposed referents have not both diseases (ER), belongs to As exposed area of Pakistan. For comparative purposes, age matched female skin cancerous patient (RP) and non-cancerous females (NER) belong to non-exposed areas were also selected. The As and Se in acid digests of biological samples were pre-concentrated by complexing with chelating agent (ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate), and resulted complexes were extracted into non-ionic extractant (Triton X-114), prior to analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The enhancement factor of about 25 was obtained by pre-concentrating 10 mL of sample solutions. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by using certified reference material (BCR 397) with certified values for Se and As and standard addition method at three concentration levels in real samples. No significant differences was observed (p > 0.05) when comparing the values obtained by the proposed method, added and certified values of both elements. The biological samples of ESC patients had 2-3 folds higher As and lower Se levels as compared to RP (p < 0.001). Understudied exposed referents have high level of As and lower Se contents as compared to referents subjects of non-exposed area (p < 0.01). The higher concentration of As and lower levels of Se in biological samples of cancerous patients are consisted with reported studies. - Research Highlights: → Advance extraction method for the enrichment of arsenic and selenium in biological matrices

  8. The diagnosis and management of pre-invasive breast disease: Promise of new technologies in understanding pre-invasive breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, Stefanie S; Pollack, Jonathan R

    2003-01-01

    Array-based comparative genomic hybridization, RNA expression profiling, and proteomic analyses are new molecular technologies used to study breast cancer. Invasive breast cancers were originally evaluated because they provided ample quantities of DNA, RNA, and protein. The application of these technologies to pre-invasive breast lesions is discussed, including methods that facilitate their implementation. Data indicate that atypical ductal hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ are precursor lesions molecularly similar to adjacent invasive breast cancer. It is expected that molecular technologies will identify breast tissue at risk for the development of unfavorable subtypes of invasive breast cancer and reveal strategies for targeted chemoprevention or eradication

  9. Assessment of Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in the Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer and Benign Lesions Versus Normal Skin:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Nürnberg, Birgit Meincke

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique that may be useful in diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). OBJECTIVES To describe OCT features in NMSC such as actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in benign lesions and to assess the diagn......BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique that may be useful in diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). OBJECTIVES To describe OCT features in NMSC such as actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in benign lesions and to assess...

  10. Alterations in Vitamin D signalling and metabolic pathways in breast cancer progression: a study of VDR, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 expression in benign and malignant breast lesions Vitamin D pathways unbalanced in breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Nair; Schmitt, Fernando; Sousa, Bárbara; Martins, Diana; Gomes, Madalena; Vieira, Daniella; Veronese, Luiz A; Milanezi, Fernanda; Paredes, Joana; Costa, José L

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease associated with different patient prognosis and responses to therapy. Vitamin D has been emerging as a potential treatment for cancer, as it has been demonstrated that it modulates proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis, among others. It acts mostly through the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the synthesis and degradation of this hormone are regulated by the enzymes CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, respectively. We aimed to study the expression of these three proteins by immunohistochemistry in a series of breast lesions. We have used a cohort comprising normal breast, benign mammary lesions, carcinomas in situ and invasive carcinomas and assessed the expression of the VDR, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 by immunohistochemistry. The results that we have obtained show that all proteins are expressed in the various breast tissues, although at different amounts. The VDR was frequently expressed in benign lesions (93.5%) and its levels of expression were diminished in invasive tumours (56.2%). Additionally, the VDR was strongly associated with the oestrogen receptor positivity in breast carcinomas. CYP27B1 expression is slightly lower in invasive carcinomas (44.6%) than in benign lesions (55.8%). In contrast, CYP24A1 expression was augmented in carcinomas (56.0% in in situ and 53.7% in invasive carcinomas) when compared with that in benign lesions (19.0%). From this study, we conclude that there is a deregulation of the Vitamin D signalling and metabolic pathways in breast cancer, favouring tumour progression. Thus, during mammary malignant transformation, tumour cells lose their ability to synthesize the active form of Vitamin D and respond to VDR-mediated Vitamin D effects, while increasing their ability to degrade this hormone

  11. LesionTracker: Extensible Open-Source Zero-Footprint Web Viewer for Cancer Imaging Research and Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Trinity; Ziegler, Erik; Lewis, Rob; Hafey, Chris; Sadow, Cheryl; Van den Abbeele, Annick D; Harris, Gordon J

    2017-11-01

    Oncology clinical trials have become increasingly dependent upon image-based surrogate endpoints for determining patient eligibility and treatment efficacy. As therapeutics have evolved and multiplied in number, the tumor metrics criteria used to characterize therapeutic response have become progressively more varied and complex. The growing intricacies of image-based response evaluation, together with rising expectations for rapid and consistent results reporting, make it difficult for site radiologists to adequately address local and multicenter imaging demands. These challenges demonstrate the need for advanced cancer imaging informatics tools that can help ensure protocol-compliant image evaluation while simultaneously promoting reviewer efficiency. LesionTracker is a quantitative imaging package optimized for oncology clinical trial workflows. The goal of the project is to create an open source zero-footprint viewer for image analysis that is designed to be extensible as well as capable of being integrated into third-party systems for advanced imaging tools and clinical trials informatics platforms. Cancer Res; 77(21); e119-22. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Alterations of telomerase activity and terminal restriction fragment in gastric cancer and its premalignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S M; Fang, D C; Luo, Y H; Lu, R; Battle, P D; Liu, W W

    2001-08-01

    In order to explore the role of alterations of telomerase activity and terminal restriction fragment (TRF) length in the development and progression of gastric cancer. Telomerase activity was detected in 176 specimens of gastric mucosa obtained through an operation or endoscopical biopsy by using the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. Meanwhile, the mean length of TRF was measured with the use of a Southern blot in part of those samples. Telomerase activity was detected in 14 of 57 (24.6%) chronic atrophy gastritis patients, six of 18 (33.3%) intestinal metaplasia patients, three of eight (37.5%) dysplasia patients and 60 of 65 (92.3%) gastric cancer patients, respectively. Normal gastric mucosa revealed no telomerase activity. No association was found between telomerase activity and any clinicopathological parameters. The mean TRF length was decreased gradually with age in normal mucosa and in gastric cancer tissue. Regression analysis demonstrated that the reduction rate in these tissues was 41 +/- 12 base pairs/year. Among 35 gastric cancers, TRF length was shown to be shorter in 20 cases (57.1%), similar in 12 cases (34.3%) and elongated in three cases (7.6%), compared to the corresponding adjacent tissues. The mean TRF length tended to decrease as the mucosa underwent chronic atrophy gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and into gastric cancer. The mean TRF length in gastric cancer was not statistically correlated with clinicopathological parameters and telomerase activity. Our results suggest that telomerase is expressed during the early stage of gastric carcinogenesis, and that the clinical significance of TRF length appears to be limited in gastric cancer.

  13. Is there just one lesion? The need for whole body skin examination in patients presenting with non-melanocytic skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Patricia Jane; Fairbanks, Sian; Bailey, Michael

    2009-10-01

    In patients presenting with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) the frequency of concurrently presenting tumours is poorly documented. Whole body skin examination is recommended but in a recent survey of Australian General Practitioners and skin cancer clinics doctors it was infrequently performed. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of concurrent skin cancer at initial presentation and therefore to examine the need for whole body skin examination for NMSC presentations. One hundred consecutive patients with a referral diagnosis indicative of NMSC were examined. Data was analysed as to the referring doctor's diagnosis, whole body skin examination findings and histology of excised lesions. Epidemiological data was obtained by patient questionnaire. One hundred patients, 41 males and 59 females, with a mean age of 70 years (range 39-91 years) underwent whole body skin examination. Sixty-seven per cent of patients were found to have additional lesions requiring treatment, 46% sin cancers (30 patients basal cell carcinomas, five squamous cell carcinomas, seven basal and squamous cell carcinomas, two lentigo maligna, two adenexal tumours) and 21% solar keratoses. Thirty-four of the additional lesions detected were in areas covered by clothing. Sixty-eight patients had a past history of skin cancer excision. In the Australian patient population, the need for whole body skin examination is essential to avoid missing concurrent lesions. Ongoing surveillance is also essential as these patients have a high risk of developing future NMSC.

  14. Mass-like Dieulafoy's lesion associated with advanced gastric cancer at the antrum of stomach: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsi-Lan; Leung, Chi Yan; Cheng, Chien-Jui

    2017-10-10

    Dieulafoy's lesion, also known as a caliber-persistent artery, is a shallow, small, and rare lesion that occurs along the lesser curvature of proximal stomach. It is rare for a Dieulafoy's lesion to present as a mass-like lesion that coexists with gastric cancer. To our best knowledge, we report the first case and histopathological pictures of a mass-like Dieulafoy's lesion coexisting with advanced gastric cancer in the antrum of the stomach. A 57-year-old female presented with a 6-month history of intermittent epigastric dull pain and dyspepsia. Subsequent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a friable mass that was located between the distal antrum and the pyloric ring. Biopsy revealed it to be an intestinal type adenocarcinoma. Subtotal gastrectomy was performed after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Grossly, a large irregular plaque-like tumor lesion was noted at the anterior wall of the distal antrum and pylorus ring near the lesser curvature, measuring 5.6 × 4.8 × 1.0 cm. Histopathological examination of the resected stomach revealed that the plaque-like lesion largely consisted of numerous abnormally large-caliber and tortuous arteries in the submucosa. The increased fibrosis of the submucosa resulted in the formation of elevated plaque. The intestinal type adenocarcinoma was noted to be largely confined to the mucosa layer, with focal submucosal and muscular propria involvement. The patient was discharged one week after the subtotal gastrectomy, and she was alive and well 17 months after discharge, with no major complications. This is the first case of a mass-like Dieulafoy's lesion coexisting with advanced gastric cancer at the distal antrum area. This case highlights the possibility of life-threatening gastric bleeding after mucosal resection or biopsy that could be encountered by endoscopists.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging-radioguided occult lesion localization (ROLL) in breast cancer using Tc-99m macro-aggregated albumin and distilled water control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philadelpho Arantes Pereira, Fernanda; Martins, Gabriela; Gregorio Calas, Maria Julia; Fonseca Torres de Oliveira, Maria Veronica; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Barbosa da Fonseca, Lea Mirian

    2013-09-18

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided wire localization presents several challenges apart from the technical difficulties. An alternative to this conventional localization method using a wire is the radio-guided occult lesion localization (ROLL), more related to safe surgical margins and reductions in excision volume. The purpose of this study was to establish a safe and reliable magnetic resonance imaging-radioguided occult lesion localization (MRI-ROLL) technique and to report our initial experience with the localization of nonpalpable breast lesions only observed on MRI. Sixteen women (mean age 53.2 years) with 17 occult breast lesions underwent radio-guided localization in a 1.5-T MR system using a grid-localizing system. All patients had a diagnostic MRI performed prior to the procedure. An intralesional injection of Technetium-99m macro-aggregated albumin followed by distilled water was performed. After the procedure, scintigraphy was obtained. Surgical resection was performed with the help of a gamma detector probe. The lesion histopathology and imaging concordance; the procedure's positive predictive value (PPV), duration time, complications, and accuracy; and the rate of exactly excised lesions evaluated with MRI six months after the surgery were assessed. One lesion in one patient had to be excluded because the radioactive substance came back after the injection, requiring a wire placement. Of the remaining cases, there were four malignant lesions, nine benign lesions, and three high-risk lesions. Surgical histopathology and imaging findings were considered concordant in all benign and high-risk cases. The PPV of MRI-ROLL was greater if the indication for the initial MR examination was active breast cancer. The median procedure duration time was 26 minutes, and all included procedures were defined as accurate. The exact and complete lesion removal was confirmed in all (100%) patients who underwent six-month postoperative MRI (50%). MRI-ROLL offers a

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging-radioguided occult lesion localization (ROLL) in breast cancer using Tc-99m macro-aggregated albumin and distilled water control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philadelpho Arantes Pereira, Fernanda; Martins, Gabriela; Gregorio Calas, Maria Julia; Fonseca Torres de Oliveira, Maria Veronica; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Barbosa da Fonseca, Lea Mirian

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided wire localization presents several challenges apart from the technical difficulties. An alternative to this conventional localization method using a wire is the radio-guided occult lesion localization (ROLL), more related to safe surgical margins and reductions in excision volume. The purpose of this study was to establish a safe and reliable magnetic resonance imaging-radioguided occult lesion localization (MRI-ROLL) technique and to report our initial experience with the localization of nonpalpable breast lesions only observed on MRI. Sixteen women (mean age 53.2 years) with 17 occult breast lesions underwent radio-guided localization in a 1.5-T MR system using a grid-localizing system. All patients had a diagnostic MRI performed prior to the procedure. An intralesional injection of Technetium-99m macro-aggregated albumin followed by distilled water was performed. After the procedure, scintigraphy was obtained. Surgical resection was performed with the help of a gamma detector probe. The lesion histopathology and imaging concordance; the procedure’s positive predictive value (PPV), duration time, complications, and accuracy; and the rate of exactly excised lesions evaluated with MRI six months after the surgery were assessed. One lesion in one patient had to be excluded because the radioactive substance came back after the injection, requiring a wire placement. Of the remaining cases, there were four malignant lesions, nine benign lesions, and three high-risk lesions. Surgical histopathology and imaging findings were considered concordant in all benign and high-risk cases. The PPV of MRI-ROLL was greater if the indication for the initial MR examination was active breast cancer. The median procedure duration time was 26 minutes, and all included procedures were defined as accurate. The exact and complete lesion removal was confirmed in all (100%) patients who underwent six-month postoperative MRI (50%). MRI-ROLL offers a

  17. Quantitative Assessment of 99mTc-Depreotide Uptake in Oesophageal Cancer and Precursor Conditions and Its Reflection in Immunohistochemically Detected Somatostatin Receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlin, G.; Aspelin, P.; Axelsson, R.; Herlin, G.; Aspelin, P.; Axelsson, R.; Lundell, L.; Ost, A.; Svensson, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) are over-expressed in several tumors making it possible for imaging with labelled SSTR. A previous study showed feasibility to image oesophageal cancer with SSTR analogue 99m Tc-depreotide. Purpose. (1) To investigate expression of the SSTRs in different types of esophageal carcinoma and (2) to correlate such an expression with 99m Tc-depreotide uptake in these lesions. Material and Methods. Total 28 patients (17 with esophageal cancer and 11 with Barrett’s esophagus) were examined with 99m Tc-depreotide scintigraphy. The SSTR2A, SSTR2B, SSTR3, and SSTR5 were analyzed immunohistochemically in the lesion samples. Results. Among the patients with adenocarcinoma 10/11 expressed different amounts of SSTRs, while SSTRs were absent in 5/6 patients with Squamous cell carcinoma (Sqcc). There was no correlation neither between the 99m Tc-depreotide uptake and the amount of SSTRs nor between the amount of SSTRs and differentiation grade of the tumor. Conclusions. (1) SSTRs are expressed in esophageal carcinoma and more abundantly so in adenocancer specimens; (2) in vivo 99m Tc-depreotide uptake does not obviously correlate with the immunohistochemically detection of SSTRs of different subtypes in esophageal carcinoma.

  18. Quantitative Assessment of 99mTc-Depreotide Uptake in Oesophageal Cancer and Precursor Conditions and Its Reflection in Immunohistochemically Detected Somatostatin Receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlin, Gunnar; Lundell, Lars; Öst, Åke; Aspelin, Peter; Svensson, Leif; Axelsson, Rimma

    2012-01-01

    Background. Somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) are over-expressed in several tumors making it possible for imaging with labelled SSTR. A previous study showed feasibility to image oesophageal cancer with SSTR analogue 99m Tc-depreotide. Purpose. (1) To investigate expression of the SSTRs in different types of esophageal carcinoma and (2) to correlate such an expression with 99m Tc-depreotide uptake in these lesions. Material and Methods. Total 28 patients (17 with esophageal cancer and 11 with Barrett's esophagus) were examined with 99m Tc-depreotide scintigraphy. The SSTR2A, SSTR2B, SSTR3, and SSTR5 were analyzed immunohistochemically in the lesion samples. Results. Among the patients with adenocarcinoma 10/11 expressed different amounts of SSTRs, while SSTRs were absent in 5/6 patients with Squamous cell carcinoma (Sqcc). There was no correlation neither between the 99m Tc-depreotide uptake and the amount of SSTRs nor between the amount of SSTRs and differentiation grade of the tumor. Conclusions. (1) SSTRs are expressed in esophageal carcinoma and more abundantly so in adenocancer specimens; (2) in vivo 99m Tc-depreotide uptake does not obviously correlate with the immunohistochemically detection of SSTRs of different subtypes in esophageal carcinoma

  19. Chernobyl-Related Cancer and Precancerous Lesions: Incidence Increase vs. Late Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V.

    2014-01-01

    The reported incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in Soviet Union before the Chernobyl accident was lower than in other developed countries. This is not clearly recognizable from the literature because comparisons of the high incidence figures 4 years after the accident and later have been made with those from the first years after the accident, when the registered incidence had already started to increase. Considering the low pre-accident registered incidence, there was an accumulated pool of undiagnosed thyroid tumors before the accident. The percentage of more advanced cancers, larger in size and less differentiated, was higher after the accident, when the pool of neglected cancers was diagnosed due to the screening and improved diagnostics. Some of these advanced tumors found by screening were interpreted as aggressive radiogenic cancers. The same tendency might be true also for other cancers, e.g. renal cell carcinoma. Furthermore, the screening-effect, false-positivity and registration of non-exposed patients as Chernobyl victims has obviously contributed to the registered incidence increase of malignancy. PMID:25249833

  20. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SINGLE AND COMBINATION FEATURE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING CERVICAL CANCER LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pradeep Kumar Kenny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the third most common form of cancer affecting women especially in third world countries. The predominant reason for such alarming rate of death is primarily due to lack of awareness and proper health care. As they say, prevention is better than cure, a better strategy has to be put in place to screen a large number of women so that an early diagnosis can help in saving their lives. One such strategy is to implement an automated system. For an automated system to function properly a proper set of features have to be extracted so that the cancer cell can be detected efficiently. In this paper we compare the performances of detecting a cancer cell using a single feature versus a combination feature set technique to see which will suit the automated system in terms of higher detection rate. For this each cell is segmented using multiscale morphological watershed segmentation technique and a series of features are extracted. This process is performed on 967 images and the data extracted is subjected to data mining techniques to determine which feature is best for which stage of cancer. The results thus obtained clearly show a higher percentage of success for combination feature set with 100% accurate detection rate.

  1. Reproductive Tract infections and Premalignant Lesions of Cervix: Evidence from Women Presenting at the Cancer Detection Centre of the Indian Cancer Society, Delhi, 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Subhojit; Pahwa, Parika; Mishra, Arti; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K

    2016-10-01

    Burden of cervical cancer (CC) is highest for women in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Human papillomavirus (HPV) is implicated as the necessary cause of CC although a number of other factors aid the long process of CC development. One among them is the presence of reproductive tract infections (RTIs). This study investigated the associations between RTIs and CC from India. This study utilized secondary data from the Cancer Detection Centre of the ICS, Delhi. Data were accessed from MS access database and were analyzed using MS Excel and SPSS 16.0. Multivariate analysis using unconditional logistic regression produced odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). This study used data from 11,427 women over a period of 2000-2012. Women with RTIs had Candida, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) or coccoid infections with all having similar prevalence (~4-5 %). 9.4 % of women had premalignant lesions of cervix; ASCUS was most common (7.9 %) followed by LSIL (1.3 %). TV was significantly associated with ASCUS, LSIL and all premalignant lesions of cervix (P Lack of awareness and hygiene, and limited access to gynecologists in LMICs lead to frequent and persistent RTIs which aid and abet HPV infection and CC occurrence. These also need to be addressed to reduce CC and RTIs among women in LMICs.

  2. Bone-targeted cabazitaxel nanoparticles for metastatic prostate cancer skeletal lesions and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdowski, Andrew S; Ranjan, Amalendu; Sarker, Marjana R; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel cabazitaxel bone targeted nanoparticle (NP) system for improved drug delivery to the bone microenvironment. Nanoparticles were developed using poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) and cabazitaxel as the core with amino-bisphosphonate surface conjugation. Optimization of nanoparticle physiochemical properties, in vitro evaluation in prostate cancer cell lines and in vivo testing in an intraosseous model of metastatic prostate cancer was performed. This bone targeted cabazitaxel nanocarrier system showed significant reduction in tumor burden, while at the same time maintaining bone structure integrity and reducing pain in the mouse tumor limb. This bone microenvironment targeted nanoparticle system and clinically relevant approach of evaluation represents a promising advancement for treating bone metastatic cancer.

  3. [Early detection of ovarian cancer: tomorrow? A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chene, G; Penault-Llorca, F; Robin, N; Cayre, A; Provencher, D M; Dauplat, J

    2013-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal of the gynaecological malignancies because this «silent killer» is almost always diagnosed at an advanced stage. Precursor lesions have at least been discovered. This review will describe in details specific features of tubal and ovarian preinvasive lesions and the old and novel techniques that could be used for early detection of ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The association of colonoscopy quality indicators with the detection of screen-relevant lesions, adverse events, and postcolonoscopy cancers in an asymptomatic Canadian colorectal cancer screening population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsden, Robert J; Dube, Catherine; Heitman, Steven J; Bridges, Ronald; McGregor, S Elizabeth; Rostom, Alaa

    2015-11-01

    Although several quality indicators of colonoscopy have been defined, quality assurance activities should be directed at the measurement of quality indicators that are predictive of key screening colonoscopy outcomes. The goal of this study was to examine the association among established quality indicators and the detection of screen-relevant lesions (SRLs), adverse events, and postcolonoscopy cancers. Historical cohort study. Canadian colorectal cancer screening center. A total of 18,456 asymptomatic men and women ages 40 to 74, at either average risk or increased risk for colorectal cancer because of a family history, who underwent a screening colonoscopy from 2008 to 2010. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we explored the association among procedural quality indicators and 3 colonoscopy outcomes: detection of SRLs, adverse events, and postcolonoscopy cancers. The crude rates of SRLs, adverse events, and postcolonoscopy cancers were 240, 6.44, and .54 per 1000 colonoscopies, respectively. Several indicators, including endoscopist withdrawal time (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4) and cecal intubation rate (OR, 13.9; 95% CI, 1.9-96.9), were associated with the detection of SRLs. No quality indicator was associated with the risk of adverse events. Endoscopist average withdrawal time over 6 minutes (OR, .12; 95% CI, .002-.85) and SRL detection rate over 20% (OR, .17; 95% CI, .03-.74) were associated with a reduced risk of postcolonoscopy cancers. Single-center study. Quality assurance programs should prioritize the measurement of endoscopist average withdrawal time and adenoma (SRL) detection rate. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Essentials of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators.

  6. Estimation of the frequency of positive biopsies for cancer in patients with diagnosis by images of breast lesion BIRADS 3, Hospital Mexico, 2007-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obando Valverde, Aiza

    2013-01-01

    The histopathological findings have been described in patients with diagnosis by images of BIRADS 3, at the Hospital Mexico during the years 2007-2009. The histopathological findings have enrolled patients with diagnosis by images of lesion probably benign. The percentage of positive biopsies for cancer in patients BIRADS 3 was determined and compared the finding, with data found in the international literature. The stadium has been determined at the time of positive histopathological diagnosis for cancer in patients with breast lesions scheduled by images as BIRADS 3. The findings of the present study have recollected without enough evidence to justify taking biopsies, suggesting that conservative management would be sufficient for diagnosis approach of lesions BIRADS 3 [es

  7. Clinical value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in differentiation between benign lesions and lung cancer for large shadows in patients with pneumoconiosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳丽

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value ofF-FDG PET/CT in the differentiation between benign lesions and lung cancer for large shadows in patients with pneumoconiosis.Methods A retrospective study was conducted in21 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of pneumoconiosis who had a total of 37 large shadows in the lung fields as

  8. Trends in the incidence of cervical cancer and severe precancerous lesions in Denmark, 1997-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Munk, Christian; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane

    2015-01-01

    the Danish incidence trends during 1997-2011 when cervical screening coverage was high. Incidences of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) were also assessed, with the latest part of the study period coinciding with introduction of free-of-charge human......PURPOSE: The incidence of cervical cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), has been decreasing in several developed countries since the onset of organized screening programs; in some countries, however, the incidence of adenocarcinoma has increased among young women. We investigated......, importantly, they decreased significantly during 2009-2012 in women aged ≤20 years. CONCLUSIONS: The Danish screening program has successfully reduced the incidence of cervical cancer, especially of SCC in older women; however, the program has not significantly reduced the incidence in young women...

  9. Cell cycle regulatory proteins and miRNAs in premalignant lesions and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Björner, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis and reliable prognosis and treatment prediction of breast cancer will ultimately lead to a decreased mortality rate. This can be achieved by identification of prognostic and treatment predictive biomarkers, and by understanding the mechanisms behind early changes in the breast. The cell cycle is a closely controlled process, involving multiple components with regulation on several levels. Loss of adequate cell proliferation control and cell cycle regulation is one of the ma...

  10. The Influence of Primary Microenvironment on Prostate Cancer Osteoblastic Bone LesionDevelopment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    their normal niche . INTEGRINS IN PCa PROGRESSION Integrins are a large family of cell-surface glycoproteins, which form heterodimeric adhesion...might be induc- ing the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis and thus promoting PCa metastasis. PCa cells home toward areas in the bone marrow rich in osteoblasts where the...hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche resides. In fact, PCa cells can bind to and displace mouse HSCs from the niche . Furthermore, the cancer cells

  11. Repositioning chloroquine and metformin to eliminate cancer stem cell traits in pre-malignant lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; López-Bonetc, Eugeni; Cufí, Sílvia; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Del Barco, Sonia; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Menendez, Javier A.

    2011-01-01

    Ideal oncology drugs would be curative after a short treatment course if they could eliminate epithelium-originated carcinomas at their non-invasive, pre-malignant stages. Such ideal molecules, which are expected to molecularly abrogate all the instrumental mechanisms acquired by migrating cancer stem cells (CSCs) to by-pass tumour suppressor barriers, might already exist. We here illustrate how system biology strategies for repositioning existing FDA-approved drugs may accelerate our therape...

  12. Penile cancer: epidemiology, pathogenesis and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, M C G; Heideman, D A M; Snijders, P J F; Horenblas, S; Dillner, J; Meijer, C J L M

    2009-04-01

    Penile cancer is a disease with a high morbidity and mortality. Its prevalence is relatively rare, but the highest in some developing countries. Insight into its precursor lesions, pathogenesis and risk factors offers options to prevent this potentially mutilating disease. This review presents an overview of the different histologically and clinically identified precursor lesions of penile cancer and discusses the molecular pathogenesis, including the role of HPV in penile cancer development. A systematic review of the literature evaluating penile carcinogenesis, risk factors and molecular mechanisms involved. Careful monitoring of men with lichen sclerosis, genital Bowen's disease, erythroplasia of Queyrat and bowenoid papulosis seems useful, thereby offering early recognition of penile cancer and, subsequently, conservative therapeutic options. Special attention is given to flat penile lesions, which contain high numbers of HPV. Their role in HPV transmission to sexual partners is highlighted, but their potential to transform as a precursor lesion into penile cancer has been unsatisfactorily explored. Further research should not only focus on HPV mediated pathogenic pathways but also on the non-HPV related molecular and genetic factors that play a role in penile cancer development. Options for prevention of penile cancer include (neonatal) circumcision, limitation of penile HPV infections (either by prophylactic vaccination or condom use), prevention of phimosis, treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions, limiting PUVA treatment, smoking cessation and hygienic measures.

  13. FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in normal prostate tissue, postatrophic hyperplasia, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and tumor histological lesions in men with and without prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Sabina; Andren, Ove; Ohlson, Anna-Lena; Carlsson, Jessica; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Giunchi, Francesca; Rider, Jennifer R; Fiorentino, Michelangelo

    2018-01-01

    The tumor promoting or counteracting effects of the immune response to cancer development are thought to be mediated to some extent by the infiltration of regulatory T cells (T regs ). In the present study we evaluated the prevalence of T reg populations in stromal and epithelial compartments of normal, post atrophic hyperplasia (PAH), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and tumor lesions in men with and without prostate cancer. Study subjects were 102 men consecutively diagnosed with localized prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy and 38 men diagnosed with bladder cancer undergoing cystoprostatectomy without prostate cancer at the pathological examination. Whole mount sections from all patients were evaluated for the epithelial and stromal expression of CD4 + T regs and CD8 + T regs in normal, PAH, PIN, and tumor lesions. A Friedmańs test was used to investigate differences in the mean number of T regs across histological lesions. Logistic regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for prostate cancer for each histological area. In men with prostate cancer, similarly high numbers of stromal CD4 + T regs were identified in PAH and tumor, but CD4 + T regs were less common in PIN. Greater numbers of epithelial CD4+ T regs in normal prostatic tissue were positively associated with both Gleason score and pT-stage. We observed a fourfold increased risk of prostate cancer in men with epithelial CD4 + T regs in the normal prostatic tissue counterpart. Our results may suggest a possible pathway through which PAH develops directly into prostate cancer in the presence of CD4 + T regs and indicate that transformation of the anti-tumor immune response may be initiated even before the primary tumor is established. © 2017 The Authors. The Prostate Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  14. Rastreamento de lesões precursoras do carcinoma espino-celular anal em indivíduos portadores do HIV Tracking precursor lesions of anal squamous cell carcinoma in individuals with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Sergio Rizkallah Nahas

    2011-06-01

    ,000 inhabitants. METHODS: Was performed literature review in consultation with periodic Medline / Pubmed, Lilacs and Scielo crossing Trackingm, Precancerous conditions, Anus neoplasms and HIV descriptors. Besides the review,was added to this work the authors'personal experiences, and obtained at the Department of Gastroenterology - Surgical Division, in ICESP - Cancer Institute of the State of São Paulo Octavio Frias de Oliveira, in Department of Diseases Infectious - House of AIDS and in the Department of Coloproctology, Hospital das Clinicas, University of São Paulo, Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: HIV + is a major risk factor in developing squamous cell carcinoma anal in individuals infected with HPV. The evaluation of these patients should not restrict itself to the eradication of warts, but mainly include the screening of subclinical dysplastic lesions potentially neoplastic. Despite the screening methods are still not ideal, the great benefit of screening is based on the fact offer closely monitored, making possible the prevention or detection of increasingly early anal squamous cell carcinoma.

  15. Diffusion-weighted imaging as part of hybrid PET/MRI protocols for whole-body cancer staging: Does it benefit lesion detection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchbender, Christian, E-mail: christian.buchbender@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Hartung-Knemeyer, Verena, E-mail: verena.hartung@uk-essen.de [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Beiderwellen, Karsten, E-mail: karsten.beiderwellen@uk-essen.de [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Heusch, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.heusch@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Kühl, Hilmar, E-mail: hilmar.kuehl@uni-due.de [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Lauenstein, Thomas C., E-mail: thomas.lauenstein@uk-essen.de [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Forsting, Michael, E-mail: michael.forsting@uk-essen.de [Univ Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Hufelandstr. 55, D-45147 Essen (Germany); Antoch, Gerald, E-mail: antoch@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany); Heusner, Till A., E-mail: heusner@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Univ Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Moorenstr. 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) requires efficient scan protocols for whole-body cancer staging. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the application of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) results in a diagnostic benefit for lesion detection in oncologic patients if added to a whole-body [18F]-fluorodesoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG) PET/MRI protocol. Methods: 25 consecutive oncologic patients (16 men, 9 women; age 57 ± 12 years) prospectively underwent whole-body [18F]-FDG-PET/MRI including DWI on a hybrid PET/MRI scanner. A team of two readers assessed [18F]-FDG PET/MRI without DWI for primary tumors and metastases. In a second session, now considering DWI, readers reassessed [18F]-FDG PET/MRI accordingly. Additionally, the lesion-to-background contrast on [18F]-FDG PET and DWI was rated qualitatively (0, invisible; 1, low; 2, intermediate; 3, high). Wilcoxon's signed-rank test was performed to test for differences in the lesion-to-background contrast. Results: 49 lesions were detected in 16 patients (5 primaries, 44 metastases). All 49 lesions were concordantly detected by [18F]-FDG PET/MRI alone and [18F]-FDG PET/MRI with DWI. The lesion-to-background contrast on DWI compared to [18F]-FDG PET was rated lower in 22 (44.9%) of 49 detected lesions resulting in a significantly higher lesion-to-background contrast on [18F]-FDG PET compared to DWI (P = 0.001). Conclusions: DWI as part of whole-body [18F]-FDG PET/MRI does not benefit lesion detection. Given the necessity to optimize imaging protocols with regard to patient comfort and efficacy, DWI has to be questioned as a standard tool for whole-body staging in oncologic PET/MRI.

  16. Can 16-detector multislice CT exclude skeletal lesions during tumour staging? Implications for the cancer patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves, Ashley M.; Beadsmoore, Clare J.; Courtney, Helen M.; Harish, Srinivasan; Bearcroft, Philip W.P.; Dixon, Adrian K.; Cheow, Heok K.; Balan, Kottekkattu K.; Kaptoge, Stephen; Win, Thida

    2006-01-01

    Current imaging guidelines recommend that many cancer patients undergo soft-tissue staging by computed tomography (CT) whilst the bones are imaged by skeletal scintigraphy (bone scan). New CT technology has now made it feasible, for the first time, to perform a detailed whole-body skeletal CT. This advancement could save patients from having to undergo duplicate investigations. Forty-three patients with known malignancy were investigated for bone metastasis using skeletal scintigraphy and 16-detector multislice CT. Both studies were performed within six weeks of each other. Whole-body images were taken 4 h after injection of 500 Mbq 99m Tc-MDP using a gamma camera. CT was performed on a 16-detector multislice CT machine from the vertex to the knee. The examinations were reported independently and discordant results were compared at follow-up. Statistical equivalence between the two techniques was tested using the Newcombe-Wilson method within the pre-specified equivalence limits of ±20%. Scintigraphy detected bone metastases in 14/43 and CT in 13/43 patients. There were seven discordances; four cases were positive on scintigraphy, but negative on CT; three cases were positive on CT and negative on scintigraphy. There was equivalence between scintigraphy and CT in detecting bone metastases within ±19% equivalence limits. Patients who have undergone full whole-body staging on 16-detector CT may not need additional skeletal scintigraphy. This should shorten the cancer patient's diagnostic pathway. (orig.)

  17. Glycoproteomic analysis of serum from patients with gastric precancerous lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Catarina; Almeida, Andreia; Ferreira, José Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer is preceded by a carcinogenesis pathway that includes gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori infection, chronic atrophic gastritis that may progress to intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia, and ultimately gastric carcinoma of the more common intestinal subtype. The identification...... of glycosylation changes in circulating serum proteins in patients with precursor lesions of gastric cancer is of high interest and represents a source of putative new biomarkers for early diagnosis and intervention. This study applies a glycoproteomic approach to identify altered glycoproteins expressing...... the simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens T and STn in the serum of patients with gastritis, IM (complete and incomplete subtypes), and control healthy individuals. The immunohistochemistry analysis of the gastric mucosa of these patients showed expression of T and STn antigens in gastric lesions, with STn...

