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Sample records for cancer polycystic ovarian

  1. Polycystic ovary syndrome, oligomenorrhea, and risk of ovarian cancer histotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Holly R; Babic, Ana; Webb, Penelope M

    2018-01-01

    the lack of clear associations reported in previous studies. METHODS: We analyzed data from 14 case-control studies including 16,594 women with invasive ovarian cancer (n=13,719) or borderline ovarian disease (n=2,875) and 17,718 controls. Adjusted study-specific odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using......BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and one if its distinguishing characteristics, oligomenorrhea, have both been associated with ovarian cancer risk in some but not all studies. However, these associations have been rarely been examined by ovarian cancer histotypes which may explain...... logistic regression and combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Pooled histotype-specific ORs were calculated using polytomous logistic regression. RESULTS: Women reporting menstrual cycle length >35 days had decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer compared to women reporting cycle length

  2. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Oligomenorrhea, and Risk of Ovarian Cancer Histotypes: Evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Babic, Ana; Webb, Penelope M; Nagle, Christina M; Jordan, Susan J; Risch, Harvey A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A; Goodman, Marc T; Modugno, Francesmary; Ness, Roberta B; Moysich, Kirsten B; Kjær, Susanne K; Høgdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel W; Bandera, Elisa V; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Narod, Steven A; Phelan, Catherine M; McLaughlin, John R; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Pearce, Celeste L; Wu, Anna H; Terry, Kathryn L

    2018-02-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and one of its distinguishing characteristics, oligomenorrhea, have both been associated with ovarian cancer risk in some but not all studies. However, these associations have been rarely examined by ovarian cancer histotypes, which may explain the lack of clear associations reported in previous studies. Methods: We analyzed data from 14 case-control studies including 16,594 women with invasive ovarian cancer ( n = 13,719) or borderline ovarian disease ( n = 2,875) and 17,718 controls. Adjusted study-specific ORs were calculated using logistic regression and combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Pooled histotype-specific ORs were calculated using polytomous logistic regression. Results: Women reporting menstrual cycle length >35 days had decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer compared with women reporting cycle length ≤35 days [OR = 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.58-0.84]. Decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer was also observed among women who reported irregular menstrual cycles compared with women with regular cycles (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.76-0.89). No significant association was observed between self-reported PCOS and invasive ovarian cancer risk (OR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.65-1.15). There was a decreased risk of all individual invasive histotypes for women with menstrual cycle length >35 days, but no association with serous borderline tumors ( P heterogeneity = 0.006). Similarly, we observed decreased risks of most invasive histotypes among women with irregular cycles, but an increased risk of borderline serous and mucinous tumors ( P heterogeneity < 0.0001). Conclusions: Our results suggest that menstrual cycle characteristics influence ovarian cancer risk differentially based on histotype. Impact: These results highlight the importance of examining ovarian cancer risk factors associations by histologic subtype. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(2); 174-82. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American

  3. Polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a "multispeciality" disorder suspected in patients with irregular menses and clinical signs of hyperandrogenism such as acne, seborrhoea, hirsutism, irregular menses, infertility, and alopecia. Recently, PCOS has been associated with the metabolic syndrome. Patients may develop obesity, insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemias, hypertension, non-alcoholic liver disease, and obstructive sleep apnoea. Good clinical examination with hematological and radiological investigations is required for clinical evaluation. Management is a combined effort involving a dermatologist, endocrinologist, gynecologist, and nutritionist. Morbidity in addition includes a low "self image" and poor quality of life. Long term medications and lifestyle changes are essential for a successful outcome. This article focuses on understanding the normal and abnormal endocrine functions involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Proper diagnosis and management of the patient is discussed.

  4. Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  5. Proteomic biomarkers for ovarian cancer risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and biomarker database integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galazis, Nicolas; Olaleye, Olalekan; Haoula, Zeina; Layfield, Robert; Atiomo, William

    2012-12-01

    To review and identify possible biomarkers for ovarian cancer (OC) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Systematic literature searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane using the search terms "proteomics," "proteomic," and "ovarian cancer" or "ovarian carcinoma." Proteomic biomarkers for OC were then integrated with an updated previously published database of all proteomic biomarkers identified to date in patients with PCOS. Academic department of obstetrics and gynecology in the United Kingdom. A total of 180 women identified in the six studies. Tissue samples from women with OC vs. tissue samples from women without OC. Proteomic biomarkers, proteomic technique used, and methodologic quality score. A panel of six biomarkers was overexpressed both in women with OC and in women with PCOS. These biomarkers include calreticulin, fibrinogen-γ, superoxide dismutase, vimentin, malate dehydrogenase, and lamin B2. These biomarkers could help improve our understanding of the links between PCOS and OC and could potentially be used to identify subgroups of women with PCOS at increased risk of OC. More studies are required to further evaluate the role these biomarkers play in women with PCOS and OC. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than other ovarian tumors. About 7 percent of ovarian tumors are stromal. Germ cell tumors, which begin in the egg-producing cells. These rare ovarian cancers tend to occur in younger women. Certain ...

  7. Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, John A; Azizia, Mallika M; Hardiman, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition affecting ∼8% of women. The objective of the present study was to quantify separately the risk of endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer and breast cancer in women with PCOS compared with non-PCOS controls, and quantify separately the risk to women of all ages as well as the risk to premenopausal women. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they compared women with PCOS to non-PCOS groups for fatal or non-fatal gynaecological cancers. Studies listed in MEDLINE and EMBASE published up to 7 October 2013 in any language were identified, and relevant papers were also searched by hand. Relevant data (for example, study design, source of control data, diagnostic criteria) were extracted and tabulated. From 698 references, 11 studies (5 of endometrial cancer and 3 each of ovarian and breast cancer) met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis (919 women with PCOS and 72054 non-PCOS controls). Using the Mantel-Haenszel method, with fixed or random effects model as appropriate, women with PCOS were at a significantly increased risk of endometrial cancer (odds ratio (OR), 2.79; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.31-5.95, P cancers was not significantly increased (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 0.93-2.15, P cancer (OR, 4.05; 95% CI, 2.42-6.76, P cancer (OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.08-5.89, P cancer (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.46-1.32, P cancers in women with PCOS younger than 54 years of age compared with controls of similar age. Current data suggest that women of all ages with PCOS are at an increased risk of endometrial cancer but the risk of ovarian and breast cancer was not significantly increased overall. These results highlight the potential risk of gynaecological cancer morbidities associated with PCOS. However, the available evidence is far from robust and variation in diagnostic criteria for PCOS, associated risk factors (particularly obesity), and selection bias

  8. Ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often due to accumulation of fluid ( ascites ). A pelvic examination may reveal an ovarian or abdominal mass . A ... to ask your doctor Pelvic radiation - discharge Images Female reproductive anatomy Ascites with ovarian cancer, CT scan ...

  9. Long and irregular menstrual cycles, polycystic ovary syndrome, and ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, H R; Titus, L J; Cramer, D W; Terry, K L

    2017-01-15

    Long and irregular menstrual cycles, a hallmark of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), have been associated with higher androgen and lower sex hormone binding globulin levels and this altered hormonal environment may increase the risk of specific histologic subtypes of ovarian cancer. We investigated whether menstrual cycle characteristics and self-reported PCOS were associated with ovarian cancer risk among 2,041 women with epithelial ovarian cancer and 2,100 controls in the New England Case-Control Study (1992-2008). Menstrual cycle irregularity, menstrual cycle length, and PCOS were collected through in-person interview. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for ovarian cancer risk overall, and polytomous logistic regression to evaluate whether risk differed between histologic subtypes. Overall, we observed no elevation in ovarian cancer risk for women who reported periods that were never regular or for those reporting a menstrual cycle length of >35 days with ORs of 0.87 (95% CI = 0.69-1.10) and 0.83 (95% CI = 0.44-1.54), respectively. We observed no overall association between self-reported PCOS and ovarian cancer (OR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.61-1.56). However, we observed significant differences in the association with menstrual cycle irregularity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes (pheterogeneity  = 0.03) as well as by BMI and OC use (pinteraction  < 0.01). Most notable, menstrual cycle irregularity was associated with a decreased risk of high grade serous tumors but an increased risk of serous borderline tumors among women who had never used OCs and those who were overweight. Future research in a large collaborative consortium may help clarify these associations. © 2016 UICC.

  10. Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign. The campaign helps women get the facts about gynecologic cancer, providing important “inside knowledge” about their bodies and health. What is ovarian cancer? Cancer is a disease ...

  11. Ovarian morphology in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylander, Malin; Frøssing, Signe; Bjerre, Anne H.

    2017-01-01

    in estimates of ovarian volume and antral follicle count (AFC) from two-dimensional (2D) and 3D transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods A cross-sectional study on 66 overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) according to Rotterdam criteria. Ovarian...... between AMH and AFC from 2D TVUS, 3D TVUS, and MRI were 0.67, 0.78, and 0.70, respectively (P PCOS population, 2D TVUS underestimated ovarian volume and AFC as compared with 3D TVUS and MRI. Serum AMH correlated best with AFC from 3D TVUS, followed by MRI...... and 2D TVUS. The advantage of 3D TVUS might be of minor clinical importance when diagnosing PCOS, but useful when the actual AFC are of interest, e.g. in fertility counseling and research....

  12. A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study of the risk of uterine, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Cheng-Che; Yang, Albert C; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Hu, Li-Yu; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders among women of reproductive age. We used a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study to explore the relationship between PCOS and the subsequent development of gynecological cancers including uterine, breast, or ovarian cancer. We identified subjects who were diagnosed with PCOS between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2004, in the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database. A comparison cohort was constructed for patients without known PCOS who were also matched according to age. All PCOS and control patients were observed until diagnosed with breast cancer, ovarian cancer, or uterine cancer or until death, withdrawal from the NHI system, or December 31, 2009. The PCOS cohort consisted of 3,566 patients, and the comparison cohort consisted of 14,264 matched control patients without PCOS. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of uterine cancer and breast cancer in subjects with PCOS were higher (HR: 8.42 [95% confidence interval: 1.62-43.89] and HR: 1.99 [95% confidence interval: 1.05-3.77], respectively) than that of the controls during the follow-up. With the Monte Carlo method, only the mean adjusted HR of 1,000 comparisons for developing uterine cancer during the follow-up period was greater for the PCOS group than for the control groups (HR: 4.71, 95% confidence interval: 1.57-14.11). PCOS might increase the risk of subsequent newly diagnosed uterine cancer. It is critical that further large-scale, well-designed studies be conducted to confirm the association between PCOS and gynecological cancer risk. ©AlphaMed Press.

  13. Primary amenorrhoea associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkov, I M; Dokumov, S I

    1981-01-01

    Four patients with primary amenorrhoea associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome were investigated clinically, radiologically, endocrinologically and histologically. The values of FSH and LH were determined in basal conditions, as well as after 100 micrograms of LHRH. The levels of TSH and prolactin were studied before and after TRH stimulation in doses of 200 micrograms. An increase in the basal levels of FSH was established with different responses of the hormone to the LHRH test in the four patients. The values of LH were in the upper normal limits, and the responses of the hormone to the LHRH test were similar to those defined for FSH. The basal levels and the response of TSH and prolactin to TRH were within the norm, with the exception of the first patients, in whom the response of prolactin to TRH stimulation was significantly diminished. The authors discuss the pathogenesis of the disease in connection with the data obtained.

  14. Cardiometabolic aspects of polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wei Cho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Li Wei Cho1, Harpal S Randeva2, Stephen L Atkin11Department of Medicine, University of Hull; 2Metabolic Unit, University Hospitals Coventry & Warwickshire NHS Trust, UKAbstract: It is estimated that 6%–7% of women of reproductive age have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Women with this condition exhibit an adverse cardiovascular risk profile, characteristic of the cardiometabolic syndrome and given the high prevalence of PCOS in the female population, this condition may contribute towards the acceleration of cardiovascular disease among young women. This article summarizes the recent development and findings in the cardiometabolic abnormalities in patients with PCOS. Patients with PCOS have the clinical features of oligomenorrhoea, hirsutism and infertility; however, they also exhibit hyperinsulinemia, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and an increased pro-thrombotic state. They have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance, and sleep apnea is also found more commonly in this population. However, despite the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and increased surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease it is unclear if they have accelerated atherosclerosis. End point studies are currently lacking and the available evidence are conflicting. Adipose tissue has emerged as an important endocrine organ over the last decade and gained recognition in having an important role in the cardiometabolic syndrome. Adiponectin that is secreted exclusively by adipocytes has recently been recognized as an important marker of cardiometabolic syndrome, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and coronary artery disease. Other adipocytokines like leptin and resistin have also recently been recognized. This article will address the current evidence for the adverse cardiovascular risk in PCOS and the other factors that may be implicated. Finally the therapeutic options for treatment will be discussed.Keywords: cardiometabolic syndrome

  15. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), related symptoms/sequelae, and breast cancer risk in a population-based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jayeon; Mersereau, Jennifer E.; Khankari, Nikhil; Bradshaw, Patrick T.; McCullough, Lauren E.; Cleveland, Rebecca; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Teitelbuam, Susan L.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Senie, Ruby T.; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Despite the overlap between the clinical symptoms/sequelae of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and many known reproductive risk factors for breast cancer, the relationship between PCOS and breast cancer remains unclear, possibly because of the complex heterogeneity and challenges in diagnosing PCOS over time. We hypothesized that PCOS, specific PCOS-related symptoms/sequelae, or clusters of PCOS-related symptoms/sequelae, may be differentially associated with pre- vs. postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Materials and Methods Cases were 1,508 women newly diagnosed with a first primary in situ or invasive breast, and the 1,556 population-based controls were frequency-matched by age. Results History of physician-diagnosed PCOS was reported by 2.2% (n=67), among whom oral contraceptive (OC) use, irregular menstruation, and infertility due to ovulatory dysfunction were common. Using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for PCOS were increased for premenopausal [2.74 (1.13, 6.63)], but not post-menopausal breast cancer [0.87 (0.44, 1.71)]. We used cluster analysis to investigate whether risk among all women varied by PCOS-related symptoms/sequelae, such as reproductive irregularities, OC use, and components of insulin resistance. In the cluster analysis, odds ratios were elevated among premenopausal women who had a history of OC use and no ovulatory dysfunction [1.39 (1.03, 1.88)], compared to those with fewer number of PCOS-related symptoms/sequelae. Conclusion PCOS, and associated PCOS-related symptoms/sequelae including OC use, may play a role in the development of premenopausal breast cancer. Our findings require confirmation in studies with a larger number of premenopausal women with systematically applied diagnostic criteria for PCOS. PMID:26797454

  16. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Ovarian cancer may cause the following signs and symptoms— Vaginal ...

  17. Association between circulating adiponectin levels and polycystic ovarian syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Mirza (Saira); K. Shafique (Kashif); A.R. Shaikh (Abdul Rauf); N.A. Khan (Naveed Ali); M. Anwar Qureshi (Masood)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Low adiponectin levels in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have been largely attributed to obesity which is common among these patients. In addition, evidence also suggests that low adiponectin in PCOS may be related to insulin resistance (IR) in these women. However,

  18. An Audit of Diagnosis and Management of Polycystic Ovarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite rapidly evolving information associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in recent times, there has been scanty documentation of experience with this gynaecological condition in our environment and the challenges associated with diagnosing and managing this condition in a resource poor ...

  19. Ovarian cancer and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C

    2012-01-01

    Smoking has been linked to mucinous ovarian cancer, but its effects on other ovarian cancer subtypes and on overall ovarian cancer risk are unclear, and the findings from most studies with relevant data are unpublished. To assess these associations, we review the published and unpublished evidence....

  20. PDGFRA, HSD17B4 and HMGB2 are potential therapeutic targets in polycystic ovarian syndrome and breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Huiyu; Han, Yong; Lou, Jiaying; Zhang, Hongxian; Zhao, Yue; Győrffy, Balázs; Li, Rong

    2017-01-01

    To explore the key genes associated with both PCOS and breast cancer, we overlapped the synchronously differently expressed genes in two obese insulin-resistant GEO datasets in muscle tissue and genes exert essential roles in breast cancer prognosis together base on the following reasons: (1) Androgens excess is believed to contribute to the onset of both PCOS and breast cancer. (2) PCOS is usually complicated with metabolic symptoms, such as obesity and insulin-resistance. (3) Muscle is the ...

  1. Effects of liraglutide on ovarian dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylander, Malin; Frøssing, Signe; Clausen, Helle V.

    2017-01-01

    -blind, randomized trial, 72 women with PCOS were allocated to intervention with the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide or placebo (1.8 mg/day), in a 2:1 ratio. At baseline and 26-week follow-up, bleeding pattern, levels of AMH, sex hormones and gonadotrophins were assessed and ovarian morphology evaluated. Liraglutide......Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) encompasses an ovarian and a metabolic dysfunction. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues facilitate weight loss and ameliorate metabolic dysfunction in overweight women with PCOS, but their effect on ovarian dysfunction is scarcely reported. In a double...... caused 5.2 kg (95% CI 3.0 to 7.5, P Bleeding ratio improved with liraglutide: 0.28 (95% CI 0.20 to 0.36, P

  2. Comprasion of ovarian stromal blood flow measured by color Doppler ultrasonography in polycystic ovary syndrome patients and healthy women with ultrasonographic evidence of polycystic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ozhan; Sari, Mustafa Erkan; Kalkan, Dilek; Koc, Esra Meltem; Ozdemir, Seyda; Atalay, Cemal Resat

    2015-04-01

    To compare ovarian stromal artery blood flows measured by Doppler ultrasonography of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and healthy women with polycystic ovarian image in ultrasonography. Forty-two patients diagnosed with PCOS according to the criteria of 2003 Rotterdam Concencus Conferance on PCOS and 38 healthy volunteers with polycystic ovarian image in ultrasonography were included in the study. Ovarian volumes and ovarian stromal artery blood flows were measured by 3-dimensional (3-D) ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasonography in all patients. In patients with PCOS, ovarian stromal artery pulsatility index (PI) and resistivity index (RI) were found significantly different from healthy women with polycystic ovarian image in ultrasonography (p polycystic ovarian image only. We conclude that Doppler ultrasonography findings of PCOS patients might be helpful in understanding the clinical follow-up and etiology of the disease.

  3. PDGFRA, HSD17B4 and HMGB2 are potential therapeutic targets in polycystic ovarian syndrome and breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huiyu; Han, Yong; Lou, Jiaying; Zhang, Hongxian; Zhao, Yue; Győrffy, Balázs; Li, Rong

    2017-01-01

    To explore the key genes associated with both PCOS and breast cancer, we overlapped the synchronously differently expressed genes in two obese insulin-resistant GEO datasets in muscle tissue and genes exert essential roles in breast cancer prognosis together base on the following reasons: (1) Androgens excess is believed to contribute to the onset of both PCOS and breast cancer. (2) PCOS is usually complicated with metabolic symptoms, such as obesity and insulin-resistance. (3) Muscle is the main place where energy metabolism and material metabolism take place. Consequently, 53 genes were found, functionally enriched in pathways such as pyruvate metabolism, muscle system process and development of primary male sexual characteristics etc. We further lay our eyes on genes correlated with male sexual characteristics, which may be involved in the onset of both PCOS and breast cancer. Three genes were indicated to be associated with this process, including hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 4/HSD17B4, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, alpha polypeptide/PDGFRA and high-mobility group box 2/HMGB2. Gene-drug interaction network about the three genes were then constructed. Drugs or chemicals that contribute to correcting the disorder of lipid metabolism were detected to restore the abnormal expression of the three genes in PCOS, such as simvastatin, bezafibrate, fenofibrate et al, which provide further choices for managing patients with PCOS. PMID:29050221

  4. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling for clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flyckt, Rebecca L; Goldberg, Jeffrey M

    2011-03-01

    Laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) is an alternative to ovulation induction with gonadotropins for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients unresponsive to clomiphene. It is quick and easy to perform, although the number of punctures and energy doses has not been standardized. The mechanism of LOD is unclear, but it is likely mediated by a reduction in intraovarian androgen production. Serum luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels are rapidly normalized, and these changes are sustained over long-term follow-up. Studies have shown that ovulation and pregnancy rates are comparable between ovulation induction with gonadotropins and LOD, but LOD avoids the risks of multiple pregnancy and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. LOD is also more cost effective and better tolerated than gonadotropin therapy. Concerns regarding clinically significant adhesion formation and premature ovarian failure are not supported by the available data. Transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy and ultrasound guidance are less invasive techniques for performing ovarian drilling and may encourage LOD earlier in the course of treatment for PCOS. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  5. Women's Health: Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, Menopause, and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Melinda

    2017-06-01

    Surveys consistently show that a significantly higher percentage of women with chronic medical conditions report use of complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) approaches compared with men. A total of 54.5% of women report use of at least one CIM approach specifically for obstetric or gynecologic problems. However, primary care providers remain an underutilized resource by patients for guidance in the safe and appropriate use of integrative therapies. This article provides a practical overview of the most appropriate integrative therapies to consider in the management of commonly seen women's health conditions: polycystic ovarian syndrome, menopause, and osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung Hyun; Kim, Young Mi; Kim, Hye Young; Lee, Yoon Jin; Nam, Sang Ook

    2014-06-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is defined as increased intracranial pressure of unknown origin. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a rare condition in adolescence. We report the case of a 14-year-old girl with sudden onset of decreased visual acuity, headache and menstrual irregularity. Clinical neurological examination and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbit were normal. Lumbar puncture demonstrated an increased opening pressure of 31 cm H2O. Gynecologic investigation indicated PCOS. Her symptoms improved with medical and surgical treatment for the underlying PCOS. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. [Hereditary ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikán, M; Foretová, L; Cibula, D; Kotlas, J; Pohlreich, P

    2006-05-01

    This article reviews the topic of hereditary ovarian cancer, describes persons at risk of hereditary disposition to cancer and gives instructions for genetic counselling and molecular analysis, including contacts to specialized centres in the Czech Republic. Review. Institute of Biochemistry and Experimental Oncology, Charles University in Prague. Hereditary ovarian cancer occurs in three autosomal dominant syndromes: appropriate hereditary ovarian cancer (HOC), hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) and hereditary non-poliposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Physician in practice or specialist at the clinic should focus interest on patients form families with frequent occurrence of breast and/or ovarian cancer, patients with early onset disease or tumour duplicity (breast and ovarian cancer). Hereditary disposition to ovarian (and breast) cancer could be assessed by molecular genetic analysis of two main susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, or other genes in families with diverse tumours. Molecular genetic analysis should be in any cases indicated by experienced clinical genetic. In the Czech Republic, the consensus of genetic and clinical care of risk patients was published and specialized centres for families with hereditary predisposition were settled in Prague and Brno. Persons with hereditary susceptibility to cancer constitute noted group where painstaking dispensarisation and preventive care may prevent malignancy or detect it in the early stage.

  8. Influence of ovarian manipulation on reproductive endocrinology in polycystic ovarian syndrome and regularly cycling women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, M L; König, T; Soleman, R S; Korsen, T; Schats, R; Hompes, P G A; Homburg, R; Lambalk, C B

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the function of the ovarian neuronal network in humans. In many species, copulation influences endocrinology through this network. As a first step, the possible influence of ovarian mechanical manipulation on pituitary and ovarian hormones was evaluated in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and regularly cycling women. Prospective case-control study (2008-2010). Ten PCOS women (Rotterdam criteria) undergoing ovulation induction with recombinant-FSH and ten normal ovulatory controls were included in an academic fertility clinic. In the late follicular phase blood was drawn every 10 min for 6 h. After 3 h the ovaries were mechanically manipulated by moving a transvaginal ultrasound probe firmly over each ovary ten times. Main outcome measures were LH and FSH pulsatility and ovarian hormones before and after ovarian manipulation. All PCOS patients showed an LH decline after the ovarian manipulation (before 13.0 U/l and after 10.4 U/l, Pmanipulation lowers LH secretion immediately and typically only in preovulatory PCOS patients. The immediate LH change after the ovarian manipulation without any accompanying ovarian hormonal changes point to nonhormonal communication from the ovaries to the pituitary. A neuronal pathway from the ovaries communicating to the hypothalamic-pituitary system is the most reasonable explanation.

  9. Endometriosis and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králíčková, Milena; Vetvicka, Vaclav

    2014-12-10

    Endometriosis is the leading cause of morbidity among premenopausal women and the complex pathogenesis of this disease remains controversial despite extensive research. This disease represents one of the most common gynecological problems. It is generally believed that this disease is due primarily to retrograde menstruation or transplantation of shed endometrium. Based on overwhelming data, ovarian endometrioma is considered a neoplastic process, since most endometriosis-associated ovarian carcinoma occur in the presence of atypical ovarian endometriosis. A study comparing patients with typical epithelial ovarian cancer with endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer demonstrated that the patients with the latter disease strongly differ in both biological and histological characteristics. The prevelance of this disease is not completely established, but approximately 15 percent of women suffer from this disease. In addition, we know about the possible links between endometriosis and cancer for almost 100 years. Despite clear evidence revealing that endometriosis increases ovarian cancer risks, it is possible that it may not affect disease progression after the appearance of ovarian cancer. However, despite clear evidence revealing that endometriosis increases ovarian cancer risk, our knowledge of the risk factors is far from established. In our review, we focused on the most recent approaches including possible biomarkers and genetic approaches.

  10. Premature ovarian failure/dysfunction following surgical treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.K. Al-Hussaini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common causes of infertility in women. Surgical treatment of PCOS, either by the antiquated wedge resection or ovarian drilling, is one of the commonly used lines in developing countries due to its low-cost. Premature ovarian failure and diminished ovarian reserve are serious complications of the surgical treatment but no published reports sufficiently highlighted these hazards. In this case series, we report on twenty one women aged between 19–39 years, presented to Infertility Clinic, Assiut Women Health Hospital with ovarian dysfunction, diagnosed within 6–36 months after surgical management of PCOS. Nineteen of them had laparoscopic bilateral ovarian drilling using electrocauterization, and the last two had bilateral wedge resection of the ovaries through minilaparotomy. Accurate and documented diagnosis of PCOS, appropriate surgical training, adjusted thermal injury and adjusted number of punctures are essential for the avoidance of excessive damage to the ovaries. Under treatment (failure of drilling is much better than premature ovarian failure or diminishing ovarian reserve.

  11. Ovarian Cancer and Comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Mette Calundann; Sperling, Cecilie Dyg; Ottesen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Comorbidity influences survival in ovarian cancer, but the causal relations between prognosis and comorbidity are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between comorbidity, system delay, the choice of primary treatment, and survival in Danish...... ovarian cancer patients. METHODS: This population-based study was conducted on data from 5317 ovarian cancer patients registered in the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database. Comorbidity was classified according to the Charlson Comorbidity Index and the Ovarian Cancer Comorbidity Index. Pearson χ test...... and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between comorbidity and primary outcome measures: primary treatment ("primary debulking surgery" vs "no primary surgery") and system delay (more vs less than required by the National Cancer Patient Pathways [NCPPs]). Cox...

  12. OVARIAN DRILLING IN INFERTILITY ASSOCIATED WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Crauciuc

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available About 7-8% of the women of reproductive age are affected by the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, and thisis considered to be the main cause of infertility and also the most frequent endocrine illness in women. The study offers anopen perspective for the physician who treats the polycystic ovary syndrome, regarding the judicious use f investigationsin order to analyse the amplitude of the syndrome objectively, so as the treatment of infertility can become the majorobjective for the woman diagnosed with this syndrome. The study was a retrospective one, both analytical and descriptiveand included 156 patients (28.41% who addressed the hospital for primary/secondary infertility issues, of ovulatory cause,with previous medical treatment and who accepted ovarian drilling as a method of treatment in the Clinic of Obstetrics-Gynaecology of the Emergency County Hospital Bacău. The values of LH and the ratio LH/FSH are increased for thepatients with polycystic ovary syndrome, but the sensitivity and specificity of gonadotropins in defining the syndrome arenot certain. There is no correlation between the level of FSH and LH that can have statistical significance, even if the slopeof the regression line has an ascending character. In reality, what is important for diagnosing the illness is the ratio betweenthe two pituitary tropes and not the absolute value of each of them. If you consider the pharmaceutical and economicalpoint of view, the laparoscopic ovarian drilling could be the first choice when deciding what treatment to use for the patientswith PCOS that are resistant to clomiphene, as it is cheaper than the treatment with gonadotropins. The laparoscopic ovariandrilling, followed by an appropriate stimulation with clomiphene is an efficient method of treatment for the patients withanovulatory infertility.

  13. Nintedanib in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalique, Saira; Banerjee, Susana

    2017-09-01

    Advanced ovarian cancer remains an unmet clinical need. Angiogenesis is considered a therapeutic target in ovarian cancer, with bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against VEGF, being the first drug to show a progression-free survival benefit. Nintedanib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting VEGF receptor 1-3, FGFR 1-3 and PDGFR α and β, which has entered phase III trial development in ovarian cancer. Areas covered: This article reviews the preclinical and clinical efficacy of nintedanib in ovarian cancer, its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics profile, safety issues, together with an overview of clinical trials carried out so far. A literature search was made in PubMed for nintedanib, ovarian cancer, angiogenesis, and on ClinicalTrials.gov site for clinical trials with nintedanib. Expert opinion: An ongoing phase III trial investigating nintedanib combined with first-line chemotherapy in ovarian cancer has shown a statistically significant progression free survival benefit, although there were toxicity issues. The true clinical benefit of nintedanib in ovarian cancer including its optimal treatment setting and dosage still need to be addressed.

  14. Multiple metastases from ovarian cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is one of the most common ovarian tumours. Ovarian cancer affects women in the age group >60 years much more frequently than younger women. At the time of diagnosis, cancer will already have spread beyond the ovaries in approximately 75% of cases. We report a case of epithelial ovarian ...

  15. Evaluation of unilateral versus bilateral ovarian drilling in clomiphene citrate resistant cases of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, K K; Baruah, Jinee; Moda, Nidhi; Kumar, Sunesh

    2009-10-01

    Laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) has been put forward as the treatment of choice in women with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with tubo-ovarian adhesion formation as the major disadvantage. Our study proposed to compare the efficacy of laparoscopic unilateral ovarian drilling with bilateral ovarian drilling in terms of ovulation and pregnancy rate with the expected advantage of decreasing postoperative adhesion rate and change in fimbiro ovarian relationship with unilateral drilling. This prospective randomized study included 44 patients with anovulatory infertility due to PCOS. Twenty-two patients underwent unilateral ovarian drilling in group-I and 22 patients underwent bilateral ovarian drilling in group-II between June 2005 and June 2007. The number of drilling site in each ovary was limited to five. The clinical and biochemical response, ovulation and pregnancy rates over a follow-up period of 1 year were compared. Tubo-ovarian adhesion rate was compared during cesarean section or during repeat laparoscopy. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of clinical and biochemical response, ovulation rate and pregnancy rate. Postoperatively, tubo-ovarian adhesions could be assessed in 36.3% of the patients and no adhesions were found in a single case in either group. Unilateral drilling cauterization of ovary is equally efficacious as bilateral drilling in inducing ovulation and achieving pregnancy. Unilateral ovarian drilling may be a suitable option in clomiphene citrate resistant infertility patient of PCOS which can replace bilateral ovarian drilling with the potential advantage of decreasing the chances of adhesion formation.

  16. Metabolic implications of menstrual cycle length in non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebić, Miro Šimun; Stojanović, Nataša; Baldani, Dinka Pavičić; Duvnjak, Lea Smirčić

    2016-12-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between menstrual cycle lenght and metabolic parameters in non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology, n = 250. Metabolic profiles of all participants were evaluated using anthropometric parameters (body mass index, waist circumference), parameters of dyslipidemia (total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides) and markers of insulin resistance (fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index). The associations between menstrual cycle lenght and cardiometabolic risk factors such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and obesity were investigated. In non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology, menstrual cycle lenght was associated with hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance independently of body mass index. Moreover, menstrual cycle lenght added value to body mass index in predicting hypertriglyceridemia. The optimal menstrual cycle lenght cut-off value for identifying of non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology at metabolic risk was found to be 45 days. Metabolic profile of non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology (n = 75) with menstrual cycle lenght >45 days was similar to that of hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology (n = 138) while metabolic profile of non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology with menstrual cycle lenght ≤45 days (n = 112) was similar to that of controls (n = 167). Non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology with menstrual cycle lenght >45 days had higher prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors compared to those with menstrual cycle lenght ≤45 days. Non-hyperandrogenic women with polycystic ovarian morphology are not metabolically homogeneous. Menstrual cycle lenght is an easy-to-obtain clinical parameter positively associated with the probability of unfavorable metabolic status in non

  17. Ovarian Cancer FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vein thrombosis (DVT) , heart attack, and stroke. Current theories suggest that some types of ovarian cancer may ... Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG Meetings Calendar Congressional Leadership Conference Advocacy Legislative Priorities GR & Outreach State Advocacy ...

  18. From Placenta to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: The Role of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Sartori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipokines are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue, besides many other tissues such as placenta, ovaries, peripheral-blood mononuclear cells, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, and bone marrow. Adipokines play a significant role in the metabolic syndrome and in cardiovascular diseases, have implications in regulating insulin sensitivity and inflammation, and have significant effects on growth and reproductive function. The objective of this review was to analyze the functions known today of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin from placenta throughout childhood and adolescence. It is well known now that their serum concentrations during pregnancy and lactation have long-term effects beyond the fetus and newborn. With regard to puberty, adipokines are involved in the regulation of the relationship between nutritional status and normal physiology or disorders of puberty and altered gonadal function, as, for example, premature pubarche and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Cytokines are involved in the maturation of oocytes and in the regular progression of puberty and pregnancy.

  19. Insulin resistance, insulin sensitization and inflammation in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhindsa G

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that 5-10% of women of reproductive age have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. While insulin resistance is not part of the diagnostic criteria for PCOS, its importance in the pathogenesis of PCOS cannot be denied. PCOS is associated with insulin resistance independent of total or fat-free body mass. Post-receptor defects in the action of insulin have been described in PCOS which are similar to those found in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Treatment with insulin sensitizers, metformin and thiazolidinediones, improve both metabolic and hormonal patterns and also improve ovulation in PCOS. Recent studies have shown that PCOS women have higher circulating levels of inflammatory mediators like C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor- , tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 . It is possible that the beneficial effect of insulin sensitizers in PCOS may be partly due to a decrease in inflammation.

  20. Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Function in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Rasmus; Svendsen, Pernille Maj; Skovbro, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Objective Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with skeletal muscle insulin resistance, which has been linked to decreased mitochondrial function. We measured mitochondrial respiration in lean and obese women with and without PCOS using high-resolution respirometry. Methods...... Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps (40 mU/min/m2) and muscle biopsies were performed on 23 women with PCOS (9 lean (body mass index (BMI) 25 kg/m2)) and 17 age- and weight-matched controls (6 lean and 11 obese). Western blotting and high-resolution respirometry was used to determine mitochondrial function. Results...... Insulin sensitivity decreased with PCOS and increasing body weight. Mitochondrial respiration with substrates for complex I and complex I+II were similar in all groups, and PCOS was not associated with a decrease in mitochondrial content as measured by mtDNA/genomicDNA. We found no correlation between...

  1. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manmohan K Kamboj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is the commonest endocrinopathy in women with a multi-factorial etiology, and presents not just a diagnostic dilemma but also a therapeutic challenge as well. The clinical features of the syndrome in adolescents result from hyperandrogenemia and oligo/anovulation. Most women presenting with non-pregnancy related secondary amenorrhea, oligomenorrhoea, acne, hirsutism, and infertility have PCOS. Consensus diagnostic criteria have been developed by the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH, and the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and American Society of Reproduction (Rotterdam criteria. PCOS needs to be suspected, recognized, and treated to prevent some long term complications. Treatment modalities need to be individualized to address the specific concerns of each female presenting with this entity. This article reviews the diagnosis and principles of management of PCOS.

  2. Ixabepilone and Liposomal Doxorubicin in Advanced Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-11

    Fallopian Tube Cancer; Female Reproductive Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  3. Current evidence of acupuncture on polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chi E D; Wong, Wu S F

    2010-06-01

    This paper aims to provide a literature review on evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture therapy in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) by reviewing clinical trials; randomised and non-randomised and observational studies on PCOS. The paper will also determine the possible mechanism of acupuncture treatment in PCOS, limitations of recruited studies and suggest further improvements in future studies. A comprehensive literature search was conducted through the databases Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine), NCCAM (The National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine) to identify relevant monographs. Four studies were recruited. Several studies showed that acupuncture significantly increases beta-endorphin levels for periods up to 24 h and may have regulatory effect on FSH, LH and androgen. beta-endorphin increased levels secondary to acupuncture affects the hyperthalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis through promoting the release of ACTH through stimulation of its precursor pro-opiomelanocortin synthesis. All available acupuncture studies on human subjects with PCOS from June 1970 to June 2009. Studies not meeting the inclusion criteria, published in languages other than English or animal studies. Acupuncture is a safe and effective treatment to PCOS as the adverse effects of pharmacologic interventions are not expected by women with PCOS. Acupuncture therapy may have a role in PCOS by: increasing of blood flow to the ovaries, reducing of ovarian volume and the number of ovarian cysts, controlling hyperglycaemia through increasing insulin sensitivity and decreasing blood glucose and insulin levels, reducing cortisol levels and assisting in weight loss and anorexia. However, well-designed, randomised controlled trials are needed to elucidate the true effect of acupuncture on PCOS.

  4. Lysyl oxidase interacts with AGE signalling to modulate collagen synthesis in polycystic ovarian tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Papachroni, Katerina K.; Piperi, Christina; Levidou, Georgia; Korkolopoulou, Penelope; Pawelczyk, Leszek; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Connective tissue components ? collagen types I, III and IV ? surrounding the ovarian follicles undergo drastic changes during ovulation. Abnormal collagen synthesis and increased volume and density of ovarian stroma characterize the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). During the ovulatory process, collagen synthesis is regulated by prolyl hydroxylase and lysyl oxidase (LOX) activity in ovarian follicles. LOX catalyzes collagen and elastin cross-linking and plays essential role in coor...

  5. Managing hereditary ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, M. J.; de Bock, G. H.

    2009-01-01

    In this review we present an overview of recent developments in the management of hereditary ovarian cancer. Until recently, intensive screening of the ovaries was recommended to mutation carriers and their first-degree female relatives. However, since screening is not effective in detecting

  6. Dietary habits in adolescent girls with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadou, Maria; Stefanidis, Konstantinos; Lykeridou, Katerina; Iliadis, Iakovos; Michala, Lina

    2015-04-01

    The phenotype of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is known to worsen with weight gain, increased ingestion of carbohydrates and a sedentary lifestyle. The purpose of this study was to assess the dietary habits in a group of adolescent girls with PCOS. Adolescents with PCOS were recruited and asked to complete a questionnaire on their eating habits and a recall dietary diary, from which their caloric and macronutrient intake was calculated. Results were compared with those from a group of normal controls. Thirty-five women with PCOS and 46 controls were included. Girls with PCOS were less likely to have cereals for breakfast (20.7 versus 66.7%) and as a result consumed less fibre than controls. They were more likely to eat an evening meal (97.1 versus 78.3%) and eat this over an hour later when compared to controls. Despite having comparable body mass indexes, girls with PCOS ate a daily surplus calorie average of 3% versus controls that had a negative calorie intake of 0.72% (p = 0.047). Ameliorating eating habits early in adolescence in girls with PCOS may improve future metabolic concerns related to a genetic predisposition and worsened by an unhealthy lifestyle.

  7. Predictors of Depression in Iranian Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Lak, Tahereh Behroozi; Aliasghari, Fatemeh

    2017-11-14

    Depression is a major complication of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Lifestyle modification can prevent it. This study aimed to determine the predictors of depression in women with PCOS. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 174 women who attended in infertility clinics in Urmia-Iran, 2015. The data were collected through socio-demographic, Beck Depression Inventory-II and Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile-2 questionnaires. The mean (standard deviation) of total score of the depression was obtained 27.4 (10.5) in the range 0-63. The mean (SD) of total score of the health promoting lifestyle was obtained 2.2 (0.3) out of 4. Based on multivariate linear regression, the variables of nutrition, interpersonal relationships, spiritual growth, stress management, BMI, the perceived stress of the disease, the first supporter and menstrual bleeding were predictors of the depression. Given the high prevalence of depression in PCOS patients and its relationship with health-promoting behaviors, lifestyle modification to reduce depression is necessary.

  8. Bipolar disorder in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Davari-Tanha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the prevalence of bipolar disorder in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCO. One hundred and ten women with definite diagnosis of PCO and one hundred and ten age-matched infertile women due to other reasons except for PCO were enrolled in this case-control study. Ten ml fasting venous blood sample obtained to measure fasting glucose, LH and FSH. Height, weight and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR were also recorded by an expert technician. A psychiatrist examined all 220 cases in order to determine the prevalence of depression and bipolarity. Mean age of each group participants were not significantly different while FBS, LH and LH/FSH levels were significantly higher in PCO patients. Eighty eight case were depressed in PCO group while 96 were depressed in control group (P=0.03. Bipolar disorder were higher in PCO group in comparison with controls (8 vs. 0, P=0.004. Psychiatric disorders should be considered in PCO women.

  9. TP53 and ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schuijer (Monique); P.M.J.J. Berns (Els)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOvarian cancer represents the fourth most frequent type of cancer among females and is the leading cause of death from gynecological cancer in the western world. This review describes gene alterations in ovarian cancer. Specific emphasis is placed on genetic alterations and the

  10. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling: An alternative but not the ultimate in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Subarna; Nayak, Prasanta Kumar; Agrawal, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1984, laparoscopic ovarian drilling has evolved into a safe and effective surgical treatment for anovulatory, infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), unresponsive to clomiphene citrate. It is as effective as gonadotropins in terms of pregnancy and live birth rates, but without the risks of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and multiple pregnancies. It improves ovarian responsiveness to successive ovulation induction agents. Its favorable reproductive and endocrinal effects are sustained long. Despite its advantages, its use in unselected cases of PCOS or for non-fertility indications is not prudent owing to the potential risks of iatrogenic adhesions and ovarian insufficiency. PMID:25810633

  11. Bisphenol A and Ovarian Reserve among Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To better understand possible effects of bisphenol A (BPA exposure on ovarian reserve in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, we measured creatinine adjusted urinary BPA (BPA_Cre concentrations and used regression models to evaluate the association between urinary BPA level and antral follicle count (AFC, antimullerian hormone (AMH, day-3 follicle stimulating hormone levels (FSH and inhibin B (INHB in 268 infertile women diagnosed with PCOS. BPA was detected in all women with a median concentration of 2.35 ng/mL (the 25th and 75th percentiles of 1.47 ng/mL and 3.95 ng/mL. A unit increase in BPA_Cre was associated with a significant decrease of 0.34 in AFC (β = −0.34, 95% CI = −0.60, −0.08; p = 0.01. Likewise, BPA was negatively associated with AMH and day-3 FSH levels, but neither of them reached statistical significance. No association was observed between BPA and INHB. Our results suggest that in women with PCOS, BPA may affect ovarian follicles and, therefore, reduce ovarian reserve.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a cancerous tumor. Like BRCA1 and BRCA2 , these genes are considered "high penetrance" because mutations greatly increase a person's chance of developing cancer. In addition to ovarian cancer , mutations in these ...

  13. Functional genetic polymorphisms and female reproductive disorders: Part I: polycystic ovary syndrome and ovarian response

    OpenAIRE

    Simoni, M.; Tempfer, C.B.; Destenaves, B.; Fauser, B.C.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND The identification of polymorphisms associated with a disease can help to elucidate its pathogenesis, and this knowledge can be used to improve prognosis for women with a particular disorder, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Since an altered response to ovarian stimulation is also a characteristic of the disease, further knowledge about its aetiology could help in defining the parameters that determine the response of an individual to ovarian stimulation. METHODS PubMed an...

  14. SNP analysis of follistatin gene associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    et al

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Palanisamy Panneerselvam1, Kanakarajan Sivakumari1, Ponmani Jayaprakash1, Ramanathan Srikanth21Department of Zoology, Presidency College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India; 2Department of Biotechnology, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, IndiaAbstract: Follistatin has been reported as a candidate gene for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS based on linkage and association studies. In this study, investigation of polymorphisms in the FST gene was done to determine if genetic variation is associated with susceptibility to PCOS. The nucleotide sequence of human follistatin and the protein sequence of human follistatin were retrieved from the NCBI database using Entrez. The follistatin protein of human was retrieved from the Swiss-Prot database. There are 344 amino acids and the molecular weight is 38,007 Da. The ProtParam analysis shows that the isoelectric point is 5.53 and the aliphatic index is 61.25. The hydropathicity is -0.490. The domains in FST protein are as follows: Pfam-B 5005 domain from 1 to 92; EGF-like subdomain from 93 to 116; Kazal 1 domain, occurred in three places, namely, 118–164, 192–239, and 270–316. There are 31 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for this gene. Some are nonsynonymous, some occur in the intron region, and some in an untranslated region. Two nonsynonymous SNPs, namely, rs11745088 and rs1127760, were taken for analysis. In the SNP rs11745088, the change is E152Q. Likewise, in rs1127760, the change is C239S. SIFT (Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant showed positions of amino acids and the single letter code of amino acids that can be tolerated or deleterious for each position. There were six SNP results and each result had links to it. The dbSNP id, primary database id, and the type of mutation whether silent and if occurring in coding region are given as phenotype alterations. The FASTA format of protein was given to the nsSNP Analyzer tool, and the variation E152Q and C239S were given

  15. Association of DNA damage and dyslipidemia with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikkumar R

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is associated with hyperinsuli-nemia and insulin resistance which may lead to cardiovascular diseases. Evidence for cardiovascular events in women who were affected by PCOS during fertile age is limited. The pathogenesis is unknown; however, it is a complex multigenetic disorder. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the various cardiovas-cular risk factors and their DNA repair efficiency in women with PCOS by investigating the biochemical, endocrinological and mo-lecular cytogenetic alterations. These investigations were carried out in 116 women in the age group of 15-35 years clinically diag-nosed with PCOS. Data were compared with that of 50 age-matched healthy normal women. Fasting blood sugar (FBS, Lipid profile, Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH and Luteinizing Hor-mone (LH, Prolactin and Estradiol were estimated after getting the informed consent. Mutagen induced chromosome sensitivity analysis was carried out in the lymphocytes of the subjects to as-sess the DNA repair proficiency. Fasting Blood Sugar, total cho-lesterol and LDL cholesterol were found to be elevated whereas HDL cholesterol was found to be lowered in the test subjects. FSH, LH and prolactin were also found to be significantly elevated in the test subjects. Change in the estradiol concentration in the test subjects was not significant. The mutagen sensitivity analysis revealed a significant elevation in break per cell (b/c values indi-cating a deficiency in the DNA repair mechanism / DNA damage in PCOS patients. Modification of life style by changing the dietary habit and sedentary life style will help to reduce the oxidative stress and may increase the ovarian function and a sensible life-style management is recommended for reducing the risk for CVD.

  16. Comparison of IVF/ICSI outcome in patients with polycystic ovarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: One of the recognized treatment options for patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Fears are however sometimes raised concerning the likely outcome of treatment in such patients compared with their counterparts with tubal factor ...

  17. Functional genetic polymorphisms and female reproductive disorders : Part I: polycystic ovary syndrome and ovarian response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simoni, M.; Tempfer, C. B.; Destenaves, B.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The identification of polymorphisms associated with a disease can help to elucidate its pathogenesis, and this knowledge can be used to improve prognosis for women with a particular disorder, such as polycystic ovary syndrome ( PCOS). Since an altered response to ovarian stimulation is

  18. DNA methylation profiles of polycystic ovarian syndrome in Chinese women: A case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia; Duan, Hongmei; Zhu, D

    interference of the genome with the environment through integrative biological mechanisms including epigenetics. We have performed a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis on polycystic ovarian syndrome using Illumina’s HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. We identifi ed a substantial number of genomic sites diff...

  19. Differential DNA methylation patterns of polycystic ovarian syndrome in whole blood of Chinese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia; Zhu, Dongyi; Duan, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    interference of the genome with the environment through integrative biological mechanisms including epigenetics. We have performed a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis on polycystic ovarian syndrome and identified a substantial number of genomic sites differentially methylated in the whole blood of PCOS...

  20. Intravital Microscopy in Evaluating Patients With Primary Peritoneal, Fallopian Tube, or Stage IA-IV Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-28

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

  1. Changes in Coagulation and Fibrinolytic Indices in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Undergoing Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET treatment always attain a low cumulative pregnancy rate disaccording with the satisfactory number of oocytes. Objective. We aim to evaluate the status of coagulation and fibrinolytic system in PCOS patients undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH process. Method. Of the 97 women, 30 patients with PCOS composed the study group; 67 women of child-bearing age with normal endocrine function composed the control group. All participants underwent GnRH agonist standard long protocol, and plasma HCY, FVIII, FX, and D-dimer levels as well as hormone parameters were measured at day of full downregulation, hCG priming, and embryos transfer. Results. On day of full downregulation, FX levels were significantly higher in PCOS group (P<0.01. On hCG priming day, FX and estrogen levels in PCOS group were higher than in the control group and FVIII levels were significantly lower on day of embryos transfer whereas FX and E2 levels were significantly higher in PCOS group. Conclusion. Hypercoagulable state during peri-implantation phase would probably lead to poor microcirculation of endometrium and be one of the most important disadvantages of successful implantation and subsequent clinical pregnancy.

  2. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    of Medicinal Product Statistics provided individually updated exposure information. The National Cancer Register and Pathology Register provided ovarian cancer incidence data. Information on confounding factors and effect modifiers was from other national registers. Poisson regression analyses with 5-year age......CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  3. Comparing the effect of aqueous extract of green tea and catechin on gonadotropins, β-estradiol, Progesterone, testosterone and ovarian follicle in polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Damoon Sadoughi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Compared with green tea, catechin has a more favorable effect on improving hormonal parameters, especially FSH hormone and increasing the number of ovarian follicles in rats with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  4. CA125 in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, M J; Bonfrer, J M; Kulpa, J

    2005-01-01

    CA125 is currently the most widely used tumor marker for ovarian epithelial cancer. The aim of this article is to provide guidelines for the routine clinical use of CA125 in patients with ovarian cancer. Due to lack of sensitivity for stage I disease and lack of specificity, CA125 is of little...... value in the detection of early ovarian cancer. At present, therefore, CA125, either alone or in combination with other modalities, cannot be recommended for screening for ovarian cancer in asymptomatic women outside the context of a randomized controlled trial. Preoperative levels in postmenopausal...... women, however, may aid the differentiation of benign and malignant pelvic masses. Serial levels during chemotherapy for ovarian cancer are useful for assessing response to treatment. Although serial monitoring following initial chemotherapy can lead to the early detection of recurrent disease...

  5. Oncolytic virotherapy for ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shoudong; Tong, Jessica; Rahman, Masmudur M; Shepherd, Trevor G; McFadden, Grant

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, more than 20 viruses with selective tropism for tumor cells have been developed as oncolytic viruses (OVs) for treatments of a variety of malignancies. Of these viruses, eleven have been tested in human ovarian cancer models in preclinical studies. So far, nine phase I or II clinical trials have been conducted or initiated using four different types of OVs in patients with recurrent ovarian cancers. In this article, we summarize the different OVs that are being assessed as therapeutics for ovarian cancer. We also present an overview of recent advances in identification of key genetic or immune-response pathways involved in tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer, which provides a better understanding of the tumor specificities and oncolytic properties of OVs. In addition, we discuss how next-generation OVs could be genetically modified or integrated into multimodality regimens to improve clinical outcomes based on recent advances in ovarian cancer biology. PMID:25977900

  6. Ovarian Autoantibodies Predict Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    of carcinogenesis is supported by literature reports; for example, in patients with chronic hepatitis (which predisposes to liver cancer) specific...used as 45 novel immunosuppressive agent to inhibit S1P1-mediated immune cell migration from lymph to 46 sites of inflammation and is of particular...tumor vaccine was 86 developed for chickens to prevent Marek’s disease, a virally -induced lymphoid neoplasm [36]. 87 Moreover, humans [37;38] and

  7. [Laparoscopic ovarian drilling and biopsy in women with polycystic ovaries (PCOS) and infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punevska, M; Filipov, E; Mainhart, K; Zhivkova, R

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate ovarian reserve according to results of biopsy of ovaries during laparoscopy. To investigate connections between hystologic results, drilling of ovaries and pregnancies. We investigate prospectively 74 patients with polycystic ovaries (PCOS) and infertility. Operative laparoscopy have be done in 2006, 2008 and 2009 year in University Hospital "Maichin Dom" Sofia, Bulgaria. All patients had ovarian drilling and biopsy. Microscopic findings from biopsy of ovary in 74 women with PCOS were divided in 4 groups. In this investigation from 74 women with operative laparoscopy 33 patients (44.5%) were pregnant. The results of biopsy and registered pregnancies in PCOS patients is very difficult to analyse. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling and biopsy affect ovarian tissue. The ovary probably change own characteristics--ovarian metabolism and physiology are restored and this changes our clinical prognosis for a future pregnancies.

  8. Melatonin and its correlation with testosterone in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is considered to be the most common endocrine disorder affecting women. Melatonin, a small lipophilic indoleamine, and reproductive hormones may be interrelated. Melatonin influences sex steroid production at different stages of ovarian follicular maturation as melatonin receptors have been demonstrated at multiple sites in ovary and in intrafollicular fluid. It plays role as an antioxidant and free radical scavanger which protects follicles from oxidative stress, rescuing them from atresia, leading to complete follicular maturation and ovulation. Aims: To study the role of melatonin in PCOS and to investigate its correlation with testosterone in patients suffering from PCOS. Settings and Design: A total of 50 women with PCOS (Rotterdam criteria, 2003 and 50 age and weight matched healthy controls were selected and serum melatonin estimation was done in both the groups and correlated with serum total testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, detailed history, clinical examination and hormonal evaluation [basal levels of leutinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, insulin, total testosterone, progesterone and melatonin] were carried out in all the participants including both cases and controls. For melatonin estimation, blood samples were collected between 12:00 am and 04:00 am on day 2 nd of menstrual cycle and analyzed by using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Statistical Analysis: Student′s t-test was used to compare the significant difference in mean values between cases and control groups. Chi-square test was used to test the significant association between the qualitative variables. Linear correlation coefficient and regression analysis were done to see the amount and direction of relationship between quantitative variables. Results: The mean melatonin level was observed to be significantly

  9. Patterns of ovarian morphology in polycystic ovary syndrome: a study utilising magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Thomas M.; Smith, Rachel; Marland, Anne; Wass, John A.H. [Churchill Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Oxford (United Kingdom); Alvey, Christopher [John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford MRI Centre, Oxford (United Kingdom); Greenslade, Tessa [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Medicine, Oxford (United Kingdom); Gooding, Mark [University of Oxford, Department of Engineering, Oxford (United Kingdom); Barber, Debbie; Child, Tim [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Oxford (United Kingdom); McCarthy, Mark I. [Churchill Hospital, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Oxford (United Kingdom); Franks, Stephen [Imperial College (Hammersmith Campus), Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, London (United Kingdom); Golding, Stephen J. [John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford MRI Centre, Oxford (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Department of Engineering, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    To evaluate and compare MRI-based ovarian morphology in groups of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and controls. All PCOS cases (n = 44) had oligo-amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism irrespective of ovarian morphology, and fulfilled NIH/Rotterdam diagnostic criteria for PCOS. All control women (n = 40) had normal menses and normoandrogenaemia. All subjects were of white British/Irish origin and pre-menopausal. Group comparisons were based on independent-sample t tests. Polycystic ovarian morphology was defined by at least 12 follicles 2-9 mm in diameter and/or an ovarian volume greater than 10 cm{sup 3}. Ovarian morphology differed significantly in PCOS cases and controls (follicle number geometric mean [SD range] 18.6 [9.9, 35.0] vs 6.6 [3.1, 14.2], unadjusted P = 1.3 x 10{sup -16}; calculated ovarian volume 8.8 cm{sup 3} [5.0, 15.5] vs 5.1 cm{sup 3} [2.5, 10.3], unadjusted P = 3.0 x 10{sup -7}; peripheral follicle location in 55% vs 18% of ovaries, P = 7.9 x 10{sup -6}; visible central ovarian stroma in 61% vs 24% of ovaries, P = 2.3 x 10{sup -5}). Follicle number and calculated ovarian volume were not concordant with clinical/biochemical assignment of PCOS/control status in 36 (23%) and 52 (34%) of ovaries, respectively. Ovarian morphology overlaps in PCOS cases and controls, emphasising the importance of considering clinical/biochemical presentation together with imaging ovarian morphology in the diagnosis of PCOS. (orig.)

  10. Animal models of ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw Tanya J

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian cancer is the most lethal of all of the gynecological cancers and can arise from any cell type of the ovary, including germ cells, granulosa or stromal cells. However, the majority of ovarian cancers arise from the surface epithelium, a single layer of cells that covers the surface of the ovary. The lack of a reliable and specific method for the early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer results in diagnosis occurring most commonly at late clinical stages, when treatment is less effective. In part, the deficiency in diagnostic tools is due to the lack of markers for the detection of preneoplastic or early neoplastic changes in the epithelial cells, which reflects our rather poor understanding of this process. Animal models which accurately represent the cellular and molecular changes associated with the initiation and progression of human ovarian cancer have significant potential to facilitate the development of better methods for the early detection and treatment of ovarian cancer. This review describes some of the experimental animal models of ovarian tumorigenesis that have been reported, including those involving specific reproductive factors and environmental toxins. Consideration has also been given to the recent progress in modeling ovarian cancer using genetically engineered mice.

  11. [Molecular biology of ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K

    1999-12-01

    It has been suggested that the accumulation in multiple steps of gene abnormality is related to the malignant transformation of the normal cell. Understanding such abnormalities would be useful in the establishment of effective measures for the early detection and treatment of cancers with poor prognoses. In gynecological malignancies, the prognosis for epithelial ovarian cancer is poor even though great numbers of patients are treated with multimodal therapy. Uncovering the genes associated with the epithelial ovarian cancer crisis could lead to the identification of high risk cases, and accurate screening could open the way to early detection. Among the genes searched to date for abnormalities related to ovarian cancer, BRCA1 is thought to be the most likely candidate for having a causal relation with the familial ovarian cancer syndrome.

  12. Could transvaginal, ultrasound-guided ovarian interstitial laser treatment replace laparoscopic ovarian drilling in women with polycystic ovary syndrome resistant to clomiphene citrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Api, Murat

    2009-12-01

    A number of novel surgical modalities that destroy or remove some ovarian tissue to restore ovarian function in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome have been described in the most recent literature. Although these modalities were reported to have easy applicability and low cost with shorter hospital stay, the efficacy and safety concerns need to be discussed extensively.

