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  1. Screening and cervical cancer cure: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrae, B.; Andersson, T. M.-L.; Lambert, P C; Kemetli, L.; Silfverdal, L.; Strander, B.; Ryd, W.; Dillner, J.; Tornberg, S.; Sparen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age...

  2. Analysing population-based cancer survival – settling the controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Pohar Perme, M; Estève, J; Rachet, B

    2016-01-01

    Background The relative survival field has seen a lot of development in the last decade, resulting in many different and even opposing suggestions on how to approach the analysis. Methods We carefully define and explain the differences between the various measures of survival (overall survival, crude mortality, net survival and relative survival ratio) and study their differences using colon and prostate cancer data extracted from the national population-based cancer registry of Slovenia as w...

  3. Long-term survival and conditional survival of cancer patients in Japan using population-based cancer registry data

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Yuri; Miyashiro, Isao; Ito, Hidemi; Hosono, Satoyo; Chihara, Dai; Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Nakayama, Masashi; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Hattori, Masakazu; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Oze, Isao; Tanaka, Rina; Nomura, Etsuko; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2014-01-01

    Although we usually report 5-year cancer survival using population-based cancer registry data, nowadays many cancer patients survive longer and need to be followed-up for more than 5 years. Long-term cancer survival figures are scarce in Japan. Here we report 10-year cancer survival and conditional survival using an established statistical approach. We received data on 1 387 489 cancer cases from six prefectural population-based cancer registries in Japan, diagnosed between 1993 and 2009 and ...

  4. Control of data quality for population-based cancer survival analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, R.; Abela, L; Moore, J.; Woods, LM; Nur, U; Rachet, B; Allemani, C; Coleman, MP

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Population-based cancer survival is an important measure of the overall effectiveness of cancer care in a population. Population-based cancer registries collect data that enable the estimation of cancer survival. To ensure accurate, consistent and comparable survival estimates, strict control of data quality is required before the survival analyses are carried out. In this paper, we present a basis for data quality control for cancer survival. METHODS: We propose three distinct ph...

  5. Review of the Cervical Cancer Burden and Population-Based Cervical Cancer Screening in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Jiangli; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be a serious public health problem in the developing world, including China. Because of its large population with geographical and socioeconomic inequities, China has a high burden of cervical cancer and important disparities among different regions. In this review, we first present an overview of the cervical cancer incidence and mortality over time, and focus on diversity and disparity in access to care for various subpopulations across geographical regions and socioeconomic strata in China. Then, we describe population-based cervical cancer screening in China, and in particular implementation of the National Cervical Cancer Screening Program in Rural Areas (NACCSPRA) and the challenges that this program faces. These include low screening coverage, shortage of qualified health care personnel and limited funds. To improve prevention of cervical cancer and obtain better cancer outcomes, the Chinese government needs to urgently consider the following key factors: reducing disparities in health care access, collecting accurate and broadly representative data in cancer registries, expanding target population size and increasing allocation of government funding for training of personnel, improving health education for women, enhancing quality control of screening services and improving a system to increase follow up for women with positive results.

  6. Cancer Mortality in People Treated with Antidepressants before Cancer Diagnosis: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuelian Sun

    Full Text Available Depression is common after a cancer diagnosis and is associated with an increased mortality, but it is unclear whether depression occurring before the cancer diagnosis affects cancer mortality. We aimed to study cancer mortality of people treated with antidepressants before cancer diagnosis.We conducted a population based cohort study of all adults diagnosed with cancer between January 2003 and December 2010 in Denmark (N = 201,662. We obtained information on cancer from the Danish Cancer Registry, on the day of death from the Danish Civil Registry, and on redeemed antidepressants from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Current users of antidepressants were defined as those who redeemed the latest prescription of antidepressant 0-4 months before cancer diagnosis (irrespective of earlier prescriptions, and former users as those who redeemed the latest prescription five or more months before cancer diagnosis. We estimated an all-cause one-year mortality rate ratio (MRR and a conditional five-year MRR for patients who survived the first year after cancer diagnosis and confidence interval (CI using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Overall, 33,111 (16.4% patients redeemed at least one antidepressant prescription in the three years before cancer diagnosis of whom 21,851 (10.8% were current users at the time of cancer diagnosis. Current antidepressant users had a 32% higher one-year mortality (MRR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.29-1.35 and a 22% higher conditional five-year mortality (MRR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.17-1.26 if patients survived the first year after the cancer diagnosis than patients not redeeming antidepressants. The one-year mortality was particularly high for patients who initiated antidepressant treatment within four months before cancer diagnosis (MRR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.47-1.61. Former users had no increased cancer mortality.Initiation of antidepressive treatment prior to cancer diagnosis is common and is associated with an increased

  7. Burden of cancer in Malawi; common types, incidence and trends: National population-based cancer registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Msyamboza Kelias

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with a majority of cases and deaths occurring in developing countries. While cancer of the lung, breast, colorectum, stomach and prostate are the most common types of cancer globally, in east and southern Africa these are less common and comprehensive data to inform policies are lacking. Methods Nationwide cancer registry was conducted between September and October 2010 in Malawi. New cancer cases registered from 2007 to 2010 were identified from hospital and clinic registers of 81 out of 84 health facilities providing cancer diagnosis, treatment or palliative care services. Demographic and cancer data were extracted from registers and case notes using a standard form. Results A total of 18,946 new cases of cancer were registered in Malawi from 2007-2010. Of these 55.9% were females, 7.2% were children aged less than 15 years, 76.5% were adults aged 15-59 years and 16.4% were elderly aged 60 years or more. Only 17.9% of the cases had histologically verified diagnosis, 33.2% were diagnosed clinically and 49.6% based on clinical and some investigations. Amongst females, cancer of the cervix was the commonest accounting for 45.4% of all cases followed by Kaposi sarcoma (21.1%, cancer of the oesophagus (8.2%, breast (4.6% and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (4.1%. In males, Kaposi sarcoma was the most frequent (50.7% then cancer of oesophagus (16.9%, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (7.8, prostate (4.0% and urinary bladder (3.7%. Age-standardised incidence rate per 100,000 population for all types of cancer in males increased from 31 in 1999-2002 to 56 in 2007-2010. In females it increased from 29 to 69. Kaposi sarcoma and cancer of the oesophagus, cervical cancer and Kaposi sarcoma were the main causes for the increased incidence in males and females respectively. It was estimated that, annually at least 8,151 new cases of cancer (all types occur in Malawi. Conclusions This study provided

  8. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2008: a study of 25 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ayako; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2008 based on data collected from 25 of 34 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan project. The incidence in Japan for 2008 was estimated to be 749 767 (C00-C96). Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  9. Age distribution, polyps and rectal cancer in the Egyptian population-based cancer registry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Darlene Veruttipong; Amr S Soliman; Samuel F Gilbert; Taylor S Blachley; Ahmed Hablas; Mohamed Ramadan; Laura S Rozek; Ibrahim A Seifeldin

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To describe the clinical and epidemiologic profiles of the disease and to compare the findings with those generated from the previous hospital-based studies.METHODS:The Gharbiah cancer registry is the only population-based cancer registry in Egypt since 1998.We analyzed the data of all colorectal cancer patients included in the registry for the period of 1999-2007.All medical records of the 1364 patients diagnosed in Gharbiah during the study period were retrieved and the following information abstracted:age,residence,diagnosis date,grade,stage,topology,clinical characteristics,and histology variables.Egyptian census data for 1996 and 2006 were used to provide the general population's statistics on age,sex,residence and other related demographic factors.In addition to age-and sex-specific incidence rate analyses,we analyze the data to explore the incidence distribution by rural-urban differences among the 8 districts of the province.We also compared the incidence rates of Gharbiah to the rates of the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data of the United States.RESULTS:Over the 9 year-period,1364 colorectal cancer cases were included.The disease incidence under age 40 years was relatively high (1.3/105) while the incidence in the age groups 40 and over was very low (12.0/105,19.4/105 and 21.2/105 in the age groups 40-59 years,60-69 years and > 70 years,respectively).The vast majority of tumors (97.2%) had no polyps and 37.2% of the patients presented with primary lesions in the rectum.Colorectal cancer was more common in patients from urban (55%) than rural (45%) areas.Regional differences in colon and rectal cancer incidence in the 8 districts of the study province may refleet different etiologic patterns in this population.The registry data of Egypt shows a slightly higher incidence of colorectal cancer than the United States in subjects under age 40 years.The results also shows significantly lower incidence of colorectal cancer in

  10. Pregnancy after treatment of breast cancer--a population-based study on behalf of Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroman, N.; Jensen, M.B.; Wohlfahrt, J.;

    2008-01-01

    at diagnosis, tumour size, nodal status, or pregnancy history before diagnosis of breast cancer. Neither spontaneous abortions nor induced abortions subsequent to breast cancer treatment had a negative impact on prognosis. CONCLUSION: In line with our previous study, but based on more than twice the patient...... material, we found no evidence that a pregnancy after treatment of breast cancer has a negative influence the prognosis Udgivelsesdato: 2008......BACKGROUND: Estrogen is an established growth factor in breast cancer and it has been hypothesized that pregnancy associated estrogens may increase the risk of recurrence of breast cancer. In 1997 we published a population-based Danish study indicating no negative prognostic effect of pregnancy...

  11. Cardiovascular Disease Risk in a Large, Population-Based Cohort of Breast Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, N.B.; Schaapveld, M.; Gietema, J.A.; Russell, N.S.; Poortmans, P.; Theuws, J.C.; Schinagl, D.A.; Rietveld, D.H.; Versteegh, M.I.; Visser, O; Rutgers, E.J.; Aleman, B.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To conduct a large, population-based study on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in breast cancer (BC) survivors treated in 1989 or later. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A large, population-based cohort comprising 70,230 surgically treated stage I to III BC patients diagnosed before age 75 years between

  12. Mortality and cancer risk related to primary sclerosing cholangitis in a Swedish population-based cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valle, Maria Benito; Bjornsson, Einar; Lindkvist, Bjorn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Population-based studies on the epidemiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are sparse. Aims: To investigate mortality and risk of cancer, and to identify risk factors for hepatobiliary cancer and the combined end-point liver related death or liver transplantation (OLT) in a pop

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life in Cervical Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J. Korfage (Ida); M.L.E. Essink-Bot (Marie-Louise); F. Mols (Floortje); L.V. van de Poll-Franse (Lonneke); R.F.M.P. Kruitwagen (Roy); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: In a population-based sample of cervical cancer survivors, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed 2-10 years postdiagnosis. METHODS AND MATERIALS: All patients given a diagnosis of cervical cancer in 1995-2003 in the Eindhoven region, The Netherlands, and alive afte

  14. Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels and cancer prognosis: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Håkonsen; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Pedersen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels (cobalamin, Cbl) are associated with increased short-term cancer risk among patients referred for this laboratory measurement. We aimed to assess prognosis in cancer patients with elevated plasma Cbl. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort...

  15. Loss of partner and breast cancer prognosis - a population-based study, Denmark, 1994-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Bidstrup, P E; Frederiksen, K;

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which experiencing a stressful life event influences breast cancer prognosis remains unknown, as the findings of the few previous epidemiological studies are inconsistent. This large population-based study examines the association between a common major life event, loss of a partner...... and breast cancer recurrence and all-cause mortality....

  16. Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Cronin Fenton, Deirdre; Christensen, Mariann

    2013-01-01

    Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil......Manganese Superoxide Dismtase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil...

  17. Propranolol Reduces Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ping-Ying; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chen, Jia-Hong; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-07-01

    β-Blockers have been reported to exhibit potential anticancer effects in cancer cell lines and animal models. However, clinical studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding cancer outcomes and cancer risk when β-blockers were used. This study investigated the association between propranolol and cancer risk.Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2011, a patient cohort was extracted from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, a subset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A propranolol cohort (propranolol usage >6 months) and nonpropranolol cohort were matched using a propensity score. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cancer associated with propranolol treatment.The study sample comprised 24,238 patients. After a 12-year follow-up period, the cumulative incidence for developing cancer was low in the propranolol cohort (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.67-0.85; P propranolol treatment exhibited significantly lower risks of cancers in head and neck (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35-0.95), esophagus (HR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.13-0.96), stomach (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30-0.98), colon (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49-0.93), and prostate cancers (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33-0.83). The protective effect of propranolol for head and neck, stomach, colon, and prostate cancers was most substantial when exposure duration exceeded 1000 days.This study supports the proposition that propranolol can reduce the risk of head and neck, esophagus, stomach, colon, and prostate cancers. Further prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings.

  18. Metformin use and survival from lung cancer: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menamin, Úna C Mc; Cardwell, Chris R; Hughes, Carmel M; Murray, Liam M

    2016-04-01

    Preclinical evidence suggests that metformin, a widely prescribed anti-diabetic drug, may inhibit lung cancer progression. We investigated whether metformin use was associated with decreased risk of cancer-specific mortality in lung cancer patients. This study included newly diagnosed lung cancer patients (identified from English National Cancer Data Repository, 1998-2009) with type 2 diabetes (based on UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink prescriptions and diagnosis records). Lung cancer deaths occurring up to 2012 were identified using Office of National Statistics mortality data and the association between metformin use (before and after diagnosis) and risk of lung cancer-specific mortality was calculated using Cox regression models. In analysis of 533 patients, we found a weak non-significant reduction in lung cancer-specific mortality with metformin use after diagnosis (adjusted HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.68-1.09). No association was evident for metformin use before diagnosis and cancer-specific mortality in analysis of 1350 patients (adjusted HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.86, 1.11). Associations were similar by duration of use. In addition, after adjustment for potential confounders, there was little evidence of an association between the use of other anti-diabetic medications (either before or after diagnosis) and lung cancer-specific mortality; including sulfonylureas, insulin or other anti-diabetic medications (such as thiazolidinediones). Overall, the results from this population-based study provide little evidence of a protective association between metformin use and cancer mortality in lung cancer patients.

  19. Digoxin use after diagnosis of breast cancer and survival: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasneh, Reema A; Murray, Liam J; Mc Menamin, Úna C; Hughes, Carmel M; Cardwell, Chris R

    2015-06-01

    Digoxin has been shown to have an estrogenic effect and is associated with increased risk of gynecomastia and estrogen-sensitive cancers such as breast and uterus cancer. These findings, particularly recent observations of increased breast cancer risk, raise questions about the safety of digoxin use in breast cancer patients. Therefore, we investigated whether digoxin use after breast cancer diagnosis increased the risk of breast cancer-specific mortality in breast cancer patients. A cohort of 17,842 breast cancer patients newly diagnosed from 1998 to 2009 was identified from English cancer registries (from the National Cancer Data Repository). This cohort was linked to the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (to provide digoxin and other prescription records) and to the Office of National Statistics mortality data (to identify breast cancer-specific deaths). Using time-dependent Cox regression models, unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for the association between post-diagnostic exposure to digoxin and breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. In 17,842 breast cancer patients, there were 2219 breast cancer-specific deaths. Digoxin users appeared to have increased breast cancer-specific mortality compared with non-users (HR 1.73; 95 % CI 1.39-2.15) but this association was entirely attenuated after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted HR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.72-1.14). In this large population-based breast cancer cohort study, there was little evidence of an increase in breast cancer-specific mortality with digoxin use after diagnosis. These results provide some reassurance that digoxin use is safe in breast cancer patients.

  20. Breast cancer survival in Germany: a population-based high resolution study from Saarland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleczek, Bernd; Jansen, Lina; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Population-based survival studies of breast cancer patients are commonly restricted to age- and stage-specific analyses. This study from Germany aimed at extending available population-based survival data on further prognostic cancer characteristics such as tumor grade, hormone receptor status and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2/neu) expression. Data from the population-based Saarland Cancer Registry including female patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2000 and 2009 were included. Period analysis methodology and regression modelling were used to obtain estimates of 5-year relative survival and tumor related excess risks in 2005-2009. Overall age standardized 5-year relative survival was 83%. In addition to age and stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status were independent predictors of 5-year relative survival. Detailed analyses by age, stage, morphology, tumor grade, hormone receptor status and HER2/neu expression consistently revealed lower survival of patients with high grade, hormone receptor negative or HER2/neu positive cancers and patients aged 70 years or older. This high resolution study extends available population-based survival data of breast cancer patients. Particular efforts should be made to overcome the persisting large survival deficits, which were observed for elderly patients in all clinical subgroups.

  1. 20-years of population-based cancer registration in hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention in the Gambia, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrima Bah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS was designed as a randomised control trial of infant hepatitis B vaccination applied to public health policy, with the main goal of preventing primary liver cancer later in adult life in The Gambia. To that effect, the National Cancer Registry of The Gambia (NCR, a population-based cancer registry (PBCR, was established in 1986 to actively collect data on all cancer diagnosis nation-wide. We extracted 20-years (1990-2009 of data to assess for the first time, the evolution of the most common cancers, also describe and demonstrate the role of the PBCR in a hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention programme in this population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimated Age-Standardised Incidence Rates (ASR (W of the most common cancers registered during the period by gender. The registration period was divided into four 5-year intervals and incidence rates were estimated for each interval. The most common cancers in males were liver, prostate, lung plus bronchus, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and stomach, accounting for 60%, 5%, 4%, 5% and 3%, respectively. Similarly, cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, breast and NHL, were the most common in females, accounting for 33%, 24%, 11% and 4% of the female cancers, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer incidence has remained relatively stable over time, but as shown elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa the disease is a threat in The Gambia. The infection related cancers which are mostly preventable (HBV in men and HPV/HIV in women were the most common. At the moment the data is not enough to detect an effect of hepatitis B vaccination on liver cancer incidence in The Gambia. However, we observed that monitoring case occurrence through PBCR is a key public health pre-requisite for rational planning and implementation of targeted interventions for improving the health of the population.

  2. Lymph node evaluation for colon cancer in routine clinical practice: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Paggio, J.C.; Nanji, S.; Wei, X.; MacDonald, P.H.; Booth, C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Guidelines recommend that 12 or more lymph nodes (lns) be evaluated during surgical resection of colon cancer. Here, we report ln yield and its association with survival in routine practice. Methods Electronic records of treatment were linked to the population-based Ontario Cancer Registry to identify all patients with colon cancer treated during 2002–2008. The study population (n = 5508) included a 25% random sample of patients with stage ii or iii disease. Modified Poisson regression was used to identify factors associated with ln yield; Cox models were used to explore the association between ln yield and overall (os) and cancer-specific survival (css). Results During 2002–2008, median ln yield increased to 17 from 11 nodes (p colon cancer. The association between ln yield and survival is unlikely to be a result of stage migration.

  3. Risk of cancer in patients with iron deficiency anemia: a nationwide population-based study.

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    Ning Hung

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the risk of cancer among patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA by using a nationwide population-based data set.Patients newly diagnosed with IDA and without antecedent cancer between 2000 and 2010 were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs of cancer types among patients with IDA were calculated.Patients with IDA exhibited an increased overall cancer risk (SIR: 2.15. Subgroup analysis showed that patients of both sexes and in all age groups had an increased SIR. After we excluded patients diagnosed with cancer within the first and first 5 years of IDA diagnosis, the SIRs remained significantly elevated at 1.43 and 1.30, respectively. In addition, the risks of pancreatic (SIR: 2.31, kidney (SIR: 2.23, liver (SIR: 1.94, and bladder cancers (SIR: 1.74 remained significantly increased after exclusion of patients diagnosed with cancer within 5 years after IDA diagnosis.The overall cancer risk was significantly elevated among patients with IDA. After we excluded patients diagnosed with IDA and cancer within 1 and 5 years, the SIRs remained significantly elevated compared with those of the general population. The increased risk of cancer was not confined to gastrointestinal cancer when the SIRs of pancreatic, kidney, liver, and bladder cancers significantly increased after exclusion of patients diagnosed with IDA and cancer within the first 5 years. This finding may be caused by immune activities altered by IDA. Further study is necessary to determine the association between IDA and cancer risk.

  4. Risk of Cancer in Patients with Iron Deficiency Anemia: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-Wen; Hu, Li-Yu; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Teng, Chung-Jen; Kuan, Ai-Seon; Chen, San-Chi; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Liu, Chia-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the risk of cancer among patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) by using a nationwide population-based data set. Method Patients newly diagnosed with IDA and without antecedent cancer between 2000 and 2010 were recruited from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancer types among patients with IDA were calculated. Results Patients with IDA exhibited an increased overall cancer risk (SIR: 2.15). Subgroup analysis showed that patients of both sexes and in all age groups had an increased SIR. After we excluded patients diagnosed with cancer within the first and first 5 years of IDA diagnosis, the SIRs remained significantly elevated at 1.43 and 1.30, respectively. In addition, the risks of pancreatic (SIR: 2.31), kidney (SIR: 2.23), liver (SIR: 1.94), and bladder cancers (SIR: 1.74) remained significantly increased after exclusion of patients diagnosed with cancer within 5 years after IDA diagnosis. Conclusion The overall cancer risk was significantly elevated among patients with IDA. After we excluded patients diagnosed with IDA and cancer within 1 and 5 years, the SIRs remained significantly elevated compared with those of the general population. The increased risk of cancer was not confined to gastrointestinal cancer when the SIRs of pancreatic, kidney, liver, and bladder cancers significantly increased after exclusion of patients diagnosed with IDA and cancer within the first 5 years. This finding may be caused by immune activities altered by IDA. Further study is necessary to determine the association between IDA and cancer risk. PMID:25781632

  5. Unstaged cancer in the United States: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Allison E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study examines unstaged disease for 18 cancer sites in the United States according to the influence of age, sex, race, marital status, incidence, and lethality. Methods Analyses are based on 1,040,381 male and 1,011,355 female incident cancer cases diagnosed during 2000 through 2007. Data were collected by population-based cancer registries in the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Results The level of unstaged disease was greater in more lethal cancers (e.g., liver, esophagus, and pancreas compared with less deadly cancers (i.e., colon, urinary bladder, and female breast. Unstaged disease increased with age and is greater among non-married patients. Blacks compared with whites experienced significantly higher levels of unstaged cancers of the stomach, rectum, colon, skin (melanoma, urinary bladder, thyroid, breast, corpus, cervix, and ovaries, but lower levels of unstaged liver, lung and bronchial cancers. Males compared with females experienced significantly lower levels of unstaged cancers of the liver, pancreas, esophagus, and stomach, but significantly higher levels of unstaged lung and bronchial cancer and thyroid cancer. The percent of unstaged cancer significantly decreased over the study period for 15 of the 18 cancer sites. Conclusion Tumor staging directly affects treatment options and survival, so it is recommended that further research focus on why a decrease in unstaged disease did not occur for all of the cancer sites considered from 2000 to 2007, and why there are differential levels of staging between whites and blacks, males and females for several of the cancer sites.

  6. Cancer survival in Cali, Colombia: A population-based study, 1995-2004

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    Luis Eduardo Bravo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is limited information on population-based cancer survival data in Latin America.Objetive: To obtain estimates of survival for some cancers recognized as a public health priority in Colombia using data from the Cancer Registry of Cali for 1995-2004.Methods: All cancer cases for residents of Cali were included for the following sites: breast (3,984, cervix uteri (2,469, prostate (3,999, stomach (3,442 and lung (2,170.  Five-year relative survival estimates were calculated using the approach described by Estève.Results: Five-year relative survival was 79% in patients with prostate cancer and 68% and 60% in women with breast or cervix uteri cancer, respectively. The cure fraction was 6% in subjects with lung cancer and 15% in those with stomach cancer. The probability of dying from breast or prostate cancer in people in the lower socio-economic strata (SES was 1.8 and  2.6  times greater,  respectively,  when compared to  upper SES, p <0.001. Excess mortality associated with cancer was independent of age in prostate or breast cancer.  After adjusting for age, sex and SES, the risk of dying from breast, cervix uteri, prostate and lung cancer during the 2000-2004 period decreased 19%, 13%, 48% and 16%, respectively, when compared with the period of 1995-1999. There was no change in the prognosis for patients with stomach cancer.Conclusions: Survival for some kinds of cancer improved through the 1995-2004 period, however health care programs for cancer patients in Cali are inequitable. People from lower SES are the most vulnerable and the least likely to survive. 

  7. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Ardabil: Report of an Ongoing Population-Based Cancer Registry in Iran, 2004-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Babaei

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Ardabil cancer registry is the first population-based cancer registry in Iran that was established in 2000. The first report from this registry revealed that Ardabil has one of the highest rate of gastric cardia cancer and the lowest rate of cer­vical cancer in the world. We aim to update the cancer incidence in this area by the second follow up report from this registry."nMethod: Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases between 2004 and 2006 were actively collected. CanReg4 software was used for data entry and the data of cancer-related death were obtained from the comprehensive death registry system."nResults: More than 4300 new cases were registered during 3 years. Diagnosis of cancer was based on histopathology in 69%, clinical investigation 8%, clinical only 5%, and Death Certificate Only (DCO in 18% of cases. In terms of age-stan­dardized rate (/100,000, the five leading cancers in men (excluding skin cancer were stomach (51.8, esophagus (19.5, blad­der (13.1, lung and bronchus (10.8, and colorectal (9.6; in women, they were stomach (24.9, esophagus (19.7, breast (11.9, colon and rectum (7.4, and brain tumors (6.9. According to death registration data, upper gastrointestinal can­cers constituted more than 43% of cancer-related death in Ardabil."nConclusions: The ASR for gastric cancer is among the highest rate for this cancer in male and female in the world. Most of the cancers, especially in female, have a significant increase compared to previous report from Ardabil. This is most likely due to the change in the registration practice.  

  8.   Personal invitations for population-based breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saalasti-Koskinen, Ulla; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Saarenmaa, Irma;

    2010-01-01

    , leaflets) the units sent to women was collected. Results from 2005 were sent as feedback to the units. Data were analyzed descriptively, and results from the 2 years were compared. RESULTS: Screening units sent personal invitation letters usually providing fixed appointment times. Most units informed about......RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Women who are invited for breast cancer screening should get enough information about the benefits and harms of screening to make an informed decision on participation. Personal invitations are an important source of information, because all invited women receive them...

  9. EUROCOURSE recipe for cancer surveillance by visible population-based cancer RegisTrees in Europe: From roots to fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coebergh, Jan Willem; van den Hurk, Corina; Louwman, Marieke; Comber, Harry; Rosso, Stefano; Zanetti, Roberto; Sacchetto, Lidia; Storm, Hans; van Veen, Evert-Ben; Siesling, Sabine; van den Eijnden-van Raaij, Janny

    2015-06-01

    Currently about 160 population-based cancer registries (CRs) in Europe have extensive experience in generating valid information on variation in cancer risk and survival with time and place. Most CRs cover all cancers, but some are confined to specific cancers or to children. They cover 15-55% of the populations in all of the larger member states of the European Union (EU), except the United Kingdom (UK), and 100% coverage in 80% of those with populations below 20 million. The EU FP 7 EUROCOURSE project, which operated in 2009-2013, explored the essential role of CRs in cancer research and public health, and also focused attention on their programme owners (POs) and stakeholders (e.g. cancer societies, oncological professionals, cancer patient groups, and planners, providers and evaluators of cancer care and mass screening). Generally, all CRs depended on their regional and/or national oncological context and were increasingly involved in population-based studies of quality of cancer care, long-term prognosis and quality of life, one third being very active. Within the public health domain, CRs, in addition to describing the variety of environmental and lifestyle-related cancer epidemics, have also contributed actively to aetiologic research by a European databases that showed wide discrepancies in cancer risk and survival across the EU, and in more depth by follow-up of cohorts and recruitment for case-control studies. CRs were also actively contributing to independent evaluation of mass screening as an intervention which affects quality of care and cancer mortality. The potential of CRs for clinical evaluation has grown substantially through interaction with clinical stakeholders and more incidentally biobanks, also with greater involvement of patient groups - with a special focus on elderly patients who generally do not take part in clinical trials. Whereas 25-35% of CRs are active in a range of cancer research areas, the rest have a low profile and usually

  10. Infective Endocarditis and Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Min; Wu, Jung-Nan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Day, Jen-Der; Liang, Ji-An; Liou, Li-Ren; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the possible relationship between endocarditis and overall and individual cancer risk among study participants in Taiwan.We used data from the National Health Insurance program of Taiwan to conduct a population-based, observational, and retrospective cohort study. The case group consisted of 14,534 patients who were diagnosed with endocarditis between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. For the control group, 4 patients without endocarditis were frequency matched to each endocarditis patient according to age, sex, and index year. Competing risks regression analysis was conducted to determine the effect of endocarditis on cancer risk.A large difference was noted in Charlson comorbidity index between endocarditis and nonendocarditis patients. In patients with endocarditis, the risk for developing overall cancer was significant and 119% higher than in patients without endocarditis (adjusted subhazard ratio = 2.19, 95% confidence interval = 1.98-2.42). Regarding individual cancers, in addition to head and neck, uterus, female breast and hematological malignancies, the risks of developing colorectal cancer, and some digestive tract cancers were significantly higher. Additional analyses determined that the association of cancer with endocarditis is stronger within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis.This population-based cohort study found that patients with endocarditis are at a higher risk for colorectal cancer and other cancers in Taiwan. The risk was even higher within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. It suggested that endocarditis is an early marker of colorectal cancer and other cancers. The underlying mechanisms must still be explored and may account for a shared risk factor of infection in both endocarditis and malignancy.

  11. Increased risk of herpes zoster in children with cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Chao, Yu-Hua; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Yen, Ting-Yu; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Wu, Jhong-Lin; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Peng, Ching-Tien; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2016-07-01

    Herpes zoster is rare in healthy children, but immunocompromised persons have an increased risk of herpes zoster and severe diseases. Considering the very limited information on herpes zoster in children with cancer, we performed a nationwide population-based cohort study to estimate the incidence of herpes zoster in children with cancer and to explore the association between the 2 diseases.Data were obtained from the National Health Research Institutes Database in Taiwan. A total of 4432 children with newly diagnosed cancer between 2000 and 2007 were identified as the cancer cohort, and 17,653 children without cancer frequency-matched by sex and age at entry were considered the noncancer cohort. The association between herpes zoster and childhood cancer was determined.Children with cancer had a higher risk of herpes zoster. The incidence rate of herpes zoster was higher in the cancer cohort than in the noncancer cohort (20.7 vs 2.4 per 10,000 person-years; IRR = 8.6; 95% CI = 4.8-15.6). The cumulative incidence was significantly higher in the cancer cohort (P herpes zoster. In addition to early antiviral treatment, vaccination with heat-treated zoster vaccine or adjuvanted subunit vaccine could be an appropriate policy to decrease the incidence in children with cancer.

  12. Does childhood cancer affect parental divorce rates? A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syse, Astri; Loge, Jon H; Lyngstad, Torkild H

    2010-02-10

    PURPOSE Cancer in children may profoundly affect parents' personal relationships in terms of psychological stress and an increased care burden. This could hypothetically elevate divorce rates. Few studies on divorce occurrence exist, so the effect of childhood cancers on parental divorce rates was explored. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data on the entire Norwegian married population, age 17 to 69 years, with children age 0 to 20 years in 1974 to 2001 (N = 977,928 couples) were retrieved from the Cancer Registry, the Central Population Register, the Directorate of Taxes, and population censuses. Divorce rates for 4,590 couples who were parenting a child with cancer were compared with those of otherwise similar couples by discrete-time hazard regression models. Results Cancer in a child was not associated with an increased risk of parental divorce overall. An increased divorce rate was observed with Wilms tumor (odds ratio [OR], 1.52) but not with any of the other common childhood cancers. The child's age at diagnosis, time elapsed from diagnosis, and death from cancer did not influence divorce rates significantly. Increased divorce rates were observed for couples in whom the mothers had an education greater than high school level (OR, 1.16); the risk was particularly high shortly after diagnosis, for CNS cancers and Wilms tumors, for couples with children 0 to 9 years of age at diagnosis, and after a child's death. CONCLUSION This large, registry-based study shows that cancer in children is not associated with an increased parental divorce rate, except with Wilms tumors. Couples in whom the wife is highly educated appear to face increased divorce rates after a child's cancer, and this may warrant additional study.

  13. Cancer incidence predictions in the North of Portugal: keeping population-based cancer registration up to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Clara; Antunes, Luís; Lunet, Nuno; Bento, Maria José

    2016-09-01

    Decision making towards cancer prevention and control requires monitoring of trends in cancer incidence and accurate estimation of its burden in different settings. We aimed to estimate the number of incident cases in northern Portugal for 2015 and 2020 (all cancers except nonmelanoma skin and for the 15 most frequent tumours). Cancer cases diagnosed in 1994-2009 were collected by the North Region Cancer Registry of Portugal (RORENO) and corresponding population figures were obtained from Statistics Portugal. JoinPoint regression was used to analyse incidence trends. Population projections until 2020 were derived by RORENO. Predictions were performed using the Poisson regression models proposed by Dyba and Hakulinen. The number of incident cases is expected to increase by 18.7% in 2015 and by 37.6% in 2020, with lower increments among men than among women. For most cancers considered, the number of cases will keep rising up to 2020, although decreasing trends of age-standardized rates are expected for some tumours. Cervix was the only cancer with a decreasing number of incident cases in the entire period. Thyroid and lung cancers were among those with the steepest increases in the number of incident cases expected for 2020, especially among women. In 2020, the top five cancers are expected to account for 82 and 62% of all cases diagnosed in men and women, respectively. This study contributes to a broader understanding of cancer burden in the north of Portugal and provides the basis for keeping population-based incidence estimates up to date.

  14. Collection of population-based cancer staging information in Western Australia – a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katris Paul

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Routine data from cancer registries often lack information on stage of cancer, limiting their use. This study aimed to determine whether or not it is feasible to add cancer staging data to the routine data collections of a population-based Western Australian Cancer Registry (WACR. Methods For each of the five most common cancer types (prostate, colorectal, melanoma, breast and lung cancers, 60 cases were selected for staging. For the 15 next most common cancer types, 20 cases were selected. Four sources for collecting staging data were used in the following order: the WACR, the hospital based cancer registries (HBCRs, hospital medical records, and letters to treating doctors. If the case was unable to be fully staged, due to lack of information on regional lymph node invasion or distant metastases, we made the following assumptions. Cases which had data available for tumour (T and regional lymph nodes (N, but no assessment of distant metastasis (MX were assumed to have no distant metastases (M0. Cases which had data for T and M, but no assessment of regional nodal involvement (NX were assumed to have no regional nodal involvement (N0. Results The main focus of this project was the process of collecting staging data, and not the outcomes. For ovary, cervix and uterus cancers the existence of a HBCR increased the stageable proportion of cases so that staging data for these cancers could be incorporated into the WACR immediately. Breast and colorectal cancer could also be staged with adequate completeness if it were assumed that MX = M0. Similarly, melanoma and prostate cancer could be staged adequately if it were assumed that NX = N0 and MX = M0. Some cases of stomach, lung, pancreas, thyroid, testis and kidney cancers could be staged, but additional clinical input – on pathology request forms, for example – would be required to achieve useable levels of completeness. For the remaining cancer types either staging is widely

  15. Nitrate in drinking water and colorectal cancer - a nationwide population-based follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker;

    assessment of the entire Danish population. Methodologies GIS methods were used to assign nitrate concentrations at the waterworks to the 2,779 water supply areas and 55,752 private wells. Annual nitrate concentrations were assigned to each resident of Denmark from 1978-2012, based on their exact address......Importance of work and objectives Studies have suggested that nitrate in drinking water increased the risk of colorectal cancer. However, often exposure estimations and study size were insufficient to yield unequivocal results. We addressed these challenges by conducting a detailed exposure...... person-years. Preliminary results will be presented, indicating an increased risk for colon cancer at concentrations far below the drinking water standard (50 mg/l). Results for rectal cancer did not show the same consistent pattern. Conclusions This nationwide population-based study addresses previous...

  16. Use of disulfiram and risk of cancer: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askgaard, Gro; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper; Thygesen, Lau C; Pottegård, Anton

    2014-05-01

    Experimental studies have indicated that disulfiram (Antabuse) has antineoplastic effects against melanoma, breast, and prostate cancer. To explore this hypothesis, we examined the association between disulfiram use and these cancers in a nationwide register-based case-control study nested within ever-users (≥one prescription) of disulfiram. Cases were all Danish individuals with a histologically verified first-time diagnosis of malignant melanoma, breast, or prostate cancer during 2000-2009. For each case, we selected four cancer-free controls matched for age, sex, and year of first disulfiram prescription using risk set sampling. Similarly, for secondary analyses, we selected case-control populations for selected tobacco-related and alcohol-related cancer types, that is, cancers of the buccal cavity, liver, lung, and colorectal cancer. Disulfiram use 1 year before cancer diagnosis and the corresponding date for controls were disregarded. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for cancer associated with long-term (≥500 daily defined doses) versus one-time (one prescription) use of disulfiram. Among 53 856 disulfiram users, we identified 166, 644, and 464 cases, respectively, of melanoma, breast, or prostate cancer. Adjusted odds ratios for melanoma, breast, or prostate cancer associated with long-term disulfiram use were 1.04 (95% CI: 0.60-1.78), 0.92 (95% CI: 0.70-1.22), and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.56-1.06), respectively. For prostate cancer, dose-response analyses showed a further risk reduction with the highest cumulative dose level of disulfiram; however, the test for trend did not reach statistical significance. Our study provides some epidemiological support for a protective effect of disulfiram against prostate and breast cancer.

  17. Full dates (day, month, year) should be used in population-based cancer survival studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Laura M; Rachet, Bernard; Ellis, Libby; Coleman, Michel P

    2012-10-01

    Accurate survival estimates are essential for monitoring cancer survival trends, for health care planning and for resource allocation. To obtain precise estimates of survival, full dates (day, month and year) rather than partial dates (month and year) are required. In some jurisdictions, however, cancer registries are constrained from providing full dates on the grounds of confidentiality. The bias resulting from the use of partial dates in the estimation and comparison of survival makes it impossible to determine precisely the differences in the risk of death from cancer between population groups or in successive calendar periods. Important operational arguments also exist against the use of incomplete dates for survival analysis, including increased workload for cancer registry staff and the introduction of avoidable complexity for quality control of survival data. Cancer survival is one of the most widely known outputs produced by population-based cancer registries, and it is a crucial metric for the comparative effectiveness of health services. The bodies that set data access guidelines must take a more balanced view of the risks and benefits of using full dates for the estimation of cancer survival.

  18. Increasing Trend in Colorectal Cancer Incidence in the Southeast of Iran 2003-2013: A Population Based Cancer Registry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniasadi, Nadieh; Moghtader, Elahe; Khajehkazemi, Razieh; Mohebbi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Rates based on age-adjusted incidence of colorectal cancers over a 10-year period in Kerman, the biggest province of Iran, were estimated from 2003 to 2013. Data were obtained from the population-based cancer registry unit of Kerman University of Medical Sciences (CR-KMU). Information included age, sex, city, ICD-O and year of registry. Our trend analyses cover 3.91% of the Iranian population. The data set comprised cases diagnosed from 2003 to 2013.The population of over 20 years was interpolated using 2003 and 2010 censuses. Then, truncated age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated. Increase was noted from 2003-2009 to 2010-2013 for 731 cancer cases considered in the analysis. The increases was most prominent in 2009. Totally, the frequency of the cancer was greater in males. Moreover, calculating truncated age-adjusted incidence rate indicated that the most prevalent age of colorectal incidence was in the 50-59 year age group except in 2007-2008 and 2012- 2013, when greatest incidences occurred in people aged 60-69 years. Our data revealed that the incidence rates of colorectal cancer have increased over the past decade in our region of Iran.

  19. Prevalence and contribution of BRCA1 mutations in breast cancer and ovarian cancer: Results from three US population-based case-control studies of ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittemore, A.S.; Gong, G.; Itnyre, J. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States)

    1997-03-01

    We investigate the familial risks of cancers of the breast and ovary, using data pooled from three population-based case-control studies of ovarian cancer that were conducted in the United States. We base estimates of the frequency of mutations of BRCA1 (and possibly other genes) on the reported occurrence of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in the mothers and sisters of 922 women with incident ovarian cancer (cases) and in 922 women with no history of ovarian cancer (controls). Segregation analysis and goodness-of-fit testing of genetic models suggest that rare mutations (frequency .0014; 95% confidence interval .0002-.011) account for all the observed aggregation of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in these families. The estimated risk of breast cancer by age 80 years is 73.5% in mutation carriers and 6.8% in noncarriers. The corresponding estimates for ovarian cancer are 27.8% in carriers and 1.8% in noncarriers. For cancer risk in carriers, these estimates are lower than those obtained from families selected for high cancer prevalence. The estimated proportion of all U.S. cancer diagnoses, by age 80 years, that are due to germ-line BRCA1 mutations is 3.0% for breast cancer and 4.4% for ovarian cancer. Aggregation of breast cancer and ovarian cancer was less evident in the families of 169 cases with borderline ovarian cancers than in the families of cases with invasive cancers. Familial aggregation did not differ by the ethnicity of the probands, although the number of non-White and Hispanic cases (N = 99) was sparse. 14 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Spectrum of pediatric cancers in Mozambique: an analysis of hospital and population-based data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Helena; Lorenzoni, Cesaltina; Carrilho, Carla; Ferro, Josefo; Sultane, Thebora; Garcia, Carlos; Amod, Faizana; Augusto, Orvalho; Silva-Matos, Carla; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lunet, Nuno

    2014-09-01

    The existing data provide little detail about the epidemiology of pediatric cancers in Mozambique. We aimed at characterizing the spectrum of pediatric cancers (0-14 years) diagnosed in Mozambique in two different calendar periods. Data were obtained from the Pathology Department of the Maputo Central Hospital (DP-HCM) (1999-2000 and 2009-2010), which receives virtually all samples for histopathological diagnosis in Maputo, with the exception of leukemia, and from the population-based Cancer Registry of Beira (2009-2010). In 1999-2000, the DP-HCM diagnosed 61 cancers. Burkitt lymphoma, malignant bone tumors, and rhabdomyosarcomas accounted for 24.6%, 11.5%, and 9.8% of all cases, respectively. In 2009-2010, the number of cancers increased to 150, reflecting a two- to threefold increase in the proportion of Kaposi sarcomas, non-Hodgkin lymphomas, nephroblastomas, and neuroblastomas. In 2009-2010, the Cancer Registry of Beira registered 34 cases, corresponding to an incidence rate of 9.7/100,000 inhabitants in this age group; Kaposi sarcomas, lymphomas, retinoblastomas, and nephroblastomas accounted for 29.4%, 23.5%, 8.8%, and 8.8% of all cases, respectively. These data show that pediatric cancers account for an appreciable burden in Mozambique, probably reflecting a high frequency of HIV-associated cancers and improved access to diagnosis, and highlight the potential for improving surveillance in this low resource setting.

  1. Survival rate of breast cancer patients in Malaysia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nor Aini; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Muhammad, Nor Asiah; Ali, Zainudin Mohamad; Ibrahim, Lailanor; Ibrahim Tamim, Nor Saleha; Mustafa, Amal Nasir; Kamaluddin, Muhammad Amir

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women. Other than hospital-based results, there are no documented population-based survival rates of Malaysian women for breast cancers. This population- based retrospective cohort study was therefore conducted. Data were obtained from Health Informatics Centre, Ministry of Health Malaysia, National Cancer Registry and National Registration Department for the period from 1st Jan 2000 to 31st December 2005. Cases were captured by ICD-10 and linked to death certificates to identify the status. Only complete data were analysed. Survival time was calculated from the estimated date of diagnosis to the date of death or date of loss to follow-up. Observed survival rates were estimated by Kaplan- Meier method using SPSS Statistical Software version 17. A total of 10,230 complete data sets were analysed. The mean age at diagnosis was 50.6 years old. The overall 5-year survival rate was 49% with median survival time of 68.1 months. Indian women had a higher survival rate of 54% compared to Chinese women (49%) and Malays (45%). The overall 5-year survival rate of breast cancer patient among Malaysian women was still low for the cohort of 2000 to 2005 as compared to survival rates in developed nations. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the strategies for early detection and intervention.

  2. Occupations and lung cancer: a population-based case-control study in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenugadhati, Nagarajkumar; Birkett, Nicholas J; Momoli, Franco; Krewski, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    An investigation based on a large population-based case-control study in British Columbia, Canada, was conducted to identify high-risk occupations for lung cancer by histological subtypes. Subjects were 14,755 male incident cancer cases for whom lifetime occupational histories and information on smoking and relevant covariates were collected. Occupational associations for 2998 lung cancer cases, including histological subtypes, were assessed by logistic regression using other cancer cases, excluding smoking-related cancers, as controls. An excess risk of lung cancer was found among workers in metal processing, bakers, and ship deck crew for all histological subtypes, and construction workers, chefs and cooks, and medical workers for specific histological subtypes. Occupational associations that are unique to histological subtypes of lung cancer were identified. Owing to a scarcity of literature in this area, future research needs to focus on confirming these histological associations, and identifying the risk from key exposures found within these occupations (e.g., medical radiation, electromagnetic fields, and cooking fumes).

  3. Population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajenga E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Albania, breast cancer is an important cause of death among women, with increasing incidence from 65 cases in 1970, to 400 cases in 2007. This is the first study concerning breast cancer risk factors in Albania. We used a population-based case-control study of 948 women with breast cancer compared with 1019 controls recruited from other hospitals through random selection. Early age at menarche was found to be a significantly strong risk factor during the pre- and postmenopausal groups with OR 10.04 and 12.1, respectively. In addition, nulliparity is associated with higher risk while abortion did not indicate any influence in the multivariate model. The findings from this study have shown that reproductive and menstrual variables are significant predictors of breast cancer risk in Albanian women, as seen in studies of other western countries.

  4. Lung cancer and occupation in a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Dario; De Matteis, Sara; Lubin, Jay H; Wacholder, Sholom; Tucker, Margaret; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Caporaso, Neil E; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2010-02-01

    The authors examined the relation between occupation and lung cancer in the large, population-based Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE) case-control study. In 2002-2005 in the Lombardy region of northern Italy, 2,100 incident lung cancer cases and 2,120 randomly selected population controls were enrolled. Lifetime occupational histories (industry and job title) were coded by using standard international classifications and were translated into occupations known (list A) or suspected (list B) to be associated with lung cancer. Smoking-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated with logistic regression. For men, an increased risk was found for list A (177 exposed cases and 100 controls; odds ratio = 1.74, 95% confidence interval: 1.27, 2.38) and most occupations therein. No overall excess was found for list B with the exception of filling station attendants and bus and truck drivers (men) and launderers and dry cleaners (women). The authors estimated that 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 2.0, 7.8) of lung cancers in men were attributable to occupation. Among those in other occupations, risk excesses were found for metal workers, barbers and hairdressers, and other motor vehicle drivers. These results indicate that past exposure to occupational carcinogens remains an important determinant of lung cancer occurrence.

  5. Metformin use and survival after colorectal cancer: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Menamin, Úna C; Murray, Liam J; Hughes, Carmel M; Cardwell, Chris R

    2016-01-15

    Preclinical evidence suggests that metformin could delay cancer progression. Previous epidemiological studies however have been limited by small sample sizes and certain time-related biases. This study aimed to investigate whether colorectal cancer patients with type 2 diabetes who were exposed to metformin had reduced cancer-specific mortality. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 1,197 colorectal cancer patients newly diagnosed from 1998 to 2009 (identified from English cancer registries) with type 2 diabetes (based upon Clinical Practice Research Datalink, CPRD, prescription and diagnosis records). In this cohort 382 colorectal cancer-specific deaths occurred up to 2012 from the Office of National Statistics (ONS) mortality data. Metformin use was identified from CPRD prescription records. Using time-dependent Cox regression models, unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs were calculated for the association between post-diagnostic exposure to metformin and colorectal cancer-specific mortality. Overall, there was no evidence of an association between metformin use and cancer-specific death before or after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.80, 1.40). In addition, after adjustment for confounders, there was also no evidence of associations between other diabetic medications and cancer-specific mortality including sulfonylureas (HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.86, 1.51), insulin use (HR 1.35, 95% CI 0.95, 1.93) or other anti-diabetic medications including thiazolidinediones (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.46, 1.14). Similar associations were observed by duration of use and for all-cause mortality. This population-based study, the largest to date, does not support a protective association between metformin and survival in colorectal cancer patients.

  6. Superior performance of liquid-based versus conventional cytology in a population-based cervical cancer screening program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerman, H.; van Dorst, E. B. L.; Kuenen-Boumeester, V.; Hogendoorn, P. C. W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Liquid-based cytology may offer improvements over conventional cytology for cervical cancer screening. The two cytology techniques were compared in a group of 86,469 women who participated in a population-based screening program. Using a nation-wide pathology database containing both cerv

  7. Risk of leukemia among survivors of testicular cancer: a population-based study of 42,722 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, R.; Gilbert, E.; Lynch, C.F.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to quantify excess absolute risk (EAR) and excess relative risk (ERR) of secondary leukemia among a large population-based group of testicular cancer survivors. METHODS: We identified 42,722 1-year survivors of testicular cancer within 14 population-based cancer...... among patients whose initial management included chemotherapy compared to those receiving radiotherapy alone (p = 0.1). Excess cumulative leukemia risk was approximately 0.23% by 30 years after testicular cancer diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Although ERR of leukemia following testicular cancer is large, EAR...

  8. Determinants of successful implementation of population-based cancer screening programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Törnberg, Sven; von Karsa, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate the future implementation of population-based cancer screening programmes in European countries, we summarised the experience gained from existing programmes across Europe. We listed points that citizens, advocacy groups, politicians, health planners, and health professionals should......) piloting or trial implementation, (5) scaling up from pilot to service, (6) running of full-scale programme, and (7) sustainability. For each phase, a substantial number of specified conditions have to be met. Successful implementation of a cancer screening programme requires societal acceptance and local...

  9. Long-term cancer risk after hysterectomy on benign indications: Population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Daniel; Yin, Li; Falconer, Henrik

    2016-06-01

    Hysterectomy on benign indications is associated with an increased risk for adverse health effects. However, little is known about the association between hysterectomy and subsequent cancer occurrence later in life. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of hysterectomy on the incidence of cancer. In this population-based cohort study, we used data on 111,595 hysterectomized and 537,9843 nonhysterectomized women from nationwide Swedish Health Care registers including the Inpatient Register, the Cancer Register and the Cause of Death Register between 1973 and 2009. Hysterectomy with or without concomitant bilateral salpingo-ophorectomy (BSO) performed on benign indications was considered as exposure and incidence of primary cancers was used as outcome measure. Rare primary cancers (cancer was observed for women with previous hysterectomy and for those with hysterectomy and concurrent BSO (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.91-0.95 and HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87-0.96, respectively). Compared to nonhysterectomized women, significant risks were observed for thyroid cancer (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.45-2.14). For both hysterectomy and hysterectomy with BSO, an association with brain cancer was observed (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.32-1.65 and HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.15-1.83, respectively). Hysterectomy, with or without BSO, was not associated with breast, lung or gastrointestinal cancer. We conclude that hysterectomy on benign indications is associated with an increased risk for thyroid and brain cancer later in life. Further research efforts are needed to identify patient groups at risk of malignancy following hysterectomy.

  10. Spatial Data Mining of a Population-Based Data Warehouse of Cancer in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Pérez-Ortega

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the health sciences area, data mining applications have had a fast growth due to its results concerning the generation of patterns of interest; however, its application to spatial population-based databases has been scant. This paper shows the results obtained by applying a spatial data mining system of our making to a real population-based data warehouse of cancer mortality in Mexico. The system consists of a pattern generator module, which uses a variant of a clustering algorithm proposed by us, and a spatial visualization module. Several interesting and potentially useful patterns of stomach cancer were found in the northwest of Mexico, which show promising results for extending the use of data mining in the area of epidemiology.

  11. Tobacco-related cancers in India: A review of incidence reported from population-based cancer registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Smita; Patil, Rakshit S.; Labani, Satyanarayana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tobacco related cancers (TRC) account for major share of all cancers and updated of incidence data are helpful in policy changes. The aim was to present an update of TRCs on age-adjusted incidence data and corresponding lifetime risk of developing TRC for different regions of the country. Methods: The data for this study were obtained from published reports of 25 population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) in India. The PBCRs in different parts of India were divided into seven regions such as North, South, Central, Northeast, West, Rural West, and East. Data indicators such as age-adjusted rates (AARs) of incidence and the cumulative risks of TRCs up to the age of 64 years for each of the 10 TRC sites of either sex in each of 25 registries were obtained from the National Cancer Registry Programme reports. Results: Among all TRCs, esophagus, lung, hypopharynx, and mouth are the leading sites for both males and females. Males in Northeast region had the highest risk 1 in 27 of developing esophageal cancer, 1 in 67 for cancer of lungs and hypopharynx, followed by 1 in 143 for both mouth and tongue cancers. Females also had the highest risk of esophagus and lungs (1 in 63 female) and cancer of mouth (1 in 250) in Northeast region. Proportion of TRC in comparison of all cancer ranged from 11–25% for men and 3–18% for women. Conclusions: Proportion of TRC in relation to all cancers was still high in different registries of India including the Northeast region. PMID:27688608

  12. Tobacco-related cancers in India: A review of incidence reported from population-based cancer registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Asthana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco related cancers (TRC account for major share of all cancers and updated of incidence data are helpful in policy changes. The aim was to present an update of TRCs on age-adjusted incidence data and corresponding lifetime risk of developing TRC for different regions of the country. Methods: The data for this study were obtained from published reports of 25 population-based cancer registries (PBCRs in India. The PBCRs in different parts of India were divided into seven regions such as North, South, Central, Northeast, West, Rural West, and East. Data indicators such as age-adjusted rates (AARs of incidence and the cumulative risks of TRCs up to the age of 64 years for each of the 10 TRC sites of either sex in each of 25 registries were obtained from the National Cancer Registry Programme reports. Results: Among all TRCs, esophagus, lung, hypopharynx, and mouth are the leading sites for both males and females. Males in Northeast region had the highest risk 1 in 27 of developing esophageal cancer, 1 in 67 for cancer of lungs and hypopharynx, followed by 1 in 143 for both mouth and tongue cancers. Females also had the highest risk of esophagus and lungs (1 in 63 female and cancer of mouth (1 in 250 in Northeast region. Proportion of TRC in comparison of all cancer ranged from 11–25% for men and 3–18% for women. Conclusions: Proportion of TRC in relation to all cancers was still high in different registries of India including the Northeast region.

  13. Population Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: prognostic findings of two subsequent screening rounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Postma (Renske)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is nowadays the most common non-cutaneous cancer in men in the Western world. Since the introduction of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) testing in the last decade, prostate cancer incidence increased dramatically. In addition, the population is aging, and prostate cancer

  14. Cancer risk in children and adolescents with birth defects: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo D Botto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Birth defects are an increasing health priority worldwide, and the subject of a major 2010 World Health Assembly Resolution. Excess cancer risk may be an added burden in this vulnerable group of children, but studies to date have provided inconsistent findings. This study assessed the risk for cancer in children and young adolescents with major birth defects. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This retrospective, statewide, population-based, cohort study was conducted in three US states (Utah, Arizona, Iowa. A cohort of 44,151 children and young adolescents (0 through 14 years of age with selected major, non-chromosomal birth defects or chromosomal anomalies was compared to a reference cohort of 147,940 children without birth defects randomly sampled from each state's births and frequency matched by year of birth. The primary outcome was rate of cancer prior to age 15 years, by type of cancer and type of birth defect. The incidence of cancer was increased 2.9-fold (95% CI, 2.3 to 3.7 in children with birth defects (123 cases of cancer compared to the reference cohort; the incidence rates were 33.8 and 11.7 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. However, the excess risk varied markedly by type of birth defect. Increased risks were seen in children with microcephaly, cleft palate, and selected eye, cardiac, and renal defects. Cancer risk was not increased with many common birth defects, including hypospadias, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, or hydrocephalus. CONCLUSION: Children with some structural, non-chromosomal birth defects, but not others, have a moderately increased risk for childhood cancer. Information on such selective risk can promote more effective clinical evaluation, counseling, and research.

  15. Unmet adolescent and young adult cancer survivors information and service needs: A population-based cancer registry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Lichtensztajn, Daphne Y.; Kato, Ikuko; Kent, Erin E.; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; West, Michelle M.; Hamilton, Ann S.; Zebrack, Brad; Bellizzi, Keith M.; Smith, Ashley W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We described unmet information and service needs of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors (15-39 years of age) and identified sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with these unmet needs. Methods We studied 523 AYAs recruited from 7 population-based cancer registries, diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, germ cell cancer or sarcoma in 2007-08. Participants completed surveys a median of 11 months from diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate associations between unmet (information and service) needs and sociodemographic and health-related factors. Results More than half of AYAs had unmet information needs relating to their cancer returning and cancer treatments. AYAs needing services, but not receiving them, ranged from 29% for in-home nursing to 75% for a support group. The majority of AYAs who needed a pain management expert, physical/occupational therapist, mental health worker or financial advice on paying for health care did not receive services. In multivariable analyses, older participants, men, participants of non-White race/ethnicity, and participants who reported less than excellent general health, or fair/poor quality of care were more likely to report unmet information needs. Factors associated with both unmet service and information needs included physical health or emotional problems interfering with social activities or having ≥ 3 physical treatment-related symptoms. Conclusions Recently diagnosed AYA cancer survivors have substantial unmet information needs varying by demographic and health-related factors. Implications for Cancer Survivors We identified subgroups of AYA cancer survivors with high unmet needs that can be targeted for interventions and referrals. PMID:22457219

  16. Cancer among circumpolar populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, T Kue; Kelly, Janet J; Friborg, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    registries, with direct age-standardization of rates to the world standard population. For comparison, the "world average" rates as reported in the GLOBOCAN database were used. FINDINGS: Age-standardized incidence rates by cancer sites were computed for the 8 Arctic States and 20 of their northern regions......, averaged over the decade 2000-2009. Cancer of the lung and colon/rectum in both sexes are the commonest in most populations. We combined the Inuit from Alaska, Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Greenland into a "Circumpolar Inuit" group and tracked cancer trends over four 5-year periods from 1989 to 2008...

  17. Quality of life among prostate cancer patients : A prospective longitudinal population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaake, Wouter; de Groot, Martijn; Krijnen, Wim P.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; van den Bergh, Alfons C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the course of quality of life (QoL) among prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiotherapy and to compare the results with QoL of a normal age-matched reference population. Patients and methods: The study population was composed of 227 prostate cancer patients

  18. Occupational exposure to the sun and risk of skin and lip cancer among male wage earners in Denmark: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenborg, Line; Jørgensen, Ane Dahl; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben;

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association between outdoor work and the risks of non-melanoma skin cancer, cutaneous malignant melanoma, and lip cancer in a population-based case-control study.......We examined the association between outdoor work and the risks of non-melanoma skin cancer, cutaneous malignant melanoma, and lip cancer in a population-based case-control study....

  19. Dietary cadmium exposure and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julin, Bettina; Wolk, Alicja; Bergkvist, Leif; Bottai, Matteo; Akesson, Agneta

    2012-03-15

    The ubiquitous food contaminant cadmium has features of an estrogen mimetic that may promote the development of estrogen-dependent malignancies, such as breast cancer. However, no prospective studies of cadmium exposure and breast cancer risk have been reported. We examined the association between dietary cadmium exposure (at baseline, 1987) and the risk of overall and estrogen receptor (ER)-defined (ER(+) or ER(-)) breast cancer within a population-based prospective cohort of 55,987 postmenopausal women. During an average of 12.2 years of follow-up, 2,112 incident cases of invasive breast cancer were ascertained (1,626 ER(+) and 290 ER(-)). After adjusting for confounders, including consumption of whole grains and vegetables (which account for 40% of the dietary exposure, but also contain putative anticarcinogenic phytochemicals), dietary cadmium intake was positively associated with overall breast cancer tumors, comparing the highest tertile with the lowest [rate ratio (RR), 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.36; P(trend) = 0.02]. Among lean and normal weight women, statistically significant associations were observed for all tumors (RR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.50) and for ER(+) tumors (RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.03-1.52) and similar, but not statistically significant associations were found for ER(-) tumors (RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.76-1.93). The risk of breast cancer increased with increasing cadmium exposure similarly within each tertile of whole grain/vegetable consumption and decreased with increasing consumption of whole grain/vegetables within each tertile of cadmium exposure (P(interaction) = 0.73). Overall, these results suggest a role for dietary cadmium in postmenopausal breast cancer development.

  20. Antioxidants and breast cancer risk- a population-based case-control study in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Howard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of antioxidants on breast cancer is still controversial. Our objective was to assess the association between antioxidants and breast cancer risk in a large population-based case-control study. Methods The study population included 2,362 cases with pathologically confirmed incident breast cancer (866 premenopausal and 1,496 postmenopausal and 2,462 controls in Canada. Intakes of antioxidants from diet and from supplementation as well as other potential risk factors for breast cancer were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Results Compared with subjects with no supplementation, 10 years or longer supplementation of zinc had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI of 0.46 (0.25-0.85 for premenopausal women, while supplementation of 10 years or longer of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc had multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CIs of 0.74 (0.59, 0.92, 0.58 (0.36, 0.95, 0.79 (0.63-0.99, 0.75 (0.58, 0.97, and 0.47 (0.28-0.78, respectively, for postmenopausal women. No significant effect of antioxidants from dietary sources (including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc or from supplementation less than 10 years was observed. Conclusions This study suggests that supplementation of zinc in premenopausal women, and supplementation of multiple vitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc in postmenopausal women for 10 or more years may protect women from developing breast cancer. However, we were unable to determine the overall effect of total dose or intake from both diet and supplement.

  1. Waiting time disparities in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment: a population-based study in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinié, F; Leux, C; Delafosse, P; Ayrault-Piault, S; Arveux, P; Woronoff, A S; Guizard, A V; Velten, M; Ganry, O; Bara, S; Daubisse-Marliac, L; Tretarre, B

    2013-10-01

    Waiting times are key indicators of a health's system performance, but are not routinely available in France. We studied waiting times for diagnosis and treatment according to patients' characteristics, tumours' characteristics and medical management options in a sample of 1494 breast cancers recorded in population-based registries. The median waiting time from the first imaging detection to the treatment initiation was 34 days. Older age, co-morbidity, smaller size of tumour, detection by organised screening, biopsy, increasing number of specimens removed, multidisciplinary consulting meetings and surgery as initial treatment were related to increased waiting times in multivariate models. Many of these factors were related to good practices guidelines. However, the strong influence of organised screening programme and the disparity of waiting times according to geographical areas were of concern. Better scheduling of diagnostic tests and treatment propositions should improve waiting times in the management of breast cancer in France.