  18. Lesion-based detection of early chemosensitivity using serial static FDG PET/CT in metastatic colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buvat, Irene; Necib, Hatem [IMNC UMR 8165 CNRS - Paris 7 and Paris 11 Universities, Orsay cedex (France); Garcia, Camilo; Wagner, Antoine; Vanderlinden, Bruno; Flamen, Patrick [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Nuclear Medicine Department, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Emonts, Patrick [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Radiology Department, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Hendlisz, Alain [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Digestive Oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Medical oncology needs early identification of patients that are not responding to systemic therapy. {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) performed before and early during treatment has been proposed for this purpose. However, the best way to assess the change in FDG uptake between two scans has not been identified. We studied cutoff thresholds to identify responding tumours as a function of the method used to measure tumour uptake. The study included 28 metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients who underwent 2 FDG PET/CT scans (baseline and at day 14 of the first course of polychemotherapy). For 78 tumour lesions, 4 standardized uptake value (SUV) indices were measured: maximum SUV (SUV{sub max}) and mean SUV in a region obtained using an isocontour (SUV{sub 40} {sub %}), with each of these SUV normalized either by the patient body weight (BW) or body surface area (BSA). The per cent change and absolute change in tumour uptake between the baseline and the early PET scans were measured based on these four indices. These changes were correlated to the RECIST 1.0-based response using contrast-enhanced CT at baseline and at 6-8 weeks on treatment. The 78 tumours were classified as non-responding (NRL, n = 58) and responding lesions (RL, n = 20). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves characterizing the performance in NRL/RL classification using early FDG PET uptake had areas under the curve between 0.75 and 0.84, without significant difference between the indices. The cutoff threshold in FDG uptake per cent change to get a 95 % sensitivity of RL detection depended on the way uptake was measured: -14 % (specificity of 53 %) and -22 % (specificity of 64 %) for SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub 40} {sub %}, respectively. Thresholds expressed as absolute SUV decrease instead of per cent change were less sensitive to the SUV definition: an SUV decline by 1.2 yielded a sensitivity of RL detection of 95 % for SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub 40

  19. Low tube voltage CT for improved detection of pancreatic cancer: detection threshold for small, simulated lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, Jon; Loizou, Louiza; Albiin, Nils; Kartalis, Nikolaos; Leidner, Bertil; Sundin, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is associated with dismal prognosis. The detection of small pancreatic tumors which are still resectable is still a challenging problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of decreasing the tube voltage from 120 to 80 kV on the detection of pancreatic tumors. Three scanning protocols was used; one using the standard tube voltage (120 kV) and current (160 mA) and two using 80 kV but with different tube currents (500 and 675 mA) to achieve equivalent dose (15 mGy) and noise (15 HU) as that of the standard protocol. Tumors were simulated into collected CT phantom images. The attenuation in normal parenchyma at 120 kV was set at 130 HU, as measured previously in clinical examinations, and the tumor attenuation was assumed to differ 20 HU and was set at 110HU. By scanning and measuring of iodine solution with different concentrations the corresponding tumor and parenchyma attenuation at 80 kV was found to be 185 and 219 HU, respectively. To objectively evaluate the differences between the three protocols, a multi-reader multi-case receiver operating characteristic study was conducted, using three readers and 100 cases, each containing 0–3 lesions. The highest reader averaged figure-of-merit (FOM) was achieved for 80 kV and 675 mA (FOM = 0,850), and the lowest for 120 kV (FOM = 0,709). There was a significant difference between the three protocols (p < 0,0001), when making an analysis of variance (ANOVA). Post-hoc analysis (students t-test) shows that there was a significant difference between 120 and 80 kV, but not between the two levels of tube currents at 80 kV. We conclude that when decreasing the tube voltage there is a significant improvement in tumor conspicuity

  20. Reproducibilidad del diagnóstico histopatológico de lesiones precursoras del carcinoma gástrico en tres países latinoamericanos Reproducibility of histopathologic diagnosis of precursor lesions of gastric carcinoma in three Latin American countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kasamatsu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la concordancia en el diagnóstico de lesiones precursoras del carcinoma gástrico de tipo intestinal entre observadores con diferente experiencia. Material y métodos. Se estudiaron 1 056 casos de biopsias gástricas: 341 de Colombia, 382 de México y 333 de Paraguay. En el diagnóstico de cada caso participaron patólogos sin experiencia en patología gastrointestinal (A, patólogos con experiencia en patología gastrointestinal (B y expertos que trabajan en un centro de referencia internacional (C. Resultados. La concordancia (k entre patólogos inexpertos y expertos fue pobre en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica (k=0.04 a 0.12 y displasia (k=0.11 a 0.05 y buena en el diagnóstico de metaplasia intestinal (k=0.52 a 0.58; la supervisión de un patólogo inexperto por un experto mejoró notablemente la concordancia en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica (k=0.65 y metaplasia intestinal (k=0.91 y, en un menor grado, de displasia (k=0.28. Al comparar la concordancia entre expertos antes y después de la reunión de consenso no hubo variación en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica (k=0.57; la concordancia varió de buena a excelente en el de metaplasia intestinal (k=0.67 a 0.81 y de pobre a buena en el de displasia (k=0.18 a 0.66. Conclusión. Los principales problemas se presentan en el diagnóstico de la gastritis crónica atrófica y la displasia. La concordancia interobservador depende de la experiencia del observador y la lectura de consenso.Objective. The aim was to evaluate the concordance in the diagnosis of precursor lesions of intestinal-type gastric carcinoma among observers with different levels of experience. Material and Methods. Gastric biopsies from 1 056 cases were studied: 341 from Colombia, 382 from Mexico, and 333 from Paraguay. Pathologists without experience (A and with experience (B in gastrointestinal pathology, as well as experts working in an international reference center (C participated in

  1. High percentage of oral lichen planus and lichenoid lesion in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruokonen, Hellevi M A; Juurikivi, Aino; Kauppila, Timo; Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta

    2017-08-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) and lichenoid lesions (OLL) are regarded as precursor lesions of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with potential for malignant transformation. This potential is not clear due to difficulties in diagnosis of OLP and OLL. Our aim was therefore to evaluate previously identified OLP and OLL as precursor lesions in OSCC and to identify cancer related etiological factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We retrospectively reviewed all cases (total 323, comprising 164 females and 159 males) with OSCC treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases and Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital during 2015. Confirmed by histopathological biopsy, 58 (17.9%) had OLP and 13 had OLL (4.0%) as precursor lesion. Patients with OLP were slightly older than those without it. OLP was more common in females than in males (p < .0001). TN class 1 tumors were more prevalent among patients with OLP or OLL (p = .006) and cancer relapses less common (p = .005). Smoking was less frequent in patients with OLP and OLL (p < .0001). Also alcohol abuse was less frequent among these patients (p < .001). Our findings confirm the importance of active follow-up of all patients with OLP and OLL even in patients who do not fit a traditional high-risk category for OSCC.

  2. Prophylaxis and treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral lesions in patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denga O.V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to study the efficacy of developed multimodality therapy and prophylaxis of complications of chemotherapy in the oral cavity of patients with breast cancer. We studied activity of elastase, lysozyme, catalase, urease, malondialdehyde content and the degree of dysbiosis in the oral fluid of patients with breast cancer after chemotherapy, dental prophylaxis, professional oral hygiene and accompanying multimodality therapy. At baseline elastase activity was above normal by 4 times. In 1 month it decreased by 2.1 times. After 6 months it decreased to normal level. The primary analysis showed a decrease of lysozyme activity by 9 times. After 1 month it increased by 4.4 times, and after 6 months – by 9.7 times. At baseline urease activity was several times higher than normal level. After 1 month it decreased by 49.0%, and after 6 months - up to the normal level. The degree of dysbiosis (DD in the oral cavity revealed a very high values of this parameter (mean - 46. After 6 months DD was 1.5. At ba¬seline catalase activity was low. After 1 month it increased by 4.3 times, and then it correspond to the normal values. At baseline the content of malondialdehyde (MDA was increased by 66.7%. After 1 month it decreased by 40.4% and corresponded to normal values. After 3 and 6 months the rate remained at a low level. Study showed a high therapeutic efficacy of the proposed multimodality therapy. The scheme can be used for treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis.

  3. Biomarkers for screening of lung cancer and pre-neoplastic lesions in a high risk Chilean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I Adonis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mortality of lung cancer (LC, increases each year in the world, in spite of any advances, in development of new drugs to advance stages of LC. The high incidence of LC has been associated with smoking habit, genetic diversity and environmental pollution. Antofagasta region has been reported to have the highest LC mortality rate in Chile and its inhabitants were exposed to arsenic in their drinking water in concentrations as high as 870 μg/L. Non-invasive techniques such as biomarkers (Automatic Quantitative Cytometry: AQC and DR70 and Auto Fluorescence Bronchoscopy (AFB might be potentially useful as a supplementary diagnostic approach and early detection. Early detection is one of the most important factors to intervene and prevent cancer progression in LC. This is a work of an ongoing prospective bimodality cancer surveillance study in high risk LC volunteers. Enrolment was done in subjects from Antofagasta and Metropolitan regions. In addition, we enrolled subjects who were suspected of having lung cancer. AQC, DR70 and AFB were used as tools in the detection of pre-neoplastic (PNL and neoplastic lesions (NL. RESULTS: Half of the samples, classified as suspicious by AFB, were confirmed as metaplasia or dysplasia by histopathology. For LC, DR70 showed a higher sensitivity (95.8% and specificity (91.9% than AQC. However, for PNL AQC showed a higher sensitivity (91.9% than DR70 (27.3%, although both with low PPV values. As a pre screener, both biomarkers might be employed as complementary tools to detect LC, especially as serially combined tests, with a sensitivity of 60% and a PPV of 65.2%. Additionally, the use of parallel combined tests might support the detection of PNL (sensitivity 91.2%; PPV 49.1%. CONCLUSION: This work adds information on cellular and molecular biomarkers to complement imaging techniques for early detection of LC in Latin America that might contribute to formulate policies concerning screening of LC

  4. High Prevalence of Anal Human Papillomavirus-Associated Cancer Precursors in a Contemporary Cohort of Asymptomatic HIV-Infected Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Isabelle; Etienney, Isabelle; Potard, Valérie; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Moore, Catherine; Lesage, Anne-Carole; Ressiot, Emmanuelle; Crenn-Hebert, Catherine; Fléjou, Jean-François; Cubie, Heather; Costagliola, Dominique; Darragh, Teresa M

    2015-05-15

    Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women are at high risk for anal cancer, few data have been published on prevalence of and risk factors for anal precancer and potential screening strategies in this risk group. A cross-sectional anal screening study was nested in a gynecological cohort of HIV-infected women. Anal swab specimens were collected for cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. High-resolution anoscopy, with biopsy when indicated, was systematically performed. Among the 171 enrolled women, median age was 47.3 years and 98% were receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. Median CD4(+) count was 655 cells/µL and HIV load was associated with increased risk of HG-AIN+. Abnormal anal cytology and HPV-16 infection performed best as a screening strategy for HG-AIN+ histology, with positive likelihood ratios of 3.4 (95% CI, 2.3-5.1) and 4.7 (95% CI, 2.5-8.7) and negative likelihood ratios of 0.2 (95% CI, .07-.8) and 0.4 (95% CI, .2-.9), respectively. HIV-infected women with a history of HPV-associated cervical disease are at increased risk for HG-AIN+ and should be offered anal cancer screening. Anal cytology and HPV-16 genotyping had the best screening performance. Anal cytology is easy to perform routinely; it may be the best candidate for screening for HG-AIN among HIV-infected women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Pancreatic Cancer Arising From the Remnant Pancreas: Is It a Local Recurrence or New Primary Lesion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Daisuke; Chikamoto, Akira; Masuda, Toshiro; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Imai, Katsunori; Yamashita, Yo-Ichi; Reber, Howard A; Baba, Hideo

    2017-10-01

    Local recurrence of pancreatic cancer (PC) can occur in the pancreatic remnant. In addition, new primary PC can develop in the remnant. There are limited data available regarding this so-called remnant PC. The aim of this review was to describe the characteristics and therapeutic strategy regarding remnant PC. A literature search was performed using Medline published in English according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The incidence of remnant PC has been reported to be 3% to 5%. It is difficult to distinguish local recurrence from new primary PC. Genetic diagnosis such as Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog mutation may resolve this problem. For patients with remnant PC, repeated pancreatectomy can be performed. Residual total pancreatectomy is the most common procedure. Recent studies have described the safety of the operation because of recent surgical progress and perioperative care. The patients with remnant PC without distant metastasis have shown good long-term outcomes, especially those who underwent repeated pancreatectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy may contribute to longer survival. In conclusion, this review found that both local recurrence and new primary PC can develop in the pancreatic remnant. Repeated pancreatectomy for the remnant PC is a feasible procedure and can prolong patient survival.

  6. Total Lesion Glycolysis and Sequential (90)Y-Selective Internal Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Liver Metastases: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagni, Oreste; Filippi, Luca; Pelle, Giuseppe; Cianni, Roberto; Schillaci, Orazio

    2015-12-01

    To assess the prognostic role of total lesion glycolysis (TLG) in patients with breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM) after sequential lobar (90)Y-radioembolization ((90)Y-RE). Seventeen patients with bilobar BCLM underwent FDG PET/CT and TLG calculation before (90)Y-RE. The hepatic lobe with the highest TLG was treated in the first session. PET was performed 6 weeks postprocedure and decrease in TLG (ΔTLG) in the treated lobe was calculated before the second (90)Y administration. Subjects were divided in two groups (group 1: ΔTLG >50%, group 2: ΔTLG 50% and seven had a ΔTLG value 50% and ΔTLG <50% had a mean OS of 16.4 ± 0.6 and 10.3 ± 0.4 months, respectively (p < 0.001). Cox regression analysis demonstrated hepatic tumor load (p = 0.048) and ΔTLG as the only significant (p = 0.005) predictors of survival. ΔTLG after the first (90)Y administration agrees with final outcome in BCLM patients after separate sequential lobar (90)Y-RE.

  7. Randomized clinical evaluation of self-screening for anal cancer precursors in men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampinen Thomas M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-collection of anorectal swab specimens could greatly facilitate the completion of prerequisite studies and future implementation of anal cancer screening among men who have sex with men (MSM. We therefore compared self- versus clinician- collection procedures with respect to specimen adequacy for cytological evaluation, concordance of paired cytological results, and concordance of cytological with biopsy results. Methods Paired self- and clinician- collected anorectal Dacron® swabs for liquid-based (Thin Prep® cytological evaluation were collected in random sequence from a mostly HIV-1 seronegative cohort of young MSM in Vancouver. Slides were reviewed by one cytopathologist. Presence of any cytological abnormality (atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance, ASCUS, or above prompted referral for high-resolution anoscopy and possible biopsy. Results Among 222 patient-clinician specimen pairs, most were adequate for cytological evaluation, though self-collected specimens were less likely to be so (83% versus 92%, McNemar's test p Conclusion Self-collection of anorectal swab specimens for cytologic screening in research and possibly clinical settings appears feasible, particularly if specimen adequacy can be further improved. The severity of biopsy-confirmed anorectal disease is seriously underestimated by cytological screening, regardless of collector.

  8. [Gastric Cancer in Early Stage: study of 371 lesions in 340 patients in the E. Rebagliati National, Lima-Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo Romero, Hernán; Navarrete Siancas, Jesús

    2005-01-01

    lesions in 54.6% in other types of cancer 12.7%. Present in 65%, of which 50% of them were uncompleted. Dyspepsia 82.2%, hyperoxia 32.9%, loss of weight 23.3%, non-characteristic pain 23.3%, ulcer pain 20.5%, melena 8.2%, anemia 7.7%, diarrhea and/or constipation 7.4%, vomiting 2.2%, hematemesis 1.9%. O (63.2%) A (24.7%) B (11.3%) AB (0.6%). This was determined in 70 patients: In 55 with ulcer, none showed achlorhydria 0%, 20 (36%) hypochlorhydria, 20 (36%) normochlorhydria and 15 (28%) hyperacidity. In 16 in an elevated form 13 (87.5%) with achlorhydria, 1 (6.5%) with hypochlorhydria, 1 (6.5%) with normal acidity. Average in ulcerated cases DAB 3.04 +/- 1.25 mEqh and DAM 12.31 +/- 8.00. In elevated cases: DAB 0.89 +/- 0.32 and DAM 2.20 +/- 0.95 mEqh.

  9. Mathematical models of differential diagnostics and prognosis in chronic pancreatitis and cancer with a primary lesion of the pancreatic head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kryvoruchko

    2017-02-01

    Methods. Analyzed the results of surgical treatment of 132 patients, including 68 - for cancer of the pancreatic head (in 46 - with jaundice and 64 - chronic pancreatitis (CP with a primary lesion of the pancreatic head (16 - with jaundice. The distribution of patients into groups was carried out with a maximum value of classification functions calculated by special formulas. Next studied indicators of endothelial dysfunction for differential diagnosis.  Results. It was defined the threshold of VEGF = 346 pg/ml, which shared the group of chronic pancreatitis or cancer of the pancreatic head, which was determined based on the Pareto criterion. This model sensitivity was 72.1% and specificity of 75% for the overall accuracy of 72.7%. Even more precision indicator was on the threshold of VEGF = 248 pg/ml, which compared groups of patients with cancer and software of the control group (125.9 pg/ml and the sensitivity was 86.8%, specificity 82.4%, and overall accuracy of 82.3%. At about the same accuracy had this test and the comparison group of patients with chronic pancreatitis and control: sensitivity 84.4% and specificity of 76.5% overall accuracy of 81.5% in the threshold VEGF of 155 pg/ml (p<0,05. To develop a prognosis of a pathological process, along with the use of diagnostic data used a method of classification trees. The model showed that the index VEGF is the criterion that discriminates for pancreas- pancreatic cancer-pancreas, but relative differences in the presence of jaundice in patients defined using S-nitrozothiol. The accuracy of the proposed method of prediction was 89%, the price of cross-checking - 82,6% (p<0,05. Pancreatoduodenal resection for Whipple was performed in 23 patients, for Traverso-Longmire - in 8, subtotal right sided pancreatectomy for Fortner - in 3, hepaticojejunostomy by Roux - in 8, duodenopreserving resection for Beger - in 6, her Bernese option - in 7, operation Frey - in 51. In 26 (19.7% patients, minimally invasive

  10. Highly differentiated keratinizing squamous cell cancer of the cervix: a rare, locally aggressive tumor not associated with human papillomavirus or squamous intraepithelial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, C; Catania, F; Wakely, P; Nuovo, G J

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to report an unusual variant of cervical squamous cell carcinoma, not associated with either human papillomavirus infection or antecedent squamous intraepithelial lesions. Five women had a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer discovered at hysterectomy performed for prolapse (two cases), leiomyoma (one case), or a vaginal fistula (two cases). The women ranged in age from 47 to 78 years (mean 59 years). Four of the five had a history of normal Papanicolaou (Pap) smears; the other had a Pap smear diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). All had large cervical tumors (two with parametrial involvement and one with vaginal involvement) that showed extensive keratin formation, an inverted pattern of growth, and, except for one case, minimal cytologic atypia. There was extensive hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis adjacent to each tumor; none had evidence of squamous intraepithelial lesion. Human papillomavirus testing by polymerase chain reaction in situ hybridization and reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction in situ was negative in each case, compared with a detection rate of 107 of 108 (99%) for squamous intraepithelial lesion-associated cervical squamous cell and adenocarcinomas. Two of the women died of extensive local recurrence; two other women were recently diagnosed. We conclude that highly differentiated keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare entity not associated with human papillomavirus infection or squamous intraepithelial lesion and thus difficult to detect on routine cervical cancer screening.

  11. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) to characterize MRI-detected additional lesions unidentified at targeted ultrasound in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariscotti, Giovanna; Durando, Manuela; Regini, Elisa; Fornari, Alberto; Fonio, Paolo; Gandini, Giovanni; Houssami, Nehmat; Campanino, Pier Paolo; Bussone, Riccardo; Castellano, Isabella; Sapino, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative breast magnetic resonance (MR) often generates additional suspicious findings needing further investigations. Targeted breast ultrasound (US) is the standard tool to characterize MR additional lesions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential role of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) to characterize MR detected additional findings, unidentified at targeted breast US. This prospective study included women who a) had biopsy-proven, newly diagnosed breast cancers detected at conventional 2D mammography and/or US, referred to breast MR for tumour staging; and b) had DBT if additional MR findings were not detected at targeted ('second look') US. In 520 patients, MR identified 164 (in 114 women, 22 %) additional enhancing lesions. Targeted US identified 114/164 (69.5 %) of these, whereas 50/164 (30.5 %) remained unidentified. DBT identified 32/50 of these cases, increasing the overall characterization of MR detected additional findings to 89.0 % (146/164). Using DBT the identified lesions were significantly more likely to be malignant than benign MR-detected additional lesions (p = 0.04). DBT improves the characterization of additional MR findings not identified at targeted breast US in preoperative breast cancer staging. (orig.)

  12. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) to characterize MRI-detected additional lesions unidentified at targeted ultrasound in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariscotti, Giovanna; Durando, Manuela; Regini, Elisa; Fornari, Alberto; Fonio, Paolo; Gandini, Giovanni [Breast Imaging Service, Radiology - University of Turin, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy, A.O.U. Citta della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy); Houssami, Nehmat [University of Sydney, Screening and Test Evaluation Program, School of Public Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Campanino, Pier Paolo [Ospedale Koelliker, Breast Imaging Service, Torino (Italy); Bussone, Riccardo [A.O.U. Citta della Salute e della Scienza of Turin, SSCVD Breast Surgery. Department of Surgery, Torino (Italy); Castellano, Isabella; Sapino, Anna [University of Turin, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, A.O.U. Citta della Salute e della Scienza, Torino (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Preoperative breast magnetic resonance (MR) often generates additional suspicious findings needing further investigations. Targeted breast ultrasound (US) is the standard tool to characterize MR additional lesions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential role of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) to characterize MR detected additional findings, unidentified at targeted breast US. This prospective study included women who a) had biopsy-proven, newly diagnosed breast cancers detected at conventional 2D mammography and/or US, referred to breast MR for tumour staging; and b) had DBT if additional MR findings were not detected at targeted ('second look') US. In 520 patients, MR identified 164 (in 114 women, 22 %) additional enhancing lesions. Targeted US identified 114/164 (69.5 %) of these, whereas 50/164 (30.5 %) remained unidentified. DBT identified 32/50 of these cases, increasing the overall characterization of MR detected additional findings to 89.0 % (146/164). Using DBT the identified lesions were significantly more likely to be malignant than benign MR-detected additional lesions (p = 0.04). DBT improves the characterization of additional MR findings not identified at targeted breast US in preoperative breast cancer staging. (orig.)

  13. Loss of Dependence on Continued Expression of the Human Papillomavirus 16 E7 Oncogene in Cervical Cancers and Precancerous Lesions Arising in Fanconi Anemia Pathway-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeong Park

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi anemia (FA is a rare genetic disorder caused by defects in DNA damage repair. FA patients often develop squamous cell carcinoma (SCC at sites where high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs are known to cause cancer, including the cervix. However, SCCs found in human FA patients are often HPV negative, even though the majority of female FA patients with anogenital cancers had preexisting HPV-positive dysplasia. We hypothesize that HPVs contribute to the development of SCCs in FA patients but that the continued expression of HPV oncogenes is not required for the maintenance of the cancer state because FA deficiency leads to an accumulation of mutations in cellular genes that render the cancer no longer dependent upon viral oncogenes. We tested this hypothesis, making use of Bi-L E7 transgenic mice in which we temporally controlled expression of HPV16 E7, the dominant viral oncogene in HPV-associated cancers. As seen before, the persistence of cervical neoplastic disease was highly dependent upon the continued expression of HPV16 E7 in FA-sufficient mice. However, in mice with FA deficiency, cervical cancers persisted in a large fraction of the mice after HPV16 E7 expression was turned off, indicating that these cancers had escaped from their dependency on E7. Furthermore, the severity of precancerous lesions also failed to be reduced significantly in the mice with FA deficiency upon turning off expression of E7. These findings confirm our hypothesis and may explain the fact that, while FA patients have a high frequency of infections by HPVs and HPV-induced precancerous lesions, the cancers are frequently HPV negative.

  14. Male breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Andrade, L.G. de; Carregal, E.; Marimatsu, R.I.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Roentgenographic examination of the male breast is an important aspect of the continued, intensive investigation of the radiologic morphology of the normal and diseased breast conducted in 17 cases examined at the Instituto Nacional do Cancer - RJ. It is purpose of this report to present the Roentgen appearance of various lesions of the male breast as they have been found in our practice and also to stress some of the difficulties in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. (author) [pt

  15. Ionospheric earthquake precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulachenko, A.L.; Oraevskij, V.N.; Pokhotelov, O.A.; Sorokin, V.N.; Strakhov, V.N.; Chmyrev, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    Results of experimental study on ionospheric earthquake precursors, program development on processes in the earthquake focus and physical mechanisms of formation of various type precursors are considered. Composition of experimental cosmic system for earthquake precursors monitoring is determined. 36 refs., 5 figs

  16. Detection and classification of focal liver lesions in patients with colorectal cancer: Retrospective comparison of diffusion-weighted MR imaging and multi-slice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiber, Matthias; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Brügel, Melanie; Gaa, Jochen; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Holzapfel, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) with multi-slice CT (MS-CT) in the detection and classification of focal liver lesions in patients with colorectal cancer. Methods: In a retrospective study 68 patients who underwent DWI at 1.5 T (b-values of 50, 300 and 600 s/mm 2 ) and contrast-enhanced MS-CT were analysed by two radiologists blinded to the clinical results. Imaging results were correlated with intraoperative surgical and ultrasound findings (n = 24), imaging follow-up or PET (n = 44). Sensitivity of DWI and MS-CT in detection of focal liver lesions was compared on a per-lesion and a per-segment basis. Receiver operator-characteristic (ROC) curves to determine the diagnostic performance and the sensitivities of correctly identifying liver metastases on a segmental base were calculated. Results: For lesion detection, DWI was significantly superior to MS-CT both on a per-lesion (difference in sensitivities for reader 1 and 2 22.65% and 19.06%, p < 0.0001) and a per-segment basis (16.86% and 11.76%, p < 0.0001). Especially lesions smaller than 10 mm were better detected with DWI compared to MS-CT (difference 41.10% and 29.45%, p < 0.0001). ROC-analysis showed superiority for lesions classification (p < 0.0001) of DWI (AUC: 0.949 and 0.951) as compared to MS-CT (AUC: 0.879 and 0.892, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.005). DWI was able to filter out metastatic segments with a higher sensitivity (88.2 and 86.5%) compared to MS-CT (68.0 and 67.4%, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.005, respectively). Conclusion: Compared to MS-CT DWI is both more sensitive in the detection of liver lesions and more accurate in determining the extent of metastatic disease in patients with colorectal cancer and therefore might help to optimize therapeutic management in those patients.

  17. Prognostic significance of total lesion glycolysis in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer receiving chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaizen, Yoshiaki [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Azuma, Koichi, E-mail: azuma@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Kurata, Seiji [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Sadashima, Eiji; Hattori, Satoshi [Biostatistics Center, Kurume University, Kurume (Japan); Sasada, Tetsuro [Department of Immunology and Immunotherapy, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Imamura, Yohei [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Kaida, Hayato [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Kawahara, Akihiko [Department of Pathology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Kinoshita, Takashi [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Ishibashi, Masatoshi [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Hoshino, Tomoaki [Division of Respirology, Neurology, and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Background: [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging has been employed as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for malignant tumors. Total lesion glycolysis (TLG) on FDG-PET is calculated by multiplying the mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) by the tumor volume. Unlike the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), which represents the point of greatest metabolic activity within tumors, TLG has been suggested to reflect global metabolic activity in whole tumors. Methods: We retrospectively examined whether or not FDG-PET measurements, including SUVmean, SUVmax, and TLG, could predict progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving chemotherapy. Results: This study involved 81 consecutive patients with NSCLC who received chemotherapy. All of the patients underwent FDG-PET examination before treatment. SUVmean, SUVmax, and TLG on FDG-PET were significantly associated with gender, smoking status, and tumor histology. With adjustment for several other variables, Cox regression analysis showed that TLG was significantly prognostic for both PFS [hazard ratio = 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.18–4.64; P = 0.015] and OS (hazard ratio = 2.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.12–6.96; P = 0.003), whereas SUVmean and SUVmax had no significant association with PFS (P = 0.693 and P = 0.322, respectively) or OS (P = 0.587 and P = 0.214, respectively). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that TLG may be more useful than SUVmean and SUVmax for predicting PFS and OS in NSCLC patients receiving chemotherapy. The TLG measurement on FDG-PET imaging could be routinely recommended to advanced NSCLC patients.

  18. F-18 labelled PSMA-1007: biodistribution, radiation dosimetry and histopathological validation of tumor lesions in prostate cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesel, Frederik L.; Vinsensia, M.; Mier, W.; Haberkorn, U.; Kratochwil, C. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Hadaschik, B.; Radtke, J.; Kesch, C. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Urology, Heidelberg (Germany); Cardinale, J.; Schaefer, M.; Neels, O.C.; Kopka, K. [German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Division of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Heidelberg (Germany); Lehnert, W. [ABX-CRO, Dresden (Germany); Tolstov, Y.; Singer, S. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Section of Molecular Urooncology, Department of Urology, Medical Faculty Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Grabe, N. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Institute of Pathology, Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Medical Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg (Germany); University of Heidelberg, Hamamatsu Tissue Imaging and Analysis Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Duensing, S. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Urology, Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Section of Molecular Urooncology, Department of Urology, Medical Faculty Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) targeted positron-emitting-tomography (PET) tracer {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 shows great promise in the detection of prostate cancer. However, {sup 68}Ga has several shortcomings as a radiolabel including short half-life and non-ideal energies, and this has motivated consideration of {sup 18}F-labelled analogs. {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 was selected among several {sup 18}F-PSMA-ligand candidate compounds because it demonstrated high labelling yields, outstanding tumor uptake and fast, non-urinary background clearance. Here, we describe the properties of {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 in human volunteers and patients. Radiation dosimetry of {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 was determined in three healthy volunteers who underwent whole-body PET-scans and concomitant blood and urine sampling. Following this, ten patients with high-risk prostate cancer underwent {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT (1 h and 3 h p.i.) and normal organ biodistribution and tumor uptakes were examined. Eight patients underwent prostatectomy with extended pelvic lymphadenectomy. Uptake in intra-prostatic lesions and lymph node metastases were correlated with final histopathology, including PSMA immunostaining. With an effective dose of approximately 4.4-5.5 mSv per 200-250 MBq examination, {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 behaves similar to other PSMA-PET agents as well as to other {sup 18}F-labelled PET-tracers. In comparison to other PSMA-targeting PET-tracers, {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 has reduced urinary clearance enabling excellent assessment of the prostate. Similar to {sup 18}F-DCFPyL and with slightly slower clearance kinetics than PSMA-11, favorable tumor-to-background ratios are observed 2-3 h after injection. In eight patients, diagnostic findings were successfully validated by histopathology. {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT detected 18 of 19 lymph node metastases in the pelvis, including nodes as small as 1 mm in diameter. {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 performs at least comparably to {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11, but its

  19. Analysis of the effects of exposure to acute hypoxia on oxidative lesions and tumour progression in a transgenic mouse breast cancer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunt Sarah

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumour hypoxia is known to be a poor prognostic indicator, predictive of increased risk of metastatic disease and reduced survival. Genomic instability has been proposed as one of the potential mechanisms for hypoxic tumour progression. Both of these features are commonly found in many cancer types, but their relationship and association with tumour progression has not been examined in the same model. Methods To address this issue, we determined the effects of 6 week in vivo acute hypoxic exposure on the levels of mutagenic lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine DNA (8-oxo-dG lesions in the transgenic polyomavirus middle T (PyMT breast cancer mouse model. Results We observed significantly increased plasma lipid peroxidation and 8-oxo-dG lesion levels in the hypoxia-exposed mice. Consumption of malondialdehyde also induced a significant increase in the PyMT tumour DNA lesion levels, however, these increases did not translate into enhanced tumour progression. We further showed that the in vivo exposure to acute hypoxia induced accumulation of F4/80 positive tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs, demonstrating a relationship between hypoxia and macrophages in an experimental model. Conclusion These data suggest that although exposure to acute hypoxia causes an increase in 8-oxo-dG lesions and TAMs in the PyMT tumours, these increases do not translate into significant changes in tumour progression at the primary or metastatic levels in this strong viral oncogene-driven breast cancer model.

  20. Interaction of DNA-lesions induced by sodium fluoride and radiation and its influence in apoptotic induction in cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Podder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluoride is an essential trace element but also an environmental contaminant with major sources of exposure being drinking water, food and pesticides. Previous studies showed that sodium fluoride (NaF at 5 mM or more is required to induce apoptosis and chromosome aberrations and proposed that DNA damage and apoptosis play an important role in toxicity of excessive fluoride. The aim of this study is directed to understand the nature of DNA-lesions induced by NaF by allowing its interaction with radiation induced DNA-lesions. NaF 5 mM was used after observing inability to induce DNA damages and apoptosis by single exposure with 50 μM or 1 mM NaF. Co-exposure to NaF and radiation significantly increased the frequency of aberrant metaphases and exchange aberrations in human lymphocytes and arrested the cells in G1 stage instead of apoptotic death. Flow cytometric analysis, DNA fragmentation and PARP-cleavage analysis clearly indicated that 5 mM NaF together with radiation (1 Gy induced apoptosis in both U87 and K562 cells due to down regulation of expression of anti-apoptotic proteins, like Bcl2 in U87 and inhibitors of apoptotic proteins like survivin and cIAP in K562 cells. This study herein suggested that single exposure with extremely low concentration of NaF unable to induce DNA lesions whereas higher concentration induced DNA lesions interact with the radiation-induced DNA lesions. Both are probably repaired rapidly thus showed increased interactive effect. Coexposure to NaF and radiation induces more apoptosis in cancer cell lines which could be due to increased exchange aberrations through lesions interaction and downregulating anti-apoptotic genes.

  1. Loss of Dependence on Continued Expression of the Human Papillomavirus 16 E7 Oncogene in Cervical Cancers and Precancerous Lesions Arising in Fanconi Anemia Pathway-Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soyeong; Park, Jung Wook; Pitot, Henry C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder caused by defects in DNA damage repair. FA patients often develop squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at sites where high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are known to cause cancer, including the cervix. However, SCCs found in human FA patients are often HPV negative, even though the majority of female FA patients with anogenital cancers had preexisting HPV-positive dysplasia. We hypothesize that HPVs contribute to the development of SCCs in FA patients but that the continued expression of HPV oncogenes is not required for the maintenance of the cancer state because FA deficiency leads to an accumulation of mutations in cellular genes that render the cancer no longer dependent upon viral oncogenes. We tested this hypothesis, making use of Bi-L E7 transgenic mice in which we temporally controlled expression of HPV16 E7, the dominant viral oncogene in HPV-associated cancers. As seen before, the persistence of cervical neoplastic disease was highly dependent upon the continued expression of HPV16 E7 in FA-sufficient mice. However, in mice with FA deficiency, cervical cancers persisted in a large fraction of the mice after HPV16 E7 expression was turned off, indicating that these cancers had escaped from their dependency on E7. Furthermore, the severity of precancerous lesions also failed to be reduced significantly in the mice with FA deficiency upon turning off expression of E7. These findings confirm our hypothesis and may explain the fact that, while FA patients have a high frequency of infections by HPVs and HPV-induced precancerous lesions, the cancers are frequently HPV negative. Importance   Fanconi anemia (FA) patients are at high risk for developing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at sites where high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) frequently cause cancer. Yet these SCCs are often HPV negative. FA patients have a genetic defect in their capacity to repair damaged DNA. HPV oncogenes cause an

  2. Influence of Simultaneous Targeting of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Pathway and RANK-RANKL Axis in Osteolytic Prostate Cancer Lesion in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Mandeep S.; Petrigliano, Frank A.; Liu, Nancy Q.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; Stout, David; Kang, Christine O.; Dougall, William C.; Lieberman, Jay R.