  13. Metabolic Concomitants of Obese and Nonobese Women With Features of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Boumosleh, Jocelyne Matar; Grundy, Scott M.; Phan, Jennifer; Neeland, Ian J.; Chang, Alice; Vega, Gloria Lena

    2017-01-01

    Context: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is often associated with obesity and diabetes. Objective: The present study measured body fat distribution and metabolic risk factors in women with features of PCOS. Design: Cross-sectional, multiethnic study of cardiovascular risks. Setting: General community. Study Participants: 145 PCOS and 344 non-PCOS women. Exposure Measures: Body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry; abdominal fat masses measured by magnetic resonance imaging and hepatic ...

  14. Awareness of lifestyle modification in females diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome in India: explorative study

    OpenAIRE

    Pothiraj Pitchai; S. R. Sreeraj; Parmar Reema Anil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) adversely affect women at varying stages of their life and imperative to emphasis on prevention strategies since incidence of PCOS is on the rise. Study aims to explore perception on PCOS, awareness on life style modification, emotional attributes, concern regarding PCOS and utilization of physiotherapy services. Methods: The study was conducted in Mumbai and Navi Mumbai, India. Self-made validated questionnaire was administered. Descriptive a...

  15. Activity of LPO Processes in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, L I; Kolesnikov, S I; Darenskaya, M A; Grebenkina, L A; Nikitina, O A; Lazareva, L M; Suturina, L V; Danusevich, I N; Druzhinina, E B; Semendyaev, A A

    2017-01-01

    Specific features of LPO processes and antioxidant defense were studied in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and infertility. Changes in LPO processes in patients with PCOS were compensatory, which manifested in increased α-tocopherol and retinol concentrations and moderate decrease in superoxide dismutase activity. Intensification of prooxidant processes was found in the group of patients with infertility without PCOS. The observed changes necessitate differentiated approach to the treatment of these patients.

  16. History of Comorbidities and Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients, Results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minlikeeva, A.N.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Eng, K.H.; Cannioto, R.A.; Friel, G.; Szender, J.B.; Segal, B.; Odunsi, K.; Mayor, P.; Diergaarde, B.; Zsiros, E.; Kelemen, L.E.; Kobel, M.; Steed, H.; Defazio, A.; Jordan, S.J.; Fasching, P.A.; Beckmann, M.W.; Risch, H.A.; Rossing, M.A.; Doherty, J.A.; Chang-Claude, J.; Goodman, M.T.; Dork, T.; Edwards, R.; Modugno, F.; Ness, R.B.; Matsuo, K.; Mizuno, M.; Karlan, B.Y.; Goode, E.L.; Kjaer, S.K.; Hogdall, E.; Schildkraut, J.M.; Terry, K.L.; Cramer, D.W; Bandera, E.V.; Paddock, L.E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Sutphen, R.; Anton-Culver, H.; Ziogas, A.; Menon, U.; Gayther, S.A.; Ramus, S.J.; Gentry-Maharaj, A.; Pearce, C.L.; Wu, A.H.; Kupryjanczyk, J.; Jensen, A.; Webb, P.M.; Moysich, K.B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Comorbidities can affect survival of ovarian cancer patients by influencing treatment efficacy. However, little evidence exists on the association between individual concurrent comorbidities and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients.Methods: Among patients diagnosed with invasive ovarian

  17. Lysyl oxidase interacts with AGE signalling to modulate collagen synthesis in polycystic ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachroni, Katerina K; Piperi, Christina; Levidou, Georgia; Korkolopoulou, Penelope; Pawelczyk, Leszek; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2010-10-01

    Connective tissue components--collagen types I, III and IV--surrounding the ovarian follicles undergo drastic changes during ovulation. Abnormal collagen synthesis and increased volume and density of ovarian stroma characterize the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). During the ovulatory process, collagen synthesis is regulated by prolyl hydroxylase and lysyl oxidase (LOX) activity in ovarian follicles. LOX catalyzes collagen and elastin cross-linking and plays essential role in coordinating the control of ovarian extracellular matrix (ECM) during follicular development. We have recently shown accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), molecules that stimulate ECM production and abnormal collagen cross-linking, in ovarian tissue. However, the possible link between LOX and AGEs-induced signalling in collagen production and stroma formation in ovarian tissue from PCOS remains elusive. The present study investigates the hypothesis of AGE signalling pathway interaction with LOX gene activity in polycystic ovarian (PCO) tissue. We show an increased distribution and co-localization of LOX, collagen type IV and AGE molecules in the PCO tissue compared to control, as well as augmented expression of AGE signalling mediators/effectors, phospho(p)-ERK, phospho(p)-c-Jun and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in pathological tissue. Moreover, we demonstrate binding of AGE-induced transcription factors, NF-κB and activator protein-1 (AP-1) on LOX promoter, indicating a possible involvement of AGEs in LOX gene regulation, which may account for the documented increase in LOX mRNA and protein levels compared to control. These findings suggest that deposition of excess collagen in PCO tissue that induces cystogenesis may, in part, be due to AGE-mediated stimulation of LOX activity. © 2009 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Stage at diagnosis and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maringe, Camille; Walters, Sarah; Butler, John

    2012-01-01

    We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival.......We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival....

  19. [Epidemiological profile of ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Corchado, Luz María; González-Geroniz, Manuel; Hernández-Herrera, Ricardo Jorge

    2011-09-01

    In Mexico, ovarian cancer represents 5.3% of cancer diagnoses in all age groups and 21% of gynecologic cancers. The states with the highest incidence of this disease Nuevo León, Mexico State and Federal District. To determine the epidemiological profile of ovarian cancer. A retrospective cross-sectional study that included all patients with complete records, diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated at the Oncology department UMAE Monterrey No. 23, January 2009 to 31 December 2009. We identified 40 patients with ovarian cancer. The average age of menarche was 12.7 years, 40% were of reproductive age, 25% were nulliparous, 15% had a pregnancy and 37.5% had two pregnancies. Of the total patients, 17% had a history of breast cancer, 40% used a contraceptive method, 37% used oral contraceptives. The tumor marker CA 125 was found in 40% of patients, 63.1% had ultrasound markers for cancer. The most frequent clinical stage 1A in which they found 32% of cases. Papillary serous adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in 25% of patients, endometroid adenocarcinoma and mucinous tumor of low malignant potential was diagnosed borderline at 20%, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in 18% tumor granulosa cells in 7% and papillary adenocarcinoma ring cell adenocarcinoma in 5%. In total, 43% of patients received chemotherapy. The majority of cases tenia50 years or more. The background was the most frequent hereditary breast cancer. There were no deaths during the study.

  20. The association between polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Chedumbarum Pillay, O. D.

    2010-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: Women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome have an increased risk of developing endometrial carcinoma. AIM: To determine whether people with polycystic ovary syndrome have an increased risk of developing endometrial carcinoma. BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is one of the commonest cancers to occur in women in the Western World and unopposed oestrogen stimulation of the uterus is amongst one of the aetiologies postulated for this condition. It is generally assumed that ...

  1. Potential role of retinoids in ovarian physiology and pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanwen; Li, Chunjin; Chen, Lu; Wang, Fengge; Zhou, Xu

    2017-06-01

    Retinoids (retinol and its derivatives) are required for maintaining vision, immunity, barrier function, reproduction, embryogenesis, cell proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, retinoid signaling plays a key role in initiating meiosis of germ cells of the mammalian fetal ovary. Recently, studies indicated that precise retinoid level regulation in the ovary provides a molecular control of ovarian development, steroidogenesis and oocyte maturation. Besides, abnormal retinoid signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common ovarian endocrinopathies in reproductive-aged women worldwide. This review primarily summarizes recent advancements made in investigating the action of retinoid signaling in ovarian physiology as well as the abnormal retinoid signaling in PCOS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  3. [Polycystic ovarian syndrome incidence in young women with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotta, L; Pagano, I; Stracquadanio, M; Formuso, C

    2011-10-01

    Recently, numerous studies have shown significant correlation between hyperandrogenism and elevated insulin levels in many patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Insuline-Resistance (IR) results in increased circulating levels of this hormone and it is the basis of the metabolic syndrome, characterized by the presence of fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is pathologically characterized by the accumulation of triglycerides as macro or micro vesicles, in more than 5% of hepatocytes. The aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence of NAFLD in young women with PCOS, who were lean, overweight or obese. Particularly, the levels of glucose and insulin, the lipidic profile, and all liver function indices were evaluated; the severity and degree of steatosis were established on the basis of parenchymal echogenicity and the view of intrahepatic venous circulation. Our study showed that NAFLD is a common disease in women with polycystic ovaries, especially with high BMI, but an incidence rate of 40% in lean women too was found. Because steatohepatitis is a risk factor for the developmente of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, it is therefore prudent to carry out an ultrasound evaluation of liver in all young patients suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome, regardless of their BMI and the results of serological evaluation of liver. This collateral diagnosis that accompanies the diagnosis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome seems important since this type of patients could be treated with metformin or with thiazoles to reduce insulin-resistance and steatosis as well.

  4. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    and Biomedical Network on Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Madrid, Spain; 23Institute of Biology and Molecular Genetics , University of Valladolid, Valladolid...d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; 99The Hong Kong Hereditary Breast Cancer Family Registry; Cancer Genetics Center, Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, Hong... disease , but the absolute risk differences for mutation carriers will be much greater. As more genetic modifiers of ovarian cancer risk are identified, in

  5. Office microlaparoscopic ovarian drilling (OMLOD) versus conventional laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) for women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Imaduldin M

    2013-02-01

    This was a prospective controlled study to compare the beneficial effects of office microlaparoscopic ovarian drilling (OMLOD) under augmented local anesthesia, as a new modality treatment option, compared to those following ovarian drilling with the conventional traditional 10-mm laparoscope (laparoscopic ovarian drilling, LOD) under general anesthesia. The study included 60 anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who underwent OMLOD (study group) and 60 anovulatory PCOS women, in whom conventional LOD using 10-mm laparoscope under general anesthesia was performed (comparison group). Transvaginal ultrasound scan and blood sampling to measure the serum concentrations of LH, FSH, testosterone and androstenedione were performed before and after the procedure. Intraoperative and postoperative pain scores in candidate women were evaluated during the office microlaparoscopic procedure, in addition to the number of candidates who needed extra analgesia. Women undergoing OMLOD showed good intraoperative and postoperative pain scores. The number of patients discharged within 2 h after the office procedure was significantly higher, without the need for postoperative analgesia in most patients. The LH:FSH ratio, mean serum concentrations of LH and testosterone and free androgen index decreased significantly after both OMLOD and LOD. The mean ovarian volume decreased significantly (P LOD. There were no significant differences in those results after both procedures. Intra- and postoperatively augmented local anesthesia allows outpatient bilateral ovarian drilling by microlaparoscopy without general anesthesia. The high pregnancy rate, the simplicity of the method and the faster discharge time offer a new option for patients with PCOS who are resistant to clomiphene citrate. Moreover, ovarian drilling could be performed simultaneously during the routine diagnostic microlaparoscopy and integrated into the fertility workup of these patients.

  6. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): Long-term metabolic consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostis, Panagiotis; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Kauffman, Robert P

    2017-10-10

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women during their reproductive ages, associated with a plethora of cardiometabolic consequences, with obesity, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenemia playing a major role in the degree of such manifestations. These consequences include increased risk of glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus (both type 2 and gestational), atherogenic dyslipidemia, systemic inflammation, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hypertension and coagulation disorders. Whether this cluster of metabolic abnormalities is also translated in increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality in later life, remains to be established. Data so far based on markers of subclinical atherosclerosis as well as retrospective and prospective cohort studies indicate a possible increased CVD risk, mainly for coronary heart disease. Future studies are needed to further elucidate this issue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Unilateral ovarian enlargement in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome: a variant of bilateral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bina; Golden, Eleza; Milla, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate clinical, biochemical and radiological features in adolescent females with unilateral polycystic ovary (UniPCO) versus bilateral polycystic ovary (BiPCO) in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and to compare the association of insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS) between the two groups. Pediatric endocrine clinic. A retrospective chart review of girls with the diagnosis of PCOS was performed. They were divided into two groups: PCOS with UniPCO and BiPCO. No difference was seen between the two groups in regard to clinical parameters. LH/FSH ratio was significantly higher in patients with BiPCO. No difference was seen in free testosterone, lipids, MS or IR between groups. Ultrasound showed a mean ovarian volume of 13.2 +/- 1.5 ml on the affected side in UniPCO and 16.1 +/- 1.2 ml in BiPCO. Ovarian follicle location was mostly peripheral in both UniPCO and BiPCO. Multiple follicles were found in the majority of cases. IR and MS were present in 40% of girls with UniPCO and 38% and 23%, respectively, in girls with BiPCO. UniPCO may be a forerunner of BiPCO and may represent an early point along the continuum. Later, the unaffected ovary continues to increase in volume, resulting in BiPCO. Metabolic abnormalities of patients with UniPCO highlights that as well as being a precursor of BiPCO, it also imparts considerable health risks.

  8. [Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, S F

    2017-05-01

    Hereditary breast and ovarian carcinomas are frequently caused by germline mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (BRCA1/2 syndromes) and are often less associated with other hereditary syndromes such as Li-Fraumeni and Peutz-Jeghers. The BRCA1/2 proteins have a special role in DNA repair. Therefore, loss of function due to mutation causes an accumulation of mutations in other genes and subsequent tumorigenesis at an early age. BRCA1/2 mutations are irregularly distributed over the length of the genes without hot spots, although special mutations are known. Breast and ovarian cancer occur far more frequently in women with BRCA1/2 germline mutations compared with the general population. Breast cancer occurs increasingly from the age of 30, ovarian cancer in BRCA1 syndrome from the age of 40 and BRCA2 from the age of 50. Suspicion of a BRCA syndrome should be prompted in the case of clustering of breast cancer in 1st degree relatives, in particular at a young age, if breast and ovarian cancer have occurred, and if cases of male breast cancer are known. Breast carcinomas with medullary differentiation seem to predominate in BRCA syndromes, but other carcinoma types may also occur. BRCA germline mutations seem to occur frequently in triple-negative breast carcinomas, whereas an association with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is rare. Ovarian carcinomas in BRCA syndromes are usually high-grade serous, mucinous carcinomas and borderline tumors are unusual. Pathology plays a special role within the multidisciplinary team in the recognition of patients with hereditary cancer syndromes.

  9. Psychosocial Stress and Ovarian Cancer Risk: Metabolomics and Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    the role of stress in ovarian cancer development indicates that chronic stress may increase risk of developing ovarian cancer. 15. SUBJECT TERMS...objective of this Ovarian Cancer Academy award is to evaluate the role of psychosocial stress in ovarian cancer risk through multiple measures of...potential pathways of interest, including lipid dysregulation. KEYWORDS Ovarian cancer, psychosocial stress, anxiety, depression, social support

  10. Ovarian cancer and body size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Berit Jul

    2012-01-01

    Only about half the studies that have collected information on the relevance of women's height and body mass index to their risk of developing ovarian cancer have published their results, and findings are inconsistent. Here, we bring together the worldwide evidence, published and unpublished...

  11. The epigenomics of polycystic ovarian syndrome: from pathogenesis to clinical manifestations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia; Zhu, Dongyi; Duan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a complex condition of ovarian dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities with widely varying clinical manifestations resulting from interference of the genome and the environment through integrative biological mechanisms with the emerging field of epigenetics...... offering an appealing tool for studying the nature and nurture of the disease. We review the current literature of epigenetic studies on PCOS from disease development to the association analysis of the DNA methylome and to exploratory studies on the molecular mechanisms of disease heterogeneity...... and comorbidity. Recent data based on profiling of the DNA methylome of PCOS in different tissues provided consistent molecular evidence in support of epidemiological findings on disease comorbidity suggesting a possible autoimmune basis in the pathogenesis of the disease. We show that the field of epigenetics...

  12. Cisplatin and Flavopiridol in Treating Patients With Advanced Ovarian Epithelial Cancer or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-06

    Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

  13. Effect of combination of Withania somnifera Dunal and Tribulus terrestris Linn on letrozole induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrin Saiyed

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The above findings indicate the effectiveness of the combination of hydroalcoholic extract of WS and TT against letrozole induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in rat. This validates the usefulness of combination in PCOS and other related disorders as mentioned by Unani physicians.

  14. Definition and significance of polycystic ovarian morphology: a task force report from the Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewailly, Didier; Lujan, Marla E; Carmina, Enrico; Cedars, Marcelle I; Laven, Joop; Norman, Robert J; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) relies on clinical, biological and morphological criteria. With the advent of ultrasonography, follicle excess has become the main aspect of polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM). Since 2003, most investigators have used a threshold of 12 follicles (measuring 2-9 mm in diameter) per whole ovary, but that now seems obsolete. An increase in ovarian volume (OV) and/or area may also be considered accurate markers of PCOM, yet their utility compared with follicle excess remains unclear. METHODS Published peer-reviewed medical literature about PCOM was searched using PubMed.gov online facilities and was submitted to critical assessment by a panel of experts. Studies reporting antral follicle counts (AFC) or follicle number per ovary (FNPO) using transvaginal ultrasonography in healthy women of reproductive age were also included. Only studies that reported the mean or median AFC or FNPO of follicles measuring 2-9 mm, 2-10 mm or <10 mm in diameter, or visualized all follicles, were included. RESULTS Studies addressing women recruited from the general population and studies comparing control and PCOS populations with appropriate statistics were convergent towards setting the threshold for increased FNPO at ≥25 follicles, in women aged 18-35 years. These studies suggested maintaining the threshold for increased OV at ≥10 ml. Critical analysis of the literature showed that OV had less diagnostic potential for PCOM compared with FNPO. The review did not identify any additional diagnostic advantage for other ultrasound metrics such as specific measurements of ovarian stroma or blood flow. Even though serum concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) showed a diagnostic performance for PCOM that was equal to or better than that of FNPO in some series, the accuracy and reproducibility issues of currently available AMH assays preclude the establishment of a threshold value for its use as a surrogate marker of

  15. Hypothalamic-pituitary, ovarian and adrenal contributions to polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskind, N Ellissa; Balen, Adam H

    2016-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent heterogeneous disorder linked with disturbances of reproductive, endocrine and metabolic function. The definition and aetiological hypotheses of PCOS are continually developing to incorporate evolving evidence of the syndrome, which appears to be both multifactorial and polygenic. The pathophysiology of PCOS encompasses inherent ovarian dysfunction that is strongly influenced by external factors including the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and hyperinsulinaemia. Neuroendocrine abnormalities including increased gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse frequency with consequent hypersecretion of luteinising hormone (LH) affects ovarian androgen synthesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte development. Disturbed ovarian-pituitary and hypothalamic feedback accentuates the gonadotrophin abnormalities, and there is emerging evidence putatively implicating dysfunction of the Kiss 1 system. Within the follicle subunit itself, there are intra-ovarian paracrine modulators, cytokines and growth factors, which appear to play a role. Adrenally derived androgens may also contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS, but their role is less defined. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Effect of herbo-mineral formulation (Shilajatu Rasayana in letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha Hosur Kumari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The major cause of female infertility in recent years is polycystic ovarian syndrome commonly called as PCOS, compared to yonivyapath (disorders of female reproductive system described in Ayurveda. Shilajatu Rasayana herbo-mineral preparation mentioned in "Rasendra Chudamani" indicated in yonyaamaya (disorders of female reproductive system, gulma (tumors, meha (hyperinsulinemia, pandu (anemia, etc. is expected to contribute positive and better result in letrozole-induced PCOS, considering the previous analytical and experimental studies. Letrozole, Shilajatu Rasayana, clomiphene citrate, ghee, and female albino rats formed the materials for the study. Totally thirty female rats were initially induced to develop PCOS by injecting letrozole. The induction of PCOS in rats was checked through vaginal smear analysis and further confirmed by hormonal assay. PCOS-induced rats were treated with clomiphene citrate (standard, Shilajatu Rasayana (test drug, and ghee (control. Ovarian and uterine weight, hormonal assay, and histomorphometric changes were observed and recorded. Shilajatu Rasayana has shown a significant result in letrozole-induced PCOS by regulating hormones, reduction of cystic follicles, maturation of ovarian follicles, and decreasing the increased ovarian and uterine weight.

  17. Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors by Histologic Subtype : An Analysis From the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Poole, Elizabeth M; Trabert, Britton; White, Emily; Arslan, Alan A; Patel, Alpa V; Setiawan, V Wendy; Visvanathan, Kala; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Adami, Hans-Olov; Black, Amanda; Bernstein, Leslie; Brinton, Louise A; Buring, Julie; Butler, Lesley M; Chamosa, Saioa; Clendenen, Tess V; Dossus, Laure; Fortner, Renee; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Gram, Inger T; Hartge, Patricia; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Idahl, Annika; Jones, Michael; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kirsh, Victoria; Koh, Woon-Puay; Lacey, James V; Lee, I-Min; Lundin, Eva; Merritt, Melissa A; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peters, Ulrike; Poynter, Jenny N; Rinaldi, Sabina; Robien, Kim; Rohan, Thomas; Sandler, Dale P; Schairer, Catherine; Schouten, Leo J; Sjöholm, Louise K; Sieri, Sabina; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tjonneland, Anna; Travis, Ruth; Trichopoulou, Antonia; van den Brandt, Piet A; Wilkens, Lynne; Wolk, Alicja; Yang, Hannah P; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Tworoger, Shelley S

    PURPOSE: An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of ovarian cancer is important for improving prevention, early detection, and therapeutic approaches. We evaluated 14 hormonal, reproductive, and lifestyle factors by histologic subtype in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3). PATIENTS

  18. The Pathogenesis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): The Hypothesis of PCOS as Functional Ovarian Hyperandrogenism Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was hypothesized to result from functional ovarian hyperandrogenism (FOH) due to dysregulation of androgen secretion in 1989–1995. Subsequent studies have supported and amplified this hypothesis. When defined as otherwise unexplained hyperandrogenic oligoanovulation, two-thirds of PCOS cases have functionally typical FOH, characterized by 17-hydroxyprogesterone hyperresponsiveness to gonadotropin stimulation. Two-thirds of the remaining PCOS have FOH detectable by testosterone elevation after suppression of adrenal androgen production. About 3% of PCOS have a related isolated functional adrenal hyperandrogenism. The remaining PCOS cases are mild and lack evidence of steroid secretory abnormalities; most of these are obese, which we postulate to account for their atypical PCOS. Approximately half of normal women with polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) have subclinical FOH-related steroidogenic defects. Theca cells from polycystic ovaries of classic PCOS patients in long-term culture have an intrinsic steroidogenic dysregulation that can account for the steroidogenic abnormalities typical of FOH. These cells overexpress most steroidogenic enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450c17. Overexpression of a protein identified by genome-wide association screening, differentially expressed in normal and neoplastic development 1A.V2, in normal theca cells has reproduced this PCOS phenotype in vitro. A metabolic syndrome of obesity-related and/or intrinsic insulin resistance occurs in about half of PCOS patients, and the compensatory hyperinsulinism has tissue-selective effects, which include aggravation of hyperandrogenism. PCOS seems to arise as a complex trait that results from the interaction of diverse genetic and environmental factors. Heritable factors include PCOM, hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance, and insulin secretory defects. Environmental factors include prenatal androgen exposure and poor fetal growth, whereas acquired

  19. The Pathogenesis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): The Hypothesis of PCOS as Functional Ovarian Hyperandrogenism Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert L; Ehrmann, David A

    2016-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was hypothesized to result from functional ovarian hyperandrogenism (FOH) due to dysregulation of androgen secretion in 1989-1995. Subsequent studies have supported and amplified this hypothesis. When defined as otherwise unexplained hyperandrogenic oligoanovulation, two-thirds of PCOS cases have functionally typical FOH, characterized by 17-hydroxyprogesterone hyperresponsiveness to gonadotropin stimulation. Two-thirds of the remaining PCOS have FOH detectable by testosterone elevation after suppression of adrenal androgen production. About 3% of PCOS have a related isolated functional adrenal hyperandrogenism. The remaining PCOS cases are mild and lack evidence of steroid secretory abnormalities; most of these are obese, which we postulate to account for their atypical PCOS. Approximately half of normal women with polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) have subclinical FOH-related steroidogenic defects. Theca cells from polycystic ovaries of classic PCOS patients in long-term culture have an intrinsic steroidogenic dysregulation that can account for the steroidogenic abnormalities typical of FOH. These cells overexpress most steroidogenic enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450c17. Overexpression of a protein identified by genome-wide association screening, differentially expressed in normal and neoplastic development 1A.V2, in normal theca cells has reproduced this PCOS phenotype in vitro. A metabolic syndrome of obesity-related and/or intrinsic insulin resistance occurs in about half of PCOS patients, and the compensatory hyperinsulinism has tissue-selective effects, which include aggravation of hyperandrogenism. PCOS seems to arise as a complex trait that results from the interaction of diverse genetic and environmental factors. Heritable factors include PCOM, hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance, and insulin secretory defects. Environmental factors include prenatal androgen exposure and poor fetal growth, whereas acquired obesity

  20. Prevalence of ovarian adrenal rest tumours and polycystic ovaries in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: results of ultrasonography and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stikkelbroeck, Nike M.M.L.; Schouten, Diana; Otten, Barto J. [University Medical Centre Nijmegen, Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hermus, Ad R.M.M. [University Medical Centre Nijmegen, Department of Endocrinology, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Suliman, Harold M.; Jager, Gerrit J. [University Medical Centre Nijmegen, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Braat, Didi D.M. [University Medical Centre Nijmegen, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the investigation was to assess the prevalence of ovarian adrenal rest tumours and polycystic ovaries in female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Thirteen female CAH patients (median age 19.8 years, range 14.8-23.5 years) underwent transvaginal (n=6) or transabdominal (n=7) ultrasonography by a gynaecologist and MR imaging (n=13) of the ovaries (pre and post contrast-enhanced T1- and T2-weighted images). Ovarian adrenal rest tumours were defined as small hypoechoic and multifocal nodules on ultrasound and isointense lesions on T1- and hypointense on T2-weighted MR images (derived from characteristics of testicular adrenal rest tumours). Polycystic ovaries were defined as the presence of {>=}10 follicles arranged peripherally around or scattered throughout increased stroma. No ovarian adrenal rest tumours were found either on ultrasound, or by MR imaging. Polycystic ovaries were found in 2 of the 13 patients (15.4%), both with ultrasound and MR. No ovarian adrenal rest tumours were detected in these female CAH patients, which suggests that ovarian adrenal rest tumours in CAH females are rare. The prevalence of polycystic ovaries corresponded to that in the general population. From these results, we would suggest that routine ovarian imaging in CAH females is not indicated. However, when ovarian dysfunction is present, ovarian imaging is advised, first by ultrasonography, to detect ovarian adrenal rest tumours or polycystic ovaries. (orig.)

  1. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screening Research Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to ... ovarian cancer. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening Key Points Tests are used to screen for ...

  2. Risks of Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screening Research Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to ... ovarian cancer. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening Key Points Tests are used to screen for ...

  3. Statin use and risk for ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, L; Dehlendorff, C; Friis, Søren

    2015-01-01

    was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for epithelial ovarian cancer overall, and for histological types, associated with statin use. RESULTS: We observed a neutral association between ever use of statins and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (OR=0.98, 95% CI=0......BACKGROUND: Limited data suggest that statin use reduces the risk for ovarian cancer. METHODS: Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified 4103 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer during 2000-2011 and age-matched them to 58,706 risk-set sampled controls. Conditional logistic regression.......87-1.10), and no apparent risk variation according to duration, intensity or type of statin use. Decreased ORs associated with statin use were seen for mucinous ovarian cancer (ever statin use: OR=0.63, 95% CI=0.39-1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Statin use was not associated with overall risk for epithelial ovarian cancer...

  4. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer and Borderline Ovarian Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina B; Kjaer, Susanne K; Albieri, Vanna

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation has been implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, studies investigating the association between pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovarian cancer risk are few and inconsistent. We investigated the association between PID and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer according to...

  5. Palliative Care in Improving Quality of Life and Symptoms in Patients With Stage III-IV Pancreatic or Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  6. Ovarian and tubal cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschau, Mathilde; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Hannibal, Charlotte G

    2016-01-01

    Nordic countries using the NORDCAN database. RESULTS: The incidence rate of ovarian cancer overall in Denmark decreased statistically significantly by approximately 2.3% per year among women aged ...INTRODUCTION: The Nordic countries are areas with a high-incidence of ovarian cancer; however, differences between the countries exist. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used the Danish Cancer Registry to identify 11 264 cases of ovarian cancer and 363 cases of tubal cancer during 1993-2013. We calculated...... age-standardized (world standard population) incidence rates for overall and subtype-specific ovarian cancer, and for tubal cancer. We compared age-standardized incidence rates, and 1- and 5-year age-standardized relative survival rates, respectively, for ovarian and tubal cancer combined in four...

  7. Unilateral sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome restores ovulation in the innervated ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Ledesma Leticia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study tested the hypothesis that if polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS results from activating the noradrenergic outflow to the ovary, unilaterally sectioning the superior ovarian nerve (SON will result in ovulation by the denervated ovary, and the restoration of progesterone (P4, testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 normal serum level. A single 2 mg dose of estradiol valerate (EV to adult rats results in the development of a syndrome similar to the human PCOS. Ten-day old rats were injected with EV or vehicle solution (Vh and were submitted to sham surgery, unilateral or bilateral sectioning of the SON at 24-days of age. The animals were sacrificed at 90 to 92 days of age, when they presented vaginal estrus preceded by a pro-estrus smear. In EV-treated animals, unilateral sectioning of the SON restored ovulation by the innervated ovary and unilateral or bilateral sectioning of the SON normalized testosterone and estradiol levels. These results suggest that aside from an increase in ovarian noradrenergic tone in the ovaries, in the pathogenesis of the PCOS participate other neural influences arriving to the ovaries via the SON, regulating spontaneous ovulation. Changes in P4, T and E2 serum levels induced by EV treatment seem to be controlled by neural signals arising from the abdominal wall and other signals arriving to the ovaries through the SON, and presents asymmetry.

  8. Ovarian Drilling Efficacy, Estradiol Levels and Pregnancy Rate in Females With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moramezi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common cause of oligoovulation and anovulation in general population and in females with infertility. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of ovarian laparoscopic drilling procedure (LOD in females with PCOS, resistant to treatment with estradiol (E2 level less than 40 pg/mL versus more than 40 pg/mL. Materials and Methods Females with PCOS, resistant to drug for ovary stimulation, were grouped based on the Estradiol levels of ≤ 40 pg/mL (n = 13 and > 40 pg/mL (n = 15. To survey the ovulation, continuing spontaneous ovulation and cumulative pregnancy rate, ovarian laparoscopic drilling was carried out after the analysis of serum E2. Results There was significant difference in the average starting time of ovulation and continuing spontaneous ovulation of cases with PCOS with E2 levels > 40 pg/mL, compared with ones with E2 ≤ 40 pg/mL (P = 0.029, P = 0.05, respectively. Significant differences were also found in pregnancy rates of cases with PCOS with E2 levels > 40 pg/mL compared with ones with E2 ≤ 40 pg/mL (P = 0.05. Conclusions This study revealed that LOD in females with PCOS with a serum E2 > 40 pg/mL was sufficient and safe to trigger development of ovarian follicles followed by clinical pregnancy.

  9. Metformin regulates ovarian angiogenesis and follicular development in a female polycystic ovary syndrome rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Mariana; Parborell, Fernanda; Irusta, Griselda; Pascuali, Natalia; Bas, Diana; Bianchi, María Silvia; Tesone, Marta; Abramovich, Dalhia

    2015-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent pathology that affects more than 5% of women of reproductive age. Among other heterogeneous symptoms, PCOS is characterized by abnormalities in angiogenesis. Metformin has been introduced in the treatment of PCOS to manage insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Besides its metabolic effects, metformin has been shown to improve ovulation, pregnancy and live birth rates in PCOS patients. In the present study, we used a dehydroepiandrosterone-induced PCOS rat model to analyze the effect of metformin administration on ovarian angiogenesis. We found that metformin was able to restore the increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, angiopoietin (ANGPT)1, and ANGPT1/ANGPT2 ratio and the decreased levels of platelet-derived growth factor B and platelet-derived growth factor D observed in the dehydroepiandrosterone-treated rats. These effects could take place, at least in part, through a decrease in the levels of serum insulin. We also found an improvement in follicular development, with a lower percentage of small follicles and cysts and a higher percentage of antral follicles and corpora lutea after metformin administration. The improvement in ovarian angiogenesis is likely to restore the accumulation of small follicles observed in PCOS rats and to reduce cyst formation, thus improving follicular development and the percentage of corpora lutea. These results open new insights into the study of metformin action not only in glucose metabolism but also in ovarian dysfunction in PCOS women.

  10. Genetic Rodent Models of Obesity-Associated Ovarian Dysfunction and Subfertility: Insights into Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Doran, Isabel; Franks, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting women and a leading cause of female infertility worldwide. Defined clinically by the presence of hyperandrogenemia and oligomenorrhoea, PCOS represents a state of hormonal dysregulation, disrupted ovarian follicle dynamics, and subsequent oligo- or anovulation. The syndrome’s prevalence is attributed, at least partly, to a well-established association with obesity and insulin resistance (IR). Indeed, the presence of severe PCOS in human genetic obesity and IR syndromes supports a causal role for IR in the pathogenesis of PCOS. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this causality, as well as the important role of hyperandrogenemia, remain poorly elucidated. As such, treatment of PCOS is necessarily empirical, focusing on symptom alleviation. The generation of knockout and transgenic rodent models of obesity and IR offers a promising platform in which to address mechanistic questions about reproductive dysfunction in the context of metabolic disease. Similarly, the impact of primary perturbations in rodent gonadotrophin or androgen signaling has been interrogated. However, the insights gained from such models have been limited by the relatively poor fidelity of rodent models to human PCOS. In this mini review, we evaluate the ovarian phenotypes associated with rodent models of obesity and IR, including the extent of endocrine disturbance, ovarian dysmorphology, and subfertility. We compare them to both human PCOS and other animal models of the syndrome (genetic and hormonal), explore reasons for their discordance, and consider the new opportunities that are emerging to better understand and treat this important condition. PMID:27375552

  11. Serum inhibin B in polycystic ovary syndrome as a potential marker of ovarian dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćetković Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common causes of anovulation, infertility and hyperandrogenism, and the prevalence of this condition in women of reproductive is 5-10%. The growth of early ovarian antral follicles is arrested and dominant follicle selection is disturbed in this syndrome. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to investigate whether inhibin B serum concentrations represent the extent of ovarian abnormalities in patients with PCOS. METHOD Inhibin B serum concentrations on the third day of spontaneous menstrual cycle and other endocrine characteristics were compared between 20 patients with PCOS and 19 healthy women in the control group. RESULTS Inhibin B concentrations were not significantly different between women with PCOS and women in the control group. In patients with PCOS there was statistically significant correlation between serum inhibin B and LH (r=0.514; p=0.021. There were no positive correlations between inhibin B and others endocrine parameters in patients with PCOS (FSH, E2, T, androstenedione. CONCLUSION Inhibin B serum concentrations on the third day of spontaneous menstrual cycle in women with PCOS are not different from the concentrations in healthy women. Serum Inhibin B levels in patients with PCOS are only slightly correlated with the endocrine markers of the disease so it could not represent the magnitude of ovarian dysfunction in this syndrome.

  12. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Hansen, Thomas van Overeem; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, only approximately 25% of cases of HBOC can be ascribed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Recently, exome sequencing has uncovered substantial locus heterogeneity among...... of putative causal variants and the clinical application of new HBOC genes in cancer risk management and treatment decision-making....... affected families without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The new pathogenic variants are rare, posing challenges to estimation of risk attribution through patient cohorts. In this Review article, we examine HBOC genes, focusing on their role in genome maintenance, the possibilities for functional testing...

  13. Lead, selenium and nickel concentrations in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline ovarian tumor and healthy ovarian tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaz, Emel; Kilinc, Metin; Sayar, Hamide; Kiran, Gurkan; Ozyurek, Eser

    2017-09-01

    Wide variation exists in ovarian cancer incidence rates suggesting the importance of environmental factors. Due to increasing environmental pollution, trace elements and heavy metals have drawn attention in studies defining the etiology of cancer, but scant data is available for ovarian cancer. Our aim was to compare the tissue concentrations of lead, selenium and nickel in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline tumor and healthy ovarian tissues. The levels of lead, selenium and nickel were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Tests were carried out in 20 malignant epithelial ovarian cancer, 15 epithelial borderline tumor and 20 non-neoplastic healthy ovaries. Two samples were collected for borderline tumors, one from papillary projection and one from the smooth surface of cyst wall. Pb and Ni concentrations were found to be higher both in malignant and borderline tissues than those in healthy ovaries. Concentrations of Pb and Ni in malignant tissues, borderline papillary projections and capsular tissue samples were not different. Comparison of Se concentrations of malignant, borderline and healthy ovarian tissues did not reveal statistical difference. Studied metal levels were not found to be different in either papillary projection or in cyst wall of the borderline tumors. This study revealed the accumulation of lead and nickel in ovarian tissue is associated with borderline and malignant proliferation of the surface epithelium. Accumulation of these metals in epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumor has not been demonstrated before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschau, Mathilde; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Jensen, Allan

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and cancer, especially of the endometrium, breast and ovary. METHODS: The Danish National Patient Register was used to identify 12,070 in- and outpatients in whom PCOS was diagnosed when they were aged 9-49 years during...

  15. Screening methods of ovarian cancer in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Vera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is associated with high mortality rate which has improved a little despite therapeutic advances. It causes more deaths than combined cervical and uterine cancer. High mortality is believed to be a direct result of already advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. Survival is excellent in case of early stage disease but poor in late stage disease, regardless of histology. The goal of screening for ovarian cancer is restricted to detection of asymptomatic early stage disease, as precursor lesions of ovarian cancer have not been identified. At present, there is no reliable method of ovarian cancer screening which has been shown to reduce mortality from ovarian cancer. Therefore, routine screening of women in general population can not be currently advised. Screening should be limited to high-risk population and subjects participating in research projects as long as the results of current studies are available.

  16. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjees Hasan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly targeted therapy is relatively new to ovarian cancer despite the unquestionable success with these agents in other solid tumours such as breast and colorectal cancer. Advanced ovarian cancer is chemosensitive and patients can survive several years on treatment. However chemotherapy diminishes in efficacy over time whilst toxicities persist. Newer biological agents that target explicit molecular pathways and lack specific chemotherapy toxicities such as myelosuppression offer the advantage of long-term therapy with a manageable toxicity profile enabling patients to enjoy a good quality of life. In this review we appraise the emerging data on novel targeted therapies in ovarian cancer. We discuss the role of these compounds in the front-line treatment of ovarian cancer and in relapsed disease; and describe how the development of predictive clinical, molecular and imaging biomarkers will define the role of biological agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  17. Updated ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome: reliable thresholds for elevated follicle population and ovarian volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Marla E; Jarrett, Brittany Y; Brooks, Eric D; Reines, Jonathan K; Peppin, Andrew K; Muhn, Narry; Haider, Ehsan; Pierson, Roger A; Chizen, Donna R

    2013-05-01

    Do the ultrasonographic criteria for polycystic ovaries supported by the 2003 Rotterdam consensus adequately discriminate between the normal and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) condition in light of recent advancements in imaging technology and reliable methods for estimating follicle populations in PCOS? Using newer ultrasound technology and a reliable grid system approach to count follicles, we concluded that a substantially higher threshold of follicle counts throughout the entire ovary (FNPO)-26 versus 12 follicles-is required to distinguish among women with PCOS and healthy women from the general population. The Rotterdam consensus defined the polycystic ovary as having 12 or more follicles, measuring between 2 and 9 mm (FNPO), and/or an ovarian volume (OV) >10 cm(3). Since their initial proposal in 2003, a heightened prevalence of polycystic ovaries has been described in healthy women with regular menstrual cycles, which has questioned the accuracy of these criteria and marginalized the specificity of polycystic ovaries as a diagnostic criterion for PCOS. A diagnostic test study was performed using cross-sectional data, collected from 2006 to 2011, from 168 women prospectively evaluated by transvaginal ultrasonography. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to determine the appropriate diagnostic thresholds for: (i) FNPO, (ii) follicle counts in a single cross section (FNPS) and (iii) OV. The levels of intra- and inter-observer reliability when five observers used the proposed criteria on 100 ultrasound cases were also determined. Ninety-eight women diagnosed with PCOS by the National Institutes of Health criteria as having both oligo-amenorrhea and hyperandrogenism and 70 healthy female volunteers recruited from the general population. Participants were evaluated by transvaginal ultrasonography at the Royal University Hospital within the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Saskatchewan

  18. IMPACT OF LAPARASCOPIC OVARIAN ELECTROCAUTERY ON DOPPLER INDICES WOMEN STROMAL BLOOD FLOW IN WOMEN WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Safdarian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrom (PCOS is characterized by infertility, oligomenorrhea, and hyperandrogenism. Clomiphene citrate (CC, an antiestrogen, is first-line treatment for PCOS, if CC fails to induce ovulation, laparascopic electrocautery of the ovaries is offered. In this prospective controlled study, 52 women with clomiphen-resistant PCOS (group 1 and 46 women with regular menstrual cycles as a control group (group 2 were included. Hormonal profile and doppler blood flow changes within the ovarian stroma befor and after laparascopic ovarian electrocautery (LOE in women with clomiphen- resistant polycystic ovary syndrome assessed and compared between groups. The doppler indices (pulsatility index and resistance index of ovarian stromal blood flow were significantly lower in group 1 befor LOE than in group 2. The serum levels of testosteron (T and LH were significantly reduced in group 1 after LOE compared with in group 1 befor LOE (P < 0.05. Doppler indices (pulsatility index and resistance index of ovarian stromal blood flow were significantly increased after LOE. Laparascopic electrocautery reduced serum T and LH and reduced ovarian blood flow velocities, which may explain the reduction of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in women with PCOS after LOE. Laparascopic electrocautery of the ovaries is now accepted as the preferred first-line treatment of women with PCOS who are resistant to clomiphen citrate. All affected women could be considered for this treatment.

  19. The local effects of ovarian diathermy in an ovine model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T; Butler, Mairead; Klibanov, Alexander L; Sboros, Vassilis; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, W Colin

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg) from day 30-100 gestation. Their female offspring (n = 12) were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n = 4) one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n = 4) and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n = 4) after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05) and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01) but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P = 0.05) but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05) and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05) both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05). In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles.

  20. The local effects of ovarian diathermy in an ovine model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Connolly

    Full Text Available In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg from day 30-100 gestation. Their female offspring (n = 12 were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n = 4 one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n = 4 and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n = 4 after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05 and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05. There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01 but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P = 0.05 but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05 and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05 both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05. In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles.

  1. Co-involvement of psychological and neurological abnormalities in infertility with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaobo; Zhang, Lingyan; Fu, Shuxin; Li, Na

    2011-09-01

    To investigate psychological distress, serum levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites, as well as their correlation with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Thirty infertility patients with PCOS were assigned as the experimental group and 30 infertility patients without PCOS were assigned as the control group. Psychological distress was self-evaluated in all patients with Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). Serum concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) and its metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), dopamine (DA) and its metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and dihydroxy-phenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The anxious and depressive subscales of SCL-90 were significantly higher in infertility patients with PCOS than those without PCOS (p infertility patients with PCOS than those without PCOS (p Psychological and neurological factors play a crucial role in PCOS.

  2. Identification of BRCA1-deficient ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Anne-Bine; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Rasmussen, Anders Aamann

    2011-01-01

    Objective. It is believed that 24 - 40% of ovarian cancers have dysfunction in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCAness) genes, either due to inherited or somatic mutations or due to epigenetic inactivation. Demonstration of ovarian cancers with BRCAness is becoming important both due to the possibility of o...

  3. Rethinking Ovarian Cancer: Recommendations for Improving Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Sebastian; Coward, Jermaine I.; Bast Jr., Robert C.; Berchuck, Andy; Berek, Jonathan S.; Brenton, James D.; Coukos, George; Crum, Christopher C.; Drapkin, Ronny; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; Friedlander, Michael; Gabra, Hani; Kaye, Stan B.; Lord, Chris J.; Lengyel, Ernst; Levine, Douglas A.; McNeish, Iain A.; Menon, Usha; Mills, Gordon B.; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Oza, Amit M.; Sood, Anil K.; Stronach, Euan A.; Walczak, Henning; Bowtell, David D.; Balkwill, Frances R.

    2012-01-01

    There have been major advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular biology of the human malignancies collectively referred to as ovarian cancer. At a recent Helene Harris Memorial Trust meeting, an international group of researchers considered actions that should be taken to improve the outcome for women with ovarian cancer. Nine major recommendations are outlined in this Perspective. PMID:21941283

  4. Pathogenesis of ovarian cancer: current perspectives | Chesang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To present a review of current knowledge of the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer and its clinical implications. Data Source: Extensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies. Study Selection: Studies in the English language about or related to pathogenesis of ovarian cancer were selected.

  5. National Ovarian Cancer Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... History Day – Prepare for a Family Conversation About Genetics and Cancer November 08, 2017 Live Webinar on ... us here . Thanksgiving Day, November 23rd, is National Family ... Read ... Tree Display November 19, 2017 @ 10:00AM Hosted by ...

  6. Correlation of Erythrocyte Trans Fatty Acids with Ovulatory Disorder Infertility in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisa Ghaffarzad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Trans fatty acids are considered to be the important modifiable factor of the ovulatory infertility disorder. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that higher trans fatty acids of erythrocytes (RBC are associated with the risk of ovulatory infertility disorder in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Thirty five infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome, defined by AES criteria and 29 age-matched healthy women as a control group were recruited for the study. After physical measurements and nutritional assessment, blood samples were collected. Fasting serum glucose and insulin were measured, and then insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR. Erythrocyte fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography. The patients group had higher waist circumference (WC, insulin levels, HOMA-IR than controls (p< 0.05. Also, case group had lower percentage of normal BMI (BMI<25, physical activity and education levels than healthy women (p< 0.05. Among RBC trans fatty acids only trans linoleate (18:2t were significantly higher in case group than control women (p= 0.019. PCOS group tended to consume more food rich in TFAs than the control group. Logistic regression analysis also showed that only 18:2t is positively associated with risk of ovulatory disorder infertility in PCOS (OR= 1.225, 95% CI. 1.024-1.465; P= 0.026, which was not affected after adjustment for BMI, physical activity and education levels. The results suggested that RBC trans fatty acids might be a predictor of increased risk for ovulatory infertility disorder in women with PCOS.

  7. Neurotransmitter alteration in a testosterone propionate-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Nirja K; Nampoothiri, Laxmipriya P

    2017-02-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), one of the leading causes of infertility seen in women, is characterized by anovulation and hyperandrogenism, resulting in ovarian dysfunction. In addition, associations of several metabolic complications like insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia and psychological co-morbidities are well known in PCOS. One of the major factors influencing mood and the emotional state of mind is neurotransmitters. Also, these neurotransmitters are very crucial for GnRH release. Hence, the current study investigates the status of neurotransmitters in PCOS. A PCOS rat model was developed using testosterone. Twenty-one-day-old rats were subcutaneously injected with 10 mg/kg body weight of testosterone propionate (TP) for 35 days. The animals were validated for PCOS characteristics by monitoring estrus cyclicity, serum testosterone and estradiol levels and by histological examination of ovarian sections. Neurotransmitter estimation was carried out using fluorometric and spectrophotometric methods. TP-treated animals demonstrated increased serum testosterone levels with unaltered estradiol content, disturbed estrus cyclicity and many peripheral cysts in the ovary compared to control rats mimicking human PCOS. Norepinephrine (NE), dopamine, serotonin, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and epinephrine levels were significantly low in TP-induced PCOS rats compared to control ones, whereas the activity of acetylcholinesterase in the PCOS brain was markedly elevated. Neurotransmitter alteration could be one of the reasons for disturbed gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release, consequently directing the ovarian dysfunction in PCOS. Also, decrease in neurotransmitters, mainly NE, serotonin and dopamine (DA) attributes to mood disorders like depression and anxiety in PCOS.

  8. General Information about Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer. Some ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers are caused by inherited gene mutations (changes). The genes in cells carry the hereditary information that is received from a person’s parents. ...

  9. Association of lipid metabolism with ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tania, M.; Khan, M A; Y. Song

    2010-01-01

    Defects in lipid metabolism have been found to be linked to several diseases, among which atherosclerosis, hypertension, obesity, and diabetes are the most important. Although cancer is chiefly a genetic disease, dietary lipid intake and metabolism are related to some cancer risks, including the risk for ovarian cancer. Higher intake of dietary lipids, systemic lipid metabolism malfunction, and abnormal serum lipid levels are somehow related to ovarian cancer. Overexpression of some lipid met...

  10. The Duplicitous Origin of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Mor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The past few decades have seen many advances in the treatment of a variety of cancers. Unfortunately, for ovarian cancer, which is the most lethal type of gynecologic malignancy, no new therapeutic approach has been successfully introduced since the 1990s. Ovarian cancer is usually detected in later stages, when remission rates are high and tumors are resistant to chemotherapy. Little is known about the primary lesion in ovarian cancer. Recently, it has been shown that the origin of ovarian cancer can be cells from adjacent tissue or cells from other primary tumors, which make their way to the ovaries due to the unique nature of their microenvironment during ovulation. The tumor in ovarian cancer is heterogeneous and hierarchically organized. In this review, we discuss the role of ovarian cancer stem cells in the process of tumor formation and recurrence. We propose the need to shift the paradigm away from the classification of ovarian cancer as a single disease with a single cellular origin. Understanding the complexity of the disease will facilitate devising new methods for fighting this cancer and improving the life of many women inflicted with the disease.

  11. Validation of epithelial ovarian cancer and fallopian tube cancer and ovarian borderline tumor data in the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Anette Lykke; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Christensen, Ib J

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the data on epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and borderline ovarian tumors registered in the nationwide Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) in 2005 and 2006. The DGCD is a multidisciplinary database that contains data for research and quality......: The validity of ovarian cancer data in the DGCD is sufficient for quality monitoring in gynecological oncology....

  12. Validation of epithelial ovarian cancer and fallopian tube cancer and ovarian borderline tumor data in the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, A.L.; Kjaer, S.K.; Christensen, I.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the data on epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and borderline ovarian tumors registered in the nationwide Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) in 2005 and 2006. The DGCD is a multidisciplinary database that contains data for research and quality......: The validity of ovarian cancer data in the DGCD is sufficient for quality monitoring in gynecological oncology Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  13. Predictive and therapeutic markers in ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Joe W.; Guan, Yinghui; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Fridlyand, Jane; Mills, Gordon B.

    2013-03-26

    Cancer markers may be developed to detect diseases characterized by increased expression of apoptosis-suppressing genes, such as aggressive cancers. Genes in the human chromosomal regions, 8q24, 11q13, 20q11-q13, were found to be amplified indicating in vivo drug resistance in diseases such as ovarian cancer. Diagnosis and assessment of amplification levels certain genes shown to be amplified, including PVT1, can be useful in prediction of poor outcome of patient's response and drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates. Certain genes were found to be high priority therapeutic targets by the identification of recurrent aberrations involving genome sequence, copy number and/or gene expression are associated with reduced survival duration in certain diseases and cancers, specifically ovarian cancer. Therapeutics to inhibit amplification and inhibitors of one of these genes, PVT1, target drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates is described.

  14. Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    described. 8 We used DNA chip technology to identify gene expression in the Genomics Core Laboratory at the University of Texas Health Sciences Center...and Tucker, M. The risk ofscribed above, genomic and proteomic methods are now being cancer associated with specific mutations of BRCAI and BRCA2...Bentley, R. C., effctie gaista humain ovariatn carcinoma xenograft and potentiates Walmer, D. K., Cline, M., Whitaker, R. S., Istier, P., Berchuck

  15. The role of AMH in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Deepika; Tal, Reshef

    2016-07-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) affects 5 - 10% of reproductive age women, but its pathogenesis is still poorly understood. The aim of this review is to collate evidence and summarize our current knowledge of the role of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in PCOS pathogenesis. AMH is increased and correlated with the various reproductive and metabolic/endocrine alterations in PCOS. AMH plays an inhibitory role in follicular development and recruitment, contributing to follicular arrest. AMH inhibitory action on FSH-induced aromatase production likely contributes to hyperandrogenism in PCOS, which further enhances insulin resistance in these women. Elevated serum AMH concentrations are predictive of poor response to various treatments of PCOS including weight loss, ovulation induction and laparoscopic ovarian drilling, while improvement in various clinical parameters following treatment is associated with serum AMH decline, further supporting an important role for AMH in the pathophysiology of this syndrome. This review emphasizes the need for understanding the exact mechanism of action of AMH in the pathophysiology of PCOS. This may lead to the development of new treatment modalities targeting AMH to treat PCOS, as well as help clinicians in prognostication and better tailoring existing treatments for this disease. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The epigenomics of polycystic ovarian syndrome: from pathogenesis to clinical manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuxia; Zhu, Dongyi; Duan, Hongmei; Tan, Qihua

    2016-12-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a complex condition of ovarian dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities with widely varying clinical manifestations resulting from interference of the genome and the environment through integrative biological mechanisms with the emerging field of epigenetics offering an appealing tool for studying the nature and nurture of the disease. We review the current literature of epigenetic studies on PCOS from disease development to the association analysis of the DNA methylome and to exploratory studies on the molecular mechanisms of disease heterogeneity and comorbidity. Recent data based on profiling of the DNA methylome of PCOS in different tissues provided consistent molecular evidence in support of epidemiological findings on disease comorbidity suggesting a possible autoimmune basis in the pathogenesis of the disease. We show that the field of epigenetics and epigenomics could serve to link molecular regulatory mechanisms with disease development and disease manifestation which could contribute to PCOS prevention and treatment and eventually promote reproductive health in fertile age women. We summarize the up-to-date findings and discuss the implications of various studies and point to new avenues of research on PCOS in the rapidly developing field of epigenetics and epigenomics.

  17. Ovarian steroid cell tumor in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarandi F

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Steroid cell tumor is one of the rare ovarian tumors and forms 0.1% of all ovarian tumors, divided to three subgroups. Steroid cell tumor that are not otherwise specified (NOS are the most common type and represent 60% of steroid cell tumors. One of the most known signs of this tumor is hormonal function, especially androgenic effects of it. Primary treatment consists of eradication of tumor via surgery.Case presentation: The patient is a 29 years old female with history of poly cystic ovarian syndrome since 10 years ago, who attended to the clinic of General Women Hospital of Tehran in January 2011. In pelvic ultrasonography, there was a 6449mm mass in the right adnexa consisting of homogeneous component. She underwent laparotomy and unilateral salpingoophorectomy was done. Pathological report was steroid cell tumor of ovary.Conclusion: The aim of this study is reporting one of the rare tumors of ovary and assessment of the correct way of diagnosis and treatment of it.

  18. Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Cancer Res 1998;4:1345–55. [18] Kim Y-H, Dohi DF, Han G-R, Zou CP, Oridate N, Walsh GL, et al. Retinoid refractoriness occurs during lung...Localization and kinetics of reduced pyridine nucleotide in living cells by microfluorometry. J. Biol. Chem. 234, 3044–3050. 10. Huber, R., M. Buchner ...Um, S-J., Lee, S-Y., Kim, E-J., Han , H-S., Koh, Y-M., Hong, K-J., Sin, H-S., and Park, J-S. Anti-proliferative mechanism of retinoid de- rivatives in

  19. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from...... 1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers......, including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women...

  20. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers......Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from......, including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women...

  1. Ovarian cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Lene; Blaakaer, Jan; Petersen, Lone Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    -up questionnaire study in which the Short Form-36 Questionnaire was used to survey general health twice during the perioperative period and the Life Orientation Questionnaire (SOC) was used once to define the postoperative coping capacity. An evidence-based, preoperative supportive care programme was subsequently....... The overall response rate was 86 %. The presence of ascites, a pelvic mass, and a Risk of Malignancy Index >200 proved to be appropriate clinical markers for intensified preoperative care. Concerning physical health, levels were low throughout the perioperative period; the majority however stayed within...... standard levels. Concerning mental health, levels were below standard during the entire period, but did improve with time, also in women in whom the potential cancer diagnosis was refuted. The preoperative differences between these groups leveled out postoperatively in terms of physical health. At the end...

  2. Features of ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    NAKAMURA, KANAKO; Banno, Kouji; YANOKURA, MEGUMI; Iida, Miho; Adachi, Masataka; MASUDA, KENTA; UEKI, ARISA; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Nomura, Hiroyuki; Hirasawa, Akira; Tominaga, Eiichiro; Aoki, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is a hereditary ovarian cancer with a prevalence of 0.9–2.7%. Lynch syndrome accounts for 10–15% of hereditary ovarian cancers, while hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome accounts for 65–75% of these cancers. The lifetime risk for ovarian cancer in families with Lynch syndrome is ~8%, which is lower than colorectal and endometrial cancers, and ovarian cancer is not listed in the Amsterdam Criteria II. More than half of sporadic ovarian cancers are diagnosed in stage II...

  3. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette T; Kjær, Susanne K; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple...... measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology....

  4. Prevalence of cysts in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolwijck, E.; Lybol, C.; Bulten, J.; Vollebergh, J.H.A.; Wevers, R.A.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ovarian carcinomas mostly appear as large cystic masses. However, the exact prevalence of cysts in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has never been documented as well as the tumor factors that are related to the presence of cysts. Demonstrating the prevalence of cysts in EOC is essential

  5. Ovarian Cancer Stroma: Pathophysiology and the Roles in Cancer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Mitsuko [Department of Pathology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan)

    2012-07-18

    Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in more advanced stages, the peritoneal surfaces of the upper abdomen become the next largest soil for cancer progression. Ascites is also produced frequently in ovarian cancers, which facilitates distant metastasis. Clinicopathologic, epidemiologic and molecular studies on ovarian cancers have improved our understanding and therapeutic approaches, but still further efforts are required to reduce the risks in the patients who are predisposed to this lethal disease and the mortality of the patients in advanced stages. Among various molecules involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, special genes such as TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been well investigated. These genes are widely accepted as the predisposing factors that trigger malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the ovary. In addition, adnexal inflammatory conditions such as chronic salpingitis and ovarian endometriosis have been great research interests in the context of carcinogenic background of ovarian cancers. In this review, I discuss the roles of stromal cells and inflammatory factors in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers.