  2. Opportunities for improving triple-negative breast cancer outcomes: results of a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapiti, Elisabetta; Pinaud, Kim; Chappuis, Pierre O; Viassolo, Valeria; Ayme, Aurélie; Neyroud-Caspar, Isabelle; Usel, Massimo; Bouchardy, Christine

    2017-03-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with a poor prognosis. Surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and referral for genetic counseling are the standard of care. We assessed TNBC prevalence, management, and outcome using data from the population-based Geneva cancer registry. 2591 women had a first invasive stage I-III breast cancer diagnosed between 2003 and 2011. We compared TNBC to other breast cancers (OBC) by χ(2) -test and logistic regression. Kaplan-Meier survival curves, up to 31-12-2014, were compared using log-rank test. TNBC risk of mortality overall (OS) and for breast cancer (BCSS) was evaluated through Cox models. Linkage with the Oncogenetics and Cancer Prevention Unit (OCPU) database of the Geneva University Hospitals provided genetic counseling information. TNBC patients (n = 192, 7.4%) were younger, more often born in Africa or Central-South America than OBC, had larger and more advanced tumors. 18% of TNBC patients did not receive chemotherapy. Thirty-one (17%) TNBC women consulted the OCPU, 39% among those aged <40 years. Ten-year survival was lower in TNBC than OBC (72% vs. 82% for BCSS; P < 0.001; 80% vs. 91% for OS; P < 0.001). The mortality risks remained significant after adjustment for other prognostic variables. The strongest determinants of mortality were age, place of birth, and lymph node status. A substantial proportion of TNBC patients in Geneva did not receive optimal care. Over 60% of eligible women did not receive genetic counseling and 18% did not receive chemotherapy. To improve TNBC prognosis, comprehensive care as recommended by standard guidelines should be offered to all patients.

  3. A family history of breast cancer will not predict female early onset breast cancer in a population-based setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, Geertruida H.; Jacobi, Catharina E.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Krol-Warmerdam, Elly M. M.; Blom, Jannet; van Asperen, Christi J.; Cornelisse, Cees J.; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Brekelmans, Cecile T. M.; van Houwelingen, Johannes C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: An increased risk of breast cancer for relatives of breast cancer patients has been demonstrated in many studies, and having a relative diagnosed with breast cancer at an early age is an indication for breast cancer screening. This indication has been derived from estimates based on data

  4. Cancer among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A population-based cohort study in northeastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gini, Andrea; Bidoli, Ettore; Zanier, Loris; Clagnan, Elena; Zanette, Giorgio; Gobbato, Michele; De Paoli, Paolo; Serraino, Diego

    2016-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with an elevated risk of cancer. The aim of this study was to assess cancer risk and survival in individuals with type 2 DM (T2DM) in Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy. A retrospective population-based cohort study of 32,247 T2DM patients aged 40-84 years was conducted through a record linkage of local healthcare databases and cancer registry for the period 2002-2009. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) and 5-year survival probabilities after T2DM and cancer diagnosis were computed. The SIRs for all cancers (n=2069) was 1.28 (95%CI: 1.23-1.34). The highest SIRs were observed for cancers of the liver, female genital organs, small intestine, and pancreas. After 3 years from T2DM diagnosis, a reduced risk of prostate cancer (SIR=0.73, 95%CI: 0.54-0.96) was found in men aged 65-74 years, and a higher risk for breast cancer (SIR=1.24, 95%CI: 1.00-1.52) was found among T2DM female patients. The overall 5-year survival after T2DM was 88.7%. Furthermore, T2DM appeared to have a negative effect on survival of women with breast cancer. This population-based study confirmed that T2DM patients are at increased risk of several cancers, and of premature death in women with breast cancer.

  5. A population-based case-control investigation on cancers of the oral cavity in Bangalore, India.

    OpenAIRE

    Nandakumar, A.; Thimmasetty, K. T.; Sreeramareddy, N. M.; Venugopal, T. C.; Rajanna,; Vinutha, A. T.; Srinivas,; Bhargava, M K

    1990-01-01

    A case-control study on cancers of the oral cavity was conducted by utilising data from the population based cancer registry. Bangalore, India. Three hundred and forty-eight cases of cancers of the oral cavity (excluding base tongue) were age and sex matched with controls from the same residential area but with no evidence of cancer. The relative risk due to pan tobacco chewing was elevated in both males and females, being appreciably higher in the latter (relative risk 25.3%; 95% confidence ...

  6. Screening history in women with cervical cancer in a Danish population-based screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Rygaard, Carsten;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....

  7. Population Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: assessment of diagnostic tools and cancers detected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.W. Rietbergen (John)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOver the past decade, considerable debate has occurred over the question whether or not to screen asymptomatic men for prostate cancer. It is unknown whether early detection and treatment of the disease will decrease the disease specific mortality. On theoretical grounds screening may pr

  8. Population-based monitoring of cancer patient survival in situations with imperfect completeness of cancer registration

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, H.; Hakulinen, T

    2005-01-01

    Selective underascertainment of cases may bias estimates of cancer patient survival. We show that the magnitude of potential bias strongly depends on the time periods affected by underascertainment and on the type of survival analysis (cohort analysis vs period analysis). We outline strategies on how to minimise or overcome potential biases.

  9. Mortality among offspring of women diagnosed with cancer: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkooijen, Helena M; Ang, Joella X; Liu, Jenny; Czene, Kamila; Salim, Agus; Hartman, Mikael

    2013-05-15

    One in five cancers in women is diagnosed prior to and during a woman's fertile years. Our study evaluates mortality risks in offspring of mothers with history of cancer. From the Swedish Multi-generation Register and the Cancer Register, we identified all 174,893 children whose mother had been diagnosed with cancer between 1958 and 2001. We categorized offspring into those born before (>1 year before), around (within 1 year before and after diagnosis) and after (>1 year after) their mother's cancer diagnosis and compared their risks of death (standardized mortality ratios, SMRs) and causes of death to the background population. Overall, offspring of mothers diagnosed with cancer had no increased mortality risk (SMR, 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-1.03). Increased mortality risks were found in offspring of mothers with tobacco-related cancers (head and neck, thoracic and cervical) (SMR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.13-1.33), in children born around their mother's diagnosis (SMR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.25-2.13) and in children born after their mother's hematopoietic cancer diagnosis (SMR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.10-3.35). Compared to the background population, children born around their mother's diagnosis were more likely to die of congenital and perinatal conditions. Overall, offspring of women diagnosed with cancer were not at increased risk of death, except for certain subgroups. Timing of pregnancy in relation to diagnosis and cancer site modifies mortality risks in the offspring.

  10. Population-Based Precision Cancer Screening: A Symposium on Evidence, Epidemiology, and Next Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Pamela M; Pashayan, Nora; Church, Timothy R; Doria-Rose, V Paul; Gould, Michael K; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Marrone, Michael; Miglioretti, Diana L; Pharoah, Paul D; Pinsky, Paul F; Rendle, Katherine A; Robbins, Hilary A; Roberts, Megan C; Rolland, Betsy; Schiffman, Mark; Tiro, Jasmin A; Zauber, Ann G; Winn, Deborah M; Khoury, Muin J

    2016-11-01

    Precision medicine, an emerging approach for disease treatment that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle, is under consideration for preventive interventions, including cancer screening. On September 29, 2015, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a symposium entitled "Precision Cancer Screening in the General Population: Evidence, Epidemiology, and Next Steps". The goal was two-fold: to share current information on the evidence, practices, and challenges surrounding precision screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancers, and to allow for in-depth discussion among experts in relevant fields regarding how epidemiology and other population sciences can be used to generate evidence to inform precision screening strategies. Attendees concluded that the strength of evidence for efficacy and effectiveness of precision strategies varies by cancer site, that no one research strategy or methodology would be able or appropriate to address the many knowledge gaps in precision screening, and that issues surrounding implementation must be researched as well. Additional discussion needs to occur to identify the high priority research areas in precision cancer screening for pertinent organs and to gather the necessary evidence to determine whether further implementation of precision cancer screening strategies in the general population would be feasible and beneficial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(11); 1449-55. ©2016 AACR.

  11. POPULATION BASED COLORECTAL CANCER SCREENING: COMPARISON OF TWO FAECAL OCCULT BLOOD TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Begoña eZubero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of screening for colorectal cancer is to improve prognosis by the detection of cancer at its early stages. In order to inform the decision on the specific test to be used in the population-based programme in the Basque Autonomous Region (Spain, we compared two immunochemical faecal occult blood quantitative tests (I-FOBT. Methods: Residents of selected study areas, aged 50-69 years, were invited to participate in the screening. Two tests based on latex agglutination (OC-Sensor and FOB Gold were randomly assigned to different study areas. A colonoscopy was offered to patients with a positive test result. The cut-off point used to classify a result as positive, according to manufacturer’s recommendations, was 100 ng/ml for both tests. Results: The invited population included 37,999 individuals. Participation rates were 61.8% (n=11,162 for OC-Sensor and 59.1% (n=11,786 for FOB Gold, (p=0.008. Positive rate for OC-Sensor was 6.6% (n=737 and 8.5% (n=1,002 for FOB Gold, (pConclusions: OC-Sensor test appears to be superior for I-FOBT based CRC screening, given its acceptance, ease of use, associated small number of errors and its screening accuracy. FOB-Gold on the other hand, has higher rate of positive values, with more colonoscopies performed, it shows higher detection incidence rates, but involves more false positives.

  12. Children and young adults with parents with cancer: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syse A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Astri Syse1, Gjøril B Aas1, Jon H Loge2,31Cancer Registry of Norway, 2Oslo University Hospital, 3University of Oslo, Oslo, NorwayBackground: Today many people are choosing to have children later in life. Additionally, the use of sophisticated diagnostic tools and screening modalities has increased over recent years. Because of these factors, cancer is being diagnosed more frequently during the child-rearing years. Sociodemographic and cancer-related information on families and minor (0–18 years and young adult (YA (19–25 years children experiencing parental cancer is scarce, but this information is vital for healthcare initiatives aimed toward those potentially adversely affected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe features of families and minor and YA children affected by parental cancer in a nationwide population.Methods: Complete Norwegian birth cohort data were obtained from national registries. Descriptive prevalence and incidence statistics were collected for parents and minor and YA children. Logistic regression models were used to assess factors likely to influence parental death.Results: Every year around 0.3% of all families with children under the age of 18 years encounter parental cancer, and 3.1% of minors and 8.4% of YAs have a parent who has been diagnosed with cancer. This study found skin, breast, testicular, and colorectal cancers were the most common forms of cancer diagnosed. The sociodemographic features of those affected were fairly similar to those of the general population. One in five children experienced parental death from cancer; parental death was more often paternal than maternal and was most common in parents diagnosed with leukemia or brain, colorectal, and lung tumors. Deaths are uncommon among parents without cancer.Conclusion: Adequate assistance for minor and YA children affected by parental cancer requires knowledge of their number and characteristics. Parental cancer is more common than

  13. Population-based cohort studies of type 2 diabetes and stomach cancer risk in Chinese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong-Li; Tan, Yu-Ting; Epplein, Meira; Li, Hong-Lan; Gao, Jing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2015-03-01

    Although positive associations have been found for diabetes and a number of cancer sites, investigations of stomach cancer are limited and the results lack consistency. In this prospective study we investigated the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and stomach cancer risk in mainland China. We assessed the associations among T2DM, T2DM duration, and stomach cancer risk in two prospective population-based cohorts, the Shanghai Women's Health Study and the Shanghai Men's Health Study. Included in the study were 61 480 men and 74 941 women. Stomach cancer cases were identified through annual record linkage to the Shanghai Cancer Registry, and verified through home visits and review of medical charts. After a median follow-up of 7.5 years for the Shanghai Men's Health Study and 13.2 years for the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a total of 755 incident cases of stomach cancer (376 men and 379 women) were identified through to September 2013. Overall, we did not find any evidence that T2DM was associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer either in men (multi-adjusted hazard ratio = 0.83, 95% confidence interval, 0.59-1.16) or in women (multi-adjusted hazard ratio = 0.92, 95% confidence interval, 0.68-1.25). Our findings from two large prospective population-based cohorts suggest that T2DM was not associated with stomach cancer risk.

  14. Risk of malignant melanoma in men with prostate cancer. Nationwide, population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Garmo, Hans

    2016-01-01

    status. In The Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden, risk of melanoma was assessed in a cohort of men with prostate cancer and in a comparison cohort of prostate-cancer free men. Data on prostate cancer risk category, melanoma stage, basal cell carcinoma, location of residency, and socioeconomic status were......, whereas there was no association between these factors and late-stage melanoma. Men with prostate cancer also had an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma (HR 1.18, 1.15-1.22). In conclusion, men with low-risk prostate cancer, high education, high income and residency in southern Sweden had an increased......An increased risk of malignant melanoma has been observed in men with prostate cancer. To assess potential shared risk factors and confounding factors, we analysed risk of melanoma in men with prostate cancer including information on tumor characteristics and demographics including socioeconomic...

  15. A population-based evaluation of the seventh edition of the TNM system for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, T-E; Rostad, H; Wentzel-Larsen, T;

    2010-01-01

    Our study describes the new seventh edition of the TNM system for lung cancer in a national population and its clinical implications. We classified 1,885 operated patients with lung cancer, reported to the Cancer Registry of Norway (Oslo, Norway) from 2001 to 2005, according to the sixth...... to stage II and 161 (48%) patients migrated from stage IIB to IIA. Stage migrations could change the treatment for up to 326 (17.3%) of the study patients. The seventh edition did not improve the overall predictive ability of the TNM system; however, the new classification implies changes in treatment...

  16. Management of recurrent rectal cancer: A population based study in greater Amsterdam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roel Bakx; Otto Visser; Judith Josso; Sybren Meijer; J Frederik M Slors; J Jan B van Lanschot

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To analyze, retrospectively in a population-based study, the management and survival of patients with recurrent rectal cancer initially treated with a macroscopically radical resection obtained with total mesorectal excision (TME).METHODS: All rectal carcinomas diagnosed during 1998 to 2000 and initially treated with a macroscopically radical resection (632 patients) were selected from the Amsterdam Cancer Registry. For patients with recurrent disease, information on treatment of the recurrence was collected from the medical records.RESULTS: Local recurrence with or without clinically apparent distant dissemination occurred in 62 patients (10%). Thirty-two patients had an isolated local recurrence. Ten of these 32 patients (31%) underwent radical re-resection and experienced the highest survival (three quarters survived for at least 3 years). Eight patients (25%) underwent non-radical surgery (median survival 24 too), seven patients (22%) were treated with radio- and/or chemotherapy without surgery (median survival 15 mo) and seven patients (22%) only received best supportive care (median survival 5 mo). Distant dissemination occurred in 124 patients (20%) of whom 30 patients also had a local recurrence. The majority (54%) of these patients were treated with radio- and/or chemotherapy without surgery (median survival 15 mo). Twenty-seven percent of these patients only received best supportive care (median survival 6 mo), while 16% underwent surgery for their recurrence. Survival was best in the latter group (median survival 32 mo).CONCLUSION: Although treatment options and survival are limited in case of recurrent rectal cancer after radical local resection obtained with TME, patients can benefit from additional treatment, especially if a radical resection is feasible.

  17. Knowledge and attitudes of primary healthcare patients regarding population-based screening for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrent Maties

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the extent of knowledge of primary health care (PHC patients about colorectal cancer (CRC, their attitudes toward population-based screening for this disease and gender differences in these respects. Methods A questionnaire-based survey of PHC patients in the Balearic Islands and some districts of the metropolitan area of Barcelona was conducted. Individuals between 50 and 69 years of age with no history of CRC were interviewed at their PHC centers. Results We analyzed the results of 625 questionnaires, 58% of which were completed by women. Most patients believed that cancer diagnosis before symptom onset improved the chance of survival. More women than men knew the main symptoms of CRC. A total of 88.8% of patients reported that they would perform the fecal occult blood test (FOBT for CRC screening if so requested by PHC doctors or nurses. If the FOBT was positive and a colonoscopy was offered, 84.9% of participants indicated that they would undergo the procedure, and no significant difference by gender was apparent. Fear of having cancer was the main reason for performance of an FOBT, and also for not performing the FOBT, especially in women. Fear of pain was the main reason for not wishing to undergo colonoscopy. Factors associated with reluctance to perform the FOBT were: (i the idea that that many forms of cancer can be prevented by exercise and, (ii a reluctance to undergo colonoscopy if an FOBT was positive. Factors associated with reluctance to undergo colonoscopy were: (i residence in Barcelona, (ii ignorance of the fact that early diagnosis of CRC is associated with better prognosis, (iii no previous history of colonoscopy, and (iv no intention to perform the FOBT for CRC screening. Conclusion We identified gaps in knowledge about CRC and prevention thereof in PHC patients from the Balearic Islands and the Barcelona region of Spain. If fears about CRC screening, and CRC per se

  18. Second primary malignancies in adults with gastric cancer – A US population-based study

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    Binay Kumar Shah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple studies have examined the incidence of secondary primary malignancies (SPM in gastric cancer patients in Europe and Asia. This retrospective review was conducted to analyze risk of SPM in patients with gastric cancer diagnosed in the United States (US.Methods: We included adult patients diagnosed with gastric cancer from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result (SEER 13 database. We calculated the risk of secondary primary malignancies in these patients using the multiple primary standardized incidence ratio (MP-SIR session of SEER*stat software and performed subset analyses of SPM with regard to age, sex, radiotherapy used, and latency period.Results: Among 33,720 patients, 1838 (5.45% developed 2019 secondary primary malignancies with an observed/expected (O/E ratio of 1.11 (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.06-1.16, p<.001 and an absolute excess risk (AER of 18.16 per 10,000 population. The median time to first SPM from the time of diagnosis of gastric cancer was 46.9 months (range 6-239 months. Significant excess risk was observed for gastrointestinal malignancies [O/E ratio 1.71 (CI = 1.59-1.84, p<.001], thyroid [O/E ratio 2.00 (CI = 1.37-2.8, p<.001] and pancreatic cancer [O/E ratio 1.60 (CI = 1.29-21.96, p<.001]. Risk of secondary melanoma, breast cancer and prostate cancer was lower than in the general population.Conclusions: The risk for secondary primary malignancies is significantly increased in adults with gastric cancer compared to the general population.

  19. Differences in Cancer Information Seeking Behavior, Preferences, and Awareness Between Cancer Survivors and Healthy Controls: A National, Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Abbey R.; Lykins, Emily L.B.; Gochett, Celestine G.; Brechting, Emily H.; Graue, Lili O.; Andrykowski, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Background No research has examined how cancer diagnosis and treatment might alter information source preferences or opinions. Methods Data from 719 cancer survivors (CS group) and 2012 matched healthy controls (NCC group) regarding cancer-related information seeking behavior, preferences, and awareness from the population-based 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) was examined. Results The CS group reported greater consumption of cancer-related information but the CS and NCC groups did not differ in information source use or preferences. The CS group was more confident of their ability to get cancer information, reported more trust in health care professionals and television as cancer information sources, but evaluated their recent cancer information seeking experiences more negatively than the NCC group. Awareness of cancer information resources was surprisingly low in both the CS and NCC groups. Conclusions Cancer diagnosis and treatment subtly alters cancer information seeking preferences and experience. However awareness and use of cancer information resources was relatively low regardless of personal history of cancer. PMID:19259869

  20. Population based screening for prostate cancer : the pathology of early detected tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Hoedemaeker

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe studies in this thesis were aimed at the histopathologic characteristics of prostate cancer detected at screening of the general male population betvveen 55 and 75 years of age. They were intended to answer a number of questions, which were posed earlier in this chapter. I come back

  1. Diverging trends in recent population-based survival rates in oesophageal and gastric cancer.

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    Jesper Lagergren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Survival trends in oesophageal and gastric cancer need to be updated. A nationwide Swedish population-based study in 1961-2009 was based on registry data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Relative survival rate, i.e. the ratio of the observed to the expected survival, adjusted for age, sex, and calendar period, and presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI, was the main outcome measure. The expected survival was calculated using the corresponding Swedish general population with no exclusions. The relative survival rates in oesophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma have improved since the 1990s (p for trend <0.001, but not in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma or gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma. The relative 5-year survival rates during the two recent periods 1990-1999 and 2000-2008 were 12.5% (95%CI 10.1%-14.9% and 10.3% (95%CI 8.5-12.0% for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 12.5% (95%CI 10.1%-14.9% and 14.6% (95%CI 12.6-16.6% for oesophageal adenocarcinoma, 11.1% (95%CI 9.6%-12.6% and 14.3% (95%CI 12.3-16.3% for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, and 20.2% (95%CI 19.2%-21.1% and 19.0% (95%CI 17.7-20.2% for gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma. The 3-year survival in tumour stage III in 2004-2008 was about 25% for all four tumour types. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The survival in oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma is increasing, but the lack of such increase in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma is a concern.

  2. Increased frequency of single base substitutions in a population of transcripts expressed in cancer cells

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    Bianchetti Laurent

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single Base Substitutions (SBS that alter transcripts expressed in cancer originate from somatic mutations. However, recent studies report SBS in transcripts that are not supported by the genomic DNA of tumor cells. Methods We used sequence based whole genome expression profiling, namely Long-SAGE (L-SAGE and Tag-seq (a combination of L-SAGE and deep sequencing, and computational methods to identify transcripts with greater SBS frequencies in cancer. Millions of tags produced by 40 healthy and 47 cancer L-SAGE experiments were compared to 1,959 Reference Tags (RT, i.e. tags matching the human genome exactly once. Similarly, tens of millions of tags produced by 7 healthy and 8 cancer Tag-seq experiments were compared to 8,572 RT. For each transcript, SBS frequencies in healthy and cancer cells were statistically tested for equality. Results In the L-SAGE and Tag-seq experiments, 372 and 4,289 transcripts respectively, showed greater SBS frequencies in cancer. Increased SBS frequencies could not be attributed to known Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP, catalogued somatic mutations or RNA-editing enzymes. Hypothesizing that Single Tags (ST, i.e. tags sequenced only once, were indicators of SBS, we observed that ST proportions were heterogeneously distributed across Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC, healthy differentiated and cancer cells. ESC had the lowest ST proportions, whereas cancer cells had the greatest. Finally, in a series of experiments carried out on a single patient at 1 healthy and 3 consecutive tumor stages, we could show that SBS frequencies increased during cancer progression. Conclusion If the mechanisms generating the base substitutions could be known, increased SBS frequency in transcripts would be a new useful biomarker of cancer. With the reduction of sequencing cost, sequence based whole genome expression profiling could be used to characterize increased SBS frequency in patient’s tumor and aid diagnostic.

  3. The role of chemoprevention by selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in colorectal cancer patients - a population-based study

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    Yang Yi-Hsin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited population-based studies focusing on the chemopreventive effects of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitors against colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study is to assess the trends and dose–response effects of various medication possession ratios (MPR of selective COX-2 inhibitor used for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer. Methods A population-based case–control study was conducted using the Taiwan Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD. The study comprised 21,460 colorectal cancer patients and 79,331 controls. The conditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for COX-2 inhibitors used for several durations (5 years, 3 years, 1 year, 6 months and 3 months prior to the index date. Results In patients receiving selective COX-2 inhibitors, the OR was 0.51 (95% CI=0.29~0.90, p=0.021 for an estimated 5-year period in developing colorectal cancer. ORs showing significant protection effects were found in 10% of MPRs for 5-year, 3-year, and 1-year usage. Risk reduction against colorectal cancer by selective COX-2 inhibitors was observed as early as 6 months after usage. Conclusion Our results indicate that selective COX-2 inhibitors may reduce the development of colorectal cancer by at least 10% based on the MPRs evaluated. Given the limited number of clinical reports from general populations, our results add to the knowledge of chemopreventive effects of selective COX-2 inhibitors against cancer in individuals at no increased risk of colorectal cancer.

  4. Risk of malignant melanoma in men with prostate cancer: Nationwide, population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Garmo, Hans; Robinson, David; Loeb, Stacy; Ingvar, Christian; Lambe, Mats; Stattin, Pär

    2016-05-01

    An increased risk of malignant melanoma has been observed in men with prostate cancer. To assess potential shared risk factors and confounding factors, we analysed risk of melanoma in men with prostate cancer including information on tumor characteristics and demographics including socioeconomic status. In The Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden, risk of melanoma was assessed in a cohort of men with prostate cancer and in a comparison cohort of prostate-cancer free men. Data on prostate cancer risk category, melanoma stage, basal cell carcinoma, location of residency, and socioeconomic status were obtained from nationwide registers. Melanoma was diagnosed in 830/108,145 (0.78%) men with prostate cancer and in 3,699/556,792 (0.66%) prostate cancer-free men. In multivariable Cox regression models, men with prostate cancer had a significantly increased risk of melanoma (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.09-1.27), and so had married men, men with high education and income, and men residing in southern Sweden. The strongest associations were observed for stage 0 melanoma in men with low-risk prostate cancer (HR 1.45, 1.14-1.86), high education (HR 1.87, 1.60-2.18) and top income (HR 1.61, 1.34-1.93), respectively, whereas there was no association between these factors and late-stage melanoma. Men with prostate cancer also had an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma (HR 1.18, 1.15-1.22). In conclusion, men with low-risk prostate cancer, high education, high income and residency in southern Sweden had an increased risk of early-stage melanoma.

  5. Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cencer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-Fluororacil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Cronin Fenton, Deirdre; Christensen, Mariann

    2012-01-01

    Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cencer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-Fluororacil......Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Recurrence: A Danish Population-Based Case-Control Study of Breast Cencer Patients Treated with Cyclophosphamide Epirubicin and 5-Fluororacil...

  6. Hip fracture history and risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer: a Danish population-based study

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    Lamberg AL

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Anna Lei Lamberg1,2, Anne Braae Olesen1,2, Annette Østergaard Jensen11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, 2Department of Dermatology, Aarhus University Hospital, DenmarkBackground: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with osteoporotic fractures, such as hip fracture. Sun exposure, the natural source of vitamin D, is the main risk factor for basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. In this study, we examined the association between a history of hip fracture and risk of BCC and SCC.Methods: We conducted a population-based case-controlled study using data on BCC and SCC cases registered in the Danish Cancer Registry from 1990–2005. For each case, we selected five population controls matched by age and gender. We used conditional logistic regression to compute odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, while adjusting for chronic diseases and socioeconomic status.Results: A history of hip fracture was associated with a decreased risk of BCC (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85–0.94, which was most pronounced in cases of tumors on the trunk, extremities, or at multiple sites. We found no association for SCC (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.98–1.17.Conclusion: Our study showed an inverse association between history of hip fracture and risk of BCC, but not of SCC. Sun exposure, resulting in vitamin D synthesis, may explain the link between the two diseases.Keywords: hip fracture, vitamin D, sunlight, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma

  7. An integrated, population-based framework for knowledge management for cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Neil A; Craighead, Peter; Esmail, Rosmin

    2010-01-01

    Cancer control organizations commonly refer to the critical role of clinical practice guidelines to support the best possible cancer care. But how can a cancer care program ensure the systematic implementation of those guidelines? The goals of this article are to describe the process of developing a cancer control system driven by knowledge management, to highlight the key elements of this system and to foster discussion on the implementation of such frameworks. In order to promote best cancer practices within an expanded radiation service model for the province of Alberta, we developed an integrated conceptual framework for knowledge management. We identified six key elements of a knowledge management framework for the cancer program: evidence-based provincial guidelines, funding decisions, harmonized care pathways, targeted knowledge transfer projects, performance measurement and feedback to the system. We are establishing a process to characterize the explicit linkages and accountabilities between each of these elements as part of a broader cancer care quality agenda. We will implement the framework to support the start-up of the first of three new radiation treatment services in the province. The basic elements of a guidelines-supported cancer care system are not in doubt; how to unambiguously engage them within an integrated care system remains an area of intense interest.

  8. Birth outcomes among offspring of adult cancer survivors: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensheim, Hanne; Klungsøyr, Kari; Skjaerven, Rolv; Grotmol, Tom; Fosså, Sophie D

    2013-12-01

    Do cancer and cancer treatment influence patients' subsequent pregnancies and outcomes for the offspring? In this study, we compared birth outcomes in 3,915 female and male survivors and 144,653 controls from the general population with similar parity, by merging data from the Cancer Registry and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. The cancer survivors were diagnosed at age 16-45 in the period 1967-2004. Subgroups of nulliparous survivors (childless before cancer) and primiparous (one pregnancy before and one after cancer) were analyzed, using logistic regression to compare birth outcomes with controls, focusing perinatal death, congenital anomalies, preterm birth (offspring had increased risk of preterm birth (OR = 1.30 [95% CI 1.05-1.61]) but similar risks of LBW and perinatal death as their controls. Primiparous female survivors differed from their controls, with higher frequency of preterm birth (OR = 1.89 [95% CI 1.40-2.56]) and LBW at term (OR = 2.02 [95% CI 1.15-3.55]). A borderline significant increase of perinatal death was seen among offspring of primiparous female survivors, with OR = 1.92 (95% CI 0.98-3.76). Offspring of male survivors did not differ from their controls. For all cancer types combined, no increased risk of congenital anomalies was seen among either female or male survivors' offspring. Pregnant female cancer survivors should be offered close follow-up, as there is an increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, in particular among those with higher parities.

  9. A population-based prospective study of energy-providing nutrients in relation to cancer mortality and cancers of digestive organs mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Argos, Maria; Melkonian, Stephanie; Parvez, Faruque; Rakibuz-Zaman, Muhammad; Ahmed, Alauddin; Chen,Yu; Ahsan, Habibul

    2013-01-01

    The effect of dietary composition on mortality in low income countries is largely unknown. We evaluated whether percentages of dietary energy derived from protein, fat, and carbohydrates were associated with all-cause and cancer mortalities in a Bangladeshi population. Data from a prospective population-based cohort study of 17,244 men and women were used. Percentages of dietary energy derived from protein, fat, and carbohydrates, assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire at bas...

  10. Reproducibility, reliability and validity of population-based administrative health data for the assessment of cancer non-related comorbidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with comorbidities do not receive optimal treatment for their cancer, leading to lower cancer survival. Information on individual comorbidities is not straightforward to derive from population-based administrative health datasets. We described the development of a reproducible algorithm to extract the individual Charlson index comorbidities from such data. We illustrated the algorithm with 1,789 laryngeal cancer patients diagnosed in England in 2013. We aimed to clearly set out and advocate the time-related assumptions specified in the algorithm by providing empirical evidence for them. Methods Comorbidities were assessed from hospital records in the ten years preceding cancer diagnosis and internal reliability of the hospital records was checked. Data were right-truncated 6 or 12 months prior to cancer diagnosis to avoid inclusion of potentially cancer-related comorbidities. We tested for collider bias using Cox regression. Results Our administrative data showed weak to moderate internal reliability to identify comorbidities (ICC ranging between 0.1 and 0.6) but a notably high external validity (86.3%). We showed a reverse protective effect of non-cancer related Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) when the effect is split into cancer and non-cancer related COPD (Age-adjusted HR: 0.95, 95% CI:0.7–1.28 for non-cancer related comorbidities). Furthermore, we showed that a window of 6 years before diagnosis is an optimal period for the assessment of comorbidities. Conclusion To formulate a robust approach for assessing common comorbidities, it is important that assumptions made are explicitly stated and empirically proven. We provide a transparent and consistent approach useful to researchers looking to assess comorbidities for cancer patients using administrative health data. PMID:28263996

  11. Risk of lung cancer in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chi-Kuei; Lai, Chih-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This large-scale, controlled cohort study estimated the risks of lung cancer in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Taiwan. We conducted this population-based study using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan during the period from 1997 to 2010. Patients with GERD were diagnosed using endoscopy, and controls were matched to patients with GERD at a ratio of 1:4. We identified 15,412 patients with GERD and 60,957 controls. Compared with the controls, the patients with GERD had higher rates of osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, bronchiectasis, depression, anxiety, hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic liver disease, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, chronic kidney disease, and coronary artery disease (all P < .05). A total of 85 patients had lung cancer among patients with GERD during the follow-up of 42,555 person-years, and the rate of lung cancer was 0.0020 per person-year. By contrast, 232 patients had lung cancer among patients without GERD during the follow-up of 175,319 person-years, and the rate of lung cancer was 0.0013 per person-year. By using stepwise Cox regression model, the overall incidence of lung cancer remained significantly higher in the patients with GERD than in the controls (hazard ratio, 1.53; 95% CI [1.19–1.98]). The cumulative incidence of lung cancer was higher in the patients with GERD than in the controls (P = .0012). In conclusion, our large population-based cohort study provides evidence that GERD may increase the risk of lung cancer in Asians. PMID:28028458

  12. Risk of lung cancer in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Kuei Hsu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This large-scale, controlled cohort study estimated the risks of lung cancer in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD in Taiwan. We conducted this population-based study using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan during the period from 1997 to 2010. Patients with GERD were diagnosed using endoscopy, and controls were matched to patients with GERD at a ratio of 1:4. We identified 15,412 patients with GERD and 60,957 controls. Compared with the controls, the patients with GERD had higher rates of osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, bronchiectasis, depression, anxiety, hypertension, dyslipidemia, chronic liver disease, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, chronic kidney disease, and coronary artery disease (all P < .05. A total of 85 patients had lung cancer among patients with GERD during the follow-up of 42,555 person-years, and the rate of lung cancer was 0.0020 per person-year. By contrast, 232 patients had lung cancer among patients without GERD during the follow-up of 175,319 person-years, and the rate of lung cancer was 0.0013 per person-year. By using stepwise Cox regression model, the overall incidence of lung cancer remained significantly higher in the patients with GERD than in the controls (hazard ratio, 1.53; 95% CI [1.19–1.98]. The cumulative incidence of lung cancer was higher in the patients with GERD than in the controls (P = .0012. In conclusion, our large population-based cohort study provides evidence that GERD may increase the risk of lung cancer in Asians.

  13. A population-based case-control investigation on cancers of the oral cavity in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, A; Thimmasetty, K T; Sreeramareddy, N M; Venugopal, T C; Rajanna; Vinutha, A T; Srinivas; Bhargava, M K

    1990-11-01

    A case-control study on cancers of the oral cavity was conducted by utilising data from the population based cancer registry. Bangalore, India. Three hundred and forty-eight cases of cancers of the oral cavity (excluding base tongue) were age and sex matched with controls from the same residential area but with no evidence of cancer. The relative risk due to pan tobacco chewing was elevated in both males and females, being appreciably higher in the latter (relative risk 25.3%; 95% confidence interval 11.2-57.3). A statistically significant (linear test for trend P less than 0.001) dose response based on years, times per day and period of time chewed was seen. Any smoking (cigarette or bidi or both) had only slightly elevated risk of developing oral cancer, whereas a history of alcohol drinking or inhalation of snuff did not influence the risk. A new finding of our study was the markedly elevated risk of oral cancer in persons consuming ragi (Eleusine coracana, family graminae) in comparison to those not consuming ragi as staple cereal in their diet. There also appeared to be some interaction between ragi consumption and tobacco chewing with substantially higher relative risks in those who pursued both habits compared to those who gave a history of either.

  14. Impact of Introducing Stereotactic Lung Radiotherapy for Elderly Patients With Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer : A Population-Based Time-Trend Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, David; Visser, Otto; Lagerwaard, Frank J.; Belderbos, Jose; Slotman, Ben J.; Senan, Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with high local control rates. The impact of introducing SBRT in patients 75 years of age or older was studied using a population-based cancer registry. Methods The Amsterdam Cancer Registry wa

  15. Improvements in population-based survival of patients presenting with metastatic rectal cancer in the south of the Netherlands, 1992-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.E.P.P. Lemmens (Valery); N. de Haan (N.); H.J.T. Rutten (Harm); H. Martijn (Hendrik); O.J.L. Loosveld (Olaf); R.M.H. Roumen (Rudi); G.J.M. Creemers (Geert-Jan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe analysed population-based treatment and survival data of patientswho presented with metastatic rectal cancer. All patients diagnosed with primary synchronous metastatic rectal cancer between 1992 and 2008 in the Eindhoven Cancer Registry area were included. Date of diagnosis was divid

  16. Association between chronic viral hepatitis infection and breast cancer risk: a nationwide population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Fu-Hsiung

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Taiwan, there is a high incidence of breast cancer and a high prevalence of viral hepatitis. In this case-control study, we used a population-based insurance dataset to evaluate whether breast cancer in women is associated with chronic viral hepatitis infection. Methods From the claims data, we identified 1,958 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer during the period 2000-2008. A randomly selected, age-matched cohort of 7,832 subjects without cancer was selected for comparison. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to calculate odds ratios of breast cancer associated with viral hepatitis after adjustment for age, residential area, occupation, urbanization, and income. The age-specific ( Results There were no significant differences in the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection, hepatitis B virus (HBV, or the prevalence of combined HBC/HBV infection between breast cancer patients and control subjects (p = 0.48. Multivariable logistic regression analysis, however, revealed that age Conclusions HCV infection, but not HBV infection, appears to be associated with early onset risk of breast cancer in areas endemic for HCV and HBV. This finding needs to be replicated in further studies.

  17. Thyroid cancer in Luxembourg: a national population-based data report (1983–1999

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    Dippel Walter

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Twenty years after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl (Eastern Europe, there is still a controversial debate concerning a possible effect of the radioactive iodines, especially I-131, on the increase of thyroid carcinomas (TCs in Western Europe. Time trends in incidence rates of TC in Luxembourg in comparison with other European countries and its descriptive epidemiology were investigated. Methods The population-based data of the national Morphologic Tumour Registry collecting new thyroid cancers diagnosed between 1983 and 1999 at a nation-wide level in the central division of pathology were reviewed and focused on incidence rates of TC. Data from 1990 to 1999 were used to evaluate the distribution by gender, age, histological type, tumour size and the outcome. Results Out of 310 new thyroid carcinomas diagnosed between 1990 and 1999, 304 differentiated carcinomas (A: 80% papillary; B: 14.5% follicular; C: 3.5% medullary and 6 anaplastic/undifferentiated TCs (D: 2% were evaluated. The M/F-ratio was 1:3.2, the mean age 48.3 years (range: 13–92. The overall age-standardized (world population incidence rates over the two 5-year periods 1990–1994 and 1995–1999 increased from 7.4 per 100,000 to 10.1 per 100,000 in females, from 2.3 per 100,000 to 3.6 per 100,000 in males. Only 3 patients were children or adolescents (1%, the majority of the patients (50% were between 45 and 69 years of age. The percentage of microcarcinomas ( Conclusion The increasing incidence rates of TC, especially of the papillary type, seem mainly due to a rise in diagnosed microcarcinomas due to some extent to a change in histologic criteria and to more efficient diagnostic tools. This rise appears to be independent of the number of surgical treatments, the immigration rate, and the Chernobyl fallout as the incidence of TC in children remained stable.

  18. A Population-based Study of Invasive Cervical Cancer Patients in Beijing: 1993-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wang

    2015-01-01

    .7%, respectively. The percentage of patients with stage I was 7.6% (13/171 in 1993-1996, but the percentage increased to 51.6% (643/1247 in 2005-2008 (P < 0.01. Otherwise the percentage of advanced stage (stage III-IV during the same period was dropped down significantly from 52.0% (89/171 to 22.5% (280/1247 (P < 0.01. Unemployed and housewife ranked first accounting for 27.3% of the total (607/2224. Urban low-income people such as worker ranked the second accounting for 17.0% (377/2224, the third place was farmer accounting for 14.0% (312/2224. Only 381 (17.1%, 381/2224 women in 2224 were first detected cervical cancer by routine screenings. Company staff (36.5%, 139/381, professional and technical personnel (22.6%, 86/381, national official (22.0%, 84/381 occupied the top three (total 81.1% in the 381 patients detected cervical cancer by screening. Conclusions: The cervical cancer incidence has showed a continuous rise in Beijing since 1999. Government-led mass screening should target the low socioeconomic population primarily. Meanwhile the government should enhance public health education of cancer screening to increase the rate of screening.

  19. A Population-based Study of Invasive Cervical Cancer Patients in Beijing: 1993-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Wang; Ming-Hui Wu; Yu-Mei Wu; Wei-Yuan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    .The percentage of patients with stage Ⅰ was 7.6% (13/171) in 1993-1996, but the percentage increased to 51.6% (643/1247) in 2005-2008 (P < 0.01).Otherwise the percentage of advanced stage (stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ) during the same period was dropped down significantly from 52.0% (89/171) to 22.5% (280/1247) (P < 0.01).Unemployed and housewife ranked first accounting for 27.3% of the total (607/2224).Urban low-income people such as worker ranked the second accounting for 17.0% (377/2224), the third place was farmer accounting for 14.0% (312/2224).Only 381 (17.1%, 381/2224) women in 2224 were first detected cervical cancer by routine screenings.Company staff(36.5%, 139/381), professional and technical personnel (22.6%, 86/381), national official (22.0%, 84/381) occupied the top three (total 81.1%) in the 381 patients detected cervical cancer by screening.Conclusions: The cervical cancer incidence has showed a continuous rise in Beijing since 1999.Government-led mass screening should target the low socioeconomic population primarily.Meanwhile the government should enhance public health education of cancer screening to increase the rate of screening.

  20. Ability of community-based prostate cancer screening to target an appropriate and underserved population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jared; Heidel, Eric; Johnson, Jason; Powell, Chase; Dittrich, Erin; Rawn, Susan; Terry, Paul D; Goldman, Mitchell; Waters, W Bedford; White, Wesley M

    2015-01-01

    Screening is not universally beneficial due to over- and under-diagnosis, and false positives that beget additional testing and associated adverse events and expense. We examined data from all men who participated in a mass community prostate cancer screening between May 2009 and September 2010. The data contained information regarding patient demographics, family history of prostate cancer, lower urinary tract symptoms, prior history of prostate cancer, most recent digital rectal examination, and the presence of an established relationship with a physician. Current American Urological Association screening recommendations were then applied to determine the appropriateness of our outreach effort. A total of 438 men (mean age 66.5 years) underwent screening. A total of 106 (24.2%) patients in our study met contemporary criteria for screening. Of these men, the vast majority was well educated, well insured, and well informed about the need for prostate cancer screening. Based on these data, mass community-based prostate cancer screening does not appear to identify and screen at-risk men. Future efforts at mass screening should more carefully target men most likely to benefit. PMID:26140266

  1. Cancer incidence in Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area, 2000-2004. First five years report from population based cancer registry of Metropolitan Area of Bucaramanga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Eliana Meza Durán

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the most common chronic diseases that cause high morbidity and mortality. In the evaluation of all illnessand its impact on the community, a surveillance system becomes necessary to allows us to know its incidence. Cancersurveillance is achieved by the population-based cancer registry. Methodology: The Population Based Cancer Registry ofMetropolitan Area of Bucaramanga (RPC-AMB collected information from the years 2000 to 2004, in patients with anymalignant cancer the which include both invasive and in situ behavior in addition to reside within this geographical area . TheCancer Registry also collects data on brain and nervous system tumors classified as benign or those that have uncertainbehavior. Basal cell cancers of the skin were included during the two first years as well as all the intraepithelial neoplasm ofthe cervix. Active collections of information at all sources by registry staff were made (Hospitals, Health care institutions,especially oncology centers and Pathology and Hematology Laboratories and some specialist in oncology attention. Theinclusion approaches are verified and collects data on specific sociodemographic information (age, gender, residence, placeof birth, etc. and on the anatomic site of the tumor, the cell type of the cancer, behavior and extension on each individualdiagnosed with cancer. Each case was coded using the International Classification of Diseases Oncology Third Edition (ICDO-3, for topographical and morphological code. The data was entered into a computer with CanReg-4 software that is aconfigurable computer program designed for cancer registration in population-based registries and was provided as aservice by the Descriptive Epidemiology Unit to members of the International Association of Cancer Registries. This softwareprovides the number of cancer cases (frequency and the incidence rates. The quality control included exhaustiveness of thecases and information, verification of the

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and altered risk of lung cancer in a population-based case-control study.

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    Jill Koshiol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD has been consistently associated with increased risk of lung cancer. However, previous studies have had limited ability to determine whether the association is due to smoking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE population-based case-control study recruited 2100 cases and 2120 controls, of whom 1934 cases and 2108 controls reported about diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, COPD (chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema, or asthma more than 1 year before enrollment. We estimated odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI using logistic regression. After adjustment for smoking, other previous lung diseases, and study design variables, lung cancer risk was elevated among individuals with a history of chronic bronchitis (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.5-2.5, emphysema (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4-2.8, or COPD (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 2.0-3.1. Among current smokers, association between chronic bronchitis and lung cancer was strongest among lighter smokers. Asthma was associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer in males (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.30-0.78. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the associations of personal history of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and COPD with increased risk of lung cancer are not entirely due to smoking. Inflammatory processes may both contribute to COPD and be important for lung carcinogenesis.

  3. Variation in fatigue among 6011 (long-term) cancer survivors and a normative population: a study from the population-based PROFILES registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, O.; Mols, F.; Poll-Franse, L. van de; Vries, J de; Schep, G.; Thong, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cancer survivors commonly experience fatigue, related to disease and its treatment. This study aimed to compare fatigue severity among survivors of different cancer types with a normative population and also to identify variations in fatigue among cancer survivors according to clinical and

  4. Use of vitamin supplements and risk of total cancer and cardiovascular disease among the Japanese general population: A population-based survey

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    Ishihara Junko

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the popular use of vitamin supplements and several prospective cohort studies investigating their effect on cancer incidence and cardiovascular disease (CVD, scientific data supporting their benefits remain controversial. Inconsistent results may be partly explained by the fact that use of supplements is an inconsistent behavior in individuals. We examined whether vitamin supplement use patterns affect cancer and CVD risk in a population-based cohort study in Japan. Methods A total of 28,903 men and 33,726 women in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study cohort, who answered questions about vitamin supplement use in the first survey from 1990-1994 and the second survey from 1995-1998, were categorized into four groups (never use, past use, recent use, and consistent use and followed to the end of 2006 for cancer and 2005 for CVD. Sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were used to describe the relative risks of cancer and CVD associated with vitamin supplement use. Results During follow-up, 4501 cancer and 1858 CVD cases were identified. Multivariate adjusted analysis revealed no association of any pattern of vitamin supplement use with the risk of cancer and CVD in men. In women, consistent use was associated with lower risk of CVD (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.89, whereas past (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.33 and recent use (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.52 were associated with higher risk of cancer. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first prospective cohort study to examine simultaneously the associations between vitamin supplement use patterns and risk of cancer and CVD. This prospective cohort study demonstrated that vitamin supplement use has little effect on the risk of cancer or CVD in men. In women, however, consistent vitamin supplement use might reduce the risk of CVD. Elevated risk of cancer associated with past and recent use of vitamin supplements in women may be partly

  5. A Comprehensive Multistate Model Analyzing Associations of Various Risk Factors With the Course of Breast Cancer in a Population-Based Cohort of Breast Cancer Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulenburg, Christine; Schroeder, Jennifer; Obi, Nadia; Heinz, Judith; Seibold, Petra; Rudolph, Anja; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Flesch-Janys, Dieter

    2016-02-15

    We employed a semi-Markov multistate model for the simultaneous analysis of various endpoints describing the course of breast cancer. Results were compared with those from standard analyses using a Cox proportional hazards model. We included 3,012 patients with invasive breast cancer newly diagnosed between 2001 and 2005 who were recruited in Germany for a population-based study, the Mamma Carcinoma Risk Factor Investigation (MARIE Study), and prospectively followed up until the end of 2009. Locoregional recurrence and distant metastasis were included as intermediate states, and deaths from breast cancer, secondary cancer, and other causes were included as competing absorbing states. Tumor characteristics were significantly associated with all breast cancer-related endpoints. Nodal involvement was significantly related to local recurrence but more strongly related to distant metastases. Smoking was significantly associated with mortality from second cancers and other causes, whereas menopausal hormone use was significantly associated with reduced distant metastasis and death from causes other than cancer. The presence of cardiovascular disease at diagnosis was solely associated with mortality from other causes. Compared with separate Cox models, multistate models allow for dissection of prognostic factors and intermediate events in the analysis of cause-specific mortality and can yield new insights into disease progression and associated pathways.

  6. The risk of cancer in patients with congenital heart disease: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

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    Yu-Sheng Lee

    Full Text Available The relationship between congenital heart disease (CHD and malignancies has not been determined. This study aimed to explore the association of CHD with malignancies and examine the risk factors for the development of cancer after a diagnosis of CHD.This nationwide, population-based cohort study on cancer risk evaluated 31,961 patients with newly diagnosed CHD using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD between 1998 and 2006. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for all and specific cancer types were analyzed, while the Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate risk factors of cancer occurrence.Among patients with newly diagnosed CHD regardless of ages, 187 (0.6% subsequently developed cancers after a diagnosis of CHD. Patients with CHD had increased risk of cancer (SIR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.25-1.67, as well as significantly elevated risks of hematologic (SIR, 4.04; 95% CI, 2.76-5.70, central nervous system (CNS (SIR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.92-5.89, and head and neck (SIR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.03-2.94 malignancies. Age (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.05-1.06 and co-morbid chronic liver disease (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.27-2.87 were independent risk factors for cancer occurrence among CHD patients.Patients with CHD have significantly increased cancer risk, particularly hematologic, CNS, and head and neck malignancies. Physicians who care for patients with CHD should be aware of their predisposition to malignancy after the diagnosis of CHD. Further studies are warranted to clarify the association between CHD and malignancies.

  7. Cancer risk and key components of metabolic syndrome:a population-based prospective cohort study in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; SHEN Hong-bing; LU Feng; LIU Si-jun; DU Jiang-bo; WANG Jian-ming; QIAN Yun; SHEN Chong; JIN Guang-fu; HU Zhi-bin

    2012-01-01

    Background The key components of metabolic syndrome (MS) are waist circumference,blood pressure,fast blood glucose,high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and triglycerides (TG).These components have,separately and jointly,been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.In this study,we aimed to explore the association between MS components and cancer risk in a population-based cohort in China.Methods We established a population-based cohort with 17 779 individuals aged 35 and above at baseline in 2004 and 2005 in Changzhou,Jiangsu Province,China.All participants were face-to-face interviewed to complete a questionnaire and were accepted physical examinations including blood tests for glucose and lipids and physical measurements for obesity and blood pressure.In 2009,a total of 16 284 subjects (6886 men and 9398 women,91.6%) attended the flow-up interviews and the participants or their family members reported all the hospitalizations and diseases including cancer occurred during the follow-up period.Multivariate Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of metabolic syndrome components and cancer incidence.Results There was a dose-response association between cancer risk and the number of MS components presented at baseline (P for trend=0.012) and the HR (95% confidence interval (CI)) was 2.63 (1.27-5.45) for subjects carrying 3 or more metabolic syndrome components after adjustment for possible confounding factors.Specifically,the multivariate-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for cancer risk in subjects with central obesity,high fasting glucose,low HDL-c were 1.94 (1.01-3.74),2.04 (1.10-3.77) and 2.05 (1.09-3.88),respectively.Conclusions In this population-based,prospective cohort study in China,we found MS components,e.g.,central obesity,high fasting glucose,low HDL-c were risk factors for cancer development.Early intervention of MS components may be also beneficial to reduce cancer burden.

  8. Prospective associations of depression with survival: a population-based cohort study in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodermaier, Andrea; Linden, Wolfgang; Rnic, Katerina; Young, Sandra N; Ng, Alvina; Ditsch, Nina; Olson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Psychological factors may influence survival in breast cancer patients but results of previous research are inconclusive. This prospective population-based study tested whether depression predicts mortality in breast cancer patients. Routinely collected depression screening data were merged with electronically archived provincial cancer registry data and censored data from British Columbia Vital Statistics (extracted in December 2012). Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses were conducted to predict all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality as a function of depression after controlling for biomedical confounders. Of 1,646 patients, 1,604 had breast cancer stages I-III and 42 had stage IV breast cancer. 176 (11.0 %) versus 28 (66.7 %) were deceased after a median follow-up of 76 months. In patients with curable breast cancer, depression predicted all-cause (HR = 1.54 (95 % CI 1.06-2.25); p = 0.024), but not breast cancer-specific mortality (HR = 1.51 (95 % CI 0.95-2.41); p = 0.084). No association was shown for metastatic disease. Stage-specific analyses demonstrated a 2-2.5-fold increase in breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality in patients with stage I and II disease, but not in patients with stage III or IV breast cancer. In stage I breast cancer patients, age moderated effects of depression such that depressed younger patients diagnosed at age 45 (i.e., mean age -1SD) showed a ninefold (HR = 9.82 (95 % CI 2.26-42.68); p = 0.002) increase in all-cause mortality and depressed patients at 57 a 3.7-fold (HR = 3.69 (95 % CI 1.44-9.48); p = 0.007) increase, while no association was evident in older patients at age 69 (mean age +1SD). Depression is strongly associated with mortality in younger patients with early stage breast cancer.

  9. Incidence of cancer in the area around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in 1988–2003: a population-based ecological study

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    van Leeuwen Flora E

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is a major source of complaints about aircraft noise, safety risks and concerns about long term adverse health effects, including cancer. We investigated whether residents of the area around Schiphol are at higher risk of developing cancer than the general Dutch population. Methods In a population-based study using the regional cancer registry, we estimated the cancer incidence during 1988–2003 in residents of the area surrounding Schiphol. We defined a study area based on aircraft noise contours and 4-digit postal code areas, since historical data on ambient air pollution were not available and recent emission data did not differ from the background urban air quality. Results In residents of the study area 13 207 cancer cases were diagnosed, which was close to the expected number, using national incidence rates as a reference (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 1.02. We found a statistically significantly increased incidence of hematological malignancies (SIR 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05, 1.19, mainly due to high rates for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR 1.22, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.33 and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (SIR 1.34, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.83. The incidence of cancer of the respiratory system was statistically significantly decreased (SIR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99, due to the low rate in males (SIR 0.89. In the core zone of the study area, cancer incidence was slightly higher than in the remaining ring zone (rate ratio of the core zone compared to the ring zone 1.05, 95% CI 1.01, 1.10. This was caused by the higher incidence of cancer of the respiratory system, prostate and the female genital organs in the core zone in comparison to the ring zone. Conclusion The overall cancer incidence in the Schiphol area was similar to the national incidence. The moderately increased risk of hematological malignancies could not be explained by higher levels of ambient air pollution in the Schiphol area

  10. Effects of HPV detection in population-based screening programmes for cervical cancer; a Dutch moment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.L.M.; Meijer, C.J.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Snijders, P.J.L.M.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Presently, large randomised studies are investigating the value of incorporating HPV detection in population-based cervical screening programmes to improve the effectiveness of these programmes. None of these studies, however, has assessed the effect of HPV detection on the participation rate of wom

  11. Clarifying the debate on population-based screening for breast cancer with mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tony Hsiu-Hsi; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Gordon, Paula; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Hsu, Chen-Yang; Chang, King-Jen; Lee, Won-Chul; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Saito, Hiroshi; Promthet, Supannee; Hamashima, Chisato; Maidin, Alimin; Robinson, Fredie; Zhao, Li-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The recent controversy about using mammography to screen for breast cancer based on randomized controlled trials over 3 decades in Western countries has not only eclipsed the paradigm of evidence-based medicine, but also puts health decision-makers in countries where breast cancer screening is still being considered in a dilemma to adopt or abandon such a well-established screening modality. Methods: We reanalyzed the empirical data from the Health Insurance Plan trial in 1963 to the UK age trial in 1991 and their follow-up data published until 2015. We first performed Bayesian conjugated meta-analyses on the heterogeneity of attendance rate, sensitivity, and over-detection and their impacts on advanced stage breast cancer and death from breast cancer across trials using Bayesian Poisson fixed- and random-effect regression model. Bayesian meta-analysis of causal model was then developed to assess a cascade of causal relationships regarding the impact of both attendance and sensitivity on 2 main outcomes. Results: The causes of heterogeneity responsible for the disparities across the trials were clearly manifested in 3 components. The attendance rate ranged from 61.3% to 90.4%. The sensitivity estimates show substantial variation from 57.26% to 87.97% but improved with time from 64% in 1963 to 82% in 1980 when Bayesian conjugated meta-analysis was conducted in chronological order. The percentage of over-detection shows a wide range from 0% to 28%, adjusting for long lead-time. The impacts of the attendance rate and sensitivity on the 2 main outcomes were statistically significant. Causal inference made by linking these causal relationships with emphasis on the heterogeneity of the attendance rate and sensitivity accounted for the variation in the reduction of advanced breast cancer (none-30%) and of mortality (none-31%). We estimated a 33% (95% CI: 24–42%) and 13% (95% CI: 6–20%) breast cancer mortality reduction for the best scenario (90

  12. Phytoestrogen consumption from foods and supplements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a population-based case control study

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    Paddock Lisa E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is extensive literature evaluating the impact of phytoestrogen consumption on breast cancer risk, its role on ovarian cancer has received little attention. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate phytoestrogen intake from foods and supplements and epithelial ovarian cancer risk. Cases were identified in six counties in New Jersey through the New Jersey State Cancer Registry. Controls were identified by random digit dialing, CMS (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service lists, and area sampling. A total of 205 cases and 390 controls were included in analyses. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations with total phytoestrogens, as well as isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, formononetin, and glycitein, lignans (matairesinol, lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol, and coumestrol. Results No statistically significant associations were found with any of the phytoestrogens under evaluation. However, there was a suggestion of an inverse association with total phytoestrogen consumption (from foods and supplements, with an odds ratio (OR of 0.62 (95% CI: 0.38-1.00; p for trend: 0.04 for the highest vs. lowest tertile of consumption, after adjusting for reproductive covariates, age, race, education, BMI, and total energy. Further adjustment for smoking and physical activity attenuated risk estimates (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.41-1.08. There was little evidence of an inverse association for isoflavones, lignans, or coumestrol. Conclusions This study provided some suggestion that phytoestrogen consumption may decrease ovarian cancer risk, although results did not reach statistical significance.

  13. Development in incidence of breast cancer in non-screened Danish women, 1973-2002--a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglede, Niels; Langballe, Oline; Svendsen, Anne Louise;

    2006-01-01

    The authors report on the incidence rates of breast cancer overall and by histology in a population of unscreened women constituting approximately 80% of the total population of women in Denmark from 1973-2002, utilizing the files of the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry. The age-specific inciden...

  14. Cardiovascular Events in Cancer Patients Treated with Highly or Moderately Emetogenic Chemotherapy: Results from a Population-Based Study

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    Thao T. Vo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on cardiovascular safety in cancer patients treated with highly or moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC or MEC, who may have taken the antiemetic, aprepitant, have been limited to clinical trials and postmarketing spontaneous reports. Our study explored background rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD events among HEC- or MEC-treated cancer patients in a population-based setting to contextualize events seen in a new drug development program and to determine at a high level whether rates differed by aprepitant usage. Medical and pharmacy claims data from the 2005–2007 IMPACT National Benchmark Database were classified into emetogenic chemotherapy categories and CVD outcomes. Among 5827 HEC/MEC-treated patients, frequencies were highest for hypertension (16–21% and composites of venous (7–12% and arterial thromboembolic events (4–7%. Aprepitant users generally did not experience higher frequencies of events compared to nonusers. Our study serves as a useful benchmark of background CVD event rates in a population-based setting of cancer patients.

  15. Association between green tea/coffee consumption and biliary tract cancer: A population-based cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiuchi, Takeshi; Sobue, Tomotaka; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Ishihara, Junko; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Green tea and coffee consumption may decrease the risk of some types of cancers. However, their effects on biliary tract cancer (BTC) have been poorly understood. In this population-based prospective cohort study in Japan, we investigated the association of green tea (total green tea, Sencha, and Bancha/Genmaicha) and coffee consumption with the risk for BTC and its subtypes, gallbladder cancer, and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model. A total of 89 555 people aged 45-74 years were enrolled between 1995 and 1999 and followed up for 1 138 623 person-years until 2010, during which 284 cases of BTC were identified. Consumption of >720 mL/day green tea was significantly associated with decreased risk compared with consumption of ≤120 mL/day (hazard ratio = 0.67 [95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.97]), and a non-significant trend of decreased risk associated with increased consumption was observed (P-trend = 0.095). In the analysis according to the location of the primary tumor, consuming >120 mL green tea tended to be associated with decreased risk of gallbladder cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. When Sencha and Bancha/Genmaicha were analyzed separately, we observed a non-significant trend of decreased risk of BTC associated with Sencha but no association with Bancha/Genmaicha. For coffee, there was no clear association with biliary tract, gallbladder, or extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Our findings suggest that high green tea consumption may lower the risk of BTC, and the effect may be attributable to Sencha consumption.

  16. Cancer patterns in Inuit populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melbye, M.; Friborg, Jeppe Tang

    2008-01-01

    Inuit people inhabit the circumpolar region, with most living in Alaska, northwest Canada, and Greenland. Although malignant diseases were believed to be almost non-existent in Inuit populations during the beginning of the 20th century, the increasing life expectancy within these populations showed...... a distinct pattern, characterised by a high risk of Epstein-Barr virus-associated carcinomas of the nasopharynx and salivary glands, and a low risk of tumours common in white populations, including cancer of the prostate, testis, and haemopoietic system. Both genetic and environmental factors seem......, and reproductive factors. This Review will briefly summarise the current knowledge on cancer epidemiology in Inuit populations, with emphasis on the characteristic Inuit types of cancer Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9...

  17. The prognostic importance of miR-21 in stage II colon cancer: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer-Frifeldt, S.; Hansen, T. F.; Nielsen, B. S.

    2012-01-01

    R-21), quantified by in situ hybridisation, in a unique, large population-based cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 764 patients diagnosed with stage II colon cancer in Denmark in the year 2003. One section from a representative paraffin-embedded tumour tissue specimen from each patient......-free cancer-specific survival (RF-CSS): HR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.15-1.60; P analysis, a high level of miR-21 retained its prognostic importance and was found to be significantly related to poor RF-CSS: HR 1.41; 95% CI: 1.19-1.67; P ... was processed for analysis of miR-21 and quantitatively assessed by image analysis. RESULTS: The miR-21 signal was predominantly observed in fibroblast-like cells located in the stromal compartment of the tumours. We found that patients expressing high levels of miR-21 had significantly inferior recurrence...

  18. Green tea drinking, high tea temperature and esophageal cancer in high and low risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China: a population-based case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Liu, A.; Kampman, E.; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Veer, van 't P.; Wu, P.; Wang, P.; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested drinking green tea is inversely associated with esophageal cancer but results remain inconclusive. Moreover, inconsistent observations found high temperature drinks are associated with esophageal cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in a high-

  19. Green tea drinking, high tea temperature and esophageal cancer in high- and low-risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China: a population-based case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, M.; Liu, A.M.; Kampman, E.; Zhang, Z.F.; Veer, P. van 't; Wu, D.L.; Wang, P.H.; Yang, J.; Qin, Y.; Mu, L.N.; Kok, F.J.; Zhao, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested drinking green tea is inversely associated with esophageal cancer but results remain inconclusive. Moreover, inconsistent observations found high temperature drinks are associated with esophageal cancer. A population-based case-control study was conducted in a high-

  20. Employment and insurance outcomes and factors associated with employment among long-term thyroid cancer survivors : a population-based study from the PROFILES registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, S. J.; Bultmann, U.; Husson, O.; Kuijpens, J. L. P.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.

    2016-01-01

    To obtain insight into employment and insurance outcomes of thyroid cancer survivors and to examine the association between not having employment and other factors including quality of life. In this cross-sectional population-based study, long-term thyroid cancer survivors from the Netherlands parti

  1. Non-participation in breast cancer screening for persons with chronic diseases and multimorbidity: a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Berit

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases and multimorbidity are common in western countries and associated with increased breast cancer mortality. This study aims to investigate non-participation in breast cancer screening among women with chronic diseases and multimorbidity and the role of time...... in this association. Method This population-based cohort study used regional and national registries. Women who were invited to the first breast cancer screening round in the Central Denmark Region in 2008–09 were included (n = 149,234). Selected chronic diseases and multimorbidity were assessed up to 10 years before......-participation was found for women with cancer (PR = 1.50, 95 % CI: 1.40–1.60), mental illness (PR = 1.51, 95 % CI: 1.42–1.60), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PR = 1.51, 95 % CI: 1.42–1.62), neurological disorders (PR = 1.24, 95 % CI: 1.12–1.37) and kidney disease (PR = 1.70, 95 % CI 1.49–1.94), whereas women...