    2009-01-01

    Metastasis to bone is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in advanced prostate cancer patients. Considering the complex reciprocal interactions between the tumor cells and the bone microenvironment, there is increasing interest in developing combination therapies targeting both the tumor growth and the bone microenvironment. In this study, we investigated the effect of simultaneous blockade of BMP pathway and RANK-RANKL axis in an osteolytic prostate cancer lesion in bone. We used a retroviral vector encoding noggin (Retronoggin) to antagonize the effect of BMPs and RANK: Fc, which is a recombinant RANKL antagonist was used to inhibit RANK-RANKL axis. The tumor growth and bone loss were evaluated using plain radiographs, hind limb tumor measurements, micro PET-CT (18F- fluorodeoxyglucose [FDG] and 18F-fluoride tracer), and histology. Tibias implanted with PC-3 cells developed pure osteolytic lesions at 2 weeks with progressive increase in cortical bone destruction at successive time points. Tibias implanted with PC-3 cells over expressing noggin (Retronoggin) resulted in reduced tumor size and decreased bone loss compared to the implanted tibias in untreated control animals. RANK: Fc administration inhibited the formation of osteoclasts, delayed the development of osteolytic lesions, decreased bone loss and reduced tumor size in tibias implanted with PC-3 cells. The combination therapy with RANK: Fc and noggin over expression effectively delayed the radiographic development of osteolytic lesions, and decreased the bone loss and tumor burden compared to implanted tibias treated with noggin over expression alone. Furthermore, the animals treated with the combination strategy exhibited decreased bone loss (micro CT) and lower tumor burden (FDG micro PET) compared to animals treated with RANK: Fc alone. Combined blockade of RANK-RANKL axis and BMP pathway resulted in reduced tumor burden and decreased bone loss compared to inhibition of either individual

  3. Prevalence and prognosis of low-volume, oligorecurrent, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer amenable to lesion ablative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruycker, Aurélie; Lambert, Bieke; Claeys, Tom; Delrue, Louke; Mbah, Chamberlain; De Meerleer, Gert; Villeirs, Geert; De Vos, Filip; De Man, Kathia; Decaestecker, Karel; Fonteyne, Valérie; Lumen, Nicolaas; Ameye, Filip; Billiet, Ignace; Joniau, Steven; Vanhaverbeke, Friedl; Duthoy, Wim; Ost, Piet

    2017-12-01

    To describe the anatomical patterns of prostate cancer (PCa) recurrence after primary therapy and to investigate if patients with low-volume disease have a better prognosis as compared with their counterparts. Patients eligible for an 18-F choline positron-emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Eligible patients had asymptomatic biochemical recurrence after primary PCa treatment and testosterone levels >50 ng/mL. The number of lesions was counted per scan. Patients with isolated local recurrence (LR) or with ≤3 metastases (with or without LR) were considered to have low-volume disease and patients with >3 metastases to have high-volume disease. Descriptive statistics were used to report recurrences. Cox regression analysis was used to investigate the influence of prognostic variables on the time to developing castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). In 208 patients, 625 sites of recurrence were detected in the lymph nodes (N1/M1a: 30%), the bone (18%), the prostate (bed; 11%), viscera (4%), or a combination of any of the previous (37%). In total, 153 patients (74%) had low-volume recurrence and 55 patients (26%) had high-volume recurrence. The 3-year CRPC-free survival rate for the whole cohort was 79% (95% confidence interval 43-55), 88% for low-volume recurrences and 50% for high-volume recurrences (P < 0.001). Longer PSA doubling time at time of recurrence and low-volume disease were associated with a longer time to CRPC. Three out of four patients with PCa with a 18-F choline PET-CT-detected recurrence have low-volume disease, potentially amenable to local therapy. Patients with low-volume disease have a better prognosis as compared with their counterparts. Lymph node recurrence was the most dominant failure pattern. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Prognostic Value of Fluoro-D-glucose Uptake of Primary Tumor and Metastatic Lesions in Advanced Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Xuan Canh; Nguyen, Van Khoi; Tran, Minh Thong; Maurea, Simone; Salvatore, Marco

    2014-01-01

    To assess the prognostic value of maximum standardized uptake value (maxSUV) of the primary tumor (maxSUV pt ), maxSUV of whole-body tumors (maxSUV wb ) and sum of maximum standardized uptake value (sumaxSUV) measured by the sum of maxSUVs of the primary tumor, metastatic lymph nodes, and metastatic lesions per each organ on fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eighty-three patients (49 male, 34 female) with advanced NSCLC were enrolled. Seventeen patients had Stage IIIA, 21 Stage IIIB, and 45 Stage IV. maxSUV pt , maxSUV wb , sumaxSUV, age, gender, tumor-cell type, T stage, N stage, overall stage, primary tumor size, and specific treatment were analyzed for correlation with overall survival. Median follow-up duration was 13 months. Fifty patients were dead during a median follow-up time of 11 months and 33 patients were alive with a median time of 15 months. Univariate analysis revealed that overall survival was significantly correlated with sumaxSUV (≥35 vs. <35, P = 0.004), T stage (T4 vs. T1-T3, P = 0.025), overall stage (IV vs. III, P = 0.002), gender (male vs. female, P = 0.029) and specific treatment (no vs. yes, P = 0.011). maxSUV pt and maxSUV wb were not correlated with overall survival with P value of 0.139 and 0.168, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified sumaxSUV, T stage, gender, and specific treatment as independent prognostic indicators. Patients with a sumaxSUV of ≥35 were 1.921 times more likely to die than those with a sumaxSUV of < 35 (P = 0.047). Median survival time was 14 months for patients with sumaxSUV ≥ 35 compared with 20 months for those with sumaxSUV < 35. In patients with metastatic NSCLC, sumaxSUV with cut-off of 35 was much more significant for survival prognosis (P = 0.021). sumaxSUV is a new prognostic measure, independent of tumor stage, gender, and specific treatment in advanced NSCLC. sumaxSUV may be better than maxSUV pt and maxSUV wb in

  5. Development of standardized image interpretation for 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT to detect prostate cancer recurrent lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanti, Stefano; Ceci, Francesco; Castellucci, Paolo [University of Bologna, S. Orsola Hospital Bologna, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Bologna (Italy); Minozzi, Silvia [Lazio Regional Health Service, Department of Epidemiology, Rome (Italy); Morigi, Joshua James; Emmett, Louise [St. Vincent' s Public Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sydney (Australia); Giesel, Frederik; Haberkorn, Uwe [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Uprimny, Christian; Virgolini, Irene [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Hofman, Michael S.; Hicks, Rodney J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Molecular Imaging, Department of Cancer Imaging, Melbourne (Australia); Eiber, Matthias; Schwaiger, Markus [Technical University Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Schwarzenbock, Sarah; Krause, Bernd J. [University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany); Bellisario, Cristina [University Hospital ' ' Citta della Salute e della Scienza di Torino' ' , Department of Cancer Screening, Centre for Epidemiology and Prevention in Oncology (CPO), Turin (Italy); Chauvie, Stephane; Bergesio, Fabrizio [Santa Croce e Carle Hospital, Medical Physics Division, Cuneo (Italy); Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Humanitas Cancer Center, Rozzano, MI (Italy)

    2017-09-15

    After primary treatment, biochemical relapse (BCR) occurs in a substantial number of patients with prostate cancer (PCa). PET/CT imaging with prostate-specific membrane antigen based tracers (68Ga-PSMA) has shown promising results for BCR patients. However, a standardized image interpretation methodology has yet to be properly agreed. The aim of this study, which was promoted and funded by European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), is to define standardized image interpretation criteria for 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT to detect recurrent PCa lesions in patients treated with primary curative intent therapy (radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy) who presented a biochemical recurrence. In the first phase inter-rater agreement between seven readers from seven international centers was calculated on the reading of 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT images of 49 patients with BCR. Each reader evaluated findings in five different sites of recurrence (local, loco-regional lymph nodes, distant lymph nodes, bone, and other). In the second phase the re-analysis was limited to cases with poor, slight, fair, or moderate agreement [Krippendorff's (K) alpha<0.61]. Finally, on the basis of the consensus readings, we sought to define a list of revised consensus criteria for 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT interpretation. Between-reader agreement for the presence of anomalous findings in any of the five sites was only moderate (K's alpha: 0.47). The agreement improved and became substantial when readers had to judge whether the anomalous findings were suggestive for a pathologic, uncertain, or non-pathologic image (K's alpha: 0.64). K's alpha calculations for each of the five sites of recurrence were also performed and evaluated. First Delphi round was thus conducted. A more detailed definition of the criteria was proposed by the project coordinator, which was then discussed and finally agreed by the seven readers. After the second Delphi round only four cases of disagreement still remained. These

  6. Preliminary results of a screening program for anal cancer and its precursors for HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Vigo-Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Iribarren-Díaz

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Men who have sex with men (MSM infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV have the highest risk of developing anal cancer (AC. The objective of this study was to describe our screening implementation program in this population, and report the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV anal infection, and cytological and histological findings in a Spanish medium-size community (Vigo, Spain. Method: Prospective cohort analysis of 240 HIV-infected MSM. Cellular anal sample and high risk HPV (HR-HPV-tests were performed to study cytological changes and HPV genotyping. High resolution anoscopy (HRA was performed in 209 patients. Results were analyzed with respect to epidemiological, clinical and analytical factors. Results: Of 209 patients selected for HRA, the prevalence of HR-HPV anal infection, cytological and histological alterations was 85.6%, 47.5%, and 39.8%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for ≥ ASCUS (atypia of squamous cells of undetermined significance cytology in relation to histological alterations were 61% and 85%, (OR: 8.7; IC 95%: 4.4-17.2, respectively. Observed concordance between high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL cytology and HSIL anal intraepithelial neoplasia types 2 and 3 (AIN-2/3 histology was 64% (OR: 11.4; IC 95%: 3.6-36.7. One patient with HSIL cytology presented a prevalent anal squamous carcinoma. Conclusions: HRA was feasible with similar results to relevant groups. There was a high prevalence of anal HR-HPV infection, and cytological and histological alterations.

  7. Skin lesion removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to be done when there is a concern about a skin cancer. Most often, an area the shape of an ellipse is removed, as this makes it easier to close with stitches. The entire lesion is removed, going as deep as the fat, if needed, to ...

  8. Progress risk assessment of oral premalignant lesions with saliva miRNA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ya; Li, Yue-xiu; Yang, Xi; Jiang, Long; Zhou, Zuo-jun; Zhu, Ya-qin

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer develops through multi-stages: from normal to mild (low grade) dysplasia (LGD), moderate dysplasia, and severe (high grade) dysplasia (HGD), to carcinoma in situ (CIS) and finally invasive oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). Clinical and histological assessments are not reliable in predicting which precursor lesions will progress. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of a noninvasive approach to assess progress risk of oral precancerous lesions. We first used microRNA microarray to profile progressing LGD oral premaligant lesions (OPLs) from non-progressing LGD OPLs in order to explore the possible microRNAs deregulated in low grade OPLs which later progressed to HGD or OSCC. We then used RT-qPCR to detect miRNA targets from the microarray results in saliva samples of these patients. We identified a specific miRNA signature that is aberrantly expressed in progressing oral LGD leukoplakias. Similar expression patterns were detected in saliva samples from these patients. These results show promise for using saliva miRNA signature for monitoring of cancer precursor lesions and early detection of disease progression

  9. Breast Cancer Suspicion in a Transgender Male-to-Female Patient on Hormone Replacement Therapy Presenting with Right Breast Mass: Breast Cancer Risk Assessment and Presentation of a Rare Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystina Tongson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increasing use of hormonal therapy among male-to-female (MtF transgender individuals. This long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT renders MtF individuals a unique patient subgroup in terms of breast cancer risk. This case describes a MtF transgender who presented with a breast lesion concerning for malignancy following hormonal replacement therapy. The patient additionally had a strong family history of breast cancer. Final pathology revealed lobular hyperplasia in the setting of gynecomastia and pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH. Both pathology findings are rare in biological females, let alone in the setting of hormone replacement therapy in a MtF individual. While the number of reported cases of suspicious breast lesions in this population remains scarce, it presents both a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to the nature of the treatment course and the lack of research in this recently growing subgroup of patients.

  10. Primary (recurrent) and metastatic lesions detection in cervical cancer: A comparison of positron emission tomography, CT and/or MRI image and pathological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, T.C.; Tzen, K.Y.; Ma, S.Y.; Ng, K.K.; Hsueh, S.; Lai, C.H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: This prospective study is to compare the results of primary (recurrence) and metastatic lesions detection, based on pathologic results, with computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) in invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Materials and Methods: An FDG PET scan was performed in 136 patients with ICC (107 squamous cell carcinoma [SCC], 18 adenocarcinoma [AdenoCa], 5 adeosquamous cell carcinoma, 4 small cell carcinoma, and 2 poorly differentiated carcinoma; from FIGO staging IB to IVB prior to operation). CT and/or MRI image were performed within one week before or after FDG PET scan was done. The accuracy of lymph node status was based on histological result or a second FDG PET combined with a CT and/or MRI image images. Results: Totally, 68 main tumor and 147 metastatic lesions were recognized by either histopathology or a follow up study. On a lesion basis, CT and/or MRI image images demonstrated 63 (92.6 %) main tumor and 103 (70.1 %) metastatic lesions. For lymph node metastatic lesions detection, there were 6(75 %) enlarged inguinal lymph nodes, 38(76 %) enlarged pelvic lymph nodes (PLN), 28(73.7 %) enlarged para-aortic lymph nodes (PAN), 8(50 %) enlarged supraclavicular lymph nodes (SLNs), and 5(62.5 %) enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs). Liver metastases were found in 4(100 %), in lung in 7(70 %) and in bone in 5(83.3 %). Peritoneal metastases were found in 2(28.6 %). FDG PET demonstrated 63 (92.6 %) and 135 (91.8 %) metastatic lesions. For lymph node metastases, FDG PET found 8(100 %) enlarged inguinal lymph nodes, 44(88 %) enlarged PLNs, 36(94.7 %) enlarged PANs, 15(93.8 %) enlarged SLNs, and 8(100 %) enlarged MLNs. Liver metastases were found in 4(100 %), in lung in 9(90 %) and in bone in 6(100 %). Peritoneal metastases were found in 5(71.4 %). On a patient basis, with FDG PET scan, 31(22.8%) were upstaging while 4(2.9%) were down staging. 35

  11. Lesion volume predicts prostate cancer risk and aggressiveness: validation of its value alone and matched with prostate imaging reporting and data system score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorana, Eugenio; Pirola, Giacomo Maria; Scialpi, Michele; Micali, Salvatore; Iseppi, Andrea; Bonetti, Luca Reggiani; Kaleci, Shaniko; Torricelli, Pietro; Bianchi, Giampaolo

    2017-07-01

    To demonstrate the association between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) estimated lesion volume (LV), prostate cancer detection and tumour clinical significance, evaluating this variable alone and matched with Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADS v2) score. We retrospectively analysed 157 consecutive patients, with at least one prior negative systematic prostatic biopsy, who underwent transperineal prostate MRI/ultrasonography fusion-targeted biopsy between January 2014 and February 2016. Suspicious lesions were delineated using a 'region of interest' and the system calculated prostate volume and LV. Patients were divided in groups considering LV (≤0.5, 0.5-1, ≥1 mL) and PI-RADS score (1-5). We considered clinically significant prostate cancer as all cancers with a Gleason score of ≥3 + 4 as suggested by PI-RADS v2. A direct comparison between MRI estimated LV (MRI LV) and histological tumour volume (HTV) was done in 23 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy during the study period. Differences between MRI LV and HTV were assessed using the paired sample t-test. MRI LV and HTV concordance was verified using a Bland-Altman plot. The chi-squared test and logistic and ordinal regression models were used to evaluate difference in frequencies. The MRI LV and PI-RADS score were associated both with prostate cancer detection (both P prostate cancer detection (P Prostate cancer detection was 1.4-times higher for LVs of 0.5-1 mL and 1.8-times higher for LVs of ≥1 mL; significant prostate cancer detection was 2.6-times for LVs of 0.5-1 mL and 4-times for LVs of ≥1 mL. There was a positive correlation between MRI LV and HTV (r = 0.9876, P prostate cancer detection and with tumour clinical significance. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Antico, Antonio; Villalta, Danilo

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastric neoplasms: intestinal type and type I gastric carcinoid. Here, we review the association of autoimmune gastritis with gastric cancer and other autoimmune features present in gastric neoplasms. PMID:29373557

  13. Combination of signal intensity measurements of lesions in the peripheral zone of prostate with MRI and serum PSA level for differentiating benign disease from prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhard, K.; Kreckel, M. [Department of Radiology, Martha-Maria Hospital Nuernberg (Germany); Hollenbach, H.P.; Deimling, M. [Siemens Medical Engineering Group, Erlangen (Germany); Riedl, C. [Dept. of Urology, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the benign or malignant nature of a prostatic lesion by defining a threshold value of signal intensity ratio and a limiting value of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in patients with elevated PSA level. Twenty-six patients with elevated PSA level and no hypoechogenic lesions at endosonography underwent MR imaging using an endorectal body phased-array coil at 1.5 T (Siemens Magnetom Symphony). A T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo (TSE) pulse sequence was applied in a transverse orientation. Two radiologists evaluated the images. In the presence of a pathological finding they defined regions of interest (ROI) in the suspicious pathological area of the peripheral zone and in muscle for reference. The quotient of the two ROIs was calculated and then correlated with the actual PSA level. Diagnosis was confirmed by prostate biopsy. Ten of 12 patients with quotients smaller than 4 showed cancer at histology. Nine of 12 men with cancer proven by biopsy had PSA levels higher than 10 ng/ml. A significant difference (p < 0.001) was found between the quotients of cancer and quotients of chronic prostatitis, fibrosis, or glandular atrophy. The accuracy of tumor differentiation of the method was 77 %. Measurement of signal intensity quotients in the peripheral zone of the prostate in combination with knowledge of defined limits of PSA levels the technique could be helpful in detecting additional cancer areas for prostate biopsy. False-negative tumor results of standard sextant biopsy can be reduced. In men with high PSA values the method has a role in differentiating between patients who require prostate biopsy and those of clinical observation. (orig.)

  14. Molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of human papillomavirus infection in women with cervical lesions and cancer from the coastal region of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya-Pilozo, Cesar H; Medina Magües, Lex G; Espinosa-García, Maylen; Sánchez, Martha; Parrales Valdiviezo, Johanna V; Molina, Denisse; Ibarra, María A; Quimis-Ponce, María; España, Karool; Párraga Macias, Karla E; Cajas Flores, Nancy V; Orlando, Solon A; Robalino Penaherrera, Jorge A; Chedraui, Peter; Escobar, Saul; Loja Chango, Rita D; Ramirez-Morán, Cecibel; Espinoza-Caicedo, Jasson; Sánchez-Giler, Sunny; Limia, Celia M; Alemán, Yoan; Soto, Yudira; Kouri, Vivian; Culasso, Andrés C A; Badano, Inés

    The aim of the present study was to gather information regarding the molecular epidemiology of Human papillomavirus (HPV) and related risk factors in a group of women with low- and high-grade cervical lesions and cancer from the coastal region of Ecuador. In addition, we studied the evolution of HPV variants from the most prevalent types and provided a temporal framework for their emergence, which may help to trace the source of dissemination within the region. We analyzed 166 samples, including 57 CIN1, 95 CIN2/3 and 14 cancer cases. HPV detection and typing was done by PCR-sequencing (MY09/MY11). HPV variants and estimation of the time to most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) was assessed through phylogeny and coalescence analysis. HPV DNA was found in 54.4% of CIN1, 74.7% of CIN2/3 and 78.6% of cancer samples. HPV16 (38.9%) and HPV58 (19.5%) were the most prevalent types. Risk factors for the development of cervical lesions/cancer were the following: three or more pregnancies (OR=4.3), HPV infection (OR=3.7 for high-risk types; OR=3.5 for HPV16), among others. With regard to HPV evolution, HPV16 isolates belonged to lineages A (69%) and D (31%) whereas HPV58 isolates belonged only to lineage A. The period of emergence of HPV16 was in association with human populations (tMRCA=91052 years for HPV16A and 27000 years for HPV16D), whereas HPV58A preceded Homo sapiens evolution (322257 years). This study provides novel data on HPV epidemiology and evolution in Ecuador, which will be fundamental in the vaccine era. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Clonal relatedness between lobular carcinoma in situ and synchronous malignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) has been accepted as a marker of risk for the development of invasive breast cancer, yet modern models of breast carcinogenesis include LCIS as a precursor of low-grade carcinomas. We provide evidence favoring a clonal origin for LCIS and synchronous estrogen receptor-positive malignant lesions of the ductal and lobular phenotype. Methods Patients with prior LCIS undergoing mastectomy were identified preoperatively from 2003 to 2008. Specimens were widely sampled, and frozen blocks were screened for LCIS and co-existing malignant lesions, and were subject to microdissection. Samples from 65 patients were hybridized to the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array platform. Cases with both an LCIS sample and an associated ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive tumor sample were evaluated for patterns of somatic copy number changes to assess evidence of clonal relatedness. Results LCIS was identified in 44 of the cases, and among these a DCIS and/or invasive lesion was also identified in 21 cases. A total of 17 tumor pairs had adequate DNA/array data for analysis, including nine pairs of LCIS/invasive lobular cancer, four pairs of LCIS/DCIS, and four pairs of LCIS/invasive ductal cancer. Overall, seven pairs (41%) were judged to be clonally related; in five (29%) evidence suggested clonality but was equivocal, and five (29%) were considered independent. Clonal pairs were observed with all matched lesion types and low and high histological grades. We also show anecdotal evidence of clonality between a patient-matched triplet of LCIS, DCIS, and invasive ductal cancer. Conclusion Our results support the role of LCIS as a precursor in the development of both high-grade and low-grade ductal and lobular cancers. PMID:22776144

  16. Surgical treatment of gallbladder polypoid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Miljko A.

    2003-01-01

    with biliary colic should be managed conservatively. Cholecystectomy is also indicated in patients with large gallbladder polyps sized over 10 mm irrespective of symptomatology. In patients with gallbladder polypoid lesions smaller than 10 mm, cholecystectomy is indicated only if complicating factors are present, e.g., age over 50 years and coexistence of gallstones. If the gallbladder polyp is smaller than 10 mm and complicating factors are absent, the "watch-and-wait" strategy seems to be recommendable. CONCLUSION Although gallbladder polyps are rare, they represent a significant health problem because they may be a precursor to gallbladder cancer. On the basis of the available data, and the results that we have gained in our study we suggest that gallbladder should be extirpated in cases when: 1. symptomatic lesions are present regardless of size; 2. polyps larger than 10 mm are present because they represent a risk for gallbladder cancer; 3. polyps are showing rapid increase in size. Polyps less than 10 mm that are incidentally identified and not removed should be assessed by ultrasonography at least every six months. This is especially critical for sessile polyps, in which the possibility of a small cancerous polyp is greater than in pedunculated polyps. Also, asymptomatic lesions less than 10 mm in diameter should be removed if patient is older than 50 years or if he has concomitant gallbladder calculosis.

  17. Computer aided detection in prostate cancer diagnostics: A promising alternative to biopsy? A retrospective study from 104 lesions with histological ground truth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika Thon

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa diagnosis by means of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI is a current challenge for the development of computer-aided detection (CAD tools. An innovative CAD-software (Watson Elementary™ was proposed to achieve high sensitivity and specificity, as well as to allege a correlate to Gleason grade.To assess the performance of Watson Elementary™ in automated PCa diagnosis in our hospital´s database of MRI-guided prostate biopsies.The evaluation was retrospective for 104 lesions (47 PCa, 57 benign from 79, 64.61±6.64 year old patients using 3T T2-weighted imaging, Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC maps and dynamic contrast enhancement series. Watson Elementary™ utilizes signal intensity, diffusion properties and kinetic profile to compute a proportional Gleason grade predictor, termed Malignancy Attention Index (MAI. The analysis focused on (i the CAD sensitivity and specificity to classify suspect lesions and (ii the MAI correlation with the histopathological ground truth.The software revealed a sensitivity of 46.80% for PCa classification. The specificity for PCa was found to be 75.43% with a positive predictive value of 61.11%, a negative predictive value of 63.23% and a false discovery rate of 38.89%. CAD classified PCa and benign lesions with equal probability (P 0.06, χ2 test. Accordingly, receiver operating characteristic analysis suggests a poor predictive value for MAI with an area under curve of 0.65 (P 0.02, which is not superior to the performance of board certified observers. Moreover, MAI revealed no significant correlation with Gleason grade (P 0.60, Pearson´s correlation.The tested CAD software for mpMRI analysis was a weak PCa biomarker in this dataset. Targeted prostate biopsy and histology remains the gold standard for prostate cancer diagnosis.

  18. Optimization of precursor synthesis, formulation and stability of 1′-[18 F]fluoroethyl-β-D-lactose ([18 F]FEL) for preclinical studies in detection of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paolillo, Vincenzo; De Palatis, Louis; Alauddin, Mian M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: 1′-[ 18 F]Fluoroethyl-β-D-lactose ([ 18 F]FEL) is a new PET imaging agent for early detection of pancreatic cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. We previously reported the syntheses of [ 18 F]FEL using a bromo- and a tosyl- precursor, followed by an improved method using a nosyl-precursor. However, some steps in the synthesis of the precursor appeared to be problematic producing low yields. Here, we report on an optimized method for synthesis of the precursor and production of [ 18 F]FEL; we also describe [ 18 F]FEL’s formulation and stability. Methods: Acetylation of D-lactose 1 was performed following a literature procedure to obtain 1′,2′,3′,6′,2,3,4,6-D-lactose octa-acetate 2a/2b. Bromination of 2a/2b was performed using HBr/acetic acid to produce 1'-bromo-2′,3′,6′,2,3,4,6-hepta-O-acetyl-α-D-lactose 3. Coupling of 3 with ethylene glycol was performed in the presence of Ag-tosylate and an excess of ethylene glycol to produce 4a. Compound 4a was reacted with p-nitrophenylsulfonyl chloride to produce the nosyl derivative 5. Radiofluorination of 5 was performed using K[ 18 F]fluoride/kryptofix to obtain 6, which was purified by HPLC and hydrolyzed with Na-methoxide to produce 7. Results: Compound 2 (2a/2b) was obtained in 83% yield as a mixture of two anomeric products. Compound 3 was obtained from the 2a/2b mixture in 80% yield as one product. Coupling of 3 with ethylene glycol produced 4a in 90% yield. Compound 5 was obtained in 64% yield, and radiofluorination of 5 produced 6 in 62.5% ± 7.5% yields (n = 8). Hydrolysis of 6 with Na-methoxide produced 7 in 42.0% ± 7.0% yield (n = 8) from the end of bombardment. Conclusions: A simple 4-step synthesis of the precursor, compound 5, has been achieved with improved yields. A new formulation of [ 18 F]FEL has been developed that allows the product to remain stable at ambient temperature for use in animal studies. This improved synthesis of the precursor and stable formulation of

  19. Optimization of precursor synthesis, formulation and stability of 1′-[18 F] fluoroethyl-β-d-lactose ([18 F]FEL) for preclinical studies in detection of pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolillo, Vincenzo; De Palatis, Louis; Alauddin, Mian M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction 1′-[18 F]Fluoroethyl-β-d-lactose ([18 F]FEL) is a new PET imaging agent for early detection of pancreatic cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. We previously reported the syntheses of [18 F]FEL using a bromo- and a tosyl- precursor, followed by an improved method using a nosyl-precursor. However, some steps in the synthesis of the precursor appeared to be problematic producing low yields. Here, we report on an optimized method for synthesis of the precursor and production of [18 F]FEL; we also describe [18 F]FEL’s formulation and stability. Methods Acetylation of d-lactose 1 was performed following a literature procedure to obtain 1′,2′,3′,6′,2,3,4,6-d-lactose octa-acetate 2a/2b. Bromination of 2a/2b was performed using HBr/acetic acid to produce 1'-bromo-2′,3′,6′,2,3,4,6-hepta-O-acetyl-α-d-lactose 3. Coupling of 3 with ethylene glycol was performed in the presence of Ag-tosylate and an excess of ethylene glycol to produce 4a. Compound 4a was reacted with p-nitrophenylsulfonyl chloride to produce the nosyl derivative 5. Radiofluorination of 5 was performed using K[18 F]fluoride/kryptofix to obtain 6, which was purified by HPLC and hydrolyzed with Na-methoxide to produce 7. Results Compound 2 (2a/2b) was obtained in 83% yield as a mixture of two anomeric products. Compound 3 was obtained from the 2a/2b mixture in 80% yield as one product. Coupling of 3 with ethylene glycol produced 4a in 90% yield. Compound 5 was obtained in 64% yield, and radiofluorination of 5 produced 6 in 62.5% ± 7.5% yields (n = 8). Hydrolysis of 6 with Na-methoxide produced 7 in 42.0% ± 7.0% yield (n = 8) from the end of bombardment. Conclusions A simple 4-step synthesis of the precursor, compound 5, has been achieved with improved yields. A new formulation of [18 F]FEL has been developed that allows the product to remain stable at ambient temperature for use in animal studies. This improved synthesis of the precursor and stable formulation of [18 F]FEL should

  20. Video education to improve recognition of common benign and malignant cutaneous lesions and skin cancer prevention in the public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lenczowski, BS

    2018-06-01

    Conclusion: In this study, we found that a brief, plain-language video was effective at conveying understandable content to help subjects learn to identify common cancerous and benign skin growths while also teaching them strategies to protect against skin cancer.

  1. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  2. Influence of the Different Primary Cancers and Different Types of Bone Metastasis on the Lesion-based Artificial Neural Network Value Calculated by a Computer-aided Diagnostic System,BONENAVI, on Bone Scintigraphy Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAKURO ISODA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: BONENAVI, a computer-aided diagnostic system, is used in bone scintigraphy. This system provides the artificial neural network (ANN and bone scan index (BSI values. ANN is associated with the possibility of bone metastasis, while BSI is related to the amount of bone metastasis. The degree of uptake on bone scintigraphy can be affected by the type of bone metastasis. Therefore, the ANN value provided by BONENAVI may be influenced by the characteristics of bone metastasis. In this study, we aimed to assess the relationship between ANN value and characteristics of bone metastasis. Methods: We analyzed 50 patients (36 males, 14 females; age range: 42–87 yrs, median age: 72.5 yrs with prostate, breast, or lung cancer who had undergone bone scintigraphy and were diagnosed with bone metastasis (32 cases of prostate cancer, nine cases of breast cancer, and nine cases of lung cancer. Those who had received systematic therapy over the past years were excluded. Bone metastases were diagnosed clinically, and the type of bone metastasis (osteoblastic, mildly osteoblastic,osteolytic, and mixed components was decided visually by the agreement of two radiologists. We compared the ANN values (case-based and lesion-based among the three primary cancers and four types of bone metastasis.Results: There was no significant difference in case-based ANN values among prostate, breast, and lung cancers. However, the lesion-based ANN values were the highest in cases with prostate cancer and the lowest in cases of lung cancer (median values: prostate cancer, 0.980; breast cancer, 0.909; and lung cancer, 0.864. Mildly osteoblastic lesions showed significantly lower ANN values than the other three types of bone metastasis (median values: osteoblastic, 0.939; mildly osteoblastic, 0.788; mixed type, 0.991; and osteolytic, 0.969. The possibility of a lesion-based ANN value below 0.5 was 10.9% for bone metastasis in prostate cancer, 12.9% for breast cancer, and 37

  3. Evaluation of suspected local recurrence in head and neck cancer: A comparison between PET and PET/CT for biopsy proven lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, Benjamin S.; Yeom, Kristen; Fueger, Barbara J.; Lufkin, Robert B.; Czernin, Johannes; Allen-Auerbach, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Background: 18 F-FDG PET has a high accuracy for re-staging of head and neck cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the diagnostic accuracy can be further improved with integrated PET/CT. Materials and methods: Forty-nine patients with a mean age of 59 ± 18 years were studied retrospectively. Histo-pathological verification was available either from complete tumor resection with or without lymph node dissection (n = 27) or direct endoscopic biopsy (n = 16) or ultrasound guided biopsy (n = 6). Two reviewers blinded to the pathological findings read all PET images in consensus. An experienced radiologist was added for the interpretation of the PET/CT images. Results: Tissue verification was available for 110 lesions in 49 patients. Sixty-seven lesions (61%) were biopsy positive and 43 (39%) were negative for malignant disease. PET and PET/CT showed an overall accuracy for cancer detection of 84 and 88% (p = 0.06), respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for PET were 78 and 93% versus 84 (p = NS) and 95% (p = NS) with PET/CT. A patient-by-patient analysis yielded a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for PET of 80, 56 and 76%, compared to 88% (p = NS), 78% (p = NS) and 86% (p = 0.06) for PET/CT. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that PET/CT does not significantly improve the detection of recurrence of head and neck cancer. However, a trend towards improved accuracy was observed (p = 0.06)

  4. [Prevalence of high-risk HPV and its distribution in cervical precancerous lesions among 35-64 years old women who received cervical cancer screening in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, J; Gao, L L; Zhang, Y; Han, L L; Wang, J D

    2018-05-06

    Objective: To study the prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR HPV) in women who accepted cervical cancer screening in Beijing and its distribution in cervical precancerous lesions. Methods: From January 2014 to March 2015, all women aged 35-64 years old and received free screening in institutions of cervical cancer in Beijing were recruited. Stratified cluster random sampling method was used in selecting 31 091 women for gynecological examination and genotyping of HR-HPV. Those positive for HR-HPV (except for HPV 16/18) were examined for cervical cell. For those atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS) and above, who were positive for HPV 16/18 and with uncertain results for cervical cell, were transferred for colposcopy examination. For those with suspicious or abnormal results for colposcopy, were transferred for histopathology. The prevalence of HR-HPV, cervical cancer and precancerous lesions among the participants were analyzed. Results: Totally 31 091 women aged from 35-year-old to 64-year-old, with 44.3% (13 780 women) in the 35-49 age group and 55.7% (17 311 women) in the 50-64 age group. 66.1% (20 536 women) were rural women. The infection rate of HR-HPV was 7.4%(2 305 cases) among the women. High-risk infection rates of HPV except HPV 16/18 were 5.7% (1 758 cases), and multi-infection rate was 1.5% (477 cases). The highest infection rate was 7.9% (1 044 cases) among the 45-49 year-old and 50-54 year-old age groups (χ(2)=14.07, P= 0.015). The rate in rural women was significantly higher than that of the urban women (6.2%, 507 cases; 7.9%, 1 798 cases) (χ(2)=25.75, Page group.

  5. Photodynamic therapy for skin field cancerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braathen, L R; Morton, C A; Basset-Seguin, N

    2012-01-01

    in this area. With respect to the skin, this term is used to define the presence of multiple non-melanoma skin cancer, its precursors, actinic keratoses and dysplastic keratinocytes in sun exposed areas. The multiplicity of the lesions and the extent of the area influence the treatment decision. Providing...... paper the use of PDT for the treatment of field cancerized skin is reviewed and recommendations are given for its use.......Field cancerization is a term that describes the presence of genetic abnormalities in a tissue chronically exposed to a carcinogen. These abnormalities are responsible for the presence of multilocular clinical and sub-clinical cancerous lesions that explains the increased risks of multiple cancers...

  6. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions Virus papiloma humano en lesiones orales

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín V. Gónzalez; Rafael A. Gutiérrez; Alicia Keszler; Maria Del Carmen Colacino; Lidia V. Alonio; Angélica R. Teyssie; Maria Alejandra Picconi

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases); the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell ...