  6. Ovarian cancer stroma: pathophysiology and the roles in cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Mitsuko

    2012-07-18

    Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in more advanced stages, the peritoneal surfaces of the upper abdomen become the next largest soil for cancer progression. Ascites is also produced frequently in ovarian cancers, which facilitates distant metastasis. Clinicopathologic, epidemiologic and molecular studies on ovarian cancers have improved our understanding and therapeutic approaches, but still further efforts are required to reduce the risks in the patients who are predisposed to this lethal disease and the mortality of the patients in advanced stages. Among various molecules involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, special genes such as TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been well investigated. These genes are widely accepted as the predisposing factors that trigger malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the ovary. In addition, adnexal inflammatory conditions such as chronic salpingitis and ovarian endometriosis have been great research interests in the context of carcinogenic background of ovarian cancers. In this review, I discuss the roles of stromal cells and inflammatory factors in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers.

  7. Ovarian Cancer Stroma: Pathophysiology and the Roles in Cancer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Mitsuko

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in more advanced stages, the peritoneal surfaces of the upper abdomen become the next largest soil for cancer progression. Ascites is also produced frequently in ovarian cancers, which facilitates distant metastasis. Clinicopathologic, epidemiologic and molecular studies on ovarian cancers have improved our understanding and therapeutic approaches, but still further efforts are required to reduce the risks in the patients who are predisposed to this lethal disease and the mortality of the patients in advanced stages. Among various molecules involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, special genes such as TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been well investigated. These genes are widely accepted as the predisposing factors that trigger malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the ovary. In addition, adnexal inflammatory conditions such as chronic salpingitis and ovarian endometriosis have been great research interests in the context of carcinogenic background of ovarian cancers. In this review, I discuss the roles of stromal cells and inflammatory factors in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers. PMID:24213462

  8. Ovarian cancer in an interdisciplinary context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibæk, Lene

      Introduction Worldwide, ovarian cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer, with more than 200,000 new cases each year and 125,000 related deaths. During the last decade, centralization and standardisation of surgical treatment have proven to be important tools in ovarian cancer to improve...... quality and survival. However, treatment efforts must be combined with high quality care, psychosocial support and organisational improvements.   Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate an optimal debulking surgery programme in ovarian cancer, and subsequently develop a method of monitoring...... care resources and in future research. By using the interdisciplinary approach, women with ovarian cancer can benefit from a coherent and collaborative health care system.  ...

  9. Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschau, Mathilde; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Jensen, Allan; Munk, Christian; Mellemkjaer, Lene

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and cancer, especially of the endometrium, breast and ovary. The Danish National Patient Register was used to identify 12,070 in- and outpatients in whom PCOS was diagnosed when they were aged 9-49 years during 1977-2012. Using the Danish Cancer Registry, we followed the cohort through 2012 and compared the women's cancer incidence with that of the general Danish female population by means of standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Cancer was diagnosed in 279 women with PCOS (SIR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.06-1.34). We found an almost fourfold increased risk for endometrial cancer (numbers observed (N) = 16, SIR = 3.9; 95% CI = 2.2-6.3), the large majority of cases being type 1 (N = 14, SIR = 4.7; 95% CI = 2.6-7.9). We found no association between PCOS and breast (N = 59, SIR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.8-1.4) or ovarian cancer (N = 10, SIR = 1.8; 95% CI = 0.8-3.2); however, significantly increased risks were found for kidney, colon and brain cancers. The results of this large cohort study support those of case-control studies showing that women with PCOS are at increased risk for endometrial cancer, whereas their risks for breast and ovarian cancer are similar to those of women in the general population. Our finding that women with PCOS also are at increased risk for cancers of the kidney, colon and brain requires further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ormeloxifene efficiently inhibits ovarian cancer growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Diane M; Khan, Sheema; Nordquist, Jordan L; Ebeling, Mara C; Bauer, Nichole A; Kopel, Lucas; Singh, Man Mohan; Halaweish, Fathi; Bell, Maria C; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C

    2015-01-28

    Ovarian cancer continues to be a leading cause of cancer related deaths for women. Anticancer agents effective against chemo-resistant cells are greatly needed for ovarian cancer treatment. Repurposing drugs currently in human use is an attractive strategy for developing novel cancer treatments with expedited translation into clinical trials. Therefore, we examined whether ormeloxifene (ORM), a non-steroidal Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) currently used for contraception, is therapeutically effective at inhibiting ovarian cancer growth. We report that ORM treatment inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell lines, including cell lines resistant to cisplatin. Furthermore, ORM treatment decreases Akt phosphorylation, increases p53 phosphorylation, and modulates the expression and localization patterns of p27, cyclin E, cyclin D1, and CDK2. In a pre-clinical xenograft mouse ORM treatment significantly reduces tumorigenesis and metastasis. These results indicate that ORM effectively inhibits the growth of cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. ORM is currently in human use and has an established record of patient safety. Our encouraging in vitro and pre-clinical in vivo findings indicate that ORM is a promising candidate for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Metformin-clomiphene citrate vs. clomiphene citrate alone: Polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqueela Ayaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the commonest endocrinopathy in women that is associated with reproductive and metabolic disorders. Objectives: We compared the ovulation and conception rates after the treatment with clomiphene citrate (CC alone and in combination with metformin in infertile patients presented with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial of independent cases and controls was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hera General Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia from February 01 to December 31, 2008. The 42 subjects diagnosed as PCOS were divided into group A and B (21 subjects in each for management with CC + metformin and CC alone, respectively. Group A received 500 mg three times a day of metformin continuously from the first cycle for 6 months or till pregnancy was confirmed. In both groups CC was started at a dose of 50 mg from day-2 till day-6 of the menstrual cycle. The dose of CC was increased to 100 mg in second and 150 mg in third cycle, and then remained 150 mg for the remaining three cycles. With ovulation the dose of CC was unaltered in both groups. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 16. Results: More than 50% females in both groups were had body mass index > 25. Group A achieved high rate of regular cycles, ovulation success, and conception than group B (71.4% vs. 38.1%; P = 0.03, (76.2% vs. 38.1%; P = 0.021, and (66.6% vs. 28.6%; P = 0.01, respectively. Conclusion: Management with metformin + CC increased the ovulation and conception rates.

  12. Risk of metachronous ovarian cancer after ovarian conservation in young women with stage I cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Koji; Machida, Hiroko; Horowitz, Max P; Shahzad, Mian M K; Guntupalli, Saketh R; Roman, Lynda D; Wright, Jason D

    2017-11-01

    While there is an increasing trend of ovarian conservation at the time of surgical treatment for young women with stage I cervical cancer, the risk for subsequent ovarian cancer after ovarian conservation has not been well studied. We sought to examine the incidence of and risk factors for metachronous ovarian cancer among young women with stage I cervical cancer who had ovarian conservation at the time of hysterectomy. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program was used to identify women aged ovarian conservation for stage I cervical cancer from 1983 through 2013 (n = 4365). Time-dependent analysis was performed for ovarian cancer risk after cervical cancer diagnosis. Mean age at cervical cancer diagnosis was 37 years, and the majority of patients had stage IA disease (68.2%) and squamous histology (72.9%). Median follow-up time was 10.8 years, and there were 13 women who developed metachronous ovarian cancer. The 10- and 20-year cumulative incidences of metachronous ovarian cancer were 0.2% (95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.4) and 0.5% (95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.8), respectively. Mean age at the time of diagnosis of metachronous ovarian cancer was 47.5 years, and stage III-IV disease was seen in 55.6%. Age (≥45 vs cancer histology (adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous vs squamous, hazard ratio, 3.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-10.5; P = .028), and adjuvant radiotherapy use (yes vs no, hazard ratio, 3.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-13.4; P = .034) were significantly associated with metachronous ovarian cancer risk. The presence of multiple risk factors was associated with a significantly increased risk of metachronous ovarian cancer compared to the no risk factor group: 1 risk factor (hazard ratio range, 2.96-8.43), 2 risk factors (hazard ratio range, 16.6-31.0), and 3-4 risk factors (hazard ratio range, 62.3-109), respectively. Metachronous ovarian cancer risk after ovarian conservation for women with stage I cervical cancer is ovarian

  13. Anthropometric and Biochemical Characteristics of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in South Indian Women Using AES-2006 Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thathapudi, Sujatha; Kodati, Vijayalakshmi; Erukkambattu, Jayashankar; Katragadda, Anuradha; Addepally, Uma; Hasan, Qurratulain

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine conditions affecting women of reproductive age with a prevalence of approximately 5-10% worldwide. PCOS can be viewed as a heterogeneous androgen excess disorder with varying degrees of reproductive and metabolic abnormalities, whose diagnosis is based on anthropometric, biochemical and radiological abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the anthropometric, biochemical and ultrasonographic characteristics of PCOS in Asian Indians of South India, using the Androgen Excess Society (AES-2006) diagnostic criteria. To assess anthropometric, biochemical and ultrasonographic features of PCOS subgroups and controls among South Indian women using the AES-2006 criteria. Two hundred and four women clinically diagnosed with PCOS, and 204 healthy women controls aged 17 to 35 years were evaluated. PCOS was diagnosed by clinical hyperandrogenism (HA), irregular menstruation (IM), and polycystic ovary (PCO). PCOS was further categorized into phenotypic subgroups including the IM+HA+PCO (n = 181, 89%), HA+PCO (n = 23, 11%), IM+HA (n = 0), and also into obese PCOS (n = 142, 70%) and lean PCOS (n = 62, 30%) using body mass index (BMI). Anthropometric measurements and biochemical characteristics were compared among the PCOS subgroups. The PCOS subgroups with regular menstrual cycles (HA+PCO), had more luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and high insulin resistance (IR) expressed as the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) score, compared with the IM+HA+PCO subgroups and controls. Similarly, the obese PCOS had high BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR), fasting glucose, LH, LH/FSH, fasting insulin, HOMA score (IR), and dyslipidemia, compared with lean PCOS and controls. Unilateral polycystic ovary was seen in 32 (15.7%) patients, and bilateral involvement in 172 (84.3%) patients. All the controls showed normal ovaries. Anthropometric

  14. Oncological repercussions of polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de França Neto, Antônio H; Rogatto, Silvia; Do Amorim, Melania M R

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent endocrine disorder that has been associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Evidence has suggested that PCOS may be associated with the appearance of certain types of cancer, particularly endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer...

  15. Etiology and Pathogenesis of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C. Mok

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is complex disease composed of different histological grades and types. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the development of different phenotypes remain largely unknown. Epidemiological studies identified multiple exogenous and endogenous risk factors for ovarian cancer development. Among them, an inflammatory stromal microenvironment seems to play a critical role in the initiation of the disease. The interaction between such a microenvironment, genetic polymorphisms, and different epithelial components such as endosalpingiosis, endometriosis, and ovarian inclusion cyst in the ovarian cortex may induce different genetic changes identified in the epithelial component of different histological types of ovarian tumors. Genetic studies on different histological grades and types provide insight into the pathogenetic pathways for the development of different disease phenotypes. However, the link between all these genetic changes and the etiological factors remains to be established.

  16. Biological Basis for Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berchuck, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    To achieve a better understanding of the etiology of ovarian cancer we have initiated a case-control study that considers genetic susceptibility epidemiologic risk factors and acquired genetic alterations...

  17. Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells: A New Target for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglei Zhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is a highly lethal disease among all gynecologic malignancies and is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Although the standard combination of surgery and chemotherapy was initially effective in patients with ovarian cancer, disease relapse commonly occurred due to the generation of chemoresistance. It has been reported that cancer stem cells (CSCs are involved in drug resistance and cancer recurrence. Over the past decades, increasing studies have been done to identify CSCs from human ovarian cancer cells. The present paper will summarize different investigations on ovarian CSCs, including isolation, mechanisms of chemoresistance, and therapeutic approaches. Although there are still numerous challenges to translate basic research to clinical applications, understanding the molecular details of CSCs is essential for developing effective strategies to prevent ovarian cancer and its recurrence.

  18. Cells of Origin of Epithelial Ovarian Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    lethal malignancy of the female reproductive system, largely due to the fact that most EOCs are diagnosed only after the cancer has metastasized into the...Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal malignancy of the female reproductive system, largely due to the fact that most EOCs are diagnosed only...experience in ovary research (ovarian physiology , oogonial stem cells) to work on this project. We also ! 5! obtained approval of our animal

  19. Prognostic factors in young ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klar, M; Hasenburg, A; Hasanov, M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We evaluated in a large study meta-database of prospectively randomised phase III trials the prognostic factors for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients 40 years of age with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: A total of 5055 patients...... epithelial ovarian cancer, excellent performance status, who had received complete macroscopic upfront cytoreduction and ≥5 chemotherapy cycles. RESULTS: For patients

  20. Metabolic evaluation and measurement of ovarian volume in polycystic ovary sydrome: a cross-sectional observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Evran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Polycystic ovary sydrome is a disease of women in reproductive period, with hirsutism or hyperandrogenic signs in laboratory evaluation, causing infertility due to dysmenorrhea and unovulation. Accompanying insulin resistance and adiposity may increase cardiometabolic risk. In our study, we planned to represent the physical examination and laboratory findings of the patients diagnosed as polycystic ovary sydrome, together with andominal ultrasonographic evaluation of the ovaries. Material-methods: Twenty-two patients who admitted the endocrinology department with the complaints of hirsutism and dysmenorrhea were included in the study. Purpose: Polycystic ovary sydrome is a disease of women in reproductive period, with hirsutism or hyperandrogenic signs in laboratory evaluation, causing infertility due to dysmenorrhea and unovulation. Accompanying insulin resistance and adiposity may increase cardiometabolic risk. In our study, we planned to represent the physical examination and laboratory findings of the patients diagnosed as polycystic ovary sydrome, together with andominal ultrasonographic evaluation of the ovaries. Material and Methods: Twenty-two patients who admitted the endocrinology department with the complaints of hirsutism and dysmenorrhea were included in the study. Their ages, family histories, polycystic ovary sydrome phenotypes, first menstrual age, length of cyclus and physical examination findings were recorded. Ferriman and Gallwey score was used for hirsutism. Insulin resistance was calculated via HOMA-IR method by making the biochemical and hormonal tests. Ovarian volumes were measured by abdominal ultrasonography. SPSS-16 was used for the statistical analysis of the findings. Results: Mean age was 21.41+/-0.88. Polycystic ovary sydrome phenotypes were B in 40.9%, C in 31.8% and A in 27.3%. Cyclus length was normal in 31.8% (27-34 days. Ferriman and Gallwey score was and #8805;7 in all of the patients. Although

  1. History of Comorbidities and Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients, Results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minlikeeva, Albina N; Freudenheim, Jo L; Eng, Kevin H; Cannioto, Rikki A; Friel, Grace; Szender, J Brian; Segal, Brahm; Odunsi, Kunle; Mayor, Paul; Diergaarde, Brenda; Zsiros, Emese; Kelemen, Linda E; Köbel, Martin; Steed, Helen; deFazio, Anna; Jordan, Susan J; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Risch, Harvey A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goodman, Marc T; Dörk, Thilo; Edwards, Robert; Modugno, Francesmary; Ness, Roberta B; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mizuno, Mika; Karlan, Beth Y; Goode, Ellen L; Kjær, Susanne K; Høgdall, Estrid; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Terry, Kathryn L; Cramer, Daniel W; Bandera, Elisa V; Paddock, Lisa E; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Massuger, Leon F A G; Sutphen, Rebecca; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Menon, Usha; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Pearce, Celeste L; Wu, Anna H; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Jensen, Allan; Webb, Penelope M; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2017-09-01

    Background: Comorbidities can affect survival of ovarian cancer patients by influencing treatment efficacy. However, little evidence exists on the association between individual concurrent comorbidities and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients.Methods: Among patients diagnosed with invasive ovarian carcinoma who participated in 23 studies included in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, we explored associations between histories of endometriosis; asthma; depression; osteoporosis; and autoimmune, gallbladder, kidney, liver, and neurological diseases and overall and progression-free survival. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age at diagnosis, stage of disease, histology, and study site, we estimated pooled HRs and 95% confidence intervals to assess associations between each comorbidity and ovarian cancer outcomes.Results: None of the comorbidities were associated with ovarian cancer outcome in the overall sample nor in strata defined by histologic subtype, weight status, age at diagnosis, or stage of disease (local/regional vs. advanced).Conclusions: Histories of endometriosis; asthma; depression; osteoporosis; and autoimmune, gallbladder, kidney, liver, or neurologic diseases were not associated with ovarian cancer overall or progression-free survival.Impact: These previously diagnosed chronic diseases do not appear to affect ovarian cancer prognosis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1470-3. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Symptoms Relevant to Surveillance for Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ore, Robert M.; Baldwin, Lauren; Woolum, Dylan; Elliott, Erika; Wijers, Christiaan; Chen, Chieh-Yu; Miller, Rachel W.; DeSimone, Christopher P.; Ueland, Frederick R.; Kryscio, Richard J.; van Nagell, John R.; Pavlik, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    To examine how frequently and confidently healthy women report symptoms during surveillance for ovarian cancer. A symptoms questionnaire was administered to 24,526 women over multiple visits accounting for 70,734 reports. A query of reported confidence was included as a confidence score (CS). Chi square, McNemars test, ANOVA and multivariate analyses were performed. 17,623 women completed the symptoms questionnaire more than one time and >9500 women completed it more than one four times for >43,000 serially completed questionnaires. Reporting ovarian cancer symptoms was ~245 higher than ovarian cancer incidence. The positive predictive value (0.073%) for identifying ovarian cancer based on symptoms alone would predict one malignancy for 1368 cases taken to surgery due to reported symptoms. Confidence on the first questionnaire (83.3%) decreased to 74% when more than five questionnaires were completed. Age-related decreases in confidence were significant (p Women reporting at least one symptom expressed more confidence (41,984/52,379 = 80.2%) than women reporting no symptoms (11,882/18,355 = 64.7%), p Confidence was unrelated to history of hormone replacement therapy or abnormal ultrasound findings (p = 0.30 and 0.89). The frequency of symptoms relevant to ovarian cancer was much higher than the occurrence of ovarian cancer. Approximately 80.1% of women expressed confidence in what they reported. PMID:28335512

  3. Symptoms Relevant to Surveillance for Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Ore

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To examine how frequently and confidently healthy women report symptoms during surveillance for ovarian cancer. A symptoms questionnaire was administered to 24,526 women over multiple visits accounting for 70,734 reports. A query of reported confidence was included as a confidence score (CS. Chi square, McNemars test, ANOVA and multivariate analyses were performed. 17,623 women completed the symptoms questionnaire more than one time and >9500 women completed it more than one four times for >43,000 serially completed questionnaires. Reporting ovarian cancer symptoms was ~245 higher than ovarian cancer incidence. The positive predictive value (0.073% for identifying ovarian cancer based on symptoms alone would predict one malignancy for 1368 cases taken to surgery due to reported symptoms. Confidence on the first questionnaire (83.3% decreased to 74% when more than five questionnaires were completed. Age-related decreases in confidence were significant (p < 0.0001. Women reporting at least one symptom expressed more confidence (41,984/52,379 = 80.2% than women reporting no symptoms (11,882/18,355 = 64.7%, p < 0.0001. Confidence was unrelated to history of hormone replacement therapy or abnormal ultrasound findings (p = 0.30 and 0.89. The frequency of symptoms relevant to ovarian cancer was much higher than the occurrence of ovarian cancer. Approximately 80.1% of women expressed confidence in what they reported.

  4. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes: evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, C M; Nagle, C M; Whiteman, D.C.; Ness, R.; Pearce, C. L.; Pike, M C; Rossing, M A; Terry, Kathryn Lynne; Wu, A H; Risch, H.A.; Yu, H.; Doherty, J.A.; Chang-Claude, J.; Hein, R.; Nickels, S

    2013-01-01

    Whilst previous studies have reported that higher body-mass index (BMI) increases a woman’s risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improved in the last decade, we sought to examine the association in a pooled analysis of recent studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We evaluated the associ...

  5. Features of ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kanako; Banno, Kouji; Yanokura, Megumi; Iida, Miho; Adachi, Masataka; Masuda, Kenta; Ueki, Arisa; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Nomura, Hiroyuki; Hirasawa, Akira; Tominaga, Eiichiro; Aoki, Daisuke

    2014-11-01

    Lynch syndrome is a hereditary ovarian cancer with a prevalence of 0.9-2.7%. Lynch syndrome accounts for 10-15% of hereditary ovarian cancers, while hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome accounts for 65-75% of these cancers. The lifetime risk for ovarian cancer in families with Lynch syndrome is ~8%, which is lower than colorectal and endometrial cancers, and ovarian cancer is not listed in the Amsterdam Criteria II. More than half of sporadic ovarian cancers are diagnosed in stage III or IV, but ≥80% of ovarian cancers in Lynch syndrome are diagnosed in stage I or II. Ovarian cancers in Lynch syndrome mostly have non-serous histology and different properties from those of sporadic ovarian cancers. A screening method for ovarian cancers in Lynch syndrome has yet to be established and clinical studies of prophylactic administration of oral contraceptives are not available. However, molecular profiles at the genetic level indicate that ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome has a more favorable prognosis than sporadic ovarian cancer. Inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of the rapamycin pathway and anti-epidermal growth factor antibodies may have efficacy for the disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review focusing on ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome.

  6. Adolescent polycystic ovary syndrome due to functional ovarian hyperandrogenism persists into adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert L; Ehrmann, David A; Littlejohn, Elizabeth E

    2015-04-01

    Menstrual irregularity and above-average testosterone levels in adolescence may presage polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adulthood but persist in only a minority. Prolonged anovulatory cycles in normal adolescents are associated with increased testosterone levels. Thus, questions have been raised about the accuracy of PCOS diagnosed in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to follow-up hyperandrogenic adolescents with features of PCOS to test the hypothesis that adolescent functional ovarian hyperandrogenism (FOH) persists into adulthood. A series of adults previously reported to have adolescent PCOS, with most documented to have FOH by GnRH agonist or dexamethasone androgen-suppression test criteria, were recalled. Recall occurred >3 years after the initial diagnosis and at the age of >18.0 years. Respondents underwent examination, baseline androgen evaluation, and an oral glucose tolerance test after discontinuing oral contraceptive therapy. Of the adolescent hyperandrogenic patients, 68% (15 of 22) were traceable, and 60% of those traced returned for follow-up, including half (n = 8) of the original FOH group. The baseline characteristics of respondents and nonrespondents were not significantly different. Patients with FOH were reevaluated when their mean age was 23.0 years (range, 18.4-29.4 years), gynecologic age was 10.7 years (range, 5.5-18.4 years), and body mass index was 42.3 kg/m(2) (range, 28.3-52.1 kg/m(2); P = .02 vs adolescence). Serum free testosterone was 24 pg/mL (range, 10-38 pg/mL, normal, 3-9 pg/mL; not significant vs adolescence); all were oligomenorrheic. Whereas 3 of 8 had impaired glucose tolerance as adolescents, at follow-up 6 of 8 had developed abnormal glucose tolerance (2 with type 2 diabetes mellitus). Adolescents with FOH, which underlies most PCOS, uniformly have persistent hyperandrogenism, and glucose tolerance tends to deteriorate. Testing ovarian androgenic function in hyperandrogenic adolescents may be of prognostic

  7. Reduced and delayed expression of GDF9 and BMP15 in ovarian tissues from women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li-Na; Huang, Rui; Li, Li-Lin; Fang, Cong; Li, Yi; Liang, Xiao-Yan

    2014-11-01

    Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15) play crucial roles in follicular development and oocyte maturation. This study aimed to investigate and compare the expression of these proteins in ovarian tissues of women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Ovarian tissues from 28 patients with PCOS and 26 normal ovulatory women were collected, and the expression of GDF9 and BMP15 in oocytes and granulosa cells was evaluated via immunohistochemical staining. GDF9 and BMP15 were first expressed in primordial follicles at very low levels, and their expression increased gradually with follicular development, reaching the highest levels in Graafian follicles. However, less GDF9 and BMP15 expression was observed in primordial, primary, and secondary follicles in ovarian tissues of PCOS patients compared with levels in the control tissues (P  0.05). The expression of GDF9 and BMP15 in ovarian tissues varies among the developmental stages in both oocytes and granulosa cells in human ovarian tissues. The expression of these proteins is reduced and delayed in the early follicular stage in PCOS ovarian tissues, and these differences in expression may be associated with aberrant follicular development in patients with PCOS.

  8. Approaches to the detection of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Estrid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ovarian cancer (OC) represents the eighth most common cancer among women and the second most frequently diagnosed gynecological malignancy in the United States and Europe. Correct and fast referral of patients with OC is mandatory to ensure optimal treatment and to improve the prognosis...... of patients with OC. Approaches to detect OC may be based on a gynecological examination, an elevated serum CA125 level, a Risk of Malignancy Index (RMI) higher than 200, an elevated serum HE4 level, or other modalities such as Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA), Risk of Ovarian Cancer Algorithm...... (ROCA), or Copenhagen Index (CPH-I).  Aim: To describe biomarkers that potentially improve the detection/risk estimation of OC.  Results: The ability to differentiate OC from benign and borderline ovarian tumors was analyzed using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves resulting in Area Under...

  9. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Nagle, Christina M; Whiteman, David C

    2013-01-01

    (13 548 cases and 17 913 controls). We combined study-specific adjusted odds ratios (ORs) using a random-effects model. We further examined the associations by histological subtype, menopausal status and post-menopausal hormone use. High BMI (all time-points) was associated with increased risk......Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improved...... in the last decade, we sought to examine the association in a pooled analysis of recent studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We evaluated the association between BMI (recent, maximum and in young adulthood) and ovarian cancer risk using original data from 15 case–control studies...

  10. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Is It Time to Rename PCOS to HA-PODS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Suvarna Satish

    2016-04-01

    The term polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) came into existence 80 years ago. Pathophysiology of PCOS remains ill understood despite extensive research in this field. It is now accepted that the manifestations of PCOS are not confined to the reproductive dysfunction, and there are endocrine-metabolic implications to PCOS with several consequences to female health. PCOS is a misnomer as ovaries do not contain epithelial cysts, but they are actually antral follicles. Moreover, the name PCOS neither reflects the hyperandrogenism which is essential for diagnosis nor the metabolic derangements. While various authors have expressed the need for change of the name, a suitable new option has not yet been established. This review aims to analyse the current understanding of pathophysiology of PCOS and addresses to the controversies associated with its diagnosis and nomenclature. The name "Hyperandrogenic Persistent Ovulatory Dysfunction Syndrome or HA-PODS" is proposed here to overcome diagnostic pitfalls of previous nomenclature. This new name will help formulate appropriate treatment and promote consistency in research as well. Further categorizations of HA-PODS are also discussed in the article.

  11. L:A ratio, Insulin resistance and metabolic risk in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vandana; Mishra, Supriya; Mishra, Sameeksha; Gupta, Vani

    2017-12-01

    The plasma leptin-adiponectin ratio (L:A) has been suggested as a one of the potentially independent predictor of metabolic risk and Insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). This is a case-control study, total 439 female subjects, comprises in to two group 223 cases (PCOS) and 216 control (non-PCOS women) according to their clinical characteristics. Further both case and control group were sub-grouped in PCOS and non-PCOS with metabolic syndrome (wMetS) and without metabolic syndrome (woMetS) as per National Cholesterol Education Program Treatment Panel (NCEPATP) guidelines. Anthropometrical measurements and biochemical analysis were done. Leptin and adiponectin level were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results indicated that SAD, WHR, BMI, BP, lipid profile, FPG, fasting plasma insulin, IR (HOMA-IR), leptin and L:A ratio were significantly higher (p=L:A ratio were significantly high (p=L:A Ratio with different metabolic risk markers, L:A ratio was positively significant with SAD (r=0.97, p L:A ratio was also positively correlated with SAD, BMI, TG in PCOS woMetS. Study concluded L:A ratio may be one of the potential biomarker for metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance which is independent for presence of PCOS disease. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A possible role for familial thrombophilia in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moini, Ashraf; Sarrafion, Fariba; Ziaei, Saeideh; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Arabipoor, Arezoo

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate familial thrombophilia factors in infertile patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). This analytic study was performed on 123 infertile women with PCOS as the case group, and 73 infertile women with male factor as the control group, who were under treatment. Blood samples were taken on the third day of the menstrual cycle for evaluation of protein S, protein C, antithrombin III, APC-resistance, homocysteine levels and additional metabolic and endocrine parameters for both groups. Comparisons between groups were performed by the t-test, and Fisher exact test. p<0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Although the mean value of protein S and protein C in the case group was lower than the control group, there was no significance difference (p=0.752 and p=0.602, respectively). The mean of antithrombin III, activated protein C resistance (APC-R) and homocysteine levels in the two groups were not significant (p=0.756, p=0.603 and p=0.157, respectively). We were unable to determine a positive relationship between PCOS and thrombophilia. The existence of a possible trend towards high prevalence of thrombophilia in women with PCOS needs further research.

  13. Polycystic ovarian syndrome and low milk supply: Is insulin resistance the missing link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora Stanka Kirigin Biloš

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the known maternal and infant benefits of breastfeeding, only about two-fifths of infants are exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life, with low milk supply among the most commonly cited reasons for breastfeeding cessation. Although anecdotal reports from lactation consultants indicate that polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS interferes with lactation, very few studies have examined this relationship, and the association between PCOS and lactation dysfunction remains poorly understood. Moreover, studies have reported conflicting results when examining breastfeeding success in women with PCOS, and divergence of the PCOS phenotype may be responsible for the heterogeneous results to date. Specifically, insulin resistance may have an aggravating or even essential role in the pathogenesis of low milk supply. Recently, protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, F has been identified as a potential biomarker linking insulin resistance with insufficient milk supply. Accordingly, interventions targeting insulin action have been recognized as potentially promising strategies toward the treatment of lactation dysfunction. This review will highlight studies linking PCOS with low milk supply and explore potential mechanisms that contribute to lactation dysfunction in these women.

  14. The predictors of quality of life in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliasghari, Fatemeh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh; Lak, Tahereh Behroozi

    2017-06-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorder that may be effective in reducing the quality of life. This study aimed to determine the predictors of quality of life in women with PCOS. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 174 women with PCOS who attended in public and private fertility clinics in Urmia (West Azerbaijan, Iran), 2015. The data were collected through the questionnaires of sociodemographic and obstetrics characteristics, quality of life and Beck depression inventory-II. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate the effect rate of the independent variables (depression and sociodemographic characteristics) on the dependent variable (quality of life). In this study, the mean (standard deviation) of total score of the quality of life was obtained, 45.8 (11.3) in the range 0-100. The highest and lowest mean scores were in the subdomains of weight and hirsutism. The variables of depression, body mass index, woman's job, menstrual cycle intervals, and sexual satisfaction were predictors of the quality of life in women with PCOS. Because of various effective factors on quality of life in these women such as depression, necessary strategies must be implemented to control these factors and improve the quality of life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Kapalabhati pranayama: An answer to modern day polycystic ovarian syndrome and coexisting metabolic syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshma Mohamed Ansari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Breath, the vital force of life, is controlled positively by pranayama to ensure homeostasis and wellbeing in humans. Kapalabhati is the rapid breathing technique of pranayama, which is considered as a cure for various ailments. The possible use of this technique to combat metabolic syndrome (MS and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS has been discussed in this article. Various published literature from PubMed, Scopus, and theses were reviewed to reinforce the hypothesis that this technique is the answer to ailments due to modernization. It was worthwhile to note that Kapalabhati does combat various features of MS, but its efficacy against PCOS is yet to be proven. However, since both syndromes arise due to a common factor hyperinsulinemia primarily induced by stress in this modern world, it is hypothesized that Kapalabhati holds good against PCOS too. Hence, in conclusion, it can be said that it would be beneficial to conduct a study on PCOS women to ascertain the efficacy of Kapalabhati in their population.

  16. [Mechanism of action of insulin sensitizer agents in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo García, Carlos G; Vega Arias, Maria de Jesús; Hernández Marín, Imelda; Ayala, Aquiles R

    2007-03-01

    Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) is the most important endocrine abnormality that affects women in reproductive age. It is characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenemia probably secondary to insulin resistance. Hence insulin sensitizers agents had been used in PCOD. Metformin is a biguanide used in the treatment of PCOD via decrease of hepatic gluconeogenesis and insulinemia; improvement peripheral glucose utilization, oxidative glucose metabolism, nonoxidative glucose metabolism and intracellular glucose transport. Such effects, when this drug is administered alone during 3 to 6 months, increase sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), reduce free androgens index and hirsutism, decrease insulin resistance, and regulate menses in 60 to 70% of cases. Thiazolidinodiones are drugs that decrease insulin resistance in the liver with hepatic glucose production. Their mechanism of action is through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPAR-gamma), that help to decrease plasmatic concentrations of free fatty acids, pre and postprandial glucose, insulin, triglycerides, increased HDL cholesterol and decreased LDL, menses return to normality, with improvement of ovulation and decreased hirsutism. It seems that by modulation and attenuation of insulin resistance, hypoglucemic agents such as metfomin and thiazolidinodiones can be used effectively to treat anovulation, infertility and hyperandrogenemia.

  17. Cancer Stem Cells and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Dyall

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell hypothesis is becoming more widely accepted as a model for carcinogenesis. Tumours are heterogeneous both at the molecular and cellular level, containing a small population of cells that possess highly tumourigenic “stem-cell” properties. Cancer stem cells (CSCs, or tumour-initiating cells, have the ability to self-renew, generate xenografts reminiscent of the primary tumour that they were derived from, and are chemoresistant. The characterisation of the CSC population within a tumour that drives its growth could provide novel target therapeutics against these cells specifically, eradicating the cancer completely. There have been several reports describing the isolation of putative cancer stem cell populations in several cancers; however, no defined set of markers has been identified that conclusively characterises “stem-like” cancer cells. This paper highlights the current experimental approaches that have been used in the field and discusses their limitations, with specific emphasis on the identification and characterisation of the CSC population in epithelial ovarian cancer.

  18. Genetic heterogeneity of breast-ovarian cancer revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narod, S. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada); Ford, D.; Easton, D. [Univ. of Leiden (Netherlands)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    We have recently reported the results of a linkage analysis of 145 breast-ovarian cancer families. Each family has three or more cases of early-onset breast cancer (age {le}60) or of ovarian cancer, and all families have at least one case of ovarian cancer (there were nine site-specific ovarian cancer families). Overall, we estimated that 76% of the families were linked to the BRCA1 locus. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Incidence, Pattern and Management of Ovarian Cancer at a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    least, 70% (95% CI 64%, 84%). Conclusions: Primary ovarian cancer was uncommon and consisted mainly of epithelial cancer. Epithelial ovarian cancer occurred more in multiparous women and in women under 50 years in our center contrary to the known pattern of the disease. Keywords: Management, Ovarian cancer, ...

  20. The genetics of breast and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, D; Easton, D F

    1995-10-01

    A number of genes are known to be involved in inherited susceptibility to breast and/or ovarian cancer. In the context of high-risk families the most important genes are BRCA1 on chromosome 17q, which is associated with a high penetrance of both breast and ovarian cancer, and BRCA2 on chromosome 13q, which causes a high risk of breast cancer but a lower risk of ovarian cancer. Other high-risk cancer genes that confer increased risks of breast or ovarian cancer in addition to other cancers include the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer genes and the TP53 gene, which causes breast cancer as part of the Li-Fraumeni syndrome. The predisposing mutations in these genes are relatively rare in the population. More common genes which are associated with an increased, but lower, risk of breast cancer are the ataxiatelangiectasia gene and the HRAS1 gene. This paper reviews recent progress in mapping and cloning of these susceptibility genes, and provides estimates of the cancer risks associated with each gene and the frequency of predisposing mutations.

  1. Insulin-Sensitizers, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gynaecological Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Lauretta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical, early phase clinical trials and epidemiological evidence support the potential role of insulin-sensitizers in cancer prevention and treatment. Insulin-sensitizers improve the metabolic and hormonal profile in PCOS patients and may also act as anticancer agents, especially in cancers associated with hyperinsulinemia and oestrogen dependent cancers. Several lines of evidence support the protection against cancer exerted by dietary inositol, in particular inositol hexaphosphate. Metformin, thiazolidinediones, and myoinositol postreceptor signaling may exhibit direct inhibitory effects on cancer cell growth. AMPK, the main molecular target of metformin, is emerging as a target for cancer prevention and treatment. PCOS may be correlated to an increased risk for developing ovarian and endometrial cancer (up to threefold. Several studies have demonstrated an increase in mortality rate from ovarian cancer among overweight/obese PCOS women compared with normal weight women. Long-term use of metformin has been associated with lower rates of ovarian cancer. Considering the evidence supporting a higher risk of gynaecological cancer in PCOS women, we discuss the potential use of insulin-sensitizers as a potential tool for chemoprevention, hypothesizing a possible rationale through which insulin-sensitizers may inhibit tumourigenesis.

  2. Insulin-Sensitizers, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gynaecological Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretta, Rosa; Lanzolla, Giulia; Vici, Patrizia; Mariani, Luciano; Moretti, Costanzo

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical, early phase clinical trials and epidemiological evidence support the potential role of insulin-sensitizers in cancer prevention and treatment. Insulin-sensitizers improve the metabolic and hormonal profile in PCOS patients and may also act as anticancer agents, especially in cancers associated with hyperinsulinemia and oestrogen dependent cancers. Several lines of evidence support the protection against cancer exerted by dietary inositol, in particular inositol hexaphosphate. Metformin, thiazolidinediones, and myoinositol postreceptor signaling may exhibit direct inhibitory effects on cancer cell growth. AMPK, the main molecular target of metformin, is emerging as a target for cancer prevention and treatment. PCOS may be correlated to an increased risk for developing ovarian and endometrial cancer (up to threefold). Several studies have demonstrated an increase in mortality rate from ovarian cancer among overweight/obese PCOS women compared with normal weight women. Long-term use of metformin has been associated with lower rates of ovarian cancer. Considering the evidence supporting a higher risk of gynaecological cancer in PCOS women, we discuss the potential use of insulin-sensitizers as a potential tool for chemoprevention, hypothesizing a possible rationale through which insulin-sensitizers may inhibit tumourigenesis. PMID:27725832

  3. Ovarian Cancer Stroma: Pathophysiology and the Roles in Cancer Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuko Furuya

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in m...

  4. Survival of ovarian cancer patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Hellen McKinnon; Noer, Mette Calundann; Sperling, Cecilie Dyg

    2016-01-01

    linked via the patients' personal identification number and the analyses included data on cancer stage, age, survival, surgery status and comorbidity. The computed outcome measures were age-adjusted mortality rates and age-adjusted overall and relative survival rates for one and five years. RESULTS: We......BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer has a high mortality rate, especially in Denmark where mortality rates have been reported higher than in adjacent countries with similar demographics. This study therefore examined recent survival and mortality among Danish ovarian cancer patients over an 18-year study...... period. METHODS: This nationwide registry-based observational study used data from the Danish Gynecology Cancer Database, Danish Pathology Registry, and Danish National Patient Registry. All patients with ovarian cancer diagnosed between 1995 and 2012 were included in the study. The data sources were...

  5. Obesity and survival among women with ovarian cancer: results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Nagle, CM; Dixon, SC; Jensen, A; Kjaer, SK; Modugno, F; DeFazio, A; Fereday, S; Hung, J.; Johnatty, SE; Fasching, PA; Beckmann, MW; Lambrechts, D; Vergote, I.; Van Nieuwenhuysen, E.; Lambrechts, S

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved. Background: Observational studies have reported a modest association between obesity and risk of ovarian cancer; however, whether it is also associated with survival and whether this association varies for the different histologic subtypes are not clear. We undertook an international collaborative analysis to assess the association between body mass index (BMI), assessed shortly before diagnosis, progression-free survival (PFS), ovarian cancer-s...

  6. Colon resection for ovarian cancer: intraoperative decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Mitchel S; Zervose, Emmanuel

    2008-11-01

    To discuss the benefits and morbidity of and indications for colon resection during cytoreductive operations for ovarian cancer. The history of cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer is discussed, with special attention to the incorporation of colon resection. Literature regarding cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer is then reviewed, again with attention to the role of colon resection. The focus of the review is directed at broad technical considerations and rationales, for both primary and secondary cytoreduction. Over the past 15 to 20 years the standard cytoreductive operation for ovarian cancer has shifted from an abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and omentectomy to an en bloc radical resection of the pelvic tumor and an omentectomy, and more recently to include increasing use of extensive upper abdominal surgery. En bloc pelvic resection frequently includes rectosigmoid resection, almost always accompanied by a primary anastomosis. Other portions of the colon are at risk for metastatic involvement and sometimes require resection in order to achieve optimal cytoreduction. The data regarding colon resection for the purpose of surgical cytoreduction of ovarian cancer are conflicting (in terms of benefit) and all retrospective. However, the preponderance of information supports a benefit in terms of survival when cytoreduction is clearly optimal. Similar to primary surgery, benefit from secondary cytoreduction of ovarian cancer occurs when only a small volume of disease is left behind. The preponderance of data suggests that colon resection to achieve optimal cytoreduction has a positive impact on survival. In order to better understand the role of colon resection as well as other extensive cytoreductive procedures for ovarian cancer, it will be important to continue to improve our understanding of prognostic variables such as the nuances of metastatic bowel involvement in order to better guide appropriate surgical management.

  7. Levels of Distress in Women at Risk for Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn M

    2008-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to determine the levels of distress in women with a family history of ovarian cancer and to identify the mediating factors between risk of developing ovarian cancer and distress...

  8. Vaccine-based clinical trials in ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leffers, Ninke; Daemen, Toos; Boezen, H. Marike; Melief, Kees J. M.; Nijman, Hans W.

    Ovarian cancer vaccines are one of the new treatment strategies under investigation in epithelial ovarian cancer. This article discusses the results of different immunization strategies, points out potential pitfalls in study designs and provides possible solutions for augmentation of clinical

  9. The relation between endometriosis and ovarian cancer - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyhøj Heidemann, Lene; Hartwell, Dorthe; Heidemann, Christian Hamilton

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is known to harbor characteristics substantiating that it is a possible precursor of ovarian cancer.......Endometriosis is known to harbor characteristics substantiating that it is a possible precursor of ovarian cancer....

  10. Does Breast or Ovarian Cancer Run in Your Family?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Does Breast or Ovarian Cancer Run in Your Family? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If you ... get ovarian cancer by age 70. Does Your Family Health History Put You At Risk? Collect your ...

  11. Hereditary ovarian cancer: beyond the usual suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Kathryn P; Swisher, Elizabeth M

    2012-02-01

    In the past, hereditary ovarian carcinoma was attributed almost entirely to mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, with a much smaller contribution from mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes. Recently, three new ovarian cancer susceptibility genes have been identified: RAD51C, RAD51D, and BRIP1. In addition, germline mutations in women with ovarian carcinoma have been recently identified in many of the previously identified breast cancer genes in the Fanconi anemia (FA)-BRCA pathway. While mutations in genes other than BRCA1 and BRCA2 are each individually rare, together they make up a significant proportion of cases. With at least 16 genes implicated in hereditary ovarian cancer to date, comprehensive testing for ovarian cancer risk will require assessment of many genes. As the cost of genomic sequencing continues to fall, the practice of evaluating cancer susceptibility one gene at a time is rapidly becoming obsolete. New advances in genomic technologies will likely accelerate the discovery of additional cancer susceptibility genes and increase the feasibility of comprehensive evaluation of multiple genes simultaneously at low cost. Improved recognition of inherited risk will identify individuals who are candidates for targeted prevention. In addition, identifying inherited mutations in a variety of FA-BRCA pathway genes may aid in identifying individuals who will selectively benefit from PARP inhibitors. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. HEALTHY EATING INDEX AND OVARIAN CANCER RISK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V.; Williams-King, Melony G.; Paddock, Lisa E.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Lu, Shou-En; Faulkner, Shameka; Pulick, Katherine; Olson, Sara H.

    2011-01-01

    The evidence for a role of diet on ovarian cancer prevention remains inconclusive. While many studies have evaluated individual foods and food groups, the evaluation of a comprehensive dietary quality index for predicting cancer risk has received little attention. This study investigates the association between the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), which reflects adherence to the current USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in New Jersey. A total of 205 cases and 390 controls completed the Block 98.2 Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) in addition to reporting on potential risk factors for ovarian cancer. FFQ data were then utilized to calculate the HEI score, and cup, ounce, gram, or caloric equivalents for the 12 different food groups comprising the index. In multivariate models the OR for the highest tertile of the HEI score compared to the lowest (reflecting a better diet compared to a worse diet) was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.55–1.47). There was limited evidence for a statistically significant association between any of the 12 individual food components and ovarian cancer risk. Based on this study’s results, neither individual food groups nor dietary quality showed potential for preventing ovarian cancer. PMID:21286802

  13. Molecular biomarker set for early detection of ovarian cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-06-16

    Embodiments of the present invention concern methods and compositions related to detection of ovarian cancer, including detection of the stage of ovarian cancer, in some cases. In particular, the invention encompasses use of expression of TFAP2A and in some embodiments CA125 and/or E2F5 to identify ovarian cancer, including detecting mRNA and/or protein levels of the respective gene products. Kits for detection of ovarian cancer are also described.

  14. Use of analgesic drugs and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammundsen, Henriette B; Faber, Mette T; Jensen, Allan

    2012-01-01

    The role of analgesic drug use in development of ovarian cancer is not fully understood. We examined the association between analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer. In addition, we examined whether the association differed according to histological types.......The role of analgesic drug use in development of ovarian cancer is not fully understood. We examined the association between analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer. In addition, we examined whether the association differed according to histological types....

  15. Polycystic kidney disease and cancer after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, James B; Calvet, James P; Yu, Alan S L; Lynch, Charles F; Wang, Connie J; Kasiske, Bertram L; Engels, Eric A

    2014-10-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), the most common form of polycystic kidney disease (PKD), is a disorder with characteristics of neoplasia. However, it is not known whether renal transplant recipients with PKD have an increased risk of cancer. Data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, which contains information on all solid organ transplant recipients in the United States, were linked to 15 population-based cancer registries in the United States. For PKD recipients, we compared overall cancer risk with that in the general population. We also compared cancer incidence in PKD versus non-PKD renal transplant recipients using Poisson regression, and we determined incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, dialysis duration, and time since transplantation. The study included 10,166 kidney recipients with PKD and 107,339 without PKD. Cancer incidence in PKD recipients was 1233.6 per 100,000 person-years, 48% higher than expected in the general population (standardized incidence ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.37 to 1.60), whereas cancer incidence in non-PKD recipients was 1119.1 per 100,000 person-years. The unadjusted incidence was higher in PKD than in non-PKD recipients (IRR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20). However, PKD recipients were older (median age at transplantation, 51 years versus 45 years for non-PKD recipients), and after multivariable adjustment, cancer incidence was lower in PKD recipients than in others (IRR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.91). The reason for the lower cancer risk in PKD recipients is not known but may relate to biologic characteristics of ADPKD or to cancer risk behaviors associated with ADPKD. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  16. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strother, Robert; Matei, Daniela

    2009-06-01

    The encapsulation of doxorubicin in a pegylated liposomal matrix led to a reformulated agent with a different toxicity profile and improved clinical utility. Liposomal doxorubicin is devoid of the cardiac toxicity associated with doxorubicin, but is associated with predictable muco-cutaneous toxicity. The liposomal formulation leads to improved delivery to the target tumor tissue, allowing enhanced uptake by cancer cells. These properties translate into clinical utility in recurrent ovarian cancer as demonstrated by phase II and III trials, this proven clinical efficacy leading to FDA approval in second-line therapy for ovarian cancer. New combinations with cytotoxics, in particular with carboplatin, have demonstrated an acceptable toxicity profile and clinical utility in platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. A favorable toxicity profile renders liposomal doxorubicin an ideal partner for combination regimens with other cytotoxics, and more recently with biological agents. Such combinations are the subject of ongoing clinical trials.

  17. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoiemma, Phillip P; Powell, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in ovarian cancer is prognostic for increased survival while increases in immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are associated with poor outcomes. Approaches that bolster tumor-reactive TILs may limit tumor progression. However, identifying tumor-reactive TILs in ovarian cancer has been challenging, though adoptive TIL therapy in patients has been encouraging. Other forms of TIL immunomodulation remain under investigation including Treg depletion, antibody-based checkpoint modification, activation and amplification using dendritic cells, antigen presenting cells or IL-2 cytokine culture, adjuvant cytokine injections, and gene-engineered T-cells. Many approaches to TIL manipulation inhibit ovarian cancer progression in preclinical or clinical studies as monotherapy. Here, we review the impact of TILs in ovarian cancer and attempts to mobilize TILs to halt tumor progression. We conclude that effective TIL therapy for ovarian cancer is at the brink of translation and optimal TIL activity may require combined methodologies to deliver clinically-relevant treatment. PMID:25894333

  18. Nutritional factors in ovarian cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandera, Elisa V; Kushi, Lawrence H; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies in the United States. Because symptoms tend be nonspecific, early detection is difficult, and most ovarian cancers are diagnosed at an advanced stage when the prognosis is poor. Nonetheless, there is clinical evidence that even given the same tumor characteristics (histologic type, stage, and grade), some cases experience much better survival than others. This has led to extensive research on molecular prognostic factors to enable more efficient and targeted therapeutic regimens. However, little is known about the impact that lifestyle factors, such as diet or physical activity, may have in the prognosis of ovarian cancer, whether on disease-free survival or on the response to and complications from treatment. The role of obesity on ovarian cancer survival is unclear. Obesity may delay diagnosis, hinder optimal surgical and cytotoxic treatment, and cause postoperative complications. As overweight and obesity rates reach epidemic proportions, the impact of body mass index in the clinical management of ovarian cancer is increasingly significant, whereas current evidence of its impact is limited and inconclusive.

  19. Ovarian Cancer: The Interplay of Lifestyle and Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braem, M.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a highly lethal disease that is mostly diagnosed at an advanced stage. In Europe, only 36% of women with ovarian cancer can expect to survive 5 years. While our knowledge of ovarian cancer has changed substantially throughout the years, our understanding of its etiology still lacks

  20. Ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome; a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldering-Woolderink, J. M.; Blok, E. A.; Vasen, H. F. A.; Hollema, H.; Mourits, M. J.; De Bock, G. H.

    Objective: The aim was to systematically review the characteristics of ovarian cancer in women with Lynch syndrome (LS) and evaluate the role of surveillance in detection of ovarian cancer in LS. Methods: All studies between 1979 and 2015 of women with ovarian cancer and LS or at 50% risk of LS were

  1. Increased COX-2 expression in patients with ovarian cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... role for COX-2 as mediators of ovarian cancer and as markers of disease activity. Key words: Ovarian cancer, ... history of ovarian and/or breast cancer, and nulliparity, whereas the oral contraceptive pill .... BSA overnight at 4°C, membranes were incubated for 2 h at room temperature in agitation with the ...

  2. Evidence of a genetic link between endometriosis and ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, A.W.; Templeman, C.; Stram, D.A.; Beesley, J.; Tyrer, J.; Berchuck, A.; Pharoah, P.P.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; Pearce, C.L.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Altena, A.M. van; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether endometriosis-associated genetic variation affects risk of ovarian cancer. DESIGN: Pooled genetic analysis. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): Genetic data from 46,176 participants (15,361 ovarian cancer cases and 30,815 controls) from 41 ovarian cancer studies.

  3. Ovarian Cancer Stroma: Pathophysiology and the Roles in Cancer Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuko Furuya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in more advanced stages, the peritoneal surfaces of the upper abdomen become the next largest soil for cancer progression. Ascites is also produced frequently in ovarian cancers, which facilitates distant metastasis. Clinicopathologic, epidemiologic and molecular studies on ovarian cancers have improved our understanding and therapeutic approaches, but still further efforts are required to reduce the risks in the patients who are predisposed to this lethal disease and the mortality of the patients in advanced stages. Among various molecules involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, special genes such as TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been well investigated. These genes are widely accepted as the predisposing factors that trigger malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the ovary. In addition, adnexal inflammatory conditions such as chronic salpingitis and ovarian endometriosis have been great research interests in the context of carcinogenic background of ovarian cancers. In this review, I discuss the roles of stromal cells and inflammatory factors in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers.

  4. Effects of melatonin on the ovarian response to pinealectomy or continuous light in female rats: similarity with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Prata Lima

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate the relationship between melatonin and chronic anovulation. Adult (3-4 months old female Wistar rats were submitted to pinealectomy: group I: pinealectomized ovariectomized melatonin-treated (N = 10; group II: pinealectomized ovariectomized placebo-treated (N = 12; group III: pinealectomized light-treated placebo-treated(N = 10 or maintained under continuous light; group IV: maintained under continuous light, ovariectomized melatonin-treated (N = 22; group V: maintained under continuous light, ovariectomized placebo-treated (N = 10; group VI: maintained under continuous light placebo-treated (N = 10. In order to assess ovarian modifications, unilateral ovariectomy was performed during the fourth month in groups I, II, IV, V and the other ovary was removed after 8 months. Ovariectomy was performed in groups III and VI only after eight months. Melatonin (200 µg/100 g body weight dissolved in 0.02 ml absolute ethanol was injected intramuscularly daily during the last 4 months into groups I and IV. The other groups were treated with placebo (NaCl. The ovarian cysts were analyzed and their area, perimeter and maximum diameter, as well as the thickness of the ovarian capsule were measured. Daily colpocytological smears were performed throughout the study. Persistent estrous condition and ovarian cysts were observed in all groups. In pinealectomized rats the ovarian and vaginal alterations disappeared at the end of the study and in rats maintained under continuous light the vaginal and ovarian polycystic aspect was reversed only in those treated with melatonin. We conclude that melatonin may act on the ovarian response reverting chronic anovulation induced by pinealectomy or continuous light.

  5. Ovarian stromal hyperplasia and ovarian vein steroid levels in relation to endometrioid endometrial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, VHWM; Hollema, H; van der Zee, AGJ; Santema, JG; Heineman, MJ

    Objective To study the relationship between the presence of endometrioid endometrial cancer, the degree of ovarian stromal hyperplasia and ovarian steroid production in postmenopausal women. Design Retrospective and prospective study, respectively. Setting Medical Centre Leeuwarden and the

  6. Relationship between Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Subsequent Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Lien Pan

    Full Text Available This nationwide population-based study aims to explore the relationship between polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS and subsequent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM.Data from 1998-2012 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were used for this study. ICD9-CM codes 256.4X and 648.X were used separately for the diagnoses of PCOS and GDM, which were further confirmed by records of blood tests or ultrasonography to ensure the accuracy of the diagnoses. Women diagnosed at 45 years of age, and those diagnosed with overt diabetes mellitus or GDM prior to PCOS were excluded. During pregnancy, each woman with a previous diagnosis of PCOS was age-matched to 10 women without PCOS. Odds ratios (ORs for risk of GDM were calculated by logistic regression analysis with adjustment for economic status and co-morbidities.Among 7,629 eligible women with a valid PCOS diagnosis, 3,109 (42.87% had subsequent pregnancies. GDM occurred frequently among women with a history of PCOS as compared to those without PCOS (20.46% vs. 10.54%, p0.05. If not used after conception, OHAs did not reduce the risk of GDM (adjusted OR = 1.20; 95% CI:0.88-1.62.A history of PCOS is a significant and independent risk factor for development of GDM. Medication for PCOS or pre-pregnancy use of OHAs does not reduce the risk of GDM. When at-risk women become pregnant, they require closer surveillance for maternal and fetal well-being, and should follow a strict diet and adhere to weight gain control to avoid obstetric complications due to GDM.

  7. Obesity, polycystic ovarian syndrome and thyroid dysfunction in women with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythili Ayyagari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Women with epilepsy (WWE have an increased risk for several endocrine disorders. Obesity and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS are common side-effects of anticonvulsant drugs. Aim: To study the prevalence of Obesity, PCOS, Thyroid dysfunction in WWE on monotherapy with Carbamazepine (CBZ, Sodium Valproate (VAL and Phenytoin (DPH Material and Methods: Sixty WWE in the reproductive age group (13 - 45 yr who are on atleast 6 months of monotherapy with either CBZ (20 or VAL (20 or DPH (20 are subjects of the study. Their Anthropometric data is recorded. They are interviewed and investigated for PCOS and thyroid dysfunction. Twenty healthy women in the reproductive age group served as controls. BMI>25 is taken as cut-off for Obesity. PCOS is defined as menstrual irregularity and/or clinical /biochemical hyperandrogenism with ultrasound evidence of PCO as per the Rotterdam criteria. TSH 4 is taken as evidence of thyroid dysfunction. Women are grouped according to the anticonvulsant drug received and the data analyzed in each group. Results: The mean BMI among VAL and CBZ users is significantly higher than among DPH users (23.3 & 23.4 vs 20.4. There is no significant difference in incidence of PCOS among WWE using either DPH or VAL or CBZ. Elevated TSH>4 is seen more often in WWE on VAL (9/20 compared to CBZ (6/20 and DPH (3/20. WWE on CBZ, VAL and DPH did not differ in mean BMI, Obesity, PCOS compared to healthy controls. As compared to healthy controls, more WWE on drug therapy had significantly elevated TSH (1/20 vs20/60. Conclusions: WWE on VAL and CBZ had significant weight gain compared to DPH users. Despite weight gain, there was no difference in the incidence of PCOS between the users of VAL, CBZ and DPH. As compared to healthy controls, more WWE on drug therapy had significantly elevated TSH, more so in the VAL group.

  8. Testosterone and bioavailable testosterone help to distinguish between mild Cushing's syndrome and polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, M E; Lao, M C; Patel, S S; Lee, M L; Ghods, D E; Chandler, D W; Friedman, T C

    2008-11-01

    Women with Cushing's syndrome (CS) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) may present with similar symptoms. Subjects with mild CS lack clinical stigmata of classical CS and often have normal laboratory tests measuring hypercortisolism. Thus, distinguishing mild CS from PCOS may be difficult. We hypothesized that either total testosterone (TT) or bioavailable testosterone (BT) levels or the calculation of the free androgen index (FAI) would be low in patients with mild CS and elevated in patients with PCOS, and could help differentiate the two conditions. TT, BT, and FAI were measured in a group of 20 patients of reproductive age with mild CS and 20 PCOS patients matched for age and BMI. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves to assess the sensitivity and specificity of these measurements for the diagnosis of CS. TT (pBT (p=0.02), and FAI (p=0.003) were significantly elevated in PCOS patients compared to mild CS patients. Sex hormone-binding globulin was similar in both groups. The optimal cut-point for TT was 1.39 nmol/L, yielding a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 70%. The cut-point for BT was 0.24 nmol/L, resulting in a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 80%. The cut-point for FAI was 5.7, with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 60%. We conclude that TT levels may be useful to discriminate between mild CS and PCOS. In patients with signs and symptoms consistent with CS and PCOS, a TT level of <1.39 nmol/L warrants a workup for CS.