  2. Coprescription of Chinese Herbal Medicine and Western Medications among Prostate Cancer Patients: A Population-Based Study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsien Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of herbal medicine is popular among cancer patients. This study aimed to explore the coprescription of CHM and WM among prostate cancer patients in Taiwan. This cross-sectional retrospective study used a population-based database containing one million beneficiaries of National Health Insurance. Claims and prescriptions were analyzed. In 2007, 218 (22.4% prostate cancer patients were CHM users. Among CHM users, 200 (91.7% patients with 5618 (79.5% CHM prescriptions were on coprescription of CHM and WM. A total of 484 types of CHM and 930 types of WM were used. The most commonly used CHMs on coprescription were Shu Jing Huo Xue Tang, Ma Zi Ren Wan, and Xue Fu Zhu Yu Tang. The most commonly used WMs on coprescription were magnesium oxide, amlodipine, and aspirin. The average number of prescriptions per user per year was 261.2 versus 151.7 in all (P<0.001, 123.6 versus 76.9 in WM (P=0.033, and 34.8 versus 5.1 in CHM (P<0.001 for patients with and without coprescription, respectively. In conclusion, use of CHM among prostate cancer patients was popular in Taiwan. Most CHMs were used with WM concurrently. The potential drug-herb interactions should be investigated, especially for patients with more prescriptions.

  3. Statin improves survival in patients with EGFR-TKI lung cancer: A nationwide population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ming-Szu; Chen, I-Chuan; Lee, Chuan-Pin; Huang, Ru-Jiun; Chen, Pau-Chung; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2017-01-01

    Long-term use of statins has been reported to reduce the risk of death in patients with lung cancer. This study investigated the effect of statin use among patients with lung cancer receiving epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKIs) therapy. A nationwide, population-based case-control study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. From January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2012, a total of 1,707 statin and 6,828 non-statin matched lung cancer cohorts with EGFR-TKIs treatment were studied. Statin use was associated with a reduced risk of death (HR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.54–0.62, p < 0.001). In addition, statin use was associated with a significantly longer median progression-free survival (8.3 months, 95% CI: 7.6–8.9 vs. 6.1 months, 95% CI: 6.0–6.4, p < 0.001) and median overall survival (35.5 months, 95% CI: 33.8–38.1 vs. 23.9 months, 95% CI: 23.4–24.7, p < 0.001). In conclusion, statins might potentially enhance the therapeutic effect and increase survival in patients with lung cancer receiving EGFR-TKI therapy. PMID:28158206

  4. Risk for Hospitalization With Depression After a Cancer Diagnosis: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study of Cancer Patients in Denmark From 1973 to 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalton, S.O.; Laursen, T.M.; Nylandsted, Lone Ross

    2009-01-01

    ) for depression among cancer survivors relative to the cancer-free population was estimated by Poisson regression analysis with adjustment for age and period and stratified by sex, site of cancer, and extent of disease. Results The risk for depression in the first year after a cancer diagnosis was increased......Purpose As more people survive cancer, it is necessary to understand the long-term impact of cancer. We investigated whether cancer survivors are at increased risk for hospitalization for depression. Methods We linked data on all 5,703,754 persons living in Denmark on January 1, 1973, or born...... for both men and women surviving hormone-related cancers, for women surviving smoking-related cancers, and for men surviving virus- and immune-related cancers. Conclusion This study confirms an increased risk for depression in patients facing a disruptive event like cancer. Early recognition and effective...

  5. Population based screening for prostatic cancer : tumor features and clinical decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.N. Vis (André)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe aggregate morbidity and mortality attributed to prostate cancer are certainly sufficient to justify a search for rational, effective and efficient screening strategies. Unfortunately, the outcome of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigate the efficacy of prostate cancer

  6. Daily physical activities and sports in adult survivors of childhood cancer and healthy controls: a population-based questionnaire survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina S Rueegg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthy lifestyle including sufficient physical activity may mitigate or prevent adverse long-term effects of childhood cancer. We described daily physical activities and sports in childhood cancer survivors and controls, and assessed determinants of both activity patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a questionnaire survey including all children diagnosed with cancer 1976-2003 at age 0-15 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry, who survived ≥5 years and reached adulthood (≥20 years. Controls came from the population-based Swiss Health Survey. We compared the two populations and determined risk factors for both outcomes in separate multivariable logistic regression models. The sample included 1058 survivors and 5593 controls (response rates 78% and 66%. Sufficient daily physical activities were reported by 52% (n = 521 of survivors and 37% (n = 2069 of controls (p<0.001. In contrast, 62% (n = 640 of survivors and 65% (n = 3635 of controls reported engaging in sports (p = 0.067. Risk factors for insufficient daily activities in both populations were: older age (OR for ≥35 years: 1.5, 95CI 1.2-2.0, female gender (OR 1.6, 95CI 1.3-1.9, French/Italian Speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.1-1.7, and higher education (OR for university education: 2.0, 95CI 1.5-2.6. Risk factors for no sports were: being a survivor (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.1-1.6, older age (OR for ≥35 years: 1.4, 95CI 1.1-1.8, migration background (OR 1.5, 95CI 1.3-1.8, French/Italian speaking (OR 1.4, 95CI 1.2-1.7, lower education (OR for compulsory schooling only: 1.6, 95CI 1.2-2.2, being married (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5-2.0, having children (OR 1.3, 95CI 1.4-1.9, obesity (OR 2.4, 95CI 1.7-3.3, and smoking (OR 1.7, 95CI 1.5-2.1. Type of diagnosis was only associated with sports. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Physical activity levels in survivors were lower than recommended, but comparable to controls and

  7. Cancer incidence in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiow-Ing; Yaung, Chih-Liang; Lee, Long-Teng; Chiou, Shang-Jyh

    2016-01-01

    Numerous antinuclear demonstrations reveal that the public is anxious about the potential health effects caused by nuclear power plants. The purpose of this study is to address the question "Is there a higher cancer incidence rate in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan?" The Taiwan Cancer Registry database from 1979 to 2003 was used to compare the standardized incidence rate of the top four cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks between the "plant-vicinity" with those "non-plant-vicinity" groups. All cancer sites, five-leading cancers in Taiwan, and gender-specific cancers were also studied. We also adopted different observation time to compare the incidence rate of cancers between two groups to explore the impact of the observation period. The incidences of leukemia, thyroid, lung, and breast cancer were not significantly different between two groups, but cervix uteri cancer showed higher incidence rates in the plant-vicinity group. The incidence of cervical cancer was not consistently associated with the duration of plant operation, according to a multiyear period comparison. Although there was higher incidence in cervix cancer in the plant-vicinity group, our findings did not provide the crucial evidence that nuclear power plants were the causal factor for some cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks.

  8. Nutritional factors in relation to endometrial cancer: A report from a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Wang-Hong; Dai, Qi; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zhao, Gen-Ming; Ruan, Zhi-Xian; Cheng, Jia-Rong; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the role of dietary nutrients in the etiology of endometrial cancer in a population-based case-control study of 1,204 newly diagnosed endometrial cancer cases and 1,212 age frequency-matched controls. Information on usual dietary habits was collected during an in-person interview using a validated, quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the association of nutrients with endometrial cancer risk using an energy density meth...

  9. Thyroid cancer in French Polynesia: a population based case control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindel, P.; Doyon, F.; Adjadj, E.; Vathaire, F. de [Institut Gustave Roussy, INSERM U605, 94 - Villejuif (France); Drozdovitch, V. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 69 - Lyon (France); Bouville, A. [DHHS/NIH/NCI/Div. of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics EPS (United States); Paoaafaite, J.; Teuri, J. [IRD, Papeete Tahiti (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Because a previous study had shown that registered thyroid cancer incidence is higher among natives of French Polynesia (FP) than in other Maori populations from Hawaii and New-Zealand, a case-control study of thyroid cancer coordinated by Unit 605 of INSERM was conducted in FP. The main objective was to assess the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests performed by France between 1966 and 1974 on such a high incidence. The study included 600 subjects born and residing in FP: 229 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, aged up to 30 years old at start of nuclear weapons testing and 371 control s matched on gender and birth date randomly selected from the FP registry of births. Face to face interviews were conducted from 2002 to 2004 by specialized investigators native from FP who received a specific formation for this study. Addresses were collected from the territorial medical insurance, which covers all the inhabitants, whatever their professional status. Detailed information about nutrition at time of interview and at the end of adolescence was collected by means of a semi-quantitative method using pictures. Data concerning residence, hormonal and reproductive life, familial and personal background of thyroid pathologies and cancers, and professional and environmental exposure to carcinogens were also collected. For each study subject, radiation thyroid dose was estimated taking into account residential history and dietary habits of the subject and deposition densities of radionuclides reconstructed for each island where the subject resided during the testing period. The iodine intake will be estimated from the dietary questionnaire, as well as from mass-spectrometry measurements of stable iodine in nail clippings, which were collected during the interviews. Among the 229 cases, 89% were females, 54% declared themselves as of pure Maori origin, another 36% of Maori-Asian or Maori

  10. Diabetes and risk of incident cancer: a large population-based cohort study in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodick, Gabriel; Heymann, Anthony D; Rosenmann, Lena; Green, Manfred S; Flash, Shira; Porath, Avi; Kokia, Ehud; Shalev, Varda

    2010-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been associated with an increased risk of a variety of cancers in observational studies, but few have reported the relationship between diabetes and cancer risk in men and women separately. The main goal of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the sex-specific risk of incident overall and site-specific cancer among people with DM compared with those without, who had no reported history of cancer at the start of the follow-up in January 2000. During an average of 8 years of follow-up (SD = 2.5), we documented 1,639 and 7,945 incident cases of cancer among 16,721 people with DM and 83,874 free of DM, respectively. In women, DM was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.96 (95% CI: 1.53-2.50) and 1.41 (95% CI: 1.20-1.66) for cancers of genital organs and digestive organs, respectively. A significantly reduced HR was observed for skin cancer (0.38; 95% CI: 0.22-0.66). In men with DM, there was no significant increase in overall risk of cancer. DM was related with a 47% reduction in the risk of prostate cancer. These findings suggest that the nature of the association between DM and cancer depends on sex and specific cancer site.

  11. Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products for Breast Cancer in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

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    Jung-Nien Lai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chinese herbal products (CHPs given as a therapy for symptom relief have gained widespread popularity among women with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of CHP among women with breast cancer in Taiwan. Methods. The usage, frequency of services, and CHP prescribed for breast cancer among women with breast cancer were evaluated, recruited from a randomly sampled cohort of 1,000,000 beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for utilization of CHP. Results. 81.5 percent (N=2,236 of women with breast cancer utilized traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and 18% of them sought TCM with the intent of treating their breast cancer. Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (Augmented Rambling Powder was the most frequently prescribed formula for treating breast cancer. Among the top 10 most frequently prescribed CHP for treating breast cancer, seven contained dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix and six contained ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix, which are reported to have potential beneficial synergistic effects on breast cancer cells. Conclusion. CHP containing dang qui (Angelica sinensis-radix or ren shen (Panax ginseng-radix are the most frequently prescribed for breast cancer and their effects should be taken into account by healthcare providers.

  12. Hepatitis C virus infection and risk of cancer: a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars; Farkas, Dora Körmendiné; Jepsen, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with an increased risk of primary liver cancer; however, 5- and 10-year risk estimates are needed. The association of HCV with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is uncertain and the association with other cancers is unknown.......Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with an increased risk of primary liver cancer; however, 5- and 10-year risk estimates are needed. The association of HCV with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is uncertain and the association with other cancers is unknown....

  13. Psychometric Evaluation of the PROMIS® Fatigue measure in an ethnically and racially diverse population-based sample of cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryce B. Reeve

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Fatigue is the most prevalent and distressing symptom related to cancer and its treatment affecting functioning and quality of life. In 2010, the National Cancer Institute’s Clinical Trials Planning Meeting on cancer-related fatigue adopted the PROMIS® Fatigue measure as the standard to use in clinical trials. This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the PROMIS Fatigue measure in an ethnically/racially diverse population-based sample of adult cancer patients. Methods: Patients were recruited from four US cancer registries with oversampling of minorities. Participants completed a paper survey 6 - 13 months post-diagnosis. The 14 fatigue items (5-point Likert-type scale; English-, Spanish-, and Chinese-versions were selected from the PROMIS Fatigue short forms and larger item bank. Item response theory and factor analyses were used to evaluate item- and scale-level performance. Differential item functioning (DIF was evaluated using the Wald test and ordinal logistic regression (OLR methods. OLR-identified items with DIF were evaluated further for their effect on the scale scores (threshold r2 > .13. Results: The sample included 5,507 patients (2,278 non-Hispanic Whites, 1,122 non-Hispanic Blacks, 1,053 Hispanics, and 917 Asians/ Pacific Islanders; 338 Hispanics were given the Spanish-language version of the survey and 134 Asians the Chinese version. One PROMIS item had poor discrimination as it was the only positively worded question in the fatigue measure. Among Hispanics, no DIF was found with the Wald test, while the OLR method identified five items with DIF comparing the English and Spanish versions; however, the effect of DIF on scores was negligible (r2 ranged from .006 - .015. For the English and Chinese translations, no single item was consistently identified by both DIF tests. Minimal or no impact was observed on the overall scale score comparisons among Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians using the English language

  14. HapMap-based study of the DNA repair gene ERCC2 and lung cancer susceptibility in a Chinese population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Jiaoyang; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Ma, Yegang

    2009-01-01

    (NER) pathway. To elucidate whether common ERCC2 variants are associated with lung cancer susceptibility, we conducted a case–control study consisting of 339 cases with primary lung cancer and 358 controls matched on age, gender and ethnicity in a Chinese population. Six haplotype tagging single...

  15. Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Luis; Chisholm, Rebecca; Clairambault, Jean; Escargueil, Alexandre; Lorenzi, Tommaso; Lorz, Alexander; Trélat, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations, be it of genetic, epigenetic or stochastic origin, has been identified as a main source of resistance to drug treatments and a major source of therapeutic failures in cancers. The molecular mechanisms of drug resistance are partly understood at the single cell level (e.g., overexpression of ABC transporters or of detoxication enzymes), but poorly predictable in tumours, where they are hypothesised to rely on heterogeneity at the cell population scale, which is thus the right level to describe cancer growth and optimise its control by therapeutic strategies in the clinic. We review a few results from the biological literature on the subject, and from mathematical models that have been published to predict and control evolution towards drug resistance in cancer cell populations. We propose, based on the latter, optimisation strategies of combined treatments to limit emergence of drug resistance to cytotoxic drugs in cancer cell populations, in the monoclonal situation, which limited as it is still retains consistent features of cell population heterogeneity. The polyclonal situation, that may be understood as "bet hedging" of the tumour, thus protecting itself from different sources of drug insults, may lie beyond such strategies and will need further developments. In the monoclonal situation, we have designed an optimised therapeutic strategy relying on a scheduled combination of cytotoxic and cytostatic treatments that can be adapted to different situations of cancer treatments. Finally, we review arguments for biological theoretical frameworks proposed at different time and development scales, the so-called atavistic model (diachronic view relying on Darwinian genotype selection in the coursof billions of years) and the Waddington-like epigenetic landscape endowed with evolutionary quasi-potential (synchronic view relying on Lamarckian phenotype instruction of a given genome by reversible mechanisms), to

  16. Impact of risk factors on different interval cancer subtypes in a population-based breast cancer screening programme.

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    Jordi Blanch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interval cancers are primary breast cancers diagnosed in women after a negative screening test and before the next screening invitation. Our aim was to evaluate risk factors for interval cancer and their subtypes and to compare the risk factors identified with those associated with incident screen-detected cancers. METHODS: We analyzed data from 645,764 women participating in the Spanish breast cancer screening program from 2000-2006 and followed-up until 2009. A total of 5,309 screen-detected and 1,653 interval cancers were diagnosed. Among the latter, 1,012 could be classified on the basis of findings in screening and diagnostic mammograms, consisting of 489 true interval cancers (48.2%, 235 false-negatives (23.2%, 172 minimal-signs (17.2% and 114 occult tumors (11.3%. Information on the screening protocol and women's characteristics were obtained from the screening program registry. Cause-specific Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR of risks factors for interval cancer and incident screen-detected cancer. A multinomial regression model, using screen-detected tumors as a reference group, was used to assess the effect of breast density and other factors on the occurrence of interval cancer subtypes. RESULTS: A previous false-positive was the main risk factor for interval cancer (HR = 2.71, 95%CI: 2.28-3.23; this risk was higher for false-negatives (HR = 8.79, 95%CI: 6.24-12.40 than for true interval cancer (HR = 2.26, 95%CI: 1.59-3.21. A family history of breast cancer was associated with true intervals (HR = 2.11, 95%CI: 1.60-2.78, previous benign biopsy with a false-negatives (HR = 1.83, 95%CI: 1.23-2.71. High breast density was mainly associated with occult tumors (RRR = 4.92, 95%CI: 2.58-9.38, followed by true intervals (RRR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.18-2.36 and false-negatives (RRR = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.00-2.49. CONCLUSION: The role of women's characteristics differs among

  17. Treatment and outcome in muscle invasive bladder cancer : a population-based survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leliveld, Anna M.; Doornweerd, Benjamin H. J.; Bastiaannet, Esther; Schaapveld, Michael; de Jong, Igle J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess treatments and survival of patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) in the Comprehensive Cancer Center Northern Netherlands (CCCN) region. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort analysis. Data of 548 patients with MIBC diagnosed between 1997 and 2002 were coll

  18. Patterns of Care in the Administration of Neo-adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer. A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugts, Guusje; Maaskant-Braat, Adriana J G; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; Roumen, Rudi M H; Luiten, Ernest J T; Voogd, Adri C

    2016-05-01

    Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is used to facilitate radical surgery for initially irresectable or locally advanced breast cancer. The indication for NAC has been extended to clinically node negative (cN0) patients in whom adjuvant systemic therapy is foreseen. A population-based study was conducted to evaluate the increasing use of NAC, breast conserving surgery (BCS) after NAC and timing of the sentinel node biopsy (SNB). All female breast cancer patients, treated in 10 hospitals in the Eindhoven Cancer Registry area in the Netherlands between January 2003 and June 2012 were included (N = 18,427). In total, 1,402 patients (7.6%) received NAC. The administration increased from 2.5% in 2003 to 13.0% in 2011 (p 20% (p < 0.001). Of the 1,402 patients with NAC, 495 patients underwent SNB, 91.5% of whom prior to NAC. In the Netherlands up to one in eight patients receive NAC. The administration of NAC and the percentage of BCS increased over the past decade, especially in cT2 tumors. Considerable hospital variation in the administration of NAC exists.

  19. Protocol for population testing of an Internet-based Personalised Decision Support system for colorectal cancer screening

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    Wilson Carlene J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia has a comparatively high incidence of colorectal (bowel cancer; however, population screening uptake using faecal occult blood test (FOBT remains low. This study will determine the impact on screening participation of a novel, Internet-based Personalised Decision Support (PDS package. The PDS is designed to measure attitudes and cognitive concerns and provide people with individually tailored information, in real time, that will assist them with making a decision to screen. The hypothesis is that exposure to (tailored PDS will result in greater participation in screening than participation following exposure to non-tailored PDS or resulting from the current non-tailored, paper-based approach. Methods/design A randomised parallel trial comprising three arms will be conducted. Men and women aged 50-74 years (N = 3240 will be recruited. They must have access to the Internet; have not had an FOBT within the previous 12 months, or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy within the previous 5 years; have had no clinical diagnosis of bowel cancer. Groups 1 and 2 (PDS arms will access a website and complete a baseline survey measuring decision-to-screen stage, attitudes and cognitive concerns and will receive immediate feedback; Group 1 will receive information 'tailored' to their responses in the baseline survey and group 2 will received 'non-tailored' bowel cancer information. Respondents in both groups will subsequently receive an FOBT kit. Group 3 (usual practice arm will complete a paper-based version of the baseline survey and respondents will subsequently receive 'non-tailored' paper-based bowel cancer information with accompanying FOBT kit. Following despatch of FOBTs, all respondents will be requested to complete an endpoint survey. Main outcome measures are (1 completion of FOBT and (2 change in decision-to-screen stage. Secondary outcomes include satisfaction with decision and change in attitudinal scores from baseline to

  20. Radiotherapy waiting times for women with breast cancer: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainsbury Richard

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waiting times for cancer patients are a national priority in the UK. Previous studies have shown variation between cancer networks in the time between diagnosis and start of radiotherapy for all cancer patients. Studies of the relationship between delay in receiving treatment and survival of breast cancer patients have been inconsistent. This study aimed to examine factors associated with waiting times for radiotherapy for breast cancer patients. Methods 35,354 women resident in South East England and diagnosed with breast cancer between 1992 and 2001 who received radiotherapy within six months of diagnosis were identified from the Thames Cancer Registry. Time to radiotherapy was measured from either the date of diagnosis or the start of the previous treatment, whichever was shorter. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to examine whether patients received radiotherapy within 60 days of their diagnosis or previous treatment. Results The adjusted proportions of patients receiving radiotherapy within 60 days varied significantly between different cancer networks (range: 43% to 81%, and decreased from 68% in 1992 to 33% in 2001. After adjustment there was no association between deprivation of area of residence, age or stage and radiotherapy wait. Median time waited to radiotherapy increased over the study period whether measured from the start of chemotherapy, hormone therapy, surgery or the date of diagnosis. Conclusion This study covered a period of time before the investment following the Cancer Plan of 2000. Results are consistent with other findings suggesting variation between cancer networks and increasing waits over time. Further studies should examine different methods of measuring waiting time, the causes and consequences of waits for radiotherapy and the effect of current initiatives and investments.

  1. Gastric cancer burden of last 40 years in North China (Hebei Province): A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Di; Liang, Suoyuan; Jin, Jing; Li, Daojuan; Shi, Jin; He, Yutong

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in China. It is well known that Cixian in Hebei Province is one of the highest risk areas of GC in China and worldwide. This study aims to accurate assessment of GC burden and trend in high-risk area (Hebei Province) from 1973 to 2013. The authors analyzed GC data from 21 population-based cancer registries which represented 15.25% of the entire population of Hebei Province. The collected data were stratified by 5-year age groups, gender, and area. Mortality of GC was extracted from national death surveys from 1973 to 1975, 1990 to 1992, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2013. Trend analysis (1988-2013) in a high-risk area (Cixian) used the Joinpoint Model. The age-period-cohort model was used to estimate the effects of age, period, and birth cohort in GC incidence in Cixian from 1988 to 2013. The crude incidence of GC in 2011 to 2013 was 40.37/100,000 (57.53/100,000 in males and 22.55/100,000 in females). The corresponding age-standardized rate by world age-standard population was 32.18/100,000 (48.87/100,000 in males and 17.53/100,000 in females), which was 2.66-fold (2.81-fold in male and 2.34-fold in female) higher than that in the world (12.1/100,000, 17.4/100,000 in males and 7.5/100,000 in females). Males in rural areas had the highest incidence, with an age-standardized rate of 70.51/100,000. Gastric cardia cancer was primary anatomical subsite which accounting for 59.59% in GC, followed by gastric corpus (13.92%), gastric antrum (11.43%), gastric fundus (4.99%), and overlapping lesion of gastric (4.17%). The age-standardized rate of mortality from GC displayed a significant downward trend (P = 0.019) in Hebei Province from the 1990s (31.44/100,000) to the 2010s (24.63/100,000). In Cixian, the incidence of GC rose from 1988 (38.25/100,000) to 2009 (65.11/100,000). Cixian, where population-based screening of upper gastrointestinal cancer was performed, experienced the increasing rate of GC from 2000

  2. Population-standardized genetic risk score: the SNP-based method of choice for inherited risk assessment of prostate cancer

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    Carly A Conran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several different approaches are available to clinicians for determining prostate cancer (PCa risk. The clinical validity of various PCa risk assessment methods utilizing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs has been established; however, these SNP-based methods have not been compared. The objective of this study was to compare the three most commonly used SNP-based methods for PCa risk assessment. Participants were men (n = 1654 enrolled in a prospective study of PCa development. Genotypes of 59 PCa risk-associated SNPs were available in this cohort. Three methods of calculating SNP-based genetic risk scores (GRSs were used for the evaluation of individual disease risk such as risk allele count (GRS-RAC, weighted risk allele count (GRS-wRAC, and population-standardized genetic risk score (GRS-PS. Mean GRSs were calculated, and performances were compared using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC and positive predictive value (PPV. All SNP-based methods were found to be independently associated with PCa (all P 0.05 for comparisons between the three methods, and all three SNP-based methods had a significantly higher AUC than family history (all P < 0.05. Results from this study suggest that while the three most commonly used SNP-based methods performed similarly in discriminating PCa from non-PCa at the population level, GRS-PS is the method of choice for risk assessment at the individual level because its value (where 1.0 represents average population risk can be easily interpreted regardless of the number of risk-associated SNPs used in the calculation.

  3. Estimating and modelling cure in population-based cancer studies within the framework of flexible parametric survival models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloranta Sandra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When the mortality among a cancer patient group returns to the same level as in the general population, that is, the patients no longer experience excess mortality, the patients still alive are considered "statistically cured". Cure models can be used to estimate the cure proportion as well as the survival function of the "uncured". One limitation of parametric cure models is that the functional form of the survival of the "uncured" has to be specified. It can sometimes be hard to find a survival function flexible enough to fit the observed data, for example, when there is high excess hazard within a few months from diagnosis, which is common among older age groups. This has led to the exclusion of older age groups in population-based cancer studies using cure models. Methods Here we have extended the flexible parametric survival model to incorporate cure as a special case to estimate the cure proportion and the survival of the "uncured". Flexible parametric survival models use splines to model the underlying hazard function, and therefore no parametric distribution has to be specified. Results We have compared the fit from standard cure models to our flexible cure model, using data on colon cancer patients in Finland. This new method gives similar results to a standard cure model, when it is reliable, and better fit when the standard cure model gives biased estimates. Conclusions Cure models within the framework of flexible parametric models enables cure modelling when standard models give biased estimates. These flexible cure models enable inclusion of older age groups and can give stage-specific estimates, which is not always possible from parametric cure models.

  4. Impact of Diabetes Mellitus on the Treatment Outcomes of Chemotherapy in Women with Breast Cancer-A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Ching Chen; Cheng-Wei Chang; Jorng-Tzong Horng; Yan-Jun Chen; Jin-Tsung Yang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract¾There are few population-based data in investigating the impact of diabetes on chemotherapy adverse effects and treatment outcomes of non-metastatic breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether diabetes affects the patterns of use in chemotherapy, toxic effects of chemotherapy, and treatment outcomes for non-metastatic breast cancer in Taiwan. The study results can provide physicians for making a decision whether or not to use chemotherapy based on the individual patients’ condition.

  5. Improving population-based cervical cancer screening in general practice : effects of a national strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, R P; Hak, E; Hulscher, M E; Mulder, J; Tacken, M A; Braspenning, J C; Grol, R P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of a Dutch national prevention programme, aimed at general practitioners (GPs), on the adherence to organizational guidelines for effective cervical cancer screening in general practice. To identify the characteristics of general practices determining success. DESIGN

  6. Establishing a population-based patient-reported outcomes study (PROMs) using national cancer registries across two jurisdictions: the Prostate Cancer Treatment, your experience (PiCTure) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, F J; Kinnear, H; Donnelly, C; O'Leary, E; O'Brien, K; Burns, R M; Gavin, A; Sharp, L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish an international patient-reported outcomes (PROMs) study among prostate cancer survivors, up to 18 years postdiagnosis, in two countries with different healthcare systems and ethical frameworks. Design A cross-sectional, postal survey of prostate cancer survivors sampled and recruited via two population-based cancer registries. Healthcare professionals (HCPs) evaluated patients for eligibility to participate. Questionnaires contained validated instruments to assess health-related quality of life and psychological well-being, including QLQ-C30, QLQ-PR25, EQ-5D-5L, 21-question Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Decisional Regret Scale. Setting Republic of Ireland (RoI) and Northern Ireland (NI). Primary outcome measures Registration completeness, predictors of eligibility and response, data missingness, unweighted and weighted PROMs. Results Prostate cancer registration was 80% (95% CI 75% to 84%) and 91% (95% CI 89% to 93%) complete 2 years postdiagnosis in NI and RoI, respectively. Of 12 322 survivors sampled from registries, 53% (n=6559) were classified as eligible following HCP screening. In the multivariate analysis, significant predictors of eligibility were: being ≤59 years of age at diagnosis (p<0.001), short-term survivor (<5 years postdiagnosis; p<0.001) and from RoI (p<0.001). 3348 completed the questionnaire, yielding a 54% adjusted response rate. 13% of men or their families called the study freephone with queries for assistance with questionnaire completion or to talk about their experience. Significant predictors of response in multivariate analysis were: being ≤59 years at diagnosis (p<0.001) and from RoI (p=0.016). Mean number of missing questions in validated instruments ranged from 0.12 (SD 0.71; EQ-5D-5L) to 3.72 (SD 6.30; QLQ-PR25). Weighted and unweighted mean EQ-5D-5L, QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25 scores were similar, as were the weighted and unweighted prevalences of depression, anxiety and

  7. Statin use and the risk of colorectal cancer:A population-based case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-Hsuan Cheng; Hui-Fen Chiu; Shu-Chen Ho; Shang-Shyue Tsai; Trong-Neng Wu; Chun-Yuh Yang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Toinvestigatewhethertheuseo.. Statinsisassoci-o investigate wwhether the use ofstatins is associated wwith colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study in Taiwwan. Data wwere retrospectively collected f..rom the Taiwwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Cases consisted of.. All patients wwho were aged 50 years and older and had a first-time diagnosis of.. Colorectal cancer betwween the period 2005 and 2008. The controls matched to cases by age, sex, and index date. Adjusted odds ratios (Ors) and 95% confidence intervals (Cis) were estimated using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: We examined 1156 colorectal cancer cases and 4624 controls. The unadjusted Ors .or any statin prescription wwas 1.10 (95% CI=0.94-1.30)andthead- andthead-=1.330) and the adjusted OR 1.09 (95% CI=0.91-1.30).Whenstatin Whenstatin=Whenstatin0.91-1.330). When statin use categorized by cumulative dose, the adjusted Ors wwere 0.99 (95% CI=0.78-1.27).orthegroupwith ith=ith0.778-1.277) or the group wwith cumulative statin use beloww 105 def..ined daily doses (DDDs); 1.077 (95% CI=0.78-1.49) .orthegroupwith ith=ith0.778-or the group cumulative statin use betwween 106 and 298.66 DDDs; and 1.330 (95% CI=0.96-1.75).orthegroupwithcu- ithcu-=1.775) or the group wwith cumulative statin use of. 298.66 DDDs or more compared with nonusers. CONCLUSION: This study does not provide support for a protective effect of statins against colorectal cancer.

  8. Early Esophageal Cancer Specific Survival Is Unaffected by Anatomical Location of Tumor: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan N. Amin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Approximately one-fifth of all esophageal cancer cases are defined as early esophageal cancer (EEC. Although endoscopic therapy (ET has been shown to be equally effective as esophagectomy (EST in patients with EEC, there is little information comparing the survival outcomes of the two therapies based on anatomical location. Methods. A population-based study was conducted and the data was obtained from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. Patients with EEC (i.e., stages Tis and T1a and treated with either ET or EST were analyzed to compare EEC-related survival for three different locations of tumor. Results. The overall EEC-specific 1-year and 5-year mean (±SE survival rates were 11.66±0.05 and 52.80±0.58 months, respectively. Tumors located in lower third had better 5-year survival compared to those located in middle third (83.50% versus 73.10%, p<0.01. However, when adjusted for age, race, gender, marital status, grade, stage of tumor, histological type, and treatment modality, there was no significant difference. Conclusion. The EEC-specific 1-year or 5-year adjusted survival did not differ by anatomic location of the tumor. Therefore, ET might serve as a minimally invasive yet effective alternative to EST to treat EEC.

  9. Early Esophageal Cancer Specific Survival Is Unaffected by Anatomical Location of Tumor: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Samip J.; Gangireddy, Venu Gopala Reddy; Kanneganti, Praveen; Talla, Swathi; Daram, Sumanth

    2016-01-01

    Background. Approximately one-fifth of all esophageal cancer cases are defined as early esophageal cancer (EEC). Although endoscopic therapy (ET) has been shown to be equally effective as esophagectomy (EST) in patients with EEC, there is little information comparing the survival outcomes of the two therapies based on anatomical location. Methods. A population-based study was conducted and the data was obtained from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. Patients with EEC (i.e., stages Tis and T1a) and treated with either ET or EST were analyzed to compare EEC-related survival for three different locations of tumor. Results. The overall EEC-specific 1-year and 5-year mean (±SE) survival rates were 11.66 ± 0.05 and 52.80 ± 0.58 months, respectively. Tumors located in lower third had better 5-year survival compared to those located in middle third (83.50% versus 73.10%, p < 0.01). However, when adjusted for age, race, gender, marital status, grade, stage of tumor, histological type, and treatment modality, there was no significant difference. Conclusion. The EEC-specific 1-year or 5-year adjusted survival did not differ by anatomic location of the tumor. Therefore, ET might serve as a minimally invasive yet effective alternative to EST to treat EEC. PMID:27559535

  10. A comparative population-based study of prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates in Singapore, Sweden and Geneva, Switzerland from 1973 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Cynthia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men in Sweden and Geneva, and the third most common in men in Singapore. This population-based study describes trends in the incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer in Singapore, Sweden and Geneva (Switzerland from 1973 to 2006 and explores possible explanations for these different trends. Methods Data from patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were extracted from national cancer registries in Singapore (n = 5,172, Sweden (n = 188,783 and Geneva (n = 5,755 from 1973 to 2006. Trends of incidence and mortality were reported using the Poisson and negative binomial regression models. The age, period and birth-cohort were tested as predictors of incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer. Results Incidence rates of prostate cancer increased over all time periods for all three populations. Based on the age-period-cohort analysis, older age and later period of diagnosis were associated with a higher incidence of prostate cancer, whereas older age and earlier period were associated with higher mortality rates for prostate cancer in all three countries. Conclusions This study demonstrated an overall increase in incidence rates and decrease in mortality rates in Singapore, Sweden and Geneva. Both incidence and mortality rates were much lower in Singapore. The period effect is a stronger predictor of incidence and mortality of prostate cancer than the birth-cohort effect.

  11. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in cervical cancer: a nationwide population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Shiang-Jiun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a life-threatening condition that occurs as a complication of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of VTE in cervical cancer patients during a 5-year follow-up. Methods The study analyzed data deposited between 2003 and 2008 in the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD, provided by the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan. Totally, 1013 cervical cancer patients after treatment and 2026 appendectomy patients were eligible. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the VTE risk. Results The 5-year cumulative risk for VTE was significantly higher in the cervical cancer group than in the control group (3.3% vs 0.3%, p vs 30.3%, p  Conclusions The cumulative risk of VTE was significantly higher in cervical cancer patients, and these patients also had lower survival rates. Strategies to reduce these risks need to be examined.

  12. Chronic diseases requiring hospitalization and risk of non-melanoma skin cancers-A population based study from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Ø; Olesen, Anne B; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2008-01-01

    We examined the associations between chronic diseases requiring hospitalization and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) in a population-based case-control study of 4,187 patients diagnosed with a first primary NMSC in 1995 in Denmark. From the National Patient Registry covering all Danish...... hospitals, we obtained data on hospitalizations with chronic diseases, recorded before the date of NMSC diagnosis. Using incidence density sampling, we selected 10 age-, gender-, and residence-matched controls from the Danish Civil Registration System. We used conditional logistic regression to compute...... incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Although no overall association was found between basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and hospitalization for chronic diseases, an elevated IRR for BCC was found among patients with connective tissue disease (IRR 1.34 (95% CI: 0.99-1.82)), transplants...

  13. Independent prognostic effect of co-morbidity in lymphoma patients: results of the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spronsen, D J; Janssen-Heijnen, M L G; Lemmens, V E P P; Peters, W G; Coebergh, J W W

    2005-05-01

    The prevalence of co-morbidity among elderly lymphoma patients is associated with a decrease in the use of chemotherapy. This study assessed the independent prognostic effect of co-morbidity in 1551 unselected lymphoma patients, diagnosed between 1995 and 2001 in the area of the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry. The prevalence of serious co-morbidity was 58% for patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) who were over 60 years of age and 66% for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) who were over 60 years of age. The administration of chemotherapy declined in the presence of co-morbidity for elderly patients with early-stage HD and elderly patients with aggressive NHL. Co-morbidity was associated with a 10-20% decline in 5-year survival. Whether less frequent application of chemotherapy in the presence of co-morbidity is justified as far as complications, prognosis and quality of life are concerned requires further investigation.

  14. Stress and survival after cancer: A prospective study of a Finnish population-based cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saito-Nakaya, K.; Bidstrup, P. E.; Nakaya, N.

    2012-01-01

    Stress has been suggested to reduce survival after cancer, but the results of previous studies have been contradictory. We investigated the hypothesis in a national cohort of adults in Finland. Of those who completed the Stressful Life Events scale and the Stress of Daily Activities scale, 1470...... and 1882, respectively, later had cancer and were included in the analysis, covering 23 years of follow-up between 1982 and 2004. In Cox regression analysis, the multivariate hazard ratio (HR) was 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-1.01) for total number of life events and the HR for the life change...... score was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.95-1.03). Further, the HR was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.69-1.22) for severe daily stress. Overall, the results of the current study do not support the hypothesis that stress reduces cancer survival. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy and thyroid cancer diagnosis: a nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ying Huang

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine gland malignancy and fine-needle aspiration biopsy is widely used for thyroid nodule evaluation. Repeated aspiration biopsies are needed due to plausible false-negative results. This study aimed to investigate the overall relationship between aspiration biopsy and thyroid cancer diagnosis, and to explore factors related to shorter diagnostic time.This nationwide retrospective cohort study retrieved data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database in Taiwan. Subjects without known thyroid malignancies and who received the first thyroid aspiration biopsy after 2004 were followed-up from 2004 to 2009 (n = 7700. Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazards model were used for data analysis.Of 7700 newly-aspirated patients, 276 eventually developed thyroid cancer (malignancy rate 3.6%. Among the 276 patients with thyroid cancer, 61.6% underwent only one aspiration biopsy and 81.2% were found within the first year after the initial aspiration. Cox proportional hazards model revealed that aspiration frequency (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.06-1.08, ultrasound frequency (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03, older age, male sex, and aspiration biopsies arranged by surgery, endocrinology or otolaryngology subspecialties were all associated with shorter time to thyroid cancer diagnosis.About 17.4% of thyroid cancer cases received more than two aspiration biopsies and 18.8% were diagnosed one year after the first biopsy. Regular follow-up with repeated aspiration or ultrasound may be required for patients with clinically significant thyroid nodules.

  16. A Population-Based Comparative Effectiveness Study of Radiation Therapy Techniques in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jeremy P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Murphy, James D. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Science, University of California– San Diego, Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla, California (United States); Hanlon, Alexandra L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W., E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian, E-mail: diehn@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Concerns have been raised about the potential for worse treatment outcomes because of dosimetric inaccuracies related to tumor motion and increased toxicity caused by the spread of low-dose radiation to normal tissues in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We therefore performed a population-based comparative effectiveness analysis of IMRT, conventional 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), and 2-dimensional radiation therapy (2D-RT) in stage III NSCLC. Methods and Materials: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database to identify a cohort of patients diagnosed with stage III NSCLC from 2002 to 2009 treated with IMRT, 3D-CRT, or 2D-RT. Using Cox regression and propensity score matching, we compared survival and toxicities of these treatments. Results: The proportion of patients treated with IMRT increased from 2% in 2002 to 25% in 2009, and the use of 2D-RT decreased from 32% to 3%. In univariate analysis, IMRT was associated with improved overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.90, P=.02) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (HR 0.89, P=.02). After controlling for confounders, IMRT was associated with similar OS (HR 0.94, P=.23) and CSS (HR 0.94, P=.28) compared with 3D-CRT. Both techniques had superior OS compared with 2D-RT. IMRT was associated with similar toxicity risks on multivariate analysis compared with 3D-CRT. Propensity score matched model results were similar to those from adjusted models. Conclusions: In this population-based analysis, IMRT for stage III NSCLC was associated with similar OS and CSS and maintained similar toxicity risks compared with 3D-CRT.

  17. Vegetarianism, low meat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer in a population based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilsing, A.M.J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    To study how a vegetarian or low meat diet influences the risk of colorectal cancer compared to a high meat diet, and to assess the explanatory role of factors associated with these diets. In the Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) (cohort of 10,210 individuals including

  18. The Impact of Definitive Local Therapy for Lymph Node-Positive Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusthoven, Chad G., E-mail: chad.rusthoven@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado-Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Carlson, Julie A.; Waxweiler, Timothy V.; Raben, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado-Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Dewitt, Peter E. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Colorado-Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Crawford, E. David [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado-Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Department of Urology, University of Colorado-Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Maroni, Paul D. [Department of Urology, University of Colorado-Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado-Denver, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the survival outcomes for patients with lymph node-positive, nonmetastatic prostate cancer undergoing definitive local therapy (radical prostatectomy [RP], external beam radiation therapy [EBRT], or both) versus no local therapy (NLT) in the US population in the modern prostate specific antigen (PSA) era. Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for patients with T1-4N1M0 prostate cancer diagnosed from 1995 through 2005. To allow comparisons of equivalent datasets, patients were analyzed in separate clinical (cN+) and pathologically confirmed (pN+) lymph node-positive cohorts. Kaplan-Meier overall survival (OS) and prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS) estimates were generated, with accompanying univariate log-rank and multivariate Cox proportional hazards comparisons. Results: A total of 796 cN+ and 2991 pN+ patients were evaluable. Among cN+ patients, 43% underwent EBRT and 57% had NLT. Outcomes for cN+ patients favored EBRT, with 10-year OS rates of 45% versus 29% (P<.001) and PCSS rates of 67% versus 53% (P<.001). Among pN+ patients, 78% underwent local therapy (RP 57%, EBRT 10%, or both 11%) and 22% had NLT. Outcomes for pN+ also favored local therapy, with 10-year OS rates of 65% versus 42% (P<.001) and PCSS rates of 78% versus 56% (P<.001). On multivariate analysis, local therapy in both the cN+ and pN+ cohorts remained independently associated with improved OS and PCSS (all P<.001). Local therapy was associated with favorable hazard ratios across subgroups, including patients aged ≥70 years and those with multiple positive lymph nodes. Among pN+ patients, no significant differences in survival were observed between RP versus EBRT and RP with or without adjuvant EBRT. Conclusions: In this large, population-based cohort, definitive local therapy was associated with significantly improved survival in patients with lymph node-positive prostate cancer.

  19. Social inequality and incidence of and survival from breast cancer in a population-based study in Denmark, 1994-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of socioeconomic, demographic and health-related indicators on the incidence of and survival from breast cancer diagnosed in 1994-2003 with follow-up through 2006 in Denmark using information from nationwide population-based registers. The analyses were based on data....... A history of admission for a psychiatric disorder increased the incidence of breast cancer. The overall relative short-term survival was high (96%), but survival improved with higher educational level and income. Whilst the relative 5-year survival after breast cancer was high (79%), there was significantly...... poorer relative survival amongst less advantaged and single women....

  20. Cancer Incidence in Golestan Province : Report of an Ongoing Population-based Cancer Registry in Iran between 2004 and 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roshandel, Gholamreza; Sadjadi, Alireza; Aarabi, Mohsen; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Sedaghat, Seyed Mehdi; Nouraie, Seyed Mehdi; Semnani, Shahryar; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background: Golestan Province, at the western end of the Asian esophageal cancer (EC) belt in northeastern Iran, was reported to have one of the highest worldwide rates of EC in the 1970s. We have previously shown a declining incidence of EC in Golestan during the last decades. This study reports ad

  1. Cancer 2015”: A Prospective, Population-Based Cancer Cohort—Phase 1: Feasibility of Genomics-Guided Precision Medicine in the Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Parisot

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available “Cancer 2015” is a longitudinal and prospective cohort. It is a phased study whose aim was to pilot recruiting 1000 patients during phase 1 to establish the feasibility of providing a population-based genomics cohort. Newly diagnosed adult patients with solid cancers, with residual tumour material for molecular genomics testing, were recruited into the cohort for the collection of a dataset containing clinical, molecular pathology, health resource use and outcomes data. 1685 patients have been recruited over almost 3 years from five hospitals. Thirty-two percent are aged between 61–70 years old, with a median age of 63 years. Diagnostic tumour samples were obtained for 90% of these patients for multiple parallel sequencing. Patients identified with somatic mutations of potentially “actionable” variants represented almost 10% of those tumours sequenced, while 42% of the cohort had no mutations identified. These genomic data were annotated with information such as cancer site, stage, morphology, treatment and patient outcomes and health resource use and cost. This cohort has delivered its main objective of establishing an upscalable genomics cohort within a clinical setting and in phase 2 aims to develop a protocol for how genomics testing can be used in real-time clinical decision-making, providing evidence on the value of precision medicine to clinical practice.

  2. DBCG-IMN: A Population-Based Cohort Study on the Effect of Internal Mammary Node Irradiation in Early Node-Positive Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Lise Bech Jellesmark; Offersen, Birgitte Vrou; Danø, Hella;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: It is unknown whether irradiation of the internal mammary lymph nodes improves survival in patients with early-stage breast cancer. A possible survival benefit might be offset by radiation-induced heart disease. We assessed the effect of internal mammary node irradiation (IMNI) in patients...... pronounced in patients at high risk of internal mammary node metastasis. Equal numbers in each group died of ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSION: In this naturally allocated, population-based cohort study, IMNI increased overall survival in patients with early-stage node-positive breast cancer....... with early-stage node-positive breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this nationwide, prospective population-based cohort study, we included patients who underwent operation for unilateral early-stage node-positive breast cancer. Patients with right-sided disease were allocated to IMNI, whereas patients...

  3. The Impact of Brachytherapy on Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality for Definitive Radiation Therapy of High-Grade Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Xinglei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Keith, Scott W. [Division of Biostatistics, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mishra, Mark V.; Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Showalter, Timothy N., E-mail: timothy.showalter@jeffersonhospital.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: This population-based analysis compared prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) in a cohort of patients with high-risk prostate cancer after nonsurgical treatment with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), brachytherapy (BT), or combination (BT + EBRT). Methods and Materials: We identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database patients diagnosed from 1988 through 2002 with T1-T3N0M0 prostate adenocarcinoma of poorly differentiated grade and treated with BT, EBRT, or BT + EBRT. During this time frame, the database defined high grade as prostate cancers with Gleason score 8-10, or Gleason grade 4-5 if the score was not recorded. This corresponds to a cohort primarily with high-risk prostate cancer, although some cases where only Gleason grade was recorded may have included intermediate-risk cancer. We used multivariate models to examine patient and tumor characteristics associated with the likelihood of treatment with each radiation modality and the effect of radiation modality on PCSM. Results: There were 12,745 patients treated with EBRT (73.5%), BT (7.1%), or BT + EBRT (19.4%) included in the analysis. The median follow-up time for all patients was 6.4 years. The use of BT or BT + EBRT increased from 5.1% in 1988-1992 to 31.4% in 1998-2002. Significant predictors of use of BT or BT + EBRT were younger age, later year of diagnosis, urban residence, and earlier T-stage. On multivariate analysis, treatment with either BT (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.86) or BT + EBRT (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence ratio, 0.66-0.90) was associated with significant reduction in PCSM compared with EBRT alone. Conclusion: In patients with high-grade prostate cancer, treatment with brachytherapy is associated with reduced PCSM compared with EBRT alone. Our results suggest that brachytherapy should be investigated as a component of definitive treatment strategies for patients with high-risk prostate cancer.

  4. Skin-Based DNA Repair Phenotype for Cancer Risk from GCR in Genetically Diverse Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiet, Elodie; Viger, Louise; Snijders, Antoine; Costes, Sylvian V.

    2017-01-01

    Predicting cancer risk associated with cosmic radiation remains a mission-critical challenge for NASA radiation health scientists and mission planners. Epidemiological data are lacking and risk methods do not take individual radiation sensitivity into account. In our approach we hypothesize that genetic factors strongly influence risk of cancer from space radiation and that biomarkers reflecting DNA damage and cell death are ideal tools to predict risk and monitor potential health effects post-flight. At this workshop, we will be reporting the work we have done over the first 9 months of this proposal. Skin cells from 15 different strains of mice already characterized for radiation-induced cancer sensitivity (B6C3F; BALB/cByJ, C57BL/6J, CBA/CaJ, C3H/HeMsNrsf), and 10 strains from the DOE collaborative cross-mouse model were expanded from ear biopsy and cultivated until Passage 3. On average, 3 males and 3 females for each strain were expanded and frozen for further characterization at the NSRL beam line during the NSRL16C run for three LET (350 MeV/n Si, 350 MeV/n Ar and 600 MeV/n Fe) and two ion fluences (1 and 3 particles per cell). The mice work has established new metrics for the usage of Radiation Induced Foci as a marker for various aspect of DNA repair deficiencies. In year 2, we propose to continue characterization of the mouse lines with low LET to identify loci specific to high- versus low- LET and establish genetic linkage for the various DNA repair biomarkers. Correlation with cancer risk from each animals strain and gender will also be investigated. On the human side, we will start characterizing the DNA damage response induced ex-vivo in 200 human's blood donors for radiation sensitivity with a tentative 500 donors by the end of this project. All ex-vivo phenotypic data will be correlated to genetic characterization of each individual human donors using SNP arrays characterization as done for mice. Similarly, ex-vivo phenotypic features from mice will

  5. Lung cancer risk in never-smokers: a population-based case-control study of epidemiologic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd Frances A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We conducted a case-control study in the greater Toronto area to evaluate potential lung cancer risk factors including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure, family history of cancer, indoor air pollution, workplace exposures and history of previous respiratory diseases with special consideration given to never smokers. Methods 445 cases (35% of which were never smokers oversampled by design between the ages of 20-84 were identified through four major tertiary care hospitals in metropolitan Toronto between 1997 and 2002 and were frequency matched on sex and ethnicity with 425 population controls and 523 hospital controls. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for the associations between exposures and lung cancer risk. Results Any previous exposure to occupational exposures (OR total population 1.6, 95% CI 1.4-2.1, OR never smokers 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.3, a previous diagnosis of emphysema in the total population (OR 4.8, 95% CI 2.0-11.1 or a first degree family member with a previous cancer diagnosis before age 50 among never smokers (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0-3.2 were associated with increased lung cancer risk. Conclusions Occupational exposures and family history of cancer with young onset were important risk factors among never smokers.

  6. Breast Cancer Screening in the Precision Medicine Era: Risk-Based Screening in a Population-Based Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Yiwey; Eklund, Martin; Madlensky, Lisa; Sawyer, Sarah D; Thompson, Carlie K; Stover Fiscalini, Allison; Ziv, Elad; Van't Veer, Laura J; Esserman, Laura J; Tice, Jeffrey A

    2017-01-01

    Ongoing controversy over the optimal approach to breast cancer screening has led to discordant professional society recommendations, particularly in women age 40 to 49 years. One potential solution is risk-based screening, where decisions around the starting age, stopping age, frequency, and modality of screening are based on individual risk to maximize the early detection of aggressive cancers and minimize the harms of screening through optimal resource utilization. We present a novel approach to risk-based screening that integrates clinical risk factors, breast density, a polygenic risk score representing the cumulative effects of genetic variants, and sequencing for moderate- and high-penetrance germline mutations. We demonstrate how thresholds of absolute risk estimates generated by our prediction tools can be used to stratify women into different screening strategies (biennial mammography, annual mammography, annual mammography with adjunctive magnetic resonance imaging, defer screening at this time) while informing the starting age of screening for women age 40 to 49 years. Our risk thresholds and corresponding screening strategies are based on current evidence but need to be tested in clinical trials. The Women Informed to Screen Depending On Measures of risk (WISDOM) Study, a pragmatic, preference-tolerant randomized controlled trial of annual vs personalized screening, will study our proposed approach. WISDOM will evaluate the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of risk-based screening beginning in the fall of 2016. The adaptive design of this trial allows continued refinement of our risk thresholds as the trial progresses, and we discuss areas where we anticipate emerging evidence will impact our approach.

  7. Changing patterns in place of cancer death in England: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most patients with cancer prefer to die at home or in a hospice, but hospitals remain the most common place of death (PoD.This study aims to explore the changing time trends of PoD and the associated factors, which are essential for end-of-life care improvement. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study analysed all cancer deaths in England collected by the Office for National Statistics during 1993-2010 (n = 2,281,223. Time trends of age- and gender-standardised proportion of deaths in individual PoDs were evaluated using weighted piecewise linear regression. Variables associated with PoD (home or hospice versus hospital were determined using proportion ratio (PR derived from the log-binomial regression, adjusting for clustering effects. Hospital remained the most common PoD throughout the study period (48.0%; 95% CI 47.9%-48.0%, followed by home (24.5%; 95% CI 24.4%-24.5%, and hospice (16.4%; 95% CI 16.3%-16.4%. Home and hospice deaths increased since 2005 (0.87%; 95% CI 0.74%-0.99%/year, 0.24%; 95% CI 0.17%-0.32%/year, respectively, p<0.001, while hospital deaths declined (-1.20%; 95% CI -1.41 to -0.99/year, p<0.001. Patients who died from haematological cancer (PRs 0.46-0.52, who were single, widowed, or divorced (PRs 0.75-0.88, and aged over 75 (PRs 0.81-0.84 for 75-84; 0.66-0.72 for 85+ were less likely to die in home or hospice (p<0.001; reference groups: colorectal cancer, married, age 25-54. There was little improvement in patients with lung cancer of dying in home or hospice (PRs 0.87-0.88. Marital status became the second most important factor associated with PoD, after cancer type. Patients from less deprived areas (higher quintile of the deprivation index were more likely to die at home or in a hospice than those from more deprived areas (lower quintile of the deprivation index; PRs 1.02-1.12. The analysis is limited by a lack of data on individual patients' preferences for PoD or a clinical indication of the most appropriate Po

  8. Image Based Biomarker of Breast Cancer Risk: Analysis of Risk Disparity Among Minority Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Seminar title: Breast Cancer: Cells/Tissues/Types Speaker: Charlie Wilson, DSU Description: The anatomy of the breast to include glandular and...UPENN Medical School Description: Cell adhesion mechanisms are especially important for the development and function of normal epithelium in many...c-means algorithm is applied to segment the glandular tissue, where classes are aggregated to the standard two-class dense vs. fatty paradigm using

  9. Does CT colonography have a role for population-based colorectal cancer screening?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haan, Margriet C. de; Stoker, Jaap [Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, G1-228, PO Box 22700, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Halligan, Steve [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer and second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in Europe. CRC screening has been proven to reduce disease-specific mortality and several European countries employ national screening programmes. These almost exclusively rely on stool tests, with endoscopy used as an adjunct in some countries. Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a potential screening test, with an estimated sensitivity of 88 % for advanced neoplasia {>=}10 mm. Recent randomised studies have shown that CTC and colonoscopy have similar yields of advanced neoplasia per screened invitee, indicating that CTC is potentially viable as a primary screening test. However, the evidence is not fully elaborated. It is unclear whether CTC screening is cost-effective and the impact of extracolonic findings, both medical and economic, remains unknown. Furthermore, the effect of CTC screening on CRC-related mortality is unknown, as it is also unknown for colonoscopy. It is plausible that both techniques could lead to decreased mortality, as for sigmoidoscopy and gFOBT. Although radiation exposure is a drawback, this disadvantage may be over-emphasised. In conclusion, the detection characteristics and acceptability of CTC suggest it is a viable screening investigation. Implementation will depend on detection of extracolonic disease and health-economic impact. Key Points circle Meta-analysis of CT colonographic screening showed high sensitivity for advanced neoplasia {>=}10mm. (orig.)

  10. Effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening: results from a population-based case-control evaluation in Saarland, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrendorf, J; Robra, B P; Wiebelt, H; Oberhausen, R; Weiland, M; Dhom, G

    1993-05-01

    In order to evaluate the effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening by the faecal occult blood test (FOBT) in Germany a population-based case-control study was conducted in Saarland, a southwestern state of Germany. As cases, we identified 522 persons (244 males, 278 females) who died of colorectal cancer between 1983 and 1986 between the ages of 55 and 75 years. For 163 male cases complete screening histories were retrieved together with up to five age-matched controls who had not died of colorectal cancer identified from the files of the case's referring general practitioner (GP). For 209 female cases screening histories were retrieved from their GPs and gynaecologists as well as for age-matched controls. Individual screening histories were established with emphasis on identifying whether FOBTs were carried out asymptomatically or symptomatically. In the time period 6-36 months prior to diagnosis 13% of the male cases and 14% of the male controls had at least one asymptomatic FOBT with a corresponding matched odds ratio of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.75). For the same prediagnostic period 16% of the female cases and 29% of the female controls had at least one asymptomatic FOBT leading to an odds ratio of 0.43 (95% CI: 0.27, 0.68). Thus, for males where participation rates are generally low, no protective effect could be seen but for females where participation rates are higher a clear protective effect is seen. Possibilities for bias need to be taken into consideration when interpreting these results. Organizational measures ensuring a high penetrance of a mass screening programme are seen as a way to elevate efficacy.

  11. Determinants of End-of-Life Expenditures in Patients with Oral Cancer in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chih Lee

    Full Text Available To investigate the association of basic demographic data, socioeconomic status, medical services, and hospital characteristics with end-of-life expenditure in patients with oral cancer in Taiwan who died between 2009 to 2011.This nationwide population-based, retrospective cohort study identified 5,386 patients who died from oral cancer. We evaluated medical cost in the last month of life by universal health insurance. The impact of each variable on the end-of-life expenditure was examined by hierarchical generalized linear model (HGLM using a hospital-level random-intercept model.The mean medical cost in the last six months of life was $2,611±3,329 (U.S. dollars. In HGLM using a random-intercept model, we found that patients younger than 65 years had an additional cost of $819 over those aged ≥65 years. Patients who had a high Charlson Comorbidity Index Score (CCIS had an additional $616 cost over those with a low CCIS. Those who survived post-diagnosis less than 6 months had an additional $659 in expenses over those who survived more than 24 months. Medical cost was $249 more for patients who had medium to high individual SES, and $319 more for those who were treated by non-oncologists.This study provides useful information for decision makers in understanding end-of-life expenditure in oral cancer. We found significantly increased end-of-life expenditure in patients if they were younger than 65 years or treated by non-oncologists, or had high CCIS, medium to high individual SES, and survival of less than 6 months after diagnosis.

  12. A population-based case-control study of lung cancer and green tea consumption among women living in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L; Goldberg, M S; Gao, Y T; Hanley, J A; Parent, M E; Jin, F

    2001-11-01

    Epidemiologic evidence regarding the association between the consumption of green tea and lung cancer is limited and inconclusive, although experimental studies have shown consistently that tea preparations and tea polyphenols may inhibit the induction of a variety of cancers, including lung cancer. In this population-based case-control study, we examined the association between past consumption of green tea and the risk of lung cancer. We identified 649 incident cases of primary lung cancer among women diagnosed from February 1992 through January 1994 using the population-based Shanghai Cancer Registry. We randomly selected a control group of 675 women from the Shanghai Residential Registry, frequency-matched to the expected age distribution of the cases. Green tea consumption was ascertained through face-to-face interviews. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using unconditional logistic regression. Among nonsmoking women, consumption of green tea was associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer (OR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.45-0.93), and the risks decreased with increasing consumption. We found little association, however, among women who smoked (OR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.40-2.22). The inconsistency in the association between drinking tea and the risk of lung cancer reported in previous studies may in part be due to inadequate control of confounding of active smoking.

  13. Prognostic factors and survival of colorectal cancer in Kurdistan province, Iran: A population-based study (2009-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Mohammad Aziz; Moradi, Ghobad; Roshani, Daem; Nikkhoo, Bahram; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ghaytasi, Bahman

    2017-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) survival varies at individual and geographically level. This population-based study aimed to evaluating various factors affecting the survival rate of CRC patients in Kurdistan province.In a retrospective cohort study, patients diagnosed as CRC were collected through a population-based study from March 1, 2009 to 2014. The data were collected from Kurdistan's Cancer Registry database. Additional information and missing data were collected reference to patients' homes, medical records, and pathology reports. The CRC survival was calculated from the date of diagnosis to the date of cancer-specific death or the end of follow-up (cutoff date: October 2015). Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used for the univariate analysis of survival in various subgroups. The proportional-hazard model Cox was also used in order to consider the effects of different factors on survival including age at diagnosis, place of residence, marital status, occupation, level of education, smoking, economic status, comorbidity, tumor stage, and tumor grade.A total number of 335 patients affected by CRC were assessed and the results showed that 1- and 5-year survival rate were 87% and 33%, respectively. According to the results of Cox's multivariate analysis, the following factors were significantly related to CRC survival: age at diagnosis (≥65 years old) (HR 2.08, 95% CI: 1.17-3.71), single patients (HR 1.62, 95% CI: 1.10-2.40), job (worker) (HR 2.09, 95% CI: 1.22-3.58), educational level: diploma or below (HR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.39-0.92), wealthy economic status (HR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.31-0.82), tumor grade in poorly differentiated (HR 2.25, 95% CI: 1.37-3.69), and undifferentiated/anaplastic grade (HR 2.90, 95% CI: 1.67-4.98).We found that factors such as low education, inappropriate socioeconomic status, and high tumor grade at the time of disease diagnosis were effective in the poor survival of CRC patients in Kurdistan province; this, which need more attention.

  14. Framing preventive care messaging and cervical cancer screening in a health-insured population in South Africa: Implications for population-based communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonis, Leegale; Paramanund, Jithen; Basu, Debashis; Luiz, John

    2016-02-17

    The impact of health message framing on cervical cancer screening uptake is poorly understood.We undertook a prospective randomized control study between August 2013 and February 2014 within a health-insuered population. The study consisted of 748 females, aged 21-65 years who had not had a Pap smear in the previous 3 years and were randomly selected to receive either a loss-framed, gain-framed, or neutral health message (control) regarding cervical cancer screening via email. Pap smear uptake was determined from medical claims data. The median age was 43 years (interquartile range: 26-60 years). Overall Pap smear screening rate was found to be 8.36 percent (confidence interval: 8.08%-8.64%). Screening rate in the control group was 9.58 percent (confidence interval: 9.29%-9.87%), 5.71 percent (confidence interval: 5.48%-6.98%) in the gain-framed group, and 8.53 percent (confidence interval: 8.24%-8.81%) in the loss-framed group. Statistically there was no difference between the screening rates of the groups (p = 0.75). Females were 43 percent (odds ratio = 0.57) less likely to have a Pap smear if exposed to a gain-framed message, compared to a neutral-framed message; however, this finding was non-significant (p = 0.13). When receiving a loss-framed message, females were only 23 percent (odds ratio = 0.87) less likely to have a Pap smear compared to a neutral-framed message, also not significant (p = 0.69). In addition, further age stratification revealed no differences in Pap smear uptake between different age groups. These findings indicate that Pap smear uptake in this health-insured population is low, with no difference in exposure to differently framed health messages when emailed. Framing of health messages may not be a significant consideration when constructing population-based communication through emails.