  7. FDG PET/CT Is Superior to Enhanced CT in Detecting Recurrent Subcentimeter Lesions in the Abdominopelvic Cavity in Colorectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hai Jeon; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. Bundang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Jin [Asan Medical Center, Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    This study aims to compare the performance of contrast enhanced computed tomography (CeCT) and 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) in detecting small tumor implants and metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) in the abdominopelvic cavity in patients with colorectal cancer. We enrolled 16 patients who were clinically suspected of experiencing a recurrences (6 male, 10 female; mean age 61{+-}14 years). All subjects underwent CeCT and PET/CT, and the performance of these methods was compared with regard to detecting recurrences. The final diagnosis of a recurrence was made clinically. CeCT identified 38 lesions in 12 patients, all of which were detected by PET/CT. PET/CT found 27 additional lesions in 8 patients, comprising 9 seeding nodules (2 in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen and 7 in the pelvic cavity) and 18 LNs (2 celiac, 2 paraaortic, 2 hepatic hilar, 11 common iliac, 1 external iliac). Most additional lesions were located in the pelvic cavity (approximately 78% of seeding nodules that were detected solely by PET/CT was significantly higher compared with the CeCT and PET/CT confirmed nodules (5.5{+-}4.2 vs. 2.9{+-}2.5, p=0.03). The seeding nodules that were detected only by PET/CT were significantly smaller than the CeCT and PET/CT confirmed nodules (long axis:1.0{+-}0.3cm vs. 2.0{+-}1.1cm, p=0.001; short axis: 0.8{+-}0.3cm vs. 1.7{+-}0.9cm, p=0.001). Similarly, PET/CT only detected LNs were significantly smaller than CeCT and PET/CT identified LNs (0.7{+-}0.1cm vs. 2.3{+-}1.2cm, p<0.0001). PET/CT is superior to CeCT in detecting seeding nodules and metastatic LNs in patients with recurrent colorectal cancer. Specifically, PET/CT detects subcentimeter lesions in anatomically deformed pelvic cavities.

  8. Early dynamic imaging in {sup 68}Ga- PSMA-11 PET/CT allows discrimination of urinary bladder activity and prostate cancer lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uprimny, Christian; Kroiss, Alexander Stephan; Decristoforo, Clemens; Warwitz, Boris; Scarpa, Lorenza; Roig, Llanos Geraldo; Kendler, Dorota; Guggenberg, Elisabeth von; Virgolini, Irene Johanna [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Fritz, Josef [Medical University Innsbruck, Department for Medical Statistics, Informatics and Health Economics, Innsbruck (Austria); Bektic, Jasmin; Horninger, Wolfgang [Medical University Innsbruck, Department of Urology, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2017-05-15

    PET/CT with {sup 68}Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-ligands has been proven to establish a promising imaging modality in the work-up of prostate cancer (PC) patients with biochemical relapse. Despite a high overall detection rate, the visualisation of local recurrence may be hampered by high physiologic tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder on whole body imaging, usually starting 60 min after injection. This study sought to verify whether early dynamic {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 (HBED-CC)PET/CT can differentiate pathologic PC-related tracer uptake from physiologic tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder. Eighty consecutive PC patients referred to {sup 68}Ga -PSMA-11 PET/CT were included in this retrospective analysis (biochemical relapse: n = 64; primary staging: n = 8; evaluation of therapy response/restaging: n = 8). In addition to whole-body PET/CT acquisition 60 min post injection early dynamic imaging of the pelvis in the first 8 min after tracer injection was performed. SUV{sub max} of pathologic lesions was calculated and time-activity curves were generated and compared to those of urinary bladder and areas of physiologic tracer uptake. A total of 55 lesions consistent with malignancy on 60 min whole body imaging exhibited also pathologic {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 uptake during early dynamic imaging (prostatic bed/prostate gland: n = 27; lymph nodes: n = 12; bone: n = 16). All pathologic lesions showed tracer uptake within the first 3 min, whereas urinary bladder activity was absent within the first 3 min of dynamic imaging in all patients. Suv{sub max} was significantly higher in PC lesions in the first 6 min compared to urinary bladder accumulation (p < 0.001). In the subgroup of PC patients with biochemical relapse the detection rate of local recurrence could be increased from 20.3 to 29.7%. Early dynamic imaging in {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT reliably enables the differentiation of pathologic tracer uptake in PC lesions from physiologic

  9. Early dynamic imaging in 68Ga- PSMA-11 PET/CT allows discrimination of urinary bladder activity and prostate cancer lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprimny, Christian; Kroiss, Alexander Stephan; Decristoforo, Clemens; Fritz, Josef; Warwitz, Boris; Scarpa, Lorenza; Roig, Llanos Geraldo; Kendler, Dorota; von Guggenberg, Elisabeth; Bektic, Jasmin; Horninger, Wolfgang; Virgolini, Irene Johanna

    2017-05-01

    PET/CT with 68 Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-ligands has been proven to establish a promising imaging modality in the work-up of prostate cancer (PC) patients with biochemical relapse. Despite a high overall detection rate, the visualisation of local recurrence may be hampered by high physiologic tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder on whole body imaging, usually starting 60 min after injection. This study sought to verify whether early dynamic 68 Ga-PSMA-11 (HBED-CC)PET/CT can differentiate pathologic PC-related tracer uptake from physiologic tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder. Eighty consecutive PC patients referred to 68 Ga -PSMA-11 PET/CT were included in this retrospective analysis (biochemical relapse: n = 64; primary staging: n = 8; evaluation of therapy response/restaging: n = 8). In addition to whole-body PET/CT acquisition 60 min post injection early dynamic imaging of the pelvis in the first 8 min after tracer injection was performed. SUV max of pathologic lesions was calculated and time-activity curves were generated and compared to those of urinary bladder and areas of physiologic tracer uptake. A total of 55 lesions consistent with malignancy on 60 min whole body imaging exhibited also pathologic 68 Ga-PSMA-11 uptake during early dynamic imaging (prostatic bed/prostate gland: n = 27; lymph nodes: n = 12; bone: n = 16). All pathologic lesions showed tracer uptake within the first 3 min, whereas urinary bladder activity was absent within the first 3 min of dynamic imaging in all patients. Suv max was significantly higher in PC lesions in the first 6 min compared to urinary bladder accumulation (p dynamic imaging in 68 Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT reliably enables the differentiation of pathologic tracer uptake in PC lesions from physiologic bladder accumulation. Performance of early dynamic imaging in addition to whole body imaging 60 min after tracer injection might improve the detection rate

  10. Early dynamic imaging in "6"8Ga- PSMA-11 PET/CT allows discrimination of urinary bladder activity and prostate cancer lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uprimny, Christian; Kroiss, Alexander Stephan; Decristoforo, Clemens; Warwitz, Boris; Scarpa, Lorenza; Roig, Llanos Geraldo; Kendler, Dorota; Guggenberg, Elisabeth von; Virgolini, Irene Johanna; Fritz, Josef; Bektic, Jasmin; Horninger, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    PET/CT with "6"8Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-ligands has been proven to establish a promising imaging modality in the work-up of prostate cancer (PC) patients with biochemical relapse. Despite a high overall detection rate, the visualisation of local recurrence may be hampered by high physiologic tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder on whole body imaging, usually starting 60 min after injection. This study sought to verify whether early dynamic "6"8Ga-PSMA-11 (HBED-CC)PET/CT can differentiate pathologic PC-related tracer uptake from physiologic tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder. Eighty consecutive PC patients referred to "6"8Ga -PSMA-11 PET/CT were included in this retrospective analysis (biochemical relapse: n = 64; primary staging: n = 8; evaluation of therapy response/restaging: n = 8). In addition to whole-body PET/CT acquisition 60 min post injection early dynamic imaging of the pelvis in the first 8 min after tracer injection was performed. SUV_m_a_x of pathologic lesions was calculated and time-activity curves were generated and compared to those of urinary bladder and areas of physiologic tracer uptake. A total of 55 lesions consistent with malignancy on 60 min whole body imaging exhibited also pathologic "6"8Ga-PSMA-11 uptake during early dynamic imaging (prostatic bed/prostate gland: n = 27; lymph nodes: n = 12; bone: n = 16). All pathologic lesions showed tracer uptake within the first 3 min, whereas urinary bladder activity was absent within the first 3 min of dynamic imaging in all patients. Suv_m_a_x was significantly higher in PC lesions in the first 6 min compared to urinary bladder accumulation (p < 0.001). In the subgroup of PC patients with biochemical relapse the detection rate of local recurrence could be increased from 20.3 to 29.7%. Early dynamic imaging in "6"8Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT reliably enables the differentiation of pathologic tracer uptake in PC lesions from physiologic bladder accumulation

  11. [Lobular neoplasms and invasive lobular breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, H-P; Helmchen, B; Heil, J; Aulmann, S

    2014-02-01

    The term lobular neoplasia (LN) comprises both atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH), and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and thus a spectrum of morphologically heterogeneous but clinically and biologically related lesions. LN is regarded as a nonobligatory precursor lesion of invasive breast cancer and at the same time as an indicator lesion for ipsilateral and contralateral breast cancer risk of the patient. Rare pleomorphic or florid variants of LCIS must be differentiated from classical LCIS. The classical type of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) can be distinguished from the non-special type of invasive breast cancer (NST) by E-cadherin inactivation, loss of E-cadherin related cell adhesion and the subsequent discohesive growth pattern. Variant forms of ILC may show different molecular features, and solid and pleomorphic differentiation patterns in cases of high grade variants. Important parameters for the prognostic assessment of ILC are tumor grading and the recognition of morphological variants.

  12. 99m Tc-MIP-1404-SPECT/CT for the detection of PSMA-positive lesions in 225 patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidkonz, Christian; Hollweg, Claudia; Beck, Michael; Reinfelder, Julia; Goetz, Theresa I; Sanders, James C; Schmidt, Daniela; Prante, Olaf; Bäuerle, Tobias; Cavallaro, Alexander; Uder, Michael; Wullich, Bernd; Goebell, Peter; Kuwert, Torsten; Ritt, Philipp

    2018-01-01

    99m Tc-MIP-1404 (Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Inc., New York, NY) is a novel, SPECT-compatible 99m Tc-labeled PSMA inhibitor for the detection of prostate cancer. We present results of its clinical use in a cohort of 225 men with histologically confirmed prostate cancer referred for workup of biochemical relapse. From April 2013 to April 2017, 99m Tc-MIP1404-scintigraphy was performed in 225 patients for workup of PSA biochemical relapse of prostate cancer. Whole-body planar and SPECT/CT images of the lower abdomen and thorax were obtained 3-4 h p.i. of 710 ± 64 MBq 99m Tc-MIP-1404. Images were visually analyzed for presence and location of abnormal uptake. In addition, quantitative analysis of the SPECT/CT data was carried out on a subset of 125 patients. Follow-up reports of subsequent therapeutic interventions were available for 59% (139) of all patients. Tracer-positive lesions were detected in 77% (174/225) of all patients. Detections occurred at the area of local recurrence in the prostate in 25% of patients (or a total of 56), with metastases in lymph nodes in 47% (105), bone in 27% (60), lung in 5% (12), and other locations in 2% (4) of patients. Detection rates were 90% at PSA levels ≥2 ng/mL and 54% below that threshold. Lesional SUVmax values were, on average, 32.2 ± 29.6 (0.8-142.2), and tumor-to-normal ratios 146.6 ± 160.5 (1.9-1482.4). The PSA level correlated significantly with total uptake of MIP-1404 in tumors (P Tc-MIP-1404-imaging and other information, an interdisciplinary tumor board review recommended changes to treatment plans in 74% (104/139) of those patients for whom the necessary documentation was available. SPECT/CT with 99m Tc-labeled MIP-1404 has a high probability in detecting PSMA-positive lesions in patients with elevated PSA. Statistical analysis disclosed significant relationship between quantitative 99m Tc-MIP-1404 uptake, PSA level, and Gleason score. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Expression of p53, inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular endothelial growth factor in gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions: correlation with clinical features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Chang Wei; Wang, Li Dong; Jiao, Lian Hua; Liu, Bin; Zheng, Shu; Xie, Xin Ji

    2002-01-01

    The growth and metastasis of tumors depend on the development of an adequate blood supply via angiogenesis. Recent studies indicate that the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the tumor suppressor p53 are fundamental play-markers of the angiogenic process. Overexpression of iNOS and VEGF has been shown to induce angiogenesis in tumors. P53 suppresses angiogenesis by down-regulating VEGF and iNOS. The correlation of expression of p53, VEGF and iNOS and clinical features in gastric carcinogenesis, however, has not been well characterized. The expression of p53, iNOS and VEGF in gastric precancerous and cancerous lesions and its relation with the clinical features was determined with immunohistochemistry (avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method) on 55 randomly selected GC patients and 60 symptom-free subjects from the mass survey in the high-incidence area for GC in Henan, northern China. The positive immunostainig rates for p53, iNOS and VEGF in gastric carcinomas were 51%, 44% and 51%, respectively, and correlated well with TNM stages, but did not show significant difference among the groups with different degrees of gastric wall invasion depth by GC. A positive immunostaining reaction for the iNOS protein was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.019; Spearman correlation coefficient). P53 protein accumulation was higher in the poorly-differentiated gastric carcinoma than in well-differentiated one. In gastric biopsies, no positive immunosatining was observed for p53, iNOS and VEGF in the histologically normal tissue and chronic superficial gastritis (CSG). However, p53, iNOS and VEGF positive immunostaining was observed in the tissues with different severities of lesions of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS), and the positive rates increased with the lesion progression from CAG to IM to DYS. A high coincidental positive and negative immunostaining

  14. Inheritance of proliferative breast disease in breast cancer kindreds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolnick, M.H.; Cannon-Albright, L.A.; Goldgar, D.E.; Ward, J.H.; Marshall, C.J.; Schumann, G.B.; Hogle, H.; McWhorter, W.P.; Wright, E.C.; Tran, T.D.; Bishop, D.T.; Kushner, J.P.; Eyre, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is rare and is expressed primarily as premenopausal breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, or both. Proliferative breast disease (PBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of breast cancer and appears to be a precursor lesion. PBD and breast cancer were studied in 103 women from 20 kindreds that were selected for the presence of two first degree relatives with breast cancer and in 31 control women. Physical examination, screening mammography, and four-quadrant fine-needle breast aspirates were performed. Cytologic analysis of breast aspirates revealed PBD in 35% of clinically normal female first degree relatives of breast cancer cases and in 13% of controls. Genetic analysis suggests that genetic susceptibility causes both PBD and breast cancer in these kindreds. This study supports the hypothesis that this susceptibility is responsible for a considerable portion of breast cancer, including unilateral and postmenopausal breast cancer

  15. Analysis of pulmonary coin lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, O; Kim, K. H.; Oh, K. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    For A long time the solitary pulmonary nodule has remained a difficult problem to solve and has attracted a great deal of attension in recent years. Circumscribed coin lesions of the lung were generally peripheral in location with respect to the pulmonary hilus. Because of this, important clinical problem in management and diagnosis arise. Such a lesion is discovered through roentgenologic examination. So the roentgenologists is the first be in a position to offer advise. This presentation is an attempt to correlate a useful diagnosis with roentgenologic findings of pulmonary coin lesion which enables us to get differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lesion. Histologically proven 120 cases of the pulmonary coin lesion during the period of 8 years were reviewed through plain film, tomogram, bronchoscopy, variable laboratory findings, and clinical history. The results are as follows: 1. Male to female sex ratio was 3 : 1. In age distribution, most of the malignant pulmonary coin lesion appeared in 6th decade (39%) and 5th decade (27%). In benign lesion, the most cases were in 3 rd decade. 2. Pathological cell type are as follows: Primary bronchogenic cancer 43.3%, tuberculoma 25.8%, inflammatory lesion 17.5%, benign tumor 10%, and bronchial adenoma, harmartoma, A.V. malformation, mesothelioma, are 1 case respectively. As a result benign and malignant lesion showed equal distribution (49.1% : 50.3%). 3. In symptom analysis ; cough is the most common (43.5%) symptom in malignant lesion, next follows hemoptysis (20.9%) and chest pain (14.5%). In benign lesion, most of the patient (32.7%) did not complain any symptom. 4. In malignant lesion, the most common nodular size was 4 cm (32.3%), and in benign lesion 2 cm sized coin was most common (39.3%). 5. In general, margin of nodule was very sharp and well demarcated in benign lesion (83.3%), and in malignant lesion that was less demarcated and poorly defined. 6. Most case of calcification (82.7%) was seen in benign

  16. Tubal epithelial lesions in salpingo-oophorectomy specimens of BRCA-mutation carriers and controls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mingels, M.J.J.M.; Roelofsen, T.; Laak, J.A.W.M. van der; Hullu, J.A. de; Ham, M.A.P.C. van; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bulten, J.; Bol, M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A precursor lesion for ovarian carcinoma, tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (TIC), has been identified in BRCA-mutation carriers undergoing prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (pBSO). Other lesions were also identified in fallopian tubes, but different terminology, interpretation,

  17. Atherosclerotic lesions in humans. In situ immunophenotypic analysis suggesting an immune mediated response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, A. C.; Das, P. K.; Bentz van de Berg, D.; van der Loos, C. M.; Becker, A. E.

    1989-01-01

    The immunophenotypical features of the cellular infiltrates in different types of human atherosclerotic lesions, including diffuse intimal thickening as a potential but controversial precursor lesion, have been examined using monoclonal antibodies. Special emphasis is put on monocytes/macrophages,

  18. Subtypes of Ovarian Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Koshiyama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the foremost cause of gynecological cancer death in the developed world, as it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. In this paper we discuss current issues, the efficacy and problems associated with ovarian cancer screening, and compare the characteristics of ovarian cancer subtypes. There are two types of ovarian cancer: Type I carcinomas, which are slow-growing, indolent neoplasms thought to arise from a precursor lesion, which are relatively common in Asia; and Type II carcinomas, which are clinically aggressive neoplasms that can develop de novo from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC and/or ovarian surface epithelium and are common in Europe and the USA. One of the most famous studies on the subject reported that annual screening using CA125/transvaginal sonography (TVS did not reduce the ovarian cancer mortality rate in the USA. In contrast, a recent study in the UK showed an overall average mortality reduction of 20% in the screening group. Another two studies further reported that the screening was associated with decreased stage at detection. Theoretically, annual screening using CA125/TVS could easily detect precursor lesions and could be more effective in Asia than in Europe and the USA. The detection of Type II ovarian carcinoma at an early stage remains an unresolved issue. The resolving power of CA125 or TVS screening alone is unlikely to be successful at resolving STICs. Biomarkers for the early detection of Type II carcinomas such as STICs need to be developed.

  19. Subtypes of Ovarian Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiyama, Masafumi; Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo

    2017-03-02

    Ovarian cancer is the foremost cause of gynecological cancer death in the developed world, as it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. In this paper we discuss current issues, the efficacy and problems associated with ovarian cancer screening, and compare the characteristics of ovarian cancer subtypes. There are two types of ovarian cancer: Type I carcinomas, which are slow-growing, indolent neoplasms thought to arise from a precursor lesion, which are relatively common in Asia; and Type II carcinomas, which are clinically aggressive neoplasms that can develop de novo from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC) and/or ovarian surface epithelium and are common in Europe and the USA. One of the most famous studies on the subject reported that annual screening using CA125/transvaginal sonography (TVS) did not reduce the ovarian cancer mortality rate in the USA. In contrast, a recent study in the UK showed an overall average mortality reduction of 20% in the screening group. Another two studies further reported that the screening was associated with decreased stage at detection. Theoretically, annual screening using CA125/TVS could easily detect precursor lesions and could be more effective in Asia than in Europe and the USA. The detection of Type II ovarian carcinoma at an early stage remains an unresolved issue. The resolving power of CA125 or TVS screening alone is unlikely to be successful at resolving STICs. Biomarkers for the early detection of Type II carcinomas such as STICs need to be developed.

  20. Has PET/CT a role in the characterization of indeterminate lung lesions on staging CT in colorectal cancer? A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, P.; Seiersen, M.; Ovesen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose CT has been found superior to chest x-ray to detect lung malignances. However, indeterminate lung lesions (ILL) are found in 4-42% by using CT in staging colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Our aim was to examine the frequency of ILL on staging CT and the rate of the ILL being malignant...... CT performed 6, 12, 18 and 24 months postoperatively. Results Twenty percent of the patients had ILL. Four of these patients (8.5%) had lung metastases detected median 9 months postoperatively, while 2 (4.3%) had other lung malignancies. One patient had TB. In patients with normal staging chest CT 10...... of the 185 patients (5.4%) developed lung metastases detected median 16 months postoperatively. This was significantly later than in patients with ILL (p lung metastases no significant difference was found between the groups (p = 0...

  1. Histomorphological spetrum of breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, S; Koirala, U; Khatri, R; Acharya, L; Suwal, A

    2011-04-01

    Cancer of the breast is the second most common cause of cancer in women. Mass in the breast, whether benign or malignant is a cause of anxiety to the patients and the family members. All breast lumps are considered to be carcinomas until proved otherwise and are the causes of concern both for the patient and surgeon. This is a retrospective study conducted in Kathmandu Model Hospital for a total duration of three years from August 2007 to August 2010. 114 sample of breast tissue sent for histopathology were studied. Peak incidence of benign lesion was in between 21-30 years and malignant lesions in between 31-50 years. No breast lesions were seen in the first decade of life. Cancer of the breast was seen in 12.28% of cases. Fibroadenoma and fibrocystic disease were the commonest benign lesion and infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the commonest malignant lesion. Specimens from 10 male breasts were received. Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion encountered in males. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was seen in a 70 year old male. Breast cancer is one of the commonest causes of breast lump particularly in women and is growing public health problem in Nepal.

  2. Differentiation between malignant and benign thyroid nodules and stratification of papillary thyroid cancer with aggressive histological features: Whole-lesion diffusion-weighted imaging histogram analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yonghong; Pan, Chu; Chen, WeiWei; Li, Tao; Zhu, WenZhen; Qi, JianPin

    2016-12-01

    To explore the usefulness of whole-lesion histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) derived from reduced field-of-view (r-FOV) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in differentiating malignant and benign thyroid nodules and stratifying papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with aggressive histological features. This Institutional Review Board-approved, retrospective study included 93 patients with 101 pathologically proven thyroid nodules. All patients underwent preoperative r-FOV DWI at 3T. The whole-lesion ADC assessments were performed for each patient. Histogram-derived ADC parameters between different subgroups (pathologic type, extrathyroidal extension, lymph node metastasis) were compared. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine optimal histogram parameters in differentiating benign and malignant nodules and predicting aggressiveness of PTC. Mean ADC, median ADC, 5 th percentile ADC, 25 th percentile ADC, 75 th percentile ADC, 95 th percentile ADC (all P histogram analysis might help to differentiate malignant nodules from benign ones and show the PTCs with extrathyroidal extension. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1546-1555. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Comparison of MET-PET and FDG-PET for differentiation between benign lesions and lung cancer in pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanegae, Kakuko; Kuge, Yuji; Shiga, Tohru; Zhao, Songji; Okamoto, Shouzo; Tamaki, Nagara; Nakano, Ikuo; Kimura, Kiyonobu; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the ability of C-11-methionine (MET) and F-18 fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to diagnose lung cancer in patients with pneumoconiosis. Twenty-six subjects underwent both wholebody MET-PET and FDG-PET on the same day. The first group was a lung cancer group, which consisted of 15 patients, and included those with pneumoconiosis with increased nodules (13 cases), hemoptysis (1 case), and positive sputum cytology (1 case). The second group was a no-malignancy control group, consisting of 11 patients with pneumoconiosis. Significant correlations between nodule size and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) of the two PET tracers were observed in the control group. The larger the nodule size, the greater were the amounts of these tracers accumulated (MET: r=0.771, P max of MET was significantly lower than that of FDG in the pneumoconiotic nodules (P max of MET was significantly higher in the lung cancer than in the pneumoconiotic nodules, with 3.48±1.18 (mean ± SE) for the lung cancer and 1.48±0.08 for the pneumoconiotic nodules (P max of FDG, with 7.12±2.36 and 2.85±0.24 (P<0.05), respectively. On the basis of the criteria for the control group, FDG and MET identified lung cancer with sensitivities of 60% and 80%, specificities of 100% and 93%, accuracies of 90% and 90%, positive predictive values of 100% and 80%, and negative predictive values of 88% and 93%, respectively. Our results indicate that nodules with an intense uptake of MET and FDG relative to their size should be carefully observed because of a high risk for lung cancer. (author)

  4. PET/CT-guided percutaneous biopsy of FDG-avid metastatic bone lesions in patients with advanced lung cancer: a safe and effective technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Wei; Hao, Bing; Chen, Hao-jun; Zhao, Long; Luo, Zuo-ming; Wu, Hua; Sun, Long [The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Minnan PET Center, Xiamen Cancer Hospital, Xiamen (China)

    2017-01-15

    {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT should be performed before a diagnostic biopsy site is chosen in patients with a high clinical suspicion of aggressive, advanced tumour. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in guiding biopsy of bone metastases in patients with advanced lung cancer. PET/CT-guided percutaneous core biopsies were performed in 51 consecutive patients with suspected lung cancer and {sup 18}F-FDG-avid bone lesions after whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans. Generally, one tissue sample was obtained from each patient. The final diagnoses were established on the basis of the histology results. The histopathological and molecular testing results were systematically evaluated. A total of 53 samples were obtained for histological examination or molecular testing as a second biopsy was required in two patients in whom the pathological diagnosis was unclear following the first biopsy. The pathological diagnosis and lung cancer classification were confirmed in 48 patients. The epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status was determined in 23 biopsies, and the mutation rate was 30.4 % (7/23). The anaplastic lymphoma kinase mutation status was determined in 19 biopsies, and the mutation rate was 31.6 % (6/19). Two of the 51 biopsies were positive for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and one was positive for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The first-time diagnostic success rate of biopsy was 96.1 % (49/51) and the overall diagnostic success rate and sensitivity were 100 %. All 51 patients were eventually confirmed as having stage IV disease. No serious complications were encountered and the average biopsy time was 30 min. PET/CT-guided percutaneous biopsy of {sup 18}F-FDG-avid bone metastases is an effective and safe method that yields a high diagnostic success rate in the evaluation of hypermetabolic bone lesions in patients with suspected advanced lung cancer. (orig.)

  5. Synthetic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors inhibit growth of established breast cancer osteolytic lesions and prolong survival in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Bent; NicAmhlaoibh, Róisín; Misander, Henriette

    2002-01-01

    Breast cancer frequently leads to incurable bone metastasis. Essential requirements for the development of bone metastasis are cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, release of bioactive growth factors and cytokines, and removal of large amounts of bone matrix. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs...

  6. Examination of skin lesions for cancer : Which clinical decision aids and tools are available in general practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelink, Cecile J. L.; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Van der Meer, Klaas; Van der Heide, Wouter K.

    2014-01-01

    Background While skin cancer incidence is rising throughout Europe, general practitioners (GP) feel unsure about their ability to diagnose skin malignancies. Objectives To evaluate whether the GP has sufficient validated clinical decision aids and tools for the examination of potentially malignant

  7. Two cases of greater omentum use for treatment of radiation-induced chest lesions in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luboinski, G [Instytut Onkologii, Warsaw (Poland)

    1977-01-01

    Two cases of extensive ulcerations induced by radiotherapy during treatment of breast cancer are described. The ulcerations were excised and the remaining tissue defect was covered with greater omentum shifted to the chest. The omentum was covered with a free dermo-epidermal graft. In both cases rapid healing of the wound and disappearance of pain was obtained.

  8. Percutaneous Image-Guided Screw Fixation of Bone Lesions in Cancer Patients: Double-Centre Analysis of Outcomes including Local Evolution of the Treated Focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.koch@chru-strasbourg.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Buy, Xavier, E-mail: x.buy@bordeaux.unicancer.fr [Institut Bergonié, Department of Radiology (France); Ramamurthy, Nitin, E-mail: nitin-ramamurthy@hotmail.com [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: georgia.tsoumakidou@chru-strasbourg.fr; Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail: jean.caudrelier@chru-strasbourg.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Catena, Vittorio, E-mail: v.catena@bordeaux.unicancer.fr [Institut Bergonié, Department of Radiology (France); Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juleiengarnon@gmail.com [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France); Palussiere, Jean, E-mail: j.palussiere@bordeaux.unicancer.fr [Institut Bergonié, Department of Radiology (France); Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, HUS, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nouvel Hôpital Civil (France)

    2016-10-15

    AimTo review outcomes and local evolution of treated lesions following percutaneous image-guided screw fixation (PIGSF) of pathological/insufficiency fractures (PF/InF) and impeding fractures (ImF) in cancer patients at two tertiary centres.Materials and methodsThirty-two consecutive patients (mean age 67.5 years; range 33–86 years) with a range of tumours and prognoses underwent PIGSF for non/minimally displaced PF/InF and ImF. Screws were placed under CT/fluoroscopy or cone-beam CT guidance, with or without cementoplasty. Clinical outcomes were assessed using a simple 4-point scale (1 = worse; 2 = stable; 3 = improved; 4 = significantly improved). Local evolution was reviewed on most recent follow-up imaging. Technical success, complications, and overall survival were evaluated.ResultsThirty-six lesions were treated with 74 screws mainly in the pelvis and femoral neck (58.2 %); including 47.2 % PF, 13.9 % InF, and 38.9 % ImF. Cementoplasty was performed in 63.9 % of the cases. Technical success was 91.6 %. Hospital stay was ≤3 days; 87.1 % of lesions were improved at 1-month follow-up; three major complications (early screw-impingement radiculopathy; accelerated coxarthrosis; late coxofemoral septic arthritis) and one minor complication were observed. Unfavourable local evolution at imaging occurred in 3/24 lesions (12.5 %) at mean 8.7-month follow-up, including poor consolidation (one case) and screw loosening (two cases, at least 1 symptomatic). There were no cases of secondary fractures.ConclusionsPIGSF is feasible for a wide range of oncologic patients, offering good short-term efficacy, acceptable complication rates, and rapid recovery. Unfavourable local evolution at imaging may be relatively frequent, and requires close clinico-radiological surveillance.

  9. CCR2-V64I polymorphism is associated with increased risk of cervical cancer but not with HPV infection or pre-cancerous lesions in African women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Koushik; Dandara, Collet; Hoffman, Margaret; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer, caused by specific oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV), is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. A large number of young sexually active women get infected by HPV but only a small fraction of them have persistent infection and develop cervical cancer pointing to co- factors including host genetics that might play a role in outcome of the HPV infection. This study investigated the role of CCR2-V64I polymorphism in cervical cancer, pre-cancers and HPV infection in South African women resident in Western Cape. CCR2-V64I polymorphism has been previously reported to influence the progression to cervical cancer in some populations and has also been associated with decreased progression from HIV infection to AIDS. Genotyping for CCR2-V64I was done by PCR-SSP in a case-control study of 446 women (106 black African and 340 mixed-ancestry) with histologically confirmed invasive cervical cancer and 1432 controls (322 black African and 1110 mixed-ancestry) group-matched (1:3) by age, ethnicity and domicile status. In the control women HPV was detected using the Digene Hybrid Capture II test and cervical disease was detected by cervical cytology. The CCR2-64I variant was significantly associated with cervical cancer when cases were compared to the control group (P = 0.001). Further analysis comparing selected groups within the controls showed that individuals with abnormal cytology and high grade squamous intraepitleial neoplasia (HSIL) did not have this association when compared to women with normal cytology. HPV infection also showed no association with CCR2-64I variant. Comparing SIL positive controls with the cases showed a significant association of CCR2-64I variant (P = 0.001) with cervical cancer. This is the first study of the role of CCR2-V64I polymorphism in cervical cancer in an African population. Our results show that CCR2-64I variant is associated with the risk of cervical cancer but does not affect the susceptibility to HPV

  10. Cancerous hyper-mutagenesis in p53 genes is possibly associated with transcriptional bypass of DNA lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodin, S.N.; Rodin, A.S.; Juhasz, A.; Holmquist, G.P.

    2002-01-01

    The database of tumor-associated p53 base substitutions includes about 5% of tumors with two or more base substitutions. These multiplet base substitutions in one tumor are evidence for hyper-mutagenesis. Our retrospective analysis of this database indicates that most multiplets arise from a single transient hyper-mutagenic event in one cell that subsequently proliferated into a clonal tumor. The hyper-mutagenesis, 1.8x10 -4 substitutions per base pair, is detected as multiple mutations in p53 genes of tumors. It requires one strongly tumorigenic p53 substitution, usually missense, called the driver mutation. The occurrence frequencies of ancillary base substitutions, those that hitch-hike along with the driver mutation, are independent of their amino acid coding properties. In this respect, they act like neutral mutations. In support of this neutrality, we find that the frequency distribution of hitch-hiking CpG transitions along the p53 exons, their mutational spectrum, approximates the spontaneous pre-selection mutational spectrum of most human tissues and is correlated with the mutational spectrum of p53 pseudogenes in mammalian germ cells. The driver substitutions of multiplets predominantly originate along the transcribed strand while the ancillary substitutions tend to originate along the non-transcribed strand. This data is consistent with a model of time-dependent mutagenesis in non-dividing stem cells for generating multiple strand-asymmetric p53 mutations in tumors. By transcriptional bypass of DNA lesions with concomitant misincorporation, transcriptional mutagenesis generates a transient mutant p53 mRNA. The associated mutant p53 protein could allow the host cell a growth advantage, release from G 1 -arrest. Then, during subsequent DNA replication and misreading of the same lesion, the damaged base along the transcribed DNA strand would serve as the origin of the p53 base substitution that drives the hyper-mutagenic event leading to tumors with

  11. Columnar cell lesions and pseudoangiomatous hyperplasia like stroma: is there an epithelial-stromal interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recavarren, Rosemary A; Chivukula, Mamatha; Carter, Gloria; Dabbs, David J

    2009-10-10

    The significance of association between cancer and its microenvironment has been increasingly recognized. It has been shown in animal models that interaction between neoplastic epithelial cells and adjacent stroma can modulate tumor behavior. Carcinoma associated stromal cells can transform normal epithelial cells into neoplastic cells. In breast, columnar cell lesions are non-obligate precursors of low grade ductal carcinoma in situ. Columnar cell lesions can be seen intimately associated with PASH-like-stroma, a lesion we termed as CCPLS. Our aim is to investigate epithelial-stromal interactions in CCPLS and compare them to PASH without columnar cell lesions in breast core needle biopsies. Normal terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) epithelium was seen in association with columnar cell lesions as well as PASH. Eight (8) cases of each category were examined by a panel of immunostains: CD117 (C-kit), CD34, CD105, bFGF, AR, ER-beta, MIB-1. We observed a markedly decreased expression of c-kit in columnar cell lesions compared to TDLU-epithelium. CD105 showed a quantitative increase in activated vessels in CCPLS compared to PASH. A subset of CCPLS and PASH were androgen receptor positive. A strong nuclear positivity for ER-beta is observed in the epithelium and stroma of all CCPLS cases. We conclude that (1) activated blood vessels predominate in CCPLS; (2) A molecular alteration is signified by c-kit loss in columnar cell lesions; (3) ER-beta and androgen receptor positivity indicate CCPLS are hormonally responsive lesions. Our study suggests an intimate vascular and hormone dependent epithelial-stromal interaction exists in CCPLS lesions.