  9. Pregnancy Rate Following Luteal Phase Support in Iranian Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Foroozanfard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the efficacy of luteal phase support (LPS using intravaginal progesterone (P on pregnancy rate in Iranian women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS who used a combination for ovulation induction consisting of letrozole or clomiphene citrate (CC and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG. Materials and Methods:This was a randomized clinical trial undertaken in a fertility clinic in Kashan, Isfahan Province, Iran. A total of 198 patients completed treatment and follow up. Base on chosen ovulation induction programs, they were divided into two following group: i. CC group (n=98 used a combination consisting of CC (100 mg×5 day and HMG (150 IU×5 day and ii. letrozole group (n=100 used a combination consisting of letrozole (5 mg×5 day and HMG (150 IU×5 day. After human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG administration (5000 IU, the patients (n=122 who randomly received intravaginal P (Cyclogest, 400 mg daily were included in LPS group, while the rest (n=123 were included in non-P cycles group. The outcome was the comparison of chemical pregnancy rate between the groups. Results: Our findings showed that LPS was associated with a 10% higher pregnancy rate than in non-P cycles, although this difference did not reach statistical significant (p=0.08. LPS improved pregnancy rate in both CC (4% and letrozole (6% groups. In addition, patients who used letrozole for ovulation induction along with intravaginal P showed higher pregnancy rates than CC group. Conclusion: Administration of vaginal P for LPS may improve the pregnancy rate in women with PCOS using letrozole or CC in combination with HMG for ovulation induction (Registration Number: IRCT201206072967N4.

  10. PAX2 Expression in Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwong-Kwok Wong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PAX2 is one of nine PAX genes that regulate tissue development and cellular differentiation in embryos. However, the functional role of PAX2 in ovarian cancer is not known. Twenty-six ovarian cancer cell lines with different histology origins were screened for PAX2 expression. Two ovarian cancer cell lines: RMUGL (mucinous and TOV21G (clear cell, with high PAX2 expression were chosen for further study. Knockdown PAX2 expression in these cell lines was achieved by lentiviral shRNAs targeting the PAX2 gene. PAX2 stable knockdown cells were characterized for cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, protein profiles, and gene expression profiles. The result indicated that these stable PAX2 knockdown cells had reduced cell proliferation and migration. Microarray analysis indicated that several genes involved in growth inhibition and motility, such as G0S2, GREM1, and WFDC1, were up-regulated in PAX2 knockdown cells. On the other hand, over-expressing PAX2 in PAX2-negative ovarian cell lines suppressed their cell proliferation. In summary, PAX2 could have both oncogenic and tumor suppression functions, which might depend on the genetic content of the ovarian cancer cells. Further investigation of PAX2 in tumor suppression and mortality is warranty.

  11. Ovarian stromal hyperplasia and ovarian vein steroid levels in relation to endometrioid endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, V H W M; Hollema, H; van der Zee, A G J; Santema, J G; Heineman, M J

    2003-07-01

    To study the relationship between the presence of endometrioid endometrial cancer, the degree of ovarian stromal hyperplasia and ovarian steroid production in postmenopausal women. Retrospective and prospective study, respectively. Medical Centre Leeuwarden and the University Hospital Groningen, The Netherlands. Postmenopausal women with or without endometrial cancer, undergoing a hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. In 112 women with endometrioid endometrial cancer, 47 women with a benign gynaecological condition and 10 women with non-endometrioid endometrial cancer, the degree of ovarian stromal hyperplasia was scored retrospectively on a semi-quantitative scale (atrophy, slight, marked). All women were postmenopausal and had undergone a hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Prospectively, blood sampling from the ovarian veins was performed in a further 60 women. Steroid levels (oestrone, oestradiol, androstenedione, testosterone) were determined and related to the degree of ovarian stromal hyperplasia and the presence (n = 52) or absence (n = 8) of endometrioid endometrial cancer. Degree of ovarian stromal hyperplasia and steroid levels in the utero-ovarian circulation. In the retrospective study, the degree of ovarian stromal hyperplasia was higher in the presence of endometrioid endometrial cancer (P = 0.0001). The prospective study showed that an increasing degree of ovarian stromal hyperplasia was related to higher ovarian levels of both testosterone and androstenedione (P < 0.05 and P < 0.005, respectively), but not to oestrone or oestradiol. A non-significant increase in mean ovarian vein levels of both testosterone and androstenedione was seen in patients with endometrial cancer as compared with patients with benign conditions. In endometrioid endometrial cancer, higher degrees of ovarian stromal hyperplasia were found and with increasing degrees of ovarian stromal hyperplasia, levels of ovarian vein androgens were higher. A

  12. Prevalence of ovarian adrenal rest tumours and polycystic ovaries in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: results of ultrasonography and MR imaging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stikkelbroeck, N.M.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Schouten, D.; Suliman, H.M.; Jager, G.J.; Braat, D.D.M.; Otten, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to assess the prevalence of ovarian adrenal rest tumours and polycystic ovaries in female patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Thirteen female CAH patients (median age 19.8 years, range 14.8-23.5 years) underwent transvaginal (n=6) or transabdominal

  13. Genetic profiles distinguish different types of hereditary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, Katarina; Malander, Susanne; Staaf, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer...... that HBOC and HNPCC associated ovarian cancer develop along distinct genetic pathways and genetic profiles can thus be applied to distinguish between different types of hereditary ovarian cancer....... (HBOC) syndrome and the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization was applied to 12 HBOC associated tumors with BRCA1 mutations and 8 HNPCC associated tumors with mismatch repair gene mutations with 24 sporadic ovarian cancers...

  14. Genetic profiles distinguish different types of hereditary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, Katarina; Malander, Susanne; Staaf, Johan

    2010-01-01

    (HBOC) syndrome and the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization was applied to 12 HBOC associated tumors with BRCA1 mutations and 8 HNPCC associated tumors with mismatch repair gene mutations with 24 sporadic ovarian cancers......Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer...... that HBOC and HNPCC associated ovarian cancer develop along distinct genetic pathways and genetic profiles can thus be applied to distinguish between different types of hereditary ovarian cancer....

  15. Pathways to Understanding Ovarian Cancer, Epidemiology, Genetic Susceptibility, and Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    for age, matching factors, OC use, parity , tubal ligation, and family history of breast or ovarian cancer Endometriosis was not available in NHS...ligation and parity may be more strongly associated with tumors of ovarian origin, while family history of ovarian cancer and possibly past smoking...and older from eastern Massachusetts and New Hampshire between 1992 and 2008. Cases were incident cases of ovarian cancer identified through hospital

  16. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Strother

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Robert Strother1,2, Daniela Matei1–51Department of Medicine, 2Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 5VA Roudebush Hospital Indiana University School of Medicine, 535 Barnhill Drive, Indianapolis, IN, 46202Abstract: The encapsulation of doxorubicin in a pegylated liposomal matrix led to a reformulated agent with a different toxicity profile and improved clinical utility. Liposomal doxorubicin is devoid of the cardiac toxicity associated with doxorubicin, but is associated with predictable muco-cutaneous toxicity. The liposomal formulation leads to improved delivery to the target tumor tissue, allowing enhanced uptake by cancer cells. These properties translate into clinical utility in recurrent ovarian cancer as demonstrated by phase II and III trials, this proven clinical efficacy leading to FDA approval in second-line therapy for ovarian cancer. New combinations with cytotoxics, in particular with carboplatin, have demonstrated an acceptable toxicity profile and clinical utility in platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer. A favorable toxicity profile renders liposomal doxorubicin an ideal partner for combination regimens with other cytotoxics, and more recently with biological agents. Such combinations are the subject of ongoing clinical trials.Keywords: ovarian cancer, doxorubicin, liposomes, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin

  17. Development and Novel Uses of Antibodies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtin, John P

    2003-01-01

    .... Further understanding of the host response to epithelial cancers and the potential capability of innovative immunologic technologies to ovarian cancer may play a key role in therapeutic advances...

  18. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor I. Barrena Medel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer remains a major women's health problem due to its high lethality. Despite great efforts to develop effective prevention and early detection strategies, most patients are still diagnosed at advanced stages of disease. This pattern of late presentation has resulted in significant challenges in terms of designing effective therapies to achieve long-term cure. One potential promising strategy is the application of targeted therapeutics that exploit a myriad of critical pathways involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis. This review examines three of the most provocative targeted therapies with current or future applicability in epithelial ovarian cancer.

  19. Risk factors for sporadic ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Vysotsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review of the literature on the problems of sporadic ovarian cancer details the present views of its disputable risk factors, such as dietary habits, body weight, contraception, and labor, and age of commencing a sexual activity. It discusses the dietary and sexual behavior model that has changed since the Neolithic, as well as the number of menses and ovulations throughout the reproductive peri- od. The works by authors dealing with the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on the risk of ovarian cancer are analyzed.

  20. Health-related quality of life and its relationship with clinical symptoms among Iranian patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarganipour, Fatemeh; Ziaei, Saeide; Montazeri, Ali; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2013-05-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has been shown to cause a reduction in Health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This study examines the extent of different clinical symptoms in PCOS patients on HRQOL. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to ascertain the factors related to HRQOL in 200 PCOS patients in Kashan, Iran. Main outcome measures were modified polycystic ovarian syndrome questionnaire (MPCOSQ) and clinical information of PCOS. Major clinical PCOS features including obesity (BMI), excessive body hair (hirsutism score), acne, menstrual cycle disturbances and infertility. Findings showed that the most common HRQOL concern was menstrual irregularities and infertility, followed in descending order by hirsutism, weight, emotion, and acne. Multivariate analysis revealed the menstrual irregularities as a significant predictor of menstruation (p=0.005), emotion (p=0.02) and infertility (p=0.02) subscales of the MPCOSQ. Having of infertility, predicted scores on the infertility subscale (p<0.0001). Hirsutism score was a significant predictor of hirsutism (p<0.0001) and emotion (p<0.0001) subscales. Weight subscale concerns was predicted by BMI (p<0.0001), also, acne was found to be predicted score of acne subscale (p<0.0001). Worsened HRQOL in women with PCOS was related to more menstrual irregularities and infertility than to obesity. The finding suggests a potential for poorer compliance with weight management protocols among affected PCOS patients.

  1. Irregular menses predicts ovarian cancer: Prospective evidence from the Child Health and Development Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Piera M; Wang, Erica T; Cedars, Marcelle I; Chen, Lee-May; Cohn, Barbara A

    2016-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that irregular menstruation predicts lower risk for ovarian cancer, possibly due to less frequent ovulation. We conducted a 50-year prospective study of 15,528 mothers in the Child Health and Development Studies cohort recruited from the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan from 1959 to 1966. Irregular menstruation was classified via medical record and self-report at age 26. We identified 116 cases and 84 deaths due to ovarian cancer through 2011 via linkage to the California Cancer Registry and Vital Statistics. Contrary to expectation, women with irregular menstrual cycles had a higher risk of ovarian cancer incidence and mortality over the 50-year follow-up. Associations increased with age (p <0.05). We observed a 2-fold increased incidence and mortality by age 70 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 3.4) rising to a 3-fold increase by age 77 (95% CI = 1.5, 6.7 for incidence; 95% CI = 1.4, 5.9 for mortality). We also found a 3-fold higher risk of mortality for high-grade serous tumors (95% CI = 1.3, 7.6) that did not vary by age. This is the first prospective study to show an association between irregular menstruation and ovarian cancer-we unexpectedly found higher risk for women with irregular cycles. These women are easy to identify and many may have polycystic ovarian syndrome. Classifying high-risk phenotypes such as irregular menstruation creates opportunities to find novel early biomarkers, refine clinical screening protocols and potentially develop new risk reduction strategies. These efforts can lead to earlier detection and better survival for ovarian cancer. © 2016 UICC.

  2. Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Experimental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, E; Burdette, JE; Kenny, HA; Matei, D; Pilrose, J; Haluska, P.; Nephew, KP; Hales, DB; Stack, MS

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (OvCa) is associated with high mortality and, as the majority (>75%) of women with OvCa have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, rates of survival have not changed appreciably over 30 years. A mechanistic understanding of OvCa initiation and progression is hindered by the complexity of genetic and/or environmental initiating events and lack of clarity regarding the cell(s) or tissue(s) of origin. Metastasis of OvCa involves direct extension or exfoliation of cells and cellular aggregates into the peritoneal cavity, survival of matrix-detached cells in a complex ascites fluid phase, and subsequent adhesion to the mesothelium lining covering abdominal organs to establish secondary lesions containing host stromal and inflammatory components. Development of experimental models to recapitulate this unique mechanism of metastasis presents a remarkable scientific challenge and many approaches used to study other solid tumors (lung, colon, and breast, for example) are not transferable to OvCa research given the distinct metastasis pattern and unique tumor microenvironment. This review will discuss recent progress in the development and refinement of experimental models to study OvCa. Novel cellular, three-dimensional organotypic, and ex vivo models are considered and the current in vivo models summarized. The review critically evaluates currently available genetic mouse models of OvCa, the emergence of xenopatients, and the utility of the hen model to study OvCa prevention, tumorigenesis, metastasis, and chemoresistance. As these new approaches more accurately recapitulate the complex tumor microenvironment, it is predicted that new opportunities for enhanced understanding of disease progression, metastasis and therapeutic response will emerge. PMID:23934194

  3. Nutrient-Induced Inflammation in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Role in the Development of Metabolic Aberration and Ovarian Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Frank

    2015-07-01

    A pathophysiology paradigm shift has emerged with the discovery that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a proinflammatory state. Despite the dogma that the compensatory hyperinsulinemia of insulin resistance is the promoter of hyperandrogenism, physiological insulin infusion has no effect on androgen levels in PCOS. The dogma also does not explain the cause of hyperandrogenism and ovarian dysfunction in the 30 to 50% of women with PCOS who are of normal weight and lack insulin resistance. Inflammation is the underpinning of insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes, and may also be the cause of insulin resistance when present in PCOS. The origin of inflammation in PCOS has been ascribed to excess abdominal adiposity or frank obesity. However, nutrients such as glucose and saturated fat can incite inflammation from circulating mononuclear cells (MNC) of women with PCOS independent of excess adiposity and insulin resistance, and can also promote atherogenesis. Hyperandrogenism activates MNC in the fasting state to increase MNC sensitivity to nutrients, and is a potential mechanism for initiating inflammation in PCOS. However, chronic ovarian androgen suppression does not reduce inflammation in normal-weight women with PCOS. Direct exposure of ovarian theca cells to proinflammatory stimuli in vitro increases androgen production. These findings may be corroborated in vivo with anti-inflammatory therapy to normal-weight insulin-sensitive women with PCOS without abdominal adiposity to observe for amelioration of ovarian dysfunction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. [Indication of metformin in the management of hormonal dysfunction secondary to polycystic ovarian syndrome: prospective comparative study of 63 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudhrâa, Khaled; Jellouli, Mohamed Amine; Amri, Mouna; Farhat, Monia; Torkhani, Fatma; Gara, Mohamed Faouzi

    2010-05-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common hormonal dysfunction in women. It's a cause of female infertility by oligoanovulation, clinical and biochemical hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries. Weight loss, firstly proposed in overweight or obese patient suffering from PCOS, aims to reduce hyperinsulinism and hyperandrogenism. Recently, Metformin, an insulin sensitizer, has been proposed as an alternative first line treatment for polycystic ovarian syndrome by improving hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism in these women. The aim of our study, and through a literature review, is to demonstrate if Metformin should be used as a first-line drug for infertile women with this syndrome or as an adjunction to Clomifene Citrate, the longest established treatment already used in this syndrome. A prospective comparative study including 63 patients with PCOS has been done during 2 years. Women were randomly allocated to clomifene + Metformin (Metformin group, Metformin took during 8 weeks, 850 mg twice a day, plus Clomifene 100 mg per day during five days) or Clomifene only (100 mg per day during five days). All patients underwent a two- month's diet. The middle age was about 30.63 years and the body mass index (BMI) was about 29.88 kg/ m(2). We noticed a 6.2% weight loss in both groups (a non significant difference in p=0.04). The median of infertility period was about 2.49 years. The ovulation rate in the Metformin group was 53.12% (significant difference for inducing ovulation p=0.02) and 32.25% in Clomifene group (non-significant difference 0.07). There was also a significant difference for ongoing pregnancies (p=0.04). In fact, 11 on 32 patients (34%) achieved a full-term pregnancy in Metformin group versus only 4 ones on 31 patients (12.9%) in Clomifene group. Our conclusion is that Metformin is an effective addition to Clomifene Citrate in term of reestablishment of ovulation and full-term pregnancies achievement, excluding ART cycles.

  5. Hereditary Ovarian Cancer and Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Lesley; Mutch, David G

    2017-05-01

    Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome in a majority of families and 14% of epithelial ovarian cancer cases. Despite next-generation sequencing, other identified genes (Lynch Syndrome, RAD51C, RAD51D, and BRIP1) account for only a small proportion of cases. The risk of ovarian cancer by age 70 is approximately 40% for BRCA1 and 18% for BRCA2. Most of these cancers are high-grade serous cancers that predominantly arise in the fimbriae of the fallopian tube. Ovarian screening does not improve outcomes, so women at high risk are recommended to undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy around the age of 40, followed by hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Specimens should be carefully examined for occult malignancy. Mutation carriers may benefit from newly developed poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors. Genetic testing should only be performed after careful counseling, particularly if testing involves the testing of panels of genes that may identify unsuspected disease predisposition or confusing variants of uncertain significance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Ovarian cancer stem cells more questions than answers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottevanger, P.B.

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is a highly lethal disease, which is usually diagnosed at a late stage with extensive metastases in the abdominal cavity. Ovarian cancer either develops from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) or from serous intra-epithelial carcinoma (STIC). Primary therapy consists of

  7. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol--the protocol of choice for the polycystic ovary syndrome patient undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kol, Shahar; Homburg, Roy; Alsbjerg, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients are prone to develop ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), a condition which can be minimized or completely eliminated by the use of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) trigger. In this commentary paper, we maintain that the gonadotropin-releasing...... hormone antagonist protocol should be the protocol of choice for the PCOS patient undergoing ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins for in vitro fertilization. If an excessive ovarian response is encountered, the clinician will always have two options: either to trigger final oocyte maturation...

  8. Mathematical Models of Breast and Ovarian Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botesteanu, Dana-Adriana; Lipkowitz, Stanley; Lee, Jung-Min; Levy, Doron

    2016-01-01

    Women constitute the majority of the aging United States (US) population, and this has substantial implications on cancer population patterns and management practices. Breast cancer is the most common women's malignancy, while ovarian cancer is the most fatal gynecological malignancy in the US. In this review we focus on these subsets of women's cancers, seen more commonly in postmenopausal and elderly women. In order to systematically investigate the complexity of cancer progression and response to treatment in breast and ovarian malignancies, we assert that integrated mathematical modeling frameworks viewed from a systems biology perspective are needed. Such integrated frameworks could offer innovative contributions to the clinical women's cancers community, since answers to clinical questions cannot always be reached with contemporary clinical and experimental tools. Here, we recapitulate clinically known data regarding the progression and treatment of the breast and ovarian cancers. We compare and contrast the two malignancies whenever possible, in order to emphasize areas where substantial contributions could be made by clinically inspired and validated mathematical modeling. We show how current paradigms in the mathematical oncology community focusing on the two malignancies do not make comprehensive use of, nor substantially reflect existing clinical data, and we highlight the modeling areas in most critical need of clinical data integration. We emphasize that the primary goal of any mathematical study of women's cancers should be to address clinically relevant questions. PMID:27259061

  9. Ovarian surface epithelium: family history and early events in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auersperg Nelly

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death from gynecological cancers in the Western world. There are many genetic and environmental factors which can influence a woman's risk of getting ovarian cancer. A strong family history of breast or ovarian cancer is definitely one of the most important and best-defined epidemiological risk factors. This review evaluates current knowledge of hereditary ovarian cancer. Histologic, cytologic and molecular studies on the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE, which is the origin of ovarian epithelial carcinomas, from women with a strong family history for ovarian carcinomas or with a mutation in one of the two known cancer susceptibility genes – BRCA1 and BRCA2, provide a background to facilitate understanding of the early changes in ovarian carcinogenesis. This overview is followed by a discussion of recent hypotheses and research on two questions. First, is there a mutational hotspot of BRCA mutation for ovarian cancer? Second, why do mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, which are ubiquitously expressed genes that participate in general cellular activities, lead preferentially to breast and ovarian cancer?

  10. Prognostic value of CA 125 in ovarian cyst fluid of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolwijck, E.; Span, P.N.; Thomas, C.M.G.; Bulten, J.; Sweep, F.C.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Most ovarian tumors contain ovarian cyst fluid (oCF) which can be easily obtained during surgery. This is the first study that explored if CA 125 in oCF could be of prognostic value for patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Of 54 patients with primary EOC, oCF and preoperative serum were

  11. Nuclear volume and prognosis in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1992-01-01

    The prognostic value of the volume-weighted mean nuclear volume (MNV) was investigated retrospectively in 100 ovarian cancer patients with FIGO-stage IB-II (n = 51) and stage III-IV (n = 49) serous tumors. No association was demonstrated between the MNV and the survival or between the MNV and two...

  12. Profiling studies in ovarian cancer : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fehrmann, Rudolf S N; Li, Xiang-Yi; van der Zee, Ate G J; de Jong, Steven; Te Meerman, Gerard J; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Crijns, Anne P G; te Meerman, Gerhardus

    Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease with respect to histopathology, molecular biology, and clinical outcome. In advanced stages, surgery and chemotherapy result in an approximately 25% overall 5-year survival rate, pointing to a strong need to identify subgroups of patients that may benefit

  13. Targeted Immune Therapy of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Keith L.; Karyampudi, Lavakumar; Lamichhane, Purushottam; Preston, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Clinical outcomes, such as recurrence free survival and overall survival, in ovarian cancer are quite variable, independent of common characteristics such as stage, response to therapy and grade. This disparity in outcomes warrants further exploration and therapeutic targeting into the interaction between the tumor and host. One compelling host characteristic that contributes both to the initiation and progression of ovarian cancer is the immune system. Hundreds of studies have confirmed a prominent role for the immune system in modifying the clinical course of the disease. Recent studies also show that anti-tumor immunity is often negated by immune regulatory cells present in the tumor microenvironment. Regulatory immune cells also directly enhance the pathogenesis through the release of various cytokines and chemokines, which together form an integrated pathologic network. Thus, in the future, research into immunotherapy targeting ovarian cancer will probably become increasingly focused on combination approaches that simultaneously augment immunity while preventing local immune suppression. In this article, we summarize important immunological targets that influence ovarian cancer outcome as well as include an update on newer immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:25544369

  14. Ovarian surgery for symptom relief in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepine, Sam; Jo, Junyoung; Metwally, Mostafa; Cheong, Ying C

    2017-11-10

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition, affecting approximately one in 10 women. PCOS is defined by two of three features: oligo- or anovulation, clinical or biochemical hyperandrogenism or both, or polycystic ovaries.Women with PCOS can have a wide range of health problems, including infrequent and irregular periods, unwanted hair growth and acne, and subnormal fertility. Long-term health concerns include an increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and the development of precancerous disease of the womb. To assess the effectiveness and harms of ovarian surgery as a treatment for symptomatic relief of hirsutism, acne and menstrual irregularity in PCOS. We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group specialized register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO (from inception to 17 October 2016). We handsearched citation lists, registers of ongoing trials and conference proceedings. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of women undergoing ovarian drilling in comparison to no treatment, medical treatment, or other forms of surgical treatment for the symptoms of PCOS. We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. The primary outcome measures were improvement in menstrual regularity and androgenic symptoms of PCOS (hirsutism, acne); the secondary outcome measures included harms, change of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, androgen levels, metabolic measures and quality of life. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE methods. We included 22 RCTs (2278 women analyzed) of participants with PCOS and symptoms of acne, hirsutism or irregular menstrual cycles, all of which included laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) as an intervention.Two studies reported their funding source (Farquhar 2002 - supported in part by the Auckland Medical Research Foundation; Sarouri 2015 - the authors thank the Vice Chancellor for Research of Guilan University of Medical Sciences for funding this project

  15. Liraglutide improves hypertension and metabolic perturbation in a rat model of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Hoang

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age, with a prevalence of 5-8%. Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD are its long-term complications. Targeted therapies addressing both these complications together are lacking. Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1 agonists that are used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Hence we hypothesized that a GLP-1 agonist would improve both cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes in PCOS. To test this hypothesis, we used an established rat model of PCOS. Prepubertal female Sprague Dawley rats were sham-implanted or implanted s.c. with dihydrotestosterone (DHT pellets (90 day release; 83 μg/day. At 12 wks of age, sham implanted rats received saline injections and the DHT treated animals were administered either saline or liraglutide (0.2 mg/kg s.c twice daily for 4 weeks. Subgroups of rats were implanted with telemeters between 12-13 weeks of age to monitor blood pressure. DHT implanted rats had irregular estrus cycles and were significantly heavier than the control females at 12 weeks (mean± SEM 251.9±3.4 vs 216.8±3.4 respectively; p<0.05 and 4 weeks of treatment with liraglutide in DHT treated rats significantly decreased body weight (mean± SEM 294.75 ±3.2 in DHT+ saline vs 276.25±2.7 in DHT+ liraglutide group respectively; p<0.01. Liraglutide treatment in the DHT implanted rats significantly improved glucose excursion during oral glucose tolerance test (area under the curve: DHT+ saline 28674±310 vs 24990± 420 in DHT +liraglutide p <0.01. DHT rats were hypertensive and liraglutide treatment significantly improved mean arterial pressure. These results suggest that GLP-1 treatment could improve DHT-induced metabolic and blood pressure deficits associated with PCOS.

  16. Cardiometabolic health among gastric bypass surgery patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Meade, Carley A; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Messiah, Sarah E; Arheart, Kristopher L; Carrillo, Adriana; de la Cruz-Muñoz, Nestor

    2013-06-15

    To examine the effect of gastric bypass surgery on cardiometabolic health among women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Retrospective medical chart review identified women (n = 389) with PCOS who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery from 2001-2009 in one surgical practice. Separate repeated measures linear mixed models were fit using the MIXED procedure to assess mean change in cardiometabolic disease risk factors from before to 1-year after surgery and were evaluated by ethnicity [Hispanic, non-Hispanic black (NHB) and white (NHW)]. The majority of the sample was Hispanic (66%, 25% NHB, 9% NHW). Mean body mass index significantly improved 1 year post-surgery for all ethnic groups (45.5 to 35.5 kg/m(2) for Hispanics, 46.8 to 37.7 kg/m(2) for NHB and 45.7 to 36.7 kg/m(2) for NHW, P < 0.001). Among Hispanic women mean total cholesterol (198.1 to 160.2 mg/dL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) cholesterol (120.9 to 91.0 mg/dL), triglycerides (148.6 to 104.8 mg/dL), hemoglobin A1c (6.2% to 5.6%), alanine aminotransferase (28.1 to 23.0 U/L) and aspartate aminotransferase (23.5 to 21.6 U/L) decreased significantly (P < 0.001). Among NHB, mean total cholesterol (184.5 to 154.7 mg/dL), LDL cholesterol (111.7 to 88.9 mg/dL) and triglycerides (99.7 to 70.0 mg/dL) decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Among NHW, mean total cholesterol (200.9 to 172.8 mg/dL) and LDL cholesterol (124.2 to 96.6 mg/dL), decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Pairwise ethnic group comparisons of all cardiometabolic outcomes adjusted for age and type of surgery before and 1 year after surgery showed no statistical difference between the three groups for any outcome. Cardiometabolic disease risk improvements vary by ethnicity and obesity may impact glucose tolerance and liver function changes more in Hispanic women with PCOS vs non-Hispanic women.

  17. Psychological burden among women with polycystic ovarian syndrome in Oman: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman MA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maha AH Sulaiman,1 Yahya M Al-Farsi,1 Maha M Al-Khaduri,2 Mostafa I Waly,3 Jumana Saleh,4 Samir Al-Adawi5 1Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, 3Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, 4Department of Biochemistry, 5Department of Behavioral Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khoudh, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman Purpose: Previous studies in Euro-American populations have shown that women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS have increased levels of “psychological burden”. While PCOS has been reported in Arab countries such as Oman, there is a dearth of studies of the occurrence of psychological burden among PCOS women in the Arab region. This study aimed to compare sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of PCOS women diagnosed with non-PCOS women and prevalence of severity of depression, anxiety and stress and to explore the association between PCOS and indices of psychological disturbances after adjusting for potential confounding factors.Patients and methods: This hospital-based case–control study was conducted among women aged 16–49 years. The study included 52 women diagnosed with PCOS (as per Rotterdam 2003 criteria and 60 control who were PCOS-free. The presence of psychological burden – depression, anxiety and stress – was quantified using Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21.Results: The crude odds ratios (ORs generated by logistic regression models indicated an increased risk of depression, anxiety and stress among women with PCOS compared to controls. The adjusted OR also indicated an increased risk of depression (OR =1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50, 2.43, anxiety (OR =1.09; 95% CI 0.47, 2.52 and stress (OR =1.45; 95% CI 0.68, 3.12, However, no statistical differences were observed along the three psychological

  18. Hawaii natural compounds are promising to reduce ovarian cancer deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei-Zhang, David J; Li, Chunshun; Cao, Shugeng

    2016-07-02

    The low survival rate of patients with ovarian cancer largely results from the advanced ovarian tumors as well as tumor resistance to chemotherapy, leading to metastasis and recurrence. However, it is missing as to an effective therapeutic approach that focuses on these aspects to prolong progression-free survival and to decrease mortality in ovarian cancer patients. Here, based on our cancer drug discovery studies, we provide prospective insights into the development of a future line of drugs to effectively reduce ovarian cancer deaths. Pathways that increase the probability of cancer, such as the defective Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway, may render cancer cells more sensitive to new drug targeting.

  19. Glutathione in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy Caused by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Patients With Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, and/or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-05

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Neuropathy; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Pain; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  20. Sargramostim and Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Patients With Advanced Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That Did Not Respond to Previous Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-24

    Brenner Tumor; Fallopian Tube Cancer; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Carcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Undifferentiated Adenocarcinoma; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  1. Practice Bulletin No 182: Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome is an inherited cancer-susceptibility syndrome characterized by multiple family members with breast cancer, ovarian cancer, or both. Based on the contemporary understanding of the origins and management of ovarian cancer and for simplicity in this document, ovarian cancer also refers to fallopian tube cancer and primary peritoneal cancer. Clinical genetic testing for gene mutations allows more precise identification of those women who are at an increased risk of inherited breast cancer and ovarian cancer. For these individuals, screening and prevention strategies can be instituted to reduce their risks. Obstetrician-gynecologists play an important role in the identification and management of women with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome. If an obstetrician-gynecologist or other gynecologic care provider does not have the necessary knowledge or expertise in cancer genetics to counsel a patient appropriately, referral to a genetic counselor, gynecologic or medical oncologist, or other genetics specialist should be considered (1). More genes are being discovered that impart varying risks of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and other types of cancer, and new technologies are being developed for genetic testing. This Practice Bulletin focuses on the primary genetic mutations associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, BRCA1 and BRCA2, but also will briefly discuss some of the other genes that have been implicated.

  2. Prevalence of epithelial ovarian cancer stem cells correlates with recurrence in early-stage ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Karina Dahl; Alvero, Ayesha B; Yang, Yingkui

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer stem cells (EOC stem cells) have been associated with recurrence and chemoresistance. CD44 and CK18 are highly expressed in cancer stem cells and function as tools for their identification and characterization. We investigated the association between the number of CD44......+ EOC stem cells in ovarian cancer tumors and progression-free survival. EOC stem cells exist as clusters located close to the stroma forming the cancer stem cell "niche". 17.1% of the samples reveled high number of CD44+ EOC stem cells (>20% positive cells). In addition, the number of CD44+ EOC stem...... cells was significantly higher in patients with early-stage ovarian cancer (FIGO I/II), and it was associated with shorter progression-free survival (P = 0.026). This study suggests that quantification of the number of EOC stem cells in the tumor can be used as a predictor of disease and could...

  3. Extra- and intra-ovarian factors in polycystic ovary syndrome: impact on oocyte maturation and embryo developmental competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jie; Feng, Huai L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common metabolic dysfunction and heterogeneous endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. Although patients with PCOS are typically characterized by increased numbers of oocytes retrieved during IVF, they are often of poor quality, leading to lower fertilization, cleavage and implantation rates, and a higher miscarriage rate. METHODS For this review, we searched the database MEDLINE (1950 to January 2010) and Google for all full texts and/or abstract articles published in English with content related to oocyte maturation and embryo developmental competence. RESULTS The search showed that alteration of many factors may directly or indirectly impair the competence of maturating oocytes through endocrine and local paracrine/autocrine actions, resulting in a lower pregnancy rate in patients with PCOS. The extra-ovarian factors identified included gonadotrophins, hyperandrogenemia and hyperinsulinemia, although intra-ovarian factors included members of the epidermal, fibroblast, insulin-like and neurotrophin families of growth factors, as well as the cytokines. CONCLUSIONS Any abnormality in the extra- and/or intra-ovarian factors may negatively affect the granulosa cell–oocyte interaction, oocyte maturation and potential embryonic developmental competence, contributing to unsuccessful outcomes for patients with PCOS who are undergoing assisted reproduction. PMID:20639519

  4. Roles of Oxidative Stress in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS has received extensive attention in the last two decades, because of the discovery that abnormal oxidation status was related to patients with chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, cancer, and neurological diseases. OS is considered as a potential inducing factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, which is one of the most common complex endocrine disorders and a leading cause of female infertility, affecting 4%–12% of women in the world, as OS has close interactions with PCOS characteristics, just as insulin resistance (IR, hyperandrogenemia, and chronic inflammation. It has also been shown that DNA mutations and alterations induced by OS are involved in cancer pathogenesis, tumor cell survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and so on. Furthermore, recent studies show that the females with PCOS are reported to have an increasing risk of cancers. As a result, the more serious OS in PCOS is regarded as an important potential incentive for the increasing risk of cancers, and this study aims to analyze the possibility and potential pathogenic mechanism of the above process, providing insightful thoughts and evidences for preventing cancer potentially caused by PCOS in clinic.

  5. Roles of Oxidative Stress in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Tao; Zhu, Minghui; Xu, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) has received extensive attention in the last two decades, because of the discovery that abnormal oxidation status was related to patients with chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), cancer, and neurological diseases. OS is considered as a potential inducing factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, which is one of the most common complex endocrine disorders and a leading cause of female infertility, affecting 4%–12% of women in the world, as OS has close interactions with PCOS characteristics, just as insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenemia, and chronic inflammation. It has also been shown that DNA mutations and alterations induced by OS are involved in cancer pathogenesis, tumor cell survival, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and so on. Furthermore, recent studies show that the females with PCOS are reported to have an increasing risk of cancers. As a result, the more serious OS in PCOS is regarded as an important potential incentive for the increasing risk of cancers, and this study aims to analyze the possibility and potential pathogenic mechanism of the above process, providing insightful thoughts and evidences for preventing cancer potentially caused by PCOS in clinic. PMID:26770659

  6. Novel nanotechnology approaches to diagnosis and therapy of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul S; Djazayeri, Shabdis; Zeineldin, Reema

    2011-03-01

    Ovarian carcinoma is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies, which is a direct outcome of missing its diagnosis at an early stage. Approximately 75% of ovarian cancer patients are initially diagnosed with disseminated intra-abdominal disease (stages III-IV) when ~30% of patients have a 5-year survival rate. In addition to the challenge of early detection of ovarian cancer, its therapy presents several challenges including the route of therapy, resistance to therapy with recurrence of cancer, and specific targeting of ovarian cancer to reduce cytotoxic side effects. We reviewed recent literature employing nanotechnology approaches to diagnosis and therapy of ovarian cancer. Recent innovations in nanotechnology with applications in cancer diagnostics and therapy help circumvent many pre-existing problems with conventional chemotherapy and present new ways of diagnosis and therapy. Nanotechnology has promising potential in enhancing early detection of ovarian cancer and treatment of recurrent disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Menstrual pain and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: Results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Ana; Harris, Holly R; Vitonis, Allison F; Titus, Linda J; Jordan, Susan J; Webb, Penelope M; Risch, Harvey A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A; Wicklund, Kristine; Goodman, Marc T; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Ness, Roberta B; Kjaer, Susanne K; Schildkraut, Joellen; Berchuck, Andrew; Pearce, Celeste L; Wu, Anna H; Cramer, Daniel W; Terry, Kathryn L

    2018-02-01

    Menstrual pain, a common gynecological condition, has been associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer in some, but not all studies. Furthermore, potential variations in the association between menstrual pain and ovarian cancer by histologic subtype have not been adequately evaluated due to lack of power. We assessed menstrual pain using either direct questions about having experienced menstrual pain, or indirect questions about menstrual pain as indication for use of hormones or medications. We used multivariate logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for the association between severe menstrual pain and ovarian cancer, adjusting for potential confounders and multinomial logistic regression to calculate ORs for specific histologic subtypes. We observed no association between ovarian cancer and menstrual pain assessed by indirect questions. Among studies using direct question, severe pain was associated with a small but significant increase in overall risk of ovarian cancer (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01-1.13), after adjusting for endometriosis and other potential confounders. The association appeared to be more relevant for clear cell (OR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.10-1.99) and serous borderline (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.05-1.63) subtypes. In this large international pooled analysis of case-control studies, we observed a small increase in risk of ovarian cancer for women reporting severe menstrual pain. While we observed an increased ovarian cancer risk with severe menstrual pain, the possibility of recall bias and undiagnosed endometriosis cannot be excluded. Future validation in prospective studies with detailed information on endometriosis is needed. © 2017 UICC.

  8. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy as ovarian cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The traditional first-line treatment for patients with advanced ovarian cancer with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial as some authors report a potential benefit from the alternative treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and interval...... debulking surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of NACT in Denmark in regard to increased use and regional differences. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Stage IIIC and IV ovarian cancer patients treated in the five Danish tertiary referral centres in the 2005-2010-period were included. The study...... is based on validated data from The Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database. RESULTS: Of the 1,367 eligible patients 1,069 were treated with PDS and 298 with NACT. In 2005-2007, 11% of patients were treated with NACT. In 2008-2010, this percentage had risen to 30% (p

  9. Efficacy of Combined Cabergoline and Metformin Compared to Metformin Alone on Cycle Regularity in Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Disease with Hyperprolactinemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsersy, Mervat Ali Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive disorder. Increasing serum prolactin in these patients could be detected in both follicular and luteal phase of the normal and stimulated cycles. Hyperprolactinemia affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis causing anovulation and abnormal uterine bleeding. In this study, the efficacy of combined cabergoline and metformin therapy was compared to metformin therapy alone in patients with PCOS on the body mass index, androgen profile and menstrual cycle regulation. Two hundred and fifty patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) with increased serum prolactin were randomly allocated into two groups: group (1) received oral metformin tablet 1000 mg per day and cabergoline 0.5 g tablet weekly for 3 months as a case group, and group (2) received oral metformin tablet 1000 mg per day and a placebo tablet weekly for 3 months as the control group (n = 123). Body mass index (BMI), menstrual cycle regularity, serum testosterone, serum prolactin and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) level were compared before and after treatment in both groups. There was significant decrease in body mass index and improvement of androgenic profile in both groups after treatment. In group (1), there was significant improvement in cycle regularity and significant decrease in serum prolactin level post-treatment. The use of cabergoline in addition to metformin had more favorable effect on cycle regularity and prolactin level in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome with hyperprolactinemia than the use of metformin alone.

  10. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Skovbjerg Arildsen, Nicolai; Malander, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    in epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: Immunohistochemical stainings for ERα, ERβ, PR, and AR were assessed in relation to survival in 118 serous and endometrioid ovarian cancers. Expression of the genes encoding the four receptors was studied in relation to prognosis in the molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer...... in ovarian cancer and support that tumors should be stratified based on molecular as well as histological subtypes in future studies investigating the role of endocrine treatment in ovarian cancer.......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival...

  11. Effect of combination of Withania somnifera Dunal and Tribulus terrestris Linn on letrozole induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiyed, Amrin; Jahan, Nasreen; Makbul, Shaikh Ajij Ahmed; Ansari, Mushir; Bano, Humaira; Habib, Syeda Hajera

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effect of the combination of hydroalcoholic extract of Withania somnifera (WS) and Tribulus terrestris (TT) on letrozole induced polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in rat. Twenty four female Wistar rats of regular estrus cycle were divided into four groups of six animals each. The negative control group received 1 mL of 0.5% carboxy methyl cellulose. The animals of the other groups were treated with letrozole (1 mg/kg) for 21 days for induction of PCOS. The animals of the positive control group were sacrificed on the 22nd day. In the test and standard groups, the treatment was started from the 22nd day and continued for a further 28 days. The test group was treated with hydroalcoholic extract of the combination of WS and TT (198 mg/kg) and the standard group with clomiphene citrate (1 mg/kg). Throughout the study, vaginal smears were collected daily from each animal for the determination of different phases of the estrus cycle. After completion of the treatment schedule all the animals of each group were sacrificed; analysis of hormones, total cholesterol, blood glucose, ovarian and uterine weight, and histopathological study of the ovary were carried out. The combination of the test drugs showed significant effects in normalizing the estrus cycle after being altered by letrozole. In the positive control group follicle-stimulating hormone level was decreased although luteinizing hormone, estradiole, and testosterone levels were increased (p < 0.05), however, after treatment the reverse effect was observed in the level of these hormones. Significant reduction in serum total cholesterol was also observed (p < 0.05). The test drugs decreased ovarian weight, and uterine weight was also returned to normalcy. Histopathology of the ovary showed almost normal ovary. The above findings indicate the effectiveness of the combination of hydroalcoholic extract of WS and TT against letrozole induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in rat. This validates

  12. Clinical Use of Cancer Biomarkers in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söletormos, Georg; Duffy, Michael J; Othman Abu Hassan, Suher

    2016-01-01

    for secondary cytoreductive surgery. CONCLUSIONS: At present, CA125 remains the most important biomarker for epithelial ovarian cancer, excluding tumors of mucinous origin.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4......OBJECTIVE: To present an update of the European Group on Tumor Markers guidelines for serum markers in epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: Systematic literature survey from 2008 to 2013. The articles were evaluated by level of evidence and strength of recommendation. RESULTS: Because of its low...... sensitivity (50-62% for early stage epithelial ovarian cancer) and limited specificity (94-98.5%), cancer antigen (CA) 125 (CA125) is not recommended as a screening test in asymptomatic women. The Risk of Malignancy Index, which includes CA125, transvaginal ultrasound, and menopausal status, is recommended...

  13. Anti-Müllerian hormone: plasma levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and with premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Skałba

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH is a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β family of growth and differentiation factors. AMH is produced by granulosa cells of preantral and small antral follicles.Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to assess the AMH plasma levels of healthy women in reproductive age and in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and premature ovarian failure (POF.Material and methods: The study included 187 women.Results: AMH concentration in serum of patients with PCOS (73.68 ±25.58 pmol/l was significantly higher than in healthy women (16.97 ±5.80 pmol/l (p < 0.05. In patients with POF AMH concentrations in blood serum were very low or undetectable, and averaged 0.65 ±1.81 pmol/l. Average concentrations of AMH in the blood serum of the healthy group of patients differed significantly (p < 0.001 between the age-dependent subgroups. AMH concentration in serum of healthy women decreased with age. The average concentration of AMH in the blood serum in PCOS decreased after 30 years of age. There were no statistically significant differences between age subgroups.In the premature ovarian failure patients with secondary amenorrhea persisting for at least three years AMH plasma levels were extremely low (0.16 ±0.10 pmol/l and showed a significant difference compared to patients whose menses returned.Conclusions:1. In PCOS women the determination of AMH plasma levels can be used to assess severity of the syndrome.2. The determination of AMH in blood serum can be used as a marker of diminished ovarian reserve in premature ovarian failure women.

  14. Identifying Determinants of PARP Inhibitor Sensitivity in Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Maryland 21702-5012 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Identifying Determinants of PARP Inhibitor Sensitivity in Ovarian Cancer October...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ovarian cancer , BRCA1, RAD51, PARP inhibitors, platinum, biomarkers, drug resistance 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...Identifying Determinants of PARP Inhibitor Sensitivity in Ovarian Cancer Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of

  15. Risk Factors for Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancer by Histologic Subtype

    OpenAIRE

    Quirk JT; Natarajan N; Mettlin CJ; Moysich KB; Swede H

    2004-01-01

    It is unclear whether the different histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian carcinoma have different risk factors. We investigated the relationships between selected epidemiologic variables (i.e., parity, family history of ovarian cancer, oral contraceptive use, a history of tubal ligation and noncontraceptive estrogen use) and the major histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer in a hospital-based case-control study of adult women at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, NY, USA...

  16. The Role of Lifestyle Factors in Ovarian Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Nothing to report. What was the impact on society beyond science and technology ? Nothing to report. 5. CHANGES/PROBLEMS: Changes in...prevalence of participation in these lifestyle behaviours among ovarian cancer patients. Over the last year, our efforts were concentrated on commencing... behaviours in ovarian cancer patients. In this study we include women diagnosed with ovarian cancer at three Montreal hospital centers with specialized

  17. Epithelial ovarian cancer: focus on genetics and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Weiwei; Liu, Jinsong

    2009-03-01

    Despite rapid advances in understanding ovarian cancer etiology, epithelial ovarian cancer remains the most lethal form of gynecologic cancers in the United States. The four morphologically-defined epithelial ovarian cancer subtypes-serous, endometrioid, mucinous, and clear cell carcinomas--are generally believed to originate from ovarian epithelial cells. Although it remains unclear how this single cell layer gives rise to morphologically distinct cancers, it has been suggested that early genetic events may direct the differentiation of ovarian epithelial cells. A number of genetic alterations are frequently encountered during ovarian tumorigenesis, including oncogenic activities of KRAS, BRAF and AKT, and silencing mutations of TP53, RB and PTEN. However, knowledge about how these genetic elements are coordinated during ovarian cancer initiation and progression is very limited. The establishment of cell-culture systems and rodent-based models has made big strides towards a better understanding of the genetic bases of human epithelial ovarian tumorigenesis. More importantly, the rise of genetically-engineered rodent and human models, particularly in the past five years, has provided key insight in the role of specific genes during ovarian tumorigenesis. In this review, we offer a comprehensive coverage of currently-available in vitro and in vivo models of human epithelial ovarian cancer, focusing on latest updates of genetically-modified rodent and human models and the valuable information conveyed by them.

  18. Ovarian Cancer in Ghana, a 10 Year Histopathological Review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the histopathological types, age distribution, presenting signs and symptoms of ovarian cancers diagnosed at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana. All histopathology slides and request cards of ovarian cancers diagnosed over a ten-year period (2001 to 2010) were reviewed and the cancers classified ...

  19. 78 FR 54741 - National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... Cancer Awareness Month, we lend our support to everyone touched by this disease, we remember those we... greater in women who are middle-aged or older, women with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9008 of August 30, 2013 National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By the...

  20. Targeting the Mevalonate Pathway to Reduce Mortality from Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    was the impact on technology transfer? Nothing to Report at this time. D. What was the impact on society beyond science and technology ...mortality, cholesterol-lowering drugs, disease progression , epithelial ovarian cancer, lovastatin, Mevalonate Pathway, prescription drugs, statins...mortality Carboplatin/paclitaxel Cholesterol-lowering drugs Disease progression Drug exposure Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Finnish Cancer Registry

  1. Statin use and mortality among ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdoodt, Freija; Hansen, Merete Kjaer; Kjaer, Susanne K.

    2017-01-01

    Statin use has been suggested to improve prognosis in cancer patients, however, for ovarian cancer, the evidence is sparse. From the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified patients aged 30-84 years with a histologically verified first diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer between 2000 and 2013......-cause or ovarian cancer-specific mortality. Among 4,419 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, post-diagnostic statin use was not statistically significantly associated with all-cause (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.78-1.04) or ovarian cancer-specific mortality (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.76-1.08). There was little evidence...... of a dose-response relationship and the neutral associations persisted in sensitivity analyses. In women with endometrioid or clear cell tumour histology, cancer-specific mortality was reduced by 30-40% among statin users compared to non-users, however the analyses were limited by small numbers...

  2. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes: evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Nagle, Christina M; Whiteman, David C; Ness, Roberta; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pike, Malcolm C; Rossing, Mary Anne; Terry, Kathryn L; Wu, Anna H; Risch, Harvey A; Yu, Herbert; Doherty, Jennifer A; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stefan; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Goodman, Marc T; Carney, Michael E; Matsuno, Rayna K; Lurie, Galina; Moysich, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jensen, Allan; Hogdall, Estrid; Goode, Ellen L; Fridley, Brooke L; Vierkant, Robert A; Larson, Melissa C; Schildkraut, Joellen; Hoyo, Cathrine; Moorman, Patricia; Weber, Rachel P; Cramer, Daniel W; Vitonis, Allison F; Bandera, Elisa V; Olson, Sara H; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; King, Melony; Brinton, Louise A; Yang, Hannah; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Lissowska, Jolanta; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Gayther, Simon A; Ramus, Susan J; Menon, Usha; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Webb, Penelope M

    2013-04-01

    Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improved in the last decade, we sought to examine the association in a pooled analysis of recent studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We evaluated the association between BMI (recent, maximum and in young adulthood) and ovarian cancer risk using original data from 15 case-control studies (13 548 cases and 17 913 controls). We combined study-specific adjusted odds ratios (ORs) using a random-effects model. We further examined the associations by histological subtype, menopausal status and post-menopausal hormone use. High BMI (all time-points) was associated with increased risk. This was most pronounced for borderline serous (recent BMI: pooled OR=1.24 per 5 kg/m(2); 95% CI 1.18-1.30), invasive endometrioid (1.17; 1.11-1.23) and invasive mucinous (1.19; 1.06-1.32) tumours. There was no association with serous invasive cancer overall (0.98; 0.94-1.02), but increased risks for low-grade serous invasive tumours (1.13, 1.03-1.25) and in pre-menopausal women (1.11; 1.04-1.18). Among post-menopausal women, the associations did not differ between hormone replacement therapy users and non-users. Whilst obesity appears to increase risk of the less common histological subtypes of ovarian cancer, it does not increase risk of high-grade invasive serous cancers, and reducing BMI is therefore unlikely to prevent the majority of ovarian cancer deaths. Other modifiable factors must be identified to control this disease.

  3. Evaluating the ovarian cancer gonadotropin hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Alice W; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Doherty, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    suggestion of gene-level associations for four gonadotropin signaling pathway genes: INHBB (p=0.045, mucinous), LHCGR (p=0.046, high-grade serous), GNRH (p=0.041, high-grade serous), and FSHB (p=0.036, overall invasive). There was also suggestive evidence for INHA (p=0.060, overall invasive). CONCLUSIONS......OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancer is a hormone-related disease with a strong genetic basis. However, none of its high-penetrance susceptibility genes and GWAS-identified variants to date are known to be involved in hormonal pathways. Given the hypothesized etiologic role of gonadotropins, an assessment...... of how variability in genes involved in the gonadotropin signaling pathway impacts disease risk is warranted. METHODS: Genetic data from 41 ovarian cancer study sites were pooled and unconditional logistic regression was used to evaluate whether any of the 2185 SNPs from 11 gonadotropin signaling pathway...

  4. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy...... on ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: Individual participant datasets from 52 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally. The principal analyses involved the prospective studies (with last hormone therapy use extrapolated forwards for up to 4 years). Sensitivity analyses included the retrospective studies......-progestagen preparations, but differed across the four main tumour types (heterogeneity pdefinitely increased only for the two most common types, serous (RR 1·53, 95% CI 1·40-1·66; p

  5. Targeting the tumour microenvironment in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jean M; Coleman, Robert L; Sood, Anil K

    2016-03-01

    The study of cancer initiation, growth, and metastasis has traditionally been focused on cancer cells, and the view that they proliferate due to uncontrolled growth signalling owing to genetic derangements. However, uncontrolled growth in tumours cannot be explained solely by aberrations in cancer cells themselves. To fully understand the biological behaviour of tumours, it is essential to understand the microenvironment in which cancer cells exist, and how they manipulate the surrounding stroma to promote the malignant phenotype. Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecologic cancer worldwide. The majority of patients will have objective responses to standard tumour debulking surgery and platinum-taxane doublet chemotherapy, but most will experience disease recurrence and chemotherapy resistance. As such, a great deal of effort has been put forth to develop therapies that target the tumour microenvironment in ovarian cancer. Herein, we review the key components of the tumour microenvironment as they pertain to this disease, outline targeting opportunities and supporting evidence thus far, and discuss resistance to therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tubal ligation and salpingectomy and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, C; Baandrup, Louise; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2015-01-01

    sampling. We required that cases and controls have no previous cancer and that controls have no previous bilateral oophorectomy. METHODS: Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Epithelial...... ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors stratified according to histology. RESULTS: Tubal ligation reduced overall epithelial ovarian cancer risk (odds ratios 0.87; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.98). We observed significant risk variation according to histology (p = 0.003) with the strongest risk...... reductions associated with endometrioid cancer (odds ratios 0.66; 95% confidence interval 0.47-0.93) and epithelial ovarian cancer of "other" histology (odds ratios 0.60; 95% confidence interval 0.43-0.83). Tubal ligation was not associated with risk of borderline ovarian tumors. Finally, bilateral...

  7. Transvaginal ultrasonography in ovarian cancer screening: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Nagell Jr JR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available John R van Nagell Jr, John T HoffDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center/Markey Cancer Center, Lexington, KY, USAAbstract: Transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS is an integral part of all major ovarian cancer screening trials. TVS is accurate in detecting abnormalities in ovarian volume and morphology, but is less reliable in differentiating benign from malignant ovarian tumors. When used as the only screening test, TVS is sensitive, but has a low positive predictive value. Therefore, serum biomarkers and tumor morphology indexing are used together with TVS to identify ovarian tumors at high risk for malignancy. This allows preoperative triage of high-risk cases to major cancer centers for therapy while decreasing unnecessary surgery for benign disease. Ovarian cancer screening has been associated with a decrease in stage at detection in most trials, thereby allowing treatment to be initiated when the disease is most curable.Keywords: ovarian cancer, ultrasound, screening, serum Ca-125

  8. MicroRNAs and Recent Insights into Pediatric Ovarian Cancers

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    Jessica Anne Crawford

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most common pediatric gynecologic malignancy. When diag-nosed in children, ovarian cancers present unique challenges that differ dramatically from those faced by adults. Here, we review the spectrum of ovarian cancers found in young women and girls and discuss the biology of these diseases. A number of advances have re-cently shed significant new understanding on the potential causes of ovarian cancer in this unique population. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding how altered expression of non-coding RNA transcripts known as microRNAs play a key role in the etiology of ovarian germ cell and sex cord-stromal tumors. Emerging transgenic models for these diseases are also reviewed. Lastly, future challenges and opportunities for understanding pediatric ovarian cancers, delineating clinically useful biomarkers and developing targeted therapies are discussed.

  9. Three-photon imaging of ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Amirsolaimani, Babak; Rice, Photini; Hatch, Kenneth; Kieu, Khanh

    2016-02-01

    Optical imaging methods have the potential to detect ovarian cancer at an early, curable stage. Optical imaging has the disadvantage that high resolution techniques require access to the tissue of interest, but miniature endoscopes that traverse the natural orifice of the reproductive tract, or access the ovaries and fallopian tubes through a small incision in the vagina wall, can provide a minimally-invasive solution. We have imaged both rodent and human ovaries and fallopian tubes with a variety of endoscope-compatible modalities. The recent development of fiber-coupled femtosecond lasers will enable endoscopic multiphoton microscopy (MPM). We demonstrated two- and three-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF, 3PEF), and second- and third-harmonic generation microscopy (SHG, THG) in human ovarian and fallopian tube tissue. A study was undertaken to understand the mechanisms of contrast in these images. Six patients (normal, cystadenoma, and ovarian adenocarcinoma) provided ovarian and fallopian tube biopsies. The tissue was imaged with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography, multiphoton microscopy, and frozen for histological sectioning. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and Sudan black. Approximately 1 μm resolution images were obtained with an excitation source at 1550 nm. 2PEF signal was absent. SHG signal was mainly from collagen. 3PEF and THG signal came from a variety of sources, including a strong signal from fatty connective tissue and red blood cells. Adenocarcinoma was characterized by loss of SHG signal, whereas cystic abnormalities showed strong SHG. There was limited overlap of two- and three- photon signals, suggesting that three-photon imaging can provide additional information for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  10. PDI Coamplified Genes in Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    TMA’s on approved SOW include: 1) The TMA at UM constructed from 30 benign ovary specimens and 148 epithelial ovarian cancer specimens. 2) The Yokohama...TMA constructed from samples consisting of 53 chemotherapy-naive serous, 50 clear cell, 22 endometrioid, 12 mucinous adenocarcinoma cases and 12...samples were preserved in 70% ethanol and submitted to the pathology core to prepared TMA slide as well as paraffin embedded slide for IHC staining

  11. Validating genetic risk associations for ovarian cancer through the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, C L; Near, A M; Van Den Berg, D J

    2009-01-01

    the odds ratio was 2.81 among carriers of two copies of the minor allele (95% CI 1.20-6.56, P=0.017, p(het) across studies=0.42) with 1969 cases and 3491 controls. There was no association among heterozygous carriers. CYP3A4 encodes a key enzyme in oestrogen metabolism and our finding between rs2740574......The search for genetic variants associated with ovarian cancer risk has focused on pathways including sex steroid hormones, DNA repair, and cell cycle control. The Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) identified 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes in these pathways, which had...... been genotyped by Consortium members and a pooled analysis of these data was conducted. Three of the 10 SNPs showed evidence of an association with ovarian cancer at P

  12. History of Comorbidities and Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients, Results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minlikeeva, Albina N; Freudenheim, Jo L; Eng, Kevin H

    2017-01-01

    carcinoma who participated in 23 studies included in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, we explored associations between histories of endometriosis; asthma; depression; osteoporosis; and autoimmune, gallbladder, kidney, liver, and neurological diseases and overall and progression-free survival...... with ovarian cancer outcome in the overall sample nor in strata defined by histologic subtype, weight status, age at diagnosis, or stage of disease (local/regional vs. advanced).Conclusions: Histories of endometriosis; asthma; depression; osteoporosis; and autoimmune, gallbladder, kidney, liver, or neurologic....... Using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age at diagnosis, stage of disease, histology, and study site, we estimated pooled HRs and 95% confidence intervals to assess associations between each comorbidity and ovarian cancer outcomes.Results: None of the comorbidities were associated...