  15. Risk of Pathologic Upgrading or Locally Advanced Disease in Early Prostate Cancer Patients Based on Biopsy Gleason Score and PSA: A Population-Based Study of Modern Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caster, Joseph M.; Falchook, Aaron D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Hendrix, Laura H. [Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Chen, Ronald C., E-mail: Ronald_chen@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncologists rely on available clinical information (biopsy Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen [PSA]) to determine the optimal treatment regimen for each prostate cancer patient. Existing published nomograms correlating clinical to pathologic extent of disease were based on patients treated in the 1980s and 1990s at select academic institutions. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to examine pathologic outcomes (Gleason score and cancer stage) in early prostate cancer patients based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA concentration. Methods and Materials: This analysis included 25,858 patients whose cancer was diagnosed between 2010 and 2011, with biopsy Gleason scores of 6 to 7 and clinical stage T1 to T2 disease, who underwent radical prostatectomy. In subgroups based on biopsy Gleason score and PSA level, we report the proportion of patients with pathologically advanced disease (positive surgical margin or pT3-T4 disease) or whose Gleason score was upgraded. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with pathologic outcomes. Results: For patients with biopsy Gleason score 6 cancers, 84% of those with PSA <10 ng/mL had surgical T2 disease with negative margins; this decreased to 61% in patients with PSA of 20 to 29.9 ng/mL. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 43% (PSA: <10 ng/mL) to 61% (PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) of biopsy Gleason 6 patients. Patients with biopsy Gleason 7 cancers had a one-third (Gleason 3 + 4; PSA: <10 ng/mL) to two-thirds (Gleason 4 + 3; PSA: 20-29.9 ng/mL) probability of having pathologically advanced disease. Gleason score upgrading was seen in 11% to 19% of patients with biopsy Gleason 4 + 3 cancers. Multivariable analysis showed that higher PSA and older age were associated with Gleason score upgrading and pathologically advanced disease. Conclusions: This is the first population-based study to examine pathologic extent of disease and pathologic Gleason score

  16. Factors influencing time between surgery and radiotherapy: A population based study of breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katik, S; Gort, M; Jobsen, J J; Maduro, J H; Struikmans, H; Siesling, S

    2015-08-01

    This study describes variation in the time interval between surgery and radiotherapy in breast cancer (BC) patients and assesses factors at patient, hospital and radiotherapy centre (RTC) level influencing this variation. To do so, the factors were investigated in BC patients using multilevel logistic regression. The study sample consisted of 15,961 patients from the Netherlands Cancer Registry at 79 hospitals and 19 (RTCs) with breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy directly followed by radiotherapy. The percentage of patients starting radiotherapy ≤42 days varied from 14% to 94%. Early year of incidence, higher age, higher stage, mastectomy, higher ASA category and no availability of radiotherapy facilities were significantly associated with a longer time interval between radiotherapy and surgery. More patients received radiotherapy ≤42 days in hospitals with on-site radiotherapy facilities (OR 1.36, p = 0.024). Among the remainder, significant variation was found at the RTC level (11.1%, σ(2) = 0.254, SE 0.054), and at the hospital level (6.4% σ2 = 0.443, SE 0.163) (ICC 0.064). The significant delay and unexplained variance remaining at the RCT and hospital level suggests delays caused by the patient referral pathway from hospital to RCT, and indicates potential for improvement at both levels.

  17. Partitioning of excess mortality in population-based cancer patient survival studies using flexible parametric survival models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloranta Sandra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relative survival is commonly used for studying survival of cancer patients as it captures both the direct and indirect contribution of a cancer diagnosis on mortality by comparing the observed survival of the patients to the expected survival in a comparable cancer-free population. However, existing methods do not allow estimation of the impact of isolated conditions (e.g., excess cardiovascular mortality on the total excess mortality. For this purpose we extend flexible parametric survival models for relative survival, which use restricted cubic splines for the baseline cumulative excess hazard and for any time-dependent effects. Methods In the extended model we partition the excess mortality associated with a diagnosis of cancer through estimating a separate baseline excess hazard function for the outcomes under investigation. This is done by incorporating mutually exclusive background mortality rates, stratified by the underlying causes of death reported in the Swedish population, and by introducing cause of death as a time-dependent effect in the extended model. This approach thereby enables modeling of temporal trends in e.g., excess cardiovascular mortality and remaining cancer excess mortality simultaneously. Furthermore, we illustrate how the results from the proposed model can be used to derive crude probabilities of death due to the component parts, i.e., probabilities estimated in the presence of competing causes of death. Results The method is illustrated with examples where the total excess mortality experienced by patients diagnosed with breast cancer is partitioned into excess cardiovascular mortality and remaining cancer excess mortality. Conclusions The proposed method can be used to simultaneously study disease patterns and temporal trends for various causes of cancer-consequent deaths. Such information should be of interest for patients and clinicians as one way of improving prognosis after cancer is

  18. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation prevalence and clinical characteristics of a population-based series of ovarian cancer cases from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, M.; Kjaer, S.K.; Cox, M.;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and associations with clinical correlates of disease in a population-based series of ovarian cancer cases from Denmark. METHODS: DNA sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis were used to analyze...... the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes for coding sequence mutations and large genomic rearrangements in 445 confirmed cases of ovarian cancer. We evaluated associations between mutation status and clinical characteristics, including cancer risks for first-degree relatives and clinicopathologic features of tumors....... RESULTS: Deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were identified in 26 cases; thus, mutations in these genes are responsible for at least 5.8% of ovarian cancer cases in this population. Five different mutations were identified in more than one individual, suggesting that they may be founder mutations...

  19. Smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and risk of renal cell cancer: a population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui Tariq

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney and renal pelvis cancers account for 4% of all new cancer cases in the United States, among which 85% are renal cell carcinomas (RCC. While cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for RCC, little is known about the contribution of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS to RCC incidence. This study assesses the role of smoking and ETS on RCC incidence using a population-based case-control design in Florida and Georgia. Methods Incident cases (n = 335 were identified from hospital records and the Florida cancer registry, and population controls (n = 337 frequency-matched by age (+/- 5 years, gender, and race were identified through random-digit dialing. In-person interviews assessed smoking history and lifetime exposure to ETS at home, work, and public spaces. Home ETS was measured in both years and hours of exposure. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression, controlled for age, gender, race, and BMI. Results Cases were more likely to have smoked 20 or more pack-years, compared with never-smokers (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 0.93 – 1.95. A protective effect was found for smoking cessation, beginning with 11–20 years of cessation (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.18–0.85 and ending with 51 or more years of cessation (OR: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.03–0.39 in comparison with those having quit for 1–10 years. Among never-smokers, cases were more likely to report home ETS exposure of greater than 20 years, compared with those never exposed to home ETS (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.14–4.18. Home ETS associations were comparable when measured in lifetime hours of exposure, with cases more likely to report 30,000 or more hours of home ETS exposure (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.20–4.69. Highest quartiles of combined home/work ETS exposure among never-smokers, especially with public ETS exposure, increased RCC risk by 2 to 4 times. Conclusion These findings confirm known associations between smoking and RCC and establish a

  20. Effect of chemotherapy on health-related quality of life among early-stage ovarian cancer survivors: a study from the population-based PROFILES registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhugwandass, C.S.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Pijlman, B.; Ezendam, N.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is wide variation in the application of adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Our aim was to assess differences in health-related quality of life (hrqol) between patients with early-stage ovarian cancer who did or did not receive chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment. Methods All patients diagnosed with early-stage ovarian cancer between 2000 and 2010 within the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry (n = 191) were enrolled in this study. Patients were requested to complete questionnaires, including the cancer-specific (qlq-C30) and ovarian cancer-specific (qlq-OV28) quality of life measures from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Primary outcome measures were the generic-and cancer-specific domain scores for hrqol in ovarian cancer survivors. Results Of the 107 patients (56%) who returned the questionnaires, 57 (53.3%) had received adjuvant chemotherapy and 50 (46.7%) had been treated with surgery alone. Significant differences in hrqol between those groups were found in the symptom scales for peripheral neuropathy, attitude toward sickness, and financial situation, with worse scores in the chemotherapy group. Conclusions Results of our study show that patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy have a significantly worse score for 3 aspects of hrqol. Efforts should be made to reduce use of adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage ovarian cancer. Moreover, preventive strategies to improve long-term quality of life for those who need adjuvant chemotherapy should be explored. PMID:28050144

  1. Teleradiology based CT colonography to screen a population group of a remote island; at average risk for colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefere, Philippe, E-mail: radiologie@skynet.be [VCTC, Virtual Colonoscopy Teaching Centre, Akkerstraat 32c, B-8830 Hooglede (Belgium); Silva, Celso, E-mail: caras@uma.pt [Human Anatomy of Medical Course, University of Madeira, Praça do Município, 9000-082 Funchal (Portugal); Gryspeerdt, Stefaan, E-mail: stefaan@sgryspeerdt.be [VCTC, Virtual Colonoscopy Teaching Centre, Akkerstraat 32c, B-8830 Hooglede (Belgium); Rodrigues, António, E-mail: nucleo@nid.pt [Nucleo Imagem Diagnostica, Rua 5 De Outubro, 9000-216 Funchal (Portugal); Vasconcelos, Rita, E-mail: rita@uma.pt [Department of Engineering and Mathematics, University of Madeira, Praça do Município, 9000-082 Funchal (Portugal); Teixeira, Ricardo, E-mail: j.teixeira1947@gmail.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Central Hospital of Funchal, Avenida Luís de Camões, 9004513 Funchal (Portugal); Gouveia, Francisco Henriques de, E-mail: fhgouveia@netmadeira.com [LANA, Pathology Centre, Rua João Gago, 10, 9000-071 Funchal (Portugal)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the performance of teleradiology-based CT colonography to screen a population group of an island, at average risk for colorectal cancer. Materials and methods: A cohort of 514 patients living in Madeira, Portugal, was enrolled in the study. Institutional review board approval was obtained and all patients signed an informed consent. All patients underwent both CT colonography and optical colonoscopy. CT colonography was interpreted by an experienced radiologist at a remote centre using tele-radiology. Per-patient sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated for colorectal adenomas and advanced neoplasia ≥6 mm. Results: 510 patients were included in the study. CT colonography obtained a per-patient sensitivity, specificity, PPV and, NPV for adenomas ≥6 mm of 98.11% (88.6–99.9% 95% CI), 90.97% (87.8–93.4% 95% CI), 56.52% (45.8–66.7% 95% CI), 99.75% (98.4–99.9% 95% CI). For advanced neoplasia ≥6 mm per-patient sensitivity, specificity, PPV and, NPV were 100% (86.7–100% 95% CI), 87.07% (83.6–89.9% 95% CI), 34.78% (25.3–45.5% 95% CI) and 100% (98.8–100% 95% CI), respectively. Conclusion: In this prospective trial, teleradiology-based CT colonography was accurate to screen a patient cohort of a remote island, at average risk for colorectal cancer.

  2. Increase in female liver cancer in the Gambia, West Africa: evidence from 19 years of population-based cancer registration (1988-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Sighoko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common malignancy worldwide with a high burden in West Africa. Male to female ratios show consistent bias toward males, the biological bases and variations of which are not well understood. We have used data from the Gambian National Cancer Registry to compare trends in incidence of HCC in both genders. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Two periods were compared, 1988-1997 (early and 1998-2006 (recent. In addition, the regression program joinpoint was used to assess trends over 19 years. Differences with self-reported ethnicity were assessed for the recent period using population data from 2003 census. Male to female ratio showed a significant decrease between the two periods from 3.28∶1 (95% CI, [2.93-3.65] to 2.2∶1 (95% CI, [1.99-2.43]. Although rates in males were relatively stable (38.36 and 32.84 for, respectively, early and recent periods, they increased from 11.71 to 14.9 in females with a significant Annual Percentage Change of 3.01 [0.3-5.8] over 19 years and an increase in number of cases of 80.28% (compared to 26% in males. Significant variations in HCC risk, but not in gender ratio were observed in relation with ethnicity. CONCLUSION: This analysis of the only national, population-based cancer registry in West Africa shows a significant increase in HCC in females over recent years. This increase may be the consequence of major changes in lifestyle or viral risk factors, in particular obesity and hepatitis C, which have both been documented to increase in West Africa during recent years.

  3. Increase in Female Liver Cancer in The Gambia, West Africa: Evidence from 19 Years of Population-Based Cancer Registration (1988–2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sighoko, Dominique; Curado, Maria Paula; Bourgeois, Denis; Mendy, Maimuna; Hainaut, Pierre; Bah, Ebrima

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy worldwide with a high burden in West Africa. Male to female ratios show consistent bias toward males, the biological bases and variations of which are not well understood. We have used data from the Gambian National Cancer Registry to compare trends in incidence of HCC in both genders. Methods and Findings Two periods were compared, 1988–1997 (early) and 1998–2006 (recent). In addition, the regression program joinpoint was used to assess trends over 19 years. Differences with self-reported ethnicity were assessed for the recent period using population data from 2003 census. Male to female ratio showed a significant decrease between the two periods from 3.28∶1 (95% CI, [2.93–3.65]) to 2.2∶1 (95% CI, [1.99–2.43]). Although rates in males were relatively stable (38.36 and 32.84 for, respectively, early and recent periods), they increased from 11.71 to 14.9 in females with a significant Annual Percentage Change of 3.01 [0.3–5.8] over 19 years and an increase in number of cases of 80.28% (compared to 26% in males). Significant variations in HCC risk, but not in gender ratio were observed in relation with ethnicity. Conclusion This analysis of the only national, population-based cancer registry in West Africa shows a significant increase in HCC in females over recent years. This increase may be the consequence of major changes in lifestyle or viral risk factors, in particular obesity and hepatitis C, which have both been documented to increase in West Africa during recent years. PMID:21490972

  4. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou smear and SurePath® liquid-based cytology in the Copenhagen population screening programme for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Simonsen, Kåre; Junge, Jette

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare diagnostic performance of conventional Papanicolaou smear with SurePath liquid-based cytology in a population screening programme. METHODS: A retrospective comparison was performed on data from two 18-month periods of the screening programme for cervical cancer...

  5. Plasma TIMP-1 and CEA in detection of primary colorectal cancer: a prospective, population based study of 4509 high-risk individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J; Brünner, Nils; Olsen, Jesper;

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The combination of plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) may be valuable biomarkers for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). A prospective, population based study was performed to validate this hypothesis. Material and method...

  6. An Italian population-based case-control study on the association between farming and cancer: Are pesticides a plausible risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Christian; Carcagnì, Antonella; Sacco, Sara; Palin, Lucio Antonio; Vanhaecht, Kris; Panella, Massimiliano; Guido, Davide

    2016-05-01

    This population-based case-control study investigated the association between farming (a proxy for pesticide exposure) and cancer in the Vercelli suburban area (northwest Italy). The residents, aged 25 to 79 years, in the above-mentioned area during the period 2002-2009 were considered. Cases were all the first hospital admissions for cancer. Controls were all the subjects not included in the cases and not excluded from the study. Cases and controls were classified according to whether they occupationally resulted farmers or nonfarmers during the period 1965-2009. Cancer odds ratios (ORs) between farmers and nonfarmers were calculated with generalized linear mixed models adjusted by gender and age. Farmers showed higher odds for all cancers (OR=1.459; p plausible association between pesticide exposure and cancer occurrence.

  7. Population based prostate cancer screening in north Mexico reveals a high prevalence of aggressive tumors in detected cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garza-Guajardo Raquel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate Cancer (PCa is the second most frequent neoplasia in men worldwide. Previous reports suggest that the prevalence of PCa in Hispanic males is lower than in Africans (including communities with African ancestry and Caucasians, but higher than in Asians. Despite these antecedents, there are few reports of open population screenings for PCa in Latin American communities. This article describes the results of three consecutive screenings in the urban population of Monterrey, Mexico. Methods After receiving approval from our University Hospital's Internal Review Board (IRB, the screening was announced by radio, television, and press, and it was addressed to male subjects over 40 years old in general. Subjects who consented to participate were evaluated at the primary care clinics of the University Health Program at UANL, in the Metropolitan area of Monterrey. Blood samples were taken from each subject for prostate specific antigen (PSA determination; they underwent a digital rectal examination (DRE, and were subsequently interviewed to obtain demographic and urologic data. Based on the PSA (>4.0 ng/ml and DRE results, subjects were appointed for transrectal biopsy (TRB. Results A total of 973 subjects were screened. Prostate biopsy was recommended to 125 men based on PSA values and DRE results, but it was performed in only 55 of them. 15 of these biopsied men were diagnosed with PCa, mostly with Gleason scores ≥ 7. Conclusion Our results reflect a low prevalence of PCa in general, but a high occurrence of high grade lesions (Gleason ≥ 7 among patients that resulted positive for PCa. This observation remarks the importance of the PCa screening programs in our Mexican community and the need for strict follow-up campaigns.

  8. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Survey in Wuwei, Gansu Province, Northwestern China from 2003 to 2012: A Retrospective Population-based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yun Li

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of this study report a more accurate cancer burden among the population of Wuwei, China. Active research of cancers etiology and effective prevention should be established to reduce the incidence and mortality associated with cancers.

  9. Statins Attenuate Helicobacter pylori CagA Translocation and Reduce Incidence of Gastric Cancer: In Vitro and Population-Based Case-Control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Jung; Liao, Wei-Chih; Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Hsu, Yuan-Man; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Yu-An; Feng, Chun-Lung; Chen, Chih-Jung; Kao, Min-Chuan; Lai, Chih-Ho; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The correlation of Helicobacter pylori and the etiology of gastric cancer was substantially certain. Cholesterol-rich microdomains (also called lipid rafts), which provide platforms for signaling, are associated with H. pylori-induced pathogenesis leading to gastric cancer. Patients who have been prescribed statins, inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, have exhibited a reduced risk of several types of cancer. However, no studies have addressed the effect of statins on H. pylori-associated gastric cancer from the antineoplastic perspective. In this study, we showed that treatment of gastric epithelial cells with simvastatin reduced the level of cellular cholesterol and led to attenuation of translocation and phosphorylation of H. pylori cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), which is recognized as a major determinant of gastric cancer development. Additionally, a nationwide case-control study based on data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was conducted. A population-based case-control study revealed that patients who used simvastatin exhibited a significantly reduced risk of gastric cancer (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.70-0.83). In patients exhibiting H. pylori infection who were prescribed simvastatin, the adjusted OR for gastric cancer was 0.25 (95% CI = 0.12-0.50). Our results combined an in vitro study with a nationwide population analysis reveal that statin use might be a feasible approach to prevent H. pylori-associated gastric cancer.

  10. Population-based study of DNA image cytometry as screening method for esophageal cancer

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    Lin Zhao; Guo-Qing Wang; Qi Shang; You-Lin Qiao; Wen-Qiang Wei; De-Li Zhao; Chang-Qing Hao; Dong-Mei Lin; Qin-Jing Pan; Xin-Qing Li; Fu-Hua Lei; Jin-Wu Wang

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To explore the DNA image cytometry (DNA-ICM) technique as a primary screening method for esophageal squamous precancerous lesions.METHODS: This study was designed as a populationbased screening study. A total of 582 local residents aged 40 years-69 years were recruited from Linzhou in Henan and Feicheng in Shandong. However, only 452 subjects had results of liquid-based cytology, DNA-ICM and pathology. The sensitivity and specificity of DNAICM were calculated and compared with liquid-based cytology in moderate dysplasia or worse. RESULTS: Sensitivities of DNA-ICM ranging from at least 1 to 4 aneuploid cells were 90.91%, 86.36%, 79.55% and 77.27%, respectively, which were better than that of liquid-based cytology (75%). Specificities of DNA-ICM were 70.83%, 84.07%, 92.65% and 96.81%, but the specificity of liquid-based cytology was 91.91%. The sensitivity and specificity of a combination of liquid-based cytology and DNA-ICM were 84.09% and 85.78%, respectively. CONCLUSION: It is possible to use DNA-ICM technique as a primary screening method for esophageal squamous precancerous lesions.

  11. Decreasing trend in prostate cancer with high serum prostate-specific antigen levels detected at first prostate-specific antigen-based population screening in Japan

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    Yasuhide Kitagawa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the recent trends in prostate-specific antigen (PSA distribution in men in Japan, we analyzed the PSA distributions of men undergoing PSA-based population screening. We summarized the annual individual data of PSA-based population screening in Kanazawa, Japan, from 2000 to 2011, and analyzed baseline serum PSA values of the participants at the first population screening. Serum PSA distributions were estimated in all participants and those excluding prostate cancer patients according to age. From 2000 to 2011, 19 620 men participated aged 54-69 years old in this screening program. Mean baseline serum PSA level of all participants at the first screening was 2.64 ng ml−1 in 2000, and gradually decreased to approximately 1.30 ng ml−1 in 2006. That of participants excluding prostate cancer patients was 1.46 ng ml−1 in 2000, and there was no remarkable change during the study period. The 95 th percentiles in the participants excluding prostate cancer patients detected at the first population screening of men aged 54-59, 60-64, and 65-69 years old were 2.90, 3.60, and 4.50 ng ml−1 , respectively. After the commencement of population screening, the proportion of prostate cancer patients with high serum PSA levels decreased. However, there were no changes in serum PSA levels in men without prostate cancer. Age-specific PSA reference level of men without prostate cancer in Japan was similar to that in China and Korea.

  12. Image Based Biomarker of Breast Cancer Risk: Analysis of Risk Disparity among Minority Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    the algorithm based on GPU architecture in order to reduce the time needed to generate software breast phantoms. The rapid generation of high...quadratic computational complexity and asymptotic optimality using the fractal theory.  Prepare peer-review publications on the results of the proposed

  13. Risk prediction for breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer in white women aged 50 y or older: derivation and validation from population-based cohort studies.

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    Ruth M Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers share some hormonal and epidemiologic risk factors. While several models predict absolute risk of breast cancer, there are few models for ovarian cancer in the general population, and none for endometrial cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data on white, non-Hispanic women aged 50+ y from two large population-based cohorts (the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial [PLCO] and the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study [NIH-AARP], we estimated relative and attributable risks and combined them with age-specific US-population incidence and competing mortality rates. All models included parity. The breast cancer model additionally included estrogen and progestin menopausal hormone therapy (MHT use, other MHT use, age at first live birth, menopausal status, age at menopause, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, benign breast disease/biopsies, alcohol consumption, and body mass index (BMI; the endometrial model included menopausal status, age at menopause, BMI, smoking, oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and an interaction term between BMI and MHT use; the ovarian model included oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and family history or breast or ovarian cancer. In independent validation data (Nurses' Health Study cohort the breast and ovarian cancer models were well calibrated; expected to observed cancer ratios were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96-1.04 for breast cancer and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.97-1.19 for ovarian cancer. The number of endometrial cancers was significantly overestimated, expected/observed = 1.20 (95% CI: 1.11-1.29. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs; discriminatory power were 0.58 (95% CI: 0.57-0.59, 0.59 (95% CI: 0.56-0.63, and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.66-0.70 for the breast, ovarian, and endometrial models, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These models predict absolute risks for breast, endometrial, and ovarian

  14. Does delay in diagnosing colorectal cancer in symptomatic patients affect tumor stage and survival? A population-based observational study

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    Visser Otto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosing colorectal cancer (CRC at an early stage improves survival. To what extent any delay affects outcome once patients are symptomatic is still unclear. Our objectives were to evaluate the association between diagnostic delay and survival in symptomatic patients with early stage CRC and late stage CRC. Methods Prospective population-based observational study evaluating daily clinical practice in Northern Holland. Diagnostic delay was determined through questionnaire-interviews. Dukes' stage was classified into two groups: early stage (Dukes A or B and late stage (Dukes C or D cancer. Patients were followed up for 3.5 years after diagnosis. Results In total, 272 patients were available for analysis. Early stage CRC was present in 136 patients while 136 patients had late stage CRC. The mean total diagnostic delay (SE was 31 (1.5 weeks in all CRC patients. No significant difference was observed in the mean total diagnostic delay in early versus late stage CRC (p = 0.27. In early stage CRC, no difference in survival was observed between patients with total diagnostic delay shorter and longer than the median (Kaplan-Meier, log-rank p = 0.93. In late stage CRC, patients with a diagnostic delay shorter than the median had a shorter survival than patients with a diagnostic delay longer than the median (log-rank p = 0.01. In the multivariate Cox regression model with survival as dependent variable and median delay, age, open access endoscopy, number and type of symptoms as independent variables, the odd's ratio for survival in patients with long delay (>median versus short delay (≤median was 1.8 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.1 to 3.0; p = 0.01. Tumor-site was not associated with patient survival. When separating late stage CRC in Dukes C and Dukes D tumors, a shorter delay was associated with a shorter survival in Dukes D tumors only and not in Dukes C tumors. Conclusion In symptomatic CRC patients, a longer diagnostic and

  15. Photosensitizing agents and the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sarah N; Zens, Michael S; Perry, Ann E; Spencer, Steven K; Duell, Eric J; Karagas, Margaret R

    2013-08-01

    It is well-known that UV light exposure and a sun-sensitive phenotype are risk factors for the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this New Hampshire population-based case-control study, we collected data from 5,072 individuals, including histologically confirmed cases of BCC and SCC, and controls via a personal interview to investigate possible associations between photosensitizing medication use and NMSC. After adjustment for potentially confounding factors (e.g., lifetime number of painful sunburns), we found a modest increase in risk of SCC (odds ratio (OR)=1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.0-1.4) and BCC (OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.9-1.5), in particular early-onset BCC, (≤ 50 years of age) (OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.1-2.1) associated with photosensitizing medication use. For SCC the association was strongest among those with tendency to sunburn rather than tan. We also specifically found associations with BCC, and especially early-onset BCC, and photosensitizing antimicrobials. In conclusion, certain commonly prescribed photosensitizing medications may enhance the risk of developing SCC, especially in individuals with a sun-sensitive phenotype, and may increase the risk of developing BCC and incidence of BCC at a younger age.

  16. Association between H-RAS T81C genetic polymorphism and gastrointestinal cancer risk: A population based case-control study in China

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    Li Qilong

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal cancer, such as gastric, colon and rectal cancer, is a major medical and economic burden worldwide. However, the exact mechanism of gastrointestinal cancer development still remains unclear. RAS genes have been elucidated as major participants in the development and progression of a series of human tumours and the single nucleotide polymorphism at H-RAS cDNA position 81 was demonstrated to contribute to the risks of bladder, oral and thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, we hypothesized that this polymorphisms in H-RAS could influence susceptibility to gastrointestinal cancer as well, and we conducted this study to test the hypothesis in Chinese population. Methods A population based case-control study, including 296 cases with gastrointestinal cancer and 448 healthy controls selected from a Chinese population was conducted. H-RAS T81C polymorphism was genotyped by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP assay. Results In the healthy controls, the TT, TC and CC genotypes frequencies of H-RAS T81C polymorphism, were 79.24%, 19.87% and 0.89%, respectively, and the C allele frequency was 10.83%. Compared with TT genotype, the TC genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer (adjusted OR = 3.67, 95%CI = 2.21–6.08, while the CC genotype showed an increased risk as well (adjusted OR = 3.29, 95%CI = 0.54–19.86, but it was not statistically significant. In contrast, the frequency of TC genotype was not significantly increased in colon cancer and rectal cancer patients. Further analysis was performed by combining TC and CC genotypes compared against TT genotype. As a result, a statistically significant risk with adjusted OR of 3.65 (95%CI, 2.22–6.00 was found in gastric cancer, while no significant association of H-RAS T81C polymorphism with colon cancer and rectal cancer was observed. Conclusion These findings indicate, for the first time, that there

  17. Identification of Occupational Cancer Risks in British Columbia, Canada: A Population-Based Case—Control Study of 1,155 Cases of Colon Cancer

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    Raymond Fang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cancer has been recognized to have environmental origin, but occupational cancer risk studies have not been fully documented. The objective of this paper was to identify occupations and industries with elevated colon cancer risk based on lifetime occupational histories collected from 15,463 incident cancer cases. Method: A group matched case-control design was used. All cases were diagnosed with histologically proven colon cancers, with cancer controls being all other cancer sites, excluding rectum, lung and unknown primary, diagnosed at the same period of time from the British Columbia Cancer Registry. Data analyses were done on all 597 Canadian standard occupation titles and 1,104 standard industry titles using conditional logistic regression for matched data sets and the likelihood ratio test. Results: Excess colon cancer risks was observed in a number of occupations and industries, particularly those with low physical activity and those involving exposure to asbestos, wood dusts, engine exhaust and diesel engine emissions, and ammonia. Discussion: The results of our study are in line with those from the literature and further suggest that exposure to wood dusts and to ammonia may carry an increased occupational risk of colon cancer.

  18. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Survey in Wuwei, Gansu Province, Northwestern China from 2003 to 2012: A Retrospective Population-based Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Yun Li; Yan-Cheng Ye; Ge-Yu Liang; Wen-Hua Zhang; Zhi-Yi Zhang; Xiao-Qin Liu; Ying Liang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Population-based cancer registry collects the data on cancer incidence and mortality deaths from covered population to describe and survey the epidemics in certain areas.The aim of this study was to estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in Wuwei,Gansu province,Northwestern China from 2003 to 2012.The goal is to better understand cancer distribution and long-term development of cancer prevention and treatment in Wuwei.Methods:Data were collected from the Wuwei Cancer Registry between 2003 and 2012.In this registry,data from 46 cancer report centers were included in this analysis.Incidence/mortality rates,age-specific incidence/mortality rates,age-standardized incidence/mortality rates,and cumulative incidence/mortality rates were calculated.Totally,9,836,740 person-years (5,110,342 for males and 4,726,398 for females) had been monitored over this time period.The gender ratio of male/female was 1.08:1.The number of new cancer cases and related deaths was 24,705 and 17,287 from 2003 to 2012,respectively.Results:The proportion of morphological verification was 74.43%.The incidence of cases identified through death certification only was 1.21%,and the mortality to incidence ratio was 0.70.The average crude incidence was 251.15/100,000 persons (310.61 and 186.87 for males and females per 100,000 persons,respectively).The age-standardized rates by Chinese standard population (ASR-China) and by world standard population (ASR-world) were 207.76 and 245.42 per 100,000 persons,respectively.The crude cancer mortality was 175.74/100,000 persons (228.34 and 118.86 for males and females per 100,000 persons).ASR for China and the world was 149.57 and 175.13/100,000 persons,respectively.The most common cancers and leading causes of cancer-related deaths in Wuwei were as follows:cancers of stomach,esophagus,liver,lung,colorectum,breast,cervix,lymphoma,blood (leukemia),brain,and central nervous system.In Wuwei,during 2003 and 2012,cancer incidence and mortality

  19. A geographical information system-based analysis of cancer mortality and population exposure to coal mining activities in West Virginia, United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality rates are high in West Virginia compared to the rest of the United States of America. Previous research has suggested that exposure to activities of the coal mining industry may contribute to elevated cancer mortality, although exposure measures have been limited. This study tests alternative specifications of exposure to mining activity to determine whether a measure based on location of mines, processing plants, coal slurry impoundments and underground slurry injection sites relative to population levels is superior to a previously-reported measure of exposure based on tons mined at the county level, in the prediction of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. To this end, we utilize two geographical information system (GIS) techniques--exploratory spatial data analysis and inverse distance mapping--to construct new statistical analyses. Total, respiratory and "other" age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in West Virginia were found to be more highly associated with the GIS-exposure measure than the tonnage measure, before and after statistical control for smoking rates. The superior performance of the GIS measure, based on where people in the state live relative to mining activity, suggests that activities of the industry contribute to cancer mortality. Further confirmation of observed phenomena is necessary with person-level studies, but the results add to the body of evidence that coal mining poses environmental risks to population health in West Virginia.

  20. A geographical information system-based analysis of cancer mortality and population exposure to coal mining activities in West Virginia, United States of America

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    Michael Hendryx

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence and mortality rates are high in West Virginia compared to the rest of the United States of America. Previous research has suggested that exposure to activities of the coal mining industry may contribute to elevated cancer mortality, although exposure measures have been limited. This study tests alternative specifications of exposure to mining activity to determine whether a measure based on location of mines, processing plants, coal slurry impoundments and underground slurry injection sites relative to population levels is superior to a previously-reported measure of exposure based on tons mined at the county level, in the prediction of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. To this end, we utilize two geographical information system (GIS techniques – exploratory spatial data analysis and inverse distance mapping – to construct new statistical analyses. Total, respiratory and “other” age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in West Virginia were found to be more highly associated with the GIS-exposure measure than the tonnage measure, before and after statistical control for smoking rates. The superior performance of the GIS measure, based on where people in the state live relative to mining activity, suggests that activities of the industry contribute to cancer mortality. Further confirmation of observed phenomena is necessary with person-level studies, but the results add to the body of evidence that coal mining poses environmental risks to population health in West Virginia.

  1. Multivariate analyses to assess the effects of surgeon and hospital volume on cancer survival rates: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

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    Chun-Ming Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Positive results between caseloads and outcomes have been validated in several procedures and cancer treatments. However, there is limited information available on the combined effects of surgeon and hospital caseloads. We used nationwide population-based data to explore the association between surgeon and hospital caseloads and survival rates for major cancers. METHODOLOGY: A total of 11,677 patients with incident cancer diagnosed in 2002 were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, the Cox proportional hazards model, and propensity scores were used to assess the relationship between 5-year survival rates and different caseload combinations. RESULTS: Based on the Cox proportional hazard model, cancer patients treated by low-volume surgeons in low-volume hospitals had poorer survival rates, and hazard ratios ranged from 1.3 in head and neck cancer to 1.8 in lung cancer after adjusting for patients' demographic variables, co-morbidities, and treatment modality. When analyzed using the propensity scores, the adjusted 5-year survival rates were poorer for patients treated by low-volume surgeons in low-volume hospitals, compared to those treated by high-volume surgeons in high-volume hospitals (P<0.005. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for differences in the case mix, cancer patients treated by low-volume surgeons in low-volume hospitals had poorer 5-year survival rates. Payers may implement quality care improvement in low-volume surgeons.

  2. Birth outcome in women with previously treated breast cancer--a population-based cohort study from Sweden.

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    Kristina Dalberg

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on birth outcome and offspring health after the appearance of breast cancer are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of adverse birth outcomes in women previously treated for invasive breast cancer compared with the general population of mothers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of all 2,870,932 singleton births registered in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry during 1973-2002, 331 first births following breast cancer surgery--with a mean time to pregnancy of 37 mo (range 7-163--were identified using linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry. Logistic regression analysis was used. The estimates were adjusted for maternal age, parity, and year of delivery. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to estimate infant health and mortality, delivery complications, the risk of preterm birth, and the rates of instrumental delivery and cesarean section. The large majority of births from women previously treated for breast cancer had no adverse events. However, births by women exposed to breast cancer were associated with an increased risk of delivery complications (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9, cesarean section (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.7, very preterm birth (<32 wk (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.7-6.0, and low birth weight (<1500 g (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.8. A tendency towards an increased risk of malformations among the infants was seen especially in the later time period (1988-2002 (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7. CONCLUSIONS: It is reassuring that births overall were without adverse events, but our findings indicate that pregnancies in previously treated breast cancer patients should possibly be regarded as higher risk pregnancies, with consequences for their surveillance and management.

  3. Increased uptake of social security benefits among long-term survivors of cancer in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood: a Norwegian population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, S; Engeland, A; Moster, D; Ruud, E; Syse, A; Wesenberg, F; Bjørge, T

    2013-01-01

    Background: As the number of cancer survivors increases, their health and welfare have come into focus. Thus, long-term medical consequences of cancer at a young age (<25 years), obtained from social security benefit records, were studied. Methods: Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) of long-term medical consequences for 5-year cancer survivors, born during 1965–1985, were explored by linking population-based registries in Norway. Results: Among the 5-year cancer survivors (4031 individuals), 29.7% received social security benefits. The survivors had an overall 4.4 times (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 4.1–4.6) higher risk of social security benefit uptake than the cancer-free population. Survivors of malignancies of bone and connective tissues (SIR: 10.8; 95% CI: 9.1–12.9), CNS tumours (SIR: 7.7; 95% CI: 6.9–8.6) and malignancies of the haematopoietic system (SIR: 6.1; 95% CI: 5.3–7.0) had the highest risks of social security benefits uptake. The most notified causes of social security benefit uptake were diseases of the nervous system, and injury and poisoning. Conclusion: The uptake of social security benefits among 5-year cancer survivors increased substantially and it may represent a solid outcome measure for the burden of the most severe late effects, especially in countries with comparable social welfare systems. PMID:23481179

  4. Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist to Hip Ratio (WHR) and Risk of Biliary Tract Cancers: A Population-based Case-control Study in Shanghai, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuehong Zhang; Ann W Hsing; Yutang Gao; Asif Rashid; Jie Deng; Enju Liu; Kai Wu; Lu Sun; Jiarong Cheng; Gloria Gridley

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between BMI, WHR and billary tract cancers (CBT).METHODS A population-based case-control study was conducted in urban Shanghai from June 1, 1997 to May 31, 2001 involving interviews with 627 new cases of biliary tract cancers aged 35 to 74 years and 959frequency-matched population controls by gender and age in five-year groups. All subjects were interviewed in person by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. An unconditional logistic regression was performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios (Ors) and 95% confidence intervals (Cis).RESULTS Obesity was associated with an increased risk of gallbladder cancer across adulthood at ages 20-29 and 30-39 in females. Compared with subjects in the lowest quartile of WHR, Ors for the highest quartile and P for trend for cancers of gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct both reached significant levels among males and females.CONCLUSION Our observations in urban Shanghai suggested that obesity in early adult life may contribute to the risk of gallbladder cancer, and increased WHR may substantially elevated risk of cancers of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct.

  5. Comorbidity and survival of Danish prostate cancer patients from 2000–2011: a population-based cohort study

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    Nguyen-Nielsen M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mary Nguyen-Nielsen,1 Mette Nørgaard,1 Jacob Bonde Jacobsen,1 Michael Borre,2 Reimar Wernich Thomsen,1 Mette Søgaard1 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Department of Urology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Objective: We investigated temporal changes in overall survival among prostate cancer (PC patients and the impact of comorbidity on all-cause mortality. Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study in the Central Denmark Region (1.2 million inhabitants. Using medical registries, we identified 7,654 PC patients with first-time PC diagnosis within the period 2000–2011 and their corresponding comorbidities within 10 years prior to the PC diagnosis. We estimated 1- and 5-year survival in four consecutive calendar periods using a hybrid analysis and plotted Kaplan–Meier survival curves. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to compute 1- and 5-year age-adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRRs for different comorbidity levels. All estimates are reported with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results: The annual number of PC cases doubled over the 12-year study period. Men aged <70 years accounted for the largest proportional increase (from 33% to 47%. The proportion of patients within each comorbidity category remained constant over time. One-year survival increased from 82% (CI: 80%–84% in 2000–2002 to 92% (CI: 90%–93% in 2009–2011, while 5-year survival increased from 43% (CI: 40%–46% to 65% (CI: 62%–67% during the same time intervals. Improvements in 5-year survival were most prominent among patients aged <80 years and among those with no comorbidity (from 51% to 73% and medium comorbidity (from 32% to 54%. Improvements in survival were much smaller for those with high comorbidity (from 33% to 39%. The 1-year age-adjusted MRR for patients with high comorbidity (relative to patients with no comorbidity

  6. The Incidence Characteristics of Second Primary Malignancy after Diagnosis of Primary Colon and Rectal Cancer: A Population Based Study.

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    Xu Guan

    Full Text Available With the expanding population of colorectal cancer (CRC survivors in the United States, one concerning issue is the risk of developing second primary malignancies (SPMs for these CRC survivors. The present study attempts to identify the incidence characteristics of SPMs after diagnosis of first primary colon cancer (CC and rectal cancer (RC.189,890 CC and 83,802 RC cases were identified from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER database. We performed rate analysis on incidence trend of SPMs in both CC and RC. Expected incidence rates were stratified by age, race and stage, calendar year of first CRC diagnosis and latency period since first CRC diagnosis. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs, measure for estimating risk of SPMs, were calculated for CC and RC respectively.The trends of incidence of SPMs in both CC and RC were decreasing from 1992 to 2012. Both CC and RC survivors had higher risk of developing SPMs (SIRCC = 1.13; SIRRC = 1.05. For CC patients, the highest risks of SPM were cancers of small intestine (SIR = 4.03, colon (SIR = 1.87 and rectum (SIR = 1.80. For RC patients, the highest risks of SPMs were cancers of rectum (SIR = 2.88, small intestine (SIR = 2.16 and thyroid (SIR = 1.46. According to stratified analyses, we also identified incidence characteristics which were contributed to higher risk of developing SPMs, including the age between 20 and 40, American Indian/Alaska Native, localized stage, diagnosed at calendar year from 2002 to 2012 and the latency between 12 and 59 months.Both CC and RC survivors remain at higher risk of developing SPMs. The identification of incidence characteristics of SPMs is extremely essential for continuous cancer surveillance among CRC survivors.

  7. Population-based study of ovarian cancer in Côte d'Or: prognostic factors and trends in relative survival rates over the last 20 years

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    Altwegg Thierry

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this population-based study was to assess independent prognostic factors in ovarian cancer using relative survival (RS and to investigate changes in RS rates from 1982 to 2005. Methods Data on 748 patients with ovarian cancer were provided by the Côte d'Or gynaecologic cancer registry. The RS was estimated using a generalized linear model with a Poisson error structure. Relative survival and its 95% confidence interval (CI were described at the following specific time points 1, 3 and 5 years. The effect of prognostic factors on survival was assessed with multivariate analyses of RS. Results The median follow-up was 12 years. The RS rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 81%, 55% and 44%, respectively. As compared with the period 1982-1989, an improvement in survival was found for the period 1998-2005: HR = 0.52[0.40-0.67]. Women who lived in urban areas had better RS: HR = 0.82[0.67-0.99]. Patients with epithelial types of ovarian cancer other than mucinous or endometrioid cancer had worse RS than those with serous histology. Age ≥ 70 years was associated with lower survival. Conclusions Period of diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, histology, place of residence and age were independent prognostic factors for survival in ovarian cancer. An improvement in the survival rate was observed after 1998 but a significant improvement was limited to advanced stage cancers.

  8. Uptake of prostate cancer screening and associated factors among Chinese men aged 50 or more:a population-based sur vey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Winnie KW So; Carmen WH Chan; Kai Chow Choi; Winnie PY Tang; Paul CW Lee; Ann TY Shiu; Simone SM Ho; Helen YL Chan; Wendy WT Lam; William B.Goggins

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the uptake rate of prostate speciifc antigen (PSA) testing among Hong Kong Chinese males aged 50 or above, and identify factors associated with the likelihood of undergoing a PSA test. Methods:A population-based telephone survey was conducted in Hong Kong in 2007. The survey covered demographic information, perceived health status, use of complementary therapy, cancer screening behavior, perceived susceptibility to cancer and family history of cancer. Descriptive statistics, percentages and logistic regression analysis were used for data analysis. Results:A total of 1,002 men aged 50 or above took part in the study (response rate=67%), and the uptake rate of PSA testing was found to be 10%. Employment status, use of complementary therapy, perceiving regular visits to a doctor as good for health and the recommendations of health professionals were signiifcant factors associated with PSA testing. Conclusion:The uptake rate of PSA testing in the study population was very low. Among all the factors identified, recommendations from health professionals had the strongest association with the uptake of PSA testing, and they should therefore take an active role in educating this population about cancer prevention and detection.

  9. Ovarian cancer risk and common variation in the sex hormone-binding globulin gene: a population-based case-control study

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    Yeager Meredith

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG is a carrier protein that modulates the bio-availability of serum sex steroid hormones, which may be involved in ovarian cancer. We evaluated whether common genetic variation in SHBG and its 3' neighbor ATP1B2, in linkage disequilibrium, is associated with the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods The study population included 264 women with ovarian carcinoma and 625 controls participating in a population-based case-control study in Poland. Five common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in SHGB and five in ATP1B2 were selected to capture most common variation in this region. Results None of the SNPs evaluated was significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk, including the putative functional SNPs SHBG D356N (rs6259 and -67G>A 5'UTR (rs1799941. However, our data were consistent with a decreased ovarian cancer risk associated with the variant alleles for these two SNPs, which have been previously associated with increased circulating levels of SHBG. Conclusion These data do not support a substantial association between common genetic variation in SHBG and ovarian cancer risk.

  10. Breast cancer screening disparities among immigrant women by world region of origin: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana; Lofters, Aisha; Kumar, Matthew; Glazier, Richard H

    2016-07-01

    Rates of mammography screening for breast cancer are disproportionately low in certain subgroups including low-income and immigrant women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in rates of appropriate breast cancer screening (i.e., screening mammography every 2 years) among Ontario immigrant women by world region of origin and explore the association between appropriate breast cancer screening among these women groups and individual and structural factors. A cohort of 183,332 screening-eligible immigrant women living in Ontario between 2010 and 2012 was created from linked databases and classified into eight world regions of origin. Appropriate screening rates were calculated for each region by age group and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and healthcare-related characteristics. The association between appropriate screening across the eight regions of origin and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and health-related characteristics was explored using multivariate Poisson regression. Screening varied by region of origin, with South Asian women (48.5%) having the lowest and Caribbean and Latin American women (63.7%) the highest cancer screening rates. Factors significantly associated with lower screening across the world regions of origin included living in the lowest income neighborhoods, having a refugee status, being a new immigrant, not having a regular physical examination, not being enrolled in a primary care patient enrollment model, having a male physician, and having an internationally trained physician. Multiple interventions entailing cross-sector collaboration, promotion of patient enrollment models, community engagement, comprehensive and intensive outreach to women, and knowledge translation and transfer to physicians should be considered to address screening disparities among immigrant population. Consideration should be given to design and delivery of culturally appropriate and easily accessible cancer screening programs

  11. Impact of Histopathological Diagnosis with Ancillary Immunohistochemical Studies on Lung Cancer Subtypes Incidence and Survival: A Population-Based Study

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    Andrea Bordoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of immunohistochemical- (IHC- studies on incidence and survival of lung cancer histotypes. Patients and Methods. Lung cancers occurred in southern Switzerland between 1996 and 2010 were selected by the Ticino Cancer Registry and categorised into adenocarcinoma (AC, squamous-cell-carcinoma (SqCC, small-cell-carcinoma (SmCC, and large-cell carcinoma/non-small-cell lung cancer (LCC/NSCLC. Incidence rates, annual-percentage-change (APC, and two-year overall survival (OS (follow-up: 31.12.2010 were performed. Results. 2467 cases were selected: 997 (40.4% AC; 522 (21.2% LCC/NSCLC, 378 (15.3% SmCC, and 570 (23.1% SqCC. Trend-analysis showed significant increase in AC (APC: 4.6; 95% CI: 3.1; 6.0 and decrease of LCC/NSCLC, with significant joinpoint in 2003 (APC: −14.7; 95% CI: −21.6; −7.1. Improved OS and decreased OS were detected in SqCC and LCC/NSCLC, respectively. Conclusions. This study highlights that diagnosis with ancillary immunohistochemical studies will change incidence and survival of precisely defined lung cancer subtypes. It calls attention to the need for cautious interpretation of studies and clinical trials, where the diagnosis was based on histology unaccompanied by IHC studies, and to the need of standardised diagnostic procedures.

  12. Early detection of breast cancer through population-based mammographic screening in Asian women: a comparison study between screen-detected and symptomatic breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuwa, Esther W L; Yeo, Allen W Y; Koong, Heng Nung; Wong, Chow Yin; Yong, Wei Sean; Tan, Puay Hoon; Ho, Juliana T S; Wong, Jill S L; Ho, Gay Hui

    2009-01-01

    The first nation-wide mammographic screening program in Asia, BreastScreen Singapore (BSS), was launched in Singapore in January 2002. This study compared the presentation and results of screen-detected breast cancers with symptomatic breast cancers in two affiliated high-volume institutions, one of which was an assessment centre for BSS. The medical records of patients diagnosed with primary breast cancer at the Department of General Surgery, Singapore General Hospital and the Department of Surgical Oncology, National Cancer Centre, Singapore, during the period January 2002 to December 2003 were reviewed. Clinical and pathological comparisons were made between screen-detected lesions and symptomatic lesions. Of a total of 767 cases, 640 (83.4%) were invasive carcinomas and 127 (16.6%) were ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS) lesions. Only 13.4% of them were screen-detected. Compared to symptomatic cancers, screen-detected lesions were of smaller size (median size 18 versus 23 mm), a lower stage (stages 0-2, 95 versus 83.2%) and histologic grade (grade 1-2, 71 versus 60%), with a higher incidence of DCIS (31.0 versus 14.3%) and had higher rates of breast conservation (45.6 versus 28.2%) (all p-values 20 mm, nodal involvement, cerbB2 overexpression, and advanced disease stage were independent poor prognostic factors for disease-free survival, whereas nodal involvement, advanced disease, and recurrence predicted poor cancer-specific survival. However, there was no statistically significant difference in disease-free survival or cancer-specific survival between the two groups at a median follow-up of 38 months. Screening mammography has allowed the detection of smaller and hence oncologically more favorable lesions in Asian women. Although no significant survival benefit was demonstrated in our study, a longer period of follow-up is essential before the benefit of mortality reduction, as a result of mammography screening becomes evident in our population.

  13. Spatiotemporal air pollution exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study

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    Hystad Perry

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few epidemiological studies of air pollution have used residential histories to develop long-term retrospective exposure estimates for multiple ambient air pollutants and vehicle and industrial emissions. We present such an exposure assessment for a Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study of 8353 individuals using self-reported residential histories from 1975 to 1994. We also examine the implications of disregarding and/or improperly accounting for residential mobility in long-term exposure assessments. Methods National spatial surfaces of ambient air pollution were compiled from recent satellite-based estimates (for PM2.5 and NO2 and a chemical transport model (for O3. The surfaces were adjusted with historical annual air pollution monitoring data, using either spatiotemporal interpolation or linear regression. Model evaluation was conducted using an independent ten percent subset of monitoring data per year. Proximity to major roads, incorporating a temporal weighting factor based on Canadian mobile-source emission estimates, was used to estimate exposure to vehicle emissions. A comprehensive inventory of geocoded industries was used to estimate proximity to major and minor industrial emissions. Results Calibration of the national PM2.5 surface using annual spatiotemporal interpolation predicted historical PM2.5 measurement data best (R2 = 0.51, while linear regression incorporating the national surfaces, a time-trend and population density best predicted historical concentrations of NO2 (R2 = 0.38 and O3 (R2 = 0.56. Applying the models to study participants residential histories between 1975 and 1994 resulted in mean PM2.5, NO2 and O3 exposures of 11.3 μg/m3 (SD = 2.6, 17.7 ppb (4.1, and 26.4 ppb (3.4 respectively. On average, individuals lived within 300 m of a highway for 2.9 years (15% of exposure-years and within 3 km of a major industrial emitter for 6.4 years (32% of exposure-years. Approximately 50

  14. Use of photosensitising diuretics and risk of skin cancer: a population-based case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A Ø; Thomsen, H F; Engebjerg, M C; Olesen, A B; Sørensen, H T; Karagas, M R

    2008-01-01

    Diuretics have photosensitising properties. However, little is known about how these diuretics affect the risk of skin cancers. In North Jutland County, Denmark, we investigated whether the use of photosensitising diuretics was associated with an increased risk for developing basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and malignant melanoma (MM). From the cancer registry, we identified primary cases of BCC, SCC and MM during the period of 1989–2003. We selected four population controls for each case from the Danish Civil Registration System, matched on age and gender. Prescriptions for photosensitising diuretics before cancer diagnosis were ascertained in the county's Prescription Database. We used conditional logistic regression to compute incidence rate ratio (IRR), controlling for the chronic medical conditions and for the previous use of oral glucocorticoids. We found an increased risk of SCC (IRR of 1.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.45–2.21)) and MM (IRR of 1.43 (95% CI: 1.09–1.88)) among users of combined amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide therapy. An increased risk of MM (IRR of 3.30 (95% CI: 1.34–8.10)) was found among users of indapamide. We found little associations with risk of BCC. Our findings provide evidence that the use of some photosensitising diuretics is associated with an increased risk for SCC and MM. PMID:18813314

  15. The Impact of Hypofractionated Whole Breast Radiotherapy on Local Relapse in Patients With Grade 3 Early Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, Christopher, E-mail: cherbert@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Nichol, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Olivotto, Ivo [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Weir, Lorna [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Woods, Ryan; Speers, Caroline [Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Truong, Pauline [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether patients with Grade 3 early breast cancer have an inferior rate of local disease control at 10 years with hypofractionated radiotherapy compared with more conventionally fractionated schedules. Methods and Materials: Local relapse rates were compared between patients receiving hypofractionated radiotherapy or conventionally fractionated radiotherapy to the whole breast in a population-based cohort of women with early-stage (T1-T2, N0, M0) Grade 3 breast cancers diagnosed between 1990 and 2000 and referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency. Cumulative rates of local relapse were estimated using a competing risk method, and factors significant on univariate analysis were included with fractionation group in a multivariate model. The primary end point was local control at 10 years. Results: A total of 1,335 patients with Grade 3 tumors were treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, 252 with conventional fractionation, and 1,083 with a hypofractionated schedule. The 10-year cumulative incidence of local relapse was 6.9% in the hypofractionated group and 6.2% in the conventionally fractionated group (p = 0.99). Conclusions: There is no evidence that hypofractionation is inferior to conventional fractionation for breast conserving therapy in patients with Grade 3 breast cancer in this large population-based series after 10 years of follow-up.

  16. Lifestyle behaviors, obesity, and perceived health among men with and without a diagnosis of prostate cancer: A population-based, cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markwell Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of how prostate cancer survivors differ from men without prostate cancer and whether these potential differences vary across demographic subgroups will help to focus and prioritize future public health interventions for improving the health and well-being of prostate cancer survivors. Therefore, our study aims were to compare lifestyle behaviors, body mass index (BMI, and perceived health in men with and without a diagnosis of prostate cancer in a national, population-based sample and to explore whether these comparisons differ for demographic subgroups. Methods In a cross-sectional study, men aged ≥ 40 were identified from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS 2002 data (n = 63,662. Respondents reporting history of prostate cancer (n = 2,524 were compared with non prostate cancer controls (n = 61,138 with regard to daily fruit and vegetable servings (FVPD, smoking, alcohol, sedentary behavior, BMI, and perceived health. Multivariable logistic regression calculated adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for the entire sample and for age, race, education, and urbanicity subgroups. Results Men with prostate cancer did not differ from men without prostate cancer with regard to smoking, alcohol, sedentary behavior, and obesity but were more likely to consume ≥ 5 FVPD (OR, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.09–1.56 and report poor or fair health (OR, 95% CI: 1.62, 1.33–1.97. Subgroup analyses demonstrated attenuation of the higher likelihood of ≥ 5 FVPD among prostate cancer survivors in rural respondents (OR, 95% CI: 0.98, 0.72–1.33. Poorer perceived health was greatest if ≤ 65 years of age (OR, 95% CI: 2.54, 1.79–3.60 and nonsignificant if black (OR, 95% CI: 1.41, 0.70–2.82. Smoking and alcohol which were not significant for the sample as a whole, demonstrated significant associations in certain subgroups. Conclusion Although efforts to enhance perceived health and healthy

  17. Maternal use of fertility drugs and risk of cancer in children--a nationwide population-based cohort study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hargreave, Marie; Jensen, Allan; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane

    2015-01-01

    and follicle-stimulating hormone], gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, human chorionic gonadotropins, progesterone and other fertility drugs). We found no statistically significant association between maternal use of fertility drugs and risk for overall cancer in childhood or young adulthood. However......Large population-based studies are needed to examine the effect of maternal use of fertility drugs on the risk of cancer in children, while taking into account the effect of the underlying infertility. A cohort of 123,322 children born in Denmark between 1964 and 2006 to 68,255 women who had been...... evaluated for infertility was established. We used a case-cohort design and calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer in childhood (0-19 years) and in young adulthood (20-29 years) associated with maternal use of six groups of fertility drugs (clomiphene, gonadotropins [i.e., human menopausal gonadotropins...

  18. Cancer risk among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a population-based prospective study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Hu, Ru-Ying; Wu, Hai-Bin; Pan, Jin; Gong, Wei-Wei; Guo, Li-Hua; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Fei, Fang-Rong; Yu, Min

    2015-06-17

    Evidence indicates an increased cancer risk among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. Based on Diabetes Surveillance System linking to Cancer Surveillance System of Zhejiang Province in China, we explored the cancer risk among T2DM patients. Totally, 327,268 T2DM patients were identified and followed from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2013. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Overall cancer risk was found significantly increased with an SIR of 1.15 (95% CI 1.12-1.19) and 1.25 (95% CI 1.21-1.30) in males and females, respectively. Regarding specific cancer sites, risks of liver, colon, rectum, pancreas, and kidney were significantly increased with SIRs of 1.26 (95% CI 1.16-1.36), 1.47 (95% CI 1.29-1.67), 1.25 (95% CI 1.09-1.43), 2.81 (95% CI 2.50-3.16) and 1.61 (95% CI 1.28-2.03) in males, 1.53 (95% CI 1.35-1.73), 1.33 (95% CI 1.15-1.54), 1.29 (95% CI 1.10-1.51), 3.62 (95% CI 3.20-4.09) and 1.71 (95% CI 1.28-2.29) in females, respectively. A significant increased SIR was noted for prostate (1.80, 95% CI 1.58-2.06). Significant increased SIRs for lung (1.32, 95% CI 1.20-1.44) and stomach (1.16, 95% CI 1.03-1.30) were observed in females. We suggested an increased cancer risk among T2DM patients.

  19. Correlates of exercise motivation and behavior in a population-based sample of endometrial cancer survivors: an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

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    Dundas George

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence of the benefits of exercise in cancer survivors, exercise participation rates tend to decline after treatments. Few studies have examined the determinants of exercise in less common cancer sites. In this study, we examined medical, demographic, and social cognitive correlates of exercise in endometrial cancer survivors using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. Methods A mailed survey was completed by 354 endometrial cancer survivors (1 to 10 years postdiagnosis residing in Alberta, Canada. The study was cross-sectional. Exercise behavior was assessed using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and the TPB constructs were assessed with standard self-report scales. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine the independent associations of the TPB constructs with intention and behavior. Results Chi-square analyses indicated that marital status (p = .003, income level (p = .013, and body mass index (BMI (p = .020 were associated with exercise. The TPB explained 34.1% of the variance in exercise behavior with intention (β = .38, p β = .18, p = .029 being independent correlates. For intention, 38.3% of the variance was explained by the TPB with self-efficacy (β = .34, p β = .30, p Conclusion The TPB may be a useful framework for understanding exercise in endometrial cancer survivors. Exercise behavior change interventions based on the TPB should be tested in this growing population.

  20. An inverse association between preserved fish and prostate cancer: results from a population-based case-control study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Kym; Fritschi, Lin; Johnson, Kenneth C

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that fish consumption may be a protective factor against the development of prostate cancer. We investigated the association between prostate cancer risk and fresh and preserved fish consumption among participants of a population-based case-control study (1,534 cases, 1,607 controls). Fish intake was measured using a dietary questionnaire that collected both frequency of consumption of a given portion size. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated an inverse association between preserved fish and prostate cancer risk for all levels of consumption, but reductions only reached statistical significance for the category of 1 to 3 servings of preserved fish per month (odds ratio = 0.78, confidence interval = 0.64-0.95). Consumption of any fat or energy from preserved fish was also associated with reduced risk. There was no suggestion of reduced prostate cancer risk with consumption of fresh and canned fish. Our results suggest that consumption of preserved fish may reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer.

  1. Utilization of Radiation Therapy in Norway After the Implementation of The National Cancer Plan—A National, Population-Based Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Åsli, Linn M., E-mail: linn.merete.asli@kreftregisteret.no [Department of Registration, Cancer Registry of Norway, Institute of Population-Based Cancer Research, Oslo (Norway); Kvaløy, Stein O. [Division of Cancer, Surgery, and Transplantation, Oslo University Hospital and University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Jetne, Vidar [Department of Medical Physics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Myklebust, Tor Å. [Department of Registration, Cancer Registry of Norway, Institute of Population-Based Cancer Research, Oslo (Norway); Levernes, Sverre G. [Department of Medical Physics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Østerås (Norway); Tveit, Kjell M. [Department of Oncology, Oslo University Hospital and University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Green, Tor O. [Department of Medical Physics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Johannesen, Tom B. [Department of Registration, Cancer Registry of Norway, Institute of Population-Based Cancer Research, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To estimate actual utilization rates of radiation therapy (RT) in Norway, describe time trends (1997-2010), and compare these estimates with corresponding optimal RT rates. Methods and Materials: Data from the population-based Cancer Registry of Norway was used to identify all patients diagnosed with cancer and/or treated by RT for cancer in 1997-2010. Radiation therapy utilization rates (RURs) were calculated as (1) the proportion of incident cancer cases who received RT at least once within 1 year of diagnosis (RUR{sub 1Y}); and (2) the proportion who received RT within 5 years of diagnosis (RUR{sub 5Y}). The number of RT treatment courses per incident cancer case (TCI) was also calculated for all cancer sites combined. The actual RURs were compared with corresponding Australian and Canadian epidemiologic- and evidence-based model estimates and criterion-based benchmark estimates of optimal RURs. The TCIs were compared with TCI estimates from the 1997 Norwegian/National Cancer Plan (NCP). Joinpoint regression was used to identify changes in trends and to estimate annual percentage change (APC) in actual RUR{sub 1Y} and actual TCI. Results: The actual RUR{sub 5Y} (all sites) increased significantly to 29% in 2005 but still differed markedly from the Australian epidemiologic- and evidence-based model estimate of 48%. With the exception of RUR{sub 5Y} for breast cancer and RUR{sub 1Y} for lung cancers, all actual RURs were markedly lower than optimal RUR estimates. The actual TCI increased significantly during the study period, reaching 42.5% in 2010, but was still lower than the 54% recommended in the NCP. The trend for RUR{sub 1Y} (all sites) and TCI changed significantly, with the annual percentage change being largest during the first part of the study period. Conclusions: Utilization rates of RT in Norway increased after the NCP was implemented and RT capacity was increased, but they still seem to be lower than optimal levels.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of cancer survivors’ supportive care needs 6 months after diagnosis: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyes Allison W

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the nature and magnitude of the impact of cancer is critical to planning how best to deliver supportive care to the growing population of cancer survivors whose need for care may span many years. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of and factors associated with moderate to high level unmet supportive care needs among adult cancer survivors six months after diagnosis. Methods A population-based sample of adult cancer survivors diagnosed with one of the eight most incident cancers in Australia was recruited from two state-based cancer registries. Data for 1323 survivors were obtained by self-report questionnaire and linkage with cancer registry data. Unmet needs were assessed by the 34-item Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-SF34. The data were examined using chi-square and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results A total of 444 (37% survivors reported at least one ‘moderate to high’ level unmet need and 496 (42% reported ‘no need’ for help. Moderate to high level unmet needs were most commonly reported in the psychological (25% and physical aspects of daily living (20% domains. The five most frequently endorsed items of moderate to high unmet need were concerns about the worries of those close to them (15%, fears about the cancer spreading (14%, not being able to do the things they used to do (13%, uncertainty about the future (13% and lack of energy/tiredness (12%. Survivors’ psychological characteristics were the strongest indicators of unmet need, particularly caseness for anxious preoccupation coping which was associated (OR = 2.2-5.9 with unmet need for help across all domains. Conclusions Unmet supportive care needs are prevalent among a subgroup of survivors transitioning from active treatment to survivorship, although lower than previously reported. In addition to coping support, valuable insight about how to prevent or address survivors’ unmet needs could be gained by

  3. Nonequilibrium population dynamics of phenotype conversion of cancer cells.

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    Joseph Xu Zhou

    Full Text Available Tumorigenesis is a dynamic biological process that involves distinct cancer cell subpopulations proliferating at different rates and interconverting between them. In this paper we proposed a mathematical framework of population dynamics that considers both distinctive growth rates and intercellular transitions between cancer cell populations. Our mathematical framework showed that both growth and transition influence the ratio of cancer cell subpopulations but the latter is more significant. We derived the condition that different cancer cell types can maintain distinctive subpopulations and we also explain why there always exists a stable fixed ratio after cell sorting based on putative surface markers. The cell fraction ratio can be shifted by changing either the growth rates of the subpopulations (Darwinism selection or by environment-instructed transitions (Lamarckism induction. This insight can help us to understand the dynamics of the heterogeneity of cancer cells and lead us to new strategies to overcome cancer drug resistance.