  12. European guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis. First Edition--Annotations of colorectal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieth, M; Quirke, P; Lambert, R; von Karsa, L; Risio, M

    2012-09-01

    Multidisciplinary, evidence-based guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis have been developed by experts in a project coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The full guideline document covers the entire process of population-based screening. It consists of 10 chapters and over 250 recommendations, graded according to the strength of the recommendation and the supporting evidence. The 450-page guidelines and the extensive evidence base have been published by the European Commission. The chapter on quality assurance in pathology was supplemented by an annex describing in greater detail some issues raised in the chapter, particularly details of special interest to pathologists. The content of the annex is presented here to promote international discussion and collaboration by making the issues discussed in the guidelines known to a wider professional and scientific community. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. MRI findings in men on active surveillance for prostate cancer. Does dutasteride make MRI visible lesions less conspicuous? Results from a placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giganti, Francesco [University College London Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, London (United Kingdom); Moore, Caroline M.; Robertson, Nicola L.; Emberton, Mark [University College London, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, London (United Kingdom); University College London Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Urology, London (United Kingdom); McCartan, Neil [University College London, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, London (United Kingdom); Jameson, Charles [University College London Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Pathology, London (United Kingdom); Bott, Simon R.J. [Frimley Park Hospital, Department of Urology, Surrey (United Kingdom); Winkler, Mathias [Imperial College NHS Trust, Department of Urology, Charing Cross Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Gambarota, Giulio [INSERM, Rennes (France); Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Whitcher, Brandon [Klarismo, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Castro, Ramiro [GlaxoSmithKline, Research and Development, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Allen, Clare; Kirkham, Alex [University College London Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-11-15

    To investigate changes in the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in men on active surveillance for prostate cancer taking dutasteride 0.5 mg or placebo. We analysed 37 men, randomised to 6 months of daily dutasteride (n = 18) or placebo (n = 19), undergoing 3T multi-parametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (mpMRI) scans at baseline and 6 months. Images were reviewed blind to treatment allocation and clinical information. Mean ADC of peripheral (PZ) and transition (TZ) zones, and MR-suspicious lesions were compared between groups over 6 months. Conspicuity was defined as the PZ divided by tumour ADC, and its change over 6 months was assessed. A decrease in mean conspicuity in the dutasteride group (but not the controls) was seen over 6 months (1.54 vs 1.38; p = 0.025). Absolute changes in ADC and conspicuity were significantly different between placebo and dutasteride groups at 6 months: (-0.03 vs 0.08, p = 0.033) and (0.11 vs -0.16, p = 0.012), as were percentage changes in the same parameters: (-2.27% vs 8.56% p = 0.048) and (9.25% vs -9.89% p = 0.013). Dutasteride was associated with increased tumour ADC and reduced conspicuity. A lower threshold for triggering biopsy might be considered in men on dutasteride undergoing mpMRI for prostate cancer. (orig.)

  14. Emergency surgery for obstructing colonic cancer: a comparison between right-sided and left-sided lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheron, J-L; Paquette, B; Trilling, B; Heyd, B; Koch, S; Mantion, G

    2018-02-01

    Few studies compare management and outcomes of obstructive colonic cancer, depending on the tumor site. We aim to evaluate the differences in patient characteristics, tumor characteristics, and outcomes of emergency surgery for obstructive right-sided versus left-sided colonic cancers. Between 2000 and 2009, 71 consecutive patients had an emergency colectomy following strict and clear definition of obstruction in a single institution. We retrospectively analyzed pre, per, and postoperative data that were prospectively collected. There were 31 and 40 patients in the right and left group, respectively. Patients aged over 80 were more frequent in the right group (p = 0.03). At operation, ileocecal valve was less often competent in the right group (p = 0.03). The one-stage strategy was more frequent in the right group (p = 0.008). Patients in the right group had a higher rate of nodes invasion (p = 0.04). One- and two-year mortality rate in the right group had a tendency to be higher. Patients presenting with a right obstructive colonic cancer are older, have a more advanced locoregional disease, and are more often treated in a one-stage strategy than patients with a left obstructive tumor.

  15. Viable tumor volume: Volume of interest within segmented metastatic lesions, a pilot study of proposed computed tomography response criteria for urothelial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folio, Les Roger; Turkbey, Evrim B.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Apolo, Andrea B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • It is clear that 2D axial measurements are incomplete assessments in metastatic disease; especially in light of evolving antiangiogenic therapies that can result in tumor necrosis. • Our pilot study demonstrates that taking volumetric density into account can better predict overall survival when compared to RECIST, volumetric size, MASS and Choi. • Although volumetric segmentation and further density analysis may not yet be feasible within routine workflows, the authors believe that technology advances may soon make this possible. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the ability of new computed tomography (CT) response criteria for solid tumors such as urothelial cancer (VTV; viable tumor volume) to predict overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic bladder cancer treated with cabozantinib. Materials and methods: We compared the relative capabilities of VTV, RECIST, MASS (morphology, attenuation, size, and structure), and Choi criteria, as well as volume measurements, to predict OS using serial follow-up contrast-enhanced CT exams in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Kaplan–Meier curves and 2-tailed log-rank tests compared OS based on early RECIST 1.1 response against each of the other criteria. A Cox proportional hazards model assessed response at follow-up exams as a time-varying covariate for OS. Results: We assessed 141 lesions in 55CT scans from 17 patients with urothelial metastasis, comparing VTV, RECIST, MASS, and Choi criteria, and volumetric measurements, for response assessment. Median follow-up was 4.5 months, range was 2–14 months. Only the VTV criteria demonstrated a statistical association with OS (p = 0.019; median OS 9.7 vs. 3.5 months). Conclusion: This pilot study suggests that VTV is a promising tool for assessing tumor response and predicting OS, using criteria that incorporate tumor volume and density in patients receiving antiangiogenic therapy for urothelial cancer. Larger studies are warranted to

  16. Relationship of ultrasonic shear wave velocity with oncogene and tumor suppressor gene expression in primary liver cancer lesions as well as angiogenesis factor contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Yin1

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the relationship of ultrasonic shear wave velocity (SWV with oncogene and tumor suppressor gene expression in primary liver cancer lesions as well as angiogenesis factor contents. Methods: 100 patients with primary liver cancer who underwent surgical treatment in our hospital between March 2014 and September 2016 were collected as observation group, and 50 healthy subjects who received physical examination in our hospital during the same period were collected as normal control group. The ultrasonic SWV levels of two groups of subjects were measured before the operation, and the observation groups were further divided into high SWV group and low SWV group, 50 cases in each group. Intraoperative tumor tissue samples were kept and fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to determine the mRNA expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Enzymelinked immunosorbent assay was used to determine serum contents of angiogenesis factors in observation group before operation. Results: Hepatic ultrasonic SWV level in observation group was significantly higher than that in normal control group; proto-oncogene CK, Ki67, Gly-3, Survivin and Pokemon mRNA expression in tumor tissue of high SWV group were higher than those of low SWV group while tumor suppressor genes Tg737, p16, p27, PTEN and runx3 mRNA expression were lower than those of low SWV group; serum angiogenesis factors VEGF, MMP-9 and IGF-1R contents were higher than those in low SWV group. Conclusion: The hepatic ultrasonic SWV level increases in patients with primary liver cancer, and the SWV level is directly correlated with oncogene and tumor suppressor gene expression as well as angiogenesis factor contents.

  17. 3 Tesla multiparametric MRI for GTV-definition of Dominant Intraprostatic Lesions in patients with Prostate Cancer – an interobserver variability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rischke, Hans Christian; Grosu, Anca L; Jilg, Cordula A; Nestle, Ursula; Fechter, Tobias; Doll, Christian; Volegova-Neher, Natalja; Henne, Karl; Scholber, Jutta; Knippen, Stefan; Kirste, Simon

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the interobserver variability of gross tumor volume (GTV) - delineation of Dominant Intraprostatic Lesions (DIPL) in patients with prostate cancer using published MRI criteria for multiparametric MRI at 3 Tesla by 6 different observers. 90 GTV-datasets based on 15 multiparametric MRI sequences (T2w, diffusion weighted (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)) of 5 patients with prostate cancer were generated for GTV-delineation of DIPL by 6 observers. The reference GTV-dataset was contoured by a radiologist with expertise in diagnostic imaging of prostate cancer using MRI. Subsequent GTV-delineation was performed by 5 radiation oncologists who received teaching of MRI-features of primary prostate cancer before starting contouring session. GTV-datasets were contoured using Oncentra Masterplan® and iplan® Net. For purposes of comparison GTV-datasets were imported to the Artiview® platform (Aquilab®), GTV-values and the similarity indices or Kappa indices (KI) were calculated with the postulation that a KI > 0.7 indicates excellent, a KI > 0.6 to < 0.7 substantial and KI > 0.5 to < 0.6 moderate agreement. Additionally all observers rated difficulties of contouring for each MRI-sequence using a 3 point rating scale (1 = easy to delineate, 2 = minor difficulties, 3 = major difficulties). GTV contouring using T2w (KI-T2w = 0.61) and DCE images (KI-DCE = 0.63) resulted in substantial agreement. GTV contouring using DWI images resulted in moderate agreement (KI-DWI = 0.51). KI-T2w and KI-DCE was significantly higher than KI-DWI (p = 0.01 and p = 0.003). Degree of difficulty in contouring GTV was significantly lower using T2w and DCE compared to DWI-sequences (both p < 0.0001). Analysis of delineation differences revealed inadequate comparison of functional (DWI, DCE) to anatomical sequences (T2w) and lack of awareness of non-specific imaging findings as a source of erroneous delineation. Using T2w and DCE sequences at 3 Tesla for GTV-definition of DIPL in

  18. High-grade cervical lesions among women attending a reference clinic in Brazil: associated factors and comparison among screening methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide T Boldrini

    Full Text Available Although screening for cervical cancer is recommended for women in most countries, the incidence of cervical cancer is greater in developing countries. Our goal was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with high-grade lesions/cervical cancer among women attending a reference clinic in Brazil and evaluate the correlation of histology with cytology, colposcopy and the high-risk HPV (HR-HPV tests.A cross-sectional study of women attending a colposcopy clinic was carried out. The patients were interviewed to collect demographic, epidemiological and clinical data. Specimens were collected for cervical cytology, Chlamydia trachomatis and HPV testing using the Hybrid Capture (HC and PCR tests. Colposcopy was performed for all patients and biopsy for histology when cell abnormalities or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN were present.A total of 291 women participated in the study. The median age was 38 years (DIQ: 30-48 years. The prevalence of histologically confirmed high-grade lesions/cervical cancer was 18.2% (95%, CI: 13.8%-22.6%, with 48 (16.5% cases of CIN-2/CIN-3 and 5 (1.7% cases of invasive carcinoma. In the final logistic regression model, for ages between 30 and 49 years old [OR = 4.4 (95%: 1.01-19.04, history of smoking [OR = 2.4 (95%, CI: 1.14-5.18], practice of anal intercourse [OR = 2.4 (95%, CI: 1.10-5.03] and having positive HC test for HR-HPV [OR = 11.23 (95%, CI: 4 0.79-26, 36] remained independently associated with high-grade lesions/cervical cancer. A total of 64.7% of the cases CIN-3\\Ca in situ were related to HPV-16. Non-oncogenic HPV were only found in CIN-1 biopsy results. Compared to histology, the sensitivity of cytology was 31.8%, the specificity 95.5%; the sensitivity of colposcopy for high-grade lesions/cervical cancer was 51.0%, specificity was 91.4% and the concordance with HPV testing was high.The results confirm an association of HR-HPV with precursor lesions for cervical cancer

  19. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  20. Pérdida de la expresión antigénica ABH en pacientes con lesiones orales precancerosas y cancerosas Loss of ABH antigenic expression in patients with precancerous and cancerous oral lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Campi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Los antígenos ABH, productos de la interacción de 2 sistemas genéticos, Hh y ABO, están sujetos a leyes de herencia y pueden estar localizados no sólo en los eritrocitos, sino también en la mayoría de las células humanas. El objetivo del este trabajo fue investigar la expresión de antígenos ABH en pacientes con lesiones orales premalignas y malignas orales. Se trabajó con muestras incluidas en tacos de parafina de pacientes con lesiones orales (n= 57. Los pacientes fueron clasificados en 2 grupos: a lesiones premalignas y malignas diagnosticadas clínica y anatopatológicamente y b lesiones benignas (n=93. Se investigaron los antígenos ABH por la técnica de inmunoadherencia específica modificada. Se utilizó la adherencia al tejido vascular como control positivo y al tejido adiposo como control negativo. Los resultados fueron semicuantificados desde adherencia fuertemente positiva a negativa. Se observó una significativa relación entre la expresión antigénica ABH y el grado de malignidad de las lesiones analizadas (P Yates= 0,005. La pérdida de reactividad ABH en los sitios de mayor invasividad tumoral se correlaciona con el grado del desarrollo del tumor, el grado histológico y su malignidad.The ABH antigens, which are produced by the interaction of 2 genetic systems, Hh and ABO, are subjected to laws of heredity and may be located not only in the erythrocytes, but also in most of the human cells. The objective of this paper was to investigate the expression of ABH antigens in patients with premalignant and malignant oral lesions. Work was done with samples included in paraffin plugs in patients with oral lesions (n= 57. The patients were classified into 2 groups: a clinical and anatomopathologically diagnosed premalignant and malignant lesions, and b benign lesions (n=93. The ABH antigens were investigated by the modified specific immunoadherence technique. Adherence to the vascular tissue was used as a positive control

  1. Estimation of the epidemiological burden of HPV-related anogenital cancers, precancerous lesions, and genital warts in women and men in Europe: Potential additional benefit of a nine-valent second generation HPV vaccine compared to first generation HPV vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Hartwig

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A second generation HPV vaccine has been developed for the prevention of anogenital cancers and precancerous lesions of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus and of genital warts due to nine HPV types.We estimated the annual burden of these diseases attributable to the nine HPV types compared to HPV types from first generation vaccines in women and men in Europe. Material and methods: Incidence rates from the IARC database, cancer registries, the literature and Eurostat population data were used.The burden attributable to the HPV types targeted by both vaccines was estimated by applying the relative contribution of the respective HPV types from epidemiological studies. Results: In 2013, the number of new anogenital HPV-attributable cancers was 44,480 with 39,494 of these cases related to second vs. 33,285 to first generation vaccine types.Among the 284,373 to 541,621 new HPV-attributable anogenital precancerous lesions 235,364–448,423 and 135,025–256,830 were estimated to be related to second and first generation vaccine types, respectively.The annual number of new genital warts was 753,608–935,318, with 90% related to HPV6/11. Conclusions: These data demonstrate how the large public health impact that was achieved by the first generation HPV vaccines could be further increased by second generation vaccines. Keywords: HPV, Burden of disease, Cancer, Precancerous lesions, Genital warts, HPV vaccine

  2. Improved detection reveals active β-papillomavirus infection in skin lesions from kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgogna, Cinzia; Lanfredini, Simone; Peretti, Alberto; De Andrea, Marco; Zavattaro, Elisa; Colombo, Enrico; Quaglia, Marco; Boldorini, Renzo; Miglio, Umberto; Doorbar, John; Bavinck, Jan N Bouwes; Quint, Koen D; de Koning, Maurits N C; Landolfo, Santo; Gariglio, Marisa

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether detection of β-HPV gene products, as defined in epidermodysplasia verruciformis skin cancer, could also be observed in lesions from kidney transplant recipients alongside the viral DNA. A total of 111 samples, corresponding to 79 skin lesions abscised from 17 kidney transplant recipients, have been analyzed. The initial PCR analysis demonstrated that β-HPV-DNA was highly present in our tumor series (85%). Using a combination of antibodies raised against the E4 and L1 proteins of the β-genotypes, we were able to visualize productive infection in 4 out of 19 actinic keratoses, and in the pathological borders of 1 out of 14 squamous cell carcinomas and 1 out of 31 basal cell carcinomas. Increased expression of the cellular proliferation marker minichromosome maintenance protein 7 (MCM7), that extended into the upper epithelial layers, was a common feature of all the E4-positive areas, indicating that cells were driven into the cell cycle in areas of productive viral infections. Although the present study does not directly demonstrate a causal role of these viruses, the detection of E4 and L1 positivity in actinic keratosis and the adjacent pathological epithelium of skin cancer, clearly shows that β-HPV are actively replicating in the intraepidermal precursor lesions of kidney transplant recipients and can therefore cooperate with other carcinogenic agents, such as UVB, favoring skin cancer promotion.

  3. Hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amico, Enio Campos; Alves, Jose Roberto; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra de; Salviano, Fellipe Alexandre Macena; Joao, Samir Assi; Liguori, Adriano de Araujo Lima, E-mail: ecamic@uol.com.br [Hospital Universitario Onofre Lopes (HUOL/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Clinica Gastrocentro e Ambulatorios de Cirurgia do Aparelho Digestivo e de Cirurgia Hepatobiliopancreatica

    2017-09-01

    Background: The hypervascular liver lesions represent a diagnostic challenge. Aim: To identify risk factors for cancer in patients with non-hemangiomatous hypervascular hepatic lesions in radiologically normal liver. Method: This prospective study included patients with hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver. The diagnosis was made by biopsy or was presumed on the basis of radiologic stability in follow-up period of one year. Cirrhosis or patients with typical imaging characteristics of haemangioma were excluded. Results: Eighty eight patients were included. The average age was 42.4. The lesions were unique and were between 2-5 cm in size in most cases. Liver biopsy was performed in approximately 1/3 of cases. The lesions were benign or most likely benign in 81.8%, while cancer was diagnosed in 12.5% of cases. Univariate analysis showed that age >45 years (p< 0.001), personal history of cancer (p=0.020), presence of >3 nodules (p=0.003) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (p=0.013) were significant risk factors for cancer. Conclusion: It is safe to observe hypervascular liver lesions in normal liver in patients up to 45 years, normal alanine amino transaminase, up to three nodules and no personal history of cancer. Lesion biopsies are safe in patients with atypical lesions and define the treatment to be established for most of these patients. (author)

  4. A CpG island methylator phenotype of colorectal cancer that is contiguous with conventional adenomas, but not serrated polyps

    OpenAIRE

    HOKAZONO, KOJI; UEKI, TAKASHI; NAGAYOSHI, KINUKO; NISHIOKA, YASUNOBU; HATAE, TATSUNOBU; KOGA, YUTAKA; HIRAHASHI, MINAKO; ODA, YOSHINAO; TANAKA, MASAO

    2014-01-01

    A subset of colorectal cancers (CRCs) harbor the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), with concurrent multiple promoter hypermethylation of tumor-related genes. A serrated pathway in which CIMP is developed from serrated polyps is proposed. The present study characterized CIMP and morphologically examined precursor lesions of CIMP. In total, 104 CRCs treated between January 1996 and December 2004 were examined. Aberrant promoter methylation of 15 cancer-related genes was analyzed. CIMP sta...

  5. Preventive evolutionary medicine of cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Michael E; Thomas, Frédéric; Assenat, Eric; Hibner, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that once an individual reaches an age of sufficiently low Darwinian fitness, (s)he will have reduced chances of keeping cancerous lesions in check. While we clearly need to better understand the emergence of precursor states and early malignancies as well as their mitigation by the microenvironment and tissue architecture, we argue that lifestyle changes and preventive therapies based in an evolutionary framework, applied to identified high-risk populations before incipient neoplasms become clinically detectable and chemoresistant lineages emerge, are currently the most reliable way to control or eliminate early tumours. Specifically, the relatively low levels of (epi)genetic heterogeneity characteristic of many if not most incipient lesions will mean a relatively limited set of possible adaptive traits and associated costs compared to more advanced cancers, and thus a more complete and predictable understanding of treatment options and outcomes. We propose a conceptual model for preventive treatments and discuss the many associated challenges.

  6. Toward Prostate Cancer Contouring Guidelines on Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Dominant Lesion Gross and Clinical Target Volume Coverage Via Accurate Histology Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, Eli; Bauman, Glenn S.; Romagnoli, Cesare; Cool, Derek W.; Bastian-Jordan, Matthew; Kassam, Zahra; Gaed, Mena; Moussa, Madeleine; Gómez, José A.; Pautler, Stephen E.; Chin, Joseph L.; Crukley, Cathie; Haider, Masoom A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Defining prostate cancer (PCa) lesion clinical target volumes (CTVs) for multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) could support focal boosting or treatment to improve outcomes or lower morbidity, necessitating appropriate CTV margins for mpMRI-defined gross tumor volumes (GTVs). This study aimed to identify CTV margins yielding 95% coverage of PCa tumors for prospective cases with high likelihood. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five men with biopsy-confirmed clinical stage T1 or T2 PCa underwent pre-prostatectomy mpMRI, yielding T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced, and apparent diffusion coefficient images. Digitized whole-mount histology was contoured and registered to mpMRI scans (error ≤2 mm). Four observers contoured lesion GTVs on each mpMRI scan. CTVs were defined by isotropic and anisotropic expansion from these GTVs and from multiparametric (unioned) GTVs from 2 to 3 scans. Histologic coverage (proportions of tumor area on co-registered histology inside the CTV, measured for Gleason scores [GSs] ≥6 and ≥7) and prostate sparing (proportions of prostate volume outside the CTV) were measured. Nonparametric histologic-coverage prediction intervals defined minimal margins yielding 95% coverage for prospective cases with 78% to 92% likelihood. Results: On analysis of 72 true-positive tumor detections, 95% coverage margins were 9 to 11 mm (GS ≥ 6) and 8 to 10 mm (GS ≥ 7) for single-sequence GTVs and were 8 mm (GS ≥ 6) and 6 mm (GS ≥ 7) for 3-sequence GTVs, yielding CTVs that spared 47% to 81% of prostate tissue for the majority of tumors. Inclusion of T2-weighted contours increased sparing for multiparametric CTVs with 95% coverage margins for GS ≥6, and inclusion of dynamic contrast-enhanced contours increased sparing for GS ≥7. Anisotropic 95% coverage margins increased the sparing proportions to 71% to 86%. Conclusions: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging–defined GTVs expanded by appropriate margins

  7. Toward Prostate Cancer Contouring Guidelines on Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Dominant Lesion Gross and Clinical Target Volume Coverage Via Accurate Histology Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Eli [Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Biomedical Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bauman, Glenn S., E-mail: glenn.bauman@lhsc.on.ca [Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Oncology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Romagnoli, Cesare; Cool, Derek W. [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Bastian-Jordan, Matthew [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Queensland Health, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Kassam, Zahra [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Gaed, Mena [Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Pathology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Moussa, Madeleine; Gómez, José A. [Department of Pathology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Pautler, Stephen E.; Chin, Joseph L. [Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Urology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Crukley, Cathie [Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada); Haider, Masoom A. [Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); and others

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: Defining prostate cancer (PCa) lesion clinical target volumes (CTVs) for multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) could support focal boosting or treatment to improve outcomes or lower morbidity, necessitating appropriate CTV margins for mpMRI-defined gross tumor volumes (GTVs). This study aimed to identify CTV margins yielding 95% coverage of PCa tumors for prospective cases with high likelihood. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five men with biopsy-confirmed clinical stage T1 or T2 PCa underwent pre-prostatectomy mpMRI, yielding T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced, and apparent diffusion coefficient images. Digitized whole-mount histology was contoured and registered to mpMRI scans (error ≤2 mm). Four observers contoured lesion GTVs on each mpMRI scan. CTVs were defined by isotropic and anisotropic expansion from these GTVs and from multiparametric (unioned) GTVs from 2 to 3 scans. Histologic coverage (proportions of tumor area on co-registered histology inside the CTV, measured for Gleason scores [GSs] ≥6 and ≥7) and prostate sparing (proportions of prostate volume outside the CTV) were measured. Nonparametric histologic-coverage prediction intervals defined minimal margins yielding 95% coverage for prospective cases with 78% to 92% likelihood. Results: On analysis of 72 true-positive tumor detections, 95% coverage margins were 9 to 11 mm (GS ≥ 6) and 8 to 10 mm (GS ≥ 7) for single-sequence GTVs and were 8 mm (GS ≥ 6) and 6 mm (GS ≥ 7) for 3-sequence GTVs, yielding CTVs that spared 47% to 81% of prostate tissue for the majority of tumors. Inclusion of T2-weighted contours increased sparing for multiparametric CTVs with 95% coverage margins for GS ≥6, and inclusion of dynamic contrast-enhanced contours increased sparing for GS ≥7. Anisotropic 95% coverage margins increased the sparing proportions to 71% to 86%. Conclusions: Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging–defined GTVs expanded by appropriate margins

  8. Metabolic syndrome and health-related behaviours associated with pre-oral cancerous lesions among adults aged 20-80 years in Yunlin County, Taiwan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chang-Cheng; Lin, Ming-Shyan; Chen, Yu-Tsung; Tu, Liang-Tse; Jane, Su-Whi; Chen, Mei-Yen

    2015-12-18

    To explore the associations of health-related behaviours, metabolic syndrome and risk factors in adults with pre-oral cancerous (POC) lesions in rural, disadvantaged communities with a high prevalence of oral cancer. A cross-sectional observational study. Community-based health survey in the western coastal area of Yunlin County, Taiwan. 5161 adult residents participated in this study. Assessed parameters included oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure and waist circumference. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, χ(2) tests and multivariate binary logistic regression. A high percentage of participants were found to have metabolic syndrome (40%) and POC lesions (7.3%). Participants with POC lesions tended to be male (psocioeconomic status are non-modifiable factors associated with POC and metabolic syndrome in adults, several factors, notably health behaviours, are modifiable. Clinicians can reduce the incidence and consequences of POC by developing programmes for early detection, encouraging regular dental check-ups, and initiating individualised, health-promoting behaviour modification programmes for reducing risky behaviours associated with oral cancer. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. clinico-pathologic review of biopsied tongue lesions in a nigerian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diagnosis.4 Most studies that reviewed tongue lesions were based on clinical ... on habit, class of the lesion, histological diagnosis, age, gender and site of lesions ..... relate to histone modification, expression, and cancer. Carcinogenesis.

  10. Specific bone region localization of osteolytic versus osteoblastic lesions in a patient-derived xenograft model of bone metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hirata

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: PCSD1 cells reproducibly induced bone loss leading to osteolytic lesions at the ends of the femur, and, in contrast, induced aberrant bone formation leading to osteoblastic lesions along the femur shaft. Therefore, the interaction of PCSD1 cells with different bone region-specific microenvironments specified the type of bone lesion. Our approach can be used to determine if different bone regions support more therapy resistant tumor growth, thus, requiring novel treatments.

  11. Paleo-oncology: the role of ancient remains in the study of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Edward C

    2004-01-01

    Paleo-oncology is the study of carcinomas and sarcomas in ancient human populations and their hominid precursors. These populations are informative concerning the possible influences on cancer of morphologic and functional evolution, diet, lifestyle, and other environmental factors. The prevalence of cancer in ancient populations might have differed from that in modern humans, because of substantial differences in tobacco and alcohol use, diet, life expectancy, and the availability of treatment. The available physical data concerning cancer in antiquity includes evidence of its existence in animal fossils and ancient humans and their precursors. The difficulties of paleo-oncologic research include a limited soft tissue record. In evaluating cancer in ancient remains, one must also deal with the problem of pseudopathology: whether an observed tissue change is all antemortem pathologic lesion or a postmortem artifact. Future archeological discoveries and the application of improved diagnostic techniques may enable paleo-oncology to make further contributions to our understanding of cancer.

  12. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  13. Comparison of single photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography, computed tomography, single photon emission computed tomography and planar scintigraphy for characterization of isolated skull lesions seen on bone scintigraphy in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Punit; Jain, Tarun Kumar; Reddy, Rama Mohan; Faizi, Nauroze Ashgar; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Malhotra, Arun; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the added value of single photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) over planar scintigraphy, SPECT and CT alone for characterization of isolated skull lesions in bone scintigraphy (BS) in cancer patients. A total of 32 cancer patients (age: 39.5 ± 21.9; male: female - 1:1) with 36 isolated skull lesions on planar BS, underwent SPECT-CT of skull. Planar BS, SPECT, CT and SPECT-CT images were evaluated in separate sessions to minimize recall bias. A scoring scale of 1-5 was used, where 1 is definitely metastatic, 2 is probably metastatic, 3 is indeterminate, 4 is probably benign and 5 is definitely benign. With receiver operating characteristic analysis area under the curves (AUC) was calculated for each modality. For calculation of sensitivity, specificity and predictive values a Score ≤3 was taken as metastatic. Clinical/imaging follow-up and/or histopathology were taken as reference standard. Of 36 skull lesions 11 lesions each were on frontal, parietal and occipital bone while three lesions were in the temporal bone. Of these 36 lesions, 16 were indeterminate (Score-3) on planar and SPECT, five on CT and none on SPECT-CT. The AUC was largest for SPECT-CT followed by CT, SPECT and planar scintigraphy, respectively. Planar scintigraphy was inferior to SPECT-CT (P = 0.006) and CT (P = 0.012) but not SPECT (P = 0.975). SPECT was also inferior to SPECT-CT (P = 0.007) and CT (P = 0.015). Although no significant difference was found between SPECT-CT and CT (P = 0.469), the former was more specific (100% vs. 94%). SPECT-CT is better than planar scintigraphy and SPECT alone for correctly characterizing isolated skull lesions on BS in cancer patients. It is more specific than CT, but provides no significant advantage over CT alone for this purpose

  14. Prognostic value of metabolic tumour volume and total lesion glycolysis in 18F-FDG PET/CT scans in locally advanced breast cancer staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ballvé, A; García García-Esquinas, M; Salsidua-Arroyo, O; Serrano-Palacio, A; García-Sáenz, J A; Ortega Candil, A; Fuentes Ferrer, M E; Rodríguez Rey, C; Román-Santamaría, J M; Moreno, F; Carreras-Delgado, J L

    To determine whether metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) are able to predict recurrence risk in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients. Retrospective study of LABC patients who undertook neoadjuvant, local and adjuvant treatment and follow up. A 18 F-FDG PET/CT study for initial staging was performed analysing in this study different metabolic parameters (MTV, TLG, SUVmax and SUVmed) both in the primary tumour (T) as well as in axillary nodes (N) and whole-body (WB). Forty females were included between January 2010-2011; follow up until January 2015 was completed. The average follow-up was 46 months. Twenty percent presented recurrence: local disease (n=2) and distant metastasis (n=6); 3 patients died (38% of the patients which recurred and 7.5% from the total). SUVmax, MTV and TLG, in T, N and WB, were higher in those patients with recurrence. The MTV and TLG parameters in the tumour (T) were related to the recurrence rate (P=.020 and P=.028, respectively); whereas SUVmax in the lymph nodes (N) was significantly related (P=.008) to the recurrence rate. The best cut-off points to predict recurrence where: MTV T ≥19.3cm 3 , TLG T≥74.4g and SUVmax N≥13.8, being 10-12 times more likely to recidivate when these thresholds where exceeded. Tumour grade was the only clinical-pathological variable which was related to recurrence probability (p=.035). In this study of LABC patients the metabolic parameters which have a better relationship with recurrence rate are: MTV and TLG in the primary tumour, SUVmax in the regional lymph node disease and whole-body PET data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-small cell lung cancer: Whole-lesion histogram analysis of the apparent diffusion coefficient for assessment of tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion and pleural invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Naoko; Doai, Mariko; Usuda, Katsuo; Uramoto, Hidetaka; Tonami, Hisao

    2017-01-01

    Investigating the diagnostic accuracy of histogram analyses of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for determining non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor grades, lymphovascular invasion, and pleural invasion. We studied 60 surgically diagnosed NSCLC patients. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed in the axial plane using a navigator-triggered single-shot, echo-planar imaging sequence with prospective acquisition correction. The ADC maps were generated, and we placed a volume-of-interest on the tumor to construct the whole-lesion histogram. Using the histogram, we calculated the mean, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles of ADC, skewness, and kurtosis. Histogram parameters were correlated with tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, and pleural invasion. We performed a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis to assess the diagnostic performance of histogram parameters for distinguishing different pathologic features. The ADC mean, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles showed significant differences among the tumor grades. The ADC mean, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were significant histogram parameters between high- and low-grade tumors. The ROC analysis between high- and low-grade tumors showed that the 95th percentile ADC achieved the highest area under curve (AUC) at 0.74. Lymphovascular invasion was associated with the ADC mean, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles, skewness, and kurtosis. Kurtosis achieved the highest AUC at 0.809. Pleural invasion was only associated with skewness, with the AUC of 0.648. ADC histogram analyses on the basis of the entire tumor volume are able to stratify NSCLCs' tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion and pleural invasion.

  16. Baseline Metabolic Tumor Volume and Total Lesion Glycolysis Are Associated With Survival Outcomes in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dholakia, Avani S. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Chaudhry, Muhammad; Leal, Jeffrey P. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Chang, Daniel T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Raman, Siva P. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hacker-Prietz, Amy [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Su, Zheng; Pai, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Oteiza, Katharine E.; Griffith, Mary E. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Wahl, Richard L. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Tryggestad, Erik [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Pawlik, Timothy [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Laheru, Daniel A. [Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Wolfgang, Christopher L. [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Koong, Albert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); and others

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: Although previous studies have demonstrated the prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters in other malignancies, the role of PET in pancreatic cancer has yet to be well established. We analyzed the prognostic utility of PET for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) undergoing fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients with LAPC in a prospective clinical trial received up to 3 doses of gemcitabine, followed by 33 Gy in 5 fractions of 6.6 Gy, using SBRT. All patients received a baseline PET scan prior to SBRT (pre-SBRT PET). Metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum and peak standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak}) on pre-SBRT PET scans were calculated using custom-designed software. Disease was measured at a threshold based on the liver SUV, using the equation Liver{sub mean} + [2 × Liver{sub sd}]. Median values of PET parameters were used as cutoffs when assessing their prognostic potential through Cox regression analyses. Results: Of the 32 patients, the majority were male (n=19, 59%), 65 years or older (n=21, 66%), and had tumors located in the pancreatic head (n=27, 84%). Twenty-seven patients (84%) received induction gemcitabine prior to SBRT. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 18.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7-22.0). An MTV of 26.8 cm{sup 3} or greater (hazard ratio [HR] 4.46, 95% CI 1.64-5.88, P<.003) and TLG of 70.9 or greater (HR 3.08, 95% CI 1.18-8.02, P<.021) on pre-SBRT PET scan were associated with inferior overall survival on univariate analysis. Both pre-SBRT MTV (HR 5.13, 95% CI 1.19-22.21, P=.029) and TLG (HR 3.34, 95% CI 1.07-10.48, P=.038) remained independently associated with overall survival in separate multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Pre-SBRT MTV and TLG are potential predictive factors for overall survival in patients with LAPC and may assist in

  17. Baseline Metabolic Tumor Volume and Total Lesion Glycolysis Are Associated With Survival Outcomes in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Receiving Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dholakia, Avani S.; Chaudhry, Muhammad; Leal, Jeffrey P.; Chang, Daniel T.; Raman, Siva P.; Hacker-Prietz, Amy; Su, Zheng; Pai, Jonathan; Oteiza, Katharine E.; Griffith, Mary E.; Wahl, Richard L.; Tryggestad, Erik; Pawlik, Timothy; Laheru, Daniel A.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Koong, Albert C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although previous studies have demonstrated the prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) parameters in other malignancies, the role of PET in pancreatic cancer has yet to be well established. We analyzed the prognostic utility of PET for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) undergoing fractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Materials and Methods: Thirty-two patients with LAPC in a prospective clinical trial received up to 3 doses of gemcitabine, followed by 33 Gy in 5 fractions of 6.6 Gy, using SBRT. All patients received a baseline PET scan prior to SBRT (pre-SBRT PET). Metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum and peak standardized uptake values (SUV max and SUV peak ) on pre-SBRT PET scans were calculated using custom-designed software. Disease was measured at a threshold based on the liver SUV, using the equation Liver mean + [2 × Liver sd ]. Median values of PET parameters were used as cutoffs when assessing their prognostic potential through Cox regression analyses. Results: Of the 32 patients, the majority were male (n=19, 59%), 65 years or older (n=21, 66%), and had tumors located in the pancreatic head (n=27, 84%). Twenty-seven patients (84%) received induction gemcitabine prior to SBRT. Median overall survival for the entire cohort was 18.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.7-22.0). An MTV of 26.8 cm 3 or greater (hazard ratio [HR] 4.46, 95% CI 1.64-5.88, P<.003) and TLG of 70.9 or greater (HR 3.08, 95% CI 1.18-8.02, P<.021) on pre-SBRT PET scan were associated with inferior overall survival on univariate analysis. Both pre-SBRT MTV (HR 5.13, 95% CI 1.19-22.21, P=.029) and TLG (HR 3.34, 95% CI 1.07-10.48, P=.038) remained independently associated with overall survival in separate multivariate analyses. Conclusions: Pre-SBRT MTV and TLG are potential predictive factors for overall survival in patients with LAPC and may assist in tailoring therapy

  18. Prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades II/III and cervical cancer in patients with cytological diagnosis of atypical squamous cells when high-grade intraepithelial lesions (ASC-H cannot be ruled out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Cytryn

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The latest update of the Bethesda System divided the category of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS into ASC-US (undetermined significance and ASC-H (high-grade intraepithelial lesion cannot be ruled out. The aims here were to measure the prevalence of pre-invasive lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN II/III and cervical cancer among patients referred to Instituto Fernandes Figueira (IFF with ASC-H cytology, and compare them with ASC-US cases. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection, at the IFF Cervical Pathology outpatient clinic. METHODS: ASCUS cases referred to IFF from November 1997 to September 2007 were reviewed according to the 2001 Bethesda System to reach cytological consensus. The resulting ASC-H and ASC-US cases, along with new cases, were analyzed relative to the outcome of interest. The histological diagnosis (or cytocolposcopic follow-up in cases without such diagnosis was taken as the gold standard. RESULTS: The prevalence of CIN II/III in cases with ASC-H cytology was 19.29% (95% confidence interval, CI, 9.05-29.55% and the risk of these lesions was greater among patients with ASC-H than with ASC-US cytology (prevalence ratio, PR, 10.42; 95% CI, 2.39-45.47; P = 0.0000764. Pre-invasive lesions were more frequently found in patients under 50 years of age with ASC-H cytology (PR, 2.67; 95% CI, 0.38-18.83; P = 0.2786998. There were no uterine cervical cancer cases. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of CIN II/III in patients with ASC-H cytology was significantly higher than with ASC-US, and division into ASC diagnostic subcategories had good capacity for discriminating the presence of pre-invasive lesions.