  13. Sonohysterographic findings of endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovarian disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ju [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    To describe the sonohysterographic findings of endometrial abnormalities, and to determine the usefulness of sonohysterography (SH) for predicting endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovarian disease(PCOD). 82 patients with PCOD who had vaginal bleeding or endometrial thickening and lesion mass on baseline transvaginal sonography were prospectively examined with SH. The SH findings were evaluated for endometrial thickness, the presence of endometrial thickening and lesion mass, echogenicity and surface contour, distensibility of the endometrial cavity, and disruption of endometrial-myometrial interface. These findings were compared with the pathologic findings and the diagnostic accuracy of SH for predicting endometrial abnormalities was assessed. Endometrial abnormalities were identified in 47 (57.3%) of 82 PCOD patients, and their pathologic diagnosis included endometrial carcinoma in 7 cases, hyperplasia in 19 cases (atypical hyperplasia, n=5), and polyp in 21 cases. Of the 35 patients who did not have endometrial abnormalities, there was disordered proliferative endometrium in 18 cases and normal proliferative or secretory endometrium in 17 cases. The SH findings of endometrial carcinoma were endometrial thickening in 5 cases, endometrial thickening and lesion mass in 2 cases, and the endometrial thickness ranged from 6 mm to 15 mm (mean 9.5 mm). They were characterized as a diffuse polyploid endometrial thickening or a sessile endometrial mass with irregular surface, homogeneous hyperechogenicity, and obliteration of the endometrial cavity. Endometrial hyperplasia appeared as endometrial thickening in 14 cases, endometrial lesion mass in 3 cases, and endometrial thickening and lesion mass in 2 cases, and the endometrial thickness was between 6.5-10.7 mm (mean 8.2 mm). They showed a diffuse uniform endometrial thickening or a polyploid endometrial lesion mass with homogeneous hyperechogenicity and a regular surface. Endometrial polyps appeared as

  14. Flow cytometric evaluation of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braly, P S; Klevecz, R R

    1993-02-15

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of ovarian cancer, the long-term prognosis for patients with this malignancy appears to depend more on tumor prognostic factors than on treatment regimens. The traditionally used prognostic factors are often subjective and, currently, have not been sufficient to determine individual patient prognosis. Newer techniques of quantitative cytologic testing, including flow cytometry, facilitate the objective evaluation of tumor cell heterogeneity and the identification of additional prognostic factors. There is good evidence, mainly from retrospective studies, that DNA ploidy is a valuable prognostic indicator in patients with both early-stage and late-stage ovarian cancer. Most of the recent flow cytometric studies have identified ploidy as an independent prognostic factor, with aneuploidy predicting a significantly shorter survival time, even in patients with borderline malignant tumors. Flow cytometric determination of cell cycle information (e.g., S-phase fraction or proliferative index) may represent additional prognostic information and may be used to predict the early tumor response to treatment. Although additional prospective studies are needed to establish the exact value of flow cytometric evaluation for ovarian cancer and other gynecologic malignancies, there is little doubt that the prognostic value of this information will influence clinical management of patients with these malignancies in the near future.

  15. Obesity and survival among women with ovarian cancer: results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, C M; Dixon, S C; Jensen, A; Kjaer, S K; Modugno, F; deFazio, A; Fereday, S; Hung, J; Johnatty, S E; Fasching, P A; Beckmann, M W; Lambrechts, D; Vergote, I; Van Nieuwenhuysen, E; Lambrechts, S; Risch, H A; Rossing, M A; Doherty, J A; Wicklund, K G; Chang-Claude, J; Goodman, M T; Ness, R B; Moysich, K; Heitz, F; du Bois, A; Harter, P; Schwaab, I; Matsuo, K; Hosono, S; Goode, E L; Vierkant, R A; Larson, M C; Fridley, B L; Høgdall, C; Schildkraut, J M; Weber, R P; Cramer, D W; Terry, K L; Bandera, E V; Paddock, L; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, L; Wentzensen, N; Yang, H P; Brinton, L A; Lissowska, J; Høgdall, E; Lundvall, L; Whittemore, A; McGuire, V; Sieh, W; Rothstein, J; Sutphen, R; Anton-Culver, H; Ziogas, A; Pearce, C L; Wu, A H; Webb, P M

    2015-09-01

    Observational studies have reported a modest association between obesity and risk of ovarian cancer; however, whether it is also associated with survival and whether this association varies for the different histologic subtypes are not clear. We undertook an international collaborative analysis to assess the association between body mass index (BMI), assessed shortly before diagnosis, progression-free survival (PFS), ovarian cancer-specific survival and overall survival (OS) among women with invasive ovarian cancer. We used original data from 21 studies, which included 12 390 women with ovarian carcinoma. We combined study-specific adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) using random-effects models to estimate pooled HRs (pHR). We further explored associations by histologic subtype. Overall, 6715 (54%) deaths occurred during follow-up. A significant OS disadvantage was observed for women who were obese (BMI: 30-34.9, pHR: 1.10 (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.99-1.23); BMI: ⩾35, pHR: 1.12 (95% CI: 1.01-1.25)). Results were similar for PFS and ovarian cancer-specific survival. In analyses stratified by histologic subtype, associations were strongest for women with low-grade serous (pHR: 1.12 per 5 kg m(-2)) and endometrioid subtypes (pHR: 1.08 per 5 kg m(-2)), and more modest for the high-grade serous (pHR: 1.04 per 5 kg m(-2)) subtype, but only the association with high-grade serous cancers was significant. Higher BMI is associated with adverse survival among the majority of women with ovarian cancer.

  16. Role of Essential Oil of Mentha Spicata (Spearmint in Addressing Reverse Hormonal and Folliculogenesis Disturbances in a Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Sadeghi Ataabadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose: Given the antiandrogenic effects of spearmint, in this study we evaluated the effects of its essential oil on polycystic ovarian syndrome in a rat model. Methods: Female rats were treated as follows: Control, normal rats which received 150 mg/kg spearmint oil or 300 mg/kg spearmint oil, or sesame oil; and PCOS-induced rats which received 150 mg/kg spearmint oil or 300 mg/kg spearmint oil, or sesame oil. Then the animals were killed and the levels of LH, FSH, testosterone and ovarian folliculogenesis were evaluated. Results: Spearmint oil reduced body weight, testosterone level, ovarian cysts and atretic follicles and increased Graafian follicles in PCOS rats. Conclusion: Spearmint has treatment potential on PCOS through inhibition of testosterone and restoration of follicular development in ovarian tissue.

  17. Prevalence of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells Correlates with Recurrence in Early-Stage Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Dahl Steffensen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer stem cells (EOC stem cells have been associated with recurrence and chemoresistance. CD44 and CK18 are highly expressed in cancer stem cells and function as tools for their identification and characterization. We investigated the association between the number of CD44+ EOC stem cells in ovarian cancer tumors and progression-free survival. EOC stem cells exist as clusters located close to the stroma forming the cancer stem cell “niche”. 17.1% of the samples reveled high number of CD44+ EOC stem cells (>20% positive cells. In addition, the number of CD44+ EOC stem cells was significantly higher in patients with early-stage ovarian cancer (FIGO I/II, and it was associated with shorter progression-free survival (P=0.026. This study suggests that quantification of the number of EOC stem cells in the tumor can be used as a predictor of disease and could be applied for treatment selection in early-stage ovarian cancer.

  18. Ratio of ovarian stroma and total ovarian area by ultrasound in prediction of hyperandrogenemia in reproductive-aged Thai women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a diagnostic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerasiri, Pichai; Wongwananuruk, Thanyarat; Rattanachaiyanont, Manee; Indhavivadhana, Suchada; Techatraisak, Kitirat; Angsuwathana, Surasak

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the performance of ovarian stromal area to total ovarian area (S/A) ratio for the prediction of biochemical hyperandrogenism in Thai women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A cross-sectional study was performed in 222 reproductive-aged Thai women with PCOS attending the Gynecologic Endocrinology Unit (GEU), Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital from May 2007 to January 2009. The patients were interviewed for medical history and examined for anthropometry and clinical hyperandrogenism. Venous blood samples were obtained for androgen profiles. An ovarian ultrasonogram was obtained via transvaginal or transrectal ultrasonography. The prevalences of clinical and biochemical hyperandrogenism were 48.6% and 81.1%, respectively. The S/A ratio at a cut-off point of 0.33 had modest predictability for hyperandrogenism, namely, 0.537 area under the receiver-operator curve, 36.6% sensitivity, 72.1% specificity, 83.8% positive predictive value (PPV) and 20.9% negative predictive value (NPV). The combination of clinical hyperandrogenism and S/A ratio improved the predictability for biochemical hyperandrogenism, with sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 72.1%, 58.1%, 87.8% and 33.3%, respectively. The S/A ratio alone is not a good predictor for biochemical hyperandrogenism in Thai PCOS women attending GEU for menstrual dysfunction. The combination of S/A ratio and clinical hyperandrogenism has better performance than the S/A ratio alone to predict biochemical hyperandrogenism. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Laparoscopic ovarian diathermy after clomiphene failure in polycystic ovary syndrome: is it worthwhile? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Hashim, Hatem; Foda, Osama; Ghayaty, Essam; Elawa, Ahmed

    2011-11-01

    Laparoscopic ovarian diathermy (LOD) represents a successful treatment option for women with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, in case of CC failure PCOS, LOD offers several theoretical advantages. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of LOD versus continuation of CC up to six further cycles in PCOS patients who failed to achieve pregnancy despite the previous successful CC induced ovulation. One hundred and seventy six infertile women with CC failure PCOS were selected in this randomized controlled trial. Patients (n = 87) underwent LOD with 6 months follow-up or received CC (n = 89) up to six cycles. Outcome measures were; clinical pregnancy rate, midcycle endometrial thickness, cycle length, miscarriage and live birth rates. The clinical pregnancy rate per patient and the cumulative pregnancy rate after six cycles were comparable in both groups (39 vs. 33.7% and 47 vs. 39.2%, respectively). Four twin pregnancies occurred in CC group and none in LOD group and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). No significant difference in midcycle endometrial thickness was observed (8.8 ± 1.2 mm vs. 7.7 ± 1.1 mm). Improvement in cycle length, miscarriage and live birth rates were comparable in both groups. No cases of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome occurred in either group. LOD during the 6 months follow-up period and CC for up to six further cycles are equally effective for achieving pregnancy in CC failure PCOS patients.

  20. A survey of obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance in first degree relatives of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome referred to gynaecology clinics of Shiraz university of medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    marziye Akbarzadeh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian (pco syndrome is one of the most prevalent( 4-8% endocrine glands disorders among premenopause women. Polycystic ovary syndrome as a form of functional ovarian hyperandrogenemia may has characteristics such as choronic anovulation, infertility, abnormal menstruation and android obesity. This diseas has genetic aspect and in different studies similar abnormalities have been seen in their first degree relatives. Materials and Methods: This research is a case-control study carried out on 107 individuals as case group and 107 individuals as control group selected by simple random sampling in 2009. After recognition patients with PCO syndrome , their first degree relatives (Father,mother,sister and brother have been interviewed. BMI and WHR indices of the both blood samples were taken to study their serum glucose tolerance. Results: Case group, from view point of obesity (BMI≥30 and centeral obesity , ITG level and diabetes regarding WHO standards was higher than similar individuals in control group,but this difference was not statistically significant . The mean of fasting blood sugar in fathers , mothers , brothers and sisters of cas group was significantly higher (p=0.001. Regarding Chi-square test there was no significant relation between obesity diabetes in the both groups. , (BMI≥30kg/m2, centeral obesity and lack of impaired glucose tolerance and type2 diabetes in the both groups. Conclusion: The first degree relatives of the women suffering from polycystic ovarian syndrome are exposed to abnormal glucose tolerance and android obesity.

  1. Clinical epidemiology of epithelial ovarian cancer in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doufekas K

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Konstantinos Doufekas, Adeola OlaitanDepartment of Gynaecological Oncology, University College London Hospitals, London, UKAbstract: Epithelial ovarian cancer is the fifth commonest cancer among women and the leading cause of gynecological cancer death in the UK. Most women present with advanced disease, mainly because the nonspecific nature of the symptoms lead to diagnostic delays. Recent data have shown a fall in ovarian cancer mortality rates in the UK, but rates are still higher when compared to other European countries or the USA. In addition, surgeons in the UK achieve on average lower optimal surgical cytoreduction rates in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Despite a wealth of information on epidemiological risk factors, the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer remains largely unknown. This review presents the most recent data on incidence, mortality, and survival for epithelial ovarian cancer in the UK. Time trends, trends by age, international comparisons, and regional variation in incidence, survival, and mortality are presented within the context of a major reorganization of cancer services that took place in the UK over 10 years ago. Centralization of cancer services has meant that women with ovarian cancer receive treatment in specialist Cancer Centers.Keywords: ovarian, cancer, epidemiology, UK, incidence, survival

  2. Optimal primary therapy of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookman, M A

    2016-04-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer continues to have the highest case-fatality ratio of all gynecologic cancers, in spite of ongoing advances in risk-assessment, genomics, tumor biology, cytoreductive surgery, chemotherapy, and molecular-targeted interventions. Primary treatment options for advanced-stage disease not only should reflect current best standards, but also need to be tailored for individual patients, with consideration of local resources. Formulation of recommendations for optimal primary therapy based on a selective review of data from completed randomized trials, analysis of ongoing trials, and integration with current tumor biology, within the context of individualized clinical care. Recommendations were presented for discussion during an international meeting of experts in ovarian cancer treatment. Key recommendations include full adjuvant therapy for early-stage high-grade serous cancer; tailored utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on patient comorbidities, extent of disease, and likelihood of achieving optimal surgical cytoreduction; preferred utilization of carboplatin with weekly paclitaxel as primary therapy; consideration of intraperitoneal cisplatin-based therapy in appropriate patients; avoidance of maintenance chemotherapy; lack of necessity for bevacizumab during primary chemotherapy and primary maintenance; acknowledgement of research opportunities and priorities. Integrated multidisciplinary care, including cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy, remain central to the optimal management of women with advanced-stage ovarian cancer. However, even with recent technical advances, the impact on disease-related mortality is limited, and more attention will be focused on the early integration of research, particularly with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and interval cytoreductive surgery. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For

  3. Genetically-defined ovarian cancer mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Patrice J; Weeraratna, Ashani T

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the deadliest of gynaecological cancers, is a disease that remains difficult to detect early and treat efficiently. A significant challenge for researchers in the field is that the aetiology of EOC and the molecular pathways important for its development are poorly understood. Moreover, precursor lesions have not been readily identifiable, making the mechanisms of EOC progression difficult to delineate. In order to address these issues, several genetically-defined ovarian mouse models have been generated in the past 15 years. However, because of the recent suggestion that most EOCs may not originate from the ovarian surface 'epithelium', but from other tissues of the female genital tract, some models may need to be re-evaluated within this new paradigm. In this review, we examine several genetically-defined EOC models and discuss how the new paradigm may explain some of the features of these models. A better understanding of the strengths and limitations of the current EOC mouse models will undoubtedly allow us to utilize these tools to better understand the biology of the disease and develop new approaches for EOC prevention, detection, and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Development of a Mouse Model of Menopausal Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth R.; Wang, Ying; Xu, Xiang-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant understanding of the genetic mutations involved in ovarian epithelial cancer and advances in genomic approaches for expression and mutation profiling of tumor tissues, several key questions in ovarian cancer biology remain enigmatic: the mechanism for the well-established impact of reproductive factors on ovarian cancer risk remains obscure; cell of origin of ovarian cancer continue to be debated; and the precursor lesion, sequence, or events in progression remain to be defined. Suitable mouse models should complement the analysis of human tumor tissues and may provide clues to these questions currently perplexing ovarian cancer biology. A potentially useful model is the germ cell-deficient Wv (white spotting variant) mutant mouse line, which may be used to study the impact of menopausal physiology on the increased risk of ovarian cancer. The Wv mice harbor a point mutation in c-Kit that reduces the receptor tyrosine kinase activity to about 1–5% (it is not a null mutation). Homozygous Wv mutant females have a reduced ovarian germ cell reservoir at birth and the follicles are rapidly depleted upon reaching reproductive maturity, but other biological phenotypes are minimal and the mice have a normal life span. The loss of ovarian function precipitates changes in hormonal and metabolic activity that model features of menopause in humans. As a consequence of follicle depletion, the Wv ovaries develop ovarian tubular adenomas, a benign epithelial tumor corresponding to surface epithelial invaginations and papillomatosis that mark human ovarian aging. Ongoing work will test the possibility of converting the benign epithelial tubular adenomas into neoplastic tumors by addition of an oncogenic mutation, such as of Tp53, to model the genotype and biology of serous ovarian cancer. Model based on the Wv mice may have the potential to gain biological and etiological insights into ovarian cancer development and prevention. PMID:24616881

  5. Development of A Mouse Model of Menopausal Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R. Smith

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant understanding of the genetic mutations involved in ovarian epithelial cancer and advances in genomic approaches for expression and mutation profiling of tumor tissues, several key questions in ovarian cancer biology remain enigmatic: the mechanism for the well-established impact of reproductive factors on ovarian cancer risk remains obscure; questions of the cell of origin of ovarian cancer continue to be debated; and the precursor lesion, sequence, or events in progression remain to be defined. Suitable mouse models should complement the analysis of human tumor tissues and may provide clues to these questions currently perplexing ovarian cancer biology.A potentially useful model is the germ cell-deficient Wv (white spotting variant mutant mouse line, which may be used to study the impact of menopausal physiology on the increased risk of ovarian cancer. The Wv mice harbor a point mutation in c-Kit that reduces the receptor tyrosine kinase activity to about 1-5% (it is not a null mutation. Homozygous Wv mutant females have a reduced ovarian germ cell reservoir at birth and the follicles are rapidly depleted upon reaching reproductive maturity, but other biological phenotypes are minimal and the mice have a normal life span. The loss of ovarian function precipitates changes in hormonal and metabolic activity that model features of menopause in humans. As a consequence of follicle depletion, the Wv ovaries develop ovarian tubular adenomas, a benign epithelial tumor corresponding to surface epithelial invaginations and papillomatosis that mark human ovarian aging. Ongoing work will test the possibility of converting the benign epithelial tubular adenomas into neoplastic tumors by addition of an oncogenic mutation, such as of Tp53, to model the genotype and biology of serous ovarian cancer.Model based on the Wv mice may have the potential to gain biological and etiological insights into ovarian cancer development and prevention.

  6. Tumor microenvironment: The culprit for ovarian cancer metastasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhongyue; Wang, Qiu; Lau, Wayne Bond; Lau, Bonnie; Xu, Lian; Zhao, Linjie; Yang, Huiliang; Feng, Min; Xuan, Yu; Yang, Yanfei; Lei, Lingzi; Wang, Chenlu; Yi, Tao; Zhao, Xia; Wei, Yuquan; Zhou, Shengtao

    2016-07-28

    Despite chemotherapy and surgical debulking options, ovarian cancer recurs and disseminates frequently, with poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ovarian cancer metastasis still remain unelucidated. The tumor microenvironment, consisting of stromal cells (including fibroblasts, macrophages, regulatory T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, endothelial cells, pericytes and platelets), the extracellular matrix component (EMC) (including inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases, integrins, and other secreted molecules) and exosomes (small extracellular vesicles loaded with molecules), establishes an autocrine-paracrine communication circuit that reinforces invasion and cancer cell metastasis via reciprocal signaling. Recent evidences have unraveled the significant contribution of tumor microenvironment to ovarian cancer metastasis. In this review, we provide a comprehensive landscape of the reciprocity between tumor stroma and ovarian cancer cells upon metastasis, aiming to offer novel clues on the development of novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer in future clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Animal models of hyperandrogenism and ovarian morphology changes as features of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão, Larissa; Ramos, Ramon B; Lavarda, Anita; Morsh, Debora M; Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2017-02-10

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder, affecting 9-18% of women in reproductive age that causes hyperandrogenism and infertility due to dysfunctional follicular maturation and anovulation. The etiology of PCOS is still poorly known, and information from experimental animal models may help improve current understanding of the mechanisms of PCOS initiation and development. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of currently available methods for simulation of PCOS in experimental models, focusing on two main endocrine traits: ovarian morphology changes and circulating levels of sex hormones and gonadotropins.We searched the MEDLINE database for articles in English or Spanish published until October 2016. Of 933 studies identified, 39 were included in the systematic review. One study compared interventions with androgens versus estrogens, 18 used androgen-induced stimulation, 9 used estrogens or drugs with estrogen action, including endocrine disruptors, to induce PCOS-like models, and 12 used miscellaneous interventions. Broad differences were found among the studies concerning hormonal interventions, animal species, and developmental stage at the time of the experiments, and most models resulted in ovarian morphology changes, mainly increases in the number of cystic and antral follicles and decreases in the corpus luteum. Hyperandrogenism was produced by using androgens and other drugs as the stimulatory agent. However, studies using drugs with estrogenic effect did not observe changes in circulating androgens.In conclusion, medium- or long-term testosterone administration in the pre- and postnatal periods performed best for induction of a PCOS-like phenotype, in rhesus macaque and rat models respectively. In rats, postnatal exposure to androgens results in reprogramming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian-axis. Thus, comparisons between different intervention models may be useful to define the timing of reproductive PCOS phenotypes

  8. Platinum resistance in breast and ovarian cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckstein Niels

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breast and ovarian cancers are among the 10 leading cancer types in females with mortalities of 15% and 6%, respectively. Despite tremendous efforts to conquer malignant diseases, the war on cancer declared by Richard Nixon four decades ago seems to be lost. Approximately 21,800 women in the US will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer in 2011. Therefore, its incidence is relatively low compared to breast cancer with 207.090 prognosed cases in 2011. However, overall survival unmasks ovarian cancer as the most deadly gynecological neoplasia. Platinum-based chemotherapy is emerging as an upcoming treatment modality especially in triple negative breast cancer. However, in ovarian cancer Platinum-complexes for a long time are established as first line treatment. Emergence of a resistant phenotype is a major hurdle in curative cancer therapy approaches and many scientists around the world are focussing on this issue. This review covers new findings in this field during the past decade.

  9. Platinum resistance in breast and ovarian cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Niels

    2011-10-04

    Breast and ovarian cancers are among the 10 leading cancer types in females with mortalities of 15% and 6%, respectively. Despite tremendous efforts to conquer malignant diseases, the war on cancer declared by Richard Nixon four decades ago seems to be lost. Approximately 21,800 women in the US will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer in 2011. Therefore, its incidence is relatively low compared to breast cancer with 207.090 prognosed cases in 2011. However, overall survival unmasks ovarian cancer as the most deadly gynecological neoplasia. Platinum-based chemotherapy is emerging as an upcoming treatment modality especially in triple negative breast cancer. However, in ovarian cancer Platinum-complexes for a long time are established as first line treatment. Emergence of a resistant phenotype is a major hurdle in curative cancer therapy approaches and many scientists around the world are focussing on this issue. This review covers new findings in this field during the past decade.

  10. Increased expression of cysteine cathepsins in ovarian tissue from chickens with ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Suzie E

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cysteine cathepsins (CTSs are involved in the degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix and are associated with cell transformation, differentiation, motility, and adhesion. These functions are also related to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Chickens spontaneously develop epithelial ovarian cancer and are therefore a good animal model for human ovarian cancer. However, no studies have investigated the expression of CTSs in chickens with ovarian cancer. Methods Cancerous (n = 5 and normal (n = 3 ovaries were collected from 2-to 3-year-old hens, and ovarian tissue samples were collected for study. Ovarian cancers were evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Reverse transcriptase and quantitative PCR analyses, in situ hybridization analysis were performed to examine the mRNA expression pattern of three CTSs in detail, and protein expression of CTSB was evaluated. Results The CTSB, CTSC, and CTSS genes were highly expressed in cancerous chicken ovaries. Messenger RNAs for the three CTSs were localized to a nodule area, a major characteristic of cancerous ovaries, but the three CTSs showed no specific localization in normal ovaries. Immunoreactive CTSB protein was present in the nodule area of cancerous ovaries. Conclusion Our results suggest that CTSB, CTSC, and CTSS have important functions in the development of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  11. Acute onset of ovarian dysfunction in young females after start of cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mörse, Helena; Elfving, Maria; Lindgren, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Female childhood cancer survivors are at risk of ovarian failure and premature ovarian insufficiency. We hereby present an interim analysis of a prospective observational study of ovarian function during cancer treatment of young females in relation to clinical factors.......Female childhood cancer survivors are at risk of ovarian failure and premature ovarian insufficiency. We hereby present an interim analysis of a prospective observational study of ovarian function during cancer treatment of young females in relation to clinical factors....

  12. Biomarkers for predicting complete debulking in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten Lindberg; Ottesen, Bent; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2014-01-01

    Aim: We aimed to construct and validate a model based on biomarkers to predict complete primary debulking surgery for ovarian cancer patients.......Aim: We aimed to construct and validate a model based on biomarkers to predict complete primary debulking surgery for ovarian cancer patients....

  13. A phase 3 trial of bevacizumab in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perren, Timothy J; Swart, Ann Marie; Pfisterer, Jacobus

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays a role in the biology of ovarian cancer. We examined the effect of bevacizumab, the vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor, on survival in women with this disease.......Angiogenesis plays a role in the biology of ovarian cancer. We examined the effect of bevacizumab, the vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor, on survival in women with this disease....

  14. Biomarkers for predicting complete debulking in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten Lindberg; Ottesen, Bent; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2014-01-01

    AIM: We aimed to construct and validate a model based on biomarkers to predict complete primary debulking surgery for ovarian cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study consisted of three parts: Part I: Biomarker data obtained from mass spectrometry, baseline data and, surgical outcome were.......64. CONCLUSION: Our validated model based on biomarkers was unable to predict surgical outcome for patients with ovarian cancer....

  15. Ovarian Cancer in Ghana, a 10 Year Histopathological Review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Akakpo et al. Ovarian Cancer, Ghana. African Journal of Reproductive Health December 2015; 19 (4): 102. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. Ovarian Cancer in Ghana, a 10 Year Histopathological Review of. Cases at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital. Patrick K. Akakpo. 1*. , Leonard Derkyi-Kwarteng. 1. , Richard K. Gyasi. 2.

  16. Screening and prevention of ovarian cancer | Chesang | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To present a review of screening methods for ovarian cancer and preventive strategies. Data source: Relevant literature was identified through a search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases. Study Selection: Recent Studies assessing methods used in prevention of and screening for ovarian cancer ...

  17. Tubal ligation and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieh, Weiva; Salvador, Shannon; McGuire, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Tubal ligation is a protective factor for ovarian cancer, but it is unknown whether this protection extends to all invasive histological subtypes or borderline tumors. We undertook an international collaborative study to examine the association between tubal ligation and ovarian cancer subtypes....

  18. Breast and Ovarian Cancer and Family History Risk Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health History, Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk, and Women of Ashkenazi Jewish or Eastern European ancestry If you are a woman of Ashkenazi Jewish ... or ovarian cancer are at higher risk than women of other ancestries with similar family health histories. A family health ...

  19. Predictive factors in epithelial ovarian cancer: Towards individualized patient care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a disease with a high mortality. Most patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) present with advanced stage disease with multiple tumour deposits in the peritoneal cavity. Survival of early stages is high, yet, survival of advanced stage disease is low with a five year survival

  20. An overview about mitochondrial DNA mutations in ovarian cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result: Furthermore, this review offers some perspective as to the mtDNA origin of these mutations in ovarian cancer, their functional consequences in ovarian cancer development, to check for incidence rate for transmission of the disease through maternal lineages and possible diagnostic marker implication.

  1. Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coosemans, An; Vergote, Ignace; Van Gool, Stefaan W

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide, 80% of patients with ovarian cancer die of the disease. New treatments for this aggressive disease are therefore being intensively searched. Although dendritic cell-based vaccines against gynecological malignancies are in their infancy, this immunotherapeutic approach holds much promise. Here, we present our view on an optimal dendritic cell-based immunotherapeutic strategy against ovarian cancer.

  2. Increased COX-2 expression in patients with ovarian cancer | Lin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This result was further confirmed by semi-quantitative RTPCR and Western blot. It was found that COX-2 was significantly up-regulated in ovarian cancer group in comparison with normal group on mRNA level. On protein level, COX-2 was also highly increased in ovarian cancer group. This study provides novel candidate ...

  3. Fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference: individualized therapy and patient factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGee, J.; Bookman, M.; Harter, P.; Marth, C.; McNeish, I.; Moore, K.N.; Poveda, A.; Hilpert, F.; Hasegawa, K.; Bacon, M.; Gatsonis, C.; Kridelka, F.; Berek, J.; Ottevanger, N.; Levy, T.; Silverberg, S.; Kim, B.G.; Hirte, H.; Okamoto, A.; Stuart, G.; Ochiai, K.

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript reports the consensus statements regarding the design and conduct of clinical trials in patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), following deliberation at the Fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference (OCCC), held in Tokyo in November 2015. Three

  4. Incidence, Pattern and Management of Ovarian Cancer at a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The incidence of ovarian cancer is thought to be increasing in developing countries and little is known about the pattern and incidence of this disease in South‑East Nigeria. Aims: The objectives of the study were to determine the incidence, describe the pattern and management of ovarian cancer at a tertiary ...

  5. The prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome or hyperandrogenism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Nina Sofie Lillegaard; Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne Skovsager

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome may be associated with an increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer, but substantial evidence for this remains to be established. We investigated the prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer in a well characterized group of women...

  6. Loss of PKBβ/Akt2 predisposes mice to ovarian cyst formation and increases the severity of polycystic ovary formation in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Restuccia

    2012-05-01

    Ovarian cysts affect women of all ages and decrease fertility. In particular, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, in which multiple follicular cysts develop, affects 5–10% of women of reproductive age and can result in infertility. Current non-invasive treatments for PCOS can resolve cysts and restore fertility, but unresponsive patients must undergo severe ovarian wedge resection and resort to in vitro fertilization. PCOS is related to the deregulation of leutinizing hormone (LH signaling at various levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and resultant hyperproduction of androgens. Because insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia are observed in 50–70% of individuals with PCOS, deregulated insulin signaling in the ovary is considered an important factor in the disease. Here we report that aged mice specifically lacking the PKBβ (also known as Akt2 isoform that is crucial for insulin signaling develop increased testosterone levels and ovarian cysts, both of which are also observed in insulin-resistant PCOS patients. Young PKBβ knockout mice were used to model PCOS by treatment with LH and exhibited a cyst area that was threefold greater than in controls, but without hyperinsulinemia. Thus, loss of PKBβ might predispose mice to ovarian cysts independently of hyperactive insulin signaling. Targeted therapeutic augmentation of specific PKBβ signaling could therefore provide a new avenue for the treatment and management of ovarian cysts.

  7. Loss of PKBβ/Akt2 predisposes mice to ovarian cyst formation and increases the severity of polycystic ovary formation in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restuccia, David F.; Hynx, Debby; Hemmings, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Ovarian cysts affect women of all ages and decrease fertility. In particular, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), in which multiple follicular cysts develop, affects 5–10% of women of reproductive age and can result in infertility. Current non-invasive treatments for PCOS can resolve cysts and restore fertility, but unresponsive patients must undergo severe ovarian wedge resection and resort to in vitro fertilization. PCOS is related to the deregulation of leutinizing hormone (LH) signaling at various levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and resultant hyperproduction of androgens. Because insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia are observed in 50–70% of individuals with PCOS, deregulated insulin signaling in the ovary is considered an important factor in the disease. Here we report that aged mice specifically lacking the PKBβ (also known as Akt2) isoform that is crucial for insulin signaling develop increased testosterone levels and ovarian cysts, both of which are also observed in insulin-resistant PCOS patients. Young PKBβ knockout mice were used to model PCOS by treatment with LH and exhibited a cyst area that was threefold greater than in controls, but without hyperinsulinemia. Thus, loss of PKBβ might predispose mice to ovarian cysts independently of hyperactive insulin signaling. Targeted therapeutic augmentation of specific PKBβ signaling could therefore provide a new avenue for the treatment and management of ovarian cysts. PMID:22275470

  8. Correlation between ovarian morphology and biochemical and hormonal parameters in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Cihan; Karadag, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the biochemical and hormonal differences in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients with and without polycystic ovary (PCO) morphology and to evaluate the outcomes resulting from those differences. Methods: The study included a total of 83 patients with PCOS; 43 of them had PCO morphology (Group-I) and 40 did not (Group-II). Serum LDL, HDL, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), total testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17b-estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), glucose and insulin levels were determined. Homoeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was calculated. Results: The two groups were similar with respect to BMI. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements of Group-I were significantly lower (pinsulin resistance, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases due to effects of hyperandrogenism. PMID:27375725

  9. Combining Drugs to Treat Ovarian Cancer - Annual Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 70 percent of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer will die from the disease. Read about the NCI-funded combination drug trial that has successfully treated Betsy Brauser's recurrent cancer.

  10. Stages of Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer. Some ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers are caused by inherited gene mutations (changes). The genes in cells carry the hereditary information that is received from a person’s parents. ...

  11. Symptom interpretation and health care seeking in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Lene; Petersen, Lone K; Blaakær, Jan

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among women suffering from gynaecological malignancies in the Western world. Worldwide, approximately 200,000 women are diagnosed with the disease each year. This article deals with the health care seeking and symptom interpretation process...... with ovarian cancer. These results were combined with findings from semi-structured qualitative research interviews on women's bodily experiences with symptom development. RESULTS: A number of 663 Danish women with ovarian cancer attended 27 different kinds of primary health care providers in a total of 14...... knowledge concerning the onset of their symptoms. The early symptoms of ovarian cancer might be uncharacteristic and non-disease-specific when interpreted as personal experiences, but they had similarities when analysed together. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic delay in ovarian cancer seems far from being...

  12. Histopathology of ovarian tumors in laying hens, a preclinical model of human ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Barua, Animesh; Bitterman, Pincas; Abramowicz, Jacques S.; Dirks, Angela L; Janice M Bahr; Hales, Dale B.; Bradaric, Michael J; Edassery, Seby L.; Rotmensch, Jacob; Luborsky, Judith L.

    2009-01-01

    The high mortality rate due to ovarian cancer is attributed to the lack of an effective early detection method. Due to the non-specificity of symptoms at early stage, most of the ovarian cancer cases are detected at late stages. This makes the access to women with early stage disease problematic and presents a barrier to development and validation of tests for detection of early stage of ovarian cancer in humans. Animal models are used to elucidate disease etiologies and pathogenesis that are...

  13. GSTP1-1 in ovarian cyst fluid and disease outcome of patients with ovarian cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolwijck, E.; Zusterzeel, P.L.M.; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Peters, W.H.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Detoxification enzymes, especially glutathione S-transferase P1-1 (GSTP1-1), have been implicated in resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. We studied GSTP1-1 levels in ovarian cyst fluid (oCF), obtained during surgery before chemotherapy, of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and clinical

  14. Proteomics Analysis for Finding Serum Markers of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushan Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of peptide ligand library beads (PLLB and 1D gel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (1DGel-LC-MS/MS was employed to analyze serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer and from healthy controls. Proteomic analysis identified 1200 serum proteins, among which 57 proteins were upregulated and 10 were downregulated in the sera from cancer patients. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 is highly upregulated in the ovarian cancer serum samples. ELISA was employed to measure plasma concentrations of RBP4 in 80 samples from ovarian cancer patients, healthy individuals, myoma patients, and patients with benign ovarian tumor, respectively. The plasma concentrations of RBP4 ranging from 76.91 to 120.08 ng/mL with the mean value 89.13±1.67 ng/mL in ovarian cancer patients are significantly higher than those in healthy individuals (10.85±2.38 ng/mL. Results were further confirmed with immunohistochemistry, demonstrating that RBP4 expression levels in normal ovarian tissue were lower than those in ovarian cancer tissues. Our results suggested that RBP4 is a potential biomarker for diagnostic of screening ovarian cancer.

  15. Meeting Report From the 2016 11th Biennial Ovarian Cancer Research Symposium: Mechanisms of Initiation and Progression of Ovarian Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jeremy; Mehta, Geeta

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to review the latest research advances on the mechanisms of initiation and progression of ovarian cancer. At the 11th Biennial Ovarian Cancer Research Symposium, which was held in Seattle, Washington in September 2016, leaders in ovarian cancer research convened to present and discuss current advances and future directions in ovarian cancer research. One session was dedicated to Mechanisms of Initiation and Progression of Ovarian Cancer, and included a keynote presentation from Dr Ronny Drapkin, MD (University of Pennsylvania), and an invited oral presentation from Laising Yen, PhD (Baylor College of Medicine). Nine additional oral presentations were selected from abstract submissions. Thirty-three abstracts were presented in poster format and were grouped into the categories of mechanisms of the genesis of genomic instability, tumor initiation, metastases of ovarian cancers, innate and acquired chemotherapy resistance, tumor progression, tumor-initiating cell and chemotherapy resistance, and immunomodulation. Eradication of ovarian cancers requires clear understanding of molecular mechanisms of ovarian cancer initiation and progression. These mechanisms will not only drive the precision of early detection, but also discovery of new therapies to target precursor lesions and more advanced stage disease.

  16. Ovarian cancer susceptibility alleles and risk of ovarian cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramus, Susan J.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A.; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindblom, Annika; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Złowocka, Elżbieta; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Toloczko-Grabarek, Aleksandra; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Duran, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; van Asperen, Christi J.; van Roozendaal, K. E. P.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Collée, J. Margriet; Kriege, Mieke; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D.; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Jacobs, Chris; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Douglas, Fiona; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Walker, Lisa; Porteous, Mary E.; Kennedy, M. John; Pathak, Harsh; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; de Pauw, Antoine; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Léoné, Mélanie; Calender, Alain; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Faivre, Laurence; Loustalot, Catherine; Buys, Saundra; Daly, Mary; Miron, Alex; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K.; John, Esther M.; Southey, Melissa; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F.; tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas v O.; Ejlertsen, Bent; Johannsson, Oskar Th; Offit, Kenneth; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Gaudet, Mia M.; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Piedmonte, Marion; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; van Le, Linda; Hoffman, James S.; Ewart Toland, Amanda; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Issacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Iganacio; Tornero, Eva; Navarro, Matilde; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Olah, Edith; Vaszko, Tibor; teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A.; Beattie, Mary S.; Dorfling, Cecelia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Diez, Orland; Kwong, Ava; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorotehea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Fiebig, Britta; Schäfer, Dieter; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Plante, Marie; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V. Shane; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bernard, Loris; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Gayther, Simon A.; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Couch, Fergus J.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Gregory, Helen; Morrison, Patrick; Jeffers, Lisa; Ong, Kai-Ren; Hoffman, Jonathan; Donaldson, Alan; James, Margaret; Downing, Sarah; Taylor, Amy; Murray, Alexandra; Rogers, Mark T.; McCann, Emma; Barton, David; Porteous, Mary; Drummond, Sarah; Kivuva, Emma; Searle, Anne; Goodman, Selina; Hill, Kathryn; Murday, Victoria; Bradshaw, Nicola; Snadden, Lesley; Longmuir, Mark; Watt, Catherine; Gibson, Sarah; Haque, Eshika; Tobias, Ed; Duncan, Alexis; Izatt, Louise; Langman, Caroline; Whaite, Anna; Dorkins, Huw; Barwell, Julian; Serra-Feliu, Gemma; Ellis, Ian; Houghton, Catherine; Taylor, Jane; Side, Lucy; Male, Alison; Berlin, Cheryl; Eason, Jacqueline; Collier, Rebecca; Claber, Oonagh; Jobson, Irene; McLeod, Diane; Halliday, Dorothy; Durell, Sarah; Stayner, Barbara; Shanley, Susan; Rahman, Nazneen; Houlston, Richard; Bancroft, Elizabeth; D'Mello, Lucia; Page, Elizabeth; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Kohut, Kelly; Wiggins, Jennifer; Castro, Elena; Mitra, Anita; Robertson, Lisa; Quarrell, Oliver; Bardsley, Cathryn; Goff, Sheila; Brice, Glen; Winchester, Lizzie; Eddy, Charlotte; Tripathi, Vishakha; Attard, Virginia; Lucassen, Anneke; Crawford, Gillian; McBride, Donna; Smalley, Sarah; Sinilnikova, Olga; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; Giraud, Sophie; Léone, Mélanie; Buecher, Bruno; Houdayer, Claude; Moncoutier, Virginie; Belotti, Muriel; Tirapo, Carole; Bressac-de-Paillerets, Brigitte; Remenieras, Audrey; Byrede, Véronique; Caron, Olivier; Lenoir, Gilbert; Urhammer, Nancy; Sobol, Hagay; Bourdon, Violaine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Eisinger, François; Coulet, Florence; Colas, Chrystelle; Soubrier, Florent; Coupier, Isabelle; Pujol, Pascal; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Joëlle; Révilliion, Françoise; Vennin, Philippe; Adenis, Claude; Rouleau, Etienne; Lidereau, Rosette; Demange, Liliane; Nogues, Catherine; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Barouk-Simonet, Emmanuelle; Bonnet, Françoise; Bubien, Virginie; Sevenet, Nicolas; Longy, Michel; Toulas, Christine; Guimbaud, Rosine; Gladieff, Laurence; Feillel, Viviane; Leroux, Dominique; Dreyfus, Hélène; Rebischung, Christine; Peysselon, Megalie; Coron, Fanny; Prieur, Fabienne; Lebrun, Marine; Kientz, Caroline; Frénay, Marc; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Delnatte, Capucine; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Lynch, Henry T.; Snyder, Carrie L.; Hogervorst, F. B. L.; Verhoef, S.; Verheus, M.; van't Veer, L. J.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Collée, M.; van den Ouweland, A. M. W.; Jager, A.; Hooning, M. J.; Tilanus-Linthorst, M. M. A.; Seynaeve, C.; van Asperen, C. J.; Wijnen, J. T.; Vreeswijk, M. P.; Tollenaar, R. A.; Devilee, P.; Ligtenberg, M. J.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Ausems, M. G.; van der Luijt, R. B.; van Os, T. A.; Gille, J. J. P.; Waisfisz, Q.; Gomez-Garcia, E. B.; van Roozendaal, C. E.; Blok, Marinus J.; Caanen, B.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; van der Hout, A. H.; Mourits, M. J.; Vasen, H. F.; Thorne, Heather; Niedermayr, Eveline; Gill, Mona; Collins, Lucine; Gokgoz, Nalan; Selander, Teresa; Weerasooriya, Nayana; Karlsson, Per; Nordlilng, Margareta; Bergman, Annika; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Liedgren, Sigrun; Borg, Åke; Loman, Niklas; Soller, Maria; Jernström, Helena; Harbst, Katja; Henriksson, Karin; Arver, Brita; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Rantala, Johanna; Grönberg, Henrik; Stattin, Eva-Lena; Emanuelsson, Monica; Ehrencrona, Hans; Rosenquist, Richard; Dahl, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six alleles associated with risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated four of these loci as potential modifiers of

  17. History of hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes and ovarian cancer patient survival: evidence from the ovarian cancer association consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minlikeeva, A.N.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Cannioto, R.A.; Szender, J.B.; Eng, K.H.; Modugno, F.; Ness, R.B.; LaMonte, M.J.; Friel, G.; Segal, B.H.; Odunsi, K.; Mayor, P.; Zsiros, E.; Schmalfeldt, B.; Klapdor, R.; Drk, T.; Hillemanns, P.; Kelemen, L.E.; Kbel, M.; Steed, H.; Fazio, A. de; Jordan, S.J.; Nagle, C.M.; Risch, H.A.; Rossing, M.A.; Doherty, J.A.; Goodman, M.T.; Edwards, R.; Matsuo, K.; Mizuno, M.; Karlan, B.Y.; Kjaer, S.K.; Hogdall, E.; Jensen, A.; Schildkraut, J.M.; Terry, K.L.; Cramer, D.W; Bandera, E.V.; Paddock, L.E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Kupryjanczyk, J.; Berchuck, A.; Chang-Claude, J.; Diergaarde, B.; Webb, P.M.; Moysich, K.B.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Survival following ovarian cancer diagnosis is generally low; understanding factors related to prognosis could be important to optimize treatment. The role of previously diagnosed comorbidities and use of medications for those conditions in relation to prognosis for ovarian cancer patients

  18. Association of Exon 10A and 10B inactivating mutation of follicle stimulating hormone receptor gene (FSHR) and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in Vellore cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Nishu; Kulkarni, Rucha; Ozalkar, Sharvari; Prabhu, Yogamaya D.; Renu, Kaviyarasi; Ramgir, Shalaka S.; Abilash, V. G.

    2017-11-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome is the most common heterogenous endocrine disorder in women. Follicle stimulating hormone receptor is associated with normal development as well as maturation of follicles and triggers estrogen production in granulosa cells of the ovary. Inactivating mutation in FSHR gene correlated with reduction of ovarian function in women is due to damage to receptor function. This study aims to investigate whether inactivating mutations, in follicle stimulating hormone receptor gene is related to polycystic ovarian morphology in women with PCOS. Genomic DNA isolated from 15 subjects from Sandhya Hospital, Vellore (10 patients with PCOS and 5 healthy controls) was taken for this study. Patient data included a clinical report, hormonal levels, and ovarian morphological details. DNA isolation was followed by DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction using Exon 10 A and Exon 10 B primers. The PCR-RFLP analysis was performed using Dde1 restriction enzyme. Here we discuss inactivating mutation found in Exon 10 of FSHR gene in patients with PCOS.The absence of inactivating mutation was observed through PCR-RFLP study on Exon 10A and Exon 10B.

  19. Risk Factors for Gestatıonal Diabetes in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Arda Duz, Senem; Turkcuoglu, Ilgın

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to compare the pre-gestational metabolic states of the women who were previously diagnosed with policystic ovarian syndrome and had gestational diabetes mellitus in the subsequent pregnancy and who did not have gestational diabetes mellitus in subsequent pregnancy and to determine the independent variables that predict the gestational diabetes mellitus risk for policystic ovarian syndrome patients in the subsequent pregnancy. Between the dates 2007 and 2012, the patients who were dia...

  20. OVULATION INDUCTION AGENTS AND OVARIAN CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Požlep

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ovarian cancer is the most frequentcause of death among gynecologic malignancies. Epidemiologicaldata show that environmental, hormonal and geneticfactors are etiologically significant. Beside the already knownrisk factors, ovulation induction agents have been reported asrisk factors in literature since 1986. Over the last two decades,ovulation induction agents have been widely used in variousassisted reproduction techniques (ART. This study focusedon the question whether in patients receiving ovulation inductionagents the risk for developing pathologic processes onthe ovaries was higher than in those not receiving them, andwhether they were related to the dose and type of ovulationinduction agent.Methods. In a prospective study 380 subjects were enrolled.The study group consisted of 280 women who had undergonean ART procedure three or more times. The control group consistedof 120 infertile women, never included in an ART procedure.All the enrolled subjects underwent the same examinations:a detailed gynecological history was taken, pelvic examinationand vaginal ultrasound were performed, and a bloodsample for tumour marker CA 125 determination was taken.Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test, t test andlogistic regression.Results. Ultrasound examination revealed pathology on thegenital tract in 136 women in the study group and in 60 womenin the control group. Differences in the incidence of ovarian,tubal and uterine pathology were not statistically significant.The analysis of the medical records showed that the incidenceof ovarian pathology was significantly higher in thestudy than in the control group (p < 0.05. We found no correlationbetween the incidence of ovarian pathology and typeor dose of ovulation induction agent. Increased CA 125 levelswere found in 12 women. In none of the women neither malignantnor borderline malignant disease was found.Conclusions. Although the analysis of the data from medicalhistory showed

  1. Inhibitory Effect of Baicalin and Baicalein on Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary O. Rankin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is one of the primary causes of death for women all through the Western world. Baicalin and baicalein are naturally occurring flavonoids that are found in the roots and leaves of some Chinese medicinal plants and are thought to have antioxidant activity and possible anti-angiogenic, anti-cancer, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. Two kinds of ovarian cancer (OVCAR-3 and CP-70 cell lines and a normal ovarian cell line (IOSE-364 were selected to be investigated in the inhibitory effect of baicalin and baicalein on cancer cells. Largely, baicalin and baicalein inhibited ovarian cancer cell viability in both ovarian cancer cell lines with LD50 values in the range of 45–55 µM for baicalin and 25–40 µM for baicalein. On the other hand, both compounds had fewer inhibitory effects on normal ovarian cells viability with LD50 values of 177 µM for baicalin and 68 µM for baicalein. Baicalin decreased expression of VEGF (20 µM, cMyc (80 µM, and NFkB (20 µM; baicalein decreased expression of VEGF (10 µM, HIF-1α (20 µM, cMyc (20 µM, and NFkB (40 µM. Therefore baicalein is more effective in inhibiting cancer cell viability and expression of VEGF, HIF-1α, cMyc, and NFκB in both ovarian cancer cell lines. It seems that baicalein inhibited cancer cell viability through the inhibition of cancer promoting genes expression including VEGF, HIF-1α, cMyc, and NFκB. Overall, this study showed that baicalein and baicalin significantly inhibited the viability of ovarian cancer cells, while generally exerting less of an effect on normal cells. They have potential for chemoprevention and treatment of ovarian cancers.

  2. Surgery for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Neville F; Rao, Archana

    2017-05-01

    Cytoreductive surgery for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer has been practised since the pioneering work of Tom Griffiths in 1975. Further research has demonstrated the prognostic significance of the extent of metastatic disease pre-operatively, and of complete cytoreduction post-operatively. Patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer should be referred to high volume cancer units, and managed by multidisciplinary teams. The role of thoracoscopy and resection of intrathoracic disease is presently investigational. In recent years, there has been increasing use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and interval cytoreductive surgery in patients with poor performance status, which is usually due to large volume ascites and/or large pleural effusions. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy reduces the post-operative morbidity, but if the tumour responds well to the chemotherapy, the inflammatory response makes the surgery more difficult. Post-operative morbidity is generally tolerable, but increases in older patients, and in those having multiple, aggressive surgical procedures, such as bowel resection or diaphragmatic stripping. Primary cytoreductive surgery should be regarded as the gold standard for most patients until a test is developed which would allow the prediction of platinum resistance pre-operatively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Chromosome abnormalities in primary ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonescu, R.; Currie, J.; Griffin, C.A. [John Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities that are specific and recurrent may occur in regions of the genome that are involved in the conversion of normal cells to those with tumorigenic potential. Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death among patients with gynecological malignancies. We have performed cytogenetic analysis of 16 ovarian tumors from women age 28-82. Three tumors of low malignant potential and three granulosa cell tumors had normal karyotypes. To look for the presence of trisomy 12, which has been suggested to be a common aberration in this group of tumors, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on direct preparations from three of these tumors using a probe for alpha satellite sequences of chromosome 12. In the 3 preparations, 92-98 percent of the cells contained two copies of chromosome 12, indicating that trisomy 12 is not a universal finding in low grade ovarian tumors. Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is histologically indistinguishable from endometial carcinoma of the uterus. We studied 10 endometrioid tumors to determine the degree of genetic similarity between these two carcinomas. Six out of ten endometrioid tumors showed a near-triploid modal number, and one presented with a tetraploid modal number. Eight of the ten contained structural chromosome abnormalities, of which the most frequent were 1p- (5 tumors), 19q+ (3 tumors), 6q- or ins(6) (4 tumors), 3q- or 3q+ (4 tumors). These cytogenetic results resemble those reported for papillary ovarian tumors and differ from those of endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. We conclude that despite the histologic similarities between the endometrioid and endometrial carcinomas, the genetic abnormalities in the genesis of these tumors differ significantly.

  4. Gene variants associated with age at menopause are also associated with polycystic ovary syndrome, gonadotrophins and ovarian volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R; Bjonnes, A C; Georgopoulos, N A; Koika, V; Panidis, D; Welt, C K

    2015-07-01

    Is there a relationship between the genetic risk for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and genetic variants that influence timing of menopause? The genetic risk score, which sums the contribution of variants at all menopause loci, was associated with PCOS. Ovarian parameters and anti-Mullerian hormone levels suggest that women with PCOS should have a later age at menopause. The study was a case-control examination of genetic variants associated with age at menopause in a discovery cohort of women with PCOS (n = 485) and controls (n = 407) from Boston recruited from 2003 to 2012. Replication was performed in women from Greece (cases, n = 884 and controls, n = 311). PCOS was defined by the National Institutes of Health criteria in Boston and Greece (n = 783), with additional subjects fulfilling the Rotterdam criteria (hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovary morphology and regular menses) in Greece (n = 101). Controls in Boston and Greece had regular menstrual cycles and no hyperandrogenism. Allele frequencies for variants previously associated with age at menopause were examined in PCOS cases and controls, along with the relationship to quantitative traits. The variant rs11668344-G was associated with decreased risk of PCOS (odds ratio: 0.77 [0.59-0.93]; P = 0.004). There was a strong relationship between the late menopause allele rs12294104-T and increased LH levels (β ± SE; 0.26 ± 0.06; P = 5.2 × 10(-5)) and the LH:FSH ratio (0.28 ± 0.06; P = 2.7 × 10(-6)). The minor allele at rs10852344-T was associated with smaller ovarian volume (-0.16 ± 0.05; P = 0.0012). A genetic risk score calculated from 16 independent variants associated with age at menopause was also associated with PCOS (P genetic variants on both menopausal age and PCOS. The project was supported by award number R01HD065029 from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, award number 1 UL1 RR025758, Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center, from the

  5. Differential Cytotoxic Potential of Silver Nanoparticles in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells and Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Park, Jung-Hyun; Han, Jae Woong; Kim, Eunsu; Jae-Wook, Oh; Lee, Seung Yoon; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2016-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis postulates that cancer cells are composed of hierarchically-organized subpopulations of cells with distinct phenotypes and tumorigenic capacities. As a result, CSCs have been suggested as a source of disease recurrence. Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antimicrobial, disinfectant, and antitumor agents. However, there is no study reporting the effects of AgNPs on ovarian cancer stem cells (OvCSCs). In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of AgNPs and their mechanism of causing cell death in A2780 (human ovarian cancer cells) and OvCSCs derived from A2780. In order to examine these effects, OvCSCs were isolated and characterized using positive CSC markers including aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and CD133 by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The anticancer properties of the AgNPs were evaluated by assessing cell viability, leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial membrane potential (mt-MP). The inhibitory effect of AgNPs on the growth of ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs was evaluated using a clonogenic assay. Following 1–2 weeks of incubation with the AgNPs, the numbers of A2780 (bulk cells) and ALDH+/CD133+ colonies were significantly reduced. The expression of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Our observations showed that treatment with AgNPs resulted in severe cytotoxicity in both ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs. In particular, AgNPs showed significant cytotoxic potential in ALDH+/CD133+ subpopulations of cells compared with other subpopulation of cells and also human ovarian cancer cells (bulk cells). These findings suggest that AgNPs can be utilized in the development of novel nanotherapeutic molecules for the treatment of ovarian cancers by specific targeting of the ALDH+/CD133+ subpopulation of cells. PMID:27973444

  6. Differential Cytotoxic Potential of Silver Nanoparticles in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells and Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jung Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC hypothesis postulates that cancer cells are composed of hierarchically-organized subpopulations of cells with distinct phenotypes and tumorigenic capacities. As a result, CSCs have been suggested as a source of disease recurrence. Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have been used as antimicrobial, disinfectant, and antitumor agents. However, there is no study reporting the effects of AgNPs on ovarian cancer stem cells (OvCSCs. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of AgNPs and their mechanism of causing cell death in A2780 (human ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs derived from A2780. In order to examine these effects, OvCSCs were isolated and characterized using positive CSC markers including aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH and CD133 by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. The anticancer properties of the AgNPs were evaluated by assessing cell viability, leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and mitochondrial membrane potential (mt-MP. The inhibitory effect of AgNPs on the growth of ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs was evaluated using a clonogenic assay. Following 1–2 weeks of incubation with the AgNPs, the numbers of A2780 (bulk cells and ALDH+/CD133+ colonies were significantly reduced. The expression of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Our observations showed that treatment with AgNPs resulted in severe cytotoxicity in both ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs. In particular, AgNPs showed significant cytotoxic potential in ALDH+/CD133+ subpopulations of cells compared with other subpopulation of cells and also human ovarian cancer cells (bulk cells. These findings suggest that AgNPs can be utilized in the development of novel nanotherapeutic molecules for the treatment of ovarian cancers by specific targeting of the ALDH+/CD133+ subpopulation of cells.

  7. A loop of cancer-stroma-cancer interaction promotes peritoneal metastasis of ovarian cancer via TNF?-TGF?-EGFR

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, T-S; Chan, L K-Y; Wong, E C-H; Hui, C W-C; Sneddon, K; Cheung, T-H; Yim, S-F; Lee, J H-S; Yeung, C S-Y; Chung, T K-H; Kwong, J.

    2017-01-01

    Peritoneum is the most common site for ovarian cancer metastasis. Here we investigate how cancer epigenetics regulates reciprocal tumor-stromal interactions in peritoneal metastasis of ovarian cancer. Firstly, we find that omental stromal fibroblasts enhance colony formation of metastatic ovarian cancer cells, and de novo expression of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-?) is induced in stromal fibroblasts co-cultured with ovarian cancer cells. We also observed an over-expression of tumor ...

  8. Searching for new biomarkers in ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hentze, Julie L.; Høgdall, Claus; Kjær, Susanne K.

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a silent killer and, due to late diagnosis, the primary cause of death amongst gynecological cancers, killing approximately 376 women annually in Denmark. The discovery of a specific and sensitive biomarker for ovarian cancer could improve early diagnosis, but also treatment...... regarding biomarkers and/or prognostic markers, with a focus on rationale and design. The study described has 3 major branches: microRNAs, epigenetics and Next Generation Sequencing. Tissue and blood from ovarian cancer patients, already enrolled in the prospective ongoing pelvic mass cohort...

  9. Ovarian cancer. The clinical role of US, CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kido, Aki; Togashi, Kaori; Konishi, Junji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-08-01

    Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate of all of the gynecologic malignancies in the USA. In Japan, both the mortality rate and the number of patients have been increasing. This article briefly introduces an overview of ovarian cancer, addressing the clinical roles of imaging studies including ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging in the course of diagnosis and treatment of this serious disease. The content includes epidemiology, a treatment strategy that facilitates understanding of the general course of clinical processes, ovarian cancer screening, management of suspected adnexal masses including how to differentiate rare malignant from a large number of benign masses, and how to evaluate ovarian tumors further based on imaging findings, ovarian cancer staging, and recurrent tumor identification. (author)

  10. Metformin inhibits the development and metastasis of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Buchu; Li, Shu; Sheng, Lili; Zhu, Jing; Gu, Liying; Shen, Haoran; La, Duanduan; Hambly, Brett D; Bao, Shisan; Di, Wen

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of metformin in the regulation of development and metastasis of ovarian carcinoma cell lines in vitro and ovarian cancer in a nude mouse model in vivo. The effects of metformin on the ability of two high-metastatic potential human ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3 and HO8910-PM) to adhere, invade and migrate in vitro were observed by means of a cell adhesion test, cell invasion test and cell migration test. The size and number of the inoculated and metastatic tumours in vivo in a nude mouse were determined following intraperitoneal injection of metformin. Furthermore, the extent of angiogenesis (vWF) and macrophage infiltration in the tumour were determined. Proliferation, migration, invasion and adhesion of ovarian cancer cells were significantly inhibited (Pmetformin inhibited hepatic, intestinal and lung metastasis (Pmetformin inhibits the development and metastasis of ovarian cancer by reducing cellular-ECM interactions, neovascularisation and macrophage infiltration.