  4. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou smear and SurePath® liquid-based cytology in the Copenhagen population screening programme for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Simonsen, Kåre; Junge, Jette

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare diagnostic performance of conventional Papanicolaou smear with SurePath liquid-based cytology in a population screening programme. METHODS: A retrospective comparison was performed on data from two 18-month periods of the screening programme for cervical cancer...... in the municipality of Copenhagen with conventional Papanicolaou technique (n = 82,116) and liquid-based cytology (n = 84,414). RESULTS: After the conversion to liquid-based cytology the percentage of unsatisfactory samples decreased from 2.3% to 0.3% (P ...-based technique. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the number of unsatisfactory samples to be significantly reduced with the liquid-based technique. The data suggest that there is an increased detection rate of cervical precancerous lesions with liquid-based cytology, but the number of false positive tests is still...

  5. Birth rates among male cancer survivors and mortality rates among their offspring : a population-based study from Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Siau-Wei; Liu, Jenny; Juay, Lester; Czene, Kamila; Miao, Hui; Salim, Agus; Verkooijen, Helena M; Hartman, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With improvements in treatment of cancer, more men of fertile age are survivors of cancer. This study evaluates trends in birth rates among male cancer survivors and mortality rates of their offspring. METHODS: From the Swedish Multi-generation Register and Cancer Register, we identified

  6. Investigation of occupational and environmental causes of respiratory cancers (ICARE: a multicenter, population-based case-control study in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luce Danièle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational causes of respiratory cancers need to be further investigated: the role of occupational exposures in the aetiology of head and neck cancers remains largely unknown, and there are still substantial uncertainties for a number of suspected lung carcinogens. The main objective of the study is to examine occupational risk factors for lung and head and neck cancers. Methods/design ICARE is a multi-center, population-based case-control study, which included a group of 2926 lung cancer cases, a group of 2415 head and neck cancer cases, and a common control group of 3555 subjects. Incident cases were identified in collaboration with cancer registries, in 10 geographical areas. The control group was a random sample of the population of these areas, with a distribution by sex and age comparable to that of the cases, and a distribution by socioeconomic status comparable to that of the population. Subjects were interviewed face to face, using a standardized questionnaire collecting particularly information on tobacco and alcohol consumption, residential history and a detailed description of occupational history. Biological samples were also collected from study subjects. The main occupational exposures of interest are asbestos, man-made mineral fibers, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chromium and nickel compounds, arsenic, wood dust, textile dust, solvents, strong acids, cutting fluids, silica, diesel fumes, welding fumes. The complete list of exposures of interest includes more than 60 substances. Occupational exposure assessment will use several complementary methods: case-by-case evaluation of exposure by experts; development and use of algorithms to assess exposure from the questionnaires; application of job-exposure matrices. Discussion The large number of subjects should allow to uncover exposures associated with moderate increase in risks, and to evaluate risks associated with infrequent or widely

  7. Long term cause specific mortality among 34 489 five year survivors of childhood cancer in Great Britain: population based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Miranda M; Reulen, Raoul C; Winter, David L; Kelly, Julie; Jenkinson, Helen C; Skinner, Rod; Frobisher, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether modern treatments for cancer are associated with a net increased or decreased risk of death from neoplastic and non-neoplastic causes among survivors of childhood cancer. Design Population based cohort study. Setting British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Participants Nationwide population based cohort of 34 489 five year survivors of childhood cancer with a diagnosis from 1940 to 2006 and followed up until 28 February 2014. Main outcome measures Cause specific standardised mortality ratios and absolute excess risks are reported. Multivariable Poisson regression models were utilised to evaluate the simultaneous effect of risk factors. Likelihood ratio tests were used to test for heterogeneity or trend. Results Overall, 4475 deaths were observed, which was 9.1 (95% confidence interval 8.9 to 9.4) times that expected in the general population, corresponding to 64.2 (95% confidence interval 62.1 to 66.3) excess deaths per 10 000 person years. The number of excess deaths from all causes declined among those treated more recently; those treated during 1990-2006 experienced 30% of the excess number of deaths experienced by those treated before 1970. The corresponding percentages for the decline in excess deaths from recurrence or progression and non-neoplastic causes were 30% and 60%, respectively. Among survivors aged 50-59 years, 41% and 22% of excess deaths were attributable to subsequent primary neoplasms and circulatory conditions, respectively, whereas the corresponding percentages among those aged 60 years or more were 31% and 37%. Conclusions The net effects of changes in cancer treatments, and surveillance and management for late effects, over the period 1940 to 2006 was to reduce the excess number of deaths from both recurrence or progression and non-neoplastic causes among those treated more recently. Among survivors aged 60 years or more, the excess number of deaths from circulatory causes exceeds the excess number

  8. A novel case-control design to estimate the extent of over-diagnosis of breast cancer due to organised population-based mammography screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Kerri R; Lynch, John W; Hiller, Janet E; Farshid, Gelareh; Houssami, Nehmat; Duffy, Stephen W; Roder, David M

    2015-03-15

    Debate about the extent of breast cancer over-diagnosis due to mammography screening has continued for over a decade, without consensus. Estimates range from 0 to 54%, but many studies have been criticized for having flawed methodology. In this study we used a novel study design to estimate over-diagnosis due to organised mammography screening in South Australia (SA). To estimate breast cancer incidence at and following screening we used a population-based, age-matched case-control design involving 4,931 breast cancer cases and 22,914 controls to obtain OR for yearly time intervals since women's last screening mammogram. The level of over-diagnosis was estimated by comparing the cumulative breast cancer incidence with and without screening. The former was derived by applying ORs for each time window to incidence rates in the absence of screening, and the latter, by projecting pre-screening incidence rates. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess potential biases. Over-diagnosis was estimated to be 8% (95%CI 2-14%) and 14% (95%CI 8-19%) among SA women aged 45 to 85 years from 2006-2010, for invasive breast cancer and all breast cancer respectively. These estimates were robust when applying various sensitivity analyses, except for adjustment for potential confounding assuming higher risk among screened than non-screened women, which reduced levels of over-diagnosis to 1% (95%CI 5-7%) and 8% (95%CI 2-14%) respectively when incidence rates for screening participants were adjusted by 10%. Our results indicate that the level of over-diagnosis due to mammography screening is modest and considerably lower than many previous estimates, including others for Australia.

  9. Whole grains and risk of pancreatic cancer in a large population-based case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, June M; Wang, Furong; Holly, Elizabeth A

    2007-11-15

    Epidemiologic data suggest that consumption of whole-grain products may be inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer. Grain intake was examined in a population-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer in the San Francisco Bay Area (1995-1999). A 131-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was administered to 532 cases and 1,701 controls. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed as estimates of relative risk. Persons who consumed > or =2 servings of whole grains daily had a lower risk of pancreatic cancer than persons who consumed tortillas (OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.89; trend-p = 0.02). Consumption of doughnuts (> or =2 servings/week vs. or =2 servings/week vs. Dietary fiber was inversely associated with risk (for highest quartile vs. lowest, OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.47, 0.89; trend-p = 0.02). These data provide some support for the hypothesis that consuming more whole-grain or high-fiber foods may reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. Refined grains were not associated with risk.

  10. Chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment and its impact on quality of life: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddern, Marie-Louise; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Laurberg, Søren

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment and its impact on quality of life (QoL). This is a population-based cross-sectional study of chronic pain and QoL in patients treated for rectal cancer from 2001 to 2007. A modified version of the Brief Descriptive Danish Pain Questionnaire and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 questionnaire were mailed to 1713 Danish patients. Informative answers were obtained from 1369 patients (80%). A total of 426 patients (31%) reported chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities, 173 (41%) of whom had daily pain. Pain in other parts of the body was associated with the presence of pain in the pelvic region (odds ratio [OR] 4.81 [3.63-6.38], P pain in female patients (OR 1.91 [1.51-2.43], P pelvic pain. Chronic pain in the pelvic region or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment is a common but largely neglected problem that is associated with female gender, type of surgery, radio(chemo)therapy, and young age, all of which impact the patient's QoL.

  11. Psychological distress following fecal occult blood test in colorectal cancer screening--a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, Klaus; Ladelund, Steen; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the possible psychological side-effect of participating in a colorectal cancer (CRC)-screening program.......To evaluate the possible psychological side-effect of participating in a colorectal cancer (CRC)-screening program....

  12. Myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke and pulmonary embolism before and after breast cancer hospitalisation. A population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P.P. van Herk-Sukel (Myrthe); S. Shantakumar (Sumitra); P.W. Kamphuisen (Pieter Willem); F.J.A. Penning-Van Beest (Fernie); R.M.C. Herings (Ron)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe studied the occurrence of myocardial infarction (MI), ischaemic stroke (IS) and pulmonary embolism (PE) before and after breast cancer hospitalisation compared with cancer-free controls. For this, women with a first breast cancer hospitalisation during 2000-2007 were selected from the

  13. Longitudinal, population-based study of racial/ethnic differences in colorectal cancer survival: impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status, treatment and comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroup Antoinette

    2007-10-01

    differential effects of covariates on survival after colorectal cancer within each group, suggesting that different strategies may be necessary to improve survival in each group. Among Blacks, half of the differential in survival after colorectal cancer was primarily attributable to stage and SES, but differences in survival between Blacks and Whites remain unexplained with the data available in this comprehensive, population-based, analysis.

  14. Outcomes in Ovarian Cancer among Hispanic Women Living in the United States: A Population-Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okechukwu A. Ibeanu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic cancer in the United States. There is limited data on presentation and outcomes among Hispanic women with ovarian cancer. Objective. To investigate how ovarian cancer presents among Hispanic women in the USA and to analyze differences in presentation, staging, and survival between Hispanic and non-Hispanic women with ovarian cancer. Methods. Data from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2004 were extracted from the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER database. Results. The study sample comprised 1215 Hispanics (10%, 10 652 non-Hispanic whites (83%, and 905 non-Hispanic blacks (7%. Hispanic women were diagnosed with ovarian cancer at a younger age and earlier stage when compared to non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks; . Similar proportion of Hispanics (33%, non-Hispanic whites (32%, and non-Hispanic blacks (24% underwent lymphadenectomy; . Hispanics with epithelial ovarian cancer histology had longer five-year survival of 30.6 months compared to non-Hispanic whites (22.8 months and non-Hispanic blacks (23.3 months; . Conclusion. Hispanic women with ovarian cancer have a statistically significantly longer median survival compared to whites and blacks. This survival difference was most apparent in patients with epithelial cancers and patients with stage IV disease.

  15. The relationship between vegetable/fruit consumption and gallbladder/bile duct cancer: A population-based cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiuchi, Takeshi; Sobue, Tomotaka; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Ishihara, Junko; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-03-01

    Vegetable and fruit consumption may have a protective effect against several types of cancers. However, the effect on biliary cancers is unclear. We investigated the association of vegetable/fruit consumption with the risks of gallbladder cancer (GBC), intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBDC) and extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC) in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model, and the exposure level was categorized into quartiles, with the lowest group used as the reference. A total of 80,371 people aged 45 to 74 years were enrolled between 1995 and 1999, and followed up for 1,158,632 person-years until 2012, during which 133 GBC, 99 IHBDC, and 161 EHBDC cases were identified. Increased consumption of total vegetable and fruit was significantly associated with a decreased risk of EHBDC (HR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.29-0.81 for the highest group; p trend = 0.005). From the analysis of relevant nutrients, significantly decreased risk of EHBDC was associated with folate and insoluble fiber (HR = 0.48, 0.53; 95% CI: 0.28-0.85, 0.31-0.88 for the highest group; p trend = 0.010, 0.023; respectively), and a significant trend of decreased EHBDC risk associated with vitamin C was observed (p trend = 0.029). No decreased risk of GBC and IHBDC was found. Our findings suggest that increased vegetable/fruit consumption may decrease a risk of EHBDC, and folate, vitamin C, and insoluble fiber might be key contributors to the observed protective effect.

  16. Cancer risk among patients with hereditary muscular dystrophies:a population-based study in Taiwan, 1997-2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gen-Min Lin; Yi-Hwei Li

    2014-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MD) comprise a heterogeneous group of hereditary myopathic diseases. In this group, myotonic MD is associated with an increased cancer risk. However, the cancer risk in other types of MD is unclear. To address this gap in knowledge, we assessed data obtained from the Taiwan Health Insurance Program database. A total of 1,272 patients with MD diagnosed between 1997 and 2009 were enrol ed. They were fol owed up for cancer during the same period by record linkage with the cancer certification in Taiwan. Age- and sex-standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of overall and site-specific cancers were calculated. For congenital and progressive hereditary MD, there were 685 and 505 cases (males:69.5%and 80.6%), the median ages at diagnosis were 16 and 13 years, and the mean fol ow-up durations were 7.12 and 5.06 years, respectively. In addition, cancers were developed in 10 patients with congenital MD and 3 patients with progressive hereditary MD. Female MD patients exhibited an increased cancer risk, yielding an SIR of 3.37 [95%confidence interval (CI)=1.38-8.25] in congenital MD and 2.95 (95% CI = 0.95-9.19) in hereditary progressive MD. Site-specific cancer SIRs were not powered to be significantly different. In conclusion, genetic defects in hereditary MD may increase cancer risks in females and a sex difference should be further investigated.

  17. Regular inhaled corticosteroids in adult-onset asthma and the risk for future cancer: a population-based cohort study with proper person-time analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok VC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Victor C Kok,1,2 Jorng-Tzong Horng,2,3 Hsu-Kai Huang,3 Tsung-Ming Chao,4 Ya-Fang Hong5 1Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kuang Tien General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 2Department of Biomedical Informatics, Asia University Taiwan, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan; 4Statistics Unit, Department of Applied Geomatics, Chien Hsin University, Jhongli, Taiwan; 5Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan Background: Recent studies have shown that inhaled corticosteroids (ICS can exert anti-inflammatory effects for chronic airway diseases, and several observational studies suggest that they play a role as cancer chemopreventive agents, particularly against lung cancer. We aimed to examine whether regular ICS use was associated with a reduced risk for future malignancy in patients with newly diagnosed adult-onset asthma. Methods: We used a population-based cohort study between 2001 and 2008 with appropriate person-time analysis. Participants were followed up until the first incident of cancer, death, or to the end of 2008. The Cox model was used to derive an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR for cancer development. Kaplan–Meier cancer-free survival curves of two groups were compared. Results: The exposed group of 2,117 regular ICS users and the nonexposed group of 17,732 non-ICS users were assembled. After 7,365 (mean, 3.5 years; standard deviation 2.1 and 73,789 (mean, 4.1 years; standard deviation 2.4 person-years of follow-up for the ICS users and the comparator group of non-ICS users, respectively, the aHR for overall cancer was nonsignificantly elevated at 1.33 with 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.00–1.76, P=0.0501. The Kaplan–Meier curves for overall cancer-free proportions of both groups were not significant (log-rank, P=0.065. Synergistic interaction of concurrent presence of regular ICS use was

  18. Risk of esophagus cancer in diabetes mellitus: a population-based case-control study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Kao-Chi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM has been associated with the cancer risk. This study investigated relationship between DM and esophageal cancer using Taiwan’s insurance data. Methods We identified 549 patients with esophageal cancer newly diagnosed in 2000-2009 and randomly selected 2196 controls without any cancer, frequency matched by sex, age and diagnosis year of cases. Logistic regression model estimated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI of esophageal cancer associated with DM, sex, age. co-morbidities and medications. Results Cases were more prevalent than controls for alcoholism and esophageal disorders and using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors but not DM. Esophageal cancer had no association with DM (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.71-1.37, but significantly associated with alcoholism (OR 14.1, 95% CI 7.87-25.4, esophageal ulcer (OR 10.1, 95% CI 5.70-17.9, esophageal reflux (OR 3.47, 95% CI 2.14-5.26 and uses of NSAIDs (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.80-4.13. An elevated risk of esophageal cancer appeared in DM patients taking insulin (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.08-6.15 or sulfonyurea (OR 3.80, 95% CI 1.16-12.5. Conclusions Patients with DM are not at higher risk for esophagus cancer. However, esophageal disorders and anti-diabetic drugs are associated with the risk of the disease.

  19. Self-reported work ability in long-term breast cancer survivors. A population-based questionnaire study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Jensen, Anette Jung; Rugulies, Reiner Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Although up to 80% of women can return to work after treatment for breast cancer, maintaining an affiliation to the labour market may be a challenge, as shown by the fact that the risks for unemployment and early retirement are increased in the years after treatment of cancer. It is important...

  20. Objective allergy markers and risk of cancer mortality and hospitalization in a large population-based cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Vonk, Judith M; Hospers, Jeannette J; Postma, Dirkje S; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Schouten, Jan P; Boezen, H Marike

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: There are indications that a history of allergy may offer some protection against cancer. We studied the relation of three objectively determined allergy markers with cancer mortality and hospitalization risk. METHODS: Associations between three allergy markers (number of peripheral blood e

  1. Serum uric acid levels and cancer mortality risk among males in a large general population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, N.; Vonk, J. M.; Boezen, H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA) has antioxidant capacities and therefore may protect against the development of cancer. Few epidemiological studies have tested this hypothesis, and findings were inconsistent. We studied the association between SUA levels and mortality due to any type of cancer, and three comm

  2. Cancer risk in long-term users of vitamin K antagonists: A population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that long-term use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) has a cancer chemopreventive effect. Such an effect would have considerable implications in terms of understanding tumor biology. To evaluate if long-term VKA treatment influences the risk of developing cancer, we performed...

  3. Cancer in inflammatory bowel disease 15 years after diagnosis in a population-based European Collaborative follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Tatsioni, Athina; Pedersen, Natalia;

    2011-01-01

    To determine the occurrence of intestinal and extraintestinal cancers in the 1993-2009 prospective European Collaborative Inflammatory Bowel Disease (EC-IBD) Study Group cohort.......To determine the occurrence of intestinal and extraintestinal cancers in the 1993-2009 prospective European Collaborative Inflammatory Bowel Disease (EC-IBD) Study Group cohort....

  4. Exposure profiles and human papillomavirus infection in skin cancer: an analysis of 25 genus beta-types in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anita S; Karagas, Margaret R; Perry, Ann E; Nelson, Heather H

    2008-12-01

    An increasing number of studies report that genus beta human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with skin cancer, with suggestions of specificity for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. We have conducted a systematic examination of HPV DNA in tumors from immunocompetent hosts, including SCC and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), using a highly sensitive methodology and population-based samples to test the hypothesis that a differential prevalence of beta-HPVs exists between SCC (n=101) and BCC (n=101) tumors. When testing for all known beta-HPV types, we found no significant difference in HPV prevalence between the two histologies. However, SCC lesions were significantly more likely to be infected with HPV genus beta-species 1 (includes types 5 and 8), than BCC samples (P=0.01); this difference was not observed for any other species. A histologic difference was also observed for those HPV types previously reported to be important in skin cancer (P=0.003). SCC samples showed a higher rate of infectivity (that is, were positive for multiple types) than BCC tumors (P=0.02). These data highlight the potential importance of various genus beta-HPV types, in particular genus beta-species 1 in SCC, and support the hypothesis of a behavioral difference of the virus within the two major histological skin cancers.

  5. 社区参与式研究在人群癌症筛查领域的应用%Application of Community-based Participation Research in Population-based Cancer Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁璐; 王亚东; 王贵齐; 李鹏; 赵君; 刘茉; 杨文珍

    2015-01-01

    癌症是人类健康的头号杀手,人群筛查是癌症防控的基本手段。目前,癌症筛查已被纳入国家重大公共卫生服务项目,政府会针对不同癌症定期组织筛查。然而,在资金和技术得到保障的前提下,较低的人群筛查参与率逐渐成为影响癌症筛查效能的主要因素。社区参与式研究( community-based participatory research,CBPR)以社区参与理论为基础,可以有效地提高社区人群的癌症筛查参与率。本研究总结了国内外的人群癌症筛查参与现状和提高人群癌症筛查参与率的研究现状,详细阐述了社区参与式研究及其在该领域的应用现状,以期为各类公共卫生服务项目社区参与率的提高提供科学依据。%Cancer is the leading killer of human beings. Population -based screening is the basic means for cancer prevention and control. Cancer screening has been listed as a major public health project in China at present and relevant government departments regularly organizes screening for different cancers. However,under the premise of guaranteed fund and technology,the low participation rate of population -based screening has become the main factor influencing the efficiency of cancer screening. Based on the community participation theory,community-based participation research can effectively improve the participation rate of the community population-based cancer screening. In this study,we summarized the participation status of population-based cancer screening and its research status to improve the participation rate at home and abroad. We also elaborated the community-based participation research and its application status in this field,thus providing a scientific basis for improving the community participation of various kinds of public health service.

  6. A population-based study of the quality of life of cancer survivors and their family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Suzanne; Northouse, Laurel L; Weiss, Linda K

    2006-01-01

    Although survival rates for all cancers continue to increase, few studies have examined the quality of life of both cancer survivors and family caregivers during the survivorship period after treatment has ended. Information is lacking on the stressors, resources, meaning, and quality of life reported by survivors and family caregivers and the interrelationship between survivors' and family caregivers' quality of life. A stratified, random sample of 123 cancer survivors and 123 family caregivers (N = 246) were interviewed in an exploratory, cross-sectional design 1-6 years after cancer treatment had ended. Approximately half (N = 62) of the dyads were white and half (N = 61) were African American. Results indicated that cancer survivors reported significantly higher quality of life, less fear of cancer recurrence, and more support than their family caregivers. The strongest predictors for cancer survivors' quality of life were family stressors, social support, meaning of the illness, and employment status, whereas the strongest predictors for family caregivers' quality of life were fear of recurrence and social support. Both the survivor's and family caregiver's quality of life independently contributed to the other's quality of life. Findings from this study suggest the importance of including both survivors and family caregivers in programs of care.

  7. [Reliability of cancer as the underlying cause of death according to the Mortality Information System and Population-Based Cancer Registry in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Patricia Pereira Vasconcelos de; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Curado, Maria Paula; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Moura, Lenildo de

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed the reliability of cancer as the underlying cause of death using probabilistic linkage between the Mortality Information System and Population-Based Cancer Registry (PBCR) in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil, from 2000 to 2005. RecLink III was used for probabilistic linkage, and reliability was assessed by Cohen's kappa and prevalence-adjusted and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK). In the probabilistic linkage, 2,874 individuals were identified for the reliability analysis. Cohen's kappa ranged from 0.336 to 0.846 and PABAK from 0.810 to 0.990 for 14 neoplasm groups defined in the study. For reliability of the 35 leading cancers, 12(34.3%) presented kappa values under 0.600 and PABAK over 0.981. Among the neoplasms common to both sexes, crude agreement ranged from 0.672 to 0.790 and adjusted agreement from 0.894 to 0.961. Sixty-seven percent of cases classified by the Mortality Information System as "cancer of ill-defined sites" were reclassified according to the PBCR. This study was useful for the classification of cancer mortality estimates in areas covered by the PBCR.

  8. Nonfilter and filter cigarette consumption and the incidence of lung cancer by histological type in Japan and the United States: analysis of 30-year data from population-based cancer registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hidemi; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tanaka, Hideo; Koestler, Devin C; Ombao, Hernando; Fulton, John; Shibata, Akiko; Fujita, Manabu; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Soda, Midori; Sobue, Tomotaka; Mor, Vincent

    2011-04-15

    Shifts in the histologic type of lung cancer accompanying changes in lung cancer incidence have been observed in Japan and the United States. We examined the association between the shift in tobacco design from nonfilter to filter cigarettes with changes in the incidence of adenocarcinoma (AD) and squamous cell carcinoma (SQ) of the lung. We compiled population-based incidence data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results in the United States (1973-2005) and from selected Japanese cancer registries (1975-2003). Trends in age-standardized rates of lung cancer incidence by histologic type were characterized using joinpoint analyses. A multiple regression framework was used to examine the relationship between tobacco use and incidence by histologic type. We observed that AD has replaced SQ as the most frequent histologic type in males and females in both Japan and the United States. Filter cigarette consumption was positively associated with the incidence of AD, with time lags of 25 and 15 years in Japan and the United States, respectively ( beta(2)(AD)): 1.946 × 10(-3) , p consumption was positively associated with the incidence of SQ, with time lags of 30 and 20 years in Japan and the United States, respectively (beta (SQ)(2) ): 0.464 × 10(-3) , p = 0.006 and 0.364 × 10(-3) , p = 0.008). In conclusion, the shift from nonfilter to filter cigarettes appears to have merely altered the most frequent type of lung cancer, from SQ to AD.

  9. Does Hair Dye Use Increase the Risk of Breast Cancer? A Population-Based Case-Control Study of Finnish Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Heikkinen

    Full Text Available Role of hair dyes in the etiology of breast cancer has occasionally raised concern but previous research has concluded with mixed results. Remnants of prohibited aromatic amines have been found in many hair dye products, and elevated levels of DNA-adducts of these amines have been detected from breast epithelial cells of hair dye users. However, the IARC working group has concluded that there is inadequate evidence for carcinogenicity of personal hair dye use and limited evidence in experimental animals for carcinogenicity of hair colorants.We investigated whether the use of hair dyes is associated with breast cancer risk in women. The study design was a retrospective population-based case-control study in Finland, with a self-administered questionnaire from 6,567 breast cancer patients, aged 22-60 years and diagnosed in 2000-2007, and their 21,598 matched controls. We report odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence interval (95% CI from a conditional logistic regression model applied to the frequency matched sets of cases and controls. Bias-adjusted odds ratios from the sensitivity analysis are also presented.After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of breast cancer increased by 23% (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.11-1.36 among women who used hair dyes compared to those who did not. In women born before 1950 an increase of 28% was noted (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.10-1.48. We also observed a significant trend between the OR and cumulative use of hair dyes (P: 0.005. Bias-adjusted odds ratios varied between 1.04 and 2.50.Our results suggest that use of hair dyes is associated with breast cancer incidence. The impact on public health may be substantial due to vast popularity of hair coloring in modern societies. It should be noted that regardless of all efforts, a possibility of bias cannot definitively be ruled out and use of a prospective design is warranted. Based on the present results, it may be concluded however that safety of hair dyes in relation to

  10. The impact of in situ breast cancer and family history on risk of subsequent breast cancer events and mortality - a population-based study from Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sackey, Helena; Hui, Miao; Czene, Kamila; Verkooijen, Helena; Edgren, Gustaf; Frisell, Jan; Hartman, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical behavior of in situ breast cancer is incompletely understood and several factors have been associated with invasive recurrence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term risk of subsequent breast cancer and mortality among women diagnosed with in situ breast cancer

  11. Statins dose-dependently exert a chemopreventive effect against lung cancer in COPD patients: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Ping; Hao, Wen-Rui; Kao, Pai-Feng; Sung, Li-Chin; Chen, Chun-Chao; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased lung cancer risk. We evaluated the association of statin use with lung cancer risk in COPD patients and identified which statins possess the highest chemopreventive potential. Results After adjustment for age, sex, CCI, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, urbanization level, and monthly income according to propensity scores, lung cancer risk in the statin users was lower than that in the statin nonusers (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.37). Of the individual statins, lovastatin and fluvastatin did not reduce lung cancer risk significantly. By contrast, lung cancer risk in patients using rosuvastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, and pravastatin was significantly lower than that in statin nonusers (aHRs = 0.41, 0.44, 0.52, and 0.58, respectively). Statins dose-dependently reduced lung cancer risk in all subgroups and the main model with additional covariates (nonstatin drug use). MATERIALS AND METHODS The study cohort comprised all patients diagnosed with COPD at health care facilities in Taiwan (n = 116,017) between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2012. Our final study cohort comprised 43,802 COPD patients: 10,086 used statins, whereas 33,716 did not. Patients were followed up to assess lung cancer risk or protective factors. In addition, we also considered demographic characteristics, namely age, sex, comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and Charlson comorbidity index [CCI]), urbanization level, monthly income, and nonstatin drug use. The index date of statin use was the COPD confirmation date. To examine the dose–response relationship, we categorized statin use into four groups in each cohort: 365 cumulative defined daily doses (cDDDs). Patients receiving Statins dose-dependently exert a significant chemopreventive effect against lung cancer in COPD patients. Rosuvastatin, simvastatin, and atorvastatin exhibited the highest chemopreventive potential. PMID:27517752

  12. Trend analysis and survival of primary gallbladder cancer in the United States: a 1973-2009 population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rubayat; Simoes, Eduardo J; Schmaltz, Chester; Jackson, Christian S; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2017-03-20

    Primary gallbladder cancer is an aggressive and uncommon cancer with poor outcomes. Our study examines epidemiology, trend, and survival of gallbladder cancer in the United States from 1973 to 2009. We utilized the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database (SEER). Frequency and rate analyses on demographics, stage, and survival were compared among non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, African American, and Asian/Pacific Islanders. A total of 18,124 cases were reported in SEER from 1973 to 2009 comprising 1.4% of all reported gastrointestinal cancers. Gallbladder cancer was more common in females than males (71 vs. 29%, respectively). The age-adjusted incidence rate was 1.4 per 100,000, significantly higher in females than males (1.7 vs. 1.0). Trend analysis showed that the incidence rate has been decreasing over the last three decades for males. However, among females, the incidence rate had decreased from 1973 to mid-90s but has remained stable since then. Trend analysis for stage at diagnosis showed that the proportion of late-stage cases has been increasing significantly since 2001 after a decreasing pattern since 1973. Survival has improved considerably over time, and survival is better in females than males and in Asian/Pacific Islanders than other racial groups. The highest survival was in patients who received both surgery and radiation. Trend analysis revealed a recent increase of the incidence of late-stage gallbladder cancer. Highest survival was associated with receiving both surgery and radiation.

  13. Awareness Levels about Breast Cancer Risk Factors, Early Warning Signs, and Screening and Therapeutic Approaches among Iranian Adult Women: A large Population Based Study Using Latent Class Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Tazhibi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Breast cancer (BC continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women throughout the world and in Iran. Lack of awareness and early detection program in developing country is a main reason for escalating the mortality. The present research was conducted to assess the Iranian women’s level of knowledge about breast cancer risk factors, early warning signs, and therapeutic and screening approaches, and their correlated determinants. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 2250 women before participating at a community based screening and public educational program in an institute of cancer research in Isfahan, Iran, in 2012 were investigated using a self-administered questionnaire about risk factors, early warning signs, and therapeutic and screening approaches of BC. Latent class regression as a comprehensive statistical method was used for evaluating the level of knowledge and its correlated determinants. Results. Only 33.2%, 31.9%, 26.7%, and 35.8% of study participants had high awareness levels about screening approaches, risk factors, early warning signs and therapeutic modalities of breast cancer, respectively, and majority had poor to moderate knowledge levels. Most effective predictors of high level of awareness were higher educational qualifications, attending in screening and public educational programs, personal problem, and family history of BC, respectively. Conclusion. Results of current study indicated that the levels of awareness among study population about key elements of BC are low. These findings reenforce the continuing need for more BC education through conducting public and professional programs that are intended to raise awareness among younger, single women and those with low educational attainments and without family history.

  14. Hospital contacts for endocrine disorders in Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia (ALiCCS): a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Sofie; Winther, Jeanette Falck; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pattern of endocrine disorders in long-term survivors of childhood cancer has not been investigated comprehensively. Here, we aimed to assess the lifetime risk of these disorders in Nordic survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: From the national cancer registries of Denmark...... were linked to the national hospital registries, and observed numbers of first-time hospital contacts for endocrine disorders in survivors of childhood cancer were compared with the expected numbers derived from the population comparison cohort. We calculated the absolute excess risks attributable...... to status as a childhood cancer survivor and standardised hospitalisation rate ratios (SHRRs). FINDINGS: Of the childhood cancer survivors, 3292 had contact with a hospital for an endocrine disorder, yielding a SHRR of 4·8 (95% CI 4·6-5·0); the highest risks were in survivors of leukaemia (SHRR 7·3 [95% CI...

  15. Prospective Population-Based Study of the Association between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin-D Levels and the Incidence of Specific Types of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies have suggested an inverse association between vitamin D status and cancer. We investigated the prospective associations between vitamin D status and the total and specific type of cancer in three cohorts from the general Danish population. METHODS: A total of 12...... and lung (HR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.91-1.05), breast cancer (HR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.96-1.09), cancer of the uterus (HR = 1.10; 95% CI, 0.95-1.27), prostate cancer (HR = 1.00; 95% CI, 0.93-1.08), cancer of the urinary organs (HR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.90-1.14), NMSC (HR = 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.10), and malignant...

  16. Compliance with clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer treatment: a population-based study of quality-of-care indicators in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacerdote Carlotta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been documented that variations exist in breast cancer treatment despite wide dissemination of clinical practice guidelines. The aim of this population-based study was to evaluate the impact of regional guidelines (Piedmont guidelines, PGL for breast cancer diagnosis and treatment on quality-of-care indicators in the Northwestern Italian region of Piedmont. Methods We included two samples of women aged 50–69 years with incident breast cancer treated in Piedmont before and after the introduction of PGL: 600 in 2002 (pre-PGL and 621 in 2004 (post-PGL. Patients were randomly selected among all incident breast cancer cases identified through the hospital discharge records database. We extracted clinical data on breast cancer cases from medical charts and ascertained vital status through linkage with town offices. We assessed compliance with 14 quality-of-care indicators from PGL recommendations, before and after their introduction in clinical practice. Results Among patients with invasive lesions, 77.1% (N = 368 and 77.5% (N = 383 in the pre-PGL and post-PGL groups, respectively, received breast conservative surgery (BCS as a first-line treatment. Following BCS, 87.7% received radiotherapy in 2002, compared to 87.9% in 2004. Of all patients at medium-to-high risk of distant metastasis, 65.5% (N = 268 and 63.6% (N = 252 received chemotherapy in 2002 and in 2004, respectively. Among the 117 patients with invasive lesions and negative estrogen receptor status in 2002, hormonal therapy was prescribed in 23 of them (19.6%. The incorrect prescription of hormonal therapy decreased to 10.8% (N = 10 among the 92 estrogen receptor-negative patients in 2004 (p Compliance with PGL recommendations was already high in the pre-PGL group, although some quality-of-care indicators did not reach the standard. In the pre/post analysis, 8 out of 14 quality-of-care indicators showed an improvement from 2002 to 2004, but only 4 out of 14

  17. Molecular Features and Methylation Status in Early Onset (≤40 Years Colorectal Cancer: A Population Based, Case-Control Study

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    Giulia Magnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is usually considered a disease of the elderly. However, a small fraction of patients develops colorectal cancer earlier. The aim of our study was to define the frequency of known hereditary colorectal syndromes and to characterise genetic and epigenetic features of early nonhereditary tumors. Thirty-three patients ≤40 years with diagnosis of colorectal cancer and 41 patients with disease at >60 years of age were investigated for MSI, Mismatch Repair proteins expression, KRAS and BRAF mutations, hypermethylation, and LINE-1 hypomethylation. Detection of germline mutations was performed in Mismatch Repair, APC and MUTYH genes. Early onset colorectal cancer showed a high incidence of hereditary forms (18%. KRAS mutations were detected in 36% of early nonhereditary tumors. Early onset colorectal cancer disclosed an average number of methylated genes significantly lower when compared to the controls (p=0.02. Finally both of the two groups were highly methylated in ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes and were similar for LINE-1 hypomethylation. The genetic make-up of carcinomas differs from young to elderly patients. Early onset tumors showed more frequently a constitutional defective of Mismatch Repair System and a minor number of methylated genes. Hypermethylation of ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes suggests possible markers in the earlier diagnosis of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  18. Molecular Features and Methylation Status in Early Onset (≤40 Years) Colorectal Cancer: A Population Based, Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Giulia; Furlan, Daniela; Sahnane, Nora; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Domati, Federica; Pedroni, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is usually considered a disease of the elderly. However, a small fraction of patients develops colorectal cancer earlier. The aim of our study was to define the frequency of known hereditary colorectal syndromes and to characterise genetic and epigenetic features of early nonhereditary tumors. Thirty-three patients ≤40 years with diagnosis of colorectal cancer and 41 patients with disease at >60 years of age were investigated for MSI, Mismatch Repair proteins expression, KRAS and BRAF mutations, hypermethylation, and LINE-1 hypomethylation. Detection of germline mutations was performed in Mismatch Repair, APC and MUTYH genes. Early onset colorectal cancer showed a high incidence of hereditary forms (18%). KRAS mutations were detected in 36% of early nonhereditary tumors. Early onset colorectal cancer disclosed an average number of methylated genes significantly lower when compared to the controls (p = 0.02). Finally both of the two groups were highly methylated in ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes and were similar for LINE-1 hypomethylation. The genetic make-up of carcinomas differs from young to elderly patients. Early onset tumors showed more frequently a constitutional defective of Mismatch Repair System and a minor number of methylated genes. Hypermethylation of ESR1, GATA5, and WT1 genes suggests possible markers in the earlier diagnosis of colorectal tumorigenesis. PMID:26557847

  19. Impact of young age on the prognosis for oral cancer: a population-based study in Taiwan.

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    Ting-Shou Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oral cancer leads to a considerable use of health care resources. Wide resection of the tumor and reconstruction with a pedicle flap/ free flap is widely used. This study was conducted to investigate if young age at the time of diagnosis of oral cancer requiring this treatment confers a worse prognosis. METHODS: A total of 2339 patients who underwent resections for oral cancer from 2004 to 2005 were identified from The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Survival analysis, Cox proportional regression model, propensity scores, and sensitivity test were used to evaluate the association between 5-year survival rates and age. RESULTS: In the Cox proportional regression model, the older age group (>65 years had the worst survival rate (hazard ratio [HR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-2.22; P65 years, compared to those with younger age (<45 years (P<0.001. In sensitivity test, the adjusted hazard ratio remained no statistically elevated in the younger age group (<45 years. CONCLUSIONS: For those oral cancer patients who underwent wide excision and reconstruction, young age did not confer a worse prognosis using a Cox proportional regression model, propensity scores or sensitivity test. Young oral cancer patients may be treated using general guidelines and do not require more aggressive treatment.

  20. Cervical screening and cervical cancer death among older women: a population-based, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Alison S; Kamineni, Aruna; Weinmann, Sheila; Reed, Susan D; Newcomb, Polly; Weiss, Noel S

    2014-05-01

    Recent research suggests that cervical screening of older women is associated with a considerable decrease in cervical cancer incidence. We sought to quantify the efficacy of cervical cytology screening to reduce death from this disease. Among enrollees of 2 US health plans, we compared Papanicolaou smear screening histories of women aged 55-79 years who died of cervical cancer during 1980-2010 (cases) to those of women at risk of cervical cancer (controls). Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on health plan, age, and enrollment duration. Cytology screening during the detectable preclinical phase, estimated as the 5-7 years before diagnosis during which cervical neoplasia is asymptomatic but cytologically detectable, was ascertained from medical records. A total of 39 cases and 80 controls were eligible. The odds ratio of cervical cancer death associated with screening during the presumed detectable preclinical phase was 0.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.10, 0.63) after adjustment for matching characteristics, smoking, marital status, and race/ethnicity using logistic regression. We estimate that cervical cytology screening of all women aged 55-79 years in the United States could avert 630 deaths annually. These results provide a minimum estimate of the efficacy of human papillomavirus DNA screening-a more sensitive test-to reduce cervical cancer death among older women.

  1. Association between plasma vitamin C concentrations and blood pressure in the European prospective investigation into cancer-Norfolk population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Phyo K; Luben, Robert N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2011-09-01

    The effect of fruit and vegetable consumption and blood pressure is unclear. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 20 926 men and women aged 40 to 79 years participating in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer-Norfolk who completed a health questionnaire and attended a clinic from 1993 to 1997. The relationship between plasma vitamin C concentrations, as an indicator of fruit and vegetable intake, and systolic BP was examined. The magnitude of their association was assessed using dichotomized values of high (≥140 mm Hg) and low (fruit and vegetable consumption, and a lower level of blood pressure. This may provide further evidence for health benefits of dietary patterns with higher fruit and vegetable consumption.

  2. Incidence of cancer in children residing in ten jurisdictions of the Mexican Republic: importance of the Cancer registry (a population-based study)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In 1996, Mexico started to register cases of childhood cancer. Here, we describe the incidence of cancer in children, residing in ten Mexican jurisdictions, who were treated by the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Methods New cases of childhood cancer, which were registered prospectively in nine principal Medical Centers of IMSS during the periods 1998–2000 (five jurisdictions) and 1996–2002 (five jurisdictions), were analyzed. Personnel were specifically train...

  3. Trends in the incidence of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining cancers in people living with AIDS: a population-based study from São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Luana F; Latorre, Maria do Rosário DO; Gutierrez, Eliana B; Heumann, Christian; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz; Froeschl, Guenter

    2017-01-01

    People living with AIDS are at increased risk of developing certain cancers. Since the introduction of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs) has decreased in high-income countries. The objective of this study was to analyse trends in ADCs and non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) in HIV-positive people with a diagnosis of AIDS, in comparison to the general population, in São Paulo, Brazil. A probabilistic record linkage between the 'Population-based Cancer Registry of São Paulo' and the AIDS notification database (SINAN) was conducted. Cancer trends were assessed by annual per cent change (APC). In people with AIDS, 2074 cancers were diagnosed. Among men with AIDS, the most frequent cancer was Kaposi's sarcoma (469; 31.1%), followed by non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; 304; 20.1%). A decline was seen for ADCs (APC = -14.1%). All NADCs have increased (APC = 7.4%/year) significantly since the mid-2000s driven by the significant upward trends of anal (APC = 24.6%/year) and lung cancers (APC = 15.9%/year). In contrast, in men from the general population, decreasing trends were observed for these cancers. For women with AIDS, the most frequent cancer was cervical (114; 20.2%), followed by NHL (96; 17.0%). Significant declining trends were seen for both ADCs (APC = -15.6%/year) and all NADCs (APC = -15.8%/year), a comparable pattern to that found for the general female population. Trends in cancers among people with AIDS in São Paulo showed similar patterns to those found in developed countries. Although ADCs have significantly decreased, probably due to the introduction of HAART, NADCs in men have shown an opposite upward trend.

  4. Adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes following treatment of adolescent and young adult cancer: a population-based cohort study.

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    Fatima A Haggar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate obstetric and perinatal outcomes among female survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA cancers and their offspring. METHODS: Using multivariate analysis of statewide linked data, outcomes of all first completed pregnancies (n = 1894 in female survivors of AYA cancer diagnosed in Western Australia during the period 1982-2007 were compared with those among females with no cancer history. Comparison pregnancies were matched by maternal age-group, parity and year of delivery. RESULTS: Compared with the non-cancer group, female survivors of AYA cancer had an increased risk of threatened abortion (adjusted relative risk 2.09, 95% confidence interval 1.51-2.74, gestational diabetes (2.65, 2.08-3.57, pre-eclampsia (1.32, 1.04-1.87, post-partum hemorrhage (2.83, 1.92-4.67, cesarean delivery (2.62, 2.22-3.04, and maternal postpartum hospitalization>5 days (3.01, 1.72-5.58, but no excess risk of threatened preterm delivery, antepartum hemorrhage, premature rupture of membranes, failure of labor to progress or retained placenta. Their offspring had an increased risk of premature birth (<37 weeks: 1.68, 1.21-2.08, low birth weight (<2500 g: 1.51, 1.23-2.12, fetal growth restriction (3.27, 2.45-4.56, and neonatal distress indicated by low Apgar score (<7 at 1 minute (2.83, 2.28-3.56, need for resuscitation (1.66, 1.27-2.19 or special care nursery admission (1.44, 1.13-1.78. Congenital abnormalities and perinatal deaths (intrauterine or ≤7 days of birth were not increased among offspring of survivors. CONCLUSION: Female survivors of AYA cancer have moderate excess risks of adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes arising from subsequent pregnancies that may require additional surveillance or intervention.

  5. Trends in net survival from breast cancer in six European Latin countries: results from the SUDCAN population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Roche, Laurent; Buzzoni, Carlotta; di Costanzo, Francesco; Molinié, Florence; Caldarella, Adele

    2017-01-01

    Survival from breast cancer (BC) is influenced by the timeliness of diagnosis and appropriateness of treatment, and may constitute a measure of the global effectiveness of a healthcare system. As the healthcare systems of several European Latin countries have some similarities, the search for differences in cancer survival may provide interesting information on the efficacy of these systems. The SUDCAN study is a collaboration between the Group for Epidemiology and Cancer Registration in Latin language countries (GRELL) and EUROCARE. BC data from six countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and Switzerland) were extracted from the EUROCARE-5 database. First, we focus on 1- and 5-year age-standardized net survival (NS) from BC by country over the 2000-2004 period. Then, trends in NS over the 1989-2004 period and changes in the pattern of cancer excess mortality rate (EMR) up to 5 years after diagnosis were examined using a multivariate EMR model. There were little differences in age-standardized NS from BC. Over the 2000-2004 period, the 5-year survival ranged between 82 (Spain, Belgium, and Portugal) and 86% (France). There was an increase in age-standardized survival between 1989 and 2004 at 1 year as well as at 5 years. This increase was observed at all ages and in all countries. There was a decrease in the cancer EMR both immediately after diagnosis and by the second and third year of follow-up. There were only minor differences in survival from BC between European Latin countries. The general improvement in NS is presumably because of advances in early cancer diagnosis and improvements in treatment.

  6. Retention in a Breast Cancer Risk Information Trial: Motivations of a Population-Based Sample of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariail, Kiley; Watts, Carolyn; Bowen, Deborah J.

    2006-01-01

    A better understanding of factors influencing retention in breast cancer risk education and prevention programs can improve the design and effectiveness of such programs. Such information may also be useful to researchers seeking to maximize full retention in research trials involving low risk and low perceived benefit by the participants. These…

  7. High complication rate after low anterior resection for mid and high rectal cancer; results of a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I. S.; Snijders, H. S.; Wouters, M. W.; Havenga, K.; Tollenaar, R. A. E. M.; Wiggers, T.; Dekker, J. W. T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Surgical resection is the cornerstone of treatment for rectal cancer patients. Treatment options consist of a primary anastomosis, anastomosis with defunctioning stoma or end-colostomy with closure of the distal rectal stump. This study aimed to compare postoperative outcome of these thr

  8. Risk of extra-intestinal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: meta-analysis of population-based cohort studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Eva Natalia G.; Duricova, Dana; Elkjaer, Margarita;

    2010-01-01

    Extra-intestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are relatively common, whereas the risk of extra-intestinal cancer (EIC) remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to obtain a reliable estimate of the risk of EIC in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC...

  9. A compendium of familial relative risks of cancer among first degree relatives: A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, M.P.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    Familial clustering of cancer is expected to occur at practically all anatomical sites. However, few studies have had sufficient size to investigate different sites simultaneously and with adjustment for confounders. We evaluated familial clustering in the Netherlands Cohort Study in which 120,852 m

  10. Use of benzodiazepines or benzodiazepine related drugs and the risk of cancer: a population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Friis, Søren; Andersen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Studies of the carcinogenic potential of benzodiazepines and related drugs (BZRD) have been equivocal. A recent study reported a 35% excess cancer risk among users of hypnotics, including benzodiazepines. METHOD: Using Danish nationwide registers, we conducted a matched case-control study...

  11. Imputation of the Rare HOXB13 G84E Mutation and Cancer Risk in a Large Population-Based Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Sakoda, Lori C.; Shen, Ling; Jorgenson, Eric; Habel, Laurel A.; Liu, Jinghua; Kvale, Mark N.; Asgari, Maryam M.; Banda, Yambazi; Corley, Douglas; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Schaefer, Catherine; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Risch, Neil; Witte, John S.

    2015-01-01

    An efficient approach to characterizing the disease burden of rare genetic variants is to impute them into large well-phenotyped cohorts with existing genome-wide genotype data using large sequenced referenced panels. The success of this approach hinges on the accuracy of rare variant imputation, which remains controversial. For example, a recent study suggested that one cannot adequately impute the HOXB13 G84E mutation associated with prostate cancer risk (carrier frequency of 0.0034 in European ancestry participants in the 1000 Genomes Project). We show that by utilizing the 1000 Genomes Project data plus an enriched reference panel of mutation carriers we were able to accurately impute the G84E mutation into a large cohort of 83,285 non-Hispanic White participants from the Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging cohort. Imputation authenticity was confirmed via a novel classification and regression tree method, and then empirically validated analyzing a subset of these subjects plus an additional 1,789 men from Kaiser specifically genotyped for the G84E mutation (r2 = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.37−0.77). We then show the value of this approach by using the imputed data to investigate the impact of the G84E mutation on age-specific prostate cancer risk and on risk of fourteen other cancers in the cohort. The age-specific risk of prostate cancer among G84E mutation carriers was higher than among non-carriers. Risk estimates from Kaplan-Meier curves were 36.7% versus 13.6% by age 72, and 64.2% versus 24.2% by age 80, for G84E mutation carriers and non-carriers, respectively (p = 3.4×10−12). The G84E mutation was also associated with an increase in risk for the fourteen other most common cancers considered collectively (p = 5.8×10−4) and more so in cases diagnosed with multiple cancer types, both those including and not including prostate cancer, strongly suggesting pleiotropic effects

  12. Imputation of the rare HOXB13 G84E mutation and cancer risk in a large population-based cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Hoffmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient approach to characterizing the disease burden of rare genetic variants is to impute them into large well-phenotyped cohorts with existing genome-wide genotype data using large sequenced referenced panels. The success of this approach hinges on the accuracy of rare variant imputation, which remains controversial. For example, a recent study suggested that one cannot adequately impute the HOXB13 G84E mutation associated with prostate cancer risk (carrier frequency of 0.0034 in European ancestry participants in the 1000 Genomes Project. We show that by utilizing the 1000 Genomes Project data plus an enriched reference panel of mutation carriers we were able to accurately impute the G84E mutation into a large cohort of 83,285 non-Hispanic White participants from the Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging cohort. Imputation authenticity was confirmed via a novel classification and regression tree method, and then empirically validated analyzing a subset of these subjects plus an additional 1,789 men from Kaiser specifically genotyped for the G84E mutation (r2 = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.37–0.77. We then show the value of this approach by using the imputed data to investigate the impact of the G84E mutation on age-specific prostate cancer risk and on risk of fourteen other cancers in the cohort. The age-specific risk of prostate cancer among G84E mutation carriers was higher than among non-carriers. Risk estimates from Kaplan-Meier curves were 36.7% versus 13.6% by age 72, and 64.2% versus 24.2% by age 80, for G84E mutation carriers and non-carriers, respectively (p = 3.4x10-12. The G84E mutation was also associated with an increase in risk for the fourteen other most common cancers considered collectively (p = 5.8x10-4 and more so in cases diagnosed with multiple cancer types, both those including and not including prostate cancer, strongly suggesting

  13. Increased cardiovascular mortality more than fifteen years after radiotherapy for breast cancer: a population-based study

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    Darby Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast radiotherapy as practised in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in significant myocardial exposure, and this was higher when the left breast was treated. It has been proposed that this difference might result in greater cardiovascular mortality following irradiation of the left breast when compared with the right. Methods All cases of female breast cancer diagnosed between 1971 and 1988 and recorded on the Thames Cancer Registry database were followed up to the end of 2003 to identify cases who had died from ischaemic heart disease (IHD or any cardiovascular disease (CVD. A proportional hazards regression analysis was performed, stratified by time since diagnosis, using as the baseline group those women with right-sided disease who did not receive radiotherapy, and adjusting for age at diagnosis. Results A total of 20,871 women with breast cancer were included in the analysis, of which 51% had left-sided disease. Mortality at 15+ years after diagnosis was increased in recipients of left-breast radiotherapy compared to non-irradiated women with right-sided breast cancer, both for IHD (hazard ratio 1.59; 95% confidence interval 1.21–2.08; p = 0.001 and all CVD (hazard ratio 1.27; 95% confidence interval 1.07–1.51; p = 0.006. When irradiated women with left-sided breast cancer were compared with irradiated women with right-sided breast cancer, cardiovascular mortality at 15+ years after diagnosis was raised by around 25% (IHD: hazard ratio 1.23; 95% confidence interval 0.95–1.60; p = 0.114; CVD: hazard ratio 1.25; 95% confidence interval 1.05–1.49; p = 0.014. Conclusion We have found an elevation in cardiovascular mortality more than 15 years after breast radiotherapy in women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1971 and 1988. The risk was greater following irradiation of the left breast compared with the right. This confirms that radiotherapy as practised in the 1970s and 1980s has resulted in significant long

  14. A Comprehensive Multistate Model Analyzing Associations of Various Risk Factors With the Course of Breast Cancer in a Population-Based Cohort of Breast Cancer Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eulenburg, Christine; Schroeder, Jennifer; Obi, Nadia; Heinz, Judith; Seibold, Petra; Rudolph, Anja; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Flesch-Janys, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    We employed a semi-Markov multistate model for the simultaneous analysis of various endpoints describing the course of breast cancer. Results were compared with those from standard analyses using a Cox proportional hazards model. We included 3,012 patients with invasive breast cancer newly diagnosed

  15. Population based cancer screening programmes as a teachable moment for primary prevention interventions. A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo eSenore

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim. Unhealthy diets, physical inactivity and smoking are key risk factors for the major non-communicable diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. The screening procedure may represent an ideal setting for promoting healthy lifestyles as they represent a time when subjects are probably more inclined to consider a relationship between their own habits and their effects on health. The aim of this study is to review available evidence concerning interventions combining screening and primary prevention interventions, aimed at promoting the adoption of healthy lifestyles. Methods. We searched the MEDLINE and Cohcrane library electronic databases for intervention studies of primary prevention interventions implemented in the context of established screening programmes, or of pilot screening projects, where the study design included a comparison group. Results. Comprehensive interventions are acceptable for asymptomatic subjects targeted for cancer screening, can result in improvements and may be cost-effective. A positive impact of these interventions in favouring the adoption of cancer protective dietary behaviours was observed in all studies. Conflicting results were instead reported with respect to physical activity, while no impact could be observed for interventions aimed to favour smoking cessation. Conclusions. The retrieved studies suggest that the screening setting may offer valuable opportunities to provide credible, potentially persuasive life style advice, reaching a wide audience. A multiple risk-factor approach may maximise the benefit of behavioural change, as the same health related habits are associated not only with cancers targeted by screening interventions, but also with other cancers, coronary artery disease and other chronic conditions, while unhealthy behaviours may be mutually reinforcing. In order to cover a maximum number of possibilities, health education programmes should include

  16. Cost effectiveness analysis of population-based serology screening and 13C-Urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori to prevent gastric cancer: A markov model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xie; Nan Luo; Hin-Peng Lee

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the costs and effectiveness of no screening and no eradication therapy, the populationbased Hdlicobacter pylori (H pylori) serology screening with eradication therapy and 13C-Urea breath test (UBT)with eradication therapy.METHODS: A tarkov model simulation was carried out in all 237900 Chinese males with age between 35 and 44 from the perspective of the public healthcare provider in Singapore. The main outcome measures were the costs, number of gastric cancer cases prevented, life years saved, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)gained from screening age to death. The uncertainty surrounding the cost-effectiveness ratio was addressed by one-way sensitivity analyses.RESULTS: Compared to no screening, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $16166 per life year saved or $13571 per QALY gained for the serology screening, and $38792 per life year saved and $32525 per QALY gained for the UBT. The ICER was $477079 per life year saved or $390337 per QALY gained for the UBT compared to the serology screening. The costeffectiveness of serology screening over the UBT was robust to most parameters in the model.CONCLUSION: The population-based serology screening for H pylori was more cost-effective than the UBT in prevention of gastric cancer in Singapore Chinese males.

  17. Sex hormones and the risk of keratinocyte cancers among women in the United States: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklinski, Lawrence F; Zens, Michael S; Perry, Ann E; Gossai, Anala; Nelson, Heather H; Karagas, Margaret R

    2016-07-15

    Men are at a higher risk of developing both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) than women, but there is emerging evidence that women may be experiencing greater increases in the incidence rates of these malignancies than men. One possible explanation is the expanding use of sex steroids among women, although only a few studies have examined this hypothesis. As part of a population-based, case-control study of women in New Hampshire, USA, we sought to evaluate the risk of SCC, BCC, and early-onset BCC in relation to exogenous and endogenous sex hormones. We found that oral contraceptive (OC) use was associated with an increased risk of SCC (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.8) and BCC (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0-1.8), particularly high estrogen dose (>50 mg) OC use. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use also related to SCC, with an elevated OR largely for progestin use (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.8). Additionally, both OC use and combination HRT use were associated with more aggressive BCC subtypes. In contrast, menstrual and reproductive history did not appear to influence keratinocyte cancer risk in our data. Our findings provide evidence that use of sex steroids may enhance risk of keratinocyte cancer.

  18. Impact of local surgical treatment on survival in young women with T1 breast cancer: long-term results of a population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ye Won; Choi, Jung Eun; Park, Heung Kyu; Kim, Ku Sang; Lee, Jee Yeon; Suh, Young Jin

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the type of local surgical treatment on survival in young women aged less than 40 years with T1 breast cancer. We analyzed data from 3,512 patients aged ≤40 years old who were diagnosed with T1 breast cancer from the Korean Breast Cancer Registry database between January 1988 and December 2006 and underwent either breast-conserving therapy (BCT) or mastectomy. The overall survival (OS) and breast-cancer-specific survival (BCSS) were compared between BCT and mastectomy. Of the 3,512 patients analyzed, 1,951 (55.6 %) underwent BCT, and 1,561 (44.4 %) underwent mastectomy. The median follow-up period was 111.0 (79.0-131.5) months. Overall, the 10-year OS rates for BCT and mastectomy were 95 and 92.1 %, respectively (p = 00004), and the 10-year BCSS rates for BCT and mastectomy patients were 96.9 and 94.9 %, respectively (p = 0.12). In node-negative patients, no significant difference was observed in either the OS (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.072; 95 % CI, 0.750-1.5332, p = 0.704) or BCSS (adjusted HR 0.988; 95 % CI, 0.620-1.574, p = 0.960) rate between the BCT and mastectomy groups. In node-positive patients, no significant difference was observed in the OS (adjusted HR 1.634; 95 % CI, 0.982-2.272, p = 0.59) and BCSS (adjusted HR 1.410; 95 % CI, 0.755-2.633, p = 0.281) rates between the BCT and mastectomy groups. In this large, population-based analysis of young women with T1 breast cancer, the OS and BCSS were not different between BCT and mastectomy.

  19. The Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products Containing Ginseng among Tamoxifen-Treated Female Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lung Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of our study is to analyze the association between prescribed Chinese herbal products (CHPs containing Ginseng and the risk of endometrial cancer among tamoxifen (TMX users and to identify any possible interactive effects between Ginseng and TMX with respect to preventing the development of subsequent endometrial cancer in an estrogen-dependent breast cancer population in Taiwan. Methods. All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer receiving tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008, were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The usage, frequency of service, and CHP-Ginseng prescribed across the 30,556 TMX-treated breast cancer (BC survivors were evaluated. Logistic regression was employed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs for the utilization of CHP-Ginseng. Cox’s proportional hazard regression was performed to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs for endometrial cancer associated with Ginseng use among the TMX-treated BC cohort. Results. The HR for the development of endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors who had ever taken Ginseng after TXM treatment was significantly decreased compared to those who never used CHP. Conclusion. A significant inhibitory relationship between Ginseng consumption and subsequent endometrial cancer less than 2 years after TMX treatment was detected among BC survivors.

  20. Stage IV breast cancer: a population-based study about prognostic factors according to HER2 and HR status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertaut, A; Mounier, M; Desmoulins, I; Guiu, S; Beltjens, F; Darut-Jouve, A; Ponnelle, T; Arnould, L; Arveux, P

    2015-11-01

    We aim to describe trends in net survival (NS) and to assess the prognostic factors among women with de novo metastatic breast cancer (MBC) according to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and hormone receptor (HR) status. Data on women suffering from de novo MBC and diagnosed from 1998 to 2009 were provided by the Côte-d'Or breast cancer registry. NS was described using the Pohar Perme estimator and prognostic factors were investigated in a generalised linear model. We identified 232 patients (mean age = 64.7). Median NS was 29.2 months, 1- and 5-year NS were 76% and 26% respectively. The survival trend in patients with HER2-positive tumours who did not receive trastuzumab was similar to that in women with triple-negative tumours. A higher relative excess risk of death by cancer was observed for high-grade tumours [RER, relative excess rates = 1.76 (95% CI, confidence intervals: 1.17-2.62) for Scarff Bloom Richardson grade 3 vs. 1 + 2], while a lower risk was observed for luminal tumours [RER = 0.49 (95% CI: 0.27-0.89)] and HER2-positive tumours treated with trastuzumab [RER = 0.28 (95% CI: 0.14-0.59)], both compared with triple-negative tumours. Surgery of the primary tumour was associated with better survival [RER = 0.43 (95% CI: 0.28-0.68)]. With half of the women dead before 29 months, stage IV breast cancer still has a bleak outlook. Progress should continue with new target therapies for both HR and HER2 receptors.

  1. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer using free/total prostate specific antigen ratio: a population based screening data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LingZhang; Guo-YIJi; Xiao-MengLi; Wei-HuaWang; Hong-WenGao; Yu-ZhuoPan; Hong-JunWang; KuwaharaMasaaki; Xue-JianZhao

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the use of free/total prostate specific antig enratio (fPSA/tPSA ratio) in improving the early diagnosis of prostate cancer. Methods: The fPSA/tPSA ratio in the serum was analyzed in 187 men with tPSA ranging between 4.0 and 20.0μg/L. Allof them underwent ultrasound guided sextant prostatic biopsy.The results were calculated by SPSS 10.0 software.