  19. Prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades II/III and cervical cancer in patients with cytological diagnosis of atypical squamous cells when high-grade intraepithelial lesions (ASC-H) cannot be ruled out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytryn, Andréa; Russomano, Fábio Bastos; Camargo, Maria José de; Zardo, Lucília Maria Gama; Horta, Nilza Maria Sobral Rebelo; Fonseca, Rachel de Carvalho Silveira de Paula; Tristão, Maria Aparecida; Monteiro, Aparecida Cristina Sampaio

    2009-09-01

    The latest update of the Bethesda System divided the category of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) into ASC-US (undetermined significance) and ASC-H (high-grade intraepithelial lesion cannot be ruled out). The aims here were to measure the prevalence of pre-invasive lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN II/III) and cervical cancer among patients referred to Instituto Fernandes Figueira (IFF) with ASC-H cytology, and compare them with ASC-US cases. Cross-sectional study with retrospective data collection, at the IFF Cervical Pathology outpatient clinic. ASCUS cases referred to IFF from November 1997 to September 2007 were reviewed according to the 2001 Bethesda System to reach cytological consensus. The resulting ASC-H and ASC-US cases, along with new cases, were analyzed relative to the outcome of interest. The histological diagnosis (or cytocolposcopic follow-up in cases without such diagnosis) was taken as the gold standard. The prevalence of CIN II/III in cases with ASC-H cytology was 19.29% (95% confidence interval, CI, 9.05-29.55%) and the risk of these lesions was greater among patients with ASC-H than with ASC-US cytology (prevalence ratio, PR, 10.42; 95% CI, 2.39-45.47; P = 0.0000764). Pre-invasive lesions were more frequently found in patients under 50 years of age with ASC-H cytology (PR, 2.67; 95% CI, 0.38-18.83); P = 0.2786998). There were no uterine cervical cancer cases. The prevalence of CIN II/III in patients with ASC-H cytology was significantly higher than with ASC-US, and division into ASC diagnostic subcategories had good capacity for discriminating the presence of pre-invasive lesions.

  20. Níveis plasmáticos de taurina e de seus precursores em pacientes com câncer de esôfago Plasma taurine levels in patients with esophagus cancer

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    Vânia Cristina Lamônica-Garcia

    2008-09-01

    e da mortalidade sugerem participação efetiva da taurina na sobrevida dos pacientes e, portanto, os cuidados nutricionais específicos com a sua via geradora (cisteína, metionina e vitaminas do complexo B.BACKGROUND: The esophagus cancer-host has a two way close relationship as seen in its sulphur-amino acid metabolism. Taurine one of these compounds has ubiquous role in host defense and other physiological mechanisms related to survival. AIM: To study the plasma levels of taurine and its precursors in patients with esophagus cancer. METHODS: In a sectional design both groups, patients (n = 16, 43-73 yrs old and healthy controls (n = 20, 27-65 yrs old were assessed for anthropometry, body-weight lost, hematology (Hb, Ht, total leukocytes and lymphocyte counts, general biochemistry (albumin, glucose, lipids and aminotransferases and chromatographic analysis for taurine, cysteine, and homocysteine. The survival time was registered there since from the clinical-histopathological diagnosis. All participants had a written ethical consent for the research. RESULTS: The cancer patients were predominantly, white males of low social economic class, with spinocellular carcinoma stage IV located at upper 3rd half of them presented hypoalbuminemia and 16% referred significant body-weight loss. The patients showed statistically lower values of Hb, Ht, total and HDL cholesterol and cysteine and significantly higher values of taurine, homocysteine and aminotransferases than healthy controls. A positive relationship was found between taurine and either TLC (r = 0.50 and survival (r = 0.81. CONCLUSIONS: Lower plasma cysteine along with higher levels of taurine and homocysteine and the positive direct association of taurine with indications of survival suggest an effective role of this compound and therefore a prospective special nutritional care in its precursors (cysteine, methionine and B vitamins of these patients.

  1. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin modulates estradiol-induced aldehydic DNA lesions in human breast cancer cells through alteration of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shou-Tung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Fang, Ju-Pin; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2015-05-01

    Many genes responsible for the bioactivation of endogenous estrogen to reactive quinonoid metabolites, including cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1, are well-known target genes of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The purpose of this research was to investigate the roles of TCDD-mediated altered gene expression in the induction of aldehydic DNA lesions (ADLs) by 17β-estradiol (E2) in human MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. We demonstrated that increases in the number of oxidant-mediated ADLs, including abasic sites and aldehydic base/sugar lesions, were detected in MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to E2. The DNA-damaging effects of E2 in MDA-MB-231 cells were prevented by pretreatment of cells with TCDD. In contrast, we did not observe statistically significant increases in the number of ADLs in MCF-7 cells exposed to E2. However, with TCDD pretreatment, an approximately twofold increase in the number of ADLs was detected in MCF-7 cells exposed to E2. TCDD pretreatment induces disparity in the disposition of E2 to reactive quinonoid metabolites and the subsequent formation of oxidative DNA lesions through alteration of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in human breast cancer cells.

  2. Correlation between cervical cancer and squamous intraepithelial lesion with the vaginal microenvironment changes%阴道微环境改变与宫颈病变的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨少岩; 吴潇; 李杰; 赵卫东

    2017-01-01

    Objective To research the correlation between cervical cancer and squamous intraepithelial lesion with the imbalance of vaginal microenvironment.Methods A total of 318 outpatients were assigned into two groups,of which 159 women diagnosed with cervical cancer or squamous intraepithelial lesion by pathology were selected as experimental group,and the other 159 women without cervical lesions were selected as control group.Results The detection rates of HPV,BV,AV,trichomonas of experiment group were 88.05%,39.62%,33.33% and 13.21% respectively,which significantly higher than those in control group (P4.5、菌群多样性异常(I、IV级)和过氧化氢阳性的比例分别为50.31%、55.35%、59.75%和72.33%,显著高于对照组(P<0.05).结论 阴道内病原体感染可能增加宫颈病变发生,阴道微环境改变是参与宫颈病变发生发展的重要因素之一.

  3. Electrocautery Superior to Topical Treatments for Precancerous Anal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Anal Cancer Treatment Anal Cancer Prevention Research Electrocautery Superior to Topical Treatments for Precancerous Anal Lesions ... randomized clinical trial conducted in Amsterdam suggest that electrocautery is better than topical imiquimod or fluorouracil at ...

  4. Synchronous triple urogenital cancer (renal cancer, bladder cancer, prostatic cancer). A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Tsuyoshi; Honda, Masahito; Momohara, Chikahiro; Komori, Kazuhiko; Fujioka, Hideki [Osaka Police Hospital (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    A case of synchronous triple urogenital cancer, which was comprised of renal cell carcinoma of the left kidney, transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, and adenocarcinoma of the prostate, is reported. A 72-year-old Japanese male patient was referred to our outpatient clinic with the complaint of asymptomatic hematuria. At that time, his serum of level of PSA was elevated to 20 ng/ml. Cystourethroscopy showed a papillary bladder tumor and coagula through the left urinary orifice. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm in the left kidney. Angiography showed a hypervascular lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm at the same site. Double cancer, consisting of renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, was suspected and we performed left total nephroureterectomy, hilar lymphadenectomy, and transurethral rection of the bladder tumor, one month later. At the same time, we performed a biopsy of the prostate. Histological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Histological diagnosis of the prostate biopsy was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Since this case fulfilled the criteria of Warren and Gates, it was classified as synchronous triple urogenital cancer. A review of the literature revealed 17 authentic cases of triple urogenital cancer, of which 14 and 10 cases were reported as a combination of renal cancer, bladder cancer and prostatic cancer, in the world and in Japan, respectively. Furthermore, he had been exposed to the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in 1945. This carcinogenic precursor may be related to the development of the triple cancer. (author)

  5. Synchronous triple urogenital cancer (renal cancer, bladder cancer, prostatic cancer). A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Tsuyoshi; Honda, Masahito; Momohara, Chikahiro; Komori, Kazuhiko; Fujioka, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    A case of synchronous triple urogenital cancer, which was comprised of renal cell carcinoma of the left kidney, transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, and adenocarcinoma of the prostate, is reported. A 72-year-old Japanese male patient was referred to our outpatient clinic with the complaint of asymptomatic hematuria. At that time, his serum of level of PSA was elevated to 20 ng/ml. Cystourethroscopy showed a papillary bladder tumor and coagula through the left urinary orifice. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm in the left kidney. Angiography showed a hypervascular lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm at the same site. Double cancer, consisting of renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, was suspected and we performed left total nephroureterectomy, hilar lymphadenectomy, and transurethral rection of the bladder tumor, one month later. At the same time, we performed a biopsy of the prostate. Histological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Histological diagnosis of the prostate biopsy was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Since this case fulfilled the criteria of Warren and Gates, it was classified as synchronous triple urogenital cancer. A review of the literature revealed 17 authentic cases of triple urogenital cancer, of which 14 and 10 cases were reported as a combination of renal cancer, bladder cancer and prostatic cancer, in the world and in Japan, respectively. Furthermore, he had been exposed to the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in 1945. This carcinogenic precursor may be related to the development of the triple cancer. (author)

  6. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging of breast lesions: Initial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hebatallah Hassan Mamdouh Hassan

    2013-03-31

    Mar 31, 2013 ... breast cancer.2 Additional lesions seen by MRI that are not visible on ... characterization of lesions as benign or malignant on the basis ... lular density associated with numerous intact cell ..... ence for ADC values between the two MRI devices, the lesions .... Magnetic resonance imaging of brain and spine.

  7. Does folic-acid supplementation prevent or promote colorectal cancer? Results from model-based predictions

    OpenAIRE

    Luebeck, EG; Moolgavkar, SH; Liu, AY; Boynton, A; Ulrich, CM

    2008-01-01

    Folate is essential for nucleotide synthesis, DNA-replication and methyl-group supply. Low-folate status has been associated with increased risks of several cancer types, suggesting a chemopreventive role of folate. However, recent findings on giving folic acid (FA) to patients with a history of colorectal polyps raise concerns about the efficacy and safety of folate supplementation and the long-term health effects of folate fortification. Results suggest that undetected precursor lesions may...

  8. Treatment of Multiple Actinic Keratosis and Field of Cancerization with Topical Piroxicam 0.8% and Sunscreen 50+ in Organ Transplant Recipients: A Series of 10 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Garofalo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplant recipient (OTR subjects are at high risk of skin cancer such as squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. Actinic keratosis (AK is considered the precursor of these non-melanoma skin cancers. Sun protection is mandatory in subjects with AK and this preventive strategy is very important in OTR. Treatment of the field of cancerization is also crucial to reduce the risk of recurrence of skin lesions in AK and non-melanoma skin cancer patients. Activation of cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 enzymes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of skin cancers. Topical application of cyclooxygenase inhibitors such as diclofenac and, more recently, piroxicam has shown to reduce AK lesions in immunocompetent subjects. A medical device containing piroxicam and SPF 50+ sunscreen filters (P+SS has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing AK lesions and improving the field of cancerization. We report the effect of P+SS, applied for 16 weeks, in a case series of 10 OTR subjects with multiple AK lesions. P+SS treatment was associated with a relevant AK lesion reduction (>75% in 7 patients (with a complete clearance in 3 subjects with an improvement in the field of cancerization. This medical device could be considered a promising long-term curative and preventive treatment in OTR patients at high risk of non-melanoma skin cancers.

  9. Drawing up an individual risk index for development of metachronous neoplastic lesions in resected colorectal cancer Elaboración de un índice individual del riesgo para el desarrollo de lesiones neoplásicas metacrónicas en el cáncer colorrectal resecado

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    Ana Borda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to identify possible risk factors for the development of metachronous lesions in colorectal cancer (CRC which would allow to establish a post-surgical individual prognostic index. Patients and methods: three hundred eighty-two surgically treated CRC were reviewed. We compared the incidence of metachronous lesions in 40 variables concerning patient clinical data and initial neoplastic findings. An individual risk index for metachronicity was drawn up including those variables which presented significant differences in multivariate logistic regression, dividing patients into three groups. Results: variables with prognostic value for metachronicity were distal cancer location: OR= 2.30 (1.03-5.13, alcohol intake: OR = 2.20 (1.08-4.48, presence of synchronous adenomas: isolated: OR = 2.47 (1.03-4.48, multiple: OR = 4.26 (1.78-10.17, and presence of synchronous advanced adenoma: OR= 2.91 (1.52-12.60. Tumor MUC-5 expression proved to have a protective role: OR = 0.23 (0.08-0.66. An individual risk score was established considering these variables and patients could be classified into three groups, with a discrimination power for metachronicity of pObjetivo: identificar posibles factores de riesgo para desarrollar lesiones metacrónicas en el cáncer colorrectal, elaborando un índice pronóstico individual del riesgo. Material y métodos: revisamos 382 cánceres colorrectales resecados. Comparamos la diferente incidencia de lesiones metacrónicas en 40 variables referentes al paciente y a las lesiones neoplásicas iniciales. Con aquellas que mostraron diferencias significativas en el análisis estadístico multivariable, elaboramos un índice individual de riesgo, clasificando los pacientes en 3 grupos de riesgo de metacronicidad. Resultados: las variables con valor pronóstico para la metacronicidad fueron: localización distal del cáncer: OR = 2,30 IC 95% (1,03-5,13; consumo de alcohol: OR = 2,20 IC 95% (1,08-4,48; presencia de adenoma sincr

  10. SU-E-J-256: Predicting Metastasis-Free Survival of Rectal Cancer Patients Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemo-Radiotherapy by Data-Mining of CT Texture Features of Primary Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, H; Wang, J; Shen, L; Hu, W; Wan, J; Zhou, Z; Zhang, Z

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between computed tomographic (CT) texture features of primary lesions and metastasis-free survival for rectal cancer patients; and to develop a datamining prediction model using texture features. Methods: A total of 220 rectal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent CT scans before CRT. The primary lesions on the CT images were delineated by two experienced oncologists. The CT images were filtered by Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) filters with different filter values (1.0–2.5: from fine to coarse). Both filtered and unfiltered images were analyzed using Gray-level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) texture analysis with different directions (transversal, sagittal, and coronal). Totally, 270 texture features with different species, directions and filter values were extracted. Texture features were examined with Student’s t-test for selecting predictive features. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed upon the selected features to reduce the feature collinearity. Artificial neural network (ANN) and logistic regression were applied to establish metastasis prediction models. Results: Forty-six of 220 patients developed metastasis with a follow-up time of more than 2 years. Sixtyseven texture features were significantly different in t-test (p<0.05) between patients with and without metastasis, and 12 of them were extremely significant (p<0.001). The Area-under-the-curve (AUC) of ANN was 0.72, and the concordance index (CI) of logistic regression was 0.71. The predictability of ANN was slightly better than logistic regression. Conclusion: CT texture features of primary lesions are related to metastasisfree survival of rectal cancer patients. Both ANN and logistic regression based models can be developed for prediction

  11. Preparation of superconductor precursor powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghunath

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a precursor metallic powder composition for use in the subsequent formation of a superconductor. The process comprises the steps of providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a cathode substrate electrode, and providing to the bath one or more soluble salts of one or more respective metals which are capable of exhibiting superconductor properties upon subsequent appropriate treatment. The bath is continually energized to cause the metallic and/or reduced particles formed at the electrode to drop as a powder from the electrode into the bath, and this powder, which is a precursor powder for superconductor production, is recovered from the bath for subsequent treatment. The process permits direct inclusion of all metals in the preparation of the precursor powder, and yields an amorphous product mixed on an atomic scale to thereby impart inherent high reactivity. Superconductors which can be formed from the precursor powder include pellet and powder-in-tube products.

  12. Toward a theory of precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freivogel, Ben; Giddings, Steven B.; Lippert, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    To better understand the possible breakdown of locality in quantum gravitational systems, we pursue the identity of precursors in the context of the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence. Holography implies a breakdown of standard bulk locality which we expect to occur only at extremely high energy. We consider precursors that encode bulk information causally disconnected from the boundary and whose measurement involves nonlocal bulk processes. We construct a toy model of holography which encapsulates the expected properties of precursors and compare it with previous such discussions. If these precursors can be identified in the gauge theory, they are almost certainly Wilson loops, perhaps with decorations, but the relevant information is encoded in the high-energy sector of the theory and should not be observable by low energy measurements. This would be in accord with the locality bound, which serves as a criterion for situations where breakdown of bulk locality is expected

  13. Squamous cell hyperplastic foci: precursors of cutaneous papillomas induced in SENCAR mice by a two-stage carcinogenesis regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, R L; Johnson, G R; Gallagher, P M; Stockman, S L; Sundberg, J P; Conti, C J

    1998-10-01

    We have conducted a series of experiments to characterize the lesions that are precursors of cutaneous papillomas in SENCAR mice initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). The first grossly detectable lesions at sites where papillomas subsequently developed were papules, slightly raised areas of skin ranging in diameter from 0.25 to approximately 1.5 mm. Papules were first detected in DMBA-initiated mice 21 days after the start of dosing with TPA. Of 78 DMBA/TPA-induced papules tracked during 15 weeks of TPA treatments, 68% progressed to papillomas, 9% persisted as papules, and 22% completely regressed. Histological evaluation of serial sections of 69 DMBA/TPA-induced papules revealed that they were focal hyperplastic lesions that we refer to as squamous cell hyperplastic foci (SCHF). These hyperproliferative lesions appeared to progress through two distinct stages. Stage I SCHF were characterized as regular hyperplastic foci involving the interfollicular epidermis and the outer root sheaths of 1 or more hair follicles down to the level of the sebaceous glands. Stage II SCHF were foci of irregular epithelial hyperplasia with increased fibrovascular stroma and involved from 3 to >10 hair follicles. Prominent dilated capillaries and inflammatory cell infiltrates were frequently associated with both stage I and II SCHF. Ha-ras gene codon 61 mutations were detected in 7 of 10 stage I SCHF and 13 of 14 stage II SCHF microdissected from histological sections and 7 of 7 of whole papules by mutation-specific PCR analysis. These data provide molecular evidence that SCHF are foci of initiated cells. Further study of these lesions may contribute to more fully defining the sequence of molecular and cellular changes necessary for tumorigenesis in mouse skin. SCHF may also have utility as early indicators of potential skin tumorigenicity in cancer bioassays.

  14. Human Papillomavirus and Vaccination in Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Liahng Wang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is not only the most frequently reported cancer among women, but also the most common female genital tract neoplasm in Taiwan. Early detection is effective, because the development, maintenance and progression of precursor lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] evolve slowly into invasive cancer, typically over a period of more than 10 years. It is now recognized that human papillomavirus (HPV infection is a necessary cause for over 99% of cervical cancer cases. Advances in the understanding of the causative role of HPV in the etiology of high-grade cervical lesions (CIN 2/3 and cervical cancer have led to the development, evaluation and recommendation of HPV-based technologies for cervical cancer prevention and control. The prevention of HPV infection before the onset of CIN is now possible with recently available prophylactic HPV vaccines, e.g. the quadrivalent Gardasil (Merck & Co., NJ, USA and bivalent Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline, London, UK. This review article provides an up-to-date summary of recent studies and available information concerning HPV and vaccination in cervical cancer.

  15. Human BCAS3 expression in embryonic stem cells and vascular precursors suggests a role in human embryogenesis and tumor angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Siva

    Full Text Available Cancer is often associated with multiple and progressive genetic alterations in genes that are important for normal development. BCAS3 (Breast Cancer Amplified Sequence 3 is a gene of unknown function on human chromosome 17q23, a region associated with breakpoints of several neoplasms. The normal expression pattern of BCAS3 has not been studied, though it is implicated in breast cancer progression. Rudhira, a murine WD40 domain protein that is 98% identical to BCAS3 is expressed in embryonic stem (ES cells, erythropoiesis and angiogenesis. This suggests that BCAS3 expression also may not be restricted to mammary tissue and may have important roles in other normal as well as malignant tissues. We show that BCAS3 is also expressed in human ES cells and during their differentiation into blood vascular precursors. We find that BCAS3 is aberrantly expressed in malignant human brain lesions. In glioblastoma, hemangiopericytoma and brain abscess we note high levels of BCAS3 expression in tumor cells and some blood vessels. BCAS3 may be associated with multiple cancerous and rapidly proliferating cells and hence the expression, function and regulation of this gene merits further investigation. We suggest that BCAS3 is mis-expressed in brain tumors and could serve as a human ES cell and tumor marker.

  16. Early Dysregulation of Cell Adhesion and Extracellular Matrix Pathways in Breast Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Lyndsey A.; Tripathi, Anusri; King, Chialin; Kavanah, Maureen; Mendez, Jane; Stone, Michael D.; de las Morenas, Antonio; Sebastiani, Paola; Rosenberg, Carol L.

    2009-01-01

    Proliferative breast lesions, such as simple ductal hyperplasia (SH) and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), are candidate precursors to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive cancer. To better understand the relationship of breast lesions to more advanced disease, we used microdissection and DNA microarrays to profile the gene expression of patient-matched histologically normal (HN), ADH, and DCIS from 12 patients with estrogen receptor positive sporadic breast cancer. SH were profiled from a subset of cases. We found 837 differentially expressed genes between DCIS-HN and 447 between ADH-HN, with >90% of the ADH-HN genes also present among the DCIS-HN genes. Only 61 genes were identified between ADH-DCIS. Expression differences were reproduced in an independent cohort of patient-matched lesions by quantitative real-time PCR. Many breast cancer-related genes and pathways were dysregulated in ADH and maintained in DCIS. Particularly, cell adhesion and extracellular matrix interactions were overrepresented. Focal adhesion was the top pathway in each gene set. We conclude that ADH and DCIS share highly similar gene expression and are distinct from HN. In contrast, SH appear more similar to HN. These data provide genetic evidence that ADH (but not SH) are often precursors to cancer and suggest cancer-related genetic changes, particularly adhesion and extracellular matrix pathways, are dysregulated before invasion and even before malignancy is apparent. These findings could lead to novel risk stratification, prevention, and treatment approaches. PMID:19700746

  17. Positive predictive value of additional synchronous breast lesions in whole-breast ultrasonography at the diagnosis of breast cancer: clinical and imaging factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah Hyun Kim

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: BWBU can detect additional synchronous malignancy at the diagnosis of breast cancer with a relatively high PPV, especially when mammography findings are correlated with ultrasonographic findings.

  18. Do glycine-extended hormone precursors have clinical significance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Half of the known peptide hormones are C-terminally amidated. Subsequent biogenesis studies have shown that the immediate precursor is a glycine-extended peptide. The clinical interest in glycine-extended hormones began in 1994, when it was suggested that glycine-extended gastrin stimulated cancer...... and clinical effects of glycine-extended precursors for most other amidated hormones than gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK). The idea of glycine-extended peptides as independent messengers was interesting. But clinical science has to move ahead from ideas that cannot be supported at key points after decades...

  19. The diet as a cause of human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, William G; Demarzo, Angelo M; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Asymptomatic prostate inflammation and prostate cancer have reached epidemic proportions among men in the developed world. Animal model studies implicate dietary carcinogens, such as the heterocyclic amines from over-cooked meats and sex steroid hormones, particularly estrogens, as candidate etiologies for prostate cancer. Each acts by causing epithelial cell damage, triggering an inflammatory response that can evolve into a chronic or recurrent condition. This milieu appears to spawn proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) lesions, a type of focal atrophy that represents the earliest of prostate cancer precursor lesions. Rare PIA lesions contain cells which exhibit high c-Myc expression, shortened telomere segments, and epigenetic silencing of genes such as GSTP1, encoding the π-class glutathione S-transferase, all characteristic of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostate cancer. Subsequent genetic changes, such as the gene translocations/deletions that generate fusion transcripts between androgen-regulated genes (such as TMPRSS2) and genes encoding ETS family transcription factors (such as ERG1), arise in PIN lesions and may promote invasiveness characteristic of prostatic adenocarcinoma cells. Lethal prostate cancers contain markedly corrupted genomes and epigenomes. Epigenetic silencing, which seems to arise in response to the inflamed microenvironment generated by dietary carcinogens and/or estrogens as part of an epigenetic "catastrophe" affecting hundreds of genes, persists to drive clonal evolution through metastatic dissemination. The cause of the initial epigenetic "catastrophe" has not been determined but likely involves defective chromatin structure maintenance by over-exuberant DNA methylation or histone modification. With dietary carcinogens and estrogens driving pro-carcinogenic inflammation in the developed world, it is tempting to speculate that dietary components associated with decreased prostate cancer risk, such as intake of

  20. Diagnostic methods for prevention of anal cancer and characteristics of anal lesions caused by HPV in men with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araiz Cajueiro Carneiro Pereira

    Full Text Available Abnormalities found with anuscopy under colposcopic vision, anal cytology and anal biopsy were evaluated in 21 men with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS at the Federal University of Pernambuco Hospital in Brazil. Mean age was 38.4 ± 6.0 years, and mean time of HIV infection was 8.3 ± 5.1 years; 95.2% of the patients had been on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for an average of 6.6 ± 4.5 years. Mean CD4+ cell count was 482.2 ± 173.75 cells/mm³, and 80.9% presented a HIV viral load of < 5,000 copies/mL. Reported sexual preference was 52.4% homosexuals, 28.6% bisexuals, and 19.0%heterosexuals; 81% reported having had receptive anal intercourse and 61.9% reported more than 10 sexual partners of the same sex. Results of anuscopy under colposcopic vision revealed 17 (81.0% low-grade lesions and/or condylomata or micropapillae and four (19.0% high-grade lesions with or without condylomata. Among the 21 anal cytology examinations, seven (33.3% revealed low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL; three (14.3% presented atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and 11 (52.4% were normal. Seventeen patients were submitted to anal biopsy with the following findings: three patients (17.6% with normal epithelium, one (5.9% with infection by HPV, three (17.6% with condylomatas, two (11.8% with AIN 1, four (23.6% with AIN 2, three (17.6% with AIN 3, and one (5.9% with PAIN 2. Anuscopy under colposcopic vision was found to be useful for detecting anal lesions and for guiding anal biopsies. Anal cytology was less useful, as it underestimated the frequency of lesions.

  1. Study on the serum levels of relevant cytokines IL-β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor markers CEA, CA15-3, PRL in breast cancer patients with bone metastatic lesions shown on SPECT radio-nuclide bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlationship between SPECT radionuclide bone scan and serum levels of three tumor markers as well as three cytokines in patients with breast cancer. Methods: Serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, CEA, CA15-3(with RIA) and PRL(with CLIA) were determined in 1)20 breast cancer patients with definite bone metastatic lesions shown on radio-nuclide bone scan 2) 20 breast cancer patients without bone metastasis 3) 30 patients with benign breast disorders and 4) 35 controls. Results: The serum tumor markers levels in patients osseous metastasis were significantly higher than those in the other three groups (P 0.05). The serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β in patients with osseous metastasis were also significantly higher than those in other groups(P<0.05). Conclusion: Over expression of CEA, CA15-3 and PRL as well as IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β were related with osseous metastasis from breast cancer. Determination of the levels of these six parameters would be helpful for dynamic monitoring of the extent of metastasis. (authors)

  2. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    should be prioritized, while in shallow or moderately deep lesions, restoration longevity becomes more important. For teeth with shallow or moderately deep cavitated lesions, carious tissue removal is performed according toselective removal to firm dentine.In deep cavitated lesions in primary......The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental...

  3. Invasive Mucinous Adenocarcinoma Associated with Adjacent Sessile Serrated Lesion of the Appendix Vermiform: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Kinoshita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the definition of sessile serrated lesion (SSL of colon is controversial and the risk of progression to malignancy is also under investigation at present, SSL is generally described as a polyp characterized by a serrated architecture. It is estimated to represent a feature of a new cancerization pathway, coined “serrated neoplasia pathway,” particularly in right-sided colon adenocarcinomas. On the other hand, in appendix, the role of this pathway remains uncertain, probably because very few cases of appendiceal adenocarcinoma associated with SSL were reported, and furthermore, immunohistochemical examination was rarely carried out. We herein report an interesting case of invasive appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma exhibiting SSL, which was pathologically estimated as a potential precursor lesion, and performed representative immunohistochemistry for both the mucinous adenocarcinoma and SSL in the same specimen. To further elucidate the progression of the appendiceal carcinoma from SSL, both an adequate sectioning of the lesion and systematic immunohistochemical examination of a large number of appendiceal carcinoma cases containing adjacent SSL would be required.

  4. [Anti-EGFR Antibody Combination Chemotherapy Was Effective against Locally Advanced Ascending Colon Cancer as Well as a Recurrent Lesion - A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasufumi; Yokomizo, Hajime; Yano, Yuki; Okayama, Sachiyo; Satake, Masaya; Ida, Arika; Usui, Takebumi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Yoshimatsu, Kazuhiko; Shimakawa, Takeshi; Katsube, Takao; Naritaka, Yoshihiko; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    Here we report a case in which a locally advanced ascending colon cancer was successfully treated with anti-EGFR immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy and curative resection, and recurrent cancer was treated with the same chemotherapy. A 71-year-old man was diagnosed with ascending colon cancer in our department. No distant metastasis was observed, but curative resection was considered impossible because of extensive local cancer invasion. Because a genetic analysis revealed the presence of the wild-type KRAS gene, 6 courses of mFOLFOX6 plus cetuximab were administered. A cPR was obtained and curative resection was performed. The final diagnosis was ypT3N1M0, ypStage III a colon cancer, and chemotherapy improved the cancer stage to Grade 1b. Six courses of FOLFOX6 were then administered, followed by observation. After 2 years 6 months, a tumor of approximately 5 cm in size was noted in the right buttock using surveillance CT and was diagnosed as recurrent colon cancer. We considered further curative resection difficult and therefore 6 courses of mFOLFOX6 plus panitumumab were administered, a cPR was obtained, and right hip tumor extirpation surgery was performed. These results suggest that chemotherapy combined with anti-EGFR antibody immunotherapy is effective in treating recurrent colon cancer.

  5. Preventive effects of etodolac, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, on cancer development in extensive metaplastic gastritis, a Helicobacter pylori-negative precancerous lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Oka, Masashi; Yoshimura, Noriko; Deguchi, Hisanobu; Mukoubayashi, Chizu; Enomoto, Shotaro; Maekita, Takao; Inoue, Izumi; Ueda, Kazuki; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Yasushi; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Inada, Kenichi; Takeshita, Tatsuya; Ichinose, Masao

    2010-03-15

    The present study investigated the preventive effects of etodolac, a selective cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, on metachronous cancer development after endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer. Among 267 early gastric cancer patients who underwent endoscopic resection, 47 patients with extensive metaplastic gastritis were selected based on endoscopic findings and our previously described criteria of serum pepsinogen (PG) test-positive and Helicobacter pylori antibody-negative conditions. Nonrandomized etodolac treatment (300 mg/day) was administered to 26 patients (Group A), while the remaining 21 patients were untreated (Group B). No significant differences in age, sex distribution, lifestyle factors or extent of metaplastic gastritis at baseline were identified between groups. Patients were followed for metachronous cancer development with endoscopy every 6-12 months for up to 5 years. Mean (standard deviation) follow-up period was 4.2 (0.9) years. In Group B, 5 cancers developed (incidence rate = 6,266/100,000 person-years), significantly more than the 1 cancer in Group A (incidence rate = 898/100,000 person-years; p gastritis as revealed by endoscopic findings or by serum PG levels, but effectively reduced metachronous cancer development in patients with extensive metaplastic gastritis. These results strongly suggest that chemoprevention of cancer in the metaplastic stomach is possible by controlling COX-2 expression.

  6. Differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is often found in lesions, previously diagnosed as lichen sclerosus, which have progressed to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Nieuwenhof, Hedwig P.; Bulten, Johan; Hollema, Harrie; Dommerholt, Rianne G.; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; van der Zee, Ate G. J.; de Hullu, Joanne A.; van Kempen, Leon C. L. T.

    Lichen sclerosus is considered to be the precursor lesion of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma, of which only 2-5% progress to squamous cell carcinoma. Differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) has been proposed to be the direct precursor lesion, but this is a recently recognized, and a

  7. Periodontal bone lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, L.W.J. van der.

    1985-01-01

    In the course of life the periodontum is subject to changes which may be physiological or pathological. Intraoral radiographs give insight into the hard structures of the dentomaxillar region and provides information on lesions in the bone of the periodontum in that they show radiopacities and radiolucencies caused by such lesions. In this thesis the relation is investigated between the true shape and dimensions of periodontal bone lesions and their radiographic images. A method is developed and tested of making standardized and reproducible radiographs suitable for longitudinal studies of periodontal lesions. Also the possibility is demonstrated of an objective and reproducible interpretation of radiographic characteristics of periodontal bone lesions. (Auth.)

  8. HPV infection, anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN and anal cancer: current issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Margaret A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV is well known as the major etiological agent for ano-genital cancer. In contrast to cervical cancer, anal cancer is uncommon, but is increasing steadily in the community over the last few decades. However, it has undergone an exponential rise in the men who have sex with men (MSM and HIV + groups. HIV + MSM in particular, have anal cancer incidences about three times that of the highest worldwide reported cervical cancer incidences. Discussion There has therefore traditionally been a lack of data from studies focused on heterosexual men and non-HIV + women. There is also less evidence reporting on the putative precursor lesion to anal cancer (AIN – anal intraepithelial neoplasia, when compared to cervical cancer and CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. This review summarises the available biological and epidemiological evidence for HPV in the anal site and the pathogenesis of AIN and anal cancer amongst traditionally non-high risk groups. Summary There is strong evidence to conclude that high-grade AIN is a precursor to anal cancer, and some data on the progression of AIN to invasive cancer.

  9. Trending analysis of precursor events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio

    1998-01-01

    The Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program of United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S.NRC) identifies and categorizes operational events at nuclear power plants in terms of the potential for core damage. The ASP analysis has been performed on yearly basis and the results have been published in the annual reports. This paper describes the trends in initiating events and dominant sequences for 459 precursors identified in the ASP Program during the 1969-94 period and also discusses a comparison with dominant sequences predicted in the past Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) studies. These trends were examined for three time periods, 1969-81, 1984-87 and 1988-94. Although the different models had been used in the ASP analyses for these three periods, the distribution of precursors by dominant sequences show similar trends to each other. For example, the sequences involving loss of both main and auxiliary feedwater were identified in many PWR events and those involving loss of both high and low coolant injection were found in many BWR events. Also, it was found that these dominant sequences were comparable to those determined to be dominant in the predictions by the past PRAs. As well, a list of the 459 precursors identified are provided in Appendix, indicating initiating event types, unavailable systems, dominant sequences, conditional core damage probabilities, and so on. (author)

  10. Synthesis of labelled ecdysone precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, T.; Hetru, C.; Nakatani, Y.; Luu, B.; Meister, M.; Pichat, L.; Audinot, M.