  11. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer and Borderline Ovarian Tumors: A Pooled Analysis of 13 Case-Control Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, C.B.; Kjaer, S.K.; Albieri, V.; Bandera, E.V.; Doherty, J.A.; Hogdall, E.; Webb, P.M.; Jordan, S.J.; Rossing, M.A.; Wicklund, K.G.; Goodman, M.T.; Modugno, F.; Moysich, K.B.; Ness, R.B.; Edwards, R.P.; Schildkraut, J.M.; Berchuck, A.; Olson, S.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Narod, S.A.; Phelan, C.M.; Anton-Culver, H.; Ziogas, A.; Wu, A.H.; Pearce, C.L.; Risch, H.A.; Jensen, A.

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation has been implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, studies investigating the association between pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovarian cancer risk are few and inconsistent. We investigated the association between PID and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer according to

  12. Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosvig, Camilla F; Kjaer, Susanne K; Blaakær, Jan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies that have investigated the association between coffee, tea and caffeine consumption and ovarian cancer risk have produced conflicting results. Furthermore, only few studies have examined the role of coffee and tea consumption separately for borderline ovarian...... tumors. By use of data from a large Danish population-based case-control study, we examined the risk of ovarian tumors associated with coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption with a particular focus on characterizing risks by tumor behavior and histology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 1995 through 1999, we...... included 267 women with ovarian cancer, 115 women with borderline ovarian tumors and 911 randomly selected control women. All women completed a beverage frequency questionnaire with detailed information on coffee and tea consumption. Analyses were performed using multiple logistic regression models...

  13. Epithelial ovarian cancer and the occurrence of skin cancer in the Netherlands: histological type connotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, G.C. van; Bulten, J.; Verbeek, A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Patients with epithelial ovarian cancer have a high risk of (non-)melanoma skin cancer. The association between histological variants of primary ovarian cancer and skin cancer is poorly documented. Objectives. To further evaluate the risk of skin cancer based on the histology of the

  14. Impact of laparoscopic ovarian drilling on anti-Müllerian hormone levels and ovarian stromal blood flow using three-dimensional power Doppler in women with anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmashad, Ashraf I

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) on plasma levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian stromal blood flow changes, by using three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography, in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Prospective controlled study. Taiba hospital, Kuwait. Twenty-three anovulatory clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant women with PCOS and 20 fertile women as a control group. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling. Serum levels of AMH, ovarian three-dimensional power Doppler indices (vascularization index, flow index, and vascularization flow index) and occurrence of ovulation or pregnancy. Plasma AMH and power Doppler indices of ovarian stromal blood flow were significantly higher in the PCOS group than in the control group. Plasma AMH and ovarian stromal blood flow Doppler indices were significantly reduced in the PCOS group after LOD. Women who ovulated after LOD had a significantly lower preoperative AMH compared with the nonresponders. There was a significant positive correlation between AMH and power Doppler flow indices before and after LOD in PCOS group. Measuring AMH and ovarian stromal three-dimensional power Doppler blood flow for women with anovulatory PCOS undergoing LOD may provide a useful tool in evaluating the outcome of LOD. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Elevated blood plasma concentrations of active ghrelin and obestatin in benign ovarian neoplasms and ovarian cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowska, A; Ziółkowska, A; Jaszczyńska-Nowinka, K; Madry, R; Malendowicz, L K

    2009-01-01

    Both ghrelin and obestatin are derived from preproghrelin by post-translational processing. The two peptides are secreted into the blood but circulating levels of these peptides have not been assessed in women with ovarian tumours. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate peripheral blood concentrations of active and total ghrelin and obestatin in patients with benign ovarian tumours and those with ovarian cancer. The studies were conducted on 22 patients operated due to benign ovarian tumours, and 31 patients operated due to ovarian cancer. A control group consisted of 32 women, 24 to 65 years of age. Both in women with benign ovarian tumours and those with ovarian cancer blood concentrations of active ghrelin and obestatin were higher than in the control group (active ghrelin: 90 +/- 4, 84 +/- 4 and 56 +/- 9 pg/ml, respectively, obestatin: 660 +/- 36; 630 +/- 30 and 538 +/- 31 ng/ml (x +/- SE), respectively). In contrast, total ghrelin concentrations in blood were similar in the studied groups. The alterations resulted in increased values of active to total ghrelin concentration ratio in the peripheral blood of patients with benign ovarian tumours or with ovarian cancer (0.79 +/- 0.02 and 0.93 +/- 0.05, respectively vs 0.58 +/- 0.02 in the control group). Due to the absence of any convincing proof for the presence of a functional GHS-R-1a receptor for ghrelin in human ovaries it did not seem probable that the observed elevated levels of active ghrelin and obestatin were directly linked to development of ovarian tumours.

  16. Ovarian Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  17. Oriental medicine Kyung-Ok-Ko prevents and alleviates dehydroepiandrosterone-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhee Jang

    Full Text Available Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK, a traditional herbal prescription composed of Rehmannia glutinosa Liboschitz var. purpurae, Lycium chinense, Aquillaria agallocha, Poria cocos, Panax ginseng, and honey, has been widely used in traditional Oriental medicine as a vitalizing medicine or as the prescription for patients with age-associated disorders such as amnesia and stroke. However, the potential protective value of KOK for the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is largely unknown. We investigated whether pre-administration (daily from 2 hours before PCOS induction and post-administration (daily after induction of PCOS of KOK (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg/day, p.o. could have a protective effect in a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, s.c.-induced PCOS rat model. Pre-administration of KOK significantly decreased the elevated body weight and ovary weight, elevated size and number of follicular cysts, elevated level of serum glucose, and estradiol after DHEA injection. KOK reduced the elevated percentage of CD8 (+ T lymphocytes in lymph nodes, the elevated mRNA expression of CD11b and CD3 in ovaries, and infiltration of macrophages in ovarian tissue with PCOS. KOK diminished the increased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, chemokines (IL-8, MCP-1, and iNOS in the ovaries, and increased the reduced mRNA expression of growth factors (EGF, TGF-β by DHEA injection. Post-administration of KOK also improved the DHEA-induced PCOS-like symptoms, generally similar to those evident from pre-administration of KOK. KOK may effectively prevent and improve DHEA-induced PCOS via anti-inflammatory action, indicating its preventive and therapeutic potential for suppressing PCOS.

  18. Oriental Medicine Kyung-Ok-Ko Prevents and Alleviates Dehydroepiandrosterone-Induced Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Moo; Bae, Chun-Sik; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cho, Ik-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK), a traditional herbal prescription composed of Rehmannia glutinosa Liboschitz var. purpurae, Lycium chinense, Aquillaria agallocha, Poria cocos, Panax ginseng, and honey, has been widely used in traditional Oriental medicine as a vitalizing medicine or as the prescription for patients with age-associated disorders such as amnesia and stroke. However, the potential protective value of KOK for the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is largely unknown. We investigated whether pre-administration (daily from 2 hours before PCOS induction) and post-administration (daily after induction of PCOS) of KOK (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg/day, p.o.) could have a protective effect in a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, s.c.)-induced PCOS rat model. Pre-administration of KOK significantly decreased the elevated body weight and ovary weight, elevated size and number of follicular cysts, elevated level of serum glucose, and estradiol after DHEA injection. KOK reduced the elevated percentage of CD8 (+) T lymphocytes in lymph nodes, the elevated mRNA expression of CD11b and CD3 in ovaries, and infiltration of macrophages in ovarian tissue with PCOS. KOK diminished the increased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α), chemokines (IL-8, MCP-1), and iNOS in the ovaries, and increased the reduced mRNA expression of growth factors (EGF, TGF-β) by DHEA injection. Post-administration of KOK also improved the DHEA-induced PCOS-like symptoms, generally similar to those evident from pre-administration of KOK. KOK may effectively prevent and improve DHEA-induced PCOS via anti-inflammatory action, indicating its preventive and therapeutic potential for suppressing PCOS. PMID:24520334

  19. Estradiol negative and positive feedback in a prenatal androgen-induced mouse model of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Aleisha M; Prescott, Melanie; Campbell, Rebecca E

    2013-02-01

    Gonadal steroid hormone feedback is impaired in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrine disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and an associated increase in LH pulse frequency. Using a prenatal androgen (PNA)-treated mouse model of PCOS, we aimed to investigate negative and positive feedback effects of estrogens on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis regulation of LH. PNA-treated mice exhibited severely disrupted estrous cycles, hyperandrogenism, significantly reduced fertility, and altered ovarian morphology. To assess the negative feedback effects of estrogens, LH was measured before and after ovariectomy and after estradiol (E2) administration. Compared with controls, PNA-treated mice exhibited a blunted postcastration rise in LH (P positive feedback, control and PNA-treated GnRH-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice were subjected to a standard ovariectomy with E2-replacement regimen, and both plasma and perfusion-fixed brains were collected at the time of the expected GnRH/LH surge. Immunocytochemistry and confocal imaging of cFos and green fluorescent protein were used to assess GnRH neuron activation and spine density. In the surged group, both control and PNA-treated mice had significantly increased LH and cFos activation in GnRH neurons (P positive and -negative GnRH neurons to examine whether there was an increase in spine density in cFos-expressing GnRH neurons of surged mice as expected. A significant increase in spine density in cFos-expressing GnRH neurons was evident in control animals; however, no significant increase was observed in the PNA-treated mice because spine density was elevated across all GnRH neurons. These data support that PNA treatment results in a PCOS-like phenotype that includes impaired E2-negative feedback. Additionally, although E2-positive feedback capability is retained in PNA mice, elevated GnRH neuron spine density may reflect altered synaptic regulation.

  20. Nedd4L expression is decreased in ovarian epithelial cancer tissues compared to ovarian non-cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiuyun; Zhao, Jinghe; Cui, Manhua; Gi, Shuting; Wang, Wei; Han, Xiaole

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 4-like (Nedd4L) gene plays a role in the progression of various cancers. However, reports describing Nedd4L expression in ovarian cancer tissues are limited. A cohort (n = 117) of archival formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded resected normal ovarian epithelial tissues (n = 10), benign ovarian epithelial tumor tissues (n = 10), serous borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues (n = 14), mucous borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues (n = 11), and invasive ovarian epithelial cancer tissues (n = 72) were assessed for Nedd4L protein expression using immunohistochemistry. Nedd4L protein expression was significantly decreased in invasive ovarian epithelial cancer tissues compared to non-cancer tissues (P < 0.05). Decreased Nedd4L protein expression correlated with clinical stage, pathological grade, lymph node metastasis and survival (P < 0.05). Nedd4L protein expression may be an independent prognostic marker of ovarian cancer development. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Local administration of platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) improves follicular development and ovarian angiogenesis in a rat model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Mariana; Scotti, Leopoldina; Irusta, Griselda; Tesone, Marta; Parborell, Fernanda; Abramovich, Dalhia

    2016-09-15

    Alterations in ovarian angiogenesis are common features in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) patients; the most studied of these alterations is the increase in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by ovarian cells. Platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGFB) and D (PDGFD) are decreased in follicular fluid of PCOS patients and in the ovaries of a rat model of PCOS. In the present study, we aimed to analyze the effects of local administration of PDGFB on ovarian angiogenesis, follicular development and ovulation in a DHEA-induced PCOS rat model. Ovarian PDGFB administration to PCOS rats partially restored follicular development, decreased the percentage of cysts, increased the percentage of corpora lutea, and decreased the production of anti-Müllerian hormone. In addition, PDGFB administration improved ovarian angiogenesis by reversing the increase in periendothelial cell area and restoring VEGF levels. Our results shed light into the mechanisms that lead to altered ovarian function in PCOS and provide new data for potential therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Targeting Angiogenic Factors Contributing to Etiology and Progression of Human Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pietras, Richard

    2004-01-01

    .... Herceptin antibody to HER-2 receptor has direct antitumor effects, but the antibody also reduces VEGF secretion from ovarian cancers, and, thereby, retards ovarian tumor-associated angiogenesis...

  3. Distinct metabolic responses of an ovarian cancer stem cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Kathleen A; Wang, Lijuan; McDonald, John F; Styczynski, Mark P

    2014-12-18

    Cancer metabolism is emerging as an important focus area in cancer research. However, the in vitro cell culture conditions under which much cellular metabolism research is performed differ drastically from in vivo tumor conditions, which are characterized by variations in the levels of oxygen, nutrients like glucose, and other molecules like chemotherapeutics. Moreover, it is important to know how the diverse cell types in a tumor, including cancer stem cells that are believed to be a major cause of cancer recurrence, respond to these variations. Here, in vitro environmental perturbations designed to mimic different aspects of the in vivo environment were used to characterize how an ovarian cancer cell line and its derived, isogenic cancer stem cells metabolically respond to environmental cues. Mass spectrometry was used to profile metabolite levels in response to in vitro environmental perturbations. Docetaxel, the chemotherapeutic used for this experiment, caused significant metabolic changes in amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism in ovarian cancer cells, but had virtually no metabolic effect on isogenic ovarian cancer stem cells. Glucose deprivation, hypoxia, and the combination thereof altered ovarian cancer cell and cancer stem cell metabolism to varying extents for the two cell types. Hypoxia had a much larger effect on ovarian cancer cell metabolism, while glucose deprivation had a greater effect on ovarian cancer stem cell metabolism. Core metabolites and pathways affected by these perturbations were identified, along with pathways that were unique to cell types or perturbations. The metabolic responses of an ovarian cancer cell line and its derived isogenic cancer stem cells differ greatly under most conditions, suggesting that these two cell types may behave quite differently in an in vivo tumor microenvironment. While cancer metabolism and cancer stem cells are each promising potential therapeutic targets, such varied behaviors in vivo would need to

  4. Revisiting ovarian cancer microenvironment: a friend or a foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boyi; Chen, Fei; Xu, Qixia; Han, Liu; Xu, Jiaqian; Gao, Libin; Sun, Xiaochen; Li, Yiwen; Li, Yan; Qian, Min; Sun, Yu

    2017-09-19

    Development of ovarian cancer involves the co-evolution of neoplastic cells together with the adjacent microenvironment. Steps of malignant progression including primary tumor outgrowth, therapeutic resistance, and distant metastasis are not determined solely by genetic alterations in ovarian cancer cells, but considerably shaped by the fitness advantage conferred by benign components in the ovarian stroma. As the dynamic cancer topography varies drastically during disease progression, heterologous cell types within the tumor microenvironment (TME) can actively determine the pathological track of ovarian cancer. Resembling many other solid tumor types, ovarian malignancy is nurtured by a TME whose dark side may have been overlooked, rather than overestimated. Further, harnessing breakthrough and targeting cures in human ovarian cancer requires insightful understanding of the merits and drawbacks of current treatment modalities, which mainly target transformed cells. Thus, designing novel and precise strategies that both eliminate cancer cells and manipulate the TME is increasingly recognized as a rational avenue to improve therapeutic outcome and prevent disease deterioration of ovarian cancer patients.

  5. Diurnal Cortisol and Survival in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Schrepf, Andrew; Thaker, Premal H.; Goodheart, Michael J.; Bender, David; Slavich, George M.; Dahmoush, Laila; Penedo, Frank; DeGeest, Koen; Mendez, Luis; Lubaroff, David M.; Cole, Steven W.; Sood, Anil K.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) deregulation is commonly observed in cancer patients, but its clinical significance is not well understood. We prospectively examined the association between HPA activity, tumor-associated inflammation, and survival in ovarian cancer patients prior to treatment. Materials and Methods Participants were 113 women with ovarian cancer who provided salivary cortisol for three days prior to treatment for calculation of cortisol slope, variability, a...

  6. Impact of the ovarian microenvironment on serous cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0182 TITLE: Impact of the ovarian microenvironment on serous cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Joanna E. Burdette...Impact of the ovarian microenvironment on serous cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0182 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...for intervention that would block serous cancer while still confined to the fallopian tubes. Using a series of normal, modified, and tumorigenic tubal

  7. CD47 promotes ovarian cancer progression by inhibiting macrophage phagocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ran; Wei, Huiting; Gao, Peng; Yu, Hu; Wang, Ke; Fu, Zheng; Ju, Baohui; Zhao, Meng; Dong, Shangwen; Li, Zhijun; He, Yifeng; Huang, Yuting; Yao, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Targeting CD47 efficiently enhances macrophage phagocytosis in both physiological and pathological conditions. Anti-CD47 antibodies have been shown to inhibit the progression of several types of cancer. However, the mechanism of anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment remains controversial. In this study, we confirmed that CD47 protein is highly expressed in ovarian cancer, and is correlated with poor clinical characteristics and prognosis. CD47 knockdown in the ovarian cancer cell line...

  8. Insulin resistance and endocrine-metabolic abnormalities in polycystic ovarian syndrome: Comparison between obese and non-obese PCOS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layegh, Parvin; Mousavi, Zohreh; Farrokh Tehrani, Donya; Parizadeh, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Khajedaluee, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    Insulin resistance has an important role in pathophysiology of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Yet there are certain controversies regarding the presence of insulin resistance in non-obese patients. The aim was to compare the insulin resistance and various endocrine and metabolic abnormalities in obese and non-obese PCOS women. In this cross-sectional study which was performed from 2007-2010, 115 PCOS patients, aged 16-45 years were enrolled. Seventy patients were obese (BMI ≥25) and 45 patients were non-obese (BMI 2.3) between two groups (p=0.357). Waist circumference (pPCOS patients. There was no significant difference in total testosterone (p=0.634) and androstenedione (p=0.736) between groups whereas Dehydroepiandrotendione sulfate (DHEAS) was significantly higher in non-obese PCOS women (p=0.018). There was no case of fatty liver and metabolic syndrome in non-obese patients, whereas they were seen in 31.3% and 39.4% of obese PCOS women, respectively. Our study showed that metabolic abnormalities are more prevalent in obese PCOS women, but adrenal axis activity that is reflected in higher levels of DHEAS was more commonly pronounced in our non-obese PCOS patients.

  9. Impact of Body Mass Index on Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Among Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Cui

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of body mass index (BMI on outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF / intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI among polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS and non-PCOS patients. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study that was performed in the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University. Patients who were under 35 years old were included in the study and were divided into four groups based on their BMI. The number of retrieved oocytes, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate and live births among PCOS and non-PCOS patients were compared between different BMIs. Results: IVF/ICSI pregnancies in obese PCOS women had a considerably higher risk of miscarriage and low rate of clinical pregnancy than in non-obese PCOS pregnancies. However, in non-PCOS patient, obesity significantly elevated miscarriage rate but did not affect clinical pregnancy rate. Conclusion: Obesity in PCOS patients led to poor outcomes of IVF/ICSI.

  10. [Study on the relation between Pi-deficiency pattern and metabolic syndrome in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Juan; Jin, Hua-Liang; Liu, Ying

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the relation between Pi-deficiency syndrome (PDS) pattern and metabolic syndrome (MS) in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), for exploring their internal pathologic mechanism. Among the 102 PCOS patients, 22 complicated with MS (PCOS-MS) and 80 not complicated with MS (PCOS-NMS), the Chinese medicine syndrome pattern was differentiated as PDS in 50 patients and non-PDS in 52. The clinical data, in terms of fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), waistline, body weight (BW), stature, blood pressure (BP), etc. was collected and compared and the relation between data was analyzed. Levels of FINS and homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistence index (HOMA-IR), in PCOS-MS patients were significantly higher than those in PCOS-NMS patients, also higher in patients of PDS pattern than those of non-PDS pattern (P pattern was significantly higher than those in patients of non-PDS pattern (P 0.05). PCOS patients of PDS pattern are the high-risk population of MS, which might be related with the insulin resistance. So, early treatment of PCOS, especially on patients of PDS pattern, is of important significance for preventing the complication, as MS, of the disease.

  11. A Review on the Assessment of the Efficacy of Common Treatments in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome on Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Dashti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a common condition amongst women of reproductive age that can result in increased mortality and morbidity in women due to increased risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of common treatments of PCOS on the predictors of diabetes in non-diabetic PCOS women.Materials and methods: An extensive search was performed on the publications in three medical databases including pubmed, scopus and google scholar from 1995 till 2017. The articles were screened based on their quality and included in this systematic review. A total of 25 articles including cohort, randomised controlled trial, review and meta-analysis were included in the review.Results: This systematic review revealed that the effect of lifestyle modification might be low in PCOS subjects due to high drop-out rate while the benefits of this intervention including weight and fat reduction may not be achieved by medical interventions. Metformin treatment may result in improvements in insulin sensitivity while its weight reduction effect is still not documented in PCOS subjects. Thiazolidendiones might be tolerated by the PCOS subjects and may result in similar effects as metformin but this effect should be documented by further studies.Conclusion: Combination of lifestyle modification with metformin or thiazolidinedions might improve the outcome of the prevention strategies. On the other hand this study revealed a different response to treatments in non-obese compared with obese PCOS subjects.

  12. Correlation of skin changes with hormonal changes in polycystic ovarian syndrome: A cross-sectional study clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vijaya Gowri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a heterogenous collection of signs and symptoms that when gathered, form a spectrum of disorder with disturbance of reproductive, endocrine and metabolic functions. Aim: The aim of this study is to correlate the skin manifestations with hormonal changes and to know the incidence and prevalence of skin manifestations in patients with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients with PCOS were examined during 1 year time period from May 2008 P to May 2009. Detailed clinical history was taken from each patient. PCOS was diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonography. Hormonal assays included fasting blood sugar, postprandial blood sugar, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrostenedione, prolactin, free testosterone, fasting lipid profile and sex hormone binding globulin. The results obtained were statistically correlated. Results: In our study, the prevalence of cutaneous manifestations was 90%. Of all the cutaneous manifestations acne was seen in highest percentage (67.5%, followed by hirsutism (62.5%, seborrhea (52.5%, androgenetic alopecia (AGA (30%, acanthosis nigricans (22.5% and acrochordons (10%. Fasting insulin levels was the most common hormonal abnormality seen in both acne and hirsutism, whereas AGA was associated with high testosterone levels. Conclusion: The prevalence of cutaneous manifestations in PCOS was 90%. Hirsutism, acne, seborrhea, acanthosis nigricans and acrochordons were associated with increased levels of fasting insulin, whereas AGA showed higher levels of serum testosterone.

  13. Does unilateral laparoscopic diathermy adjusted to ovarian volume increase the chances of ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunj, M; Canic, T; Baldani, D P; Tandara, M; Jeroncic, A; Palada, I

    2013-09-01

    Does unilateral volume-adjusted laparoscopic diathermy increase the chances of ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? Although unilateral laparoscopic ovarian drilling (ULOD) using adjusted thermal doses was more efficient than bilateral laparoscopic ovarian drilling (BLOD) using fixed doses, the chances of ovulation were improved in patients irrespective of the technique used. The adjustment of the thermal dose to ovarian volume in BLOD increases ovulation and pregnancy rates compared with fixed-dose treatment, but BLOD causes the formation of adhesions, particularly on the left ovary, and increases the risk of damage to ovarian tissue. In contrast, ULOD with a fixed thermal dose minimizes the risk of ovarian tissue damage, and can increase the activity in both right and left ovaries, although this varies in humans and in other species. This prospective, longitudinal, study, between September 2009 and January 2013, included 96 infertile women with PCOS who were unresponsive to clomiphene citrate treatment and had underwent either ULOD or BLOD. After surgery, the groups were followed up for 6 months to assess ovulatory response. Patients were assigned to two groups; one group underwent laparoscopic ovarian drilling of the right ovary alone, while both ovaries were treated in the second group. The ULOD group (n = 49) received thermal doses adjusted to the volume of the right ovary (60 J/cm³). The BLOD group (n = 47) received fixed doses of 600 J per ovary, regardless of its volume. The two treatment groups were matched by the number of participants, age and baseline parameters. The ovulation rate during the first menstrual cycle after LOD was significantly higher in the ULOD group than in the BLOD group [73 versus 49%; absolute risk reduction (ARR), -0.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.44 to -0.03; P = 0.014]. Treatment with ULOD on the right ovary significantly increased the chances of ovulation in patients with a larger right ovary compared

  14. E-cadherin expression in ovarian cancer in the laying hen, Gallus domesticus, compared to human ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansenberger, Kristine; Zhuge, Yan; Lagman, Jo Ann J; Richards, Cassandra; Barua, Animesh; Bahr, Janice M; Hales, Dale Buchanan

    2009-06-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Until recently, a significant lack of an appropriate animal model has hindered the discovery of early detection markers for ovarian cancer. The aging hen serves as an animal model because it spontaneously develops ovarian adenocarcinomas similar in histological appearance to the human disease. E-cadherin is an adherens protein that is down-regulated in many cancers, but has been shown to be up-regulated in primary human ovarian cancer. Our objective was to evaluate E-cadherin expression in the hen ovary and compare its expression to human ovarian cancer. White Leghorn hens aged 185 weeks (cancerous and normal) were used for sample collection. A human ovarian tumor tissue array was used for comparison to the human disease. E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression were analyzed in cancerous and normal hen ovaries by immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Tissue fixed in neutral buffered formalin was used for IHC. Protein from tissue frozen in liquid nitrogen was analyzed by Western blot. RNA was extracted from tissue preserved in RNAlater and analyzed by qRT-PCR. The human ovarian tumor tissue array was used for IHC. E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression were significantly increased in cancerous hen ovaries as compared to ovaries of normal hens by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Similar expression of E-cadherin was observed by IHC in both human and hen ovarian cancer tissues. Similar E-cadherin expression was also observed in primary ovarian tumor and peritoneal metastatic tissue from cancerous hens. Our findings suggest that the up-regulation of E-cadherin is an early defining event in ovarian cancer and may play a significant role in the initial development of the primary ovarian tumor. E-cadherin also appears to be important in the development of secondary tumors within the peritoneal cavity. Our data suggest that E-cadherin may prove to be an

  15. Super p53 for Treatment of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0036 TITLE: Super p53 for Treatment of Ovarian Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Carol S. Lim University of Utah...Super p53 for Treatment of Ovarian Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0036 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Carol S. Lim...ABSTRACT In this final report, we show gene therapy using re-engineered super p53 (p53-CC constructs) kills some ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro

  16. [Assessment and impact of intrathoracic disease in advanced ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mouly, S; Badia, A; Bats, A-S; Barthes, F; Bensaïd, C; Huchon, C; Riquet, M; Lécuru, F

    2010-05-01

    As seventy-five percent of patients with ovarian cancer are diagnosed at an advanced stage (FIGO stage III/IV), optimal surgery is then difficult to perform. The aim of our study is to assess the interest of thoracoscopy in the management of ovarian carcinoma with pleural effusion.

  17. Options for modulation of drug resistance in ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, HJG; Van der Zee, AGJ; De Jong, S; De Vries, EGE

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an update of mechanisms responsible for drug resistance in ovarian cancer and the possible therapeutic options to modulate this resistance using literature review with emphasis on data acquired in studies comprising ovarian tumor samples. The classic

  18. Role of Fallopian Tubes in the Development of Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, Camila; Iniesta, Maria D; Patrono, Maria Guadalupe; Lu, Karen H; Ramirez, Pedro T

    2017-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy and the fifth cause of cancer death in women in the United States. The most common and lethal histologic subtype of epithelial ovarian cancer is high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), which generally presents at an advanced stage. HGSC may be associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Historically, HGSC was believed to originate from the ovarian epithelial cells. However, more recent evidence supports the idea that most ovarian cancers originate in the fallopian tube epithelium in both high-risk women and in the general population. Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas may ultimately evolve into ovarian or peritoneal cancer. As a result, prophylactic salpingectomy with conservation of the ovaries has become an increasingly more common practice for premenopausal women undergoing risk-reducing surgery. Because the fallopian tube is now recognized as the most common potential site of origin of ovarian carcinoma, there is ongoing research to explore molecular and genetic factors that may be critical in the development of this disease. Further research is needed to identify novel opportunities for early detection and screening of ovarian cancer with the ultimate goal of increasing overall survival. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Urban and rural differences in characteristics of ovarian cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpurek, Dariusz; Moszynski, Rafał; Szubert, Sebastian; Sajdak, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was evaluation of the urban and rural differences in ovarian cancer patients' characteristics at the moment of diagnosis. The study comprised women with ovarian cancer diagnosed and treated in the Division of Gynecological Surgery of Poznan University of Medical Sciences between 2004-2011. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on their place of residence: 1) patients residing in large cities (over 50,000 people), 2) inhabitants of small towns (below 50,000 people), 3) women from rural areas. Among the studied groups of patients no differences were found in the FIGO stage at diagnosis (p=0.453), histological grade of the tumour (p=0.916), histopathological types of ovarian neoplasms (p=0.431), median tumour volume (p=0.855), presence of fluid in the pouch of Douglas (p=0.872). Women with ovarian cancer residing in large cities had lower median parity (p=0.0005), higher education level status (p=0.0001), and experienced menarche at an earlier age (p=0.039). There were no differences in the use of oral contraception (p=0.93) and body mass index (p=0.23) between the women included in the study. There were no differences in advancement of ovarian cancer at the moment of diagnosis or in tumour type and size between women residing large cities, small towns and rural areas. Several ovarian cancer risk factors were more common among ovarian cancer patients living in urbanized areas.

  20. [The role of cancer stem cells in progressive growth and resistance of ovarian cancer: true or fiction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Julia K; Grelewski, Piotr; Lis-Nawara, Anna; Drobnikowska, Kamila

    2015-09-20

    Growing evidence indicates that biological heterogeneity of ovarian cancer is associated with a small subpopulation of cancer cells existing within tumor tissue and defined as cancer stem cells (CSCs). This small group of ovarian cells possesses the capacity of self-renewal. Recent data revealed that progression, metastasis and relapse of ovarian cancers are related to the behavior of cancer stem cells. However, how ovarian CSCs maintain their migration properties is still unclear. The clinical relevance of CSCs has been supported by emerging evidence, showing that CSCs are resistant to conventional chemotherapy of ovarian cancer. Identification of biomarkers of ovarian cancer stem cells seems to be important for target therapy. Therapeutic strategies aimed at eliminating CSCs in ovarian cancers might extend disease survival and limit recurrence. This review will describe the current knowledge of ovarian CSCs biology and contribution of these cells to metastasis and chemoresistance of ovarian cancer as well as the possibility to use target therapy of ovarian CSCs.

  1. Pelvic inflammatory disease and risk of invasive ovarian cancer and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina B; Faber, Mette T; Jensen, Allan

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to examine the potential association between a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer or ovarian borderline tumors. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study in Denmark, we included 554 women with invasive ovarian...... cancer, 202 with ovarian borderline tumors, and 1,564 controls aged 35-79 years. The analyses were performed in multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: We found a significantly increased risk of ovarian borderline tumors among women with a history of PID (OR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.......08-2.08) but no apparent association between PID and risk of invasive ovarian cancer (OR = 0.83; 95% CI 0.65-1.05). We found no effect of age at time of first PID or time since first PID on the risk for either condition. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a history of PID is associated with an increased risk of ovarian...

  2. Epidemiology of Second Primary Tumors in Women With Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanninen, Tomi T; Nasioudis, Dimitrios; Sisti, Giovanni; Holcomb, Kevin; Di Tommaso, Mariarosaria; Khalil, Susan; Gojayev, Anar; Witkin, Steven S

    2017-05-01

    The last large study of second primary tumors (SPTs) in women with ovarian cancer was published in 1996, prior to major changes in the differential diagnosis and treatment. The present study reports on the incidence of SPTs in a contemporary cohort of patients with a diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer patients with a diagnosis of an ovarian malignancy between 1992 and 2012 were identified and characterized from 13 registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Of 41,073 women with a diagnosis of an ovarian malignancy between 1992 and 2012, 1831 (4.5%) developed a microscopically confirmed SPT. There was no significant difference in the risk of developing an SPT at all sites between women with an ovarian cancer and the general population. There was an elevated risk of site-specific SPTs of the small intestine, vagina, thyroid gland, and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia in ovarian cancer patients compared with the general Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population. Conversely, the risk of lung and non-Hodgkin lymphoma was significantly decreased in women with ovarian cancer. An elevated risk of SPTs was observed in women with mucinous, endometrioid, and germ cell tumors. White women had an overall decreased risk of developing a second primary solid tumor, whereas American Indian and Asian/Pacific Islander women had an overall increased risk of an SPT at any site. The incidence of SPTs in women with ovarian cancer was not significantly different as compared with the general population. However, divergent rates of SPTs in relation to histology, latency, age, and race were observed.

  3. Ovarian failure due to cancer treatment and fertility preservation options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Aminimoghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI, commonly referred to premature ovarian failure, is defined as ovarian failure before the age of 40 years. It is the loss of ovarian function caused by a process directly affecting ovaries. Cancer therapy which includes surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy influence ovarian function, leading to premature menopause and loss of fertility. POI is idiopathic in most cases (74-90%. The known causes, in addition to anticancer treatment, are other processes like chromosomal abnormalities, autoimmunity, and natural aging can result in secondary ovarian failure, which is detected by an increase in serum gonadotropin levels (FSH and LH. There are evident risks of POI in women treated for cancer. Those who receive anticancer treatments have an increased risk of developing POI. There by, anticancer drugs and radiation therapy are considered as the most common toxins of ovaries. Although cancer incidence rates in women less than 50 years old continue to increase during recent years, mortality rates are dramatically decreasing due to modern advances in treatment. Increasing numbers of survivors are now confronted with the long-term consequences of exposure to these treatments. The pool of primordial follicles in the ovary is fixed and any injury to the ovary can potentially reduce this ovarian reserve, effectively advancing the patient’s reproductive age, thus narrowing the window of reproductive opportunity. Ovarian failure occurs in a significant percentage of childhood cancer survivors and many of them will seek care for reproductive dysfunction. Nevertheless, Embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation, ovary tissue cryopreservation, ovarian suppression and oophoro-pexy are some options to preserve fertility in these groups. As a result, having foreknowledge of potential treatment related ovarian failure will allow the physician to give a better counsel to patients and their family regarding the importance and

  4. Are Lean and Normal Weight Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome at Risk of Preeclampsia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Shahnaz Aali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We examined whether pregnant women with preeclampsia have an increased rateof pre-pregnancy polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. This study also evaluated whether theassociation, if any, was a result of preeclampsia and its relationship to PCOS or dependent uponconcurrent obesity.Materials and Methods: In this study, 75 preeclampsia cases and 225 normotensive pregnantcontrols, matched for age and gravidity, were enrolled. A confirmation of pre-pregnancy PCOSwas ascertained by recording medical history, along with a physical examination directed for signsand symptoms of PCOS, an ultrasound report of polycystic ovaries and laboratory tests whichconfirmed hyperandrogenism prior to pregnancy. Body mass index (BMI was calculated for eachpatient. Participants were classified into two categories: lean/normal and obese according to a BMI<25 or greater than 25.1, respectively. Chi-square, Student t test, Fisher-exact and Mann-Whitneytests were used to assess the differences between the groups in addition to the relationship betweenpreeclampsia and PCOS. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant.Results: Age, gravidity and parity were not significantly different between cases and controls.However, a significant difference was found in gestational age and BMI between the groups.Additionally, preeclamptic patients more frequently suffered from pre-pregnancy PCOS thancontrols and a significant relationship was found between preeclampsia and previous PCOS, evenamongst lean/normal weight patients.Conclusion: This study provides convincing evidence that a pre-pregnancy diagnosis of PCOScould predispose the patient to preeclampsia, regardless of a concomitant obesity risk factor.

  5. Phenotypic variation in anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) production per follicle in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and isolated polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM): an observational cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, Priya; Kulkarni, Abhijit; Dilgil, Merve; Dhir, Puja; Shah, Amit; Gudi, Anil; Homburg, Roy

    2017-10-01

    This observational study compares the ratio of serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) to the total antral follicle count (AFC) (as a marker of AMH production per follicle) in the various phenotypes of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and isolated polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM). Two hundred and sixty-two women were recruited. Women with PCOS were divided into four phenotypes based on the diagnostic inclusion criteria of oligo-anovulation (OA), hyperandrogenism (HA) and polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM). These included Group A (OA + HA + PCOM), Group B (OA + HA), Group C (HA + PCOM) and Group D (OA + PCOM). A ratio of serum AMH to total AFC was calculated and expressed as the AMH/AFC ratio which was compared in the phenotypes of PCOS and isolated PCOM. The median AMH/AFC ratios in PCOS-A, PCOS-D, PCOS-C and PCOM were 1.5, 1.6, 1.2 and 1.1, respectively. There were significant differences in the groups compared [F(3, 238) = 6.14, p = 0.000)]. The ratios were significantly higher in the oligo-anovulatory phenotypes PCOS-A and PCOS-D than the PCOM (p = 0.004 and 0.002, respectively). There was no significant difference in the ratio between ovulatory phenotype PCOS-C and PCOM (p = 0.59). The role of androgens and LH in per-follicle AMH production remains limited. The findings support the hypothesis of a key role for AMH in the mechanism of anovulation in PCOS.

  6. Municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Enrique

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spain was the country that registered the greatest increases in ovarian cancer mortality in Europe. This study describes the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain using spatial models for small-area analysis. Methods Smoothed relative risks of ovarian cancer mortality were obtained, using the Besag, York and Molliè autoregressive spatial model. Standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risks, and distribution of the posterior probability of relative risks being greater than 1 were depicted on municipal maps. Results During the study period (1989–1998, 13,869 ovarian cancer deaths were registered in 2,718 Spanish towns, accounting for 4% of all cancer-related deaths among women. The highest relative risks were mainly concentrated in three areas, i.e., the interior of Barcelona and Gerona (north-east Spain, the north of Lugo and Asturias (north-west Spain and along the Seville-Huelva boundary (in the south-west. Eivissa (Balearic Islands and El Hierro (Canary Islands also registered increased risks. Conclusion Well established ovarian cancer risk factors might not contribute significantly to the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality. Environmental and occupational exposures possibly linked to this pattern and prevalent in specific regions, are discussed in this paper. Small-area geographical studies are effective instruments for detecting risk areas that may otherwise remain concealed on a more reduced scale.

  7. Risk Factors for Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancer by Histologic Subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirk JT

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether the different histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian carcinoma have different risk factors. We investigated the relationships between selected epidemiologic variables (i.e., parity, family history of ovarian cancer, oral contraceptive use, a history of tubal ligation and noncontraceptive estrogen use and the major histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer in a hospital-based case-control study of adult women at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, NY, USA. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. We observed a pattern of increased risk associated with family history and a pattern of risk reduction associated with parity, noncontraceptive estrogen use and tubal ligation across all histologic subtype groups. However, we did not observe a consistent pattern of risk associated with oral contraceptive use. These results provide some additional support for the hypothesis that the effects of various ovarian cancer risk factors may differ according to the histologic subtype.

  8. The rise of genomic profiling in ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previs, Rebecca A.; Sood, Anil K.; Mills, Gordon B.; Westin, Shannon N.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Next-generation sequencing and advances in ‘omics technology have rapidly increased our understanding of the molecular landscape of epithelial ovarian cancers. Areas covered Once characterized only by histologic appearance and clinical behavior, we now understand many of the molecular phenotypes that underlie the different ovarian cancer subtypes. While the current approach to treatment involves standard cytotoxic therapies after cytoreductive surgery for all ovarian cancers regardless of histologic or molecular characteristics, focus has shifted beyond a ‘one size fits all’ approach to ovarian cancer. Expert commentary Genomic profiling offers potentially ‘actionable’ opportunities for development of targeted therapies and a more individualized approach to treatment with concomitant improved outcomes and decreased toxicity. PMID:27828713

  9. Discovery – BRCA Connection to Breast and Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI-funded research helped identify inherited BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic mutations and their connection to breast and ovarian cancer. From this research, a screening test was also developed to help patients make informed decisions about their health.

  10. 77 FR 55095 - National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... their lives to ovarian cancer. They are mothers and daughters, sisters and grandmothers, community... treatments. Through the Centers for Disease Control's Inside Knowledge campaign, we are working to raise...

  11. Menstrual pain and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babic, Ana; Harris, Holly R; Vitonis, Allison F

    2018-01-01

    to lack of power. We assessed menstrual pain using either direct questions about having experienced menstrual pain, or indirect questions about menstrual pain as indication for use of hormones or medications. We used multivariate logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for the association......Menstrual pain, a common gynecological condition, has been associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer in some, but not all studies. Furthermore, potential variations in the association between menstrual pain and ovarian cancer by histologic subtype have not been adequately evaluated due...... between severe menstrual pain and ovarian cancer, adjusting for potential confounders and multinomial logistic regression to calculate ORs for specific histologic subtypes. We observed no association between ovarian cancer and menstrual pain assessed by indirect questions. Among studies using direct...

  12. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy for ovarian cancer : a question of feasibility?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, PHB; de Vries, EGE

    Increasing the tumor concentration of chemotherapeutic agents by local administration seems one logical approach to increase the efficacy of treatment. This approach is actively pursued in ovarian cancer, which allows local, intraperitoneal drug administration. In this commentary we put into

  13. EGFR/HER-targeted therapeutics in ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Jason A; Badri, Tayf; Cross, Sarah; Raji, Rhoda; Santin, Alessandro D; Schwartz, Peter; Branscum, Adam J; Baron, Andre T; Sakhitab, Adam I; Maihle, Nita J

    2013-01-01

    Despite decades of research and evolving treatment modalities, survival among patients with epithelial ovarian cancer has improved only incrementally. During this same period, the development of biologically targeted therapeutics has improved survival for patients with diverse malignancies. Many of these new drugs target the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER/ErbB) family of tyrosine kinases, which play a major role in the etiology and progression of many carcinomas, including epithelial ovarian cancer. While several HER-targeted therapeutics are US FDA approved for the treatment of various malignancies, none have gained approval for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Here, we review the published literature on HER-targeted therapeutics for the treatment of ovarian cancer, including novel HER-targeted therapeutics in various stages of clinical development, as well as the challenges that have limited the use of these inhibitors in clinical settings. PMID:22416774

  14. Combining Chemotherapy with Bevacizumab Improves Outcomes for Ovarian Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from two phase III randomized clinical trials suggest that, at least for some patients with ovarian cancer, adding the antiangiogenesis agent bevacizumab to chemotherapy increases the time to disease progression and may improve survival.

  15. Hormone-receptor expression and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieh, Weiva; Köbel, Martin; Longacre, Teri A

    2013-01-01

    Few biomarkers of ovarian cancer prognosis have been established, partly because subtype-specific associations might be obscured in studies combining all histopathological subtypes. We examined whether tumour expression of the progesterone receptor (PR) and oestrogen receptor (ER) was associated...

  16. Chronic recreational physical inactivity and epithelial ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive, and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC ri...

  17. Is Pelvic Inflammatory Disease a Risk Factor for Ovarian Cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina B; Jensen, Allan; Albieri, Vanna

    2017-01-01

    no association with PID (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.92-1.20). However, in histotype-specific analyses, we found a statistically significantly increased risk of serous ovarian cancer among women with PID (HR, 1.19; 1.00-1.41; P = 0.047). Conversely, PID was not convincingly associated with risk of any of the other......BACKGROUND: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) has been proposed as a risk factor for ovarian cancer. However, the existing literature on the association between PID and ovarian cancer risk is inconclusive, and only few cohort studies have been conducted. METHODS: Using nationwide Danish registries......, we conducted a population-based cohort study including all women from the birth cohorts 1940 to 1970 in Denmark during 1978-2012 (n = 1,318,929) to investigate the association between PID and subsequent risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. Among women in the cohort, 81,281 women were diagnosed with PID...

  18. Ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome; a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder-Woolderink, J M; Blok, E A; Vasen, H F A; Hollema, H; Mourits, M J; De Bock, G H

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to systematically review the characteristics of ovarian cancer in women with Lynch syndrome (LS) and evaluate the role of surveillance in detection of ovarian cancer in LS. All studies between 1979 and 2015 of women with ovarian cancer and LS or at 50% risk of LS were evaluated. Two reviewers independently evaluated eligible studies and extracted data on age at diagnosis, histological type, FIGO stage, and way of detection according to pre-specified criteria. The studies were assessed for quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scales. The quality score of the 49 identified studies was at least 6 out of 8 and provide clinical information on 747 LS women with ovarian cancer. The mean age at diagnosis was 45.3 (range 19-82) years. Most frequent mutations were MSH2 (47%) and MLH1 (38%). Histopathological data were available for 445 women. The most frequently reported histological type was mixed type (mucinous/endometrioid/clear cell carcinomas) (n = 136; 31%). Most tumours (281, 65%) were diagnosed at an early stage (FIGO I/II). Six studies evaluating the effect of surveillance of ovarian cancer, reported that seven of 22 (32%) ovarian cancers were found during surveillance, 6/7 (86%) were detected at an early stage. This systematic review describes that ovarian cancer in women with LS has a wide age-range of onset, is often diagnosed at an early stage with frequently endometrioid/clear cell histology. Data about the role of surveillance in detection of ovarian cancer in women with LS are scarce however detection at an early stage seems possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Therapeutic Strategies against Cyclin E1-Amplified Ovarian Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    resistance to platinum, management of CCNE1-amplified ovarian cancers is challenging. In this research, we evaluate three novel strategies against...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0564 TITLE: Therapeutic Strategies against Cyclin E1-Amplified Ovarian Cancers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Panagiotis A...Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including

  20. Metformin against Cancer Stem Cells through the Modulation of Energy Metabolism: Special Considerations on Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy among women worldwide and is presumed to result from the presence of ovarian cancer stem cells. To overcome the limitation of current anticancer agents, another anticancer strategy is necessary to effectively target cancer stem cells in ovarian cancer. In many types of malignancies, including ovarian cancer, metformin, one of the most popular antidiabetic drugs, has been demonstrated to exhibit chemopreventive and anticancer efficacy with respect to incidence and overall survival rates. Thus, the metabolic reprogramming of cancer and cancer stem cells driven by genetic alterations during carcinogenesis and cancer progression could be therapeutically targeted. In this review, the potential efficacy and anticancer mechanisms of metformin against ovarian cancer stem cells will be discussed.

  1. Serum endocan levels in endometrial and ovarian cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloglu, Esra; Kumtepe, Yakup; Aksoy, Hulya; Topdagi Yilmaz, Emsal Pınar

    2017-09-01

    Ovarian and endometrial carcinomas are the two most common malignancies of the female reproductive system. Endocan is a proteoglycan that is specific to vascular endothelial cells. Increased serum levels have been reported in some tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate serum endocan levels in cases of endometrial and ovarian cancer. Levels of serum endocan were assessed in 27 patients with endometrial cancer and 20 with ovarian cancer, and in 38 control subjects with benign ovarian or endometrial disorders. Thirty-five healthy subjects were also included. Serum endocan levels were measured using a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum CA-125 levels were also measured in the patient and control groups. All patients had detectable serum endocan levels among endometrial and ovarian cancer groups except six cases. However, in the benign and healthy control groups, all endocan levels were undetectable except for two cases in the benign group and three in the healthy control group. Serum endocan levels were significantly higher in the entire patient group than in the controls (Pendometrial cancer and ovarian cancer were higher than in both the control groups (Pendometrial disorders do not lead to expression of endocan, malignant cases can result in measurable endocan levels. This may be useful in differentiating benign and malign diseases of the endometrium or ovary. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Role of MicroRNAs in Ovarian Cancer

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    Yasuto Kinose

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most lethal of malignant gynecological tumors. Its lethality may be due to difficulties in detecting it at an early stage and lack of effective treatments for patients with an advanced or recurrent status. Therefore, there is a strong need for prognostic and predictive markers to diagnose it early and to help optimize and personalize treatment. MicroRNAs are noncoding RNAs that regulate target genes posttranscriptionally. They are involved in carcinogenesis, cell cycle, apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and chemoresistance. The dysregulation of microRNAs is involved in the initiation and progression of human cancers including ovarian cancer, and strong evidence that microRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes has emerged. Several microRNA signatures that are unique to ovarian cancer have been proposed, and serum-circulating microRNAs have the potential to be useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Various microRNAs such as those in the miR-200 family, the miR-199/214 cluster, or the let-7 paralogs have potential as therapeutic targets for disseminated or chemoresistant ovarian tumors. Although many obstacles need to be overcome, microRNA therapy could be a powerful tool for ovarian cancer prevention and treatment. In this review, we discuss the emerging roles of microRNAs in various aspects of ovarian cancer.

  3. Mismatch repair and treatment resistance in ovarian cancer

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    van der Burg Maria EL

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of ovarian cancer is hindered by intrinsic or acquired resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of mismatch repair (MMR inactivation in ovarian cancer and its association with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods We determined, microsatellite instability (MSI as a marker for MMR inactivation (analysis of BAT25 and BAT26, MLH1 promoter methylation status (methylation specific PCR on bisulfite treated DNA and mRNA expression of MLH1, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6 and PMS2 (quantitative RT-PCR in 75 ovarian carcinomas and eight ovarian cancer cell lines Results MSI was detected in three of the eight cell lines i.e. A2780 (no MLH1 mRNA expression due to promoter methylation, SKOV3 (no MLH1 mRNA expression and 2774 (no altered expression of MMR genes. Overall, there was no association between cisplatin response and MMR status in these eight cell lines. Seven of the 75 ovarian carcinomas showed MLH1 promoter methylation, however, none of these showed MSI. Forty-six of these patients received platinum-based chemotherapy (11 non-responders, 34 responders, one unknown response. The resistance seen in the eleven non-responders was not related to MSI and therefore also not to MMR inactivation. Conclusion No MMR inactivation was detected in 75 ovarian carcinoma specimens and no association was seen between MMR inactivation and resistance in the ovarian cancer cell lines as well as the ovarian carcinomas. In the discussion, the results were compared to that of twenty similar studies in the literature including in total 1315 ovarian cancer patients. Although no association between response and MMR status was seen in the primary tumor the possible role of MMR inactivation in acquired resistance deserves further investigation.

  4. Measurement of phospholipids may improve diagnostic accuracy in ovarian cancer.

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    Lian Shan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than two-thirds of women who undergo surgery for suspected ovarian neoplasm do not have cancer. Our previous results suggest phospholipids as potential biomarkers of ovarian cancer. In this study, we measured the serum levels of multiple phospholipids among women undergoing surgery for suspected ovarian cancer to identify biomarkers that better predict whether an ovarian mass is malignant. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained serum samples preoperatively from women with suspected ovarian cancer enrolled through a prospective, population-based rapid ascertainment system. Samples were analyzed from all women in whom a diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC was confirmed and from benign disease cases randomly selected from the remaining (non-EOC samples. We measured biologically relevant phospholipids using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. We applied a powerful statistical and machine learning approach, Hybrid huberized support vector machine (HH-SVM to prioritize phospholipids to enter the biomarker models, and used cross-validation to obtain conservative estimates of classification error rates. RESULTS: The HH-SVM model using the measurements of specific combinations of phospholipids supplements clinical CA125 measurement and improves diagnostic accuracy. Specifically, the measurement of phospholipids improved sensitivity (identification of cases with preoperative CA125 levels below 35 among two types of cases in which CA125 performance is historically poor - early stage cases and those of mucinous histology. Measurement of phospholipids improved the identification of early stage cases from 65% (based on CA125 to 82%, and mucinous cases from 44% to 88%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Levels of specific serum phospholipids differ between women with ovarian cancer and those with benign conditions. If validated by independent studies in the future, these biomarkers may serve as an adjunct at

  5. Clinicopathological Analysis of Primary Ovarian Cancers in A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Next to cervical cancer, ovarian cancer is responsible for most gynaecological cancer death and ill health in Nigeria. However, its management still poses tremendous challenge to the gynaecologist due to late presentation. Over a period of ten years (January 1999 to December 2008) 76 patients presented with carcinoma ...

  6. Drugs Approved for Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for ovarian cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  7. Aiming to immune elimination of ovarian cancer stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di, J.; Duiveman-de Boer, T.; Figdor, C.G.; Torensma, R.

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer accounts for only 3% of all cancers in women, but it causes more deaths than any other gynecologic cancer. Treatment with chemotherapy and cytoreductive surgery shows a good response to the therapy. However, in a large proportion of the patients the tumor grows back within a few

  8. Thyroid disorders in polycystic ovarian syndrome subjects: A tertiary hospital based cross-sectional study from Eastern India

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    Uma Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, the most common endocrinopathy of women in the reproductive age group seems to be adversely affected by associated thyroid dysfunction. Both pose independent risks of ovarian failure and pregnancy related complications. Aims: The present study from Eastern India is, therefore, aimed to investigate the prevalence and etiology of different thyroid disorders in PCOS subjects. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional hospital based survey-single centre observational case-control study. Materials and Methods: This prospective single-center study recruited 106 female patients with hypertrichosis and menstrual abnormality among which 80 patients were defined as having PCOS according to the revised 2003 Rotterdam criteria and comprised the study population. Another 80 age-matched female subjects were studied as the control population. Thyroid function and morphology were evaluated by measurement of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxine levels (free T3 and free T4, anti-thyroperoxidase antibody (anti-TPO Ab, clinical examination and ultrasound (USG of thyroid gland. Statistical Analysis Used: It was done by Student′s t-test and Chi-square test using appropriate software (SPSS version 19. Results: This case-control study revealed statistically significant higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis, detected in 18 patients (22.5% vs. 1.25% of control as evidenced by raised anti-TPO antibody levels (means 28.037 ± 9.138 and 25.72 ± 8.27 respectively; P = 0.035. PCOS patients were found to have higher mean TSH level than that of the control group (4.547 ± 2.66 and 2.67 ± 3.11 respectively; P value < 0.05. There was high prevalence of goiter among PCOS patients (27.5% vs. 7.5% of control, P value < 0.001. On thyroid USG a significantly higher percentage of PCOS patients (12.5%; controls 2.5% had hypoechoic USG pattern also compatible with the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis. Conclusions: High

  9. Biotechnological and clinical outcome of in vitro fertilization in non-obese patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Baczkowski

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION
    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a hormonal and metabolic disorder which poses problems with controlled ovarian stimulation (COH. It has been also postulated that PCOS patients have oocytes and embryos with poorer quality which affects IVF results.

    AIM
    To verify IVF outcome in non-obese patients with PCOS.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS
    IVF results of 71 non-obese PCOS patients with 243 non-obese non-POCS patients, regardless of stimulation protocol, from years 2004-2006 were compared.

    RESULTS
    Biotechnological results of PCOS patients in opposition to non-PCOS patients were respectively as follows: higher average number (10.19 vs. 7.61; p=0.001 and percentage (82.34% vs. 76.25%; p=0.025 of retrieved mature M2 oocytes; similar (77.01% vs. 76.75%; p=0.835 fertilization rate with higher average number of embryos (7.633 vs. 5.650 p=0.003; higher average number (4.830 vs. 3.304; p=0.001 and percentage (65.66% vs. 60.57%; p=0.006 of embryos with optimal Z1 and Z2 pronuclei pattern according to Scott; higher average number of class Aembryos (3.57 vs. 2.34; p=0.001. Similar number of embryos were transferred in both groups (2.408 vs. 2.485, p=0.552. Clinical results in PCOS and non-PCOS patients were as follows: similar stimulation duration (10.53 days vs. 10.31 days; p=0.639 with significant less gonadotropin total usage (1866.54 IU vs. 2276.18 IU; p=0.001. Also clinical pregnancy per transfer (57.75% vs. 41.98%; p=0.021 and delivery per transfer (45.07% vs. 32.51%; p=0.066 were more often in PCOS patients with comparable miscarriages (12,68% vs. 6,58%; p=0.131 and ectopic pregnancy (0.00% vs. 2.06%; p=0.591 rates, respectively.

    CONCLUSION
    PCOS in non-obese patients is linked with good biotechnological and clinical IVF outcome.

  10. Pregnancy rate of gonadotrophin therapy and laparoscopic ovarian electrocautery in polycystic ovary syndrome resistant to clomiphene citrate: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafarnegad M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common cause of ovulation insufficiency and then infertility. Therapeutic options to induce ovulation in anovulatory PCOS patients are clomiphene citrate, metformin, tamoxifen, dopamine agonists (bromocriptin, Gonadotrophin and laparoscopic ovarian electrocautery (LOE. Gonadotrophin and LOE are important options in anovulatory clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with PCOS. Literature data regarding compare of the efficacy of these two treatments are few. Therefore we aimed to study the pregnancy rates of these treatments in infertile clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with PCOS."n"nMethods: A randomized clinical trial study was carried out in infertile clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with PCOS, referred to infertility clinic of Mirza Koochackhan Hospital of Tehran University of Medical Science in Tehran, Iran, between 2003 and 2008."n"nResults: A total of 100 patients women were randomly allocated in two groups. There were no differences in age and pimary and secondary infertility duration. In LOE treatment group, eight cases (16% were pregnant and all delivered at term. in gonadotrophin treatment 14 cases (28% were pregnant, 10 cases (20% delivered at term

  11. Serum complexed and free prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for the diagnosis of the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Wheeler, Sarah; Mathew, Anu; Stengelin, Martin; Nikolenko, Galina; Glezer, Eli N; Brown, Marshall D; Zheng, Yingye; Chen, Yen-Hao; Wu, Hsiao-Li; Azziz, Ricardo

    2017-10-26

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of reproductive and metabolic dysfunction. We hypothesized that serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) may constitute a new biomarker for hyperandrogenism in PCOS. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 45 women with PCOS and 40 controls. Serum from these women was analyzed for androgenic steroids and for complexed PSA (cPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) with a novel fifth- generation assay with a sensitivity of ~10 fg/mL for cPSA and 140 fg/mL for fPSA. cPSA and fPSA levels were about three times higher in PCOS compared to controls. However, in PCOS, cPSA and fPSA did not differ according to waist-to-hip ratio, Ferriman-Gallwey score, or degree of hyperandrogenemia or oligo-ovulation. In PCOS and control women, serum cPSA and fPSA levels were highly correlated with each other, and with free and total testosterone levels, but not with other hormones. Adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI) and race, cPSA was significantly associated with PCOS, with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.86, 22.0). The OR of PCOS for fPSA was 7.04 (95% CI: 1.65, 40.4). A multivariate model that included age, BMI, race and cPSA yielded an area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic curve of 0.89. Serum cPSA and fPSA are novel biomarkers for hyperandrogenism in PCOS and may have value for disease diagnosis.