  2. Incidence of cancer in the area around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in 1988-2003: a population-based ecological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, O.; Wijnen, van JH; Leeuwen, van F.E.

    2005-01-01

    : 1.05, 1.19), mainly due to high rates for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR 1.22, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.33) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (SIR 1.34, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.83). The incidence of cancer of the respiratory system was statistically significantly decreased (SIR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99), due to the low

  3. What roles should population-based cancer registries be playing in the 21st century? Reflections on the Asian Cancer Registry Forum, Bangkok, February 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, David

    2014-01-01

    Cancer registries have fundamental roles in cancer surveillance, research, and health services planning, monitoring and evaluation. Many are now assuming a broader role by contributing data for health-service management, alongside data inputs from other registries and administrative data sets. These data are being integrated into de-identified databases using privacy-protecting data linkage practices. Structured pathology reporting is increasing registry access to staging and other prognostic descriptors. Registry directions need to vary, depending on local need, barriers and opportunities. Flexibility and adaptability will be essential to optimize registry contributions to cancer control.

  4. Does the Intent to Irradiate the Internal Mammary Nodes Impact Survival in Women With Breast Cancer? A Population-Based Analysis in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Robert A., E-mail: rolson2@bccancer.bc.ca [BC Cancer Agency, Radiation Therapy Program, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Woods, Ryan; Speers, Caroline [BC Cancer Agency, Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Lau, Jeffrey [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Lo, Andrea; Truong, Pauline T. [BC Cancer Agency, Radiation Therapy Program, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott; Olivotto, Ivo A. [BC Cancer Agency, Radiation Therapy Program, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); BC Cancer Agency, Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Weir, Lorna [BC Cancer Agency, Radiation Therapy Program, BC (Canada); University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of the intent to include internal mammary nodes (IMNs) in the radiation therapy (RT) volume for patients receiving adjuvant locoregional (breast or chest wall plus axillary and supraclavicular fossa) RT for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: 2413 women with node-positive or T3/4N0 invasive breast cancer, treated with locoregional RT from 2001 to 2006, were identified in a prospectively maintained, population-based database. Intent to include IMNs in RT volume was determined through review of patient charts and RT plans. Distant relapse free survival (D-RFS), breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS), and overall survival (OS) were compared between the two groups. Prespecified pN1 subgroup analyses were performed. Results: The median follow-up time was 6.2 years. Forty-one percent of study participants received IMN RT. The 5-year D-RFS for IMN inclusion and exclusion groups were 82% vs. 82% (p = 0.82), BCSS was 87% vs. 87% (p = 0.81), and OS was 85% vs. 83% (p = 0.06). In the pN1 subgroup, D-RFS was 90% vs. 88% (p = 0.31), BCSS was 94% vs. 92% (p = 0.18), and OS was 91% vs. 88% (p = 0.01). After potential confounding variables were controlled for, women who received IMN RT did not have significantly different D-RFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.24; p = 0.85), BCSS (HR = 0.98 (95% CI, 0.79-1.22; p = 0.88), or OS (HR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.78-1.15; p = 0.57). In the pN1 subgroup, IMN RT was associated with trends for improved survival that were not statistically significant: D-RFS (HR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.63-1.22; p = 0.42), BCSS (HR = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.57-1.25; p = 0.39), and OS (HR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.56-1.09; p = 0.14). Conclusions: After a median follow-up time of 6.2 years, although intentional IMN RT was not associated with a significant improvement in survival, this population-based study suggests that IMN RT may contribute to improved outcomes in selected patients with N1 disease.

  5. Urinary arsenic profiles and the risks of cancer mortality: A population-based 20-year follow-up study in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chi-Jung [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Ya-Li [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yung-Kai [School of Oral Hygiene, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shu-Yuan [Department of Public Health, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-04-15

    Few studies investigated the association between chronic arsenic exposure and the mortality of cancers by estimating individual urinary arsenic methylation profiles. Therefore, we compared with the general population in Taiwan to calculate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in arseniasis-endemic area of Taiwan from 1996 to 2010 and evaluated the dose-response relationships between environmental arsenic exposure indices or urinary arsenic profiles and the mortality of cause-specific cancer. A cohort of 1563 residents was conducted and collected their urine sample and information regarding arsenic exposure from a questionnaire. All-cause death was identified using the National Death Registry of Taiwan. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator–atomic absorption spectrometry. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the mortality risks. In results, 193 all-site cancer deaths, and 29, 71, 43 deaths respectively for liver, lung and bladder cancers were ascertained. The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. People with high urinary InAs% or low DMA% or low secondary methylation index (SMI) were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer after adjusting other risk factors. Even stopping exposure to arsenic from the artesian well water, the mortality rates of the residents were higher than general population. Finally, urinary InAs%, DMA% and SMI could be the potential biomarkers to predict the mortality risk of bladder cancer. -- Highlights: ► The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. ► People with high urinary InAs% were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer. ► People with low DMA% or low SMI were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer.

  6. MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphisms are associated with breast cancer risk among Chinese population: evidence based on an updated cumulative meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yadong; Yang, Haiyan; Duan, Guangcai

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Published studies on the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene A1298C polymorphisms and breast cancer risk among Chinese population have yielded conflicting results. The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphisms and breast cancer risk among Chinese population. Methods: Systematic searches were performed through the database of Medline/PubMed, Science Direct, Elsevier, CNKI and Wanfang Medical Online. Results: Overall, a significantly increased risk of breast cancer was observed among the subjects carrying MTHFR gene A1298C AC+CC genotype (odds ratio [OR]=1.05 with 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.10) as compared to those carrying AA genotype among total Chinese population. We did not observe any significant association between MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of breast cancer under the additional genetic models of AC vs. AA, CC vs. AA and C-allele vs. A-allele (OR=1.00 with 95% CI: 0.97-1.02, OR=1.01 with 95% CI: 1.00-1.02 and OR=1.00 with 95% CI: 0.99-1.02, respectively). The cumulative meta-analysis showed similar results. In subgroup analysis, we observed subjects carrying AC+CC genotype had an increased breast cancer risk compared with those carrying AA genotype among the studies of sample size less than 1000. We did not observe any significant association between MTHFR gene A1298C polymorphisms and breast cancer risk in additional subgroup analyses. Conclusions: Our results suggest that MTHFR gene A1298C AC+CC genotype may be a risk factor for the development of breast cancer among Chinese population. Well-designed studies with a large sample size are needed to further confirm our findings. PMID:26884927

  7. Trends in net survival from kidney cancer in six European Latin countries: results from the SUDCAN population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangone, Lucia; Bossard, Nadine; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Pezzarossi, Annamaria; Roncaglia, Francesca; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Kidney cancer is a frequent malignant disease. To date, there is no evidence on the effectiveness of early detection and, in most cases, surgery represents the only standard treatment. So far, there is no standardized therapy for localized and locally advanced renal tumors; however, the recent introduction of target therapy has significantly improved the prognosis of metastatic disease. Therefore, survival differences in Europe are deemed to involve differences in diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The aim of the SUDCAN collaborative study was to compare the net survival from kidney cancer between six European Latin countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and Switzerland) and provide trends in net survival and dynamics of excess mortality rates up to 5 years after diagnosis. The data were extracted from the EUROCARE-5 database. First, net survival was studied over the 2000-2004 period using the Pohar-Perme estimator. For trend analysis, the study period was specific to each country. The results are reported from 1992 to 2004 in France, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland, and from 2000 to 2004 in Belgium and Portugal. These analyses were carried out using a flexible excess rate modeling strategy. In 2000-2004, the 5-year net survival ranged between 59% (Spain) and 67% (France and Italy) in men and between 60% (Spain) and 73% (Portugal) in women. There was an increase in the age-standardized net survival between 1992 and 2004 at 1 year, as well as at 5 years, in all age groups and countries. Irrespective of the year of diagnosis, the excess mortality rate decreased with time elapsed since diagnosis. There are some differences in survival from kidney cancer between European Latin countries, but a considerable improvement was observed in most countries.

  8. Psychological, surgical, and sociodemographic predictors of pain outcomes after breast cancer surgery: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Julie; Thornton, Alison J; Powell, Rachael; Johnston, Marie; Wells, Mary; Heys, Steven D; Thompson, Alastair M; Cairns Smith, W; Chambers, W Alastair; Scott, Neil W

    2014-02-01

    Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is a common postoperative adverse event affecting up to half of women undergoing breast cancer surgery, yet few epidemiological studies have prospectively investigated the role of preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative risk factors for pain onset and chronicity. We prospectively investigated preoperative sociodemographic and psychological factors, intraoperative clinical factors, and acute postoperative pain in a prospective cohort of 362 women undergoing surgery for primary breast cancer. Intraoperative nerve handling (division or preservation) of the intercostobrachial nerve was recorded. At 4 and 9months after surgery, incidence of chronic painful symptoms not present preoperatively was 68% and 63%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that multiple psychological factors and nerve division was associated with chronic pain at 4 and 9months. In a multivariate model, independent predictors of CPSP at 4months included younger age and acute postoperative pain (odds ratio [OR] 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12 to 1.60), whereas preoperative psychological robustness (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.99), a composite variable comprising high dispositional optimism, high positive affect, and low emotional distress, was protective. At 9months, younger age, axillary node clearance (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.09 to 8.06), and severity of acute postoperative pain (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.37) were predictive of pain persistence. Of those with CPSP, 25% experienced moderate to severe pain and 40% were positive on Douleur Neuropathique 4 and Self-Complete Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs pain scales. Overall, a high proportion of women report painful symptoms, altered sensations, and numbness in the upper body within the first 9months after resectional breast surgery and cancer treatment.

  9. 10 year survival after breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy compared with mastectomy in early breast cancer in the Netherlands : a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maaren, Marissa C.; de Munck, Linda; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Jobsen, Jan J.; van Dalen, Thijs; Linn, Sabine C.; Poortmans, Philip; Strobbe, Luc J. A.; Siesling, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Background Investigators of registry-based studies report improved survival for breast-conserving surgery plus radiotherapy compared with mastectomy in early breast cancer. As these studies did not present long-term overall and breast cancer-specific survival, the effect of breast-conserving surgery

  10. Local Recurrence in Women With Stage I Breast Cancer: Declining Rates Over Time in a Large, Population-Based Cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, Joycelin, E-mail: canavanjoycelin@gmail.com [Radiation Therapy Program and Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Truong, Pauline T.; Smith, Sally L. [Radiation Therapy Program and Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, University of British Columbia, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Lu, Linghong; Lesperance, Mary [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Olivotto, Ivo A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether local recurrence (LR) risk has changed over time among women with stage I breast cancer treated with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: Subjects were 5974 women aged ≥50 years diagnosis with pT1N0 breast cancer from 1989 to 2006, treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy. Clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, and LR outcomes were compared among 4 cohorts stratified by year of diagnosis: 1989 to 1993 (n=1077), 1994 to 1998 (n=1633), 1999 to 2002 (n=1622), and 2003 to 2006 (n=1642). Multivariable analysis was performed, with year of diagnosis as a continuous variable. Results: Median follow-up time was 8.6 years. Among patients diagnosed in 1989 to 1993, 1994 to 1998, 1999 to 2002, and 2003 to 2006, the proportions of grade 1 tumors increased (16% vs 29% vs 40% vs 39%, respectively, P<.001). Surgical margin clearance rates increased from 82% to 93% to 95% and 88%, respectively (P<.001). Over time, the proportions of unknown estrogen receptor (ER) status decreased (29% vs 10% vs 1.2% vs 0.5%, respectively, P<.001), whereas ER-positive tumors increased (56% vs 77% vs 86% vs 86%, respectively, P<.001). Hormone therapy use increased (23% vs 23% vs 62% vs 73%, respectively, P<.001), and chemotherapy use increased (2% vs 5% vs 10% vs 13%, respectively, P<.001). The 5-year cumulative incidence rates of LR over the 4 time periods were 2.8% vs 1.7% vs 0.9% vs 0.8%, respectively (Gray's test, P<.001). On competing risk multivariable analysis, year of diagnosis was significantly associated with decreased LR (hazard ratio, 0.92 per year, P=.0003). Relative to grade 1 histology, grades 2, 3, and unknown were associated with increased LR. Hormone therapy use was associated with reduced LR. Conclusion: Significant changes in the multimodality management of stage I breast cancer have occurred over the past 2 decades. More favorable-risk tumors were diagnosed, and margin clearance and systemic therapy use

  11. Incidence of cancer in children residing in ten jurisdictions of the Mexican Republic: importance of the Cancer registry (a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía-Arangure Juan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1996, Mexico started to register cases of childhood cancer. Here, we describe the incidence of cancer in children, residing in ten Mexican jurisdictions, who were treated by the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS. Methods New cases of childhood cancer, which were registered prospectively in nine principal Medical Centers of IMSS during the periods 1998–2000 (five jurisdictions and 1996–2002 (five jurisdictions, were analyzed. Personnel were specifically trained to register, capture, and encode information. For each of these jurisdictions, the frequency, average annual age-standardized incidence (AAS and average annual incidence per period by sex and, age, were calculated (rates per 1,000,000 children/years. Results In total 2,615 new cases of cancer were registered, with the male/female ratio generally >1, but in some tumors there were more cases in females (retinoblastoma, germ cells tumors. The principal groups of neoplasms in seven jurisdictions were leukemias, central nervous system tumors (CNS tumors, and lymphomas, and the combined frequency for these three groups was 62.6 to 77.2%. Most frequently found (five jurisdictions was the North American-European pattern (leukemias-CNS tumors-lymphomas. Eight jurisdictions had AAS within the range reported in the world literature. The highest incidence was found for children underless than five year of age. In eight jurisdictions, leukemia had high incidence (>50. The AAS of lymphomas was between 1.9 to 28.6. Chiapas and Guerrero had the highest AAS of CNS tumors (31.9 and 30.3, respectively. The frequency and incidence of neuroblastoma was low. Chiapas had the highest incidence of retinoblastoma (21.8. Germ-cell tumors had high incidence. Conclusion The North American-European pattern of cancers was the principal one found; the overall incidence was within the range reported worldwide. In general but particularly in two jurisdictions (Yucatán and Chiapas, it

  12. Emergence of cytotoxic resistance in cancer cell populations*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzi Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We formulate an individual-based model and an integro-differential model of phenotypic evolution, under cytotoxic drugs, in a cancer cell population structured by the expression levels of survival-potential and proliferation-potential. We apply these models to a recently studied experimental system. Our results suggest that mechanisms based on fundamental laws of biology can reversibly push an actively-proliferating, and drug-sensitive, cell population to transition into a weakly-proliferative and drug-tolerant state, which will eventually facilitate the emergence of more potent, proliferating and drug-tolerant cells.

  13. Morbidity in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer managed with non-curative intent. A population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Juel, K;

    1999-01-01

    clinically localized prostate cancer reported to the Danish Cancer Registry in the period 1977-1992. Morbidity in patients and age-matched controls was extracted from The Danish Hospital Discharge Registry. Admissions were stratified by discharge diagnosis. Overall 4744 patients were hospitalized for 251......,695 days within the first 10 y following diagnosis compared with 74,563 days in 4774 age-matched controls. The patients were admitted 6.7 (6.4-7.1) times more often than controls in the year following diagnosis, and 2.7 (2.6-2.8) times more often in the following 9 y. Excess morbidity declined over time......To compare the morbidity in patients with newly diagnosed clinically localized prostate cancer managed conservatively with the morbidity in a randomly selected age-matched background population with no history of prostate cancer. Patients younger than 75 y at diagnosis with newly diagnosed...

  14. Factors associated with Danish cancer patients' return to work. A report from the population-based study 'The Cancer Patient's World'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Johnsen, Anna Thit

    2012-01-01

    If patients facing difficulties in the process of returning to work after treatment of cancer could be identified, these patients could be assisted in the transition. This might help some patients to stay in work. We therefore assessed demographic and clinical factors associated with returning...

  15. The impact of adjuvant therapy on contralateral breast cancer risk and the prognostic significance of contralateral breast cancer: a population based study in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapveld, M.; Visser, O.; Louwman, W.J.; Willemse, P.H.; Vries, EG de; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Otter, R.; Coebergh, J.W.; Leeuwen, F.E. van

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of age and adjuvant therapy on contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk and prognostic significance of CBC were evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 45,229 surgically treated stage I-IIIA patients diagnosed in the Netherlands between 1989 and 2002 CBC risk was quantified using st

  16. The impact of adjuvant therapy on contralateral breast cancer risk and the prognostic significance of contralateral breast cancer: A population based study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schaapveld (Michael); O.J. Visser (Otto); W.J. Louwman; P.H.B. Willemse (Pax); E.G.E. de Vries (Elisabeth); W.T.A. van der Graaf (Winette); R. Otter (Renée); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem); F.E. van Leeuwen (Flora)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The impact of age and adjuvant therapy on contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk and prognostic significance of CBC were evaluated. Patients and Methods: In 45,229 surgically treated stage I-IIIA patients diagnosed in the Netherlands between 1989 and 2002 CBC risk was quantif

  17. Impacts of a population-based prostate cancer screening programme on excess total mortality rates in men with prostate cancer : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Pim J.; Kranse, Ries; Hakulinen, Timo; Hugosson, Jonas; Tammela, Teuvo L.; Ciatto, Stefano; Roobol, Monique J.; Zappa, Marco; de Koning, Harry J.; Bangma, Chris H.; Moss, Sue M.; Auvinen, Anssi; Schroder, Fritz H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effect of screening in terms of excess mortality in the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). Methods A total of 141,578 men aged 55-69 were randomized to systematic screening or usual care in ERSPC sections in Finland, Italy, the Netherlands an

  18. Reliability of health-related quality-of-life indicators in cancer survivors from a population-based sample, 2005, BRFSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, J.M.; Jackson-Thompson, J.; Petroski, G.F.; Schootman, M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objective The current emphasis in cancer survivorship research, which includes health-related quality of life (HRQoL), drives the need to monitor the nation’s cancer burden. Routine, ongoing public health surveillance tools, such as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), may be relevant for this purpose. Study design A subsample of the 2005 Missouri BRFSS was used to estimate test–retest reliability of HRQoL questions among persons who did and did not report a personal cancer history. Methods Retest interviews were conducted by telephone 14–21 days after the initial data collection (n=540, 67% response rate). Reliability was estimated overall and by cancer history using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and kappa statistics. Results The majority of retest respondents were White, female and married, with 13% reporting a history of cancer. Overall, point estimates of the reliability coefficients ranged from moderate to excellent (κ=0.57–0.75). There were no statistically significant differences in test–retest reliability between persons with and without a history of cancer, except for self-reported pain (ICC=0.59 and ICC=0.78, respectively). Conclusions In general, BRFSS questions appear to have adequate reliability for monitoring HRQoL in this community-dwelling population, regardless of cancer history. PMID:19081117

  19. Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Pharmacogenomics: Integrating Discoveries in Basic, Clinical and Population Sciences to Advance Predictive Cancer Care, a 2010 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  20. Should Women Younger Than 40 Years of Age With Invasive Breast Cancer Have a Mastectomy?: 15-Year Outcomes in a Population-Based Cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Jeffrey Q. [BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver Centre (Canada); Truong, Pauline T. [BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre (Canada); Olivotto, Ivo A. [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, University of Calgary (Canada); Olson, Robert [BC Cancer Agency, Centre for the North (Canada); Coulombe, Genevieve [Centre Hospitalier de L' Universite de Montreal (Canada); Keyes, Mira; Weir, Lorna; Gelmon, Karen [BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver Centre (Canada); Bernstein, Vanessa [BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre (Canada); Woods, Ryan [Cancer Control Research, BC Cancer Agency (Canada); Speers, Caroline [BC Cancer Agency, Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott, E-mail: styldesl@bccancer.bc.ca [BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver Centre (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Optimal local management for young women with early-stage breast cancer remains controversial. This study examined 15-year outcomes among women younger than 40 years treated with breast-conserving surgery plus whole-breast radiation therapy (BCT) compared with those treated with modified radical mastectomy (MRM). Methods and Materials: Women aged 20 to 39 years with early-stage breast cancer diagnosed between 1989 and 2003 were identified in a population-based database. Primary outcomes of breast cancer–specific survival (BCSS), overall survival (OS) and secondary outcomes of local relapse–free survival (LRFS), locoregional relapse–free survival (LRRFS), and distant relapse–free survival (DRFS) were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods and compared between BCT and MRM cohorts using log-rank tests. A planned subgroup analysis was performed on patients considered “ideal” for BCT (ie, T1N0, negative margins and no extensive ductal carcinoma in situ) and in whom local therapy may have the largest impact on survival because of low systemic risk. Results: 965 patients were identified; 616 had BCT and 349 had MRM. The median follow-up time was 14.4 years (range, 8.4-23.3 years). Overall, 15-year rates of BCSS (76.0% vs 74.1%, P=.62), OS (74.2% vs 73.0%, P=.75), LRFS (85.4% vs 86.5%, P=.95), LRRFS (82.2% vs 81.6%, P=.61), and DRFS (74.4% vs 71.6%, P=.40) were similar between the BCT and MRM cohorts. In the “ideal” for BCT subgroup, there were 219 BCT and 67 MRM patients with a median follow-up time of 15.5 years. The 15-year BCSS (86.1% vs 82.9%, P=.57), OS (82.6% vs 82.9%, P=.89), LRFS (86.2% vs 84.2%, P=.50), LRRFS (83.1% vs 78.3%, P=.24), and DRFS (84.8% vs 79.1%, P=.17) were similar in the BCT and MRM cohorts. Conclusions: This population-based analysis with long-term follow-up confirmed that women younger than 40 years treated with BCT had similar 15-year outcomes compared with MRM. Young age alone is not a contraindication to BCT.

  1. Breast cancer risk after diagnosis by screening mammography of nonproliferative or proliferative benign breast disease: a study from a population-based screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Xavier; Domingo, Laia; Corominas, Josep María; Torá-Rocamora, Isabel; Quintana, María Jesús; Baré, Marisa; Vidal, Carmen; Natal, Carmen; Sánchez, Mar; Saladié, Francina; Ferrer, Joana; Vernet, Mar; Servitja, Sonia; Rodríguez-Arana, Ana; Roman, Marta; Espinàs, Josep Alfons; Sala, María

    2015-01-01

    Benign breast disease increases the risk of breast cancer. This association has scarcely been evaluated in the context of breast cancer screening programs although it is a prevalent finding in mammography screening. We assessed the association of distinct categories of benign breast disease and subsequent risk of breast cancer, as well as the influence of a family history of breast cancer. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 545,171 women aged 50-69 years biennially screened for breast cancer in Spain. The median of follow-up was 6.1 years. The age-adjusted rate ratio (RR) of breast cancer for women with benign breast disease, histologically classified into nonproliferative and proliferative disease with and without atypia, compared with women without benign breast disease was estimated by Poisson regression analysis. A stratified analysis by family history of breast cancer was performed in a subsample. All tests were two-sided. The age-adjusted RR of breast cancer after diagnosis of benign breast disease was 2.51 (95 % CI: 2.14-2.93) compared with women without benign breast disease. The risk was higher in women with proliferative disease with atypia (RR = 4.56, 95 % CI: 2.06-10.07) followed by those with proliferative disease without atypia (RR = 3.58; 95 % CI = 2.61-4.91). Women with nonproliferative disease and without a family history of breast cancer remained also at increased risk of cancer (OR = 2.23, 95 % CI: 1.86-2.68). An increased risk of breast cancer was observed among screening participants with proliferative or nonproliferative benign breast disease, regardless of a family history of breast cancer. This information may be useful to explore risk-based screening strategies.

  2. Explaining disparities in colorectal cancer screening among five Asian ethnic groups: A population-based study in California

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    Antonio Cynthia M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS indicate that levels and temporal trends in colorectal cancer (CRC screening prevalence vary among Asian American groups; however, the reasons for these differences have not been fully investigated. Methods Using CHIS 2001, 2003 and 2005 data, we conducted hierarchical regression analyses progressively controlling for demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care in an attempt to identify factors explaining differences in screening prevalence and trends among Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Japanese Americans (N = 4,188. Results After controlling for differences in gender and age, all Asian subgroups had significantly lower odds of having ever received screening in 2001 than the reference group of Japanese Americans. In addition, Korean Americans were the only subgroup that had a statistically significant decline in screening prevalence from 2001 to 2005 compared to the trend among Japanese Americans. After controlling for differences in education, marital status, employment status and federal poverty level, Korean Americans were the only group that had significantly lower screening prevalence than Japanese Americans in 2001, and their trend to 2005 remained significantly depressed. After controlling for differences in English proficiency and access to care, screening prevalences in 2001 were no longer significantly different among the Asian subgroups, but the trend among Korean Americans from 2001 to 2005 remained significantly depressed. Korean and Vietnamese Americans were less likely than other groups to report a recent doctor recommendation for screening and more likely to cite a lack of health problems as a reason for not obtaining screening. Conclusions Differences in CRC screening trends among Asian ethnic groups are not entirely explained by differences in demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care. A

  3. Parity, Age at First Birth, and Risk of Death from Bladder Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Chen, Brian K.; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    The evidence is limited on the relationship between reproductive factors and bladder cancer (BC). We studied 1,292,462 women who had a first and singleton delivery between 1 January 1978 and 31 December 1987. Each woman in the study cohort was tracked from their first childbirth to 31 December 2009. Vital status of the women was determined by crosswalking records with a computerized mortality database. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of death from BC associated with maternal age at first birth and parity. The data showed 63 BC deaths during 34,980,246 person-years of follow-up. BC mortality rate was 0.90 cases for every 100,000 person-years. Compared with women who gave birth under the age of 23, the adjusted HR was 1.24 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.66–2.35) for women who gave birth between age 23 and 26 and 2.30 (95% CI = 1.21–4.39) for women who gave birth over the age of 26. Increasing age at first birth (p for trend = 0.01) is associated with a trend in increasing risk of BC mortality. Relative to women who had a single childbirth, the adjusted HRs were 1.17 (95% CI = 0.51–2.69) for women who gave birth to two children, and 1.31 (95% CI = 0.56–3.10) for women with three or more childbirths, respectively. These results were not statistically significant. Study results suggests that giving birth at an early age may confer a protective effect on the risk of death from BC. PMID:27918463

  4. Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence Rates by Histological Type in 1975–2008: A Population-Based Study in Osaka, Japan

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    Fukuaki Lee Kinoshita

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monitoring trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality is important for the evaluation of cancer control activities. We investigated recent trends in age-standardized incidence rates by histological type of lung cancer in Osaka, Japan. Methods: Cancer incidence data for 1975–2008 were obtained from the Osaka Cancer Registry. Lung cancer mortality data with population data in Osaka during 1975–2012 were obtained from vital statistics. We examined trends in age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for all histological types and age-standardized incidence rates by histological type and age group using a joinpoint regression model. Results: The age-standardized incidence rate of lung cancer levelled off or slightly increased from 1975–2008, with an annual percentage change of 0.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1%–0.4% for males and 1.1% (95% CI, 0.9%–1.3% for females, and the mortality rate decreased by 0.9% (95% CI, 1.2%–0.7% for males and 0.5% (95% CI, 0.8%–0.3% for females. The incidence rates of squamous cell carcinoma (SQC and small cell carcinoma (SMC significantly decreased for both genders, whereas that of adenocarcinoma (ADC significantly increased among almost all age groups in both genders. Conclusions: The incidence rates of SQC and SMC decreased with the decline in smoking prevalence, which probably explains the change in trends in the incidence rates of lung cancer from the mid-1980s. However, the reason for the increase in ADC remains unclear. Therefore, trends in incidence rates of lung cancer should be carefully monitored, especially for ADC, and the associations between ADC and its possible risk factors should be studied.

  5. Oesophagectomy rates and post-resection outcomes in patients with cancer of the oesophagus and gastro-oesophageal junction: a population-based study using linked health administrative linked data

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    Stavrou Efty P

    2012-11-01

    were associated with some patient (older age, birthplace and hospital-related characteristics (fiscal sector, area health service. Conclusion Outcomes following oesophagectomy in oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal cancer patients in NSW are within world benchmarks. Our study demonstrates that the inclusion of gastro-oesophageal cancer did alter some outcomes compared to analysis based solely on oesophageal cancer. As such, care must be taken with analyses based on administrative health data to capture all populations eligible for treatment and to understand the contribution of these subpopulations to overall outcomes.

  6. a Simple Evolutionary Model for Cancer Cell Population and its Implications on Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Peng; Wen, Shutang; Li, Baoshun; Li, Yuxiao

    We established a simple evolutionary model based on the cancer stem cell hypothesis. By taking cellular interactions into consideration, we introduced the evolutionary games theory into the quasispecies model. The fitness values are determined by both genotypes and cellular interactions. In the evolutionary model, a cancer cell population can evolve in different patterns. For single peak intrinsic fitness landscape, the evolution pattern can transit with increasing differentiation probability from malignant cells to benign cells in four different modes. For a large enough value of differentiation probability, the evolution is always the case that the malignant cells extinct ultimately, which might give some implications on cancer therapy.

  7. Early complications following oesophagectomy for cancer in relation to long-term healthcare utilisation: a prospective population-based cohort study.

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    Eva Doorakkers

    Full Text Available Little is known about how early postoperative complications after oesophagectomy for cancer influence healthcare utilisation in the long-term. We hypothesised that these complications also increase healthcare utilisation long after the recovery period.This was a prospective, nationwide Swedish population-based cohort study of patients who underwent curatively intended oesophagectomy for cancer in 2001-2005 and survived at least 1 year postoperatively (n = 390. Total days of in-hospitalisation, number of hospitalisations and number of visits to the outpatient clinic within 5 years of surgery were analysed using quasi-Poisson models with adjustment for patient, tumour and treatment characteristics and are expressed as incidence rate ratios (IRR and 95% confidence intervals (CI.There was an increased in-hospitalisation period 1-5 years after surgery in patients with more than 1 complication (IRR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.4. The IRR for the number of hospitalisations by number of complications was 1.1 (95% CI 0.7-1.6, and 1.2 (95% CI 0.9-1.6 for number of outpatient visits in patients with more than 1 complication. The IRR for in-hospitalisation period 1-5 years following oesophagectomy was 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.0 for patients with anastomotic insufficiency and 1.5 (95% CI 0.9-2.5 for patients with cardiovascular or cerebrovascular complications. We found no association with number of hospitalisations (IRR 1.2, 95% CI 0.7-2.0 or number of outpatient visits (IRR 1.3, 95% CI 0.9-1.7 after anastomotic insufficiency, or after cardiovascular or cerebrovascular complications (IRR 1.2, 95% CI 0.7-1.9 and (IRR 1.1, 95% CI 0.8-1.5 respectively.This study showed an increased total in-hospitalisation period 1-5 years after oesophagectomy for cancer in patients with postoperative complications, particularly following anastomotic insufficiency.

  8. Incidence Patterns and Trends of non-Central Nervous System Solid Tumours in Children and Adolescents. A Collaborative Study of the Spanish Population Based Cancer Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Mª José; Ardanaz, Eva; Felipe, Saray; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Ramos, María; Carulla, Marià; Chirlaque, Mª Dolores; Argüelles, Marcial V.; Martos, Carmen; Mateo, Antonio; Peris-Bonet, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe incidence patterns and trends in children (0-14 years) and adolescents (15-19 age-range) with solid tumours, except those of central nervous system (CNS), in Spain. Methods: Cases were drawn from eleven Spanish population-based cancer registries. Incidence was estimated for the period 1983-2007 and trends were evaluated using Joinpoint regression analysis. Results: The studied tumour groups accounted for 36% of total childhood cancers and 47.6% of those diagnosed in adolescence with annual rates per million of 53.5 and 89.3 respectively. In children 0 to 14 years of age, Neuroblastoma (NB) was the commonest (7.8%) followed by Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) (6.3%), bone tumours (BT) (6.2%) and renal tumours (RT) (4.5%). NB was the most frequently diagnosed tumour before the 5th birthday, while STS and BT were the commonest at 5-9 years of age, and BT and Carcinoma and other epithelial tumours (COET) at 10-14. COET presented the highest incidence in adolescents, followed by germ-cell tumours (GCT), BT and STS. These four diagnostic groups accounted for 94% of total non-CNS solid tumours, in adolescents. Overall incidence rates increased significantly in children up to 1996 with an annual percentage change (APC) of 2.6% (95%CI: 1.7; 3.6). NB and COET showed significant time trend (APCs: 1.4% and 3.8% respectively) while other tumour groups such as RT, STS, BT or GCT had no significant changes over time. A significant increase was present in NB under the age of 5 and in BT and STS in children aged 10-14 years. In adolescents there were significant increases for all tumours combined (APC=2.7; 95%CI: 1.8-3.6) and for STS, GCT and COET (APCs: 3.2%, 4.4% and 3.5% respectively), while other tumour groups such as hepatic tumours, BT or thyroid carcinomas showed a decreasing trend or no increase. Conclusions: Overall, the incidence of the studied cancers in children increased along the period 1983-1996 with no posterior significant rise, while the incidence

  9. The Impact of Race in Male Breast Cancer Treatment and Outcome in the United States: A Population-Based Analysis of 4,279 Patients

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    Jacob Y. Shin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to compare the racial differences in treatment and overall survival (OS of male breast cancer (MBC patients. Data were extracted from the NCI SEER database that included population-based registries from 1988 to 2010 and analyzed using SPSS 20.0. 4,279 MBC patients were identified. 3,266 (76.3% patients were White, 552 (12.9% Black, 246 (5.7% Hispanic, and 215 (5.0% Asian. Black patients were more likely to be diagnosed at younger age (P<0.001, have advanced stage disease (P=0.001, and be unmarried (P<0.001 and less likely to undergo lymph node dissection (P=0.006. When stratified by stage, there was no difference in receipt of primary treatment by race. The 5-year OS for White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian races was 73.8%, 66.3%, 74.0%, and 85.3% (P<0.001. This significant worse 5-year OS for Blacks persisted regardless of age, stage II or III disease, and grade 2 or 3 disease. On multivariate analysis, Black race was a significant independent prognostic factor for worse OS. Blacks were less likely to receive lymph node dissection of which patients may derive benefit, though we did not observe receipt of primary treatment, after stratifying for disease stage, to be an underlying factor contributing to racial outcome differences.

  10. Cellular based cancer vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Met, O; Svane, I M;

    2012-01-01

    Cancer vaccines designed to re-calibrate the existing host-tumour interaction, tipping the balance from tumor acceptance towards tumor control holds huge potential to complement traditional cancer therapies. In general, limited success has been achieved with vaccines composed of tumor...... in vitro migration via autocrine receptor-mediated endocytosis of CCR7. In the current review, we discuss optimal design of DC maturation focused on pre-clinical as well as clinical results from standard and polarized dendritic cell based cancer vaccines....

  11. Pooled sample-based GWAS: a cost-effective alternative for identifying colorectal and prostate cancer risk variants in the Polish population.

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    Pawel Gaj

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa and colorectal cancer (CRC are the most commonly diagnosed cancers and cancer-related causes of death in Poland. To date, numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with susceptibility to both cancer types have been identified, but their effect on disease risk may differ among populations. METHODS: To identify new SNPs associated with PCa and CRC in the Polish population, a genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed using DNA sample pools on Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP 6.0 arrays. A total of 135 PCa patients and 270 healthy men (PCa sub-study and 525 patients with adenoma (AD, 630 patients with CRC and 690 controls (AD/CRC sub-study were included in the analysis. Allele frequency distributions were compared with t-tests and χ(2-tests. Only those significantly associated SNPs with a proxy SNP (p0.7 were selected. GWAS marker selection was conducted using PLINK. The study was replicated using extended cohorts of patients and controls. The association with previously reported PCa and CRC susceptibility variants was also examined. Individual patients were genotyped using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. RESULTS: The GWAS selected six and 24 new candidate SNPs associated with PCa and CRC susceptibility, respectively. In the replication study, 17 of these associations were confirmed as significant in additive model of inheritance. Seven of them remained significant after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. Additionally, 17 previously reported risk variants have been identified, five of which remained significant after correction. CONCLUSION: Pooled-DNA GWAS enabled the identification of new susceptibility loci for CRC in the Polish population. Previously reported CRC and PCa predisposition variants were also identified, validating the global nature of their associations. Further independent replication studies are required to confirm significance of the newly uncovered candidate

  12. Dioxin emissions from a municipal solid waste incinerator and risk of invasive breast cancer: a population-based case-control study with GIS-derived exposure

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    Challier Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, few epidemiologic studies have examined the relationship between environmental PCDD/F exposure and breast cancer in human populations. Dioxin emissions from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs are one of the major sources of environmental dioxins and are therefore an exposure source of public concern. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between dioxins emitted from a polluting MSWI and invasive breast cancer risk among women residing in the area under direct influence of the facility. Methods We compared 434 incident cases of invasive breast cancer diagnosed between 1996 and 2002, and 2170 controls randomly selected from the 1999 population census. A validated dispersion model was used as a proxy for dioxin exposure, yielding four exposure categories. The latter were linked to individual places of residence, using Geographic Information System technology. Results The age distribution at diagnosis for all cases combined showed a bimodal pattern with incidence peaks near 50 and 70 years old. This prompted us to run models separately for women aged 20–59 years, and women aged 60 years or older. Among women younger than 60 years old, no increased or decreased risk was found for any dioxin exposure category. Conversely, women over 60 years old living in the highest exposed zone were 0.31 time less likely (95% confidence interval, 0.08–0.89 to develop invasive breast cancer. Conclusion Before speculating that this decreased risk reflects a dioxin anti-estrogenic activity with greater effect on late-onset acquired breast cancer, some residual confounding must be envisaged.

  13. HbA1C and cancer risk in patients with type 2 diabetes--a nationwide population-based prospective cohort study in Sweden.

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    Junmei Miao Jonasson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes is associated with increased cancer risk. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Hyperglycemia might be one risk factor. HbA1c is an indicator of the blood glucose level over the latest 1 to 3 months. This study aimed to investigate association between HbA1c level and cancer risks in patients with type 2 diabetes based on real life situations. METHODS: This is a cohort study on 25,476 patients with type 2 diabetes registered in the Swedish National Diabetes Register from 1997-1999 and followed until 2009. Follow-up for cancer was accomplished through register linkage. We calculated incidences of and hazard ratios (HR for cancer in groups categorized by HbA1c ≤ 58 mmol/mol (7.5% versus >58 mmol/mol, by quartiles of HbA1c, and by HbA1c continuously at Cox regression, with covariance adjustment for age, sex, diabetes duration, smoking and insulin treatment, or adjusting with a propensity score. RESULTS: Comparing HbA1c >58 mmol/mol with ≤ 58 mmol/mol, adjusted HR for all cancer was 1.02 [95% CI 0.95-1.10] using baseline HbA1c, and 1.04 [95% CI 0.97-1.12] using updated mean HbA1c, and HRs were all non-significant for specific cancers of gastrointestinal, kidney and urinary organs, respiratory organs, female genital organs, breast or prostate. Similarly, no increased risks of all cancer or the specific types of cancer were found with higher quartiles of baseline or updated mean HbA1c, compared to the lowest quartile. HR for all cancer was 1.01 [0.98-1.04] per 1%-unit increase in HbA1c used as a continuous variable, with non-significant HRs also for the specific types of cancer per unit increase in HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS: In this study there were no associations between HbA1c and risks for all cancers or specific types of cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  14. Estimating the change in life expectancy after a diagnosis of cancer among the Australian population

    OpenAIRE

    Baade, Peter D; Youlden, Danny R; Andersson, Therese M-L; Youl, Philippa H; Kimlin, Michael G.; Aitken, Joanne F; Biggar, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Communication of relevant prognostic information is critical in helping patients understand the implications of their cancer diagnosis. We describe measures of prognosis to help communicate relevant prognostic information to improve patients’ understanding of the implications of their cancer diagnosis. Setting Australia-wide population-based cancer registry cohort. Participants 870 878 patients aged 15–89 years diagnosed with invasive cancer between 1990 and 2007, with mortality fo...

  15. Reducing the digital divide for low-income women with breast cancer: a feasibility study of a population-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, David H; McTavish, Fiona M; Stengle, William; Ballard, Denise; Jones, Ellen; Julesberg, Karen; McDowell, Helene; Landucci, Gina; Hawkins, Robert

    2005-01-01

    A fundamental challenge to helping underserved women and their families cope with breast cancer is providing them with easily accessible, reliable health care information and support. This is especially true for low-income families living in rural areas where resources are few and frequently distant as well as low-income families in urban areas where access to information and support can be complex and overwhelming. The Internet is one mechanism that has tremendous potential to help these families cope with breast cancer. This article describes a feasibility test of the potential for the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service (CIS) to provide access to an Internet-based system that has been shown to improve quality of life for underserved breast cancer patients. The test was conducted in rural Wisconsin (low socioeconomic status [SES] Caucasian women) and in Detroit, Michigan (low SES African American women), and compares the effectiveness of several different dissemination strategies. Using these results we propose a model for how CIS telephone and partnership program services could efficiently disseminate such information and support systems. In doing so we believe that important steps can be taken to close the digital divide that separates low-income families from the resources they need to effectively face cancer. This is the first of two articles coming from this study. A companion article reports on an evaluation of the use and impact of this system on the women who were given access to it.

  16. The role of diet and other environmental factors in the causation of gastric cancer in Iran--a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourfarzi, Farhad; Whelan, Anna; Kaldor, John; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2009-10-15

    Despite a declining trend in the incidence of gastric cancer (GC), it is still a major global public health concern of the 21st century. The rates of GC reported from Ardabil Province, Iran, are among the highest in the world. To investigate risk factors for GC in Ardabil, we undertook a population-based case-control study. The study aimed to recruit all Ardabil residents newly diagnosed with GC in the time period of 2004-2005, and 2 controls per case. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Ten milliliters of blood was collected for blood grouping and investigating the presence of IgG antibodies against Helicobacter pylori. During the study period, 217 people with GC and 394 controls were recruited. In multivariate analysis, diet and Helicobacter pylori infection (OR = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.35-4.32) were found to be the factors that were most strongly related to GC. High intake of Allium vegetables (OR = 0.35) and fruit, especially citrus fruit (OR = 0.31) and consumption of fresh fish (OR = 0.37) were significantly protective. On the other hand, consumption of red meat (OR = 3.40) and dairy products (OR = 2.28) were positively associated with the risk of GC. People who had a preference for higher salt intake (OR = 3.10) and drinking strong and hot tea (OR = 2.64 and 2.85, respectively) were at higher risk. In conclusion, Helicobacter pylori infection as measured by serum IgG as well as the consumption of red meat and dairy products increases the risk of GC in Ardabil, while the intake of fresh fruit and fresh fish decrease the risk.

  17. Double positivity for HPV DNA/p16 in tonsillar and base of tongue cancer improves prognostication: Insights from a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnaes, Emilie; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kiss, Katalin; Andersen, Luise; Therkildsen, Marianne H; Franzmann, Maria B; Specht, Lena; Andersen, Elo; Norrild, Bodil; Kjaer, Susanne K; von Buchwald, Christian

    2016-12-01

    The aim was to explore the overall survival (OS) for palatine tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC), subdivided, according to certainty of tonsillar tumour origin, into specified tonsillar squamous cell carcinomas (STSCCs) and nonspecified tonsillar squamous cell carcinomas (NSTSCCs), and base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) when stratifying for HPV DNA status, p16 expression and combined HPV/p16 status. We included all patients (n = 797) diagnosed with TSCCs and BSCCs in Eastern Denmark as registered in the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA) database and the Danish Pathology Databank, 2000-2010. Patients were treated according to national guidelines (radiotherapy +/- concomitant cisplatin). All specimens were analysed using HPV DNA PCR and p16 immunohistochemistry. Clinical information was retrieved from the DAHANCA database and the Danish National Patient Registry. Information on vital status was obtained from the Danish Civil Registration System. We observed improved OS for HPV+/p16+ BSCCs compared to HPV-/p16- (hazard ratio for death [HR], 0.15; 95% CI, 0.09-0.24). Among STSCCs, HPV+/p16+ showed the lowest HR (0.19, 95% CI, 0.13-0.29); whereas, HPV-/p16+ showed an intermediate HR (0.39; 95% CI, 0.22-0.70). For NSTSCCs, HPV+/p16+ and HPV-/p16+ showed similar OS (HRs, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.26-0.59; and 0.48; 95% CI, 0.24-0.95, respectively). Combined HPV+/p16+ was a significantly better prognostic marker in BSCCs and STSCCs than HPV DNA and p16, alone (all p-values p16 (p = 0.53), alone. In conclusion, double positivity for HPV/p16 in conjunction with the certainty of tumour site improved prognosis.

  18. Analysis of intervention strategies for inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and associated lung cancer risk based on a Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model.

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    Bin Zhou

    Full Text Available It is difficult to evaluate and compare interventions for reducing exposure to air pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, a widely found air pollutant in both indoor and outdoor air. This study presents the first application of the Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model to quantify the effects of different intervention strategies on inhalation exposure to PAHs and the associated lung cancer risk. The method was applied to the population in Beijing, China, in the year 2006. Several intervention strategies were designed and studied, including atmospheric cleaning, smoking prohibition indoors, use of clean fuel for cooking, enhancing ventilation while cooking and use of indoor cleaners. Their performances were quantified by population attributable fraction (PAF and potential impact fraction (PIF of lung cancer risk, and the changes in indoor PAH concentrations and annual inhalation doses were also calculated and compared. The results showed that atmospheric cleaning and use of indoor cleaners were the two most effective interventions. The sensitivity analysis showed that several input parameters had major influence on the modeled PAH inhalation exposure and the rankings of different interventions. The ranking was reasonably robust for the remaining majority of parameters. The method itself can be extended to other pollutants and in different places. It enables the quantitative comparison of different intervention strategies and would benefit intervention design and relevant policy making.

  19. Continuing rise in oropharyngeal cancer in a high HPV prevalence area: A Danish population-based study from 2011 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlander, Amanda-Louise Fenger; Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup

    2017-01-01

    through to 2020. Patients and methods Patients with OPSCC (tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma [TSCC] and base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma [BSCC]) were identified via the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group and the Danish Pathology Databank (n = 700). Tumours were re-reviewed and assessed using p16...

  20. Radiation Dose to the Esophagus From Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy, 1943-1996: An International Population-Based Study of 414 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamart, Stephanie, E-mail: stephanie.lamart@nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Simon, Steven L. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita E.; Howell, Rebecca M. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Curtis, Rochelle E. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Aleman, Berthe M.P. [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Travis, Lois [Rubin Center for Cancer Survivorship and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Kwon, Deukwoo [Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Morton, Lindsay M. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To provide dosimetric data for an epidemiologic study on the risk of second primary esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors, by reconstructing the radiation dose incidentally delivered to the esophagus of 414 women treated with radiation therapy for breast cancer during 1943-1996 in North America and Europe. Methods and Materials: We abstracted the radiation therapy treatment parameters from each patient’s radiation therapy record. Treatment fields included direct chest wall (37% of patients), medial and lateral tangentials (45%), supraclavicular (SCV, 64%), internal mammary (IM, 44%), SCV and IM together (16%), axillary (52%), and breast/chest wall boosts (7%). The beam types used were {sup 60}Co (45% of fields), orthovoltage (33%), megavoltage photons (11%), and electrons (10%). The population median prescribed dose to the target volume ranged from 21 Gy to 40 Gy. We reconstructed the doses over the length of the esophagus using abstracted patient data, water phantom measurements, and a computational model of the human body. Results: Fields that treated the SCV and/or IM lymph nodes were used for 85% of the patients and delivered the highest doses within 3 regions of the esophagus: cervical (population median 38 Gy), upper thoracic (32 Gy), and middle thoracic (25 Gy). Other fields (direct chest wall, tangential, and axillary) contributed substantially lower doses (approximately 2 Gy). The cervical to middle thoracic esophagus received the highest dose because of its close proximity to the SCV and IM fields and less overlying tissue in that part of the chest. The location of the SCV field border relative to the midline was one of the most important determinants of the dose to the esophagus. Conclusions: Breast cancer patients in this study received relatively high incidental radiation therapy doses to the esophagus when the SCV and/or IM lymph nodes were treated, whereas direct chest wall, tangentials, and axillary fields contributed lower

  1. Bladder Cancer Screening in Lebanese Population: There is Nothing more Unequal than the Equal Treatment of Unequal People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahait, Mohammed; Bulbul, Muhammad

    2016-10-27

    Bladder cancer screening has been perplexing the uro-oncological community for the last decade. In this commentary, we ruminate on the feasibility of bladder cancer screening in our population based on epidemiological proponents.

  2. Evaluation of secular trend and the existence of cases of clusters of bladder cancer in Goiania: descriptive study population-based; Avaliacao da tendencia temporal e da existencia de casos de clusters de cancer de bexiga em Goiania: estudo descritivo de base populacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Gisele Guimaraes Daflon

    2008-07-01

    More than 20 years after the radiological accident with cesium-137 in the city of Goiania, there is still a feeling in local population that the number of cases of cancer in the city is growing up due to the past radiation exposure and that the number of people contaminated or exposed was higher than the number reported. The present study aims to evaluate the temporal trend and the space-time distribution of bladder cancer cases in Goiania from 1988 and 2003, taking into account that bladder cancer presents the highest risk coefficients per unit of radiation dose among solid cancers. The study population was composed of all incident cases of bladder cancer registered in the Population-Based Cancer Registry of Goiania, between 1988 and 2003.Temporal trend of bladder cancer incidence was analyzed by sex and age groups ( < 60 and {>=} 60 years of age) through polynomial regression using age standardized incidence rates of bladder cancer (world population). SaTscan was used to determine whether statistical significant geographic clusters of high incidence of bladder cancer cases can be located in the city. The results showed a significant increase of bladder cancer incidence rates in males of all ages (p= 0.025) and for age group higher or equal to 60 years old (p=O.022), and a stability in trends for female sex. In the space-time analysis, a cluster was identified, however without statistical significance (p=0.278) and its location has no relationship with the main focuses of contamination of the radiological accident in 1987. We concluded that, despite of the increase of incidence rates in males, this can be explained by the improvement in diagnostic procedures throughout time, being this increase still not perceived in females considering the small number of cases. As chance can not be ruled out as the explanation of the identified cluster, we do not suggest any further detailed investigation in this cluster, as the occurrence of cluster diseases in space can occur

  3. Uses of cancer registries for public health and clinical research in Europe: Results of the European Network of Cancer Registries survey among 161 population-based cancer registries during 2010–2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, S.; Louwman, W.J.; Kwast, A.; Hurk, van den C.J.G.; O'Callaghan, M.; Rosso, S.; Zanetti, R.; Storm, H.; Comber, H.; Steliarova-Foucher, E.; Coebergh, J.W.W.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To provide insight into cancer registration coverage, data access and use in Europe. This contributes to data and infrastructure harmonisation and will foster a more prominent role of cancer registries (CRs) within public health, clinical policy and cancer research, whether within or outside the

  4. Use of general practice, diagnostic investigations and hospital services before and after cancer diagnosis - a population-based nationwide registry study of 127,000 incident adult cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karina Garnier; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Flarup, Kaare Rud;

    2012-01-01

    ,272,100 controls. Monthly consultation frequencies, monthly proportions of persons receiving health services and three-month incidence rate ratios for one year before and one year after the cancer diagnosis were calculated. Data were analysed separately for women and men. RESULTS: Three months before...... one month after diagnosis and the number of hospital contacts three months after diagnosis. The proportion of cancer patients receiving each of these three types of health services remained more than 10% above that of the reference population from two months before diagnosis until the end of the study...

  5. Drinking hot beverages is not associated with risk of oesophageal cancers in a Western population

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    We performed a nationwide population-based case-control study of hot beverage consumption and oesophageal cancer in Sweden. Drinking beverages very hot did not increase the risk for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, oesophageal adenocarcinoma, or gastric cardia adenocarcinoma. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com

  6. Social inequality and incidence of and survival from cancers of the oesophagus, stomach and pancreas in a population-based study in Denmark, 1994-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Sørensen, Mette; Hansen, Johnni;

    2008-01-01

    with increasing social advantage; this was most pronounced for oesophageal cancer and least for pancreatic cancer. The effect of socioeconomic position on survival after these cancers was less clear, perhaps due to the poor relative survival from these cancers and the fact that all three cancers are relatively...

  7. Measuring the effect of improvement in methodological techniques on data collection in the Gharbiah population-based cancer registry in Egypt: Implications for other Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brittney L; Ramadan, Mohamed; Corley, Brittany; Hablas, Ahmed; Seifeldein, Ibrahim A; Soliman, Amr S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and quantify procedures and methods that maximized the efficiency of the Gharbiah Cancer Registry (GPCR), the only population-based cancer registry in Egypt. The procedures and measures included a locally-developed software program to translate names from Arabic to English, a new national ID number for demographic and occupational information, and linkage of cancer cases to new electronic mortality records of the Ministry of Health. Data was compiled from the 34,058 cases from the registry for the years 1999-2007. Cases and registry variables about demographic and clinical information were reviewed by year to assess trends associated with each new method or procedure during the study period. The introduction of the name translation software in conjunction with other demographic variables increased the identification of detected duplicates from 23.4% to 78.1%. Use of the national ID increased the proportion of cases with occupation information from 27% to 89%. Records with complete mortality information increased from 18% to 43%. Proportion of cases that came from death certificate only, decreased from 9.8% to 4.7%. Overall, the study revealed that introducing and utilizing local and culture-specific methodological changes, software, and electronic non-cancer databases had a significant impact on data quality and completeness. This study may have translational implications for improving the quality of cancer registries in LMICs considering the emerging advances in electronic databases and utilization of health software and computerization of data.

  8. Cancer incidence in the south Asian population of California, 1988–2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Ratnali V

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although South Asians (SA form a large majority of the Asian population of U.S., very little is known about cancer in this immigrant population. SAs comprise people having origins mainly in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. We calculated age-adjusted incidence and time trends of cancer in the SA population of California (state with the largest concentration of SAs between 1988–2000 and compared these rates to rates in native Asian Indians as well as to those experienced by the Asian/Pacific Islander (API and White, non-Hispanic population (NHW population of California. Methods Age adjusted incidence rates observed among the SA population of California during the time period 1988–2000 were calculated. To correctly identify the ethnicity of cancer cases, 'Nam Pehchan' (British developed software was used to identify numerator cases of SA origin from the population-based cancer registry in California (CCR. Denominators were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau. Incidence rates in SAs were calculated and a time trend analysis was also performed. Comparison data on the API and the NHW population of California were also obtained from CCR and rates from Globocan 2002 were used to determine rates in India. Results Between 1988–2000, 5192 cancers were diagnosed in SAs of California. Compared to rates in native Asian Indians, rates of cancer in SAs in California were higher for all sites except oropharyngeal, oesophageal and cervical cancers. Compared to APIs of California, SA population experienced more cancers of oesophagus, gall bladder, prostate, breast, ovary and uterus, as well as lymphomas, leukemias and multiple myelomas. Compared to NHW population of California, SAs experienced more cancers of the stomach, liver and bile duct, gall bladder, cervix and multiple myelomas. Significantly increasing time trends were observed in colon and breast cancer incidence. Conclusion SA population of California experiences

  9. Early detection of cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J W; Gentry-Maharaj, A; Fourkala, E-O

    2013-01-01

    Background:Recent reports from cancer screening trials in high-risk populations suggest that autoantibodies can be detected before clinical diagnosis. However, there is minimal data on the role of autoantibody signatures in cancer screening in the general population.Methods:Informative p53 peptides...... were identified in sera from patients with colorectal cancer using an autoantibody microarray with 15-mer overlapping peptides covering the complete p53 sequence. The selected peptides were evaluated in a blinded case-control study using stored serum from the multimodal arm of the United Kingdom...... Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening where women gave annual blood samples. Cases were postmenopausal women who developed colorectal cancer following recruitment, with 2 or more serum samples preceding diagnosis. Controls were age-matched women with no history of cancer.Results:The 50¿640 women...

  10. Thymic epithelial turnours : A population-based study of the incidence, diagnostic procedures and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Wouter K.; Blaauwgeers, Johannes L. G.; Schaapveld, Michael; Timens, Wim; Klinkenberg, Theo J.; Groen, Harry J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The population-based incidence, diagnostic procedures, therapy and survival of thymic epithelial tumours were determined using the Netherlands National Pathological Archives and the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Excess mortality compared to the Netherlands standard population was estimated by relativ

  11. Emergence of cytotoxic resistance in cancer cell populations: Single-cell mechanisms and population-level consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Tommaso; Chisholm, Rebecca H.; Lorz, Alexander; Larsen, Annette K.; de Almeida, Luís Neves; Escargueil, Alexandre; Clairambault, Jean

    2016-06-01

    We formulate an individual-based model and a population model of phenotypic evolution, under cytotoxic drugs, in a cancer cell population structured by the expression levels of survival-potential and proliferation-potential. We apply these models to a recently studied experimental system. Our results suggest that mechanisms based on fundamental laws of biology can reversibly push an actively-proliferating, and drug-sensitive, cell population to transition into a weakly-proliferative and drug-tolerant state, which will eventually facilitate the emergence of more potent, proliferating and drug-tolerant cells.

  12. Cancer among circumpolar populations: an emerging public health concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kue Young

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine and compare the incidence of cancer among the 8 Arctic States and their northern regions, with special focus on 3 cross-national indigenous groups – Inuit, Athabaskan Indians and Sami. Methods: Data were extracted from national and regional statistical agencies and cancer registries, with direct age-standardization of rates to the world standard population. For comparison, the “world average” rates as reported in the GLOBOCAN database were used. Findings: Age-standardized incidence rates by cancer sites were computed for the 8 Arctic States and 20 of their northern regions, averaged over the decade 2000–2009. Cancer of the lung and colon/rectum in both sexes are the commonest in most populations. We combined the Inuit from Alaska, Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Greenland into a “Circumpolar Inuit” group and tracked cancer trends over four 5-year periods from 1989 to 2008. There has been marked increase in lung, colorectal and female breast cancers, while cervical cancer has declined. Compared to the GLOBOCAN world average, Inuit are at extreme high risk for lung and colorectal cancer, and also certain rare cancers such as nasopharyngeal cancer. Athabaskans (from Alaska and Northwest Territories share some similarities with the Inuit but they are at higher risk for prostate and breast cancer relative to the world average. Among the Sami, published data from 3 cohorts in Norway, Sweden and Finland show generally lower risk of cancer than non-Sami. Conclusions: Cancer among certain indigenous people in the Arctic is an increasing public health concern, especially lung and colorectal cancer.

  13. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  14. High BRAF Mutation Frequency and Marked Survival Differences in Subgroups According to KRAS/BRAF Mutation Status and Tumor Tissue Availability in a Prospective Population-Based Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorbye, Halfdan; Dragomir, Anca; Sundström, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    RAS and BRAF mutations impact treatment and prognosis of metastatic colorectal cancer patients (mCRC), but the knowledge is based on trial patients usually not representative for the general cancer population. Patient characteristics, treatment and efficacy according to KRAS, BRAF and MSI status...... micro array (TMA) (42%) had worse prognostic factors and inferior survival (all patients; 7m vs 11m, chemotherapy-treated;12m vs 17m). The 92 patients (21%) with BRAF mutation had a poor prognosis regardless of microsatellite instability, but receipt of 1-2nd chemotherapy was similar to wildtype BRAF...... patients. Median survival in this cohort varied from 1 month in BRAF mutated patients not given chemotherapy to 26 months in wildtype KRAS/BRAF patients BRAF mutation and KRAS mutation were all independent prognostic factors for survival. The observed 21% BRAF...

  15. Trends in adherence to recommended cancer screening: The US population and working cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainya C. Clarke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past decade the United States has seen a decrease in advanced cancer diagnoses. There has also been an increase in the number of cancer survivors returning to work. Cancer screening behaviors among survivors may play an important role in their return-to-work process. Adherence to a post-treatment cancer screening protocol increases early detection of secondary tumors and reduces potentially limiting side-effects. We compared screening trends among all cancer survivors, working survivors, and the general population over the last decade.Methods: Trends in adherence to recommended screening were analyzed by site-specific cancer. We used the Healthy People goals as a measure of desired adherence. We selected participants 18+ years from 1997 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS for years where detailed cancer screening information was available. Using the recommendations of the American Cancer Society as a guide, we assessed adherence to cancer screening across the decade. There were 174,393 participants. Analyses included 7,528 working cancer survivors representing 3.8 million US workers, and 119,374 adults representing more than 100 million working Americans with no cancer history.Results: The US population met the Healthy People 2010 goal for colorectal screening, but declined in all other recommended cancer screening. Cancer survivors met and maintained the HP2010 goal for all, except cervical cancer screening. Survivors had higher screening rates than the general population. Among survivors, white-collar and service occupations had higher screening rates than blue-collar survivors.Conclusions: Cancer survivors report higher screening rates than the general population. Nevertheless, national screening rates are lower than desired, and disparities exist by cancer history and occupation. Understanding existing disparities, and the impact of cancer screening on survivors is crucial as the number of working survivors

  16. [Local recurrence based on size after conservative surgery in breast cancer stage T1-T2. A population-based study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramos, David; Fortea-Sanchis, Carlos; Escrig-Sos, Javier; Prats-de Puig, Miguel; Queralt-Martín, Raquel; Salvador-Sanchis, José Luís

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la cirugía conservadora es un patrón de referencia del tratamiento de la mayor parte de los tumores mamarios en estadios iniciales. Sin embargo, una minoría de pacientes intervenidas con esta opción tendrá recurrencia local o locorregional. Por ello resulta de interés evaluar los posibles factores relacionados con esta recurrencia. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo, con base poblacional, efectuado con base en los datos del Registro de Tumores de Castellón (Comunidad Valenciana, España) de pacientes intervenidas de cáncer primario de mama no metastático de enero de 2000 a diciembre de 2008. Se utilizaron las curvas de Kaplan-Meier y la prueba de log-rank para estimar la recurrencia local a cinco años. Se definieron dos grupos de pacientes, uno con cirugía conservadora y otro con cirugía no conservadora de la mama. Se realizó un estudio multivariado de Cox. Resultados: se encontraron 410 pacientes con promedio de 6.8% de recurrencias locales. En el análisis univariado sólo el tamaño tumoral y la afectación ganglionar demostraron diferencias significativas. En el análisis multivariado los factores pronóstico independientes fueron: la cirugía conservadora (Hazard ratio [HR] 4.62; IC [intervalo de confianza] 95% 1.12-16.82), el número de ganglios linfáticos positivos (HR 1.07; IC 95% 1.01-1.17) y el tamaño del tumor en milímetros (HR 1.02; IC 95% 1.01-1.06). Conclusiones: la recurrencia local postcirugía conservadora de mama es mayor en tumores de más de 2 cm. Aunque el tamaño del tumor no debería ser una contraindicación para esta cirugía sí deben tomarse en cuenta como un factor de riesgo.

  17. Medical utilization by liver cancer patients under the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan: A population-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yeh

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The cost of liver cancer care is substantial and varies by sex, age, income, and geographic distribution. It is critical to reduce the incidence of liver cancer and identify cost-effective treatment strategies.