    1985-01-01

    High specific activity tritiated 3β,14α-dihydroxy-5β-cholest-7-en-6-one, has been prepared using a precursor which permits rapid and easy labelling. This compound is converted to ecdysone under in vitro conditions by insect prothoracic glands, a well known site of ecdysone biosynthesis. (author)

  11. Knowledge of oral cancer among the community served during the stomatological lesion prevention campaign conducted at Universidad Católica de Santiago de Guayaquil - Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Moreira, Karla; Huamán-Garaicoa, Fuad; Mena, Gabriela

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge on oral cancer and level of preventive care among the population. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate 408 individuals through a face-to-face survey at Universidad Católica de Santiago de Guayaquil during the 2016 academic year. Sixty-one percent (61%) of respondents said they knew of the existence of oral cancer, but 56.1% did not know that 'white spots' in the oral cavity could become malignant, and 50.7% did not know that 'lumps'could be oral cancer. Moreover, 81.8% said they had never undergone screening for oral cancer. This shows the continued need to implement preventive measures such as educating patients in self-examination of the oral cavity, intensifying prevention campaigns and raising awareness among dentists regarding their responsibility in early detection. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  12. Pancreatic cancer stromal biology and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dacheng; Xie, Keping

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies. Significant progresses have been made in understanding of pancreatic cancer pathogenesis, including appreciation of precursor lesions or premalignant pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanINs), description of sequential transformation from normal pancreatic tissue to invasive pancreatic cancer and identification of major genetic and epigenetic events and the biological impact of those events on malignant behavior. However, the currently used therapeutic strategies targeting tumor epithelial cells, which are potent in cell culture and animal models, have not been successful in the clinic. Presumably, therapeutic resistance of pancreatic cancer is at least in part due to its drastic desmoplasis, which is a defining hallmark for and circumstantially contributes to pancreatic cancer development and progression. Improved understanding of the dynamic interaction between cancer cells and the stroma is important to better understanding pancreatic cancer biology and to designing effective intervention strategies. This review focuses on the origination, evolution and disruption of stromal molecular and cellular components in pancreatic cancer, and their biological effects on pancreatic cancer pathogenesis. PMID:26114155

  13. DNA damage signaling and apoptosis in preinvasive tubal lesions of ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chene, Gautier; Ouellet, Veronique; Rahimi, Kurosh; Barres, Veronique; Caceres, Katia; Meunier, Liliane; Cyr, Louis; De Ladurantaye, Manon; Provencher, Diane; Mes Masson, Anne Marie

    2015-06-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) is the most life-threatening gynecological malignancy despite surgery and chemotherapy. A better understanding of the molecular basis of the preinvasive stages might be helpful in early detection and diagnosis. Genetic instability is 1 of the characteristics shared by most human cancers, and its level is variable through precancerous lesions to advanced cancer. Because DNA damage response (DDR) has been described as 1 of the first phases in genomic instability, we investigated the level of DDR activation and the apoptosis pathway in serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC), the potential precursor of HGSC. A tissue microarray including 21 benign fallopian tubes, 21 STICs, 17 HGSCs from patients with STICs (associated ovarian cancer [AOC]) from the same individuals, and 30 HGSCs without STICs (non-AOC) was used in this study.Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the level of DDR proteins (pATM, pChk2, γH2AX, 53BP1, and TRF2), apoptosis proteins (Bcl2, BAX, and BIM), and cyclin E. The expression of all DDR proteins increased from benign fallopian tubes to STICs. The level of expression of pATM, pChk2, γH2AX, and TRF2 was also increased in STICs in comparison with AOC. BAX, BIM, and cyclin E expressions were high in STICs, whereas Bcl2 expression was low. Immunohistochemical profiles of AOC and non-AOC were also different. These results suggest an activation of the DDR and apoptosis pathways in STICs, indicating that genomic instability may occur early in the precancerous lesions of HGSC.

  14. Ghost cell lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms.

  15. Long-term oral exposure to safe dose of bisphenol A in association with high-fat diet stimulate the prostatic lesions in a rodent model for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facina, Camila H; Campos, Silvana G P; Gonçalves, Bianca F; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2018-02-01

    Studies have shown that exposure to environmental chemicals known as endocrine disruptors can cause permanent changes in genital organs, such as the prostate. Among these environmental chemicals stands out bisphenol A (BPA). Another factor associated with prostate changes is the consumption of a high-fat diet. Although the relationship between the consumption of a high-fat diet and an increased risk of prostate cancer is well established, the mechanisms that lead to the establishment of this disease are not completely understood, nor the simultaneous action of BPA and high-fat diet. Adult gerbils (100 days old) were divided in four groups (n = 6 per group): Control (C): animals that received a control diet and filtered water; Diet (D): animals that received a high-fat diet and filtered water; BPA: animals that received a control diet and BPA - 50 µg kg -1 day -1 in drinking water; BPA + Diet (BPA + D): animals that received a high-fat diet + BPA - 50 µg kg -1 day -1 in drinking water. After the experimental period (6 months), the dorsolateral and ventral prostate lobes were removed, and analyzed by several methods. Histological analysis indicated premalignant and malignant lesions in both prostatic lobes. However, animals of the D, BPA, and BPA + D groups showed a higher incidence and larger number of prostatic lesions; inflammatory foci were also common. Markers to assess prostate lesions, such as increased activation of the DNA repair system (PCNA-positive cells), androgen receptor (AR), and number of basal cells, confirmed the histology. However, serum levels of testosterone did not change under the experimental conditions. The results indicated that the methodology used was effective in generating metabolic changes, which directly compromised prostatic homeostasis. Diet and BPA appear to modulate the activation of the AR pathway and thereby optimize tumor establishment in the gerbil prostate. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The relation between endometriosis and ovarian cancer - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyhøj Heidemann, Lene; Hartwell, Dorthe; Heidemann, Christian Hamilton

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is known to harbor characteristics substantiating that it is a possible precursor of ovarian cancer.......Endometriosis is known to harbor characteristics substantiating that it is a possible precursor of ovarian cancer....

  17. Radiation port cutaneous metastases: Reports of two patients whose recurrent visceral cancers presented as skin lesions at the site of previous radiation and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Spencer Hoyt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is associated with a variety of complications, including the development of primary skin cancers in the radiated region. However, it is rare for patients with visceral cancers who are treated with radiation therapy to subsequently develop cutaneous metastasis within the radiation port. We describe two patients with internal malignancies who developed cutaneous metastases within their radiation ports following radiotherapy. In addition, we used PubMed to perform an extensive literature review and identify additional reports of cutaneous metastasis within a radiation port. We excluded patients who developed melanoma or primary skin cancers in the radiation port. We also excluded patients with non-solid organ malignancies. Herein, we summarize the characteristics of 23 additional patients who experienced radiation port cutaneous metastases and explore possible mechanisms for the occurrence of radiation port cutaneous metastases.

  18. Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia of the Testis, Bilateral Testicular Cancer, and Aberrant Histologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pranav; Dhillon, Jasreman; Sexton, Wade J

    2015-08-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) is a precursor lesion for testicular germ cell tumors, most of which are early stage. ITGCN is also associated with testicular cancer or ITGCN in the contralateral testis, leading to a risk of bilateral testicular malignancy. Testicular biopsy detects most cases, and orchiectomy is the treatment of choice in patients with unilateral ITGCN. Low-dose radiation therapy is recommended in patients with bilateral ITGCN or ITGCN in the solitary testis, but the long-term risks of infertility and hypogonadism need to be discussed with the patient. Rare histologies of primary testicular cancer are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  20. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions Virus papiloma humano en lesiones orales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín V. Gónzalez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases; the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell samples from normal oral mucosa were used as controls. HPV detection and typing were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using primers MY09, 11, combined with RFLP or alternatively PCR using primers GP5+, 6+ combined with dot blot hybridization. HPV was detected in 91.0% of HPV- associated benign lesions, 14.3% of non-HPV associated benign lesions, 51.5% of preneoplasias and 60.0% of cancers. No control sample tested HPV positive. In benign HPV- associated lesions, 30.0% of HPV positive samples harbored high-risk types, while in preneoplastic lesions the value rose to 59.9%. In cancer lesions, HPV detection in verrucous carcinoma was 88.9% and in squamous cell carcinoma 43.8%, with high-risk type rates of 75.5% and 85.6%, respectively. The high HPV frequency detected in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions supports an HPV etiological role in at least a subset of oral cancers.Crecientes evidencias sugieren que el virus Papiloma humano (HPV tiene un rol en el cáncer oral; sin embargo su participación es todavía controvertida. Este estudio evalúa la frecuencia de ADN de HPV en una variedad de lesiones orales de pacientes de Argentina. Se seleccionaron 77 muestras de tejido oral de 66 pacientes (casos; el diagnóstico histo-patológico correspondió a: 11 lesiones benignas asociadas a HPV, 8 lesiones benignas no asociadas a HPV, 33 lesiones premalignas y 25 cánceres. Como controles se usaron 60 muestras de células exfoliadas de mucosa oral normal. La

  1. The miR-10 microRNA precursor family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tehler, Disa; Høyland-Kroghsbo, Nina Molin; Lund, Anders H

    2011-01-01

    The miR-10 microRNA precursor family encodes a group of short non-coding RNAs involved in gene regulation. The miR-10 family is highly conserved and has sparked the interest of many research groups because of the genomic localization in the vicinity of, coexpression with and regulation of the Hox...... gene developmental regulators. Here, we review the current knowledge of the evolution, physiological function and involvement in cancer of this family of microRNAs....

  2. The Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Constantinides, Michael G; Gudjonson, Herman; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-05-20

    The discovery of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cell populations effecting different forms of type 1, 2, and 3 immunity; tissue repair; and immune regulation has transformed our understanding of mucosal immunity and allergy. The emerging complexity of these populations along with compounding issues of redundancy and plasticity raise intriguing questions about their precise lineage relationship. Here we review advances in mapping the emergence of these lineages from early lymphoid precursors. We discuss the identification of a common innate lymphoid cell precursor characterized by transient expression of the transcription factor PLZF, and the lineage relationships of innate lymphoid cells with conventional natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. We also review the rapidly growing understanding of the network of transcription factors that direct the development of these lineages.

  3. Precursor polymer compositions comprising polybenzimidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.

    2015-07-14

    Stable, high performance polymer compositions including polybenzimidazole (PBI) and a melamine-formaldehyde polymer, such as methylated, poly(melamine-co-formaldehyde), for forming structures such as films, fibers and bulky structures. The polymer compositions may be formed by combining polybenzimidazole with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form a precursor. The polybenzimidazole may be reacted and/or intertwined with the melamine-formaldehyde polymer to form the polymer composition. For example, a stable, free-standing film having a thickness of, for example, between about 5 .mu.m and about 30 .mu.m may be formed from the polymer composition. Such films may be used as gas separation membranes and may be submerged into water for extended periods without crazing and cracking. The polymer composition may also be used as a coating on substrates, such as metal and ceramics, or may be used for spinning fibers. Precursors for forming such polymer compositions are also disclosed.

  4. Precursor incident program at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourest, B.; Maliverney, B.; Rozenholc, M.; Piovesan, C.

    1998-01-01

    The precursor program was started by EDF in 1994, after an investigation of the US NRC's Accident Sequence Precursor Program. Since then, reported operational events identified as Safety Outstanding Events have been analyzed whenever possible using probabilistic methods based on PSAs. Analysis provides an estimate of the remaining protection against core damage at the time the incident occurred. Measuring the incidents' severity enables to detect incidents important regarding safety. Moreover, the most efficient feedback actions can be derived from the main accident sequences identified through the analysis. Therefore, incident probabilistic analysis provides a way to assess priorities in terms of treatment and resource allocation, and so, to implement countermeasures preventing further occurrence and development of the most significant incidents. As some incidents cannot be analyzed using this method, probabilistic analysis can only be one among the methods used to assess the nuclear power plants' safety level. Nevertheless, it provides an interesting complement to classical methods of deterministic studies. (author)

  5. Clinical analysis of bone scanning in solitary lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jun; Zhu Ruisen; Zhu Jifang

    2002-01-01

    A rational analysis procedure for solitary lesions on whole bone scanning was offered. This study was undertaken to analyze retrospectively solitary lesions which obtained final diagnose through the following aspects: (1) diagnosis of bone metastasis, (2) the incidence of bone metastasis in different tumor, (3) the most possible lesion sites indicating bone metastasis, (4) morphological analysis of solitary lesions. The results are: (1) The incidence of solitary lesions in 2465 cases on whole bone scanning is 15.3%. (2) The rate of bone metastasis is 24.8% in 282 patients with primary malignancy. The rate of bone metastasis of 6.3% in 64 patients without primary malignancy, and the total diagnostic rate of bone metastasis is 21.4% in 346 patients. (3) In patients with primary malignancy, the incidence of bone metastasis of solitary lesions is as follows respectively; bronchi cancer 36.1%(22/61); breast cancer 23.8%(20/84); prostate gland 17.2%(5/29); other urinary system cancer 22.2%(4/18); G.I. system cancer 16.9%(10/59); others 29.0%(9/31). There is no significant difference in different cancer. (4) In patients without primary malignancy, 93.7%(60/64) of solitary lesions are benign. (5) From anatomical point of view, the authors found the diagnostic rate of bone metastasis is as follow: 30% in spine; 34.2% in pelvis; 36.4% in skull; 10.8% in other bones. There are significant differences in four groups. It is concluded that: (1) The diagnostic rate of bone metastasis in solitary lesions is 21.4%. (2) The most possible solitary lesions indicating osseous tumor spread are at spine, pelvic and skull. (3) Special attention to 'cold' and streak like lesions should be paid. (4) A clinical analysis procedure for diagnosis of solitary lesions has been summarized out here

  6. Malignant pulmonary lesion. Possible causes of CT misdiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, J.; Feragalli, B.; Ciccotosto, C.; Storto, M.L.; Guidotti, A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe the radiological appearance of overlooked malignant pulmonary lesions at CT and to analyze the reasons of misdiagnosis. Ten patient with pulmonary lesion (PML) overlooked at forst CT examination were selected among patients with lung cancer. Endobronchial location of the tumors and their small size were the most frequent causes of misdiagnosis of PML at chest CT in the series. However, a systematic evaluation of CT scans can reduce the percentage of missed lesions [it

  7. Involvement of ethylene in lesion development and systemic acquired resistance in tobacco during the hypersensitive reaction to tobacco mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoester, M.; Linthorst, H.J.M.; Bol, J.F.; Loon, L.C. van

    2001-01-01

    Different approaches were taken to investigate the significance of ethylene in lesion development and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) reacting hypersensitively to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Gaseous ethylene, the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic

  8. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  9. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging of breast lesions: Initial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hebatallah Hassan Mamdouh Hassan

    2013-03-31

    Mar 31, 2013 ... DWI was acquired during diagnostic breast MRI using b = 0, 400 and 800 ... and characterization of breast cancer.2 Additional lesions seen by MRI that are not ... mammography and ultrasonography. Conventional DCE-.

  10. Utilidad en la combinación de oligonucleótidos universales para la detección del virus del papiloma humano en cáncer cervicouterino y lesiones premalignas Usefulness of combining universal oligonucleotides in detecting human papillomavirus in cervical cancer and premalignant lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Carrillo

    2004-02-01

    juegos de oligonucleótidos universales que reconocen la región L1 del VPH. Con una adecuada toma de muestra, el análisis para detección de ADN en exudado cérvico-vaginal es una buena alternativa de diagnóstico del VPH.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV infection at different stages of the natural history of cervical cancer. Also, to optimize its detection by means of different sets of general primers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted between January and December 1999. Samples were processed and analyzed at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología (National Cancerology Institute in Mexico City. A comparative analysis was performed using Student's t for continuous values and the chi-squared test for proportions. A contingency analysis was made between biopsy and cervical exudates with the Kappa statistic. HPV detection was done by PCR with general primers which recognize different regions of the L1 gene (MY09/11; GP5/6; L1C1/2 and with HPV16- and HPV18- specific primers, as well as direct sequencing of PCR products. RESULTS: In total, 154 samples were analyzed: 65 (42.2% of them showed normal cytology; 45 (29.2% high and low grade lesions; and 44 (28.6% invasive cervical cancer. HPV was detected in 95.5% of invasive cervical cancers, in 91.6% of high grade lesions, in 66.7% of low grade lesions, and in 23.1% of normal smears, by PCR with at least one set of oligonucleotide primers. HPV detection was more efficient in biopsy specimens than in cervical scrapes. The total percentage of HPV detection us ing only one set of universal oligonucleotides (37.6%increased to 60.4% when the other two sets of universal oligonucleotides were used. CONCLUSIONS:The frequency of high risk HPV is high even in women with reported normal cytology. HPV detection improves when different sets of general primers directed to the L1 region are used. HPV DNA screening in cervical scrapes may be a good alternative HPV

  11. In vitro method determing sensitivity of anticancer agents by incorporation of radioactive precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, Satoshi

    1983-01-01

    A new sensitivity test of anticancer agents was developed to measure the lethal effects of cancer cells by the incorporation of radioactive precursors. The thousand cancer cells were cultured in a microplate in the presence of anticancer agents. These cells were exposed to radioactive precursors. Two or three days later, the cancer cells were harvested on a glass fiver filter by a multiple automatic cell-harvester and the incorporation of precursors was counted by a liquid scintillation counter. In this study, the in vivo results of drug testing in animal model systems were compared with drug sensitivities. Mice inoculated Ehrlich ascites cells were treated with various kinds of anticancer drugs. The development of the cells was compatible with the result of the sensitivity test. The growths of Lauson and ME-180 cells derived from human cancers implanted subcutaneously to nude mice were also well correlated with this sensitivity test. (author)

  12. Molecular Signaling Pathways Mediating Osteoclastogenesis Induced by Prostate Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiei, Shahrzad; Komarova, Svetlana V

    2013-01-01

    Advanced prostate cancer commonly metastasizes to bone leading to osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions. Although an osteolytic component governed by activation of bone resorbing osteoclasts is prominent in prostate cancer metastasis, the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis are not well-understood. We studied the effect of soluble mediators released from human prostate carcinoma cells on osteoclast formation from mouse bone marrow and RAW 264.7 monocytes. Soluble factors released from human prostate carcinoma cells significantly increased viability of naïve bone marrow monocytes, as well as osteoclastogenesis from precursors primed with receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL). The prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis was not mediated by RANKL as it was not inhibited by osteoprotegerin (OPG). However inhibition of TGFβ receptor I (TβRI), or macrophage-colony stimulating factor (MCSF) resulted in attenuation of prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis. We characterized the signaling pathways induced in osteoclast precursors by soluble mediators released from human prostate carcinoma cells. Prostate cancer factors increased basal calcium levels and calcium fluctuations, induced nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated t-cells (NFAT)c1, and activated prolonged phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in RANKL-primed osteoclast precursors. Inhibition of calcium signaling, NFATc1 activation, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation significantly reduced the ability of prostate cancer mediators to stimulate osteoclastogenesis. This study reveals the molecular mechanisms underlying the direct osteoclastogenic effect of prostate cancer derived factors, which may be beneficial in developing novel osteoclast-targeting therapeutic approaches

  13. Treatment of metastatic brain lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zaytsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Increasing survival in patients with secondary brain damage, and identifying the factors of favorable and adverse prognosis.Material and method. In P. A. Hertsen Moscow Oncology Research Institute from 2007 to 2013 there were treated 268 patients with brain metastases. The mean age was 55.8 years (from 24 to 81 years. Metastases of colorectal cancer identified in 7.8%, cases of lung cancer in 34%, melanoma 9.3 %, breast cancer in 26%, kidney cancer in 11%, with non-identified primary tumor in 4.5%, other tumors accounted for 6.7%. Solitary metastasis was diagnosed in 164 (61,19% patients, oligometastasis (2-3 - 72 (26,87% patients with polymetastasis (more than 3 – 32 (11,94% patients. In 106 (39,55% of patients with brain metastases it was the only manifestation of the generalization process. To control the radical removal of the tumor in 93 (34,7% patients we used the method of fluorescence navigation (FN with the drug Alasens. In 66 (24,6% patients intraoperatively was held a session of photodynamic therapy (PDT. In 212 (79,1% cases, the removal of metastasis performed totally, 55 (20,9% patients stated Subtotal removal.Results. The observation period for the patients ranged from 3 to 79 months. Survival median among the entire group of patients with metastatic brain lesion was 12 months. Overall survival was significantly dependent on RPA class, the volume of postoperative treatment, histological type of primary tumor, number of intracerebral metastases and the timing of the relapse-free period.Conclusions. Factors that affects the overall survival are the features of the histology of the primary lesion, multiplicity of metastatic lesions, RPA class and the synchronous nature of the metastasis. The median of overall survival of patients who did not receive after surgical treatment of a particular type of therapy was only 4 months. If to use the combined treatment (surgical treatment with the irradiation of the whole brain median

  14. Epidemiological-molecular evidence of metabolic reprogramming on proliferation, autophagy and cell signaling in pancreas cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søreide, Kjetil; Sund, Malin

    2015-01-28

    Pancreatic cancer remains one of the deadliest human cancers with little progress made in survival over the past decades, and 5-year survival usually below 5%. Despite this dismal scenario, progresses have been made in understanding of the underlying tumor biology through among other definition of precursor lesions, delineation of molecular pathways, and advances in genome-wide technology. Further, exploring the relationship between epidemiological risk factors involving metabolic features to that of an altered cancer metabolism may provide the foundation for new therapies. Here we explore how nutrients and caloric intake may influence the KRAS-driven ductal carcinogenesis through mediators of metabolic stress, including autophagy in presence of TP53, advanced glycation end products (AGE) and the receptors (RAGE) and ligands (HMGB1), as well as glutamine pathways, among others. Effective understanding the cancer metabolism mechanisms in pancreatic cancer may propose new ways of prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Role of Epstein–Barr Virus in Cervical Cancer: A Brief Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semir Vranic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Epstein–Barr virus (EBV belongs to the group of gamma-herpes viruses and was the first recognized human oncovirus. EBV is responsible for infectious mononucleosis and multiple lymphoid and epithelial malignancies including B-cell lymphomas (Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, various T-cell/NK lymphoproliferative disorders, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and gastric carcinoma, respectively. In addition, the presence of EBV has been documented in other cancers including breast, prostate, oral, and salivary gland carcinomas. The presence and role of EBV in cervical cancer and its precursor lesions (CIN have also been described, but the results from the literature are inconsistent, and the causal role of EBV in cervical cancer pathogenesis has not been established yet. In the present review, we briefly surveyed and critically appraised the current literature on EBV in cervical cancer and its variants (lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma as well as its precursor lesions (CIN. In addition, we discussed the possible interactions between EBV and human papilloma virus as well as between EBV and immune checkpoint regulators (PD-L1. Though further studies are needed, the available data suggest a possible causal relationship between EBV and cervical cancer pathogenesis.

  16. Intraosseous osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, C.P.; Wenz, W.

    1981-10-01

    Any pathological damage occurring in a bone will produce either an osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesion which can be seen in the macroscopic specimen as well as in the roentgenogram. Various bone lesions may lead to local destructions of the bone. An osteoma or osteoplastic osteosarcoma produces an osteosclerotic lesion showing a dense mass in the roentgenogram; a chondroblastoma or an osteoclastoma, on the other hand, induces an osteolytic focal lesion. This paper presents examples of different osteolytic lesions of the humerus. An osteolytic lesion seen in the roentgenogram may be either produced by an underlying non-ossifying fibroma of the bone, by fibrous dysplasia, osteomyelitis or Ewing's sarcoma. Differential diagnostic considerations based on the radiological picture include eosinophilic bone granuloma, juvenile or aneurysmal bone cyst, multiple myeloma or bone metastases. Serious differential diagnostic problems may be involved in case of osteolytic lesions occurring in the humerus. Cases of this type involving complications have been reported and include the presence of an teleangiectatic osteosarcoma as well as that of a hemangiosarcoma of the bone.

  17. Microglandular adenosis: a prime suspect in triple-negative breast cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Julia Ys; Tse, Gary Mk

    2016-06-01

    Microglandular adenosis (MGA) and atypical MGA (AMGA) are unusual lesions of the breast. They were once regarded as benign proliferative lesions and innocent bystanders. Several lines of evidence suggested that they could be neoplastic, clonal lesions and a non-obligate precursor for triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC). Recent work published in The Journal of Pathology by Guerini-Rocco and colleagues provided further evidence regarding the precursor-product relationship between MGA/AMGA and TNBC. Using a massively parallel sequencing approach, they demonstrated that MGA/AMGA, particularly those associated with TNBC, could be clonal neoplastic lesions showing clonal non-synonymous mutations, but none in pure MGA. Importantly, those alterations were observed in the associated TNBC. They were also able to identify recurrent alterations in TP53 in those MGA/AMGA cases as well as their associated TNBC. The findings, in conjunction with others, underscore the significance for MGA in clinical diagnosis. The potential of a benign lesion to progress into an aggressive malignant tumour implies that modification of the current management approach may be necessary. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Novel drug delivery strategies for porphyrins and porphyrin precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, D. I. J.; Donnelly, R. F.

    2009-06-01

    superficial lesions, such as actinic keratosis. In addition, photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is attracting increasing interest for the treatment of infection. However, delivery strategies for topical PDT and PACT are still based on application of rather simplistic cream and solution formulations, with little consideration given to thermodynamics, targeting or the physicochemical properties of the active agent. Purpose-designed dosage forms for topical delivery of aminolevulinic acid or its esters include creams containing penetration enhancers and/or iron chelators, pressure sensitive patches and bioadhesive patches. Such systems aim to enhance drug delivery across the stratum corneum and keratinised debris overlying neoplastic lesions and improve subsequent protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) production. The alternative to using porphyrin precursors is the use of pre-formed photosensitisers. However, owing to their relatively high molecular weights, conventional topical application is not appropriate. Innovative strategies, such as the use of needle-free injections and microneedle arrays, bypass the stratum corneum, enabling rapid and targeted delivery not only porphyrin precursors but also pre-formed photosensitisers. This presentation will review drug delivery work published to date in the fields of PDT and PACT. In addition, the benefits of employing the latest advances in pharmaceutical technology will be highlighted.

  19. Radon as an earthquake precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.

    2004-01-01

    Radon concentrations in soil gas were continuously measured by the LR-115 nuclear track detectors during a four-year period. Seismic activities, as well as barometric pressure, rainfall and air temperature were also observed. The influence of meteorological parameters on temporal radon variations was investigated, and a respective equation of the multiple regression was derived. The earthquakes with magnitude ≥3 at epicentral distances ≤200 km were recognized by means of radon anomaly. Empirical equations between earthquake magnitude, epicentral distance and precursor time were examined, and respective constants were determined

  20. Radon as an earthquake precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planinic, J. E-mail: planinic@pedos.hr; Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B

    2004-09-11

    Radon concentrations in soil gas were continuously measured by the LR-115 nuclear track detectors during a four-year period. Seismic activities, as well as barometric pressure, rainfall and air temperature were also observed. The influence of meteorological parameters on temporal radon variations was investigated, and a respective equation of the multiple regression was derived. The earthquakes with magnitude {>=}3 at epicentral distances {<=}200 km were recognized by means of radon anomaly. Empirical equations between earthquake magnitude, epicentral distance and precursor time were examined, and respective constants were determined.

  1. Feasibility of the use of PET/CT with {sup 1}8F-colina to increase the dose in traprostaticas lesions in radiotherapy of prostate cancer treatment; Viabilidad del uso de la PET/TC con {sup 1}8F-colina para aumentar la dosis en las lesiones intraprostaticas en tratamientos de radioterapia de cancer de prostata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Hernandez, T.; Vicedo Gonzalez, A.; Pastor Peidro, J.; Lopez Torrecilla, J.; Rosello Ferrando, J.; Brualla Congalez, L.; Granero Cabanero, D.; Ferrer Rebolleda, J.; Sanchez Jurado, R.

    2013-07-01

    This paper explores the viability of an escalation of doses higher than 80 Gy in intraprostatics lesions, defined by 18FFluorocolina PET/CT, analyzing the variation of the dose in the organs of risk with respect to traditional planning with CT. (Author)

  2. Intense pulsed light vs. long-pulsed dye laser treatment of telangiectasia after radiotherapy for breast cancer: a randomized split-lesion trial of two different treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymann, P.; Hedelund, L.; Hædersdal, Merete

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic radiodermatitis is a common sequela of treatment for breast cancer and potentially a psychologically distressing factor for the affected women. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of treatments with a long-pulsed dye laser (LPDL) vs. intense pulsed light (IPL......); the interventions were randomly assigned to left/right or upper/lower halves. Primary end-points were reduction in telangiectasia, patient satisfaction and preferred treatment. Secondary end-points were pain and adverse effects. Efficacy was registered by blinded photographic evaluations 3 months after the final...

  3. Oral lichen planus (OLP), oral lichenoid lesions (OLL), oral dysplasia, and oral cancer: retrospective analysis of clinicopathological data from 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casparis, S; Borm, J M; Tektas, S; Kamarachev, J; Locher, M C; Damerau, G; Grätz, K W; Stadlinger, B

    2015-06-01

    This 10-year retrospective study analyzed the incidence of malignant transformation of oral lichen planus (OLP). The study also included dysplasia and oral lichenoid lesion (OLL) in the initial biopsy as a potential differential diagnosis. A total of 692 scalpel biopsies were taken from 542 patients (207 [38.2%] men and 335 [61.8%] women). Clinical and histopathological parameters were analyzed. The parameters gender (p = 0.022) and smoking behavior (p oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Smoking and joint disease appeared to be significant risk factors. Treatment with tretinoin in different concentrations (0.005-0.02%) significantly improved diagnosis. Twelve patients (8 female, 4 male) showed malignant transformation to OSCC within an average period of 1.58 years. The malignant transformation rate (MTR) was higher for OLL (4.4%) than OLP (1.2%). If the first biopsy showed intraepithelial neoplasia, the risk of developing OSCC increased (by 3.5% for squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (SIN) II and by 6.7% for SIN III). Although we cannot rule out that OLP is a premalignant oral condition, we can confirm that OLP had the lowest MTR of all diagnoses.

  4. Computed tomographic features of orbital lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, C.M. de; Hoch, H.; Azevedo, M. de L.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this m anuscript is to present the use of CT in the evaluation of 42 cases of orbital lesions studied at the National Institute of Cancer in an one year and half period. Correlation with clinical and pathological data was performed and the results compared with those of the literature. Four cases of rare lesions are shown: alveolar soft tissue sarcoma, giant cell tumor and hematogenic metastatic deposits of a clear cell sarcoma and epidermoid carcinoma. The value of CT in the evaluation of all orbital masses is emphasized. (author) [pt

  5. Lung Lesions During Fever of Unknown Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, Renata; Zielonka, Tadeusz M; Hadzik-Blaszczyk, Malgorzata; Wardyn, Kazimierz A; Zycinska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains one of the most difficult diagnostic challenges. The causes of FUO can be various diseases located in different organs. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and nature of pulmonary lesions during FUO. One hundred and sixty one patients with FUO participated in this prospective study. We performed a detailed comprehensive history, physical examination, and a wide spectrum of tests. The most common causes of FUO were infections (39%), autoimmune conditions (28%), and neoplasms (17%). Lung lesions were found in 30% of patients. In this group 35% were infections, 30% autoimmune diseases, and 4% cancer. Among patients with respiratory infections, there were cases of tuberculosis, atypical pneumonia, lung abscess, and bronchiectases. Autoimmune pulmonary lesions were observed during vasculitis and systemic lupus. The causes of FUO in the group of patients with lung lesions were also pulmonary embolism, sarcoidosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Chest CT played an important role in the diagnosis of the causes of FUO with pulmonary manifestations. Pulmonary lesions are a common cause of FUO. Most FUO with pulmonary lesions are recognized during infections and autoimmune diseases. An important part of diagnosing FUO is a detailed evaluation of the respiratory system.

  6. Risk of persistent high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion after electrosurgical excisional treatment with positive margins: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Alves de Oliveira

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Even if precursor lesions of cervical cancer are properly treated, there is a risk of persistence or recurrence. The aim here was to quantify the risks of persistence of high-grade intraepithelial squamous lesions, one and two years after cervical electrosurgical excisional treatment with positive margins. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis at Instituto Fernandes Figueira. METHODS: This meta-analysis was on studies published between January 1989 and July 2009 that were identified in Medline, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane, SciELO, Lilacs, Adolec, Medcarib, Paho, Wholis, Popline, ISI Web of Science and Sigle. Articles were selected if they were cohort studies on electrosurgical excisional treatment of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions with a minimum follow-up of one year, a histopathological outcome of persistence of these lesions and a small risk of bias. RESULTS: The search identified 7,066 articles and another 21 in the reference lists of these papers. After applying the selection and exclusion criteria, only four articles were found to have extractable data. The risk of persistence of high-grade intraepithelial lesions after one year was 11.36 times greater (95% confidence interval, CI: 5.529-23.379, P < 0.0001 in patients with positive margins and after two years, was four times greater (95% CI: 0.996-16.164, although without statistical significance. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis confirms the importance of positive margins as an indicator of incomplete treatment after the first year of follow-up and highlights the need for appropriately chosen electrosurgical techniques based on disease location and extent, with close surveillance of these patients.

  7. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, Antagonists and Receptors in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reddi, A

    2003-01-01

    ...? The predominant site of prostate cancer is bone. However, unlike the osteolytic lesions of breast cancer, prostate cancer causes osteoblastic osteosclerosis which leads ultimately to morbidity and mortality...

  8. Fluorescing macerals from wood precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, S A; Bensley, D F

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary investigation into the origin of wood-derived macerals has established the existence of autofluorescent maceral precursors in the secondary xylem of swamp-inhabiting plant species. The optical character and fluorescent properties of microtomed thin-sections of modern woods from the Florida Everglades and Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia are compared to the character and properties of their peatified equivalents from various Everglades and Okefenokee peat horizons and their lignitic equivalents from the Brandon lignite of Vermont and the Trail Ridge lignitic peat from northern Florida. The inherent fluorescence of woody cell walls is believed to be caused by lignin though other cell wall components may contribute. The fluorescence spectra for several wood and cell types had a ..gamma../sub m//sub a//sub x/ of 452 nm and Q value of 0.00. The color as observed in blue light and the spectral geometry as measured in UV light of peatified and lignitic woody cell walls (potential textinites) may change progressively during early coalification. Cell wall-derived maceral material is shown to maintain its fluorescing properties after being converted to a structureless material, perhaps a corpohuminite or humodetrinite precursor. Fluorescing xylem cell contents, such as condensed tannins or essential oils, can maintain the fluorescent character through early coalification. Xylem cell walls and xylem cell contents are shown to provide fluorescing progenitor materials which would not require subsequent infusion with 'lipid' materials to account for their fluorescence as phytoclast material or as macerals in coal. 35 references.

  9. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Pediatrics, Aurora, CO (United States); The Children' s Hospital, Rick Wilson Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Aurora, CO (United States); Hayes, Kari [The Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Bourland, Wendy [Children' s Hospital at St. Francis, Warren Clinic, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2010-02-15

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  10. Diffuse cavitary lung lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunzke, Mindy; Garrington, Timothy; Hayes, Kari; Bourland, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    An 11-year-old girl presented with a 2-month history of progressively worsening cough, daily fevers, and weight loss. A chest radiograph revealed multiple cystic cavitary lung lesions. An extensive infectious work-up was negative. Chest CT verified multiple cavitary lung lesions bilaterally, and [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography with CT (PET/CT) showed increased uptake in the lung lesions as well as regional lymph nodes. Subsequent biopsy of an involved lymph node confirmed classical Hodgkin lymphoma, nodular sclerosis type. This case represents an unusual presentation for a child with Hodgkin lymphoma and demonstrates a role for 18 F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating a child with cavitary lung lesions. (orig.)