  12. Triggering ovulation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist versus human chorionic gonadotropin in polycystic ovarian syndrome. A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Hassaan Farag

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare GnRH agonist to hCG for triggering ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome treated with clomiphene citrate. Study design: Prospective randomized study. Materials & methods: Eighty five infertile women with PCOS participated in a randomized allocation concealed prospective trial and had induction of ovulation with clomiphene citrate. GnRH agonist 0.2 mg subcutaneously (group 1 or hCG 10,000 IU intramuscularly (group 2 was given to trigger ovulation. Primary outcome was mid-luteal serum progesterone, while secondary outcomes were ovulation rates and clinical pregnancy rates along 3 cycles. Results: No difference was found between group 1 and group 2 regarding mean serum progesterone and clinical pregnancy rates in each cycle. Cumulative pregnancy rates were similar (17.14% versus 20% respectively; P = 0.332. Ovulation rates were 80% versus 68.6% (P = 0.413; 94.3% versus 90.9% (P = 0.669; 97.1% versus 93.7% (P = 0.603 in the two groups respectively. However, a significant rise in number of patients with mid-luteal serum progesterone >10 ng/mL was noted in the 3rd cycle between both groups, (P < 0.0001 for group 1 while P = 0.007 for group 2. Conclusion: Triggering ovulation with GnRH-a after treatment with clomiphene citrate in PCOS, in view of its known protective effect against OHSS, may be an effective physiological alternative to conventional hCG without compromising luteal function and pregnancy rates after repeated cycles of treatment.

  13. Efficacy of 2-hour post glucose insulin levels in predicting insulin resistance in polycystic ovarian syndrome with infertility

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    Pikee Saxena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Insulin resistance (IR is central to the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, but tests for determining IR are elaborate, tedious and expensive. Aims : To evaluate if "2-hour post-glucose insulin level" is an effective indicator of IR and can aid in diagnosing IR in infertile PCOS women. Settings and Design : Observational study at infertility clinic of a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods : 50 infertile women with PCOS and 20 females with tubal/male factor infertility were evaluated for the presence of IR, as defined by the fasting/2-hour post-glucose insulin levels cutoffs of >25/>41 μU/mL, respectively. The clinical, metabolic and endocrinologic profile was determined in both the groups. Statistical Analysis : Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (Chicago, IL, USA. Results : Body mass index, post load glucose, insulin, glucose/insulin ratio, area under curve (AUC of glucose and insulin and insulinogenic index were significantly lower in the controls as compared to the PCOS group. "2-hour post-glucose insulin levels" were elevated in 88% of PCOS individuals but were normal in all females not suffering from PCOS. These levels significantly correlated with AUC of glucose and insulin, and insulinogenic index and inversely correlated with 2-hour glucose to insulin ratio (r=0.827, 0.749 and −0.732, respectively. Conclusions : "2-hour post-glucose insulin levels" appears to be a good indicator of IR. It can be a useful tool, especially in low resource setting where a single sample can confirm the diagnosis, thus reducing cost and repeat visits.

  14. Expression Levels of PPARγ and CYP-19 in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Primary Granulosa Cells: Influence of ω-3 Fatty Acid

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    Mina Zaree

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The omega-3 fatty acid (ω-3 fatty acid such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA is currently used in the clinic as a nutritional supplement in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of EPA on the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and cytochrome P450 aromatase (encoded by the CYP-19 in primary cultured granulosa cells (GC from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF, and also to compare these effects with those in GC of PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, human GC were isolated, primary cultured in vitro, exposed to a range of concentrations of the EPA and investigated with respect to gene expression levels of PPARγ and CYP-19 using real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The participants (n=30 were the patients admitted to the IVF Center in February-March 2013 at Alzahra Hospital, Tabriz, Iran, who were divided into two groups as PCOS (n=15 and non-PCOS (n=15 women (controls. Results: All doses of the EPA significantly induced PPARγ mRNA gene expression level as compared to the control recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH alone condition. High doses of EPA in the presence of rFSH produced a stimulatory effect on expression level of PPARγ (2.15-fold, P=0.001 and a suppressive effect (0.56-fold, P=0.01 on the expression level of CYP-19, only in the PCOS GC. Conclusion: EPA and FSH signaling pathway affect differentially on the gene expression levels of PPARγ and CYP-19 in PCOS GC. Altered FSH-induced PPARγ activity in PCOS GC may modulate the CYP-19 gene expression in response to EPA, and possibly modulates the subsequent steroidogenesis of these cells.

  15. Correlation of Serum Lipoprotein Ratios with Insulin Resistance in Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisa Ghaffarzad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR, occurring in most infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to assess the relationships between lipoprotein ratios and IR in PCOS women. Materials and Methods: Thirty six infertile women with PCOS selected based on Androgen Excess Society (AES criteria and 29 healthy women matched for age were recruited to this case-control study. After physical measurements, fasting serum glucose (Glu, insulin and lipid profile levels [triglycerides (TGs, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C] were measured, while lipoprotein ratios (TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C were calculated. IR was also calculated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR. The optimal cutoffs of lipoprotein ratios in relation to HOMA-IR were calculated based on the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curve analysis using the area under curve (AUC. Results: Waist circumference (WC, insulin levels, HOMA-IR, TG levels, and all lipoprotein ratios were significantly higher, while HDL-C was lower in PCOS group as compared to healthy controls. All lipoprotein ratios, TG levels, and WC are significantly correlated with insulin levels and HOMA-IR. Among lipoprotein ratios, the highest AUC of the ROC belonged to TG/HDL-C ratio with sensitivity of 63.6% and specificity of 84.4% (TG/HDL-C>3.19 as a marker of IR in infert ile PCOS women. Conclusion: Lipoprotein ratios, particularly TG/HDL-C, are directly correlated with insulin levels and can be used as a marker of IR (HOMA-IR in infertile PCOS patients.

  16. A prospective randomized trial comparing the efficacy of Letrozole and Clomiphene citrate in induction of ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome

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    Kallol Kumar Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the efficacy of letrozole and clomiphene citrate (CC in patients of anovulatory polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS with infertility. Materials and Methods: This prospective randomized clinical trial included 204 patients of PCOS. 98 patients (294 cycles received 2.5-5 mg of letrozole; 106 patients (318 cycles received 50-100 mg of CC (both orally from Days 3-7 of menstrual cycle. The treatment continued for three cycles in both the groups. Main outcome measures: ovulation rate, endometrial thickness, and pregnancy rate. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 13 software. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean number of dominant follicles in letrozole groups and CC groups was 1.86±0.26 and 1.92±0.17, respectively (P=0.126. Number of ovulatory cycle in letrozole group was 196 (66.6% versus 216 (67.9% in CC group (P=0.712. The mean mid-cycle endometrial thickness was 9.1±0.3 mm in letrozole group and 6.3±1.1 in CC group, which was statistically significant (P=0.014. The mean Estradiol [E2] level in clomiphene citrate group was significantly higher in CC group (364.2±71.4 pg/mL than letrozole group (248.2± 42.2 pg/mL. 43 patients from the letrozole group (43.8% and 28 patients from the CC group (26.4% became pregnant. Conclusion: Letrozole and CC have comparable ovulation rate. The effect of letrozole showed a better endometrial response and pregnancy rate compared with CC.

  17. Testosterone and Bioavailable Testosterone Help to Distinguish between Mild Cushing’s Syndrome and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, M. E.; Lao, M. C.; Patel, S. S.; Lee, M. L.; Ghods, D. E.; Chandler, D. W.; Friedman, T. C.

    2010-01-01

    Women with Cushing’s syndrome (CS) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) may present with similar symptoms. Subjects with mild CS lack clinical stigmata of classical CS and often have normal laboratory tests measuring hypercortisolism. Thus, distinguishing mild CS from PCOS may be difficult. We hypothesized that either total testosterone (TT) or bioavailable testosterone (BT) levels or the calculation of the free androgen index (FAI) would be low in patients with mild CS and elevated in patients with PCOS, and could help differentiate the two conditions. TT, BT, and FAI were measured in a group of 20 patients of reproductive age with mild CS and 20 PCOS patients matched for age and BMI. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves to assess the sensitivity and specificity of these measurements for the diagnosis of CS. TT (pBT (p=0.02), and FAI (p=0.003) were significantly elevated in PCOS patients compared to mild CS patients. Sex hormone-binding globulin was similar in both groups. The optimal cut-point for TT was 1.39 nmol/L, yielding a sensitivity of 95 % and a specificity of 70%. The cut-point for BT was 0.24 nmol/L, resulting in a sensitivity of 75 % and a specificity of 80%. The cut-point for FAI was 5.7, with a sensitivity of 88 % and a specificity of 60 %. We conclude that TT levels may be useful to discriminate between mild CS and PCOS. In patients with signs and symptoms consistent with CS and PCOS, a TT level of <1.39nmol/L warrants a workup for CS. PMID:18819057

  18. Significantly lengthened telomere in granulosa cells from women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Duo; Xie, Juanke; Yin, Baoli; Hao, Haoying; Song, Xiaobing; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Cuilian; Sun, Yingpu

    2017-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy among women at reproductive age. However, its etiology remains poorly understood. Recent studies indicated that telomere length was related to PCOS. However, the association between telomere length and PCOS has only been shown in leucocytes and remained controversial across different studies. To clarify the association between telomere length and PCOS, the current study interrogated telomere length not only in leucocytes, but also in follicular granulosa cells, which is essential for folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Seventy-five patients with PCOS and 81 controls with mechanical infertility undergoing their first in vitro fertilization cycle were enrolled. Their peripheral blood and granulosa cells were collected on the oocyte retrieval day. Telomere length of both leucocytes in the blood and granulosa cells was assayed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. No significant difference was found in the leucocyte telomere length between controls and PCOS patients (0.99 ± 0.44 vs. 1.00 ± 0.38, p = 0.93). Interestingly, when comparing telomere length in granulosa cells between controls and PCOS subjects, significantly lengthened telomere length was found in PCOS subjects (1.00 ± 0.37 vs. 1.57±0.67, p PCOS. Given the importance of telomere length in cellular proliferation, our findings provided novel insights into the pathophysiology of PCOS that abnormalities in telomere length possibly disturb folliculogenesis and subsequently result in PCOS.

  19. Tubal ligation and salpingectomy and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors:a nationwide case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, C; Baandrup, Louise; Dehlendorff, Christian; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: According to the recent theories on the ovarian cancer origin, any protective effect of tubal ligation may vary with histologic subtype of ovarian cancer. Furthermore, bilateral salpingectomy may represent an opportunity for surgical prevention of serous ovarian cancer.DESIGN: Nationwide register-based case-control study.SETTING: Denmark during 1982-2011.POPULATION: Cases were all Danish women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (n = 13 241) or borderline ovarian tumor (n = 36...

  20. Polycystic ovarian morphology and the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome: redefining threshold levels for follicle count and serum anti-Müllerian hormone using cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie Fong, S; Laven, J S E; Duhamel, A; Dewailly, D

    2017-08-01

    Can cluster analysis be used to differentiate between normo-ovulatory women with normal ovaries and normo-ovulatory women with polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) in a non-subjective manner? Cluster analysis can be used to accurately and non-subjectively differentiate between normo-ovulatory women with normal ovaries and normo-ovulatory women with PCOM. Currently, PCOM is diagnosed using a fixed threshold level, i.e. 12 or more follicles per ovary, and is one of the diagnostic criteria of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, PCOM is also encountered in normo-ovulatory women, suggesting that it could just represent a normal variant. On the other hand, recent studies have shown subtle endocrine abnormalities in women with isolated PCOM that resemble those found in women with PCOS. Because of the strong correlation between anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and follicle number, a high serum AMH level has been proposed as a surrogate marker for PCOM and could, therefore, be integrated in the diagnostic classifications for PCOS. This was a retrospective observational cohort study. Original cohorts had been recruited for previous studies between 1998 and 2010. Two hundred ninety-seven regularly cycling women and 700 women with PCOS were eligible for inclusion. Cluster analysis was performed in 297 regularly cycling women. After exclusion of 'PCOM' clusters, each 'non-PCOM' cluster (young, n = 118 and old, n = 100) was included in the construction of a receiver operating characteristics curve to test the diagnostic performance of follicle number per ovary (FNPO) and serum AMH in discriminating similarly aged full-blown PCOS patients (n = 411 and 237, respectively) from normal regularly cycling non-PCOM women. The optimal number of clusters was four; age was the most important classifying variable, followed by the FNPO and serum AMH. Two distinct clusters of normo-ovulatory women with PCOM were isolated and differed solely by age, i.e. 'young' and 'old'. Both 'PCOM

  1. Clinical implication for endometriosis associated with ovarian cancer

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    Pao-Ling Torng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed current literature regarding the association of endometriosis and epithelial ovarian cancer based on epidemiology studies, molecular researches and clinical observations. Our methods include a review of literature research of MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews and reference search in selected papers. The life time risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in women with endometriosis is low, yet there might be a cluster of individuals who have higher risk of developing epithelial ovarian cancer from endometriosis. Endometriosis associated ovarian cancer (EAOC is predominant in particular histological subtypes of epithelial ovarian carcinoma and are related to some specific molecular aberrations. Clinical observations showed age as an important variable to the development of EAOC. Rapid growth of tumor and solid components in sonography are key features to detect malignant transformation of endometriosis. Evidence is not clear about prophylactic oophorectomy in preventing EAOC in patients with endometriosis. This review provided rationale data for identifying, monitoring, counseling and management of women with endometriosis who are potentially high risk for malignant transformation. Keywords: Endometriosis, Epithelial ovarian cancer, Malignant transformation

  2. Ovarian cancer detection by logical analysis of proteomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexe, Gabriela; Alexe, Sorin; Liotta, Lance A; Petricoin, Emanuel; Reiss, Michael; Hammer, Peter L

    2004-03-01

    A new type of efficient and accurate proteomic ovarian cancer diagnosis systems is proposed. The system is developed using the combinatorics and optimization-based methodology of logical analysis of data (LAD) to the Ovarian Dataset 8-7-02 (http://clinicalproteomics.steem.com), which updates the one used by Petricoin et al. in The Lancet 2002, 359, 572-577. This mass spectroscopy-generated dataset contains expression profiles of 15 154 peptides defined by their mass/charge ratios (m/z) in serum of 162 ovarian cancer and 91 control cases. Several fully reproducible models using only 7-9 of the 15 154 peptides were constructed, and shown in multiple cross-validation tests (k-folding and leave-one-out) to provide sensitivities and specificities of up to 100%. A special diagnostic system for stage I ovarian cancer patients is shown to have similarly high accuracy. Other results: (i) expressions of peptides with relatively low m/z values in the dataset are shown to be better at distinguishing ovarian cancer cases from controls than those with higher m/z values; (ii) two large groups of patients with a high degree of similarities among their formal (mathematical) profiles are detected; (iii) several peptides with a blocking or promoting effect on ovarian cancer are identified.

  3. SiRNA and epigenetic aberrations in ovarian cancer

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    Hamed Mirzaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer has the most noteworthy lethal rate around gynecologic malignancies, and it is also considered as the fourth most frequent cancer in the woman in world. Two most critical barriers to treatment of ovarian malignancy are absence of early diagnostic markers and advancement of drug resistance after therapy, especially in advanced stages. Various epigenetic changes have been recognized in ovarian cancer. Recent progresses in our understanding of molecular pathogenesis of ovarian malignancy have dramatically provided potential new targets for molecularly targeted therapies. In very recent years, small interfering RNA (siRNA-mediated gene silencing has been emerging as a novel treatment modality in preclinical studies in the light of its strong gene-specific silencing. Gene suppression mediated by RNA interference (RNAi significantly suppressed gene expression at the messenger RNA (mRNA and protein levels. SiRNAs have therapeutic potential for ovarian cancer through various mechanisms. In this review, we not only provide an overview of siRNA designing for epigenetic silencing of genes aberrantly expressed in ovarian cancer but also we will highlight that the epigenetically silenced genes offer new targets for therapeutic approaches based on re-expression of tumor suppressor genes via demethylating and deacetylating drugs.

  4. DDB2 Suppresses Tumorigenicity by Limiting the Cancer Stem Cell Population in Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chunhua; Zhao, Ran; Liu, Xingluo; Srivastava, Amit; Gong, Li; Mao, Hsiaoyin; Qu, Meihua; Zhao, Weiqiang; Yu, Jianhua; Wang, Qi-En

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is an extremely aggressive disease associated with a high percentage of tumor recurrence and chemotherapy resistance. Understanding the underlying mechanism of tumor relapse is crucial for effective therapy of ovarian cancer. DNA damage-binding protein 2 (DDB2) is a DNA repair factor mainly involved in nucleotide excision repair. Here, a novel role was identified for DDB2 in the tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer cells and the prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer. Overexpressing DDB2 in human ovarian cancer cells suppressed its capability to recapitulate tumors in athymic nude mice. Mechanistic investigation demonstrated that DDB2 is able to reduce the cancer stem cell (CSC) population characterized with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in ovarian cancer cells, probably through disrupting the self-renewal capacity of CSCs. Low DDB2 expression correlates with poor outcomes among patients with ovarian cancer, as revealed from the analysis of publicly available gene expression array datasets. Given the finding that DDB2 protein expression is low in ovarian tumor cells, enhancement of DDB2 expression is a promising strategy to eradicate CSCs and would help to halt ovarian cancer relapse. PMID:24574518

  5. Comparative Gene Expression Analysis of Lymphocytes Treated with Exosomes Derived from Ovarian Cancer and Ovarian Cysts

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    Yujuan Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells employ many strategies to evade immune defense and to facilitate tumor growth and angiogenesis. As a novel mode of intercellular communication, cancer-derived exosomes contribute to the recruitment and mediation of lymphocytes within the tumor environment. However, the mechanisms and key molecules mediating the effect of exosomes on lymphocytes are unclear. We treated healthy peripheral blood lymphocytes with exosomes from ovarian cancer and ovarian cysts and screened for differentially expressed genes using the RT2 Profiler Cancer Inflammation and Immunity Crosstalk PCR Array. A total of 26 upregulated genes (mainly pro-inflammatory genes and immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive factor and two downregulated genes (antigen presentation HLA-A/B were identified. Western blotting using lymphocytes from malignant ascites and peritoneal washings of benign ovarian cysts suggested that the interferon and NF-κB signaling pathway were involved in the immune regulation of malignant exosomes. Out of 28 differentially expressed genes detected using the array, 11 were validated by real-time PCR using lymphocytes within ovarian cancer (n = 27 and ovarian cyst (n = 9 environments. In conclusion, our findings indicate that malignant cells secrete exosomes in the tumor microenvironment to recruit lymphocytes in order to suppress antitumor immunity (IL10, Foxp3, and HLA-A/B and enhance tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and dissemination of proinflammatory cytokines (such as IL6 and VEGFA via the interferon and NF-κB signaling pathways. These results clarify lymphocyte-cancer cell cross talk via exosomes and may facilitate the development of effective immunotherapeutic strategies for ovarian cancer.

  6. Epithelial ovarian cancer and the occurrence of skin cancer in the Netherlands: histological type connotations

    OpenAIRE

    André L. M. Verbeek; Johan Bulten; van Niekerk, Catharina C.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Patients with epithelial ovarian cancer have a high risk of (non-)melanoma skin cancer. The association between histological variants of primary ovarian cancer and skin cancer is poorly documented. Objectives. To further evaluate the risk of skin cancer based on the histology of the epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods. A cross-sectional study within a large population-based dataset. Results. Skin cancer was found in 2.7% (95% CI: 2.3–3.1) of the 5366 individuals forming our dataset...

  7. Ovarian cancer: density equalizing mapping of the global research architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggmann, Dörthe; Pulch, Katharina; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Groneberg, David A

    2017-01-13

    Despite its impact on female health worldwide, no efforts have been made to depict the global architecture of ovarian cancer research and to understand the trends in the related literature. Hence, it was the objective of this study to assess the global scientific performance chronologically, geographically and in regards to economic benchmarks using bibliometric tools and density equalizing map projections. The NewQIS platform was employed to identify all ovarian cancer related articles published in the Web of Science since 1900. The items were analyzed regarding quantitative aspects (e.g. publication date, country of origin) and parameters describing the recognition of the work by the scientific community (e.g. citation rates). 23,378 articles on ovarian cancer were analyzed. The USA had the highest activity of ovarian cancer research with a total of n = 9312 ovarian cancer-specific publications, followed by the UK (n = 1900), China (n = 1813), Germany (n = 1717) and Japan (n = 1673). Ovarian cancer-specific country h-index also showed a leading position of the USA with an h-index (HI) of 207, followed by the UK (HI = 122), Canada (HI = 99), Italy (HI = 97), Germany (HI = 84), and Japan (HI = 81). In the socio-economic analysis, the USA were ranked first with an average of 175.6 ovarian cancer-related publications per GDP per capita in 1000 US-$, followed by Italy with an index level of 46.85, the UK with 45.48, and Japan with 43.3. Overall, the USA and Western European nations, China and Japan constituted the scientific power players publishing the majority of highly cited ovarian cancer-related articles and dominated international collaborative efforts. African, Asian and South American countries played almost no visible role in the scientific community. The quantity and scientific recognition of publications related to ovarian cancer are continuously increasing. The research endeavors in the field are concentrated in high-income countries

  8. Oncogenes associated with drug resistance in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Gao, Yutao; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Jian; Li, Li; Yin, Fuqiang

    2015-03-01

    Oncogenes play pivotal roles in the development of cancer, and disturbances in their expression have been implicated in drug resistance. However, an overview of the contribution of oncogenes to drug resistance in ovarian cancer has not previously been reported. This study aimed to review the drug resistance-related oncogenes in ovarian cancer and precisely determine their relationships. The oncogenes associated with drug resistance in ovarian cancer from available papers were summarized, and a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis including pathway enrichment, biological processes annotation, protein/gene interaction and microRNA-mRNA interaction was performed. Total of 25 oncogenes contributing to drug resistance in ovarian cancer was integrated and further analyzed. An oncogene-mediated drug resistance pathway that explains the associations of 21 of these oncogenes in drug resistance was drafted on the basis of previously published papers. The downstream location of v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene (AKT) and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2-associated X protein (BAX) with respect to many other oncogenes was determined, indicating that the two genes may play a central role, and the AKT- and BAX-mediated signaling are the main pathways accounting for the involvement of oncogenes in drug resistance in ovarian cancer. Besides, the annotation of biological process indicated that the apoptosis (cell death) and phosphorylation (phosphate metabolic process) might be the two major biological routes through which oncogenes contribute to drug resistance in ovarian cancer. In addition, on the basis of the comprehensive analysis of microRNA-mRNA interactions, 11 microRNAs were identified to be targeted at least 7 of the 25 oncogenes, indicating that those microRNAs could be an important regulator of the 25 oncogenes. Collectively, by integrating and further analyzing the available data on these oncogenes, this study contributes to improving our understanding of the mechanisms by

  9. Role of PELP1 in EGFR-ER Signaling Crosstalk in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    compared to normal endometrium. High AIB1 expression in endometrial carcinoma was associated with parameters of poor prognosis (53)., There was a...was reported in the endometrium of women with polycystic ovarian syndrome ( PCOS ) compared to normal endometrium (61). Another study reported that...tumorigenic potential of PELP1/MNAR. Future studies using a large panel of ovarian tumors are needed to evaluate the prognosis and/or diagnosis value of

  10. Effect of auriculotherapy on menstrual irregularities in single girls with polycystic ovarian syndrome and aged 18-35 years in Isfahan in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiani, Mahboubeh; Khaki, Imaneh; Shahshahan, Zahra; Sirus, Mehri

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome is one of the most common endocrine disorders with a prevalence of 5-10% in women. This syndrome is one of the major causes for menstrual disorders and is treated by medicational and non-medicational methods. This study aimed to define the effect of auriculotherapy on menstruation disorders in girls with polycystic ovarian syndrome. This is a clinical trial conducted on 60 single girls aged 18-35 years with clinical, laboratory, and sonography signs. The subjects were randomly assigned to two groups of auriculotherapy and medication, which underwent treatment for 2 and 3 months, respectively. Clinical signs were investigated in three steps in both groups. Data were collected through observation, laboratory tests, and sonography, and were analyzed by SPSS version 15. In 60 subjects, Chi-square test showed a significant difference in menstruation disorders in both groups 1 month after the start of intervention (P = 0.001); but 2 months after the start of intervention (P = 0.11) and immediately after the end of the intervention (P = 0.16), the difference was not significant. Three months after the end of the intervention, this variable showed a significant difference (P = 0.02). Medicational treatment and auriculotherapy are both effective on menstruation disorders, but auriculotherapy is more effective on reduction of menstruation disorders, compared to medicational therapy.

  11. Down-regulation of progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1 in peripheral nucleated blood cells associated with premature ovarian failure (POF and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlström Per-Olof

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1 is a member of a progesterone-binding complex implicated in female reproduction. We aimed i to determine the natural expression of PGRMC1 in peripheral nucleated blood cells throughout the menstrual cycle and ii to investigate any association between PGRMC1 levels in leukocytes and conditions characterized by reduced fertility. Methods We analyzed PGRMC1 expression in peripheral leukocytes from 15 healthy cycling women over four weeks. Additionally, we determined PGRMC1 levels in samples from patients with premature ovarian failure (POF and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS as well as in healthy postmenopausal women and male controls. The levels of PGRMC1 protein in nucleated peripheral blood cells were quantified by Western blot analysis. Results PGRMC1 levels did not vary significantly throughout the menstrual cycle. We observed a significant down-regulation of PGRMC1 in postmenopausal women and in patients with premature ovarian failure (POF and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS when compared to early follicular phase of healthy women. Conclusion This study suggests that reduced levels of PGRMC1 in peripheral leukocytes are associated with perturbed ovulatory function.

  12. Regulatory considerations on endpoints in ovarian cancer drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Sanjeeve; Kim, Geoffrey S; McKee, Amy E; Pazdur, Richard

    2017-07-15

    Ovarian cancer remains a disease entity that is responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality among women worldwide. Modern drug research pipelines and accelerated drug development timelines applied to other disease entities have begun to make an impact on treatment options for patients with advanced ovarian cancer, as exemplified by the recent accelerated approval of 2 agents for this disease as the forerunners of a growing number of registrational trials. Regulatory flexibility for this serious and life-threatening condition spurs the consideration of intermediate endpoints for regulatory trial design, including potential applications in the development of newer therapeutic classes such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies for patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Cancer 2017;123:2604-8. © 2017 American Cancer Society. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Role of epigenomics in ovarian and endometrial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Curtis; Matei, Daniela E; Huang, Tim H-M; Nephew, Kenneth P

    2010-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy and while constituting only 3% of all female cancers, it causes 14,600 deaths in the USA annually. Endometrial cancer, the most diagnosed and second-most fatal gynecologic cancer, afflicts over 40,000 US women annually, causing an estimated 7780 deaths in 2009. In both advanced ovarian and endometrial carcinomas, the majority of initially therapy-responsive tumors eventually evolve to a fully drug-resistant phenotype. In addition to genetic mutations, epigenetic anomalies are frequent in both gynecologic malignancies, including aberrant DNA methylation, atypical histone modifications and dysregulated expression of distinct microRNAs, resulting in altered gene-expression patterns favoring cell survival. In this article, we summarize the most recent hypotheses regarding the role of epigenetics in ovarian and endometrial cancers, including a possible role in tumor 'stemness' and also evaluate the possible therapeutic benefits of reversal of these oncogenic chromatin aberrations.

  14. Serous ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rie D; Schnack, Tine H; Karlsen, Mona A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to analyze data on risk factors, epidemiology, clinicopathology and molecular biology from studies comparing primary peritoneal cancer, fallopian tube cancer and ovarian cancer of serous histology, in order to achieve a greater understanding...... of whether or not these disorders should be considered as separate entities. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and MEDLINE. Case-control studies comparing primary serous peritoneal or fallopian tube carcinomas with primary serous ovarian carcinomas or a control group were...... included. RESULTS: Twenty-eight studies were found eligible. Primary peritoneal cancer patients were older, had higher parity, were more often obese and had poorer survival compared to ovarian cancer patients. Differences in protein expression patterns of Her2/neu, estrogen and progestin receptors...

  15. [Effect of Transcutaneuos Acupoint Electrostimulation on Serum Sex Hormone Levels and Expression of Ovarian Steroid Hormone Metabolic Enzymes in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-yong; Zhang, Xiao-yue; Yu, Mei-ling; Lu, Sheng-feng; Chen, Xia

    2016-02-01

    To observe the effect of transcutaneuos acupoint electrostimulation(TAES) on ovarian serum sex hormone levels and ovarian follicle granular cell aromatase cytochrome P 450 (P 450 arom) protein and follicle theca cell cytochrome P 450 17 α-hydroxylase/c 17-20 lyase cytochrome P 450 (P 450 c 17 α) protein expression in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)rats, so as to explore its mechanisms underlying improvement of PCOS. METHODS Forty SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, model, medication and TAES (10 rats/group). The PCOS model was established by giving (gavage) the animals with letrozole solution (1.0 mg/kg, once daily for 21 consecutive days). Rats of the medication group were treated with Clomiphene (1 mg/kg) once daily for 7 days, and those of the TAES group were treated with electrical stimulation (2 Hz, 3 mA) of "Guanyuan" (CV 4) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) areas for 30 min, once daily for 7 consecutive days. The rats body weight and bilateral ovarian weight were detected, and the ovarian structure and follicular development degree were observed under light microscope after H. E. stain, and the serum testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), luteotrophic hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) contents were detected using radioimmunoassay. The expression of ovarian P 450 arom (for production of estrogen)protein and P 450 c 17 α (for production of androgen) protein was detected by using immunohistochemical stain and Western blot, respectively. The body weight, bilateral ovary weight, serum T and LH contents, and ratio of LH/FSH, and ovarian P 450 c 17 α immunoactivity and protein expression levels in the model group were all significantly increased compared with the normal control group (P ovary weight, serum T and LH contents, ratio of LH/FSH, and ovarian P 450 c 17 α immunoactivity and protein expression levels, and the decreased ovarian P 450 arom immunoactivity and protein expression levels were reversed in the TAES group (P 0

  16. Comparison of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and Calcium Levels between Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Normal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Moini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the relationship of vitamin D deficiency with insulin resistance syndrome as the component of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, the main aim of this study was to compare serum level of 25- hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] between PCOS patients and normal individuals. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to compare 25(OHD level between117 normal and 125 untreated PCOS cases at our clinic in Arash Hospital, Tehran, Iran, during 2011-2012. The obtained levels of 25(OHD were classified as follows: lower than 25 nmol/ml as severe deficiency, between 25-49.9 nmol/ml as deficiency, 50-74.9 nmol/ml as insufficiency, and above 75 nmol/ml asnormal. In addition, endocrine and metabolic variables were evaluated. Results: Among PCOS patients, our findings shows 3(2.4% normal, 7(5.6% with insufficiency, 33(26.4% with deficiency and 82(65.6% with severe deficiency, whereas in normal participants, 5(4.3% normal, 4(3.4% with insufficiency, 28(23.9% with deficiency and 80(68.4% with severe deficiency. Comparison of 25(OHD level between two main groups showed no significant differences (p= 0.65. Also, the calcium and 25(OHD levels had no significant differences in patients with overweight (p=0.22 and insulin resistance (p=0.64. But we also found a relationship between 25(OHD level and metabolic syndrome (p=0.01. Furthermore, there was a correlation between 25(OHD and body mass index (BMI in control group (p=0.01, while the C-reactive protein (CRP level was predominantly higher in PCOS group (p<0.001. Conclusion: Although the difference of 25(OHD level between PCOS and healthy women is not significant, the high prevalence of 25(OHD deficiency is a real alarm for public health care system and may influence our results.

  17. Common alleles in candidate susceptibility genes associated with risk and development of epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Notaridou, Maria; Quaye, Lydia; Dafou, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Common germline genetic variation in the population is associated with susceptibility to epithelial ovarian cancer. Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer and expression microarray analysis identified nine genes associated with functional suppression of tumorogenicity in ovarian cancer cell lines...

  18. Comparison of candidate serologic markers for type I and type II ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Dan; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Bristow, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    To examine the value of individual and combinations of ovarian cancer associated blood biomarkers for the discrimination between plasma of patients with type I or II ovarian cancer and disease-free volunteers....

  19. A novel biomarker ARMc8 promotes the malignant progression of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guiyang; Yang, Dalei; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Xiupeng; Xu, Hongtao; Miao, Yuan; Wang, Enhua; Zhang, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy worldwide, and the survival rates have remained low in spite of medical advancements. More research is dedicated to the identification of novel biomarkers for this deadly disease. The association between ARMc8 and ovarian cancer remained unraveled. In this study, immunohistochemical staining was used to examine ARMc8 expression in 247 cases of ovarian cancer, 19 cases of borderline ovarian tumors, 41 cases of benign ovarian tumors, and 9 cases of normal ovarian tissues. It was shown that ARMc8 was predominantly located in the cytoplasm of tumor cells, and its expression was up-regulated in the ovarian cancer (61.9%) and the borderline ovarian tumor tissues (57.9%), in comparison with the benign ovarian tumors (12.2%; P ovarian cancer, ARMc8 expression was closely related to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages (P = .002), histology grade (P ovarian cancer (P = .039 and P = .005). In addition, ARMc8 could promote the invasion and migration of ovarian cancer cells. Overexpressing ARMc8 enhanced the invasion and metastasis capacity of ARMc8-low Cavo-3 cells (P ovarian cancer cells and likely to become a potential therapeutic target for ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Diseases mimicking advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Păun, I; Mogoş, D; Păun, M; Teodorescu, M; Florescu, M; Tenovici, M; Mogoş, G

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws attention towards 3 cases with different pathologies all of which suggesting however both clinically and by imaging means as the most likely diagnosis advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer since all these three postmenopausal women had been admitted to the hospital with ascites, pelvic masses and deterioration of the physical wellbeing (fatigue, decreased appetite, weight loss, pallor). Findings during exploratory laparotomy on all these three pacients included ascites (hemorragic in one case) diffuse tumorous implants throughout the abdominal and pelvic peritoneal surfaces (in two cases) and the ovarian tumour. Postoperatively, the final histopathologic diagnoses consisted of primary peritoneal carcinoma (one pacient), peritoneal tuberculosis (TB, one pacient) and hepatic cirrosis with an incidental benign adnexial mass (one pacient). Moreover, nonmalignant ovarian tumours were certified in all three cases under current presentation. The differential diagnosis of the ovarian cancer and a tailored approach to treatment for each of these three pathologic entities will also be described in detail.

  1. Primary hepatic embryonal sarcoma masquerading as metastatic ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praseedom Raaj

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatic embryonal sarcoma (HES is a rare but aggressive primary tumor of the liver occurring most frequently in childhood. Case presentation We report a case of a 52 year old woman having previously undergone treatment for ovarian serous papillary carcinoma who subsequently presented with a large solitary mass in the liver. Initially this was presumed to be metastasis from the ovarian primary however, on further examination it was shown to be a primary hepatic embryonal sarcoma. Conclusion Primary liver tumors should be considered in differential diagnoses in patients with ovarian cancer who subsequently present with liver tumors. This is particularly important when there is no direct evidence of recurrence of ovarian cancer.

  2. Information needs and decisional preferences among women with ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, D E; Wong, F; Cheung, A M; Dancey, J; Meana, M; Cameron, J I; McAndrews, M P; Bunston, T; Murphy, J; Rosen, B

    2000-06-01

    Studies show that women with cancer want more information about and participation in all aspects of their healthcare including decision-making. However, most studies have been done on women with breast cancer, which often runs a lengthy course and has strong patient-advocacy groups. Little is known about the preferences of women with ovarian cancer, the fifth leading cause of cancer death in women, which often has a more rapidly fatal course. This study of women with ovarian cancer investigates what information is most vital for women with ovarian cancer, their preferred role in decision-making, and the influence of sociodemographic, disease-related, and psychological factors. Questionnaires were completed by 105 women with ovarian cancer in two Canadian university hospital oncology clinics. Their mean age was 55.8 +/- 14. 9 years. Most were married, well-educated, and considered their health status to be excellent or good, even though over 60% had metastatic disease. Over 80% of these women wanted detailed information about ovarian cancer during the diagnosis, treatment, and posttreatment stages of their disease. In particular, they wanted information pertaining to the disease, treatment, and self-care issues. Approximately 60% of women preferred to share decision-making with their doctors at every stage of the illness. Psychological variables and disease severity were found to influence information needs and decisional preferences. In general, the more psychologically distressed the women, the more information they wanted about coping strategies and the more serious the illness, the more shared decision-making was desired. These results present a challenge to health care providers in more adequately meeting the individual information needs of women with ovarian cancer and involving them to the extent that they wish in the decision-making process. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  3. Super p53 for Treatment of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    ABSTRACT In this final report, we show gene therapy using re-engineered super p53 (p53-CC constructs) kills some ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro ...a lead construct. Technical skills gained in the proposal include cell culture , transfections, microscopy, apoptosis assays, transcriptional assays...able to create ovarian tumors in mice. Our polymer-adenovirus constructs were optimized in vitro and in vivo, and did not show gross signs of toxicity

  4. The safety of transplanting cryopreserved ovarian tissue in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mikkel; Greve, Tine; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2013-01-01

    Transplantation of frozen/thawed ovarian tissue from patients with a malignant condition is associated with a risk of re-introduction of the disease as the tissue usually is removed before anti-cancer therapy and may thus contain malignant cells. We review studies investigating the presence of ma...... of malignant cells in cryopreserved ovarian tissue from patients with malignant disease and based on the strength of the evidence, recommendations for transplantations are proposed....

  5. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue. A meta-analysis of observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, Malene F; Faber, Mette Tuxen; Christensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is controversial, and conflicting results have been published. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue.......The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is controversial, and conflicting results have been published. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue....

  6. ROR1 expression correlated with poor clinical outcome in human ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Huilin Zhang; Jinrong Qiu; Chunping Ye; Dazhen Yang; Lingjuan Gao; Yiping Su; Xiaojun Tang; Ning Xu; Dawei Zhang; Lin Xiong; Yuan Mao; Fengshan Li; Jin Zhu

    2014-01-01

    The receptor-tyrosine-kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is a transmembrane protein belongs to receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family. This study aimed to examine the expression of ROR1 in human ovarian cancer and investigate the relationship between its expression and the prognosis of ovarian cancer patients. In this present study, one-step quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (15 ovarian cancer samples of high FIGO stage, 15 ovarian cancer samples of low FIGO stage ...

  7. Targeting Stromal-Cancer Cell Crosstalk Networks in Ovarian Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsz-Lun Yeung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is a histologically, clinically, and molecularly diverse disease with a five-year survival rate of less than 30%. It has been estimated that approximately 21,980 new cases of epithelial ovarian cancer will be diagnosed and 14,270 deaths will occur in the United States in 2015, making it the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Ovarian tumor tissue is composed of cancer cells and a collection of different stromal cells. There is increasing evidence that demonstrates that stromal involvement is important in ovarian cancer pathogenesis. Therefore, stroma-specific signaling pathways, stroma-derived factors, and genetic changes in the tumor stroma present unique opportunities for improving the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs are one of the major components of the tumor stroma that have demonstrated supportive roles in tumor progression. In this review, we highlight various types of signaling crosstalk between ovarian cancer cells and stromal cells, particularly with CAFs. In addition to evaluating the importance of signaling crosstalk in ovarian cancer progression, we discuss approaches that can be used to target tumor-promoting signaling crosstalk and how these approaches can be translated into potential ovarian cancer treatment.

  8. Targeting Stromal-Cancer Cell Crosstalk Networks in Ovarian Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Tsz-Lun; Leung, Cecilia S; Li, Fuhai; Wong, Stephen S T; Mok, Samuel C

    2016-01-06

    Ovarian cancer is a histologically, clinically, and molecularly diverse disease with a five-year survival rate of less than 30%. It has been estimated that approximately 21,980 new cases of epithelial ovarian cancer will be diagnosed and 14,270 deaths will occur in the United States in 2015, making it the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Ovarian tumor tissue is composed of cancer cells and a collection of different stromal cells. There is increasing evidence that demonstrates that stromal involvement is important in ovarian cancer pathogenesis. Therefore, stroma-specific signaling pathways, stroma-derived factors, and genetic changes in the tumor stroma present unique opportunities for improving the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are one of the major components of the tumor stroma that have demonstrated supportive roles in tumor progression. In this review, we highlight various types of signaling crosstalk between ovarian cancer cells and stromal cells, particularly with CAFs. In addition to evaluating the importance of signaling crosstalk in ovarian cancer progression, we discuss approaches that can be used to target tumor-promoting signaling crosstalk and how these approaches can be translated into potential ovarian cancer treatment.

  9. Prognosis of women with stage I endometrioid endometrial cancer and synchronous stage I endometrioid ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Koji; Machida, Hiroko; Frimer, Marina; Marcus, Jenna Z; Pejovic, Tanja; Roman, Lynda D; Wright, Jason D

    2017-12-01

    Synchronous endometrial and ovarian cancer with endometrioid histology at two cancer sites typically presents with early-stage disease and is thought to have a good prognosis. We examined the survival of women with early-stage endometrioid endometrial cancer who had synchronous early-stage endometrioid ovarian cancer. This is a retrospective case-control study examining the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result Program between 1973 and 2013. Survival of women with stage I endometrioid endometrial cancer with stage I endometrioid ovarian cancer (n=839) were compared to women with stage I endometrioid endometrial cancer without synchronous ovarian cancer (n=123,692) after propensity score matching. Women with synchronous stage I endometrioid ovarian cancer were more likely to be diagnosed recently, be younger, have stage IA disease, grade 1 tumors, to have undergone lymphadenectomy, and were less likely to receive radiotherapy compared to those without synchronous ovarian cancer (all, Pendometrial cancer-specific survival (10-year rates 96.0% versus 95.3%, P=0.97) or overall survival (85.6% versus 87.2%, P=0.10). Among tumors with concordant grades at the two cancer sites, survival was similar regardless of presence of synchronous ovarian tumors (grade 1 tumors, 10-year rate for overall survival, 88.2% versus 89.1%, P=0.40; and grade 2 tumors, 84.0% versus 85.8%, P=0.78). Women with stage I endometrioid endometrial cancer with synchronous stage I endometrioid ovarian cancer have a survival outcome similar to those with stage I endometrioid endometrial cancer without synchronous ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Profile of olaparib in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase DM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dana M Chase,1,2 Shreya Patel,2,3 Kristin Shields4 1Division of Gynecologic Oncology, The University of Arizona Cancer Center, 2Division of Gynecologic Oncology, 3Creighton University School of Medicine, St Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, 4Department of Trauma, Critical Care, and Acute Care Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: Olaparib is a poly(ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitor that received accelerated approval from the US Food and Drug Administration as monotherapy for patients with germline BRCA mutations and ovarian cancer treated with three or more prior lines of chemotherapy. This article summarizes the mechanism of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase inhibition, therapeutic profile and uses of olaparib, and current and ongoing literature pertaining to olaparib in advanced ovarian cancer. Keywords: olaparib, PARP, ovarian cancer

  11. Cellular and molecular processes in ovarian cancer metastasis. A Review in the Theme: Cell and Molecular Processes in Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Tsz-Lun; Leung, Cecilia S.; Yip, Kay-Pong; Au Yeung, Chi Lam; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. It is usually diagnosed at a late stage, with a 5-yr survival rate of ovarian cancer cases are diagnosed after tumors have widely spread within the peritoneal cavity, limiting the effectiveness of debulking surgery and chemotherapy. Owing to a substantially lower survival rate at late stages of disease than at earlier stages, the major cause of ovarian cancer deaths is believed to be therapy-resistant metastasis. Although metastasis plays a crucial role in promoting ovarian tumor progression and decreasing patient survival rates, the underlying mechanisms of ovarian cancer spread have yet to be thoroughly explored. For many years, researchers have believed that ovarian cancer metastasizes via a passive mechanism by which ovarian cancer cells are shed from the primary tumor and carried by the physiological movement of peritoneal fluid to the peritoneum and omentum. However, the recent discovery of hematogenous metastasis of ovarian cancer to the omentum via circulating tumor cells instigated rethinking of the mode of ovarian cancer metastasis and the importance of the “seed-and-soil” hypothesis for ovarian cancer metastasis. In this review we discuss the possible mechanisms by which ovarian cancer cells metastasize from the primary tumor to the omentum, the cross-talk signaling events between ovarian cancer cells and various stromal cells that play crucial roles in ovarian cancer metastasis, and the possible clinical implications of these findings in the management of this deadly, highly metastatic disease. PMID:26224579

  12. Managing hereditary breast cancer risk in women with and without ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Mary Linton; Garber, Judy E; Tung, Nadine

    2017-07-01

    Current guidelines recommend that all women with ovarian cancer undergo germline genetic testing for BRCA1/2. Increasingly, genetic testing is being performed via panels that include other genes that confer a high or moderate risk of breast cancer. In addition, many women with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer are not found to have a mutation, but may have increased risk of breast cancer for which surveillance and risk reduction strategies are indicated. This review discusses how to assess and manage an increased risk of breast cancer through surveillance, preventive medications, and risk-reducing surgery. Assessing and managing the increased risk of breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers after a diagnosis of ovarian cancer can be challenging. For the first few years after an ovarian cancer diagnosis, BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have a relatively low risk of breast cancer, and their prognosis is largely determined by the ovarian cancer. However, if these women remain in remission after two years, the risk of breast cancer becomes comparable with, and in some cases exceeds, their risk of ovarian cancer recurrence. For these women, breast cancer surveillance and risk reduction becomes important to their overall health. Specifically, for BRCA1/2 carriers who are diagnosed with early-stage ovarian cancer, we recommend regular breast cancer surveillance and consideration of risk reduction with medication and/or prophylactic mastectomy. For women with advanced ovarian cancer who do not achieve remission, breast cancer surveillance or prophylaxis is not of value. However, among carriers with more favorable advanced disease, it is reasonable to initiate breast cancer surveillance. Patients with less favorable advanced stage disease who achieve sustained remission (>2-5years) should also consider more aggressive strategies for breast cancer screening and prevention. For mutation carriers who remain in remission after five years, prophylactic mastectomy can be

  13. 75 FR 54451 - National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ...--including women's health services and counseling related to certain genetic screenings that identify... against ovarian cancer, this disease continues to claim more lives than any other gynecologic cancer... ultimately defeating this disease. Each year, thousands of women are diagnosed with, and go on to battle...

  14. Multiple metastases from ovarian cancer | Singh | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cancer will already have spread beyond the ovaries in approximately 75% of cases. We report a case of epithelial ovarian cancer presenting with liver and thoracic vertebral metastases 4 months after completion of treatment, as part of distant spread. The patient was then treated with gemcitabine-based chemotherapy.

  15. Risk factors and risk reduction of breast and ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.T. Brekelmans (Cecile)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPurpose of review: Breast and ovarian cancer remain a significant burden for women living in the Western world. This paper reviews the risk factors and current strategies to prevent these diseases. Recent findings: Established factors associated with the risk of breast cancer include

  16. Critical appraisal of patterns of care in ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Mirjam Johanna Antonia

    2007-01-01

    Ovarian cancer has the worst prognosis of all gynecologic cancers. Overall 5-years survival approximates 40%, mainly due to the large proportion of patients presenting with advanced disease. In the Netherlands with a population of 16 million people, there are 1,100 new patients each year, implying

  17. Assessing the genetic architecture of epithelial ovarian cancer histological subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Lu, Yi; Dixon, Suzanne C

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the deadliest common cancers. The five most common types of disease are high-grade and low-grade serous, endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell carcinoma. Each of these subtypes present distinct molecular pathogeneses and sensitivities to treatments. Recen...

  18. An overview about mitochondrial DNA mutations in ovarian cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iyer Mahalaxmi

    2017-07-29

    Jul 29, 2017 ... played by mitochondria both in genetic and biological aspects. Fur- thermore, it reviews the reported mtDNA alterations in ovarian cancer and discusses possible mechanism by which mtDNA muta- tions emerge in cancer cells and its role in transmission of the dis- ease through maternal lineages. 2.

  19. Expression Profiling of Ovarian Cancer: markers and targets for therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Helleman (Jozien)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOvarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological cancer in the Western world. The initial response of the primary tumor to taxane and platinum-based chemotherapy is high, however 20% of patients never achieve a clinical response and the majority of the patients will

  20. Study examines outcomes from surgery to prevent ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study looked at women at high risk of ovarian cancer who had no clinical signs of the disease and who underwent risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). The study results showed cancer in the removed tissues of 2.6 percent (25 of 966) of the par

  1. Methylation profiles of hereditary and sporadic ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, Guus M.; Suijkerbuijk, Karijn P. M.; Bart, Joost; Vooijs, Marc; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J.

    Aims: Tumour suppressor gene silencing through promoter hypermethylation plays an important role in oncogenesis. Carcinogenesis of hereditary cancers usually differs from that of their sporadic counterparts, but methylation has hardly been studied in hereditary ovarian cancer. The aim of this study

  2. Quality of life among women after surgery for ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman-Green, Dena; Ercolano, Elizabeth; Dowd, Michael; Schwartz, Peter; McCorkle, Ruth

    2008-09-01

    Difficulties with diagnosis and aggressive, long-term treatment may result in lower quality of life (QOL), including high levels of anxiety, depression, and uncertainty, greater symptom distress, and lower overall QOL among women with ovarian cancer. The purpose of this study was to describe demographic, clinical, and other risk factors associated with compromised QOL among women who have undergone surgery for ovarian malignancies. Subjects were recruited to participate in a clinical trial that tested a specialized nursing intervention addressing psychological and physical care among women post-surgical for ovarian cancer. QOL was measured using five standardized self-report measures: the State-Trait Anxiety Scale (SAS), the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale (MUIS), the Symptom Distress Scale (SDS), and the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Baseline data were collected while women were hospitalized following surgery. The sample (n=145) included women with ovarian cancer (58%) and other cancers metastasized to the ovaries and abdomen (42%). Mean scores on the measures were consistent with or higher than previously reported means for similar populations. Women reporting the lowest QOL were more likely to be younger, more educated, and have early stage disease. Women who have undergone surgery for ovarian malignancies have psychological needs that are often considered secondary to physical needs. Interventions should include routine screening for distress and referral to appropriate psychological and social services, thereby facilitating quality cancer care.

  3. MTHFR polymorphisms in relation to ovarian cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Kathryn L; Tworoger, Shelley S; Goode, Ellen L; Gates, Margaret A; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Kelemen, Linda E; Sellers, Thomas A; Hankinson, Susan E; Cramer, Daniel W

    2010-11-01

    Folate has been hypothesized to influence carcinogenesis due to its dual role in DNA methylation, which regulates gene expression, and synthesis of purine and thymidylate, which is vital for DNA repair. Thus, we examined ovarian cancer risk in relation to two functional polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) in the MTHFR gene. We genotyped the C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) MTHFR polymorphisms in 1642 cases and 2068 controls from three studies, the New England Case Control Study (NEC), Nurses' Health Study (NHS), and Mayo Clinic Ovarian Cancer Case Control Study (MAY). Overall, we observed no association between either SNP and ovarian cancer risk (pooled C677T p(trend)=0.59 and A1298C p(trend)=0.58). Significant associations (C677T p(trend)=0.001, A1298C p(trend)=0.02) between these MTHFR SNPs and serous ovarian cancer risk were observed in the NEC study, but were not replicated in the NHS and MAY studies. MTHFR SNPs C677T and A1298C are not associated with ovarian cancer risk. Our results highlight the need for validation of genetic findings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hereditary Ovarian Cancer: Not Only BRCA 1 and 2 Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Toss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than one-fifth of ovarian tumors have hereditary susceptibility and, in about 65–85% of these cases, the genetic abnormality is a germline mutation in BRCA genes. Nevertheless, several other suppressor genes and oncogenes have been associated with hereditary ovarian cancers, including the mismatch repair (MMR genes in Lynch syndrome, the tumor suppressor gene, TP53, in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and several other genes involved in the double-strand breaks repair system, such as CHEK2, RAD51, BRIP1, and PALB2. The study of genetic discriminators and deregulated pathways involved in hereditary ovarian syndromes is relevant for the future development of molecular diagnostic strategies and targeted therapeutic approaches. The recent development and implementation of next-generation sequencing technologies have provided the opportunity to simultaneously analyze multiple cancer susceptibility genes, reduce the delay and costs, and optimize the molecular diagnosis of hereditary tumors. Particularly, the identification of mutations in ovarian cancer susceptibility genes in healthy women may result in a more personalized cancer risk management with tailored clinical and radiological surveillance, chemopreventive approaches, and/or prophylactic surgeries. On the other hand, for ovarian cancer patients, the identification of mutations may provide potential targets for biologic agents and guide treatment decision-making.

  5. Hereditary ovarian cancer: not only BRCA 1 and 2 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toss, Angela; Tomasello, Chiara; Razzaboni, Elisabetta; Contu, Giannina; Grandi, Giovanni; Cagnacci, Angelo; Schilder, Russell J; Cortesi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    More than one-fifth of ovarian tumors have hereditary susceptibility and, in about 65-85% of these cases, the genetic abnormality is a germline mutation in BRCA genes. Nevertheless, several other suppressor genes and oncogenes have been associated with hereditary ovarian cancers, including the mismatch repair (MMR) genes in Lynch syndrome, the tumor suppressor gene, TP53, in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and several other genes involved in the double-strand breaks repair system, such as CHEK2, RAD51, BRIP1, and PALB2. The study of genetic discriminators and deregulated pathways involved in hereditary ovarian syndromes is relevant for the future development of molecular diagnostic strategies and targeted therapeutic approaches. The recent development and implementation of next-generation sequencing technologies have provided the opportunity to simultaneously analyze multiple cancer susceptibility genes, reduce the delay and costs, and optimize the molecular diagnosis of hereditary tumors. Particularly, the identification of mutations in ovarian cancer susceptibility genes in healthy women may result in a more personalized cancer risk management with tailored clinical and radiological surveillance, chemopreventive approaches, and/or prophylactic surgeries. On the other hand, for ovarian cancer patients, the identification of mutations may provide potential targets for biologic agents and guide treatment decision-making.

  6. Monoclonal antibodies therapies for ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Bellati, Filippo; Ruscito, Ilary; Gasparri, Maria Luisa; Alessandri, Franco; Venturini, Pier Luigi; Ferrero, Simone

    2013-05-01

    Despite aggressive debulking surgery, intraperitoneal therapies and the use of new drugs for chemotherapy, patients with ovarian cancer (OC) still have poor prognosis and, therefore, new strategies for its management are needed. Molecular-targeted agents can be considered a new option in drug research. Several antigens related to OC have been isolated and they could be potential target of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs); therefore, different mAbs have been developed and are emerging as new potential OC treatments. This article aims to review the literature on the use of mAbs in the treatment of OC. The purposes of this manuscript are to offer a brief explanation of the mechanisms of action of mAbs and to help readers in understanding the current role of mAbs in the treatment of OC. A deeper knowledge of the molecular biology of OC has brought new developments in targeted therapies. Among these therapies, bevacizumab demonstrated the higher clinical efficacy. Further larger trials are needed to better define the role of the other mAbs in OC treatment. There is a strong need to identify and validate robust biomarkers for a more focused patient selection and for tailoring therapies, optimizing dose and assessing response.

  7. Postmenopausal palpable ovary and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojnić, M; Branković, M; Maksimović, M; Parapid, B; Dugalić, V; Jeremić, K; Gutić, B

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) examination is a much more reliable method for evaluation of potential ovarian cancer risk than gynecologic palpation. The aim of our study was to analyze the US characteristics of patients with palpable ovaries in light of potential for malignancy. We analyzed 70 women ten years after menopause without increased CA 125 values. They underwent clinical and US exams (abdominal and transvaginal ultrasound), with special emphasis on US Doppler exam. Bimanuel gynecological examination showed palpable ovaries in 14 patients (palpable ovary group), and the remaining 56 patients were defined as the control group. US showed increased dimensions of palpable ovaries. Atypical follicular activity, deviation from verticalization, atypical ovaries and hyperechogenic punctations classified under germ cell cysts occurred statistically significantly more often in the palpable ovary group. Doppler flow showed pathological vascularization in five patients with palpable ovaries and the estrogen level was increased. After four to six months in these five patients we found a mild increase of estrogen levels and higher Doppler abnormality. Six months later, two patients had irregular bleeding and underwent surgical treatment. Every adnexal mass after menopausis demands special attention. Bimanuel gynecological exams should be used liberally. It is necessary to follow the dimensions of the ovary, describe the echostructure, as well as the edges of the ovary and other anatomical structures. Doppler flow measurement and estrogen levels are predictive and give more information. Controls should be in three to six month intervals in order to make a decision for surgical treatment.

  8. Protein expression levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in Danish ovarian cancer patients: from the Danish 'MALOVA'ovarian cancer study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogdall, E.V.; Christensen, L.; Blaakaer, J.

    2008-01-01

    from 189 women diagnosed with low malignant potential ovarian tumours (LMP, borderline ovarian tumours) and 571 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer (OC). RESULTS: Using 30% as the cut-off level for CEA over-expression, 18% of LMPs and 4% of OCs were positive. A higher proportion of mucinous tumours...... (I to IV), the highest CEA expression compared with no expression was found to be a prognostic factor (level 3 versus negative: HR = 2.12, 95%CI 1.11-4.05). FIGO stage, residual tumour after primary surgery, age at diagnosis, other histological types versus serous adenocarcinoma and low versus high...

  9. Fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, M K; Pujade-Lauraine, E; Aoki, D

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript reports the consensus statements regarding recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC), reached at the fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference (OCCC), which was held in Tokyo, Japan, in November 2015. Three important questions were identified: (i) What are the subgroups for clinical trials i...

  10. Predisposition testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzone, K A

    1997-05-01

    To provide an overview of breast cancer predisposition syndromes and the breast and Ovarian cancer susceptibility genes identified to date. To describe the clinical implications of genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility. Published research and educational manuscripts, books, conference proceedings, and personal experiences. Nurses must become knowledgeable of predisposition genetic testing for inherited breast cancer risk including: understanding of the gene being analyzed and associated cancer risks, indications for testing, the limitations of the test, the management options for mutation carriers, risks and benefits of testing, and the long-term psychosocial sequelae. Predisposition testing for alterations in breast cancer susceptibility genes is rapidly moving into the general oncology and primary care community where nurses will play a major role in the provision of genetic services. The role of nursing in cancer genetics includes practice and education, nursing research, and policy initiatives.