  18. Advances in research on population-based female breast cancer survival in China%中国乳腺癌全人群生存率分析研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左婷婷(综述); 陈万青(审校)

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women in China and around the world. Population-based survival analysis can reflect the overall level of cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in countries or regions, providing basic information for making efficient health policies. Breast cancer survival varies among countries or regions because of differences among races, so-cioeconomic factors, healthcare services, and cancer diagnosis and treatment. Breast cancer prognosis is closely related to tumor stage, status of receptors, and treatments. By determining the relationship between breast cancer survival and related factors, the re-sults can help in predicting the prognosis and evaluating the quality of care services. The article provides an overview of breast cancer survival in China and abroad, as well as references for cancer surveillance.%乳腺癌是女性最常见的恶性肿瘤之一,在我国乃至全球乳腺癌居女性恶性肿瘤发病率首位,严重影响女性的健康。人群为基础的癌症生存分析能够反映某一国家或地区癌症预防、诊断、治疗的整体水平,为有针对性地制定卫生政策提供基础数据支持。在世界范围内由于人种、社会经济文化、基础医疗保健、诊疗水平等多方面存在差异,不同国家或地区乳腺癌生存率差距较大。乳腺癌生存率与肿瘤分期、受体状态、治疗方式等密切相关,通过深入比较相关因素与乳腺癌生存率的关系,为预测乳腺癌预后、提高临床诊疗水平提供帮助。本文着重概述国内外乳腺癌生存现状,并针对目前我国癌症监测工作提供相关参考建议。

  19. Cancer prevalence in Easter Island population - 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Eduardo Bravo; Armaroli, Pabla Yaikin; Contreras, Gustavo Saint-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In Easter Island, population is composed by original habitants, the Rapa Nui culture and introduced people, mainly from continental Chile, who have a different ethnic origin. The aim of this research was to describe cancer frequency in resident population in Easter Island, and secondarily compare the findings with other islands of Polynesia and continental Chile. We reviewed the statistics of patients treated in Hanga Roa Hospital during the period 2006-2010, finding a total of 49 patients with cancer during the study. The most frequent cancers in Easter Island's people were breast cancer (8 cases), skin (8 cases), cervical (8 cases), lung (5 cases) and gastric (4 cases). According to gender, in females the most frequent cancer was breast, followed by skin and cervical, while in men, lung, prostate and hematopoietic cancers were the most frequent. Most cases of cervical cancer occurred in women of Rapa Nui ethnicity, while most skin cancers were found in non-Rapa Nui people. In case of the most common cancer in Easter Island, education (e.g. Papanicolaou and mammography screening) and prevention in the community (e.g. use sun block, avoid cigarettes) should be useful tools to reduce incidence.

  20. Cancer Stem Cells and Side Population Cells in Breast Cancer and Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, Kelly M. [Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, International Centre for Life, Central Parkway, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 3BZ (United Kingdom); Kirby, John A. [Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, 3rd Floor William Leech Building, Framlington Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Lennard, Thomas W.J. [Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, 3rd Floor William Leech Building, Framlington Place, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Meeson, Annette P., E-mail: annette.meeson@ncl.ac.uk [Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, International Centre for Life, Central Parkway, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 3BZ (United Kingdom); North East England Stem Cell Institute, Bioscience Centre, International Centre for Life, Central Parkway, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, NE1 3BZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-19

    In breast cancer it is never the primary tumour that is fatal; instead it is the development of metastatic disease which is the major cause of cancer related mortality. There is accumulating evidence that suggests that Cancer Stem Cells (CSC) may play a role in breast cancer development and progression. Breast cancer stem cell populations, including side population cells (SP), have been shown to be primitive stem cell-like populations, being long-lived, self-renewing and highly proliferative. SP cells are identified using dual wavelength flow cytometry combined with Hoechst 33342 dye efflux, this ability is due to expression of one or more members of the ABC transporter family. They have increased resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and apoptotic stimuli and have increased migratory potential above that of the bulk tumour cells making them strong candidates for the metastatic spread of breast cancer. Treatment of nearly all cancers usually involves one first-line agent known to be a substrate of an ABC transporter thereby increasing the risk of developing drug resistant tumours. At present there is no marker available to identify SP cells using immunohistochemistry on breast cancer patient samples. If SP cells do play a role in breast cancer progression/Metastatic Breast Cancer (MBC), combining chemotherapy with ABC inhibitors may be able to destroy both the cells making up the bulk tumour and the cancer stem cell population thus preventing the risk of drug resistant disease, recurrence or metastasis.

  1. Epidemiologic differences in esophageal cancer between Asian and Western populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Ze Zhang; Guang-Fu Jin; Hong-Bing Shen

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is a common cancer worldwide and has a poor prognosis.The incidence of esophageal squamous cell cancer has been decreasing,whereas the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has been increasing rapidly,particularly in Western men.Squamous cell cancer continues to be the major type of esophageal cancer in Asia,and the main risk factors include tobacco smoking,alcohol consumption,hot beverage drinking,and poor nutrition.In contrast,esophageal adenocarcinoma predominately affects the whites,and the risk factors include smoking,obesity,and gastroesophageal reflux disease.In addition,Asians and Caucasians may have different susceptibilities to esophageal cancer due to different heritage backgrounds.However,comparison studies between these two populations are limited and need to be addressed in the near future.Ethnic differences should he taken into account in preventive and clinical practices.

  2. Ovarian cancer stem cells are enriched in side population and aldehyde dehydrogenase bright overlapping population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyo Yasuda

    Full Text Available Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs/cancer-initiaiting cells (CICs are defined as a small population of cancer cells that have self-renewal capacity, differentiation potential and high tumor-initiating ability. CSCs/CICs of ovarian cancer have been isolated by side population (SP analysis, ALDEFLUOR assay and using cell surface markers. However, these approaches are not definitive markers for CSCs/CICs, and it is necessary to refine recent methods for identifying more highly purified CSCs/CICs. In this study, we analyzed SP cells and aldehyde dehydrogenese bright (ALDH(Br cells from ovarian cancer cells. Both SP cells and ALDH(Br cells exhibited higher tumor-initiating ability and higher expression level of a stem cell marker, sex determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2, than those of main population (MP cells and ALDH(Low cells, respectively. We analyzed an SP and ALDH(Br overlapping population (SP/ALDH(Br, and the SP/ALDH(Br population exhibited higher tumor-initiating ability than that of SP cells or ALDH(Br cells, enabling initiation of tumor with as few as 10(2 cells. Furthermore, SP/ADLH(Br population showed higher sphere-forming ability, cisplatin resistance, adipocyte differentiation ability and expression of SOX2 than those of SP/ALDH(Low, MP/ALDH(Br and MP/ALDH(Low cells. Gene knockdown of SOX2 suppressed the tumor-initiation of ovarian cancer cells. An SP/ALDH(Br population was detected in several gynecological cancer cells with ratios of 0.1% for HEC-1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma cells to 1% for MCAS ovary mucinous adenocarcinoma cells. Taken together, use of the SP and ALDH(Br overlapping population is a promising approach to isolate highly purified CSCs/CICs and SOX2 might be a novel functional marker for ovarian CSCs/CICs.

  3. Identification of Distinct Breast Cancer Stem Cell Populations Based on Single-Cell Analyses of Functionally Enriched Stem and Progenitor Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Akrap

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of breast cancer cell subpopulations featuring truly malignant stem cell qualities is a challenge due to the complexity of the disease and lack of general markers. By combining extensive single-cell gene expression profiling with three functional strategies for cancer stem cell enrichment including anchorage-independent culture, hypoxia, and analyses of low-proliferative, label-retaining cells derived from mammospheres, we identified distinct stem cell clusters in breast cancer. Estrogen receptor (ERα+ tumors featured a clear hierarchical organization with switch-like and gradual transitions between different clusters, illustrating how breast cancer cells transfer between discrete differentiation states in a sequential manner. ERα− breast cancer showed less prominent clustering but shared a quiescent cancer stem cell pool with ERα+ cancer. The cellular organization model was supported by single-cell data from primary tumors. The findings allow us to understand the organization of breast cancers at the single-cell level, thereby permitting better identification and targeting of cancer stem cells.

  4. Establishment of risk model for pancreatic cancer in Chinese Han population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-Hua Lu; Li Wang; Hui Li; Jia-Ming Qian; Rui-Xue Deng; Lu Zhou

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate risk factors for pancreatic cancer and establish a risk model for Han population.METHODS: This population-based case-control study was carried out from January 2002 to April 2004. One hundred and nineteen pancreatic cancer patients and 238 healthy people completed the questionnaire which was used for risk factor analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratio (ORs), 95%confidence intervals (Cis) and β value, which were further used to establish the risk model.RESULTS: According to the study, people who have smoked more than 17 pack-years had a higher risk to develop pancreatic cancer compared to non-smokers or light smokers (not more than 17 pack-years) (OR 1.98;95% CI 1.11-3.49, P=0.017). More importantly, heavy smokers in men had increased risk for developing pancreatic cancer (OR 2.11; 95%CI 1.18-3.78, P=0.012)than women. Heavy alcohol drinkers (>20 cup-years)had increased risk for pancreatic cancer (OR 3.68;95%CI 1.60-8.44). Daily diet with high meat intak was also linked to pancreatic cancer. Moreover, 18.5% of the pancreatic cancer patients had diabetes mellitus compared to the control group of 5.8% (P= 0.0003). Typical symptoms of pancreatic cancer were anorexia, upper abdominal pain, bloating, jaundice and weight loss. Each risk factor was assigned a value to represent its impor tance associated with pancreatic cancer. Subsequently by adding all the points together, a risk scoring model was established with a value higher than 45 as being at risk to develop pancreatic cancer.CONCLUSION: Smoking, drinking, high meat diet and diabetes are major risk factors for pancreatic cancer. A risk model for pancreatic cancer in Chinese Hah population has been established with an 88.9% sensitivity and a 97.6% specificity.

  5. On the rising trends of incidence and prognosis for breast cancer patients diagnosed 1975-2004: a long-term population-based study in southeastern Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwman, W.J.; Voogd, A.C.; Dijck, J.A.A.M. van; Nieuwenhuijzen, G.A.P; Ribot, J.; Pruijt, J.F.M.; Coebergh, J.W.W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Much progress has been made in the early diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. We have assessed the changing burden of this disease, by means of a comprehensive description of trends in incidence, survival, and mortality. METHODS: Data on breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1975

  6. Improved survival of colon cancer due to improved treatment and detection: A nationwide population-based study in The Netherlands 1989-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.N. van Steenbergen (Liza); M.A.G. Elferink; P. Krijnen (Pieta); V.E.P.P. Lemmens (Valery); S. Siesling (Sabine); H.J.T. Rutten (Harm); D.J. Richel (Dirk); H.E. Karim-Kos (Henrike); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: We described changes in treatment of colon cancer over time and the impact on survival in The Netherlands in the period 1989-2006. Patients and methods: All 103 744 patients with invasive colon cancer during 1989-2006 in The Netherlands were included. Data were extracted from

  7. 1. HUMAN POPULATION MONITORING FOR CANCER PREVENTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Most of the chemicals classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as human carcinogens are mutagenic across test systems, cf. [www.epa.gov/gapdb ] and induce tumors at multiple sites in rodent species. They are therefore readity detected in short term tests for gene-tic and related effects (GRE), in animal carcinogenesis bioassays and in human monitoring studies. Carcinogens that are not genotoxic may be studied using new toxicogenomic approaches as will be discussed. A Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS) database is planned by the National Center for Toxicogenomics to contain information on such compounds. The 1992 Preamble to the IARC Monographs

  8. Screen detection of ductal carcinoma in situ and subsequent incidence of invasive interval breast cancers: a retrospective population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Stephen W; Dibden, Amanda; Michalopoulos, Dimitrios; Offman, Judith; Parmar, Dharmishta; Jenkins, Jacquie; Collins, Beverley; Robson, Tony; Scorfield, Suzanne; Green, Kathryn; Hall, Clare; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Ryan, Michael; Johnson, Fiona; Stevens, Guy; Kearins, Olive; Sellars, Sarah; Patnick, Julietta

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The value of screen detection and treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a matter of controversy. At present, the extent to which the diagnosis and treatment of DCIS could prevent the occurrence of invasive breast cancer in the future is not clear. We sought to estimate the association between detection of DCIS at screening and invasive interval cancers subsequent to the relevant screen. Methods We obtained aggregate data for screen-detected cancers from 84 local screening units within 11 regional Quality Assurance Reference Centres in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland from the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme. Data for DCIS diagnoses were obtained for women aged 50–64 years who were invited to and attended mammographic breast screening from April 1, 2003, to March 31, 2007 (4 screening years). Patient-level data for interval cancer arising in the 36 months after each of these were analysed by Poisson regression with invasive interval cancer screen detection rate as the outcome variable; DCIS detection frequencies were fitted first as a continuous and then as a categorical variable. We repeated this analysis after adjustment with both small size and high-grade invasive screen-detected cancers. Findings We analysed data for 5 243 658 women and on interval cancers occurring in the 36 months after the relevant screen. The average frequency of DCIS detected at screening was 1·60 per 1000 women screened (median 1·50 [unit range 1·54–3·56] per 1000 women). There was a significant negative association of screen-detected DCIS cases with the rate of invasive interval cancers (Poisson regression coefficient −0·084 [95% CI −0·13 to −0·03]; p=0·002). 90% of units had a DCIS detection frequency within the range of 1·00 to 2·22 per 1000 women; in these units, for every three screen-detected cases of DCIS, there was one fewer invasive interval cancer in the next 3 years. This association remained after

  9. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with increased risk for cancer mortality in adult Taiwanese-a 10 years population-based cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Yu Tseng

    Full Text Available The association between subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH and cancer mortality is seldom discussed.A total of 115,746 participants without thyroid disease history, aged 20 and above, were recruited from four nationwide health screening centers in Taiwan from 1998 to 1999. SCH was defined as a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level of 5.0-19.96 mIU/L with normal total thyroxine concentrations. Euthyroidism was defined as a serum TSH level of 0.47-4.9 mIU/L. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs of death from cancer for adults with SCH during a 10-year follow-up period.Among 115,746 adults, 1,841 had SCH (1.6% and 113,905 (98.4% had euthyroidism. There were 1,532 cancer deaths during the 1,034,082 person-years follow-up period. Adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, alcohol drinking, betel nut chewing, physical activity, income, and education level, the RRs (95% confidence interval of cancer deaths among subjects with SCH versus euthyroid subjects were 1.51 (1.06 to 2.15. Cancer site analysis revealed a significant increased risk of bone, skin and breast cancer among SCH subjects (RR 2.79, (1.01, 7.70. The risks of total cancer deaths were more prominent in the aged (RR 1.71, (1.02 to 2.87, in females (RR 1.69 (1.08 to 2.65, and in heavy smokers (RR 2.24, (1.19 to 4.21.Subjects with SCH had a significantly increased risk for cancer mortality among adult Taiwanese. This is the first report to demonstrate the association between SCH and cancer mortality.

  10. Palliative chemotherapy in head and neck squamous cell cancer - What is best in Indian population? A time without symptoms, treatment toxicity score based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with recurrent and metastatic head and neck Squamous Cell Cancer (HNSCC have poor prognosis with limited treatment options. In view of decimal prognosis, the treatment decision should include quality of life (QOL issues, cost-effectiveness besides the response rates and survival. Aim: Present retrospective analysis was conducted to evaluate efficacy (disease-free survival, pharmacoeconomics, and toxicity profile of four (4 different regimens, viz. gefitinib alone, gefitinib with methotrexate, methotrexate alone, or 5-FU with cisplatin. Materials and Methods: Case records between 2007 September and 2008 September were analyzed, 68 patients were found suitable for analysis. Patients received gefitinib (250 mg/day, methotrexate as 50 mg intramuscular weekly or a combination of the same or 5-FU 750 mg/m 2 /day for 4 days along with cisplatin 75 mg/m 2 /day on day 1 in 21-day cycle. Results: A total of 68 patients received therapy. Fifty-one patients have clinically meaningful response (stable disease + complete + partial responses (75% and had symptomatic improvement. The median progression-free survival was significantly superior in responders (those who achieved partial or complete response (8.4 months vs. 3.1 months, P=0.001. Methotrexate with gefitinib had maximum median survival and better overall QOL compared to the other treatment regimens. Weekly methotrexate is relatively cost-effective followed by methotrexate with gefitinib and gefitinib alone. 5-FU with cisplatin in our experience does not appear so attractive in view of high complication rates (when given in full doses and prolonged hospital stay. Conclusion: Based on the results of this retrospective analysis, methotrexate weekly as single agent or in combination with gefitinib appears as an attractive alternative regimen for patients with metastatic HNSCC including those having poor performance status. A prospective study was planned and submitted to the local

  11. Mortality rates among early-stage hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients: a population-based cohort study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Bjerre, Karsten; Ejlertsen, Bent Laursen

    2011-01-01

    Indications for adjuvant endocrine treatment of breast cancer have gradually increased over the past several years. We aimed to define subgroups of patients who may or may not benefit from adjuvant endocrine therapy....

  12. Evidence-Based Cancer Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    With the advances in the field of oncology, imaging is increasingly used in the follow-up of cancer patients, leading to concerns about over-utilization. Therefore, it has become imperative to make imaging more evidence-based, efficient, cost-effective and equitable. This review explores the strategies and tools to make diagnostic imaging more evidence-based, mainly in the context of follow-up of cancer patients.

  13. Risk factors related to female breast cancer in regions of Northeast China: a 1:3 matched case-control population-based study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhi-gang; JIA Cun-xian; GENG Cui-zhi; TANG Jin-hai; ZHANG Jin; LIU Li-yuan

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in the incidence of breast cancer in China,but no definite risk and protective factors for breast cancer have been identified in Chinese females.This study was designed to identify the risk factors for female breast cancer in North and East China.Methods A 1:3 matched,case-control study was conducted.All of the subjects in the case and control groups were selected from a previous epidemiological survey of 122 058 females aged 25 to 70 years.Single and multiple Logistic regression analyses were used to study potential factors in the development of breast cancer.Results Significant differences at the level of α=0.20 between case and control groups were observed for the following factors:economic status,social status,family annual income,bean product consumption,body mass index (BMI),family history of breast cancer in the first or second degree,number of miscarriages,menstrual pattern,benign breast disease history,nipple leakage,inverted nipple,history of diabetes mellitus,history of hypertension,history of ovarian cyst,physical exercise,current and global quality of life satisfaction,healthy behavior and prevention,and scores of breast cancer-related knowledge.After Cox-regression model analysis (α=0.10),six factors were found to be significantly related to breast cancer,of which the ORs and 95%C/s were:BMI,1.696 (1.169-2.460,P=0.005); benign breast disease history,2.672 (0.848-8.416,P=0.093); family history of breast cancer,7.080 (1.758-28.551,P=0.006); number of miscarriages,1.738 (1.014-2.978,P=0.044); global quality of life satisfaction,3.044 (1.804-5.136,P=0.000); healthy behavior and prevention,3.294 (1.692-6.412,P=0.000).Conclusions A comprehensive range of factors related to breast cancer was identified.Women should be educated about a healthy lifestyle,especially those with a family history of breast cancer or a personal history of benign breast disease.

  14. Characteristics of Differently Located Colorectal Cancers Support Proximal and Distal Classification: A Population-Based Study of 57,847 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiao; Du, Xiang lin; Li, Shu ting; Wang, Bi yuan; Wu, Yin ying; Chen, Zhe ling; Lv, Meng; Shen, Yan wei; Wang, Xin; Dong, Dan feng; Li, Dan; Wang, Fan; Li, En xiao; Yi, Min

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that colorectal cancer be regarded as several subgroups defined according to tumor location rather than as a single entity. The current study aimed to identify the most useful method for grouping colorectal cancer by tumor location according to both baseline and survival characteristics. Methods Cases of pathologically confirmed colorectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed from 2000 to 2012 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database and categorized into three groups: right colon cancer (RCC), left colon cancer (LCC), and rectal cancer (ReC). Adjusted hazard ratios for known predictors of disease-specific survival (DSS) in colorectal cancer were obtained using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results The study included 57847 patients: 43.5% with RCC, 37.7% with LCC, and 18.8% with ReC. Compared with LCC and ReC, RCC was more likely to affect old patients and women, and to be at advanced stage, poorly differentiated or un-differentiated, and mucinous. Patients with LCC or ReC had better DSS than those with RCC in subgroups including stage III or IV disease, age ≤70 years and non-mucinous adenocarcinoma. Conversely, patients with LCC or ReC had worse DSS than those with RCC in subgroups including age ˃70 years and mucinous adenocarcinoma. Conclusions RCC differed from both LCC and ReC in several clinicopathologic characteristics and in DSS. It seems reasonable to group colorectal cancer into right-sided (i.e., proximal) and left-sided (i.e., distal) ones. PMID:27936129

  15. Salt processed food and gastric cancer in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Si-Hao; Li, Yuan-Hang; Leung, Kayee; Huang, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between salt processed food and gastric cancer, a hospital based case-control study was conducted in a high risk area of China. One hundred and seven newly diagnosed cases with histological confirmation of gastric cancer and 209 controls were recruited. Information on dietary intake was collected with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratios with adjustment for other potential confounders. Comparing the high intake group with never consumption of salt processed foods, salted meat, pickled vegetables and preserved vegetables were significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Meanwhile, salt taste preference in diet showed a dose-response relationship with gastric cancer. Our results suggest that consumption of salted meat, pickled and preserved vegetables, are positively associated with gastric cancer. Reduction of salt and salt processed food in diets might be one practical measure to preventing gastric cancer.

  16. Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and prostate cancer risk: a population-based nested case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaheddin M Mahmud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite strong laboratory evidence that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs could prevent prostate cancer, epidemiological studies have so far reported conflicting results. Most studies were limited by lack of information on dosage and duration of use of the different classes of NSAIDs. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study using data from Saskatchewan Prescription Drug Plan (SPDP and Cancer Registry to examine the effects of dose and duration of use of five classes of NSAIDs on prostate cancer risk. Cases (N = 9,007 were men aged ≥40 years diagnosed with prostatic carcinoma between 1985 and 2000, and were matched to four controls on age and duration of SPDP membership. Detailed histories of exposure to prescription NSAIDs and other drugs were obtained from the SPDP. RESULTS: Any use of propionates (e.g., ibuprofen, naproxen was associated with a modest reduction in prostate cancer risk (Odds ratio = 0.90; 95%CI 0.84-0.95, whereas use of other NSAIDs was not. In particular, we did not observe the hypothesized inverse association with aspirin use (1.01; 0.95-1.07. There was no clear evidence of dose-response or duration-response relationships for any of the examined NSAID classes. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest modest benefits of at least some NSAIDs in reducing prostate cancer risk.

  17. Gender and smoking-related risk of lung cancer. The Copenhagen Center for Prospective Population Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Osler, M; Hein, H O;

    1998-01-01

    smokers with more than 60 pack-years of tobacco exposure. RRs did not differ much between men and women: adjusted for pack-years, age, and study population, the ratio between female and male smokers' RRs of developing lung cancer was 0.8 (95% confidence interval = 0.3-2.1). All histologic types were......Our aim was to compare risk of lung cancer associated with smoking by gender and histologic type. A total of 30,874 subjects, 44% women, from three prospective population-based studies with initial examinations between 1964 and 1992 were followed until 1994 through the National Cancer Registry....... There were 867 cases of lung cancer, 203 among women and 664 among men. Rates among female and male never-smokers were similar, although confidence intervals around rates were wide. Rate ratios (RRs) increased with number of pack-years for both men and women to a maximum of approximately 20 in inhaling...

  18. CHRNA5 polymorphism and susceptibility to lung cancer in a Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit CHRNA5 gene have been associated with lung cancer positive susceptibility in European and American populations. In the present hospital-based, case-control study, we determined whether polymorphism in rs503464 of CHRNA5 is associated with lung cancer risk in Chinese individuals. A single nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5 rs503464, c.-166T>A (hereafter T>A, was identified using TaqMan-MGB probes with sequencing via PCR in 600 lung cancer cases and 600 healthy individuals. Genotype frequencies for rs503464 (T>A were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the control population. However, genotype frequencies were significantly different between cases and controls (P A at rs503464 of CHRNA5 may be associated with reduced risk of lung cancer, thus representing a susceptibility allele in Chinese individuals.

  19. [IMSS in numbers. Cancers in insured population, 1990-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The epidemiological transition has highlighted the incidence of cancer in the agendas of every health institution. The high demand of health services that require specialized and high cost diagnostic and treatment technologies, obliges the institution to reinforce their resources towards the detection and effective treatment programs. Although the institution has implemented effective prevention and control programs towards cancers that mainly affect women, it still needs to direct resources to control cancers that affect men and other age groups. Statistics shown in this paper demonstrate the increase in the demand of health services in the family physician setting as well as in the specialized medical services and hospitals. Along with the aging of the insured population the incidence of cancer will increase, therefore, the IMSS will have to intensify the prevention and control programs.

  20. Mutation analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in a male breast cancer population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, L.S.; Gayther, S.A.; Ponder, B.A.J. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    A population-based series of 54 male breast cancer cases from Southern California were analyzed for germ-line mutations in the inherited breast/ovarian cancer genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Nine (17%) of the patients had a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer in at least one first-degree relative. A further seven (13%) of the patients reported breast/ovarian cancer in at least one second-degree relative and in no first-degree relatives. No germ-line BRCA1 mutations were found. Two male breast cancer patients (4% of the total) were found to carry novel truncating mutations in the BRCA2 gene. Only one of the two male breast cancer patients carrying a BRCA2 mutation had a family history of cancer, with one case of ovarian cancer in a first-degree relative. The remaining eight cases (89%) of male breast cancer with a family history of breast/ovarian cancer in first-degree relatives remain unaccounted for by mutations in either the BRCA1 gene or the BRCA2 gene. 23 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  1. Programmable models of growth and mutation of cancer-cell populations

    CERN Document Server

    Bortolussi, Luca; 10.4204/EPTCS.67.4

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a systematic approach to construct mathematical models describing populations of cancer-cells at different stages of disease development. The methodology we propose is based on stochastic Concurrent Constraint Programming, a flexible stochastic modelling language. The methodology is tested on (and partially motivated by) the study of prostate cancer. In particular, we prove how our method is suitable to systematically reconstruct different mathematical models of prostate cancer growth - together with interactions with different kinds of hormone therapy - at different levels of refinement.

  2. Frequency of opioid use in a population of cancer patients during the trajectory of the disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarlbæk, Lene; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Bruera, E;

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: Bearing in mind that Denmark has one of the world's highest legal uses of strong opioids per capita, the aim of the present study was to describe the frequency of opioid use in a complete, population-based cohort of cancer patients at different time points during the trajectory of the disease......, and to analyse the influence of different factors on opioid use close to death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All incident cancer patients registered in 1997-1998 (n=4006) from a population of 470,000 were followed individually from diagnosis to death (non-survivors) or for 5 years (survivors). The use of opioids...... was obtained from a prescription database covering the whole population. RESULTS: Among the 43% cancer patients who survived for 5 years, 12% used opioids at diagnosis, 38% during follow-up and 10% after 5 years. For the non-survivors, 80% used opioids sometime during follow-up. At diagnosis, use related...

  3. Frequency of Opioid Use in a Population of Cancer Patients During the Trajectory of the Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarlbaek, L.; Hansen, D.G.; Bruera, E.;

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Bearing in mind that Denmark has one of the world's highest legal uses of strong opioids per capita, the aim of the present study was to describe the frequency of opioid use in a complete, population-based cohort of cancer patients at different time points during the trajectory of the disease......, and to analyse the influence of different factors on opioid use close to death. Materials and methods: All incident cancer patients registered in 1997-1998 (n = 4006) from a population of 470 000 were followed individually from diagnosis to death (non-survivors) or for 5 years (survivors). The use of opioids...... was obtained from a prescription database covering the whole population. Results: Among the 43% cancer patients who survived for 5 years, 12% used opioids at diagnosis, 38% during follow-up and 10% after 5 years. For the non-survivors, 80% used opioids sometime during follow-up. At diagnosis, use related...

  4. Does chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus influence the risk of lung cancer? Result from a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Chun Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is an independent risk factor for lung cancer. There are some evidence that people with diabetes are at a risk of developing many forms of cancer, but inconclusive with regard to lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether COPD with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM influences the risk of developing lung cancer. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study consisting of 20,730 subjects newly diagnosed with COPD ("cases". Their data was collected from the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan from 1998 to 2010. Among these patients, 5,820 patients had T2DM and 14,910 patients did not have T2DM. The retrospective matched control group consisted of 20,729 subjects without either COPD or T2DM. The control group was matched with the cases for sex, age, and index year (the year that the patient was diagnosed with COPD. The subjects were followed until the end of 2011. RESULTS: The findings of our study showed that the risk of lung cancer was higher in the COPD group than in the non-COPD group, with adjusted hazard ratio (HR of 5.02 [95% confidence interval (CI = 4.23-5.94] among total case group, adjusted HR was 5.38 (95% CI = 4.52-6.40 in the cohort without T2DM and adjusted HR was 4.05 (95% CI = 3.26-5.03 in the cohort with T2DM. We observed a significantly protective effect from lung cancer (adjusted HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.63-0.90 of diabetic cohort than non-diabetic cohort among patients with COPD. CONCLUSION: Patients with COPD had a significantly higher risk of developing lung cancer than healthy people. However, there was a protective effect of T2DM for lung cancer among patients with COPD. Further investigation may be needed to corroborate the mechanism or bring up reliable reasons.

  5. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilburt Jon C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92% used an observational design and focused on women (70% with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although

  6. Palliative resection of the primary tumor is associated with improved overall survival in incurable stage IV colorectal cancer: A nationwide population-based propensity-score adjusted study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Lam-Boer, Jorine; Van der Geest, Lydia G; Verhoef, Cees; Elferink, Marloes E; Koopman, Miriam; de Wilt, Johannes H

    2016-11-01

    As the value of palliative primary tumor resection in stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC) is still under debate, the purpose of this population-based study was to investigate if palliative primary tumor resection as the initial treatment after diagnosis was associated with improved overall survival. All patients with stage IV colorectal adenocarcinoma (2008-2011) were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry, and patients undergoing treatment with curative intent (i.e., metastasectomy, radiofrequency ablation and/or hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy), or best supportive care were excluded. After propensity score matching, a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was performed to determine the association between treatment strategy and mortality. From a total group of 10,371 patients with stage IV CRC, 2,746 patients (26%) underwent an elective palliative resection of the primary tumor, whether or not followed by systemic therapy, and 3,345 patients (32%) were initially treated with palliative systemic therapy. After propensity score matching, median overall survival in these groups was 17.2 months (95% CI 16.3-18.1) and 11.5 months (95% CI 11.0-12.0), respectively. In Cox regression analysis, primary tumor resection was significantly associated with improved overall survival (hazard ratio of death = 0.44 [95% CI 0.35-0.55], p population-based study shows an overall survival benefit for patients with incurable stage IV CRC who underwent primary tumor resection as the initial treatment after diagnosis, compared to patients who started systemic therapy with the primary tumor in situ. This result is an argument in favor of resection of the primary tumor, even when patients have little to no symptoms.

  7. The impact of cancer incidence and stage on optimal utilization of radiotherapy. Methodology of a population based analysis by the ESTRO-HERO project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Josep M; Barton, Michael; Grau, Cai;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The impact of differences in the distribution of major cancer sites and stages at diagnosis among 4 European countries on the optimal utilization proportion (OUP) of patients who should receive external beam radiotherapy was assessed within the framework of the ESTRO-HERO ...

  8. Impact of the number of histologically examined lymph nodes on prognosis in colon cancer : a population-based study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelder, Wendy; Inberg, Bas; Schaapveld, Michael; Karrenbeld, Arend; Grond, Joris; Wiggers, Theo; Plukker, John T.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The impact of the reported number of lymph nodes at pathologic examination of colon specimens on survival was studied. METHODS: The data of 2,281 patients with localized colon cancer were retrospectively reviewed. The effect of tumor characteristics and surgical and pathologic factors on th

  9. Use of trastuzumab for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer in daily practice: A population-based study focusing on the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rooijen, Johan M.; De Munck, Linda; Teeuwen, Guusje M.; De Graaf, Jacques C.; Jansman, Frank G.; Boers, James E.; Siesling, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The addition of trastuzumab to chemotherapy in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) prolongs overall survival (OS) in clinical trials. However, treatment patterns and survival in daily practice are unknown. This study aims to compare trastuzumab use

  10. Death Does Matter--Cancer Risk in Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Study With Competing Risk Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Shih-Feng; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Jan, Ren-Long; Chen, Yi-Chen; Chien, Chih-Chiang; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chu, Chin-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have a high mortality rate. We hypothesized that not accounting for death as a competing risk overestimates the event rate caused by ESRD. Thus, we examined the cancer risk for patients with ESRD (ESRD) after death as a competing risk event had been adjusted for. Patients with newly diagnosed ESRD (n = 64,299) between 1999 and 2007, together with age- and sex-matched controls without ESRD (ESRD) (n = 128,592) were enrolled (1:2). In a Cox proportional hazards model that included death as a competing risk, ESRD patients in Taiwan had a lower overall incidence (subdistribution hazard ratio [sdHR] = 1.29) of cancer than did ESRD patients in a Cox model that did not include death as a competing risk (HR = 1.70). After competing mortality had been adjusted for, ESRD patients ≥70 (sdHR = 0.82) and ESRD patients on long-term dialysis (> 5 follow-up years, sdHR = 0.62), had a lower risk for developing cancer than did ESRD patients. This finding supported our hypothesis that standard survival analyses overestimate the event rate, especially when the mortality rate is high. It also showed that ESRD patients, when they grow older, were far less likely to develop cancer and far more likely to die because of underlying illnesses that might also affect the risk of death because of ESRD.

  11. Social inequality and incidence of and survival from cancers of the mouth, pharynx and larynx in a population-based study in Denmark, 1994-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Lassen, Christina Funch; Clemmensen, Inge Haunstrup

    2008-01-01

    , social class, housing tenure, cohabiting status and type of district. Similar differences in survival persisted for all 5 years observed. Immigrants had better survival from larynx cancer than native Danes. We could not determine the effects of differences in tobacco and alcohol consumption...

  12. Helicobacter pylori Infection and Development of Gastric Cancer a 10-Year Follow-up Population-Based Study in a High Incidence Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadjadi, Alireza; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Babaei, Masoud; Derakhshan, Mohammad H.; Ahmadi, Emad; Etemadi, Arash; Houshiar, Afshin; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Yazdanbod, Abbas; Sotoudeh, Masoud; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds & Aim: H. pylori (HP) infection is the most important etiology of gastric cancer (GC) in the world but it causes GC in only a minority of those infected .Eradication of HP can decrease the development of GC only in the subgroup of HP infected subjects without precancerous lesions. Strate

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection and development of gastric cancer a 10-year follow-up population-based study in a high incidence area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadjadi, Alireza; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Babaei, Masoud; Derakhshan, Mohammad H.; Ahmadi, Emad; Etemadi, Arash; Houshiar, Afshin; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Yazdanbod, Abbas; Sotoudeh, Masoud; De Bock, Geertruida H.; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds & Aim: H. pylori (HP) infection is the most important etiology of gastric cancer (GC) in the world but it causes GC in only a minority of those infected .Eradication of HP can decrease the development of GC only in the subgroup of HP infected subjects without precancerous lesions. Strate

  14. Early colonoscopy confers survival benefits on colon cancer patients with pre-existing iron deficiency anemia: a nationwide population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Lin Jerry Teng

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the prognostic significance of pre-existing iron deficiency anemia (IDA and the benefits of early colonoscopy in patients with colon cancer, since these have not been clearly established to date. Using the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database, we retrieved and retrospectively reviewed the records of patients aged ≥ 55 years who were diagnosed with colon cancer between 2000 and 2005. The patient cohort was divided into two groups: patients with (n = 1,260 or without (n = 15,912 an IDA diagnosis during ≤ 18 months preceding the date of colon cancer diagnosis. We found that diabetes (27.9% vs. 20.3%, p<0.0001, cardiovascular disease (61.6% vs. 54.7%, p<0.001, and chronic kidney disease (4.6% vs. 2.2%, p<0.0001 were more common among patients with IDA than among those without IDA. The median overall survival times for patients with IDA and those without IDA were 4.6 and 5.7 years, respectively (p = 0.002. Patients who underwent colonoscopy ≤ 30 days, 31-90, and ≥ 91 days after IDA diagnosis showed median overall survival times of 5.79, 4.43, and 4.04 years, respectively (p = 0.003. Delayed colonoscopy was an independent factor associated with poor overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.53; p = 0.01. In conclusion, colon cancer patients with IDA were more likely to experience comorbidities than were those without IDA. Pre-existing IDA was a poor prognostic factor in adult men and postmenopausal women who had colon cancer. Early colonoscopy could improve overall survival possibly by facilitating early diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Risk of cardiovascular adverse events from trastuzumab (Herceptin(®)) in elderly persons with breast cancer: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, H-T; Isaacs, C; Fu, A Z; Warren, J L; Freedman, A N; Barac, A; Huang, C-Y; Potosky, A L

    2014-02-01

    Randomized controlled trials have reported a 4-5 times increased risk of heart failure (HF) in breast cancer patients receiving trastuzumab (Herceptin (®) ) compared to patients who do not receive trastuzumab. However, data regarding the cardiac effects of trastuzumab on elderly patients treated in general practice remain very limited. Using the US surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER)-Medicare database, we conducted a retrospective cohort study on the cardiac effects of trastuzumab use in all incident breast cancer patients diagnosed from 1998 to 2007 who were 66 years and older, had no prior recent claims for cardiomyopathy (CM) or HF, and were followed through 2009. We defined our outcome as the first CM/HF event after diagnosis. We performed Cox-proportional hazard models with propensity score adjustment to estimate CM/HF risk associated with trastuzumab use. A total of 6,829 out of 68,536 breast cancer patients (median age: 75) had an incident CM/HF event. Patients who received trastuzumab tended to be younger, non-white, diagnosed more recently, and had a stage IV diagnosis. Trastuzumab use was associated with an increased risk of CM/HF (HR = 2.08, 95 % CI 1.77-2.44, p < 0.001). The trastuzumab-associated CM/HF risk was stronger in patients who were younger (HR = 2.52 for 66-75 years and HR = 1.44 for 76 years and older, p < 0.001) and diagnosed in recent years (HR = 2.58 for 2006-2007 vs. 1.86 for 1998-2005, p = 0.01). The twofold risk of CM/HF associated with trastuzumab remained regardless of patients' diagnosis stage, presence of hypertension, cardiovascular comorbidities, or receipt of anthracyclines, taxanes, or radiation. Trastuzumab may double CM/HF risk among elderly breast cancer patients. Our findings reinforce the need to prevent and manage cardiac risk among elderly breast cancer patients receiving trastuzumab.

  16. Long-term prognosis of early-onset breast cancer in a population-based cohort with a known BRCA1/2 mutation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Martin P; Hartman, Linda; Idvall, Ingrid; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Johannsson, Oskar T; Loman, Niklas

    2014-02-01

    All women in the South Sweden Health Care Region with breast cancer diagnosed aged less than 41 during the period between 1990 and 1995 were contacted in 1996 and offered germline mutation analysis of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Mutation carriers (n = 20) were compared with noncarriers (n = 201) for overall survival (OS) and risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). Mutation carriers were younger at diagnosis and more likely to have ER-negative, PgR-negative and grade III tumors. Median follow-up was 19 years. The 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year OS were 60, 45, 39, and 39 % for mutation carriers and 82, 70, 59, and 53 % for noncarriers, respectively (5-year log-rank P = 0.013; 10-year P = 0.008; 15-year P = 0.020; and 20-year P = 0.046). In univariable analysis, there was a trend for an inferior OS for mutation carriers (HR 1.8; 95 % CI 1.0-3.3). When stratified for use of (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy, an inferior OS was significant only for the subgroup of patients who did not receive chemotherapy (HR 3.0; 95 % CI 1.2-7.7). In multivarible analysis, BRCA1/2 mutation status was a significant predictor of OS when adjusting for tumor stage, age, and use of chemotherapy, but not when ER status was also included in the model. The 15-year cumulative risk of CBC was 53 % for mutation carriers and 10 % for noncarriers (HR 5.9; 95 % CI 1.9-18.6); among the noncarriers the risks were 5, 22, and 30 % for patients without close relatives having breast cancer, with second-degree relatives having breast cancer, and with firstdegree relatives with breast cancer, respectively. In conclusion, the poor prognosis of young BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with breast cancer is mainly explained by the prevalent occurrence of negative prognostic factors rather than mutation status per se, and can to at least some extent be abrogated by the use of chemotherapy.

  17. Comorbidity and survival of Danish patients with colon and rectal cancer from 2000–2011: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostenfeld EB

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Eva Bjerre Ostenfeld,1,2 Mette Nørgaard,1 Reimar Wernich Thomsen,1 Lene Hjerrild Iversen,3 Jacob Bonde Jacobsen,1 Mette Søgaard1 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Department of Surgery A, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 3Department of Surgery P, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Objective: To evaluate recent trends in the prevalence and impact of comorbidity on colorectal cancer (CRC survival in the Central Region of Denmark. Material and methods: Using the Danish National Registry of Patients, we identified 5,777 and 2,964 patients with a primary colon or rectal cancer, respectively, from 2000 through 2011. We estimated survival according to Charlson Comorbidity Index scores and computed mortality rate ratios (MRRs using Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, adjusting for age and sex. Results: More than one-third of CRC patients had comorbidity at diagnosis. During the study period, 1-year survival increased substantially in colon cancer patients with Charlson score 0 (72% to 80% and modestly for Charlson score 3+ patients (43% to 46%. Using colon cancer patients with Charlson score 0 as reference, adjusted 1-year MRRs in patients with Charlson score 3+ were 2.19 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57–3.05 in 2000–2002 and 2.56 (95% CI: 1.96–3.35 in 2009–2011. One-year survival after rectal cancer improved from 81% to 87% in patients with Charlson score 0 and from 56% to 60% in Charlson score 3+. Corresponding MRRs in patients with Charlson 3+ were 2.21 (95% CI: 1.33–3.68 in 2000–2002 and 3.09 (95% CI: 1.91–5.00 in 2009–2011 using Charlson score 0 as reference. Five-year MRRs did not differ substantially from 1-year MRRs. Conclusion: Comorbidity was common among CRC patients and was associated with poorer prognosis. We observed improved survival from 2000 to 2011 for all comorbidity levels, with least improvement for colon cancer patients with

  18. Free testosterone drives cancer aggressiveness: evidence from US population studies.

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    Shohreh Shahabi

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence and mortality are higher in males than in females, suggesting that some gender-related factors are behind such a difference. To analyze this phenomenon the most recent Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER database served to access cancer survival data for the US population. Patients with gender-specific cancer and with limited information were excluded and this fact limited the sample size to 1,194,490 patients. NHANES III provided the distribution of physiologic variables in US population (n = 29,314. Cox model and Kaplan-Meier method were used to test the impact of gender on survival across age, and to calculate the gender-specific hazard ratio of dying from cancer five years following diagnosis. The distribution of the hazard ratio across age was then compared with the distribution of 65 physiological variables assessed in NHANES III. Spearman and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test assessed the homology. Cancer survival was lower in males than in females in the age range 17 to 61 years. The risk of death from cancer in males was about 30% higher than that of females of the same age. This effect was present only in sarcomas and epithelial solid tumors with distant disease and the effect was more prominent in African-Americans than Caucasians. When compared to the variables assessed in the NHANES III study, the hazard ratio almost exactly matched the distribution of free testosterone in males; none of the other analyzed variables exhibited a similar homology. Our findings suggest that male sex hormones give rise to cancer aggressiveness in patients younger than 61 years.

  19. Population Based Assessment of MHC Class 1 Antigens Down Regulation as Marker in Increased Risk for Development and Progression of Breast Cancer From Benign Breast Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Risk for Development and Progression of Breast Cancer from Benign Breast Lesions” antigen retrieval solution in the microwave . Lastly, tissue... Microwave and citrate buffer antigen-retrieval substitutions yielded comparable results. Lab 2 demonstrated that a negative control is useful as an...the infiltrating lymphocytes in germinal centers and dendritic cells as seen in case 1. Microsatellite Analysis Labs 1, 2, and 4 performed

  20. Affiliation to the work market after curative treatment of head-and-neck cancer: a population-based study from the DAHANCA database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Trille; Bøje, Charlotte Rotbøl; Olsen, Maja Halgren

    2013-01-01

    Survivors of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) are more severely affected in regard to affiliation to the work market than other cancer survivors. Few studies have investigated associations between socioeconomic and disease-related factors and work market affiliation after cura...... curative treatment of HNSCC. We investigated the factors for early retirement pension due to disability and unemployment in patients who had been available for work one year before diagnosis....

  1. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Genotype as a Contributor to Racial/Ethnic Differences in Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Molecular Epidemiologic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    stratified by racial/ethnic group (white, black, Hispanic) and in 5e below. d. Examine whether relationships are confounded by other epidemiologic or...absence of associations in the face of interracial variation in prevalences indicates a complex role of class II genotype to breast cancer incidence...women, suggests a protective association for this allele that could contribute to the lower incidence rates in this group. However, a relationship of

  2. Survival after Abdominoperineal and Sphincter-Preserving Resection in Nonmetastatic Rectal Cancer: A Population-Based Time-Trend and Propensity Score-Matched SEER Analysis

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    Rene Warschkow

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Abdominoperineal resection (APR has been associated with impaired survival in nonmetastatic rectal cancer patients. It is unclear whether this adverse outcome is due to the surgical procedure itself or is a consequence of tumor-related characteristics. Study Design. Patients were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. The impact of APR compared to coloanal anastomosis (CAA on survival was assessed by Cox regression and propensity-score matching. Results. In 36,488 patients with rectal cancer resection, the APR rate declined from 31.8% in 1998 to 19.2% in 2011, with a significant trend change in 2004 at 21.6% (P<0.001. To minimize a potential time-trend bias, survival analysis was limited to patients diagnosed after 2004. APR was associated with an increased risk of cancer-specific mortality after unadjusted analysis (HR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.28–2.03, P<0.01 and multivariable adjustment (HR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.10–1.76, P<0.01. After optimal adjustment of highly biased patient characteristics by propensity-score matching, APR was not identified as a risk factor for cancer-specific mortality (HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.56–1.29, P=0.456. Conclusions. The current propensity score-adjusted analysis provides evidence that worse oncological outcomes in patients undergoing APR compared to CAA are caused by different patient characteristics and not by the surgical procedure itself.

  3. Radiotherapy dose led to a substantial prolongation of survival in patients with locally advanced rectosigmoid junction cancer: a large population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xu; Jiang, Zheng; Ma, Tianyi; Liu, Zheng; Hu, Hanqing; Zhao, Zhixun; Song, Dawei; Chen, Yinggang; Wang, Guiyu; Wang, Xishan

    2016-05-10

    Radiotherapy is widely applied for locally advanced rectal cancer (RC) to improve both local control and long-term outcomes. However, the efficacy of radiotherapy for rectosigmoid junction cancer (RSC) is still undetermined. Here, we identified 10074 patients who were diagnosed with locally advanced RSC from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results (SEER) cancer registry. These patients were divided into three subgroups according to different therapy strategies, including surgery alone, surgery plus preoperative radiotherapy and surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy. 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) and 5-year overall survival (OS) were obtained. Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox regression models were used to estimate the correlations between prognostic factors and survival outcomes.The 5-year CSSs for RSC patients treated with pre- and postoperative radiotherapy were 72.3% and 72.2%, which were significantly higher than surgery alone (64.8%). The 5-year OSs for RSC patients treated with pre- and postoperative radiotherapy were 71.6% and 71.2%, which were higher than surgery alone (64.0%). In the separate analyses of stage II and III RSC patients, the similar trends were also obtained. In addition, pre- and postoperative radiotherapy were equally identified as valuable prognostic factors for better survival outcomes in RSC patients. Furthermore, the results following propensity score matching also confirmed that the long-term survivals of RSC patients were improved following radiotherapy. In conclusion, locally advanced RSCpatients could obtain potential long-term survival benefits from radiotherapy. A prospective randomized control trial should be performed to further validate the strength of evidence in current study.

  4. Comorbidity and survival of Danish patients with colon and rectal cancer from 2000–2011: a population-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Ostenfeld EB; Nørgaard M; Thomsen RW; Iversen LH; Jacobsen JB; Søgaard M

    2013-01-01

    Eva Bjerre Ostenfeld,1,2 Mette Nørgaard,1 Reimar Wernich Thomsen,1 Lene Hjerrild Iversen,3 Jacob Bonde Jacobsen,1 Mette Søgaard1 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Department of Surgery A, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 3Department of Surgery P, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Objective: To evaluate recent trends in the prevalence and impact of comorbidity on colorectal cancer (CRC) survival in...

  5. Survival after Abdominoperineal and Sphincter-Preserving Resection in Nonmetastatic Rectal Cancer: A Population-Based Time-Trend and Propensity Score-Matched SEER Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschkow, Rene; Ebinger, Sabrina M.; Brunner, Walter; Schmied, Bruno M.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Abdominoperineal resection (APR) has been associated with impaired survival in nonmetastatic rectal cancer patients. It is unclear whether this adverse outcome is due to the surgical procedure itself or is a consequence of tumor-related characteristics. Study Design. Patients were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. The impact of APR compared to coloanal anastomosis (CAA) on survival was assessed by Cox regression and propensity-score matching. Results. In 36,488 patients with rectal cancer resection, the APR rate declined from 31.8% in 1998 to 19.2% in 2011, with a significant trend change in 2004 at 21.6% (P < 0.001). To minimize a potential time-trend bias, survival analysis was limited to patients diagnosed after 2004. APR was associated with an increased risk of cancer-specific mortality after unadjusted analysis (HR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.28–2.03, P < 0.01) and multivariable adjustment (HR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.10–1.76, P < 0.01). After optimal adjustment of highly biased patient characteristics by propensity-score matching, APR was not identified as a risk factor for cancer-specific mortality (HR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.56–1.29, P = 0.456). Conclusions. The current propensity score-adjusted analysis provides evidence that worse oncological outcomes in patients undergoing APR compared to CAA are caused by different patient characteristics and not by the surgical procedure itself. PMID:28197206

  6. Comparative Effectiveness of Biosimilar, Reference Product and Other Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs Still Covered by Patent in Chronic Kidney Disease and Cancer Patients: An Italian Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylenia Ingrasciotta

    Full Text Available Since 2007 biosimilars of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs are available on the Italian market. Very limited post-marketing data exist on the comparative effectiveness of biosimilar and originator ESAs.This population-based study was aimed to compare the effects of biosimilars, reference product and other ESAs still covered by patent on hemoglobinemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD and cancer patients in a Local Health Unit (LHU from Northern Italy.A retrospective cohort study was conducted during the years 2009-2014 using data from Treviso LHU administrative database. Incident ESA users (no ESA dispensing within 6 months prior to treatment start, i.e. index date (ID with at least one hemoglobin measurement within one month prior to ID (baseline Hb value and another measurement between 2nd and 3rd month after ID (follow-up Hb value were identified. The strength of the consumption (as total number of defined daily dose (DDD dispensed during the follow-up divided by days of follow-up and the difference between follow-up and baseline Hb values [delta Hb (ΔHb] were evaluated. Based on Hb changes, ESA users were classified as non-responders (ΔHb≤0 g/dl, responders (02 g/dl. A multivariate ordinal logistic regression model to identify predictors for responsiveness to treatment was performed. All analyses were stratified by indication for use and type of dispensed ESA at ID.Overall, 1,003 incident ESA users (reference product: 252, 25.1%; other ESAs covered by patent: 303, 30.2%; biosimilars: 448, 44.7% with CKD or cancer were eligible for the study. No statistically significant difference in the amount of dose dispensed during the follow-up among biosimilars, reference product and other ESAs covered by patent was found in both CKD and cancer. After three months from treatment start, all ESAs increased Hb values on average by 2g/dl. No differences in ΔHb as well as in frequency of non-responders, responders and highly responders among

  7. Variations of physical activity and sedentary behavior between before and after cancer diagnosis: Results from the prospective population-based NutriNet-Santé cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassier, Philippine; Zelek, Laurent; Partula, Valentin; Srour, Bernard; Bachmann, Patrick; Touillaud, Marina; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Galan, Pilar; Cohen, Patrice; Hoarau, Hélène; Latino-Martel, Paule; Menai, Mehdi; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Hercberg, Serge; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Touvier, Mathilde

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) but also reduced sedentary behavior may be associated with better prognosis and lower risk of recurrence in cancer patients. Our aim was to quantify the variations in PA and time spent sedentary between before and after diagnosis, relying on prospective data in French adults. We also investigated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with these variations.Subjects (n = 942) were incident cancer cases diagnosed in the NutriNet-Santé cohort between 2009 and 2015. PA and sedentary behavior were prospectively collected with the 7-day short version of the IPAQ questionnaire every year since subjects' inclusion (i.e., an average of 2 year before diagnosis). All PA and sitting time points before and after diagnosis was compared by mixed model. Factors associated with decrease in PA and increase in sitting time were investigated using logistic regressions.Overall and vigorous PA decreased after diagnosis (P = 0.006, -32.8 ± 36.8 MET-hour/week on average, in those who decreased their overall PA and P = 0.005, -21.1 ± 36.8 MET-hour/week for vigorous PA, respectively), especially in prostate (-39.5 ± 36.3 MET-hour/week) and skin (-35.9 ± 38 MET-hour/week) cancers, in men (-40.8 ± 46.3MET-hour/week), and in those professionally inactive (-34.2 ± 37.1 MET-hour/week) (all P diagnosis were more likely to decrease their PA (odds ratio [OR]: 4.67 [3.21-6.81], P diagnosis were more likely to increase their sitting time (OR: 3.29 [2.45-4.42], P cancer diagnosis is a key period for change in PA and sedentary behavior. It provides insights to target the subgroups of patients who are at higher risk of decreasing PA and increasing sedentary behavior after cancer diagnosis.

  8. Managing cancer pain at the end of life with multiple strong opioids: a population-based retrospective cohort study in primary care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: End-of-life cancer patients commonly receive more than one type of strong opioid. The three-step analgesic ladder framework of the World Health Organisation (WHO provides no guidance on multiple opioid prescribing and there is little epidemiological data available to inform practice. This study aims to investigate the time trend of such cases and the associated factors. METHODS: Strong opioid prescribing in the last three months of life of cancer patients were extracted from the General Practice Research Database (GPRD. The outcome variable was the number of different types of prescribed non-rescue doses of opioids (1 vs 2-4, referred to as a complex case. Associated factors were evaluated using prevalence ratios (PR derived from multivariate log-binomial model, adjusting for clustering effects and potential confounding variables. RESULTS: Overall, 26.4% (95% CI: 25.6-27.1% of 13,427 cancer patients (lung 41.7%, colorectal 19.1%, breast 18.6%, prostate 15.5%, head and neck 5.0% were complex cases. Complex cases increased steadily over the study period (1.02% annually, 95%CI: 0.42-1.61%, p = 0.048 but with a small dip (7.5% reduction, 95%CI: -0.03 to 17.8% around the period of the Shipman case, a British primary care doctor who murdered his patients with opioids. The dip significantly affected the correlation of the complex cases with persistent increasing background opioid prescribing (weighted correlation coefficients pre-, post-Shipman periods: 0.98(95%CI: 0.67-1.00, p = 0.011; 0.14 (95%CI: -0.85 to 0.91, p = 0.85. Multivariate adjusted analysis showed that the complex cases were predominantly associated with year of death (PRs vs 2000: 1.05-1.65, not other demographic and clinical factors except colorectal cancer (PR vs lung cancer: 1.24, 95%CI: 1.12-1.37. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that prescribing behaviour, rather than patient factors, plays an important role in multiple opioid prescribing at the end of life

  9. {sup 131}I treatment for thyroid cancer and the risk of developing salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction and a second primary malignancy: a nationwide population-based cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kuan-Yin [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Kao, Chia-Hung [China Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); China Medical University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, Taichung (China); Lin, Cheng-Li [China Medical University Hospital, Management Office for Health Data, Taichung (China); China Medical University, College of Medicine, Taichung (China); Huang, Wen-Sheng [Changhua Christian Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhua (China); Yen, Ruoh-Fang [National Taiwan University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China)

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of salivary and lacrimal gland dysfunction and a second primary malignancy in patients from Taiwan with thyroid cancer after radioiodine therapy. This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from 2000 to 2011. A total of 1,834 thyroid cancer patients treated with {sup 131}I therapy and 1,834 controls (thyroid cancer without {sup 131}I therapy) selected by 1:1 matching on a propensity score were enrolled. The cumulative {sup 131}I dose in each patient was calculated. A Cox proportional hazards model was applied to estimate the effect of radiation from the {sup 131}I therapy on the risk of salivary and lacrimal gland impairment as well as second primary malignancies in terms of hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). In patients treated with {sup 131}I therapy and in controls, the incidence rates of salivary gland dysfunction were 6.76 and 1.01 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 6.81, 95 % CI 0.74 - 55.3), the incidence rates of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) were 13.6 and 16.3 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.41 - 1.73), and the incidence rates of second primary malignancy were 76.7 and 62.4 per 10,000 person-years, respectively (HR 1.23, 95 % CI 0.88 - 1.72). The risk of salivary secretion impairment significantly increased with increasing administered doses (HR 14.3, 95 % CI 1.73 - 119.0). However, there was no increase in the incidence of KCS or secondary cancer in patients treated with higher doses. {sup 131}I therapy insignificantly increased the risk of salivary gland dysfunction and second primary malignancy. In patients with higher cumulative doses, an increase in the incidence of salivary gland dysfunction was observed. By contrast, we did not find an association between {sup 131}I treatment and KCS development. (orig.)

  10. Incidence of bone metastases and skeletal-related events in breast cancer patients: A population-based cohort study in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryzek Jon P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer (BrCa is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the industrialized world. More than half of women presenting with metastatic BrCa develop bone metastases. Bone metastases increase the risk of skeletal-related events (SREs, defined as pathological fractures, spinal cord compression, bone pain requiring palliative radiotherapy, and orthopaedic surgery. Both bone metastases and SREs are associated with unfavorable prognosis and greatly affect quality of life. Few epidemiological data exist on SREs after primary diagnosis of BrCa and subsequent bone metastasis. We therefore estimated the incidence of bone metastases and SREs in newly-diagnosed BrCa patients in Denmark from 1999 through 2007. Methods We estimated the overall and annual incidence of bone metastases and SREs in newly-diagnosed breast cancer patients in Denmark from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2007 using the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR, which covers all Danish hospitals. We estimated the cumulative incidence of bone metastases and SREs and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Of the 35,912 BrCa patients, 178 (0.5% presented with bone metastases at the time of primary breast cancer diagnosis, and of these, 77 (43.2% developed an SRE during follow up. A total of 1,272 of 35,690 (3.6% BrCa patients without bone metastases at diagnosis developed bone metastases during a median follow-up time of 3.4 years. Among these patients, 590 (46.4% subsequently developed an SRE during a median follow-up time of 0.7 years. Incidence rates of bone metastases were highest the first year after the primary BrCa diagnosis, particularly among patients with advanced BrCa at diagnosis. Similarly, incidence rates of a first SRE was highest the first year after first diagnosis of a bone metastasis. Conclusions The high incidence of SREs following the first year after first diagnosis of a bone metastasis

  11. Long-term use of drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system and the risk of cancer. A population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Jesper; Depont Christensen, Rene; Andersen, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    Aims: A recent meta-analysis of clinical trials has demonstrated a small excess of cancers in persons that had been allocated to angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs). We undertook this observational study to look at dose-response and dose-duration effects and look for specificity with respect...... for each case by a risk-set sampling. Data on medication was retrieved from the Danish National Prescription Registry. We defined long-term exposure as at least 1000 defined daily doses redeemed within the past five years. Confounders were controlled by conditional logistic regression. Results: The odds...

  12. Breast Cancer Screening in a Low Income Managed Care Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    the morbidity and mortality of breast cancer among the population of low income women who have incomes less than 200% of the national poverty level...34Journal for Health Care for the Poor and Underserved" (see appendix). Entitled "Difficulty in Reaching Low Income Women for Screening Mammography...useful insights for future program planning and research design. Keywords: screening mammography, low income , managed care and barriers Poverty is

  13. The prescription pattern of Chinese herbal products that contain dang-qui and risk of endometrial cancer among tamoxifen-treated female breast cancer survivors in Taiwan: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Tung Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. We analyzed the usage of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui and investigated whether dang-qui therapy increases endometrial cancer risk among tamoxifen-treated breast cancer survivors in Taiwan. METHODS: All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer who received tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008 were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The usage, frequency of service and type of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui prescribed across the 31,970 survivors were evaluated. Logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios for utilization of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to calculate the hazard ratio of endometrial cancer associated with dang-qui use within the cohort. RESULTS: Almost one in two study subjects had used dang-qui. Among 31,938 tamoxifen-treated breast cancer survivors, 157 cases of subsequent endometrial cancer were identified. The hazard ratio for development of endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors aged 20-79 years who had taken dang-qui after tamoxifen treatment was decreased compared to survivors who had never used dang-qui (HR: 0.61, 95%CI: 0.44-0.84. To minimise potential confounding factors, women with breast cancer in the reproductive age were excluded from further analysis, and the negative relationship between dang-qui consumption and subsequent endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors aged 55-79 years was still observed, although not significantly (HR: 0.74, 95%CI: 0.46-1.17. CONCLUSIONS: Dang-qui consumption is common among breast cancer survivors aged 20-79 years and seems decrease the risk of subsequent endometrial cancer after less than a cumulative dose of 7,500 mg of tamoxifen treatment.

  14. Sun exposure, vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Esther M; Schwartz, Gary G; Koo, Jocelyn; Wang, Wei; Ingles, Sue A

    2007-12-15

    Considerable evidence indicates that vitamin D may reduce the risk of several cancers, including breast cancer. This study examined associations of breast cancer with sun exposure, the principal source of vitamin D, and vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) polymorphisms (FokI, TaqI, BglI) in a population-based case-control study of Hispanic, African-American, and non-Hispanic White women aged 35-79 years from the San Francisco Bay Area of California (1995-2003). In-person interviews were obtained for 1,788 newly diagnosed cases and 2,129 controls. Skin pigmentation measurements were taken on the upper underarm (a sun-protected site that measures constitutive pigmentation) and on the forehead (a sun-exposed site) using reflectometry. Biospecimens were collected for a subset of the study population (814 cases, 910 controls). A high sun exposure index based on reflectometry was associated with reduced risk of advanced breast cancer among women with light constitutive skin pigmentation (odds ratio = 0.53, 95% confidence interval: 0.31, 0.91). The association did not vary with VDR genotype. No associations were found for women with medium or dark pigmentation. Localized breast cancer was not associated with sun exposure or VDR genotype. This study supports the hypothesis that sunlight exposure reduces risk of advanced breast cancer among women with light skin pigmentation.

  15. Representativeness in population-based studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drivsholm, Thomas Bo; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Davidsen, Michael;

    2006-01-01

    Decreasing rates of participation in population-based studies increasingly challenge the interpretation of study results, in both analytic and descriptive epidemiology. Consequently, estimates of possible differences between participants and non-participants are increasingly important for the int...

  16. Barriers to healthcare seeking, beliefs about cancer and the role of socio-economic position. A Danish population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Line; Wulff, Christian Nielsen; Pedersen, Anette Fischer

    2014-01-01

    Formålet med dette studie var at undersøge forventede barrierer for lægesøgning og forestillinger om kræft i en dansk population samt at analysere sammenhængen med socioøkonomisk position. Studiet bygger på telefoninterviews med 3.000 tilfældigt udvalgte danskere på 30 år og derover, der har besv...