  11. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  12. CDX2 expression is concordant between primary colorectal cancer lesions and corresponding liver metastases independent of chemotherapy: a single-center retrospective study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Yasuyuki; Inamura, Kentaro; Mise, Yoshihiro; Saiura, Akio; Rehnberg, Emil; Yamamoto, Noriko; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Takahashi, Shunji; Kanda, Hiroaki

    2018-03-30

    Loss of caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) expression in colorectal cancers (CRCs) has recently been proposed as a promising predictive biomarker for not only prognosis but also response to chemotherapy. However, the relationship between alterations in CDX2 expression during cancer progression and response to chemotherapy remains unclear. We herein aimed to determine the concordance of CDX2 expression between primary CRCs and corresponding liver metastases, in association with chemotherapy. Primary CRCs exhibited heterogeneous CDX2 expression. Seven of the 144 CRCs in the cohort (4.9%, 95% confidential interval, 2.0%-9.8%) were CDX2-negative. The concordance rate of the CDX2 expression status in patients who did not receive chemotherapy was 100% ( P = 0.041), whereas the concordance rate among patients who received chemotherapy only after primary resection was 96.3% ( P = 0.005). Moreover, the concordance rate in patients who received chemotherapy before both primary resection and liver metastasectomy was 100% ( P < 0.001). CDX2 expression status was highly concordant between primary CRCs and corresponding liver metastases, independent of chemotherapy, suggesting that the CDX2 expression status in CRCs was not affected by metastasis or chemotherapy. A total of 144 consecutive patients with CRC who were treated at a single center in Japan between 2006 and 2014 were included. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded whole sections of surgically resected primary CRCs and corresponding liver metastases were assessed for CDX2 expression by immunohistochemistry.

  13. Benign fibroosseous lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Köseoğlu Seçgin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Benign fibroosseous lesions represent a group of lesions that share the same basic evolutive mechanism and are characterized by replacement of normal bone with a fibrous connective tissue that gradually undergoes mineralization. These lesions are presented by a variety of diseases including developmental, reactive-dysplastic processes and neoplasms. Depending on the nature and amount of calcified tissue, they can be observed as radiolucent, mixed or radiopaque. Their radiographic features could be well-defined or indistinguishable from the surrounding bone tissue. They can be asymptomatic as in osseous dysplasias and can be detected incidentally on radiographs, or they can lead to expansion in the affected bone as in ossifying fibroma. All fibroosseous lesions seen in the jaws and face are variations of the same histological pattern. Therefore, detailed clinical and radiographic evaluation in differential diagnosis is important. In this review, fibroosseous benign lesions are classified as osseous dysplasia, fibrous dysplasia and fibroosseous tumors; and radiographic features and differential diagnosis of these lesions are reviewed taking into account this classification.

  14. Raman fiber-optical method for colon cancer detection: Cross-validation and outlier identification approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, D.; Naveed, P.; Ragheb, A.; Niedieker, D.; El-Mashtoly, S. F.; Brechmann, T.; Kötting, C.; Schmiegel, W. H.; Freier, E.; Pox, C.; Gerwert, K.

    2017-06-01

    Endoscopy plays a major role in early recognition of cancer which is not externally accessible and therewith in increasing the survival rate. Raman spectroscopic fiber-optical approaches can help to decrease the impact on the patient, increase objectivity in tissue characterization, reduce expenses and provide a significant time advantage in endoscopy. In gastroenterology an early recognition of malign and precursor lesions is relevant. Instantaneous and precise differentiation between adenomas as precursor lesions for cancer and hyperplastic polyps on the one hand and between high and low-risk alterations on the other hand is important. Raman fiber-optical measurements of colon biopsy samples taken during colonoscopy were carried out during a clinical study, and samples of adenocarcinoma (22), tubular adenomas (141), hyperplastic polyps (79) and normal tissue (101) from 151 patients were analyzed. This allows us to focus on the bioinformatic analysis and to set stage for Raman endoscopic measurements. Since spectral differences between normal and cancerous biopsy samples are small, special care has to be taken in data analysis. Using a leave-one-patient-out cross-validation scheme, three different outlier identification methods were investigated to decrease the influence of systematic errors, like a residual risk in misplacement of the sample and spectral dilution of marker bands (esp. cancerous tissue) and therewith optimize the experimental design. Furthermore other validations methods like leave-one-sample-out and leave-one-spectrum-out cross-validation schemes were compared with leave-one-patient-out cross-validation. High-risk lesions were differentiated from low-risk lesions with a sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 74% and an accuracy of 77%, cancer and normal tissue with a sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 83% and an accuracy of 81%. Additionally applied outlier identification enabled us to improve the recognition of neoplastic biopsy samples.

  15. Raman fiber-optical method for colon cancer detection: Cross-validation and outlier identification approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, D; Naveed, P; Ragheb, A; Niedieker, D; El-Mashtoly, S F; Brechmann, T; Kötting, C; Schmiegel, W H; Freier, E; Pox, C; Gerwert, K

    2017-06-15

    Endoscopy plays a major role in early recognition of cancer which is not externally accessible and therewith in increasing the survival rate. Raman spectroscopic fiber-optical approaches can help to decrease the impact on the patient, increase objectivity in tissue characterization, reduce expenses and provide a significant time advantage in endoscopy. In gastroenterology an early recognition of malign and precursor lesions is relevant. Instantaneous and precise differentiation between adenomas as precursor lesions for cancer and hyperplastic polyps on the one hand and between high and low-risk alterations on the other hand is important. Raman fiber-optical measurements of colon biopsy samples taken during colonoscopy were carried out during a clinical study, and samples of adenocarcinoma (22), tubular adenomas (141), hyperplastic polyps (79) and normal tissue (101) from 151 patients were analyzed. This allows us to focus on the bioinformatic analysis and to set stage for Raman endoscopic measurements. Since spectral differences between normal and cancerous biopsy samples are small, special care has to be taken in data analysis. Using a leave-one-patient-out cross-validation scheme, three different outlier identification methods were investigated to decrease the influence of systematic errors, like a residual risk in misplacement of the sample and spectral dilution of marker bands (esp. cancerous tissue) and therewith optimize the experimental design. Furthermore other validations methods like leave-one-sample-out and leave-one-spectrum-out cross-validation schemes were compared with leave-one-patient-out cross-validation. High-risk lesions were differentiated from low-risk lesions with a sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 74% and an accuracy of 77%, cancer and normal tissue with a sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 83% and an accuracy of 81%. Additionally applied outlier identification enabled us to improve the recognition of neoplastic biopsy samples. Copyright

  16. Thyroid malignancy among goitrous thyroid lesions: a review of hospital-based studies in Malaysia and Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htwe, T T

    2012-03-01

    Endemic goitre is a major concern in many parts of the world, including Southeast Asia. Goitrous thyroid lesion is postulated as a precursor lesion to thyroid cancer (TC). This paper reviews the prevalence rates and characteristics of TC among cases of goitrous thyroid-swelling in different parts of Malaysia and Myanmar. Recorded data from hospital-based retrospective studies of thyroid cases, whose study periods ranged from three to 11 years, were analysed. These included research findings from the author's publications as well as other published review articles of retrospective analyses. The incidence of TC varies among gender, age, race/ethnicity and histological type. There appears to be a higher rate of occurrence among females aged 21-60 years. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the more common histological type compared to follicular cancer. This review also presents a descriptive analysis and discussion on studies conducted in other countries. Further exploration is warranted in order to uncover the possible risk factors for the rising incidence of TC.

  17. Contribution of constitutively proliferating precursor cell subtypes to dentate neurogenesis after cortical infarcts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberland Julia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that focal ischemia increases neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation but the cellular mechanisms underlying this proliferative response are only poorly understood. We here investigated whether precursor cells which constitutively proliferate before the ischemic infarct contribute to post-ischemic neurogenesis. To this purpose, transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the control of the nestin promoter received repetitive injections of the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU prior to induction of cortical infarcts. We then immunocytochemically analyzed the fate of these BrdU-positive precursor cell subtypes from day 4 to day 28 after the lesion. Results Quantification of BrdU-expressing precursor cell populations revealed no alteration in number of radial glia-like type 1 cells but a sequential increase of later precursor cell subtypes in lesioned animals (type 2a cells at day 7, type 3 cells/immature neurons at day 14. These alterations result in an enhanced survival of mature neurons 4 weeks postinfarct. Conclusions Focal cortical infarcts recruit dentate precursor cells generated already before the infarct and significantly contribute to an enhanced neurogenesis. Our findings thereby increase our understanding of the complex cellular mechanisms of postlesional neurogenesis.

  18. Pretreatment Apparent Diffusion Coefficient of the Primary Lesion Correlates With Local Failure in Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Chemoradiotherapy or Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakenaka, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Matsuo, Yoshio; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Sunami, Shunya; Kamitani, Takeshi; Setoguchi, Taro; Yoshiura, Takashi; Nakashima, Torahiko; Nishikawa, Kei; Honda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate whether the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of a primary lesion correlates with local failure in primary head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively studied 38 patients with primary HNSCC (12 oropharynx, 20 hypopharynx, 4 larynx, 2 oral cavity) treated with chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy with radiation dose to gross tumor volume equal to or over 60 Gy and who underwent pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging, including diffusion-weighted imaging. Ten patients developed local failure during follow-up periods of 2.0 to 9.3 months, and the remaining 28 showed local control during follow-up periods of 10.5 to 31.7 months. The variables that could affect local failure (age, tumor volume, ADC, T stage, N stage, dose, treatment method, tumor location, and overall treatment time) were analyzed using logistic regression analyses for all 38 patients and for 17 patients with Stage T3 or T4 disease. Results: In univariate logistic analysis for all 38 cases, tumor volume, ADC, T stage, and treatment method showed significant (p < 0.05) associations with local failure. In multivariate analysis, ADC and T stage revealed significance (p < 0.01). In univariate logistic analysis for the 17 patients with Stage T3 or T4 disease, ADC and dose showed significant (p < 0.01) associations with local failure. In multivariate analysis, ADC alone showed significance (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The results suggest that pretreatment ADC, along with T stage, is a potential indicator of local failure in HNSCC treated with chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy.

  19. Incidentally Detected Enhancing Breast Lesions on Chest Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wen Chiung; Hsu, Hsian He; Yu, Jyh Cherng; Hsu, Giu Cheng; Yu, Cheng Ping; Chang, Tsun Hou; Huang, Guo Shu; Li, Chao Shiang

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the nature and imaging appearance of incidental enhancing breast lesions detected on a routine contrast-enhanced chest CT. Twenty-three patients with incidental enhancing breast lesions on contrast-enhanced chest CT were retrospectively reviewed. The breast lesions were reviewed by unenhanced and enhanced CT, and evaluated by observing the shapes, margins, enhancement patterns and backgrounds of breast lesions. A histopathologic diagnosis or long-term follow-up served as reference standard. Sixteen (70%) patients had malignant breast lesions and seven (30%) had benign lesions. In 10 patients, the breast lesions were exclusively detected on contrast-enhanced CT. Using unenhanced CT, breast lesions with fi broglandular backgrounds were prone to be obscured (p < 0.001). Incidental primary breast cancer showed an non-significant trend of a higher percentage irregular margin (p = 0.056). All of the four incidental breast lesions with non-mass-like enhancement were proven to be malignant. Routine contrast-enhanced chest CT can reveal sufficient details to allow for the detection of unsuspected breast lesions, in which some cases may be proven as malignant. An irregular margin of incidental enhancing breast lesion can be considered a suggestive sign of malignancy

  20. Remote multiple intracranial hemorrhage in multiple metastatic lung adenocarcinoma following decompression of posterior fossa lesion: Unknown cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhas Konar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral metastasis can present with hemorrhage. However, multiple hemorrhages in metastatic lesions following surgical decompression of a single lesion are never reported. We report a case of cerebral metastasis from lung cancer that developed multiple hemorrhages in supratentorial metastatic lesions following surgical resection of an infratentorial lesion.

  1. Ultrasonographic findings of breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, In Sung; Kim, Yang Soo; Suh, Hyoung Sim

    1990-01-01

    Authors retrospectively analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 61 cases of breast lesions which were proven pathologically at Daerim St. Mary's Hospital from May 1987 to February 1990. The results were as follows : 1. Of all 61 cases, there were 27 fibroadenomas, 13 fibrocystic diseases, 11 carcinomas, 8 abscesses, 1 sclerosing adenosis, and 1 intraductal papilloma. 2. Findings suggesting benignancy were smooth contour, round or oval shape, homogeneously echolucent internal echo, echogenic boundary echo, and posterior enhancement. In the cases of abscess, the findings were rather irregular contour, strong posterior enhancement, and dirty, inhomogeneous internal echo. While irregular and lobulated shape, inhomogeneous and mixed internal echo and pectoral muscle invasion were suggested for malignancy. 3. The sensitivity was 98% and the specificity 58% in benign mass excluding abscesses, 63% and 98% in abscesses, and 55% and 98% in carcinomas. In conclusion, ultrasonography is one of the excellent imaging modality for detecting breast lesions larger than 5 mm in size, but unfortunately some of the malignant tumors simulated benignancy, thus we considered fine needle aspiration biopsy and adjunctive imaging modalities such as film mammography must be followed for better detection of breast cancer

  2. Ultrasonographic findings of breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In Sung; Kim, Yang Soo; Suh, Hyoung Sim [College of Medicine, Daerim St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Authors retrospectively analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 61 cases of breast lesions which were proven pathologically at Daerim St. Mary's Hospital from May 1987 to February 1990. The results were as follows : 1. Of all 61 cases, there were 27 fibroadenomas, 13 fibrocystic diseases, 11 carcinomas, 8 abscesses, 1 sclerosing adenosis, and 1 intraductal papilloma. 2. Findings suggesting benignancy were smooth contour, round or oval shape, homogeneously echolucent internal echo, echogenic boundary echo, and posterior enhancement. In the cases of abscess, the findings were rather irregular contour, strong posterior enhancement, and dirty, inhomogeneous internal echo. While irregular and lobulated shape, inhomogeneous and mixed internal echo and pectoral muscle invasion were suggested for malignancy. 3. The sensitivity was 98% and the specificity 58% in benign mass excluding abscesses, 63% and 98% in abscesses, and 55% and 98% in carcinomas. In conclusion, ultrasonography is one of the excellent imaging modality for detecting breast lesions larger than 5 mm in size, but unfortunately some of the malignant tumors simulated benignancy, thus we considered fine needle aspiration biopsy and adjunctive imaging modalities such as film mammography must be followed for better detection of breast cancer.

  3. A Mouse Model for Human Anal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Marie K.; Pitot, Henry C.; Liem, Amy; Schweizer, Johannes; Mahoney, Charles; Lambert, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    Human anal cancers are associated with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that cause other anogenital cancers and head and neck cancers. As with other cancers, HPV16 is the most common high-risk HPV in anal cancers. We describe the generation and characterization of a mouse model for human anal cancer. This model makes use of K14E6 and K14E7 transgenic mice in which the HPV16 E6 and E7 genes are directed in their expression to stratified squamous epithelia. HPV16 E6 and E7 possess oncogenic properties including but not limited to their capacity to inactivate the cellular tumor suppressors p53 and pRb, respectively. Both E6 and E7 were found to be functionally expressed in the anal epithelia of K14E6/K14E7 transgenic mice. To assess the susceptibility of these mice to anal cancer, mice were treated topically with dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a chemical carcinogen that is known to induce squamous cell carcinomas in other sites. Nearly 50% of DMBA-treated HPV16 E6/E7 transgenic mice showed overt signs of tumors; whereas, none of the like treated non-transgenic mice showed tumors. Histopathological analyses confirmed that the HPV16 transgenic mice were increased in their susceptibility to anal cancers and precancerous lesions. Biomarker analyses demonstrated that these mouse anal cancers exhibit properties that are similar to those observed in HPV-positive precursors to human anal cancer. This is the first mouse model for investigating the contributions of viral and cellular factors in anal carcinogenesis, and should provide a platform for assessing new therapeutic modalities for treating and/or preventing this type of cancer. PMID:20947489

  4. Precancerous Skin Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrándiz, C; Malvehy, J; Guillén, C; Ferrándiz-Pulido, C; Fernández-Figueras, M

    Certain clinically and histologically recognizable skin lesions with a degree of risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma have been traditionally grouped as precancerous skin conditions but now tend to be classified as in situ carcinomas. This consensus statement discusses various aspects of these lesions: their evaluation by means of clinical and histopathologic features, the initial evaluation of the patient, the identification of risk factors for progression, and the diagnostic and treatment strategies available today. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Lung lesion doubling times: values and variability based on method of volume determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenbud Quint, Leslie; Cheng, Joan; Schipper, Matthew; Chang, Andrew C.; Kalemkerian, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine doubling times (DTs) of lung lesions based on volumetric measurements from thin-section CT imaging. Methods: Previously untreated patients with ≥ two thin-section CT scans showing a focal lung lesion were identified. Lesion volumes were derived using direct volume measurements and volume calculations based on lesion area and diameter. Growth rates (GRs) were compared by tissue diagnosis and measurement technique. Results: 54 lesions were evaluated including 8 benign lesions, 10 metastases, 3 lymphomas, 15 adenocarcinomas, 11 squamous carcinomas, and 7 miscellaneous lung cancers. Using direct volume measurements, median DTs were 453, 111, 15, 181, 139 and 137 days, respectively. Lung cancer DTs ranged from 23-2239 days. There were no significant differences in GRs among the different lesion types. There was considerable variability among GRs using different volume determination methods. Conclusions: Lung cancer doubling times showed a substantial range, and different volume determination methods gave considerably different DTs

  6. Evaluation of various hepatic lesions with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chul Ju

    2000-12-01

    When a liver lesion is found in a PET image, differential diagnosis and analysis of the lesion is very important. We tried to analyze hepatic lesions found in PET. 53 patients with focal liver lesions (13 patients with HCC, 8 patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CC), 20 patients with liver metastasis, 5 patients with hemangioma, 7 patients with liver abscess, including 1 patient with liver candidiasis) were examined. Definitely high FDG uptake pattern were observed in 54% (7/13) of HCC, 100% (8/8) of CC, 95% (19/20) of metastatic liver cancer and 100% (7/7) of liver abscess. Therefore, PET was partially useful in the diagnosis of HCC, but it was very useful in the diagnosis of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess. The contrast between lesions and surrounding liver background was very conspicuous in PET images of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess, which suggests that PET might be used for the follow up and assessment of treatment response of these diseases.

  7. Evaluation of various hepatic lesions with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chul Ju

    2000-12-01

    When a liver lesion is found in a PET image, differential diagnosis and analysis of the lesion is very important. We tried to analyze hepatic lesions found in PET. 53 patients with focal liver lesions (13 patients with HCC, 8 patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CC), 20 patients with liver metastasis, 5 patients with hemangioma, 7 patients with liver abscess, including 1 patient with liver candidiasis) were examined. Definitely high FDG uptake pattern were observed in 54% (7/13) of HCC, 100% (8/8) of CC, 95% (19/20) of metastatic liver cancer and 100% (7/7) of liver abscess. Therefore, PET was partially useful in the diagnosis of HCC, but it was very useful in the diagnosis of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess. The contrast between lesions and surrounding liver background was very conspicuous in PET images of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess, which suggests that PET might be used for the follow up and assessment of treatment response of these diseases

  8. Fast and Noninvasive Characterization of Suspicious Lesions Detected at Breast Cancer X-Ray Screening: Capability of Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging with MIPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickelhaupt, Sebastian; Laun, Frederik B; Tesdorff, Jana; Lederer, Wolfgang; Daniel, Heidi; Stieber, Anne; Delorme, Stefan; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter

    2016-03-01

    MR imaging (DWIBS mammography), with an NPV of 0.92 and an acquisition time of less than 7 minutes, could help exclude malignancy in women with suspicious x-ray screening mammograms. The method has the potential to reduce unnecessary invasive procedures and emotional distress for breast cancer screening participants if it is used as a complement after the regular screening clarification procedure.

  9. Rapid synthesis of macrocycles from diol precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Magnus; Madsen, Charlotte Marie; Clausen, Mads Hartvig

    2009-01-01

    A method for the formation of synthetic macrocycles with different ring sizes from diols is presented. Reacting a simple diol precursor with electrophilic reagents leads to a cyclic carbonate, sulfite or phosphate in a single step in 25-60% yield. Converting the cyclization precursor to a bis-ele...

  10. Precursors in photonic crystals - art. no. 618218

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitham, R.; Hoenders, B. J.; DeLaRue, RM; Viktorovitch, P; Lopez, C; Midrio, M

    2006-01-01

    We derive the Sommerfeld precursor and present the first calculations for the Brillouin precursor that result from the transmission of a pulse through a photonic crystal. The photonic crystal is modelled by a one-dimensional N-layer medium and the pulse is a generic electromagnetic plane wave packet

  11. The Sommerfeld precursor in photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitham, R; Hoenders, BJ

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the Sommerfeld precursor that results after transmission of a generic electromagnetic plane wave pulse with transverse electric polarization, through a one-dimensional rectangular N-layer photonic crystal with two slabs per layer. The shape of this precursor equals the shape of the

  12. Bioinspired magnetite synthesis via solid precursor phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenders, J.J.M.; Mirabello, G.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Living organisms often exploit solid but poorly ordered mineral phases as precursors in the biomineralization of their inorganic body parts. Generally speaking, such precursor-based approaches allow the organisms-without the need of high supersaturation levels-to accumulate significant quantities of

  13. Prevalência de lesões intraepiteliais em atipias de significado indeterminado em um serviço público de referência para neoplasias cervicais Prevalencia de lesiones intraepiteliales en atipias de significado indeterminado en un servicio público de referencia para neoplasias cervicales Prevalence of atypical squamous cell intraepithelial lesions of undetermined significance in a public health referral service for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Railda Fraga Costa

    2011-01-01

    óstico colpocitológico de atipias de significado indeterminado (ASCUS fue del 23,7%, el aumento del riesgo fue directamente proporcional al de la edad y hubo mayor prevalencia de lesión intraepitelial de bajo grado, asociada a la infección por el Papilomavirus humano.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of low and high grade intraepithelial lesions in women with Pap smear diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, in the city of Maceió, Alagoas. Knowing the influence of age and the etiological agents for sexually transmitted diseases on the risk of developing low and high grade intraepithelial lesions. METHODS: Cross sectional prevalence study at a public referral center for cervical cancer. We studied records of 253 women with atypical diagnoses of undetermined significance, in 2007. RESULTS: The prevalence of intraepithelial lesions was 23.7%; 26.7% were low grade and 73.3% high grade. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of high-grade intraepithelial lesions in women with Pap smear diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS was 23.7%; the increase in risk was directly proportional to the age and higher prevalence of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion associated with papillomavirus infection.

  14. Common conjunctival lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conjunctival lesions are frequently seen in the eye clinic, because the conjunctiva is readily ... anti-histamine drops and mast cell stabilisers can be used. e more severe cases have to be .... Ehlers J, Shah C . The Wills Eye Manual. Office and.

  15. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  16. The interrelationships of mathematical precursors in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, Paul T

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated the interrelations among cognitive precursors across quantitative, linguistic, and spatial attention domains that have been implicated for math achievement in young children. The dimensionality of the quantity precursors was evaluated in 286 kindergarteners via latent variable techniques, and the contribution of precursors from each domain was established for small sums addition. Results showed a five-factor structure for the quantity precursors, with the major distinction being between nonsymbolic and symbolic tasks. The overall model demonstrated good fit and strong predictive power (R(2)=55%) for addition number combinations. Linguistic and spatial attention domains showed indirect relationships with outcomes, with their effects mediated by symbolic quantity measures. These results have implications for the measurement of mathematical precursors and yield promise for predicting future math performance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Alteration of synaptic connectivity of oligodendrocyte precursor cells following demyelination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahel, Aurélia; Ortiz, Fernando C.; Kerninon, Christophe; Maldonado, Paloma P.; Angulo, María Cecilia; Nait-Oumesmar, Brahim

    2015-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are a major source of remyelinating oligodendrocytes in demyelinating diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). While OPCs are innervated by unmyelinated axons in the normal brain, the fate of such synaptic contacts after demyelination is still unclear. By combining electrophysiology and immunostainings in different transgenic mice expressing fluorescent reporters, we studied the synaptic innervation of OPCs in the model of lysolecithin (LPC)-induced demyelination of corpus callosum. Synaptic innervation of reactivated OPCs in the lesion was revealed by the presence of AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic currents, VGluT1+ axon-OPC contacts in 3D confocal reconstructions and synaptic junctions observed by electron microscopy. Moreover, 3D confocal reconstructions of VGluT1 and NG2 immunolabeling showed the existence of glutamatergic axon-OPC contacts in post-mortem MS lesions. Interestingly, patch-clamp recordings in LPC-induced lesions demonstrated a drastic decrease in spontaneous synaptic activity of OPCs early after demyelination that was not caused by an impaired conduction of compound action potentials. A reduction in synaptic connectivity was confirmed by the lack of VGluT1+ axon-OPC contacts in virtually all rapidly proliferating OPCs stained with EdU (50-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine). At the end of the massive proliferation phase in lesions, the proportion of innervated OPCs rapidly recovers, although the frequency of spontaneous synaptic currents did not reach control levels. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that newly-generated OPCs do not receive synaptic inputs during their active proliferation after demyelination, but gain synapses during the remyelination process. Hence, glutamatergic synaptic inputs may contribute to inhibit OPC proliferation and might have a physiopathological relevance in demyelinating disorders. PMID:25852473

  18. Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Fangjie; Lei, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity. Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses. It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice. A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords: Morel-Lavallee lesion, closed degloving injury, concealed degloving injury, Morel-Lavallee effusion, Morel-Lavallee hematoma, posttraumatic pseudocyst, posttraumatic soft tissue cyst. Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected. Their references were also reviewed. Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury. It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia. Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter, MLLs have been described in other parts of the body. The natural history of MLL has not yet been established. The lesion may decrease in volume, remain stable, enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern. Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL. Treatment of MLL has included compression, local aspiration, open debridement, and sclerodesis. No standard treatment has been established. A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft, fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis. Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures, the condition of the lesion, symptom and desire of the patient.

  19. Maxillomandibular giant osteosclerotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantino LEDESMA-MONTES

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Giant Osteosclerotic Lesions (GOLs are a group of rarely reported intraosseous lesions. Their precise diagnosis is important since they can be confused with malignant neoplasms. Objective This retrospective study aimed to record and analyze the clinical and radiographic Giant Osteosclerotic Lesions (GOLs detected in the maxillomandibular area of patients attending to our institution. Materials and Methods: Informed consent from the patients was obtained and those cases of 2.5 cm or larger lesions with radiopaque or mixed (radiolucid-radiopaque appearance located in the maxillofacial bones were selected. Assessed parameters were: age, gender, radiographic aspect, shape, borders, size, location and relations to roots. Lesions were classified as radicular, apical, interradicular, interradicular-apical, radicular-apical or located in a previous teeth extraction area. Additionally, several osseous and dental developmental alterations (DDAs were assessed. Results Seventeen radiopacities in 14 patients were found and were located almost exclusively in mandible and were two types: idiopathic osteosclerosis and condensing osteitis. GOLs were more frequent in females, and in the anterior and premolar zones. 94.2% of GOLs were qualified as idiopathic osteosclerosis and one case was condensing osteitis. All studied cases showed different osseous and dental developmental alterations (DDAs. The most common were: Microdontia, hypodontia, pulp stones, macrodontia and variations in the mental foramina. Conclusions GOLs must be differentiated from other radiopaque benign and malignant tumors. Condensing osteitis, was considered an anomalous osseous response induced by a chronic low-grade inflammatory stimulus. For development of idiopathic osteosclerosis, two possible mechanisms could be related. The first is modification of the normal turnover with excessive osseous deposition. The second mechanism will prevent the normal bone resorption, arresting the

  20. PREVALENCE OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS GENOTYPES IN LOW AND HIGH GRADE SQUAMOUS INTRAEPITHELIAL LESIONS AT CERVICAL TISSUE

    OpenAIRE

    Prasetyo, Rizki Eko; Mastutik, Gondo; Mustokoweni, Sjahjenny

    2017-01-01

    HPV infection is known to cause cervical cancer. This study aimed to identify the variant of HPV genotypes of cervical precancerous lesions from low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion  (LSIL) and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). This was an explorative study using formalin fix paraffin embedded (FFPE) from cervical precancerous lesions at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya. DNA was extracted from FFPE and hybridized for HPV genotyping using Ampliquality HPV Type Express kit (...

  1. Precancerous lesions in the stomach: from biology to clinical patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugge, Massimo; Capelle, Lisette G; Cappellesso, Rocco; Nitti, Donato; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2013-04-01

    Gastric cancer is the final step in a multi-stage cascade triggered by long-standing inflammatory conditions (particularly Helicobacter pylori infection) resulting in atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia: these lesions represent the cancerization field in which (intestinal-type) gastric cancer develops. Intraepithelial neoplasia is consistently recognized as the phenotypic bridge between atrophic/metaplastic lesions and invasive cancer. This paper addresses the epidemiology, pathology, molecular profiling, and clinical management of advanced precancerous gastric lesions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Fragmentation of Nimotuzumab for Preparation of 125I-F(ab’2-Nimotuzumab as a Precursor for Preparing 125I-F(ab’2-Nimotuzumab-NLS Radiopharmaceutical for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Haryuni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nimotuzumab is an anticancer agent which belongs to the inhibitor group of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR. This monoclonal antibody has a relatively high molecular weight which makes slow penetration on tumor cell, as concequence, it is less attractive in imaging kinetics, and potentially elicits antibodies respons. Therefore in this study nimotuzumab was fragmented to form bivalent antibody [F(ab’2] and then labeled with 125I to form 125I-F(ab’2-nimotuzumab which can be used further as a precursor for preparing 125I-F(ab’2-nimotuzumab-NLS (NLS = nuclear localizing sequences radiopharmaceutical for radioimmunotherapy. The aims of this study were to obtain characteristics of 125I-F(ab’2-nimotuzumab by comparing with the 125I labeled-intact nimotuzumab (125I-nimotuzumab. This study was initiated by purifying nimotuzumab by mean of dialysis. The purified nimotuzumab was then fragmented by using pepsin. The F(ab'2-nimotuzumab formed was then purified from its by-products which formed in fragmentation process by using a PD-10 column (consisted Sephadex G25. The intact nimotuzumab and its F(ab’2 fragment were then labeled with the 125I to form 125I-nimotuzumab and 125I-F(ab’2-nimotuzumab. The radiochemical purity are 98.27 % and 93.24 % ,respectively. Stability test results show that, both of 125I-nimotuzumab and 125I-F(ab’2-nimotuzumab more stable at 4 °C than at room temperature storage and 37 °C

  3. Fragmentation of Nimotuzumab for Preparation of 125I-F(ab’)2-Nimotuzumab as a Precursor for Preparing 125I-F(ab’)2-Nimotuzumab-NLS Radiopharmaceutical for Cancer Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryuni, R.D.; Bahtiar, A.; Soenarjo, S.; Harahap, Y.; Mutalib, A.; Ramli, M.; Hermanto, S.; Ardiyatno, C.N.; Susilo, V.Y.; Haffid, D.

    2014-01-01

    Nimotuzumab is an anticancer agent which belongs to the inhibitor group of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR). This monoclonal antibody has a relatively high molecular weight which slows penetration on tumor cells, making it less attractive in imaging kinetics and potentially elicits antibodies responses. Therefore, in this study nimotuzumab was fragmented to form a bivalent antibody [F(ab’) 2 ] and then labeled with 125 I to form 125 I-F(ab’) 2 -nimotuzumab which can be used further as a precursor for preparing 125 I-F(ab’) 2 -nimotuzumab-NLS (NLS = nuclear localization sequence) radiopharmaceutical for radioimmunotherapy. The aims of this study was to obtain characteristics of 125 I-F(ab’) 2 -nimotuzumab by comparing with the 125 I labeled-intact nimotuzumab ( 125 I-nimotuzumab). This study was initiated by purifying nimotuzumab by mean of dialysis. The purified nimotuzumab was then fragmented by using pepsin. The F(ab') 2 -nimotuzumab formed was then purified from its by-products which formed in fragmentation process by using a PD-10 column (consisted Sephadex G25). The intact nimotuzumab and its F(ab’)2 fragment were then labeled with the 125 I to form 125 I-nimotuzumab and 125 I-F(ab’) 2 -nimotuzumab. The radiochemical purity are 98.27 % and 93.24 %, respectively. Stability test results show that, both 125 I-nimotuzumab and 125 I-F(ab’) 2 -nimotuzumab are more stable at 4 °C than at room temperature storage and 37 °C. (author)

  4. Lesion progression in post-treatment persistent endodontic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Victoria Soo Hoon; Messer, Harold Henry; Shen, Liang; Yee, Robert; Hsu, Chin-ying Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Radiographic lesions related to root-filled teeth may persist for long periods after treatment and are considered to indicate failure of initial treatment. Persistent lesions are found in a proportion of cases, but information on lesion progression is lacking. This study examined the incidence of lesion improvement, remaining unchanged, and deterioration among persistent lesions in a group of patients recruited from a university-based clinic and identified potential predictors for lesion progression. Patients of a university clinic with persistent endodontic lesions at least 4 years since treatment and with original treatment radiographs available were recruited with informed consent. Data were obtained by interview and from dental records and clinical and radiographic examinations. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out by using SPSS (version 19). One hundred fifty-one persistent lesions were identified in 114 patients. A majority of the lesions (107, 70.9%) received treatment between 4 and 5 years prior. Eighty-six lesions (57.0%) improved, 18 (11.9%) remained unchanged, and 47 (31.1%) deteriorated since treatment. Potential predictors for lesions that did not improve included recall lesion size, pain on biting at recall examination, history of a postobturation flare-up, and a non-ideal root-filling length (P < .05). Lesions that had persisted for a longer period appeared less likely to be improving (relative risk, 1.038; 95% confidence interval, 1.000-1.077). A specific time interval alone should not be used to conclude that a lesion will not resolve without intervention. This study identified several clinical factors that are associated with deteriorating persistent lesions, which should aid in identifying lesions that require further intervention. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. C-type natriuretic peptide and its precursor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Solvej; Iversen, Peter; Brasso, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Seminal plasma offer a more organ-specific matrix for markers in prostatic disease. We hypothesized that C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) expression may constitute such a new target. METHODS: Patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, clinically localized and metastatic prostate cancer were...... examined for CNP and CNP precursor (proCNP) concentrations in blood and seminal plasma. Furthermore, CNP and the CNP receptor (NPR-B) mRNA contents in tissue from prostate and seminal vesicles were analyzed by qPCR. RESULTS: CNP and NPR-B concentrations decreased with increasing tumor burden (p = 0.......0027 and p = 0.0096, respectively). In contrast, seminal plasma CNP and proCNP concentrations were markedly increased with increased tumor burden (p prostate cancer....

  6. [Comparison of screening performance between primary high-risk HPV screening and high-risk HPV screening plus liquid-based cytology cotesting in diagnosis of cervical precancerous or cancerous lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X L; Remila, Rezhake; Hu, S Y; Zhang, L; Xu, X Q; Chen, F; Pan, Q J; Zhang, X; Zhao, F H

    2018-05-06

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the screening performance of primary high-risk HPV(HR-HPV) screening and HR-HPV screening plus liquid-based cytology (LBC) cotesting in diagnosis of cervical cancer and precancerous