  11. Visual-spatial cognition in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: the role of androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, J A; Parekh, H S K; Hardiman, P J

    2013-10-01

    Are women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) better at three-dimensional mental rotation than other women? Women with PCOS scored significantly higher on a mental rotation task than a female control group. PCOS is a condition characterized by elevated testosterone levels. Some researches have found that three-dimensional mental rotation task performance is positively correlated with testosterone levels. This cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2006 and January 2009. The participants were 69 women with PCOS and 41 controls recruited from five gynaecology clinics in London. The control group consisted of non-PCOS women of comparable subfertility to PCOS group. These groups sizes gave roughly 80% power to detect moderate effect sizes for the main statistical test. Participants were recruited at London gynaecology clinics. The women were aged between 18 and 43. PCOS was diagnosed based on the Rotterdam criteria. Controls were women who experienced some degree of subfertility. Blood samples from participants were frozen for up to 4 months until being assayed by direct electrochemiluminescence. The mental rotation task was undertaken electronically. Some questionnaires and other tasks were completed as control measures. Women with PCOS scored significantly higher than controls: median (range) 3.00 (0-9) and 2.00 (0-8), respectively (U = 1147.500, N1 = 69, N2 = 41, P < 0.047). Within the PCOS group, circulating levels of testosterone were significantly positively correlated with three-dimensional scoring (rs = 0.376, n = 56, P < 0.002), whereas estradiol was significantly negatively correlated with three-dimensional scoring (rs = -0.473, n = 29, P < 0.010). In the control group, the relationship between sex hormones and mental rotation was non-significant. Other factors, including general intelligence and social class, did not account for these findings. A subgroup analysis comparing hyperandrogenic PCOS cases, non-hyperandrogenic PCOS cases and controls

  12. Glucocorticoid regulation of SLIT/ROBO tumour suppressor genes in the ovarian surface epithelium and ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Rachel E; Fegan, K Scott; Ren, Xia; Hillier, Stephen G; Duncan, W Colin

    2011-01-01

    The three SLIT ligands and their four ROBO receptors have fundamental roles in mammalian development by promoting apoptosis and repulsing aberrant cell migration. SLITs and ROBOs have emerged as candidate tumour suppressor genes whose expression is inhibited in a variety of epithelial tumours. We demonstrated that their expression could be negatively regulated by cortisol in normal ovarian luteal cells. We hypothesised that after ovulation the locally produced cortisol would inhibit SLIT/ROBO expression in the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) to facilitate its repair and that this regulatory pathway was still present, and could be manipulated, in ovarian epithelial cancer cells. Here we examined the expression and regulation of the SLIT/ROBO pathway in OSE, ovarian cancer epithelial cells and ovarian tumour cell lines. Basal SLIT2, SLIT3, ROBO1, ROBO2 and ROBO4 expression was lower in primary cultures of ovarian cancer epithelial cells when compared to normal OSE (Pcancer.

  13. Curcumin induces chemo/radio-sensitization in ovarian cancer cells and curcumin nanoparticles inhibit ovarian cancer cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yallapu Murali M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemo/radio-resistance is a major obstacle in treating advanced ovarian cancer. The efficacy of current treatments may be improved by increasing the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemo/radiation therapies. Curcumin is a naturally occurring compound with anti-cancer activity in multiple cancers; however, its chemo/radio-sensitizing potential is not well studied in ovarian cancer. Herein, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a curcumin pre-treatment strategy for chemo/radio-sensitizing cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. To improve the efficacy and specificity of curcumin induced chemo/radio sensitization, we developed a curcumin nanoparticle formulation conjugated with a monoclonal antibody specific for cancer cells. Methods Cisplatin resistant A2780CP ovarian cancer cells were pre-treated with curcumin followed by exposure to cisplatin or radiation and the effect on cell growth was determined by MTS and colony formation assays. The effect of curcumin pre-treatment on the expression of apoptosis related proteins and β-catenin was determined by Western blotting or Flow Cytometry. A luciferase reporter assay was used to determine the effect of curcumin on β-catenin transcription activity. The poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (Nano-CUR was developed by a modified nano-precipitation method and physico-chemical characterization was performed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering methods. Results Curcumin pre-treatment considerably reduced the dose of cisplatin and radiation required to inhibit the growth of cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. During the 6 hr pre-treatment, curcumin down regulated the expression of Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 pro-survival proteins. Curcumin pre-treatment followed by exposure to low doses of cisplatin increased apoptosis as indicated by annexin V staining and cleavage of caspase 9 and PARP. Additionally, curcumin pre

  14. Dietary energy balance modulates ovarian cancer progression and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wahab, Zaid; Tebbe, Calvin; Chhina, Jasdeep; Dar, Sajad A.; Morris, Robert T.; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Giri, Shailendra; Munkarah, Adnan R.; Rattan, Ramandeep

    2014-01-01

    A high energy balance, or caloric excess, accounts as a tumor promoting factor, while a negative energy balance via caloric restriction, has been shown to delay cancer progression. The effect of energy balance on ovarian cancer progression was investigated in an isogeneic immunocompetent mouse model of epithelial ovarian cancer kept on a regimen of regular diet, high energy diet (HED) and calorie restricted diet (CRD), prior to inoculating the animals intraperitoneally with the mouse ovarian surface epithelial ID8 cancer cells. Tumor evaluation revealed that mice group on HED displayed the most extensive tumor formation with the highest tumor score at all organ sites (diaphragm, peritoneum, bowel, liver, kidney, spleen), accompanied with increased levels of insulin, leptin, insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), VEGF and interleukin 6 (IL-6). On the other hand, the mice group on CRD exhibited the least tumor burden associated with a significant reduction in levels of insulin, IGF-1, leptin, MCP-1, VEGF and IL-6. Immunohistochemistry analysis of tumors from HED mice showed higher activation of Akt and mTOR with decreased adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK) and SIRT1 activation, while tumors from the CRD group exhibited the reverse profile. In conclusion, ovarian cancer growth and metastasis occurred more aggressively under HED conditions and was significantly curtailed under CRD. The suggested mechanism involves modulated secretion of growth factors, cytokines and altered regulation of AMPK and SIRT1 that converges on mTOR inhibition. While the role of a high energy state in ovarian cancer has not been confirnmed in the literature, the current findings support investigating the potential impact of diet modulation as adjunct to other anticancer therapies and as possible individualized treatment strategy of epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:25026276

  15. Preclinical activity of the liposomal cisplatin lipoplatin in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Naike; Celegato, Marta; Borghese, Cinzia; Mongiat, Maurizio; Colombatti, Alfonso; Aldinucci, Donatella

    2014-11-01

    Cisplatin and its platinum derivatives are first-line chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer; however, treatment is associated with tumor resistance and significant toxicity. Here we investigated the antitumoral activity of lipoplatin, one of the most promising liposomal platinum drug formulations under clinical investigation. In vitro effects of lipoplatin were tested on a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines, sensitive and resistant to cisplatin, using both two-dimensional (2D) and 3D cell models. We evaluated in vivo the lipoplatin anticancer activity using tumor xenografts. Lipoplatin exhibited a potent antitumoral activity in all ovarian cancer cell lines tested, induced apoptosis, and activated caspase-9, -8, and -3, downregulating Bcl-2 and upregulating Bax. Lipoplatin inhibited thioredoxin reductase enzymatic activity and increased reactive oxygen species accumulation and reduced EGF receptor (EGFR) expression and inhibited cell invasion. Lipoplatin demonstrated a synergistic effect when used in combination with doxorubicin, widely used in relapsed ovarian cancer treatment, and with the albumin-bound paclitaxel, Abraxane. Lipoplatin decreased both ALDH and CD133 expression, markers of ovarian cancer stem cells. Multicellular aggregates/spheroids are present in ascites of patients and most contribute to the spreading to secondary sites. Lipoplatin decreased spheroids growth, vitality, and cell migration out of preformed spheroids. Finally, lipoplatin inhibited more than 90% tumor xenograft growth with minimal systemic toxicity, and after the treatment suspension, no tumor progression was observed. These preclinical data suggest that lipoplatin has potential for clinical assessment in aggressive cisplatin-resistant patients with ovarian cancer. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. A systematic review of ovarian cancer and fear of recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozga, Melissa; Aghajanian, Carol; Myers-Virtue, Shannon; McDonnell, Glynnis; Jhanwar, Sabrina; Hichenberg, Shira; Sulimanoff, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    To assess demographic, medical, and psychological factors that are associated with fear of recurrence (FCR) in ovarian cancer patients. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. For PubMed, a search using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) was run, as well as a text-word search from 1990 to July of 2014. The search terms used consisted of ovarian terms, fear terms, and recurrence/progression themes. Title and abstract reviews were conducted by two independent reviewers to determine eligibility, and discrepancies were decided by a third reviewer. Full-text reviews of potentially eligible articles were conducted by the review team, which met regularly to ensure the reliability of eligibility ratings across all articles. A total of 15 articles met our inclusion criteria. Nine were quantitative studies that utilized a cross-sectional design, and the other six included three qualitative studies, two small intervention studies, and one study that utilized content analysis to explore written correspondence among ovarian cancer patients. FCR was reported as a significant concern for both older and younger women at both early and advanced stages. Women were distressed about recurrence at various times during their treatment and posttreatment. FCR was noted to be prevalent around cancer follow-up examinations. Many women reported not receiving adequate support for recurrence. FCR was also shown to be linked in some way to hopelessness, faith/spirituality, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). FCR was also linked to patients' anxiety about death and dying and uncertainty about the future of their medical health. This review demonstrates that FCR is prevalent in the ovarian cancer population. Moreover, cancer recurrence fears are not adequately assessed or treated. More information is needed on the factors that may be related to women's fears about recurrence of ovarian cancer. In addition, a validated measure of FCR among ovarian cancer patients as well as

  17. Ovarian cancer incidence in the United States in relation to manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gary G; Sahmoun, Abe E

    2014-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is primarily a disease of the industrialized world. However, few factors associated with industrialization that contribute to the etiology of ovarian cancer have been identified. We sought to explore factors potentially associated with ovarian cancer by correlating ovarian cancer incidence rates in US states with the distribution of US manufacturing. Data on age-adjusted incidence rates for ovarian cancer per state in the United States and manufacturing rates per state were analyzed using multiple linear regression controlling for access to ovarian cancer care, fertility rate, and other potential confounders. In univariate analyses, ovarian cancer incidence rates were positively correlated with the extent of manufacturing, with dairy production, and with the manufacturing of pulp and paper. Using multiple linear regression, only the correlation of ovarian cancer with pulp and paper manufacturing industry was significant. The correlation of ovarian cancer with pulp and paper manufacturing industry remained significant after adjusting for access to ovarian cancer care, fertility rates, and other potential confounders (P paper mills are associated with exposures to known ovarian carcinogens. Further epidemiological study of exposures involved in the manufacturing of pulp and paper in relation to risk of ovarian cancer is warranted.

  18. Study on Treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome with Infertility by Combined Therapy of Chinese Herbal Medicine and Compound Cyproterone Acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Li-li (陶莉莉); CHEN Xiao-ping (陈小平); GU Zheng-tian (顾正田)

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of combined therapy of Chinese herbal medicine and compound cyproterone acetate (CPA) in treating non-obesity polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and to explore its mechanism in improving withdrawal ovulation. Methods:Eighty-six patients of non-obesity PCOS, typed as Shen-deficiency with blood stasis Syndrome or Shen-deficiency with Phlegm-Dampness Syndrome by Syndrome Differentiation in traditional Chines medicine, were randomly divided into three groups: (1) The TCM group (n=26) was treated with Chinese drugs for 6 menstrual cycles; (2) The western medicine (WM) group (n=30) was treated with 1 tablet of CPA for 21 days, with the treatment beginning from the 5th day of menstruation. The treatment was given for 3 menstrual cycles by repetitious medication, which stopped and restarted on the 5th day of withdrawal bleeding. Then the ovulation promoting therapy was applied by using clomifene citrate and human chorionic gonadotropin (CC/Hcg) for 3 menstrual cycles; (3) The TCM-WM group (n=30) was treated with the medications used for the above two groups. The menstrual cycle, the volume and duration of the menstruation, as well as the improvement of acne and pilosis [Ferriman-Gallway (F-G) scoring]were observed after 3 cycles ended. Moreover, condition of ovulation was monitored by B-ultrasonography at the 4th-6th cycle and status of pregnancy was observed. Results: Compared with before treatment, the blood level of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) in all 3 groups after treatment significantly decreased (P<0.05), with its ratio to follicle-stimulating hormone (LH/FSH) recovered to normal, but without markedly change in levels of FSH, estradiol (E2) and prolactin (PRL). The menstrual cycle in most patients got regular and acne significantly alleviated (P<0.05), and the improvement of infrequent menstruation and acne was better in the WM group and the TCM-WM group than that in the TCM group, but pilosis showed no significant

  19. Comparison of clinical features and health manifestations in lean vs. obese Indian women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abha Majumdar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study the prevalence of clinical manifestations in obese and lean polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS women and their health hazards. Settings and Design: This prospective study was carried out in a tertiary care infertility clinic from 1.7.2005 till 31.12.2007. Materials and Methods: These women were diagnosed to have PCOS by the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, Rotterdam 2003 criteria. They were further divided into two groups according to their body mass index (BMI: Group A (n = 300, overweight and obese with BMI> 23 and Group B (n = 150, normal weight and lean with BMI ≤23. Stastical Analysis and Results: The prevalence of menstrual irregularities [79.2% vs. 44%, P = 0.000, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.26-0.44] and clinical hyperandrogenism (74.2% vs. 50.6%, P = 0.000, 95% CI=0.14-0.32 was signifi cantly higher in the obese group, whereas android central obesity (waist to hip ratio> 0.85 was similar in both groups, irrespective of body weight (47.7% vs. 38%, P = 0.056, 95% CI=0.06 to +0.18. Comparative data of various health manifestations in lean vs. obese women with POCS [Table 4]. Of the health risk manifestations, hypertension occurred in both groups with a similar frequency (41% vs. 35.5%, P = 0.261, 95% CI=0.03 to +0.15. Group A showed an increased prevalence of IGT (25% vs. 10%, P = 0.000, 95% CI= 0.13-0.29 and type two diabetes mellitus (11.7% vs. 6%, P = 0.000, 95% CI= 0.13-0.29 as compared with group B. endometrial hyperplasia (EH also showed an increase prevalence in Group A compared with Group B (5.6% vs. 2%, P = 0.055, 95% CI= 0.01-0.08, although not statistically significant. Conclusion: PCOS emerges as a clinically heterogeneous condition with increased prevalence of health risks such as hypertension, diabetes and EH. Of these, diabetes and EH appear to be more prevalent in the obese, putting them at a greater risk of morbid problems at a much

  20. In Vitro Maturation in Women with vs. without Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siristatidis, Charalampos; Sergentanis, Theodoros N.; Vogiatzi, Paraskevi; Kanavidis, Prodromos; Chrelias, Charalampos; Papantoniou, Nikolaos; Psaltopoulou, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate in vitro maturation (IVM) in sub-fertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF), by comparing outcomes with a control group of non-PCOS. Study design A search strategy was developed for PubMed and studies reporting rates of the following outcomes (live birth; clinical pregnancy; implantation; cycle cancellation; oocyte maturation; oocyte fertilization; miscarriage) between patients with PCOS, PCO and controls undergoing IVM were deemed eligible. The review was conducted in accordance to the PRISMA guidelines and included studies quality was assessed through the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality scale. ORs with their corresponding 95% CIs were calculated for the main analysis and subgroup analyses were performed for PCOS cases vs. controls and PCOS vs. PCO cases. Alternative analyses were performed for live birth and clinical pregnancy, based on cycles and on women. Subgroup analyses for FSH stimulation, hCG priming and type of procedure (IVF/ICSI) were undertaken for all meta-analyses encompassing at least four study arms. Random effects models were used to calculate pooled effect estimates. Results Eleven studies were identified. A total of 268 PCOS patients (328 cycles), 100 PCO patients (110 cycles) and 440 controls (480 cycles) were included in the meta-analysis. A borderline trend towards higher birth rates among PCOS patients emerged (pooled OR = 1.74, 95%CI: 0.99–3.04) mainly reflected at the subgroup analysis vs. controls. Clinical pregnancy (pooled OR = 2.37, 95%CI: 1.53–3.68) and implantation rates (pooled OR = 1.73, 95%CI: 1.06–2.81) were higher, while cancellation rates lower (pooled OR = 0.18, 95%CI: 0.06-0.47) among PCOS vs. non-PCOS subjects; maturation and miscarriage rates did not differ between groups, while a borderline trend towards lower fertilization rates among PCOS patients was observed. Conclusion The present meta-analysis provides preliminary evidence on the effectiveness of

  1. CD47 promotes ovarian cancer progression by inhibiting macrophage phagocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Yu, Hu; Wang, Ke; Fu, Zheng; Ju, Baohui; Zhao, Meng; Dong, Shangwen; Li, Zhijun; He, Yifeng; Huang, Yuting; Yao, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Targeting CD47 efficiently enhances macrophage phagocytosis in both physiological and pathological conditions. Anti-CD47 antibodies have been shown to inhibit the progression of several types of cancer. However, the mechanism of anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment remains controversial. In this study, we confirmed that CD47 protein is highly expressed in ovarian cancer, and is correlated with poor clinical characteristics and prognosis. CD47 knockdown in the ovarian cancer cell line, SK-OV-3, promoted phagocytosis by macrophages in vitro and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. These data combined suggest that CD47 inhibition is a potential strategy for cancer treatment. Using an anti-CD47 mAb, we found that CD47 inhibition in both SK-OV-3 cells and primary cancer cells was able to recapitulate our knockdown results and led to an increase in the number of infiltrating macrophages. In addition, the CD133+ tumor initiating cells expressed a high level of CD47, and anti-CD47 mAb treatment was able to trigger the phagocytosis of this cell population. In conclusion, our results indicate that CD47 inhibits macrophage phagocytosis of ovarian cancer cells, and down-regulation of CD47 or inhibiting CD47 by mAb was able to reverse the negative effect. Thus, CD47 antibody therapy may be a promising strategy to treat ovarian cancer. PMID:28380460

  2. Ovarian cancer susceptibility alleles and risk of ovarian cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, Susan J; Antoniou, Antonis C; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B

    2012-01-01

    for the remaining loci were consistent with odds ratio estimates for the general population. The identification of multiple loci modifying ovarian cancer risk may be useful for counseling women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations regarding their risk of ovarian cancer....... evaluated within a retrospective cohort approach. All four loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA2 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.67-0.98) P-trend = 0.033, rs2665390 HR = 1.48 (95% CI: 1.21-1.83) P-trend = 1.8 × 10(-4), rs717852 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1......Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six alleles associated with risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated four of these loci as potential modifiers...

  3. Ovarian morphology in polycystic ovary syndrome: estimates from 2D and 3D ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging and their correlation to anti-Müllerian hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylander, Malin; Frøssing, Signe; Bjerre, Anne H; Chabanova, Elizaveta; Clausen, Helle V; Faber, Jens; Skouby, Sven O

    2017-08-01

    Background Due to improved ultrasound scanners, new three-dimensional (3D) modalities, and novel Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)-assays, the ultrasound criteria for polycystic ovarian morphology are under debate and the appropriate thresholds are often requested. Purpose To quantify the differences in estimates of ovarian volume and antral follicle count (AFC) from two-dimensional (2D) and 3D transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods A cross-sectional study on 66 overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) according to Rotterdam criteria. Ovarian volume and AFC were estimated from MRI, 2D TVUS, and 3D TVUS, and serum AMH levels were assessed. Bland-Altman statistics were used for comparison. Results Participants had a median age of 29 years (age range, 19-44 years) with a mean BMI of 32.7 kg/m 2 (SD 4.5). Ovarian volume from 2D TVUS was 1.48 mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-2.03; P < 0.001) and 1.25 mL (95% CI, 0.62-1.87; P < 0.001) smaller than from 3D TVUS and MRI, respectively. AFC from 2D TVUS was 18% (95% CI, 13-23; P < 0.005) and 16% (95% CI, 6-25; P < 0.005) smaller than estimates from 3D TVUS and MRI, respectively. Correlations between AMH and AFC from 2D TVUS, 3D TVUS, and MRI were 0.67, 0.78, and 0.70, respectively ( P < 0.001 for all). Conclusion In an overweight PCOS population, 2D TVUS underestimated ovarian volume and AFC as compared with 3D TVUS and MRI. Serum AMH correlated best with AFC from 3D TVUS, followed by MRI and 2D TVUS. The advantage of 3D TVUS might be of minor clinical importance when diagnosing PCOS, but useful when the actual AFC are of interest, e.g. in fertility counseling and research.

  4. Current status of maintenance therapy for advanced ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanie Mayer Hope

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Joanie Mayer Hope, Stephanie V BlankNew York University School of Medicine, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, New York NY, USAAbstract: Even after countered with and responding to maximal surgical and chemotherapy efforts, advanced ovarian cancer usually ultimately recurs. One strategy employed to forestall recurrence is maintenance chemotherapy, an extension of treatment following a complete response to conventional measures. Many agents have been studied and many more are currently under investigation in maintenance regimens. While phase III data suggest that taxane maintenance prolongs progression-free survival, no overall survival benefit has been established. This article reviews the current status of maintenance therapy for advanced ovarian cancer, including phase III evidence and new and upcoming trials.Keywords: maintenance therapy, consolidation therapy, advanced ovarian cancer

  5. History of thyroid disease and survival of ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minlikeeva, Albina N; Freudenheim, Jo L; Cannioto, Rikki A

    2017-01-01

    multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated associations between hyper- and hypothyroidism and medications prescribed for these conditions with 5-year all-cause survival among women diagnosed with invasive ovarian cancer. RESULTS: Overall, there was a nonsignificant association with history...... of hyperthyroidism (n=160 cases) and mortality (HR=1.22; 95% CI=0.97-1.53). Furthermore, diagnosis of hyperthyroidism within the 5 years before ovarian cancer diagnosis was associated with an increased risk of death (HR=1.94; 95% CI=1.19-3.18). A more modest association was observed with history of hypothyroidism (n......=624 cases) and mortality (HR=1.16; 95% CI=1.03-1.31). Neither duration of hypothyroidism nor use of thyroid medications was associated with survival. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study of women with ovarian cancer, we found that recent history of hyperthyroidism and overall history of hypothyroidism...

  6. CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF HEREDITARY OVARIAN CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Kotiv

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Germ-line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are the most established risk factors for hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. The purpose of the study was to analyze BRCA1/2 testing in ovarian cancer patients. Materials and methods. We analyzed 222 patients with ovarian cancer (OC who underwent genetic testing. Results. Recurrent Slavic mutations in these genes were detected in 60/222 (27% patients.104 patients lacked any clinical signs of hereditary form of the disease, however BRCA1/2 genetic defects were identified among 11 (11% of these women. BRCA1/2-associated carcinomas were characterized by more advanced stage at diagnosis and predominance of high-grade serous histological tumor subtype. Conclusion. These results emphasize the need for BRCA1/2 testing for all patients with OC. BRCA1/2-associated carcinomas have clinical and pathological cgaracteristics, which should be considered while planning therapy. 

  7. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP1) gene expression is similarly increased in polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Mohamad N; Mongan, Nigel; Seedhouse, Claire; Chapman, Caroline; Deen, Suha; Abu, Jafaru; Atiomo, William

    2017-05-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have a three-fold higher risk of endometrial cancer. Insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia may be pertinent factors in the pathogenesis of both conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate endometrial sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 gene expression in polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial cancer endometrium, and to correlate endometrial sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 gene expression with serum lipid profiles. A cross-sectional study was performed at Nottingham University Hospital, UK. A total of 102 women (polycystic ovary syndrome, endometrial cancer and controls; 34 participants in each group) were recruited. Clinical and biochemical assessments were performed before endometrial biopsies were obtained from all participants. Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction for endometrial sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 gene and its systemic protein expression were analyzed. The body mass indices of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (29.28 ± 2.91 kg/m 2 ) and controls (28.58 ± 2.62 kg/m 2 ) were not significantly different. Women with endometrial cancer had a higher mean body mass index (32.22 ± 5.70 kg/m 2 ). Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 gene expression was significantly increased in polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial cancer endometrium compared with controls (p polycystic ovary syndrome, but this was not statistically significant. Similarly, statistically insignificant positive correlations were found between endometrial sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 gene expression and body mass index in endometrial cancer (r = 0.643, p = 0.06) and waist-hip ratio (r = 0.096, p = 0.073). Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 gene expression was significantly positively correlated with triglyceride in both polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial cancer (p = 0.028 and p = 0.027, respectively). Quantitative serum sterol regulatory

  8. Oral contraceptive use and impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M T; Jensen, A; Frederiksen, K

    2013-01-01

    Oral contraceptive use decreases the risk of ovarian cancer, but no previous studies have assessed the impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on ovarian cancer risk.......Oral contraceptive use decreases the risk of ovarian cancer, but no previous studies have assessed the impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on ovarian cancer risk....

  9. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin: optimizing the dosing schedule in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Peter G

    2005-03-01

    The need for effective, well-tolerated, and convenient therapies for patients with advanced ovarian cancer has led researchers to continually refine chemotherapeutic regimens to balance efficacy with safety and tolerability in order to maintain or improve patient quality of life. In this article, we review current strategies for the optimal dosing of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (DOXIL; Tibotec Therapeutics, a division of Ortho Biotech Products, L.P., Bridgewater, NJ, http://www.tibotec.com; Caelyx, Schering-Plough Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ, http://www.sch-plough.com) in relapsed ovarian cancer. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of recurrent/resistant ovarian cancer in several clinical trials utilizing a dose of 50 mg/m2 every 4 weeks. The most common adverse events associated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin treatment in these studies-hand-foot syndrome (HFS, also known as palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia) and stomatitis-are schedule and dose dependent, respectively, and do not typically lead to discontinuation of therapy. Several phase II and retrospective studies support the use of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin 40 mg/m2 every 4 weeks (dose intensity of 10 mg/m2 weekly) to optimize clinical efficacy and minimize the occurrence of schedule- and dose-related adverse events in patients with recurrent/relapsed ovarian cancer. Further reductions in dose intensity are necessary for use in combined chemotherapy regimens. Antitumor activity was maintained, with reduced incidences of HFS and stomatitis. Given the chronic course of ovarian cancer, the improved tolerability profile of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin 40 mg/m2 combined with a convenient once-monthly dosing schedule may translate into an improved quality of life for patients with ovarian cancer.

  10. Smoothened antagonists reverse taxane resistance in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steg, Adam D; Katre, Ashwini A; Bevis, Kerri S; Ziebarth, Angela; Dobbin, Zachary C; Shah, Monjri M; Alvarez, Ronald D; Landen, Charles N

    2012-07-01

    The hedgehog pathway has been implicated in the formation and maintenance of a variety of malignancies, including ovarian cancer; however, it is unknown whether hedgehog signaling is involved in ovarian cancer chemoresistance. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of antagonizing the hedgehog receptor, Smoothened (Smo), on chemotherapy response in ovarian cancer. Expression of hedgehog pathway members was assessed in three pairs of parental and chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780ip2/A2780cp20, SKOV3ip1/SKOV3TRip2, HeyA8/HeyA8MDR) using quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis. Cell lines were exposed to increasing concentrations of two different Smo antagonists (cyclopamine, LDE225) alone and in combination with carboplatin or paclitaxel. Selective knockdown of Smo, Gli1, or Gli2 was achieved using siRNA constructs. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. A2780cp20 and SKOV3TRip2 orthotopic xenografts were treated with vehicle, LDE225, paclitaxel, or combination therapy. Chemoresistant cell lines showed higher expression (>2-fold, P < 0.05) of hedgehog signaling components compared with their respective parental lines. Smo antagonists sensitized chemotherapy-resistant cell lines to paclitaxel, but not to carboplatin. LDE225 treatment also increased sensitivity of ALDH-positive cells to paclitaxel. A2780cp20 and SKOV3TRip2 xenografts treated with combined LDE225 and paclitaxel had significantly less tumor burden than those treated with vehicle or either agent alone. Increased taxane sensitivity seems to be mediated by a decrease in P-glycoprotein (MDR1) expression. Selective knockdown of Smo, Gli1, or Gli2 all increased taxane sensitivity. Smo antagonists reverse taxane resistance in chemoresistant ovarian cancer models, suggesting combined anti-hedgehog and chemotherapies could provide a useful therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer. ©2012 AACR.

  11. Current clinical application of serum biomarkers to detect ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Marek; Janas, Łukasz; Stachowiak, Grzegorz; Stetkiewicz, Tomasz; Wilczyński, Jacek R

    2015-12-01

    For the last decades, hundreds of potential serum biomarkers have been assessed in diagnosing of ovarian cancer including the wide spectrum of cytokines, growth factors, adhesion molecules, proteases, hormones, coagulation factors, acute phase reactants, and apoptosis factors but except CA125 none of them have been applied to everyday clinical practice. Nowadays, the growing number of evidence suggests that the classic marker CA125 should be accompanied by HE4 and in fact, Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA) is becoming more and more widespread in clinical practice for the evaluation of adnexal masses. Early ovarian cancer is often asymptomatic, so the challenge still exists to develop serum markers suitable for early diagnosis and screening. Current knowledge strongly points to different mechanisms of pathogenesis, genetic disturbances and clinical course of major histological subtypes of ovarian cancer. Thus, future biomarker/multimarker panels should take into consideration the implications of different molecular patterns and biological behavior of various subtypes of ovarian cancer. Very promising are studies on miRNAs - small non-protein coding gene-regulatory RNA molecules functionally involved in the pathogenesis of cancers acting as oncogenes (oncomirs) or tumor suppressors. The studies devoted to ovarian cancer tissue miRNA profiling have shown that miRNAs could be useful in diagnosing and predicting the OC outcome. They also confirmed that OC is a highly heterogeneous disease, gathering four distinct histological tumor subtypes characterized not only by distinct origin, behavior and response to chemotherapy but also by different patterns of miRNA expression.

  12. Role of the Microenvironment in Ovarian Cancer Stem Cell Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Pasquier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent progresses in cancer therapy and increased knowledge in cancer biology, ovarian cancer remains a challenging condition. Among the latest concepts developed in cancer biology, cancer stem cells and the role of microenvironment in tumor progression seem to be related. Indeed, cancer stem cells have been described in several solid tumors including ovarian cancers. These particular cells have the ability to self-renew and reconstitute a heterogeneous tumor. They are characterized by specific surface markers and display resistance to therapeutic regimens. During development, specific molecular cues from the tumor microenvironment can play a role in maintaining and expanding stemness of cancer cells. The tumor stroma contains several compartments: cellular component, cytokine network, and extracellular matrix. These different compartments interact to form a permissive niche for the cancer stem cells. Understanding the molecular cues underlying this crosstalk will allow the design of new therapeutic regimens targeting the niche. In this paper, we will discuss the mechanisms implicated in the interaction between ovarian cancer stem cells and their microenvironment.

  13. CYP1B1, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in the Etiology of Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Using an Avian Model of Ovarian Carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hales, Dale B

    2007-01-01

    .... Research in ovarian cancer has been hampered by a lack of suitable animal models. With the exception of the laying hen, no other animal gets ovarian epithelial cancer analogous to the human disease...

  14. Predictors of pretreatment CA125 at ovarian cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babic, Ana; Cramer, Daniel W; Kelemen, Linda E

    2017-01-01

    in CA125 between studies and linear regression to estimate the association between epidemiologic factors and tumor characteristics and pretreatment CA125 levels. RESULTS: In age-adjusted models, older age, history of pregnancy, history of tubal ligation, family history of breast cancer, and family......PURPOSE: Cancer antigen 125 (CA125) is a glycoprotein expressed by epithelial cells of several normal tissue types and overexpressed by several epithelial cancers. Serum CA125 levels are mostly used as an aid in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer patients, to monitor response to treatment and detect...... cancer recurrence. Besides tumor characteristics, CA125 levels are also influenced by several epidemiologic factors, such as age, parity, and oral contraceptive use. Identifying factors that influence CA125 levels in ovarian cancer patients could aid in the interpretation of CA125 values for individuals...

  15. Evaluating the Progenitor Cells of Ovarian Cancer: Analysis of Current Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    King, Shelby M.; Burdette, Joanna E.

    2011-01-01

    Serous ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal gynecological malignancies. Progress on effective diagnostics and therapeutics for this disease are hampered by ambiguity as to the cellular origins of this histotype of ovarian cancer, as well as limited suitable animal models to analyze early stages of disease. In this report, we will review current animal models with respect to the two proposed progenitor cells for serous ovarian cancer, the ovarian surface epithelium and the fallopian tube e...

  16. Impact of the Ovarian Microenvironment on Serous Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0182 TITLE: Impact of the Ovarian Microenvironment on Serous Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Burdette, Joanna E... Impact of the Ovarian Microenvironment on Serous Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0182 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...results were verified to show repression of CTGF similar to the qPCR. The results are shown in Figure 9. The volcano plot in Figure 9A shows the most

  17. The innovation in the morphogenesis and epidemiology of ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Vysotsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature review is dedicated to new data in epidemiology and pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. The authors analyze newly obtained data on dietary habits, BMI, sexual behavior, contraception model, the number of labors as possible risk or influencing factors for ovarian cancer. The possible role of dietary habits and reproductive behavior from neolith to modern time is discussed. Controversies concerning possible role of alcohol intake and tobacco smoking are scrutinized. Newly obtained data on the fallopian tube as a primary site of most pelvic high-grade serous carcinomas are discussed.

  18. Diagnosis and Management of Peritoneal Metastases from Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenia Halkia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The management and the outcome of peritoneal metastases or recurrence from epithelial ovarian cancer are presented. The biology and the diagnostic tools of EOC peritoneal metastasis with a comprehensive approach and the most recent literatures data are discussed. The definition and the role of surgery and chemotherapy are presented in order to focuse on the controversial points. Finally, the paper discusses the new data about the introduction of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC in the treatment of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.

  19. Niraparib Maintenance Therapy in Platinum-Sensitive, Recurrent Ovarian Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Mansoor R; Monk, Bradley J; Herrstedt, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    -sensitive, recurrent ovarian cancer. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial, patients were categorized according to the presence or absence of a germline BRCA mutation (gBRCA cohort and non-gBRCA cohort) and the type of non-gBRCA mutation and were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive niraparib...... or 4 adverse events that were reported in the niraparib group were thrombocytopenia (in 33.8%), anemia (in 25.3%), and neutropenia (in 19.6%), which were managed with dose modifications. Conclusions Among patients with platinum-sensitive, recurrent ovarian cancer, the median duration of progression...

  20. Primary Surgery or Interval Debulking for Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markauskas, Algirdas; Mogensen, Ole; dePont Christensen, René

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the surgical complexity, the postoperative morbidity, and the survival of the women after primary debulking surgery (PDS) and neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery (NACT-IDS) for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: We consecutively included all patients who underwent debulking surgery at our institution between January 2007 and December 2012 for stages IIIc and IV of epithelial ovarian cancer. RESULTS: Of the 332 patients included, 165 (49.7%) underwent PDS, and 167 (50.3%) had NACT...... operating time (P statistical difference in the median overall survival (OS) was found between the patients having complete cytoreduction and residual...

  1. A loop of cancer-stroma-cancer interaction promotes peritoneal metastasis of ovarian cancer via TNFα-TGFα-EGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, T-S; Chan, L K-Y; Wong, E C-H; Hui, C W-C; Sneddon, K; Cheung, T-H; Yim, S-F; Lee, J H-S; Yeung, C S-Y; Chung, T K-H; Kwong, J

    2017-06-22

    Peritoneum is the most common site for ovarian cancer metastasis. Here we investigate how cancer epigenetics regulates reciprocal tumor-stromal interactions in peritoneal metastasis of ovarian cancer. Firstly, we find that omental stromal fibroblasts enhance colony formation of metastatic ovarian cancer cells, and de novo expression of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α) is induced in stromal fibroblasts co-cultured with ovarian cancer cells. We also observed an over-expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in ovarian cancer cells, which is regulated by promoter DNA hypomethylation as well as chromatin remodeling. Interestingly, this ovarian cancer-derived TNF-α induces TGF-α transcription in stromal fibroblasts through nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). We further show that TGF-α secreted by stromal fibroblasts in turn promotes peritoneal metastasis of ovarian cancer through epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Finally, we identify a TNFα-TGFα-EGFR interacting loop between tumor and stromal compartments of human omental metastases. Our results therefore demonstrate cancer epigenetics induces a loop of cancer-stroma-cancer interaction in omental microenvironment that promotes peritoneal metastasis of ovarian cancer cells via TNFα-TGFα-EGFR.

  2. Deciphering the Adaptive Immune Response to Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    associated with cytotoxic immune responses and good clinical outcome in oestrogen receptor-negative breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2013 Jan 15;108(1):155...Epub 2012 Jan 27. PubMed PMID: 22282309. 14. West NR, Murphy LC, Watson PH. Oncostatin M suppresses oestrogen receptor-α expression and is...K, Tempfer C, Kucera E, Hefler L, Zeisler H, Kainz C, et al. Humoral p53 antibody response is a prognostic parameter in ovarian cancer. Anticancer Res

  3. Values and worries of ovarian cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisu, Maria; Kenzik, Kelly M; Rim, Sun Hee; Funkhouser, Ellen M; Bevis, Kerri S; Alvarez, Ronald D; Cantuaria, Guilherme; Rocconi, Rodney P; Martin, Michelle Y

    2017-11-01

    Older women with ovarian cancer (OC) are less likely to receive guideline concordant treatment. Differences in values and worries about treatment may explain why. Women with OC in 2013-2015 were surveyed about values and worries at the time of initial treatment. Existing values (11 item, e.g., maintaining quality of life) and worries (12 items, e.g., treatment side effects) scales were adapted based on OC literature. Responses were very/somewhat/a little/not at all important or worried. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) identified groups of values and worries that best explained scales' variation. We examined proportions reporting very/somewhat important/worried on ≥1 item in each component by age (older ≥65years, younger values were: functional well-being (3 survey items, proportion of variance explained [PoVE] 26.3%), length of life and sexual functioning (3 items, PoVE 20.1%), attitudes (3 items, PoVE 14.2%), and not becoming a burden (2 items, PoVE 13.7%). PCA components for worries were: economic (4 items, PoVE 27.2%), uncertainty (6 items, PoVE 26.0%), and family impact (2 items, PoVE 16.3%). Older women were less likely to indicate very/somewhat worried to ≥1 item in the economic (51.4% vs 72.4%, p=0.006), uncertainty (80.6% vs. 98.0%, p=0.001), and family impact component (55.6% vs. 70.4%, p=0.03). No other age differences were found. While worry during OC treatment decision-making may differ across age groups, values do not. Research should assess how differences in worry might affect OC medical decision-making for older and younger women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship between ovarian function and ovarian limited dose in radiotherapy postoperation of ovarian transposition in young patients with cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhenhua; Qu, Hui

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the relationship between ovarian function and ovarian limited dose in radiotherapy was evaluated in young patients with cervical cancer who underwent ovarian transposition (Fig1B). Moreover, the novel ovarian dose limit for a better preservation of ovarian function in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was determined. We retrospectively analyzed data from 86 patients with cervical cancer who received radical hysterectomy and ovarian transposition from January 2013 to June 2015. In agreement with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines (NCCN) for Cervical Cancer Version 2.2015, 65 patients with pathological high-risk factors were administered adjuvant radiotherapy-20 of them received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (Observation Group A), 24 patients received IMRT with no limitation on radiation dose to ovaries (Observation Group B), and 21 patients underwent IMRT with limited radiation dose(V10  0.05). Within each observation group, there was a statistically significant difference in the sex hormone levels in patients before the radiation and after the radiation (P function (area under ROC curve was 0.740, confidence interval [CI] = 0.606-0.874). In young patients with cervical cancer who underwent radical hysterectomy and ovarian transposition without receiving adjuvant radiotherapy, ovarian endocrine function was well preserved. In patients who received any type of postoperative radiotherapy, ovarian function was affected, suggesting that the standard ovarian limited dose used in IMRT disrupted ovarian function. The results of the ROC curve analysis suggested that the new optimal dose limit of V7.5  function (P = 0.003). © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Coexistence of Ovarian Cancer and Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-How Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence of ovarian cancer and renal cell carcinoma (RCC is extremely rare. Only one case was diagnosed in a total of 584 patients with RCC from 1982 to 2002 at our hospital. A 58-year-old woman presented with an enlarged girdle length for 3 months. Computed tomography scan showed a right cystic adnexal mass measuring 10 × 10 cm, and another tumor measuring 3 × 2 cm at the right kidney. She underwent debulking surgery and radical nephrectomy. Pathologic examination revealed right ovarian clear-cell carcinoma with peritoneal, omental, and fallopian tube metastasis, and conventional clear-cell renal carcinoma. RCC was strongly positive in epithelial membrane antigen (EMA staining and negative in estrogen receptors (ER, progesterone receptors (PR, 34bE12 (high molecular weight cytokeratin, and vimentin staining. Ovarian clear-cell carcinoma showed weakly positive results in EMA staining and negative results in ER, PR, 34bE12, and vimentin staining. Although chemotherapy was given, the patient died of disseminated ovarian cancer metastasis 20 months after operation. In conclusion, coexistence of RCC and ovarian cancer is rare and the pathogenesis remains to be clarified. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(3 Suppl:S15-S19

  6. Predictors of pretreatment CA125 at ovarian cancer diagnosis: a pooled analysis in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Ana; Cramer, Daniel W; Kelemen, Linda E; Köbel, Martin; Steed, Helen; Webb, Penelope M; Johnatty, Sharon E; deFazio, Anna; Lambrechts, Diether; Goodman, Marc T; Heitz, Florian; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Karlan, Beth Y; Jensen, Allan; Kjær, Susanne K; Goode, Ellen L; Pejovic, Tanja; Moffitt, Melissa; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus; McNeish, Iain; Terry, Kathryn L

    2017-05-01

    Cancer antigen 125 (CA125) is a glycoprotein expressed by epithelial cells of several normal tissue types and overexpressed by several epithelial cancers. Serum CA125 levels are mostly used as an aid in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer patients, to monitor response to treatment and detect cancer recurrence. Besides tumor characteristics, CA125 levels are also influenced by several epidemiologic factors, such as age, parity, and oral contraceptive use. Identifying factors that influence CA125 levels in ovarian cancer patients could aid in the interpretation of CA125 values for individuals. We evaluated predictors of pretreatment CA125 in 13 studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. This analysis included a total of 5,091 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer with pretreatment CA125 measurements. We used probit scores to account for variability in CA125 between studies and linear regression to estimate the association between epidemiologic factors and tumor characteristics and pretreatment CA125 levels. In age-adjusted models, older age, history of pregnancy, history of tubal ligation, family history of breast cancer, and family history of ovarian cancer were associated with higher CA125 levels while endometriosis was associated with lower CA125 levels. After adjusting for tumor-related characteristics (stage, histology, grade), body mass index (BMI) higher than 30 kg/m2 was associated with 10% (95% CI 2, 19%) higher CA125 levels, while race (non-white vs. white) was associated with 15% (95% CI 4, 27%) higher CA125 levels. Our results suggest that high BMI and race may influence CA125 levels independent of tumor characteristics. Validation is needed in studies that use a single assay for CA125 measurement and have a diverse study population.

  7. NPPB is a novel candidate biomarker expressed by cancer-associated fibroblasts in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenson, Kate; Grun, Barbara; Lee, Nathan; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Kan, Jenny; Swenson, Steve; Lin, Yvonne G; Pejovic, Tanja; Millstein, Joshua; Gayther, Simon A

    2015-03-15

    Most solid tumors contain cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) that support tumorigenesis and malignant progression. However, the cellular origins of CAFs in epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) remain poorly understood, and their utility as a source of clinical biomarkers for cancer diagnosis has not been explored in great depth. Here, we report establishing in vitro and in vivo models of CAFs in ovarian cancer development. Normal ovarian fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells cultured in the presence of EOC cells acquired a CAF-like phenotype, and promoted EOC cell migration in vitro. CAFs also promoted ovarian cancer growth in vivo in both subcutaneous and intraperitoneal murine xenograft assays. Molecular profiling of CAFs identified gene expression signatures that were highly enriched for extracellular and secreted proteins. We identified novel candidate CAF-specific biomarkers for ovarian cancer including NPPB, which was expressed in the stroma of 60% primary ovarian cancer tissues (n = 145) but not in the stroma of normal ovaries (n = 4). NPPB is a secreted protein that was also elevated in the blood of 50% of women with ovarian cancer (n = 8). Taken together, these data suggest that the tumor stroma is a novel source of biomarkers, including NPPB, that may be of clinical utility for detection of EOC. © 2014 UICC.

  8. Isoliquiritigenin Induces Autophagy and Inhibits Ovarian Cancer Cell Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yuan Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is one of the commonest gynecologic malignancies, which has a poor prognosis for patients at the advanced stage. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL, an active flavonoid component of the licorice plant, previously demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and tumor suppressive effects. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of ISL on human ovarian cancer in vitro using the human ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCAR5 and ES-2, as model systems. Our results show that ISL significantly inhibited the viability of cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that ISL induced G2/M phase arrest. Furthermore, the expression of cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-3, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, LC3B-II, and Beclin-1 levels were increased in western blot analysis. To clarify the role of autophagy and apoptosis in the effect of ISL, we used the autophagy inhibitor—3-methyladenine (3-MA to attenuate the punctate fluorescence staining pattern of the p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1, red fluorescence and LC3 (green fluorescence proteins after ISL treatment, and 3-MA inhibited the cytotoxicity of ISL. These findings provide new information about the link between ISL-induced autophagy and apoptosis and suggest that ISL is a candidate agent for the treatment of human ovarian cancer.

  9. Hereditary ovarian cancer and two-compartment tumor metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Balliet, Renee M.; Lin, Zhao; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 tumor suppressor gene are commonly found in hereditary ovarian cancers. Here, we used a co-culture approach to study the metabolic effects of BRCA1-null ovarian cancer cells on adjacent tumor-associated stromal fibroblasts. Our results directly show that BRCA1-null ovarian cancer cells produce large amounts of hydrogen peroxide, which can be abolished either by administration of simple antioxidants (N-acetyl-cysteine; NAC) or by replacement of the BRCA1 gene. Thus, the BRCA1 gene normally suppresses tumor growth by functioning as an antioxidant. Importantly, hydrogen peroxide produced by BRCA1-null ovarian cancer cells induces oxidative stress and catabolic processes in adjacent stromal fibroblasts, such as autophagy, mitophagy and glycolysis, via stromal NFκB activation. Catabolism in stromal fibroblasts was also accompanied by the upregulation of MCT4 and a loss of Cav-1 expression, which are established markers of a lethal tumor microenvironment. In summary, loss of the BRCA1 tumor suppressor gene induces hydrogen peroxide production, which then leads to metabolic reprogramming of the tumor stroma, driving stromal-epithelial metabolic coupling. Our results suggest that new cancer prevention trials with antioxidants are clearly warranted in patients that harbor hereditary/familial BRCA1 mutations. PMID:23047606

  10. New perspectives on targeted therapy in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coward JIG

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jermaine IG Coward,1–3 Kathryn Middleton,1 Felicity Murphy1 1Mater Health Services, Raymond Terrace, South Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Inflammtion and Cancer Therapeutics Group, Mater Research, University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Woolloongabba, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Abstract: Epithelial ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. During the last 15 years, there has been only marginal improvement in 5 year overall survival. These daunting statistics are compounded by the fact that despite all subtypes exhibiting striking heterogeneity, their systemic management remains identical. Although changes to the scheduling and administration of chemotherapy have improved outcomes to a degree, a therapeutic ceiling is being reached with this approach, resulting in a number of trials investigating the efficacy of targeted therapies alongside standard treatment algorithms. Furthermore, there is an urge to develop subtype-specific studies in an attempt to improve outcomes, which currently remain poor. This review summarizes the key studies with antiangiogenic agents, poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose inhibitors, and epidermal growth factor receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor family targeting, in addition to folate receptor antagonists and insulin growth factor receptor inhibitors. The efficacy of treatment paradigms used in non-ovarian malignancies for type I tumors is also highlighted, in addition to recent advances in appropriate patient stratification for targeted therapies in epithelial ovarian cancer. Keywords: antiangiogenic therapy, high-grade serous, low grade ovarian cancer, PARP inhibition, cancer-related inflammation

  11. Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Alleles and Risk of Ovarian Cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramus, Susan J.; Antoniou, Antonis C; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A.; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindblom, Annika; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Złowocka, Elżbieta; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Toloczko-Grabarek, Aleksandra; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Duran, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; van Asperen, Christi J.; van Roozendaal, K.E.P.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Collée, J. Margriet; Kriege, Mieke; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D.; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Jacobs, Chris; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Douglas, Fiona; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Walker, Lisa; Porteous, Mary E.; Kennedy, M. John; Pathak, Harsh; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; de Pauw, Antoine; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Léoné, Mélanie; Calender, Alain; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Faivre, Laurence; Loustalot, Catherine; Buys, Saundra; Daly, Mary; Miron, Alex; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K.; John, Esther M; Southey, Melissa; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Ejlertsen, Bent; Johannsson, Oskar Th.; Offit, Kenneth; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Gaudet, Mia M.; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Piedmonte, Marion; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Van Le, Linda; Hoffman, James S; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Isaacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Tornero, Eva; Navarro, Matilde; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Olah, Edith; Vaszko, Tibor; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A.; Beattie, Mary S.; Dorfling, Cecelia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Diez, Orland; Kwong, Ava; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorotehea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Fiebig, Britta; Schäfer, Dieter; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Plante, Marie; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V. Shane; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bernard, Loris; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Gayther, Simon A.; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Couch, Fergus J.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six alleles associated with risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated four of these loci as potential modifiers of ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs10088218 (at 8q24), rs2665390 (at 3q25), rs717852 (at 2q31), and rs9303542 (at 17q21), were genotyped in 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 carriers, including 2,678 ovarian cancer cases. Associations were evaluated within a retrospective cohort approach. All four loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA2 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.67–0.98) P-trend = 0.033, rs2665390 HR = 1.48 (95% CI: 1.21–1.83) P-trend = 1.8 × 10−4, rs717852 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10–1.42) P-trend = 6.6 × 10−4, rs9303542 HR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02–1.33) P-trend = 0.026. Two loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele HR = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.81–0.99) P-trend = 0.029, rs2665390 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10–1.42) P-trend = 6.1 × 10−4. The HR estimates for the remaining loci were consistent with odds ratio estimates for the general population. The identification of multiple loci modifying ovarian cancer risk may be useful for counseling women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations regarding their risk of ovarian cancer. PMID:22253144

  12. Effects of Resveratrol on Ovarian Morphology, Plasma Anti-Mullerian Hormone, IGF-1 Levels, and Oxidative Stress Parameters in a Rat Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergenoglu, Mete; Yildirim, Nuri; Yildirim, Alkim Gulsah Sahingoz; Yeniel, Ozgur; Erbas, Oytun; Yavasoglu, Altug; Taskiran, Dilek; Karadadas, Nedim

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of resveratrol in a rat model of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). After PCOS model was formed by subcutaneous dihydrotestosterone pellets, rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. The first group (n = 7) was treated with 1 mL/kg/d isotonic saline and the second group (n = 7) was treated with 10 mg/kg/d resveratrol. Seven rats were taken as controls without any medication. Our results showed (1) significant reduction in the number of antral follicle counts (P < .01); (2) significantly decreased plasma anti-Mullerian hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels (P < .01 and P < .05, respectively); (3) significantly lower superoxide dismutase activity (P < .05); and (4) significantly increased glutathione peroxidase content (P < .01) following resveratrol treatment. Resveratrol appears to be effective in the treatment of PCOS due to its antioxidant properties. Future clinical studies with different dosages might provide useful implementations to our practice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Use of multiple imaging modalities to detect ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Elizabeth; Walker, Ross; Marion, Sam; Hoyer, Patricia; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2005-04-01

    Ovarian cancer is not a common cancer-approximately 25,000 new cases in 2004-but it is the fifth leading cause of death from cancer in women (over 16,000 in 2004). Little is known about the precursors and early stages of ovarian cancer partially due to the lack of human samples at the early stages. A cohesive model that incorporates ovarian cancer induction into a menopausal rodent would be well suited for comprehensive studies of ovarian cancer. Non-destructive imaging would allow carcinogenesis to be followed. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) and Light-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) are minimally invasive optical modalities that allow both structural and biochemical changes to be noted. Rat ovaries were exposed to 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) for 20 days in order to destroy the primordial follicles. Plain sutures and sutures coated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) were implanted in the right ovary, in order to produce epithelial based ovarian cancers (a plain suture was inserted in the control). Rats were sacrificed at 4 weeks and ovaries were harvested and imaged with a combined OCT/LIF system and with the OCM. Histology was preformed on the harvested ovaries and any pathology determined. Two of the ovaries were visually abnormal; the OCT/LIF imaging confirmed these abnormalities. The normal ovary OCM and OCT images show the organized structure of the ovary, the follicles, bursa and corpus lutea are visible. The OCM images show the disorganized structure of one of the abnormal ovaries. Overall this pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of both the animal model and optical imaging.

  14. Microsatellite instability is rare in sporadic ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.S.; Han, H.; Schwartz, P.E. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Microsatellite instability was first demonstrated to be a common underlying mechanism in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and has recently been implicated in the development of several other human cancers. Although numerous genetic changes have been documented in ovarian cancer, their molecular bases are poorly understood. In investigating the molecular genetics of ovarian cancer, we analyzed twelve short tandem repeats that were amplified by PCR from DNA of 48 tumors and their corresponding lymphocyte samples. All of the 48 cases studied have no noticeable family history and, of them, 42 are epithelial (benign/borderline, 5; grade I, 4; GII, 4; GIII, 29) and 6 are nonepithelial. A microsatellite instability has been shown to be inversely correlated with the occurrence of allelic losses, half of those cases chosen have a fractional allele loss of {le}15 (median = .18 of 50 tumors tested for 86 loci from every chromosomal arm). The loci examined included eight dinucleotide repeats (D2S123, D9S104, D10S197, D11S904, D16S408, D16S421, D17S250, and D17S579), two trinucleotide repeats (DM and AR) and two tetranucleotide repeats (DXS981 and VWF). Despite the fact that HNPCC phenotype includes ovarian cancer and that microsatellite instability has been shown in one ovarian cancer from an HNPCC family, the allele sizes of 12 loci were found to be identical in all paired tumor and normal samples we studied except for one tumor at a single locus. The band shift displayed on polyacrylamide gel representing an additional allele of VWF was only observed in one grade III tumor. Our results are thus a strong indication that the alteration of microsatellite repeats may not play a major role in the development of sporadic ovarian cancer.

  15. The impact of cisplat based chemotherapy on advanced ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad G

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatinum based chemotherapy has become the standard treatment for ovarian cancers due to its proved superiority over non-cisplat based regimes. However, the therapeutic impact of cisplat based regimes compared to cheaper non-cisplatinum based regimes is questionable when multiple variables such as residual disease, histologic type, grade are introduced. This report is a study of 110 Stage III ovarian cancer patients from 1985-89, with cisplat (n = 69 and non cisplat (n = 41 based chemotherapy. The results of both regimes with reference to the multiple variable factors are presented. We conclude that cisplat based regimes appear to be superior to non-cisplat based regimes except probably in poorly differentiated ovarian tumors where the results were similar with either regimen.

  16. Inactivating Mutation screening of Exon 6 and Exon 10E of FSHR gene in women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in Vellore population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Nishu; Sapre, Madhura; Kale, Vaikhari; Prabhu, Yogamaya D.; Renu, Kaviyarasi; Ramgir, Shalaka S.; Abilash, V. G.

    2017-11-01

    Polycystic Ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a major cause of infertility in females of reproducing age and is typified by oligo-anovulation, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism and polycystic ovaries. FSHR gene located on chromosome 2 p21 is responsible for the normal follicular development and any deletion or mutation in the gene affects the interaction of FSH with its receptor. Thus, it becomes the candidate gene for PCOS study. Inactivating mutation in FSHR gene limits the receptor’s function by creating a complete block, changing the receptor-ligand complex or the basic hormone signal transduction.To screen the inactivating mutations in Exon 6 and Exon 10E of FSHR gene in women diagnosed with PCOS.PCR-RFLP analysis indicated that there were no inactivating mutations found in Exon 6 and Exon 10E. Variations in hormone levels were seen amongst the PCOS patients. There were no inactivating mutations found in FSHR gene of the women diagnosed with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria in Vellore population.

  17. Cognitive and affective influences on perceived risk of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipins, Lucy A; McCarty, Frances; Hawkins, Nikki A; Rodriguez, Juan L; Scholl, Lawrence E; Leadbetter, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Studies suggest that both affective and cognitive processes are involved in the perception of vulnerability to cancer and that affect has an early influence in this assessment of risk. We constructed a path model based on a conceptual framework of heuristic reasoning (affect, resemblance, and availability) coupled with cognitive processes involved in developing personal models of cancer causation. From an eligible cohort of 16 700 women in a managed care organization, we randomly selected 2524 women at high, elevated, and average risk of ovarian cancer and administered a questionnaire to test our model (response rate 76.3%). Path analysis delineated the relationships between personal and cognitive characteristics (number of relatives with cancer, age, ideas about cancer causation, perceived resemblance to an affected friend or relative, and ovarian cancer knowledge) and emotional constructs (closeness to an affected relative or friend, time spent processing the cancer experience, and cancer worry) on perceived risk of ovarian cancer. Our final model fit the data well (root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.028, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.99, normed fit index (NFI) = 0.98). This final model (1) demonstrated the nature and direction of relationships between cognitive characteristics and perceived risk; (2) showed that time spent processing the cancer experience was associated with cancer worry; and (3) showed that cancer worry moderately influenced perceived risk. Our results highlight the important role that family cancer experience has on cancer worry and shows how cancer experience translates into personal risk perceptions. This understanding informs the discordance between medical or objective risk assessment and personal risk assessment. Published in 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published in 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Aspirin and P2Y12 inhibition attenuate platelet-induced ovarian cancer cell invasion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooke, Niamh M

    2015-09-09

    Platelet-cancer cell interactions play a key role in successful haematogenous metastasis. Disseminated malignancy is the leading cause of death among ovarian cancer patients. It is unknown why different ovarian cancers have different metastatic phenotypes. To investigate if platelet-cancer cell interactions play a role, we characterized the response of ovarian cancer cell lines to platelets both functionally and at a molecular level.

  19. Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Activity in the Host-Tumor Microenvironment of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Holson EB, Khabele D, Hiebert SW. HDAC3 is essential for the maintenance of chromatin structure and genome stability. Cancer Cell 18: 436-47, 2010... aspirin (ASA) in COX-1 positive ovarian cancer cells through augmentation of p21. Cancer Biol. Ther. 9: 928-35, 2010. PMID: 20404564 11. Wilson AJ, Chueh...elucidate effects of disrupting activity of COX-1 in ovarian cancer cells and platelets via aspirin on progression of ovarian cancer. The ability of

  20. ABCA Transporter Gene Expression and Poor Outcome in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedditch, Ellen L; Gao, Bo; Russell, Amanda J

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play various roles in cancer biology and drug resistance, but their association with outcomes in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is unknown. METHODS: The relationship between clinical outcomes and ABC transporter gene expression in two in...... cancer cell growth and migration in vitro, and statin treatment reduced ovarian cancer cell migration. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of ABCA transporters was associated with poor outcome in serous ovarian cancer, implicating lipid trafficking as a potentially important process in EOC....