  17. The Notch Pathway Is Important in Maintaining the Cancer Stem Cell Population in Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Abel, Ethan V.; Kim, Edward J.; Jingjiang Wu; Mark Hynes; Filip Bednar; Erica Proctor; Lidong Wang; Dziubinski, Michele L; Simeone, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a small subpopulation of pancreatic cancer cells that have the capacity to initiate and propagate tumor formation. However, the mechanisms by which pancreatic CSCs are maintained are not well understood or characterized. Methods Expression of Notch receptors, ligands, and Notch signaling target genes was quantitated in the CSC and non-CSC populations from 8 primary human pancreatic xenografts. A gamma secretase inhibitor (GSI) that inhi...

  18. Survivorship services for adult cancer populations: a pan-Canadian guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, D.; Hack, T.F.; Oliver, T.K.; Chulak, T.; Mayo, S.; Aubin, M.; Chasen, M.; Earle, C.C.; Friedman, A.J.; Green, E.; Jones, G.W.; Jones, J.M.; Parkinson, M.; Payeur, N.; Sabiston, C.M.; Sinclair, S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Our goal was to develop evidence-based recommendations for the organization and structure of cancer survivorship services, and best-care practices to optimize the health and well-being of post–primary treatment survivors. This review sought to determine the optimal organization and care delivery structure for cancer survivorship services, and the specific clinical practices and interventions that would improve or maximize the psychosocial health and overall well-being of adult cancer survivors. Data Sources We conducted a systematic search of the Inventory of Cancer Guidelines at the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer, the U.S. National Guideline Clearinghouse, the Canadian Medical Association InfoBase, medline (ovid: 1999 through November 2009), embase (ovid: 1999 through November 2009), Psychinfo (ovid: 1999 through November 2009), the Cochrane Library (ovid; Issue 1, 2009), and cinahl (ebsco: 1999 through December 2009). Reference lists of related papers and recent review articles were scanned for additional citations. Methods Articles were selected for inclusion as evidence in the systematic review if they reported on organizational system components for survivors of cancer, or on psychosocial or supportive care interventions HOWELL et al. designed for survivors of cancer. Articles were excluded from the systematic review if they focused only on pediatric cancer survivor populations or on populations that transitioned from pediatric cancer to adult services; if they addressed only pharmacologic interventions or diagnostic testing and follow-up of cancer survivors; if they were systematic reviews with inadequately described methods; if they were qualitative or descriptive studies; and if they were opinion papers, letters, or editorials. Data Extraction and Synthesis Evidence was selected and reviewed by three members of the Cancer Journey Survivorship Expert Panel (SM, TC, TKO). The resulting summary of the evidence was guided further and reviewed

  19. Population genetics of cancer cell clones: possible implications of cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naugler Christopher T

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population dynamics of the various clones of cancer cells existing within a tumour is complex and still poorly understood. Cancer cell clones can be conceptualized as sympatric asexual species, and as such, the application of theoretical population genetics as it pertains to asexual species may provide additional insights. Results The number of generations of tumour cells within a cancer has been estimated at a minimum of 40, but high cancer cell mortality rates suggest that the number of cell generations may actually be in the hundreds. Such a large number of generations would easily allow natural selection to drive clonal evolution assuming that selective advantages of individual clones are within the range reported for free-living animal species. Tumour cell clonal evolution could also be driven by variation in the intrinsic rates of increase of different clones or by genetic drift. In every scenario examined, the presence of cancer stem cells would require lower selection pressure or less variation in intrinsic rates of increase. Conclusions The presence of cancer stem cells may result in more rapid clonal evolution. Specific predictions from theoretical population genetics may lead to a greater understanding of this process.

  20. Correlating Quantitative Fecal Immunochemical Test Results with Neoplastic Findings on Colonoscopy in a Population-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Program: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Shahidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer (CPAC recommends a fecal immunochemical test- (FIT- positive predictive value (PPV for all adenomas of ≥50%. We sought to assess FIT performance among average-risk participants of the British Columbia Colon Screening Program (BCCSP. Methods. From Nov-2013 to Dec-2014 consecutive participants of the BCCSP were assessed. Data was obtained from a prospectively collected database. A single quantitative FIT (NS-Plus, Alfresa Pharma Corporation, Japan with a cut-off of ≥10 μg/g (≥50 ng/mL was used. Results. 20,322 FIT-positive participants underwent CSPY. At a FIT cut-off of ≥10 μg/g (≥50 ng/mL the PPV for all adenomas was 52.0%. Increasing the FIT cut-off to ≥20 μg/g (≥100 ng/mL would increase the PPV for colorectal cancer (CRC by 1.5% and for high-risk adenomas (HRAs by 6.5% at a cost of missing 13.6% of CRCs and 32.4% of HRAs. Conclusions. As the NS-Plus FIT cut-off rises, the PPV for CRC and HRAs increases but at the cost of missed lesions. A cut-off of ≥10 μg/g (≥50 ng/mL produces a PPV for all adenomas exceeding national recommendations. Health authorities need to take into consideration endoscopic resources when selecting a FIT positivity threshold.

  1. Radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer: evaluation of complications and influence of radiation timing on outcomes in a large, population-based cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Hegarty

    Full Text Available To evaluate the influence of timing of salvage and adjuvant radiation therapy on outcomes after prostatectomy for prostate cancer.Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database, we identified prostate cancer patients diagnosed during 1995-2007 who had one or more adverse pathological features after prostatectomy. The final cohort of 6,137 eligible patients included men who received prostatectomy alone (n = 4,509 or with adjuvant (n = 894 or salvage (n = 734 radiation therapy. Primary outcomes were genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and erectile dysfunction events and survival after treatment(s.Radiation therapy after prostatectomy was associated with higher rates of gastrointestinal and genitourinary events, but not erectile dysfunction. In adjusted models, earlier treatment with adjuvant radiation therapy was not associated with increased rates of genitourinary or erectile dysfunction events compared to delayed salvage radiation therapy. Early adjuvant radiation therapy was associated with lower rates of gastrointestinal events that salvage radiation therapy, with hazard ratios of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.67-0.95 for procedure-defined and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.59, 0.83 for diagnosis-defined events. There was no significant difference between ART and non-ART groups (SRT or RP alone for overall survival (HR = 1.13 95% CI = (0.96, 1.34 p = 0.148.Radiation therapy after prostatectomy is associated with increased rates of gastrointestinal and genitourinary events. However, earlier radiation therapy is not associated with higher rates of gastrointestinal, genitourinary or sexual events. These findings oppose the conventional belief that delaying radiation therapy reduces the risk of radiation-related complications.

  2. Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Cancer Chemoprevention With Sulindac in Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Alexander K.; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.; Ziegler, Katie L. Allen; Carlson, Elsa C.; Szabo, Eva; Ames, Mathew M.; Boring, Daniel; Limburg, Paul J.; Reid, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Sulindac is a prescription-based non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that continues to be actively investigated as a candidate cancer chemoprevention agent. To further current understanding of sulindac bioavailability, metabolism, and disposition, we developed a population pharmacokinetic model for the parent compound and its active metabolites, sulindac sulfide, and exisulind. This analysis was based on data from 24 healthy subjects who participated in a bioequivalence study compari...

  3. Population attributable risk of breast cancer in white women associated with immediately modifiable risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaser Sally L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen/progestin replacement therapy (EPRT, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and breast-feeding duration differ from other factors associated with breast cancer in being immediately modifiable by the individual, thereby representing attractive targets for future breast cancer prevention efforts. To justify such efforts, it is vital to quantify the potential population-level impacts on breast cancer considering population variations in behavior prevalence, risk estimate, and baseline incidence. Methods For each of these four factors, we calculated population attributable risk percents (PARs using population-based survey (2001 and cancer registry data (1998–2002 for 41 subpopulations of white, non-Hispanic California women aged 40–79 years, and ranges of relative risk (RR estimates from the literature. Results Using a single RR estimate, subpopulation PARs ranged from 2.5% to 5.6% for hormone use, from 0.0% to 6.1% for recent consumption of >= 2 alcoholic drinks daily, and 4.6% to 11.0% for physical inactivity. Using a range of RR estimates, PARs were 2–11% for EPRT use, 1–20% for alcohol consumption and 2–15% for physical inactivity. Subpopulation data were unavailable for breastfeeding, but PARs using published RR estimates ranged from 2% to 11% for lifetime breastfeeding >= 31 months. Thus, of 13,019 breast cancers diagnosed annually in California, as many as 1,432 attributable to EPRT use, 2,604 attributable to alcohol consumption, 1,953 attributable to physical inactivity, and 1,432 attributable to never breastfeeding might be avoidable. Conclusion The relatively feasible lifestyle changes of discontinuing EPRT use, reducing alcohol consumption, increasing physical activity, and lengthening breastfeeding duration could lower population breast cancer incidence substantially.

  4. DO CANCER CLINICAL TRIAL POPULATIONS TRULY REPRESENT CANCER PATIENTS? A COMPARISON OF OPEN CLINICAL TRIALS TO THE CANCER GENOME ATLAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geifman, Nophar; Butte, Atul J

    2016-01-01

    Open clinical trial data offer many opportunities for the scientific community to independently verify published results, evaluate new hypotheses and conduct meta-analyses. These data provide a springboard for scientific advances in precision medicine but the question arises as to how representative clinical trials data are of cancer patients overall. Here we present the integrative analysis of data from several cancer clinical trials and compare these to patient-level data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Comparison of cancer type-specific survival rates reveals that these are overall lower in trial subjects. This effect, at least to some extent, can be explained by the more advanced stages of cancer of trial subjects. This analysis also reveals that for stage IV cancer, colorectal cancer patients have a better chance of survival than breast cancer patients. On the other hand, for all other stages, breast cancer patients have better survival than colorectal cancer patients. Comparison of survival in different stages of disease between the two datasets reveals that subjects with stage IV cancer from the trials dataset have a lower chance of survival than matching stage IV subjects from TCGA. One likely explanation for this observation is that stage IV trial subjects have lower survival rates since their cancer is less likely to respond to treatment. To conclude, we present here a newly available clinical trials dataset which allowed for the integration of patient-level data from many cancer clinical trials. Our comprehensive analysis reveals that cancer-related clinical trials are not representative of general cancer patient populations, mostly due to their focus on the more advanced stages of the disease. These and other limitations of clinical trials data should, perhaps, be taken into consideration in medical research and in the field of precision medicine.

  5. Plasma testosterone in the general population, cancer prognosis and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orsted, D D; Nordestgaard, B G; Bojesen, S E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Testosterone is an important anabolic hormone in humans and in vitro testosterone stimulates growth of lung and colon cancer cells. We tested the hypothesis that plasma testosterone associate with increased risk of cancer and with increased risk of early death after cancer. MATERIALS...... AND METHODS: Plasma testosterone was measured in 8771 20- to 94-year-old men and women who participated in a prospective study of the general population. Participants were included in 1981-1983 and followed for a median of 22 years (range: 0-30 years). RESULTS: During follow-up, 1140 men and 809 women...

  6. The challenge of cancer in middle-income countries with an ageing population: Mexico as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ajay; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Lewison, Grant; Sullivan, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mexico is undergoing rapid population ageing as a result of its epidemiological transition. This study explores the interface between this rapid population ageing and the burden of cancer. The number of new cancer cases is expected to increase by nearly 75% by 2030 (107,000 additional cases per annum), with 60% of cases in the elderly (aged ≥ 65). A review of the literature was supplemented by a bibliometric analysis of Mexico's cancer research output. Cancer incidence projections for selected sites were estimated with Globocan software. Data were obtained from recent national census, surveys, and cancer death registrations. The elderly, especially women and those living in rural areas, face high levels of poverty, have low rates of educational attainment, and many are not covered by health insurance schemes. Out of pocket payments and private health care usage remain high, despite the implementation of Seguro Popular that was designed to achieve financial protection for the lowest income groups. A number of cancers that predominate in elderly persons are not covered by the scheme and individuals face catastrophic expenditure in seeking treatment. There is limited research output in those cancer sites that have a high burden in the elderly Mexican population, especially research that focuses on outcomes. The elderly population in Mexico is vulnerable to the effects of the rising cancer burden and faces challenges in accessing high quality cancer care. Based on our evidence, we recommend that geriatric oncology should be an urgent public policy priority for Mexico.

  7. Diabetes mellitus and colorectal cancer screening in the population of the Italian region Friuli Venezia Giulia

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    Francesca Valent

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Colorectal cancer is the most common cancer in Italy, where screening programs are now in place all over the country. We conducted a research to assess whether the use and outcomes of colorectal cancer screening are different between diabetics, who are at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer, and non-diabetics in the Italian Northeastern region Friuli Venezia Giulia. Methods: This was a retrospective population-based study which used the administrative databases of the regional health information system as the sources of information. For the two screening rounds 2010-2011 and 2012-2013, we compared adherence to the program and the results of the fecal occult blood tests and of the colonoscopy among diabetic and non-diabetic residents. Results: Overall, more than 300,000 persons were invited for the colorectal cancer screening in each round. Of them, approximately 8.8% were diabetic. In the regional population, adherence to the screening program was significantly lower among diabetics than among non-diabetics. The proportion of positive fecal occult blood tests was higher among diabetics than among non-diabetics. Among diabetics, the detection rate for initial and advanced adenomas was higher than among non-diabetics, whereas no clear pattern was observed for the detection of cancers. Conclusion: In Friuli Venezia Giulia, efforts should be directed at improving the management of diabetic patients and at reducing the inequalities in access to care due to this comorbidity.

  8. Risk of second non-breast cancer among patients treated with and without postoperative radiotherapy for primary breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies including 522,739 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grantzau, Trine; Overgaard, Jens

    2016-01-01

    -irradiated women. Irradiated patients had an overall increased risk of second non-breast cancer, with a SIR of 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.36). For non-irradiated patients the SIR was 1.08 (95% CI, 1.03-1.13). For irradiated patients the incidence of second cancers including the lung, esophagus......, thyroid and connective tissues progressively increased over time, peaking at 10-15years following breast cancer diagnosis. Summary estimates at ⩾15years after breast cancer irradiation were 1.91 for lung, 2.71 for esophagus, 3.15 for thyroid and 6.54 at ⩾10years for second sarcomas. Non......-irradiated patients had no increased risk of second lung or esophagus cancer, neither overall nor over time. For non-irradiated patients' risk of second thyroid cancer (SIR 1.21) and sarcomas (SIR 1.42) were increased overall, but with no remaining risk ⩾10 after breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy for breast...

  9. Assessing awareness level about warning signs of cancer and its determinants in an Iranian general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Awat; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Hosseini, Mohsen; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh; Jamali, Jamshid

    2011-12-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the awareness level about warning signs of cancer and its determinants in an Iranian general population. This cross-sectional interview-based survey investigated 2,500 people aged 18 years and over, as a representative sample of Tehran population. Latent class regression was applied for analyzing data. A small (18.8%) proportion of the respondents had high level of knowledge, and 54.5% had moderate awareness, and 26.7% had low level of awareness. Most effective predictors for awareness were educational attainment, sex, and marital status. The findings suggest that the overall level of knowledge about warning signs of cancer among the public is low, particularly about some specific signs. Accordingly, educational and intervention programmes, with special attention placed on particular at-risk populations, to increase awareness about the disease leading to its early diagnosis are needed.

  10. Surgery for invasive gynecologic cancer in the elderly female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, F G; Hacker, N F

    1990-08-01

    Radical, curative surgery may not be considered in elderly patients with gynecologic cancer, yet the morbidity for this population from radiotherapy and cytotoxics may be high. This study compared the feasibility and outcome of such surgery in 226 consecutive patients, 72 women over 70 years old and 154 younger patients, in our institution over a 26-month period. Older patients presented with more advanced-stage cancers and, as a group, had significantly poorer presurgical performance status and more intercurrent medical problems. Nevertheless, the planned radical surgical procedure could be carried out in 90% of elderly patients, with a postoperative mortality of 1.5%. Minor postoperative complication rates were similar for the two groups and, except for vulvectomy patients, the mean inpatient stay was the same for both groups. Chronological age alone is a poor determinant of surgical risk, and elderly patients withstand radical surgery almost as well as their younger counterparts.

  11. The Notch pathway is important in maintaining the cancer stem cell population in pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan V Abel

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer stem cells (CSCs represent a small subpopulation of pancreatic cancer cells that have the capacity to initiate and propagate tumor formation. However, the mechanisms by which pancreatic CSCs are maintained are not well understood or characterized.Expression of Notch receptors, ligands, and Notch signaling target genes was quantitated in the CSC and non-CSC populations from 8 primary human pancreatic xenografts. A gamma secretase inhibitor (GSI that inhibits the Notch pathway and a shRNA targeting the Notch target gene Hes1 were used to assess the role of the Notch pathway in CSC population maintenance and pancreatic tumor growth.Notch pathway components were found to be upregulated in pancreatic CSCs. Inhibition of the Notch pathway using either a gamma secretase inhibitor or Hes1 shRNA in pancreatic cancer cells reduced the percentage of CSCs and tumorsphere formation. Conversely, activation of the Notch pathway with an exogenous Notch peptide ligand increased the percentage of CSCs as well as tumorsphere formation. In vivo treatment of orthotopic pancreatic tumors in NOD/SCID mice with GSI blocked tumor growth and reduced the CSC population.The Notch signaling pathway is important in maintaining the pancreatic CSC population and is a potential therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer.

  12. Isolation and phenotypic characterization of cancer stem-like side population cells in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Long; Wu, Jian-Bing; Yi, Feng-Ming

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies in cancer biology suggest that chemotherapeutic drug resistance and tumor relapse are driven by cells within a tumor termed 'cancer stem cells'. In the present study, a Hoechst 33342 dye exclusion technique was used to identify cancer stem‑like side population (SP) cells in colon carcinoma, which accounted for 3.4% of the total cell population. Following treatment with verapamil, the population of SP cells was reduced to 0.6%. In addition, the sorted SP cells exhibited marked multidrug resistance and enhanced cell survival rates compared with non‑SP cells. The SP cells were able to generate more tumor spheres and were CD133 positive. Subsequent biochemical analysis revealed that the levels of the adenosine triphosphate‑binding cassette sub‑family G member 2 transporter protein, B‑cell lymphoma anti‑apoptotic factor and autocrine production of interleukin‑4 were significantly enhanced in the colon cancer SP cells, which contributed to drug resistance, protection of the cells from apoptosis and tumor recurrence. Therefore, the findings suggested that treatment failure and colon tumorigenesis is dictated by a small population of SP cells, which indicate a potential target in future therapies.

  13. Outcome disparities between medical personnel and nonmedical personnel patients receiving definitive surgery for colorectal cancer: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Lin, Chun-Chi; Lee, Yu-Ting; Hu, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Yiing-Jenq

    2015-01-01

    Disparities in quality of care have always been a major challenge in health care. Providing information to patients may help to narrow such disparities. However, the relationship between level of patient information and outcomes remains to be explored. More importantly, would better-informed patients have better outcomes through their choice of higher quality providers? We hypothesize that medical professionals may have better outcomes than nonmedical professionals following definitive surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC), and their choice of provider may mediate this relationship. We identified 61,728 patients with CRC receiving definitive surgery between 2005 and 2011 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Medical professionals were identified via the registry for medical personnel. Indicators for surgical outcome such as emergency room (ER) visits within 30 days, medical expenses, length of hospital stay (LOS), and 5-year mortality were analyzed by using fixed and random effects multivariate regression models. Compared with nonmedical personnel CRC patients, a greater proportion of medical personnel received definitive surgery from higher volume surgeons (median 390 vs 311 within the study period) and/or in higher volume hospitals (median 1527 vs 1312 within the study period). CRC patients who are medical personnel had a shorter median LOS (12 vs 14 days), lower median medical expenses (112,687 vs 121,332 New Taiwan dollars), a lower ER visit rate within 30 days (11.3% vs 13.0%), and lower 5-year mortality. After adjusting for patient characteristics, medical personnel had a significantly lower hazard of 5-year mortality, and were significantly more likely to have a LOS shorter than 14 days than their nonmedical personnel counterparts. However, after adjusting for patient and provider characteristics, while medical personnel were significantly less likely to have a long LOS, no significant difference was observed in 5-year mortality between

  14. Vitamin B-6 and colorectal cancer risk: a prospective population-based study using 3 distinct plasma markers of vitamin B-6 status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gylling, Björn; Myte, Robin; Schneede, Jörn; Hallmans, Göran; Häggström, Jenny; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ulvik, Arve; Ueland, Per M; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Palmqvist, Richard

    2017-03-08

    Background: Higher plasma concentrations of the vitamin B-6 marker pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) have been associated with reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Inflammatory processes, including vitamin B-6 catabolism, could explain such findings.Objective: We investigated 3 biomarkers of vitamin B-6 status in relation to CRC risk.Design: This was a prospective case-control study of 613 CRC cases and 1190 matched controls nested within the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (n = 114,679). Participants were followed from 1985 to 2009, and the median follow-up from baseline to CRC diagnosis was 8.2 y. PLP, pyridoxal, pyridoxic acid (PA), 3-hydroxykynurenine, and xanthurenic acids (XAs) were measured in plasma with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We calculated relative and absolute risks of CRC for PLP and the ratios 3-hydroxykynurenine:XA (HK:XA), an inverse marker of functional vitamin B-6 status, and PA:(PLP + pyridoxal) (PAr), a marker of inflammation and oxidative stress and an inverse marker of vitamin B-6 status.Results: Plasma PLP concentrations were associated with a reduced CRC risk for the third compared with the first quartile and for PLP sufficiency compared with deficiency [OR: 0.60 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.81) and OR: 0.55 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.81), respectively]. HK:XA and PAr were both associated with increased CRC risk [OR: 1.48 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.02) and OR: 1.50 (95% CI: 1.10, 2.04), respectively] for the fourth compared with the first quartile. For HK:XA and PAr, the findings were mainly observed in study participants with B-6 deficiency as measured by plasma PLP is associated with a clear increase in CRC risk. Furthermore, our analyses of novel markers of functional vitamin B-6 status and vitamin B-6-associated oxidative stress and inflammation suggest a role in tumor progression rather than initiation.

  15. Postmenopausal breast cancer in Iran; risk factors and their population attributable fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghiasvand Reza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Causes of the rapidly increasing incidence of breast cancer in Middle East and Asian countries are incompletely understood. We evaluated risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer and estimated their attributable fraction in Iran. Methods We performed a hospital-based case–control study, including 493 women, diagnosed with breast cancer at 50 years or later between 2005–2008, and 493 controls. We used logistic regression models to estimate multivariable odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, and population attributable fractions (PAF for significant risk factors. Results The risk of breast cancer decreased with increasing parity. Compared with nulliparous women, the adjusted OR (95% CI was 0.53 (0.25-1.15 for parity 1–3, 0.47 (0.29-0.93 for parity 4–6 and 0.23 (0.11-0.50 for parity ≥7. The estimated PAF for parity (25 was approximately 25%. The family history was significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk, but not increasing height, early age at menarche, late age at first birth or short breastfeeding. Conclusions Decreasing parity and increasing obesity are determinants of increasing breast cancer incidence among Iranian women. These trends predict a continuing upward trend of postmenopausal breast cancer.

  16. A genetic study and meta-analysis of the genetic predisposition of prostate cancer in a Chinese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan-Chao; Ren, Guoping; Yu, Yongwei; Wu, Yudong; Wu, Ji; Xue, Yao; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Yanling; Xu, Xingxing; Li, Jie; He, Weiyang; Benlloch, Sara; Ross-Adams, Helen; Chen, Li; Li, Jucong; Hong, Yingqia; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Cui, Xingang; Hou, Jianguo; Guo, Jianming; Xu, Lei; Yin, Changjun; Zhou, Yuanping; Neal, David E.; Oliver, Tim; Cao, Guangwen; Zhang, Zhengdong; Easton, Douglas F.; Chelala, Claude; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Zhang, Hongwei; Lu, Yong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer predisposition has been extensively investigated in European populations, but there have been few studies of other ethnic groups. To investigate prostate cancer susceptibility in the under-investigated Chinese population, we performed single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis on a cohort of Chinese cases and controls and then meta-analysis with data from the existing Chinese prostate cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS). Genotyping 211,155 SNPs in 495 cases and 640 controls of Chinese ancestry identified several new suggestive Chinese prostate cancer predisposition loci. However, none of them reached genome-wide significance level either by meta-analysis or replication study. The meta-analysis with the Chinese GWAS data revealed that four 8q24 loci are the main contributors to Chinese prostate cancer risk and the risk alleles from three of them exist at much higher frequencies in Chinese than European populations. We also found that several predisposition loci reported in Western populations have different effect on Chinese men. Therefore, this first extensive single-nucleotide polymorphism study of Chinese prostate cancer in comparison with European population indicates that four loci on 8q24 contribute to a great risk of prostate cancer in a considerable large proportion of Chinese men. Based on those four loci, the top 10% of the population have six- or two-fold prostate cancer risk compared with men of the bottom 10% or median risk respectively, which may facilitate the design of prostate cancer genetic risk screening and prevention in Chinese men. These findings also provide additional insights into the etiology and pathogenesis of prostate cancer. PMID:26881390

  17. Identification of genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair xenoderma pigmentosum group D gene and its association with head and neck cancer susceptibility in rural Indian population: a hospital based case-control study from south-western Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailas D. Datkhile

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: This study indicates that polymorphisms in cd199 of XPD gene could play a role in modifying genetic susceptibility of individual to head and neck cancer in Maharashtra patients. Thus, the case-control study suggest that selected DNA repair genes represent genetic determinants in oral carcinogenesis along with other risk factors in the rural Indian population. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 1997-2005

  18. Association between educational level and risk of cancer in HIV-infected individuals and the background population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars H; Dalton, Susanne O

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have increased risk of cancer. To our knowledge, no previous study has examined the impact of socioeconomic position on risk and prognosis of cancer in HIV infection. METHODS: Population-based cohort-study, including HIV-infected......BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have increased risk of cancer. To our knowledge, no previous study has examined the impact of socioeconomic position on risk and prognosis of cancer in HIV infection. METHODS: Population-based cohort-study, including HIV...... incidences, incidence rate ratios (IRRs), and survival using Kaplan-Meier methods were estimated. RESULTS: Low educational level was associated with increased risk of cancer among HIV-infected individuals compared to population controls: all (adjusted-IRRs: 1.4 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.1-1.7] vs 1......, but HIV-infected individuals with low educational level had lower 5-year-survival following infection-related and ill-defined cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Education is associated with risk and prognosis of some cancers in HIV infection, and diverges from what is observed in the background population....

  19. Gender and ethnic differences in incidence and survival of lymphoid neoplasm subtypes in an Asian population: Secular trends of a population-based cancer registry from 1998 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Raymond Boon Tar; Loy, En Yun; Lim, Gek Hsiang; Zheng, Huili; Chow, Khuan Yew; Lim, Soon Thye

    2015-12-01

    Descriptive epidemiology on incidence and survival by lymphoid neoplasm (LN) subtypes using the 2008 World Health Organisation (WHO) classification remained limited in Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether gender and ethnic differences in incidence and survival of LN subtypes existed using the Singapore Cancer Registry (SCR) from 1998 to 2012. We derived age standardised incidence rates (ASIRs) by the direct standardisation method and 5-year relative survival (RSR) by the Ederer II method and period approach. Five-year observed survival (OS) was obtained for each ethnicity. Malays had the highest ASIR of total LNs among the three ethnicities for each time period. The largest increase in 5-year RSR subtypes was follicular lymphoma from 43.8% in 1998-2002 to 82.3% in 2008-2012; followed by chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) from 48.1% in 1998-2002 to 77.9% in 2008-2012. Although males had higher incidence than females in each time period, females had greater 5-year RSR for follicular lymphoma (89.8% in 2008-2012 for females vs. 76.6% in 2008-2012 for males) and CLL/SLL (78.7% in 2008-2012 for females vs. 76.7% in 2008-2012 for males). All three ethnicities experienced an overall increase in 5-year OS for mature B-cell lymphoma, with Indians experiencing the greatest increase (37.1% in 1998-2002 to 61.1% in 2008-2012), followed by Malays (30.8% in 1998-2002 to 48.7% in 2008-2012) and then Chinese (36.4% in 1998-2002 to 51.3% in 2008-2012). Our study demonstrated that improved mature B-cell lymphoma survival was not only observed in the West, but also in Singapore.

  20. Assessing Awareness Level about Warning Signs of Cancer and its Determinants in an Iranian General Population

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the awareness level about warning signs of cancer and its determinants in an Iranian general population. This cross-sectional interview-based survey investigated 2,500 people aged 18 years and over, as a representative sample of Tehran population. Latent class regression was applied for analyzing data. A small (18.8%) proportion of the respondents had high level of knowledge, and 54.5% had moderate awareness, and 26.7% had low level of awareness. M...

  1. Cancer mortality in a Chinese population exposed to hexavalent chromium in drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, J.J.; Sedman, R.M.; Reynolds, S.D.; Sherman, C.D.; Li, L.-H.; Howd, R.A.; Sandy, M.S.; Zeise, L.; Alexeeff, G.V.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1987, investigators in Liaoning Province, China, reported that mortality rates for all cancer, stomach cancer, and lung cancer in 1970-1978 were higher in villages with hexavalent chromium (Cr)-contaminated drinking water than in the general population. The investigators reported rates, but did not report statistical measures of association or precision. METHODS: Using reports and other communications from investigators at the local Jinzhou Health and Anti-Epidemic Station, we obtained data on Cr contamination of groundwater and cancer mortality in 9 study regions near a ferrochromium factory. We estimated:(1) person-years at risk in the study regions, based on census and population growth rate data, (2) mortality counts, based on estimated person-years at risk and previously reported mortality rates, and (3) rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The all-cancer mortality rate in the combined 5 study regions with Cr-contaminated water was negligibly elevated in comparison with the rate in the 4 combined study regions without contaminated water (rate ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval = 0.86-1.46), but was somewhat more elevated in comparison with the whole province (1.23; 0.97-1.53). Stomach cancer mortality in the regions with contaminated water was more substantially elevated in comparison with the regions without contaminated water (1.82; 1.11-2.91) and the whole province (1.69; 1.12-2.44). Lung cancer mortality was slightly elevated in comparison with the unexposed study regions (1.15; 0.62-2.07), and more strongly elevated in comparison with the whole province (1.78; 1.03-2.87). Mortality from other cancers combined was not elevated in comparison with either the unexposed study regions (0.86; 0.53-1.36) or the whole province (0.92; 0.58-1.38). CONCLUSIONS: While these data are limited, they are consistent with increased stomach cancer risk in a population exposed to Cr in drinking water. ?? 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  2. Population versus hospital controls for case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct control selection is crucial to the internal validity of case-control studies. Little information exists on differences between population and hospital controls in case-control studies on cancers in Chinese hospital setting. Methods We conducted three parallel case-control studies on leukemia, breast and colorectal cancers in China between 2009 and 2010, using population and hospital controls to separately match 540 incident cases by age, gender and residency at a 1:1 ratio. Demographic and lifestyle factors were measured using a validated questionnaire in face-to-face interview. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were obtained using conditional logistic regression analyses. Results The two control groups had closely similar exposure distributions of 15 out of 16 factors, with the only exception being that hospital controls were less likely to have a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.93. For exposure of green tea drinking, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs comparing green tealeaves intake ≥ 1000 grams annually with non-drinkers were 0.51 (0.31, 0.83 and 0.21 (0.27, 0.74 for three cancers combined, 0.06 (0.01, 0.61 and 0.07 (0.01, 0.47 for breast cancer, 0.52 (0.29, 0.94 and 0.45 (0.25, 0.82 for colorectal cancer, 0.65 (0.08, 5.63 and 0.57 (0.07, 4.79 for leukemia using hospital and population controls respectively. Conclusions The study found that hospital controls were comparable with population controls for most demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors measured, but there was a slight difference between the two control groups. Hospital outpatients provide a satisfactory control group in hospital-based case-control study in the Chinese hospital setting.

  3. Skin Cancer Risk in Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplant Recipients Compared With Background Population and Renal Transplant Recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Gniadecki, Robert; Hædersdal, Merete

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: While a high risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer is well recognized in solid-organ transplant recipients, the risk of skin cancer in hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT) recipients has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of cutaneous cancer in HSCT recipients...... and compare it with the risk in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and individuals who have not received any transplant. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A nationwide population-based cohort study from the Danish National Hospital Register including 3302 patients who underwent HSCT (1007 allogeneic, 2295...... cancer between transplant recipients and background population, we used a stratified proportional hazard regression model for hazard ratio (HR) estimations. By use of the cumulative incidence, we estimated 5- and 10-year risks of skin cancers. All RTR and HSCT recipients were treated and followed up...

  4. CHRNA5 polymorphism and susceptibility to lung cancer in a Chinese population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Jiangsu Cancer Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhu, Qun [Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Department of Endocrinology, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Zheng, Ma-Qing [College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Chen, Jia; Shi, Mei-Qi; Feng, Ji-Feng [Jiangsu Cancer Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2013-01-11

    Polymorphisms in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit CHRNA5 gene have been associated with lung cancer positive susceptibility in European and American populations. In the present hospital-based, case-control study, we determined whether polymorphism in rs503464 of CHRNA5 is associated with lung cancer risk in Chinese individuals. A single nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5 rs503464, c.-166T>A (hereafter T>A), was identified using TaqMan-MGB probes with sequencing via PCR in 600 lung cancer cases and 600 healthy individuals. Genotype frequencies for rs503464 (T>A) were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the control population. However, genotype frequencies were significantly different between cases and controls (P < 0.05), while allele frequencies were not significantly different between groups. Compared to homozygous genotypes (TT or AA), the risk of lung cancer in those with the heterozygous genotype (TA) was significantly lower (OR = 0.611, 95%CI = 0.486-0.768, P = 0.001). Using genotype AA as a reference, the risk of lung cancer for those with genotype TA was increased 1.5 times (OR = 1.496, 95%CI = 1.120-1.997, P = 0.006). However, no difference in risk was observed between T allele carriers and A allele carriers (OR = 0.914, 95%CI = 0.779-1.073, P = 0.270). Stratification analysis showed that the protective effect of TA was more pronounced in those younger than 60 years, nonsmokers, or those without a family history of cancer, as well as in patients with adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma in clinical stages III or IV (P < 0.05). Therefore, the heterozygous genotype c.-166T>A at rs503464 of CHRNA5 may be associated with reduced risk of lung cancer, thus representing a susceptibility allele in Chinese individuals.

  5. Long telomeres and cancer risk among 95 568 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2016-01-01

    Heart Study and the Copenhagen General Population Study had the telomere length-associated genotypes rs7726159 (TERT), rs1317082 (TERC), and rs2487999 (OBFC1) determined, and 65 176 had telomere length measured. A total of 10 895 individuals had had a cancer diagnosis. Endpoints were any cancer and 25...... specific cancer types. We conducted Cox regression analyses and logistic regression analyses. The three genotypes were combined as an allele sum. RESULTS: Telomere length increased 67 base-pairs [95% confidence interval (CI) 61-74] per allele. In logistic regression models, the per-allele odds ratio (OR......) for cancer was 1.05 (95% CI 1.03-1.07) for the allele sum, 1.05 (1.02-1.09) for rs7726159, 1.05 (1.02-1.08) for rs1317082 and 1.07 (1.02-1.12) for rs2487999. In contrast, the hazard ratio for any cancer was 1.01 (1.00-1.01) per 200-base-pair increase in telomere length in multivariable adjusted observational...

  6. Breast cancer screening: cultural beliefs and diverse populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cassandra E

    2006-02-01

    This article addresses the role of culture in breast cancer screening behavior among African American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic/ Latina women. It reviews cultural beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge and their relative influence on women's decisions regarding health tests. The article explores how to build on these cultural values, simultaneously mediating their barrier effects. Building on cultural explanatory models of health behavior, suggestions for incorporating culture into early detection strategies for ethnically and racially diverse, underserved women are provided. In addition, the article offers four practice principles that can be used with all of the groups: inclusion and use of indigenous support; cross-application of approaches for diverse populations; honor and incorporation of culture; and attention to language, literacy, and cultural information.

  7. Prediction of Breast Cancer using Rule Based Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Kumar SINGH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work proposes a model for prediction of breast cancer using the classification approach in data mining. The proposed model is based on various parameters, including symptoms of breast cancer, gene mutation and other risk factors causing breast cancer. Mutations have been predicted in breast cancer causing genes with the help of alignment of normal and abnormal gene sequences; then predicting the class label of breast cancer (risky or safe on the basis of IF-THEN rules, using Genetic Algorithm (GA. In this work, GA has used variable gene encoding mechanisms for chromosomes encoding, uniform population generations and selects two chromosomes by Roulette-Wheel selection technique for two-point crossover, which gives better solutions. The performance of the model is evaluated using the F score measure, Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC by plotting points (Sensitivity V/s 1- Specificity.

  8. Cancer incidence in the Western Amazon: population-based estimates in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil, 2007-2009 Incidência de câncer na Amazônia ocidental: estimativa de base populacional em Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil, 2007-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano de Pádua Nakashima

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence rates vary widely in Brazil. The literature on the subject for the western Amazon region is scarce. This study aimed to determine cancer incidence in the population of Rio Branco, Acre State. A total of 718 new cases were recorded during the study period. Among men, the five leading cancer sites were prostate (ASR 75.1, stomach (ASR 23.0, lung (ASR 19.1, colon and rectum (ASR 9.5, and leukemia (ASR 6.9. Among women, they were breast (ASR 41.5, cervix (ASR 41.3, lung (ASR 11.8, colon and rectum (ASR 11.0, and stomach (ASR 7.7. These indicators reveal that Rio Branco has a cancer incidence pattern that overlaps with epidemiological cancer patterns observed in developed and developing regions. The results of the study point to the importance of implementing a population-based cancer registry - currently nonexistent in Rio Branco - as a factor to promote analysis of incident cases of the disease and monitoring of its evolution.No Brasil, as taxas de incidência de câncer variam amplamente. A literatura sobre o tema na região da Amazônia Ocidental é escassa. Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a incidência atual de câncer na população de Rio Branco, Acre. Registrou-se um total de 718 casos novos no período de estudo. As localizações tumorais de maior incidência em homens foram: próstata (75,1/100.000, estômago (23,0/100.000, pulmão (19.1/100.000, cólon-reto (9,5/100.000 e leucemias (6,9/100.000 e no sexo feminino: mama (41,5/100.000, colo uterino (41,3/100.000, pulmão (11,8/100.000, cólon-reto (11,0/100.000 e estômago (7,7/100.000. Esses indicadores revelam que Rio Branco apresenta um padrão de incidência por câncer que superpõe os padrões encontrados nas regiões desenvolvidas e em desenvolvimento. Os resultados do trabalho apontam para a importância da implementação de um registro de câncer de base populacional - atualmente inexistente em Rio Branco - como fator promotor da análise de casos

  9. Dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapy for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajihara, Mikio; Takakura, Kazuki; Kanai, Tomoya; Ito, Zensho; Saito, Keisuke; Takami, Shinichiro; Shimodaira, Shigetaka; Okamoto, Masato; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2016-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Although systemic therapy is the standard care for patients with recurrent or metastatic CRC, the prognosis is extremely poor. The optimal sequence of therapy remains unknown. Therefore, alternative strategies, such as immunotherapy, are needed for patients with advanced CRC. This review summarizes evidence from dendritic cell-based cancer immunotherapy strategies that are currently in clinical trials. In addition, we discuss the possibility of antitumor immune responses through immunoinhibitory PD-1/PD-L1 pathway blockade in CRC patients.

  10. Prostate Cancer in South Africa: Pathology Based National Cancer Registry Data (1986–2006 and Mortality Rates (1997–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Babb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986–2006 and data on mortality (1997–2009 from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma. There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA.

  11. Prostate cancer in South Africa: pathology based national cancer registry data (1986-2006) and mortality rates (1997-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986-2006) and data on mortality (1997-2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA.

  12. Prostate Cancer in South Africa: Pathology Based National Cancer Registry Data (1986–2006) and Mortality Rates (1997–2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986–2006) and data on mortality (1997–2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA. PMID:24955252

  13. Dietary fat, cooking fat, and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; John, Esther M; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between dietary fat intake, cooking fat usage, and breast cancer risk in a population-based, multiethnic, case-control study conducted in the San Francisco Bay area. Intake of total fat and types of fat were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire among 1,703 breast cancer cases diagnosed between 1995 and 1999 and 2,045 controls. In addition, preferred use of fat for cooking was assessed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). High fat intake was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (highest vs. lowest quartile, adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.10-1.65, P(trend) < 0.01). A positive association was found for oleic acid (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.14-2.10, P(trend) < 0.01) but not for linoleic acid or saturated fat. Risk was increased for women cooking with hydrogenated fats (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.20-2.10) or vegetable/corn oil (rich in linoleic acid; OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.06-1.58) compared to women using olive/canola oil (rich in oleic acid). Our results suggest that a low-fat diet may play a role in breast cancer prevention. We speculate that monounsaturated trans fats may have driven the discrepant associations between types of fat and breast cancer.

  14. Prediction consistency and clinical presentations of breast cancer molecular subtypes for Han Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chi-Cheng

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease in terms of transcriptional aberrations; moreover, microarray gene expression profiles had defined 5 molecular subtypes based on certain intrinsic genes. This study aimed to evaluate the prediction consistency of breast cancer molecular subtypes from 3 distinct intrinsic gene sets (Sørlie 500, Hu 306 and PAM50 as well as clinical presentations of each molecualr subtype in Han Chinese population. Methods In all, 169 breast cancer samples (44 from Taiwan and 125 from China of Han Chinese population were gathered, and the gene expression features corresponding to 3 distinct intrinsic gene sets (Sørlie 500, Hu 306 and PAM50 were retrieved for molecular subtype prediction. Results For Sørlie 500 and Hu 306 intrinsic gene set, mean-centring of genes and distance-weighted discrimination (DWD remarkably reduced the number of unclassified cases. Regarding pairwise agreement, the highest predictive consistency was found between Hu 306 and PAM50. In all, 150 and 126 samples were assigned into identical subtypes by both Hu 306 and PAM50 genes, under mean-centring and DWD. Luminal B tended to show a higher nuclear grade and have more HER2 over-expression status than luminal A did. No basal-like breast tumours were ER positive, and most HER2-enriched breast tumours showed HER2 over-expression, whereas, only two-thirds of ER negativity/HER2 over-expression tumros were predicted as HER2-enriched molecular subtype. For 44 Taiwanese breast cancers with survival data, a better prognosis of luminal A than luminal B subtype in ER-postive breast cancers and a better prognosis of basal-like than HER2-enriched subtype in ER-negative breast cancers was observed. Conclusions We suggest that the intrinsic signature Hu 306 or PAM50 be used for breast cancers in the Han Chinese population during molecular subtyping. For the prognostic value and decision making based on intrinsic subtypes, further prospective

  15. Socioeconomic and nutritional factors account for the association of gastric cancer with Amerindian ancestry in a Latin American admixed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Latife; Zamudio, Roxana; Soares-Souza, Giordano; Herrera, Phabiola; Cabrera, Lilia; Hooper, Catherine C; Cok, Jaime; Combe, Juan M; Vargas, Gloria; Prado, William A; Schneider, Silvana; Kehdy, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Maira R; Chanock, Stephen J; Berg, Douglas E; Gilman, Robert H; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer and its incidence varies worldwide, with the Andean region of South America showing high incidence rates. We evaluated the genetic structure of the population from Lima (Peru) and performed a case-control genetic association study to test the contribution of African, European, or Native American ancestry to risk for gastric cancer, controlling for the effect of non-genetic factors. A wide set of socioeconomic, dietary, and clinic information was collected for each participant in the study and ancestry was estimated based on 103 ancestry informative markers. Although the urban population from Lima is usually considered as mestizo (i.e., admixed from Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans), we observed a high fraction of Native American ancestry (78.4% for the cases and 74.6% for the controls) and a very low African ancestry (gastric cancer, but socioeconomic factors associated both with gastric cancer and Native American ethnicity account for this association. Therefore, the high incidence of gastric cancer in Peru does not seem to be related to susceptibility alleles common in this population. Instead, our result suggests a predominant role for ethnic-associated socioeconomic factors and disparities in access to health services. Since Native Americans are a neglected group in genomic studies, we suggest that the population from Lima and other large cities from Western South America with high Native American ancestry background may be convenient targets for epidemiological studies focused on this ethnic group.

  16. Risk factors for cancer mortality in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease with many possible causes and is currently a major public health problem in the world. Cancer can occur in individuals of all ages; however the risk of cancer increases with age. It has been estimated that 90-95% of all types of cancer can be attributed to environmental a

  17. MiR-888 regulates side population properties and cancer metastasis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengjian; Chen, Liangbiao

    2014-08-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have recently been reported to possess properties related to cancer metastasis. However, the mechanism by which microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate these properties remains unclear. This study aims to investigate a correlation between miRNAs and the side population (SP) of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 with CSC properties. miR-888 was found in our previous study to be up-regulated in SP cells and predicted to target E-Cadherin directly, indicating a potential role in maintaining SP properties and regulating the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer metastasis. After the over-expression of miR-888 in MCF-7 cells and knock-down of its expression in SP cells, we found that miR-888 played a role in maintaining CSC-related properties. Next, miR-888 was found to regulate the EMT process by targeting related gene expression. Lastly, MCF-7 cells over-expressing miR-888 exhibited a significant reduction in their ability to adhere to the extracellular matrix and an increased potential for migration and invasion, whereas knock-down of miR-888 expression in SP cells reversed these trends. In conclusion, miR-888 maintains SP properties and regulates EMT and metastasis in MCF-7 cells, potentially by targeting E-Cadherin expression.

  18. Building the Evidence Base of Blood-Based Biomarkers for Early Detection of Cancer: A Rapid Systematic Mapping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Uttley

    2016-08-01

    Interpretation: This study is the first to systematically and comprehensively map blood biomarkers for early detection of cancer. Use of this rapid systematic mapping approach found a broad range of relevant biomarkers allowing an evidence-based approach to identification of promising biomarkers for development of a blood-based cancer screening test in the general population.

  19. Magnetic nanoparticle-based cancer therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jing; Huang Dong-Yan; Muhammad Zubair Yousaf; Hou Yang-Long; Gao Song

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) with easily modified surfaces have been playing an important role in biomedicine.As cancer is one of the major causes of death,tremendous efforts have been devoted to advance the methods of cancer diagnosis and therapy.Recently,magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) that are responsive to a magnetic field have shown great promise in cancer therapy.Compared with traditional cancer therapy,magnetic field triggered therapeutic approaches can treat cancer in an unconventional but more effective and safer way.In this review,we will discuss the recent progress in cancer therapies based on MNPs,mainly including magnetic hyperthermia,magnetic specific targeting,magnetically controlled drug delivery,magnetofection,and magnetic switches for controlling cell fate.Some recently developed strategies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) monitoring cancer therapy and magnetic tissue engineering are also addressed.

  20. The burden of cancer risk in Canada's indigenous population: a comparative study of known risks in a Canadian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias B

    2011-10-01

    apparent. In addition, First Nations women reported significantly less uptake of mammography screening(P < 0.001 but similar rates for cervical cancer screening.Conclusions: Based on the findings of this retrospective study, the future cancer burden is expected to be high in the First Nations on-reserve population. Interventions, utilizing existing and new health and social authorities, and long-term institutional partnerships, are required to combat cancer risk disparities, while governments address economic disparities.Keywords: indigenous population, cancer risk, health behaviors, metabolic diseases, cancer screening

  1. The Impact of Breast Cancer Screening on Population Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. van Ravesteyn (Nicolien)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is an important public health problem with an estimated number of 1.38 million breast cancer cases and 458,000 deaths from the disease yearly worldwide. Randomized trials have shown that mammography screening significantly reduces breast cancer mortality. Besides the benefi

  2. Types of Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  3. Comparative Effectiveness of Biosimilar, Reference Product and Other Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs) Still Covered by Patent in Chronic Kidney Disease and Cancer Patients: An Italian Population-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Ingrasciotta (Ylenia); F. Giorgianni (Francesco); I. Marcianò (Ilaria); J. Bolcato (Jenny); R. Pirolo (Roberta); A. Chinellato (Alessandro); V. Ientile (Valentina); D. Santoro (Domenico); A.A. Genazzani (Armando A.); A. Alibrandi (Angela); A. Fontana (Andrea); A.P. Caputi (Achille); G. Trifirò (Gianluca)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Since 2007 biosimilars of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are available on the Italian market. Very limited post-marketing data exist on the comparative effectiveness of biosimilar and originator ESAs. Aim This population-based study was aimed to compare the effects o

  4. Recruitment of representative samples for low incidence cancer populations: Do registries deliver?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanson-Fisher Rob

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruiting large and representative samples of adolescent and young adult (AYA cancer survivors is important for gaining accurate data regarding the prevalence of unmet needs in this population. This study aimed to describe recruitment rates for AYAs recruited through a cancer registry with particular focus on: active clinician consent protocols, reasons for clinicians not providing consent and the representativeness of the final sample. Methods Adolescents and young adults aged 14 to19 years inclusive and listed on the cancer registry from January 1 2002 to December 31 2007 were identified. An active clinician consent protocol was used whereby the registry sent a letter to AYAs primary treating clinicians requesting permission to contact the survivors. The registry then sent survivors who received their clinician's consent a letter seeking permission to forward their contact details to the research team. Consenting AYAs were sent a questionnaire which assessed their unmet needs. Results The overall consent rate for AYAs identified as eligible by the registry was 7.8%. Of the 411 potentially eligible survivors identified, just over half (n = 232, 56% received their clinician's consent to be contacted. Of those 232 AYAs, 65% were unable to be contacted. Only 18 AYAs (7.8% refused permission for their contact details to be passed on to the research team. Of the 64 young people who agreed to be contacted, 50% (n = 32 completed the questionnaire. Conclusions Cancer registries which employ active clinician consent protocols may not be appropriate for recruiting large, representative samples of AYAs diagnosed with cancer. Given that AYA cancer survivors are highly mobile, alternative methods such as treatment centre and clinic based recruitment may need to be considered.

  5. HPV-based cervical cancer screening- facts, fiction, and misperceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Arbyn, Marc

    2017-05-01

    Several randomized trials have demonstrated that HPV-based cervical cancer screening is more effective than cytology-based screening. A pooled analysis of long-term follow-up data from these trials has shown reduced cervical cancer mortality in women screened with HPV compared to cytology. As a consequence, many health systems are currently transitioning to HPV-based screening programs. However, there are several controversies that influence whether and how HPV-based cervical cancer screening is implemented in different settings. Here, we discuss the most important controversies surrounding cervical cancer screening using primary HPV testing in light of published data from clinical trials and large observational studies. Overall, there is strong and uniform evidence for the efficacy of HPV-based screening, and little evidence for the usefulness of adding cytology to primary screening. However, there is currently limited data on optimal triage strategies for HPV-positive women, a critical component of an HPV-based screening program. There will likely be multiple choices for integrated screening programs and implementation may differ depending on risk perception, healthcare funds, assay costs, and available infrastructure, among other factors, in different settings. A particular challenge is the integration of screening and vaccination programs, since increasingly vaccinated populations will have a continuous decrease of cervical cancer risk.

  6. Cutaneous melanoma in Latin America: a population-based descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sortino-Rachou, Ana Maria; Curado, Maria Paula; Cancela, Marianna de Camargo

    2011-03-01

    Cutaneous melanoma incidences vary between geographic regions and are a health concern for Caucasians and for all ethnic populations. In Latin America, data from population-based cancer registries of cutaneous melanoma incidence rates have rarely been reported. We searched the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents volume IX (CI5-IX) database for cutaneous melanoma and select cases by topography (C43) from 11 population-based cancer registries in Latin America. Between 1998 and 2002, a total of 4,465 cutaneous melanoma cases were reported in Latin America. The average age-standardized incidence rates (per 100,000 persons-year) was 4.6 (male) and 4.3 (female). This study presents an overview of cutaneous melanoma incidence in Latin America, highlighting the need to enhance coverage of population-based cancer registries in Latin America, to allow for a better understanding of this neoplasm in the region. Thus it can help in implementing primary prevention programs for the whole Latino population. At this point in time, early detection messages should target young women and older men in Latin America.

  7. The Polymorphism of DNA Repair Gene ERCC2/XPD Arg156Arg and Susceptibility to Breast Cancer in a Chinese Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, J. Y.; Liang, D. H.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    the association between ERCC2/XPD Arg156Arg and susceptibility to breast cancer in a Chinese population, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study consisting of 129 patients with breast cancer and 205 controls matched by age, gender, and ethnicity. PCR-RFLP was used for genotyping. No associations were...

  8. Probability Sampling Method for a Hidden Population Using Respondent-Driven Sampling: Simulation for Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    When there is no sampling frame within a certain group or the group is concerned that making its population public would bring social stigma, we say the population is hidden. It is difficult to approach this kind of population survey-methodologically because the response rate is low and its members are not quite honest with their responses when probability sampling is used. The only alternative known to address the problems caused by previous methods such as snowball sampling is respondent-driven sampling (RDS), which was developed by Heckathorn and his colleagues. RDS is based on a Markov chain, and uses the social network information of the respondent. This characteristic allows for probability sampling when we survey a hidden population. We verified through computer simulation whether RDS can be used on a hidden population of cancer survivors. According to the simulation results of this thesis, the chain-referral sampling of RDS tends to minimize as the sample gets bigger, and it becomes stabilized as the wave progresses. Therefore, it shows that the final sample information can be completely independent from the initial seeds if a certain level of sample size is secured even if the initial seeds were selected through convenient sampling. Thus, RDS can be considered as an alternative which can improve upon both key informant sampling and ethnographic surveys, and it needs to be utilized for various cases domestically as well.

  9. Risk of cancer among HIV-infected individuals compared to the background population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Gerstoft, Jan; Afzal, Shoaib;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relative impact of immune deficiency and lifestyle-related factors on risk of cancer in the HIV-infected population is controversial. We aimed to estimate the population-attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with smoking, being HIV-infected and with immune deficiency. METHODS...... to the background population. In absence of smoking, the increase in risk is confined to cancers related to viral infections, whereas the risk of other cancers is not elevated and does not seem to be associated with immune deficiency....

  10. A Population-Based Clinical Trial of Irinotecan and Carboplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derick Lau

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Phase I trials of anticancer drugs are commonly conducted using the method of modified Fibonacci. We have developed a population-based design for phase I trials of combining anticancer drugs such as irinotecan and carboplatin. Patients and Methods. Intrapatient dose escalation of irinotecan and carboplatin was performed according to a predetermined schema to reach individual dose-limiting toxicity (DLT in 50 patients with solid tumors refractory to previous chemotherapy. The individual toxicity-limiting dose levels were analyzed for normal distribution using the method of Ryan-Joiner and subsequently used to determine a population-based maximum tolerated dose (pMTD. For comparison, a simulation study was performed using the method of modified Fibonacci. Results. The most common dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs included neutropenia (58%, thrombocytopenia (16%, and diarrhea (8%. The frequency of individual toxicity-limiting dose levels of 50 patients approximated a normal distribution. The dose levels associated with individual limiting toxicities ranged from level 1 (irinotecan 100 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC = 4 mg/mL x min to level 8 (irinotecan 350 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC = 6. The pMTD was determined to be dose level 3 (150 mg/m2 for irinotecan and AUC = 5 for carboplatin. In contrast, the MTD was determined to be dose level 4 (200 mg/m2 for irinotecan and AUC 5 for carboplatin by modified-Fibonacci simulation. Conclusions. The population-based design of phase I trial allows optimization of dose intensity and derivation of a pMTD. The pMTD has been applied in phase II trial of irinotecan and carboplatin in patients with small-cell lung cancer.

  11. Population pharmacokinetic model for cancer chemoprevention with sulindac in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Alexander K; Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Ziegler, Katie L Allen; Carlson, Elsa C; Szabo, Eva; Ames, Mathew M; Boring, Daniel; Limburg, Paul J; Reid, Joel M

    2013-04-01

    Sulindac is a prescription-based non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that continues to be actively investigated as a candidate cancer chemoprevention agent. To further current understanding of sulindac bioavailability, metabolism, and disposition, we developed a population pharmacokinetic model for the parent compound and its active metabolites, sulindac sulfide, and exisulind. This analysis was based on data from 24 healthy subjects who participated in a bioequivalence study comparing two formulations of sulindac. The complex disposition of sulindac and its metabolites was described by a seven-compartment model featuring enterohepatic recirculation and is the first reported population pharmacokinetic model for sulindac. The derived model was used to explore effects of clinical variables on sulindac pharmacokinetics and revealed that body weight, creatinine clearance, and gender were significantly correlated with pharmacokinetic parameters. Moreover, the model quantifies the relative bioavailability of the sulindac formulations and illustrates the utility of population pharmacokinetics in bioequivalence assessment. This novel population pharmacokinetic model provides new insights regarding the factors that may affect the pharmacokinetics of sulindac and the exisulind and sulindac sulfide metabolites in generally healthy subjects, which have implications for future chemoprevention trial design for this widely available agent.

  12. Are immigrants and nationals born to immigrants at higher risk for delayed or no lifetime breast and cervical cancer screening? The results from a population-based survey in Paris metropolitan area in 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Rondet

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare breast cancer screening (BCS and cervical cancer screening (CCS practices of French women born to French parents with those of immigrants and nationals born to immigrants, taking their socioeconomic status into account. METHODS: The study is based on data collected in 2010 in the Paris metropolitan area among a representative sample of 3000 French-speaking adults. For women with no history of breast or cervical cancer, multivariate logistic regressions and structural equation models were used to investigate the factors associated with never having undergone BCS or CCS. RESULTS: We confirmed the existence of a strong gradient, with respect to migration origin, for delaying or never having undergone BCS or CCS. Thus, being a foreign immigrant or being French of immigrant parentage were risk factors for delayed and no lifetime screening. Interestingly, we found that this gradient persisted (at least partially after adjusting for the women's socioeconomic characteristics. Only the level of income seemed to play a mediating role, but only partially. We observed differences between BCS and CCS which suggest that organized CCS could be effective in reducing socioeconomic and/or ethnic inequities. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic status partially explained the screening nonparticipation on the part of French women of immigrant origin and foreign immigrants. This was more so the case with CCS than with BCS, which suggests that organized prevention programs might reduce social inequalities.

  13. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the Netherlands : Results from a population based registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, ADG; Le Cessie, S; Snijder, S; Kluin-Nelemans, JC; Kluin, PM; Noordijk, EM

    2003-01-01

    The Comprehensive Cancer Centre West (CCCW) population based non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) registry contains information on all newly diagnosed NHL patients living in the region covered by the CCCW. Patients were entered from June 1st 1981 to December 31st 1989. Follow-up is still ongoing, median fol

  14. Predictors and survival of synchronous peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal origin: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, V.E.; Klaver, Y.L.B.; Verwaal, V.J.; Rutten, H.J.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Hingh, I.H.J.T. de

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to provide population-based data on incidence and prognosis of synchronous peritoneal carcinomatosis and to evaluate predictors for its development. Diagnosed in 1995-2008, 18,738 cases of primary colorectal cancer were included. Predictors of peritoneal carcinomatosis were

  15. Population attributable risk of tobacco and alcohol for upper aerodigestive tract cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anantharaman, Devasena

    2011-08-01

    Tobacco and alcohol are major risk factors for upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer and significant variation is observed in UADT cancer rates across Europe. We have estimated the proportion of UADT cancer burden explained by tobacco and alcohol and how this varies with the incidence rates across Europe, cancer sub-site, gender and age. This should help estimate the minimum residual burden of other risk factors to UADT cancer, including human papillomavirus. We analysed 1981 UADT cancer cases and 1993 controls from the ARCAGE multicentre study. We estimated the population attributable risk (PAR) of tobacco alone, alcohol alone and their joint effect. Tobacco and alcohol together explained 73% of UADT cancer burden of which nearly 29% was explained by smoking alone, less than 1% due to alcohol on its own and 44% by the joint effect of tobacco and alcohol. Tobacco and alcohol together explained a larger proportion of hypopharyngeal\\/laryngeal cancer (PAR=85%) than oropharyngeal (PAR=74%), esophageal (PAR=67%) and oral cancer (PAR=61%). Tobacco and alcohol together explain only about half of the total UADT cancer burden among women. Geographically, tobacco and alcohol explained a larger proportion of UADT cancer in central (PAR=84%) than southern (PAR=72%) and western Europe (PAR=67%). While the majority of the UADT cancers in Europe are due to tobacco or the joint effect of tobacco and alcohol, our results support a significant role for other risk factors in particular, for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and also for UADT cancers in southern and western Europe.

  16. GSTT1 null genotype contributes to lung cancer risk in asian populations: a meta-analysis of 23 studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in glutathione S-transferases (GSTs may contribute to lung cancer risk. Many studies have investigated the correlation between the Glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1 null genotype and lung cancer risk in Asian population but yielded inconclusive results. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a meta-analysis of 23 studies including 4065 cases and 5390 controls. We assessed the strength of the association of GSTT1 with lung cancer risk and performed sub-group analyses by source of controls, smoking status, histological types, and sample size. A statistically significant correlation between GSTT1 null genotype and lung cancer in Asian population was observed (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.49; Pheterogeneity<0.001 and I(2 = 62.0%. Sub-group analysis revealed there was a statistically increased lung cancer risk in ever-smokers who carried the GSTT1 null genotype (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.27, 2.96; P heterogeneity = 0.02 and I(2 = 58.1%. It was also indicated that GSTT1 null genotype could increase lung cancer risk among population-based studies (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.50; Pheterogeneity = 0.003 and I(2 = 56.8%. The positive association was also found in studies of sample size (≤500 participants (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.62; Pheterogeneity<0.001 and I(2 = 65.4%. CONCLUSIONS: These meta-analysis results suggest that GSTT1 null genotype is associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer in Asian population.

  17. Establishment and characterization of primary lung cancer cell lines from Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao ZHENG; Yi-hua SUN; Xiao-lei YE; Hai-quan CHEN; Hong-bin JI

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To establish and characterize primary lung cancer cell lines from Chinese population.Methods: Lung cancer specimens or pleural effusions were collected from Chinese lung cancer patients and cultured in vitro with ACL4 medium (for non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC)) or HITES medium (for small cell lung carcinomas (SCLC)) supplemented with 5%FBS. All cell lines were maintained in culture for more than 25 passages. Most of these cell lines were further analyzed for oncogenic mutations, karyotype, cell growth kinetics, and tumorigenicity in nude mice.Results: Eight primary cell lines from Chinese lung cancer patients were established and characterized, including seven NSCLC cell lines and one SCLC cell line. Five NSCLC cell lines were found to harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations.Conclusion: These well-characterized primary lung cancer cell lines from Chinese population provide a unique platform for future studies of the ethnic differences in lung cancer biology and drug response.

  18. Blue Book: EPA Radiogenic Cancer Risk Models and Projections for the U.S. Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document presents EPA estimates of cancer incidence and mortality risk coefficients pertaining to low dose exposures to ionizing radiation for the U.S. population, as well as their scientific basis.