WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer pc3 cells

  1. Salinomycin Exerts Anticancer Effects on PC-3 Cells and PC-3-Derived Cancer Stem Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinomycin is an antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces albus that selectively kills cancer stem cells (CSCs. However, the antitumor mechanism of salinomycin is unclear. This study investigated the chemotherapeutic efficacy of salinomycin in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. We found that cytotoxicity of salinomycin to PC-3 cells was stronger than to nonmalignant prostate cell RWPE-1, and exposure to salinomycin induced G2/M phage arrest and apoptosis of PC-3 cells. A mechanistic study found salinomycin suppressed Wnt/β-catenin pathway to induce apoptosis of PC-3 cells. An in vivo experiment confirmed that salinomycin suppressed tumorigenesis in a NOD/SCID mice xenograft model generated from implanted PC-3 cells by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, since the total β-catenin protein level was reduced and the downstream target c-Myc level was significantly downregulated. We also showed that salinomycin, but not paclitaxel, triggered more apoptosis in aldehyde dehydrogenase- (ALDH- positive PC-3 cells, which were considered as the prostate cancer stem cells, suggesting that salinomycin may be a promising chemotherapeutic to target CSCs. In conclusion, this study suggests that salinomycin reduces resistance and relapse of prostate tumor by killing cancer cells as well as CSCs.

  2. [Grape seed extract induces morphological changes of prostate cancer PC-3 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xue-Jun; Yin, Hong-Lin; Ge, Jing-Ping; Sun, Yi; Teng, Wen-Hui; Huang, Yu-Feng

    2008-12-01

    To observe the morphological changes of prostate cancer PC-3 cells induced by grape seed extract (GSE). PC-3 cells were incubated with different concentrations of GSE (100, 200 and 300 microg/ml) for 24, 48 and 72 hours, and then observed for morphological changes by invert microscopy, HE staining and transmission electron microscopy. The incubated PC-3 cells appeared round, small, wrinkled and broken under the invert microscope and exhibited the classical morphological characteristics of cell death under the electron microscope, including cell atrophy, increased vacuoles, crumpled nuclear membrane, and chromosome aggregation. GSE can cause morphological changes and induce necrosis and apoptosis of PC-3 cells.

  3. [Grape seed extract inhibits the growth of prostate cancer PC-3 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Ting; Shang, Xue-Jun; Yao, Gen-Hong; Ge, Jing-Ping; Teng, Wen-Hui; Sun, Yi; Huang, Yu-Feng

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the growth of prostate cancer PC-3 cells. PC-3 cells were treated with GSE at the concentration of 100, 200 and 300 microg/ml for 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. The the inhibitory effect of GSE on the growth of the PC-3 cells and the kidney cells of SD rats was determined by MTT reduction assay, with primarily cultured kidney cells of 1-3 days old SD rats as the normal control. GSE significantly inhibited the growth of PC-3 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, but had only a mild inhibitory effect on the kidney cells. GSE inhibits the growth of prostate cancer PC-3 cells and can be used as a new drug for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  4. [Inhibitory effect of solanine on prostate cancer cell line PC-3 in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Shi, Guo-wei

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of the effects of solanine on human androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line PC-3 in vitro. PC-3 cells were treated with solanine at the concentration of 0, 30, 40 and 50 microg/ml, and the cell activity was measured by CCK-8 at 12, 24 and 48 hours after the treatment. At 24 hours, the cell cycle and apoptosis were detected by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, and the protein expressions of I(kappa)B(alpha) and Bcl-2 determined by Western blot. Solanine suppressed the growth of PC-3 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner in vitro, with significant differences among different concentration and time groups (P solanine concentration groups. Solanine has an anti-prostate cancer effect by inhibiting PC-3 cell proliferation, arresting the S phase, inducing cell apoptosis, up-regulating the protein expression of I(kappa)B(alpha) and down-regulating that of Bcl-2.

  5. The Anticancer Effect of Fucoidan in PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Kyoung Kang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide, has a variety of biological activities, such as anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory. However, the mechanisms of action of fucoidan as an anti-cancer agent have not been fully elucidated. The present study examined the anti-cancer effect of fucoidan obtained from Undaria pinnatifida in PC-3 cells, human prostate cancer cells. Fucoidan induced the apoptosis of PC-3 cells by activating both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. The induction of apoptosis was accompanied by the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2 MAPK and the inactivation of p38 MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt. In addition, fucoidan also induced the up-regulation of p21Cip1/Waf and down-regulation of E2F-1 cell-cycle-related proteins. Furthermore, in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, fucoidan activated GSK-3β that resulted in the decrease of β-catenin level, followed by the decrease of c-myc and cyclin D1 expressions, target genes of β-catenin in PC-3 cells. These results suggested that fucoidan treatment could induce intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways via the activation of ERK1/2 MAPK, the inactivation of p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and the down-regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in PC-3 prostate cancer cells. These data support that fucoidan might have potential for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  6. ID4 promotes AR expression and blocks tumorigenicity of PC3 prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komaragiri, Shravan Kumar; Bostanthirige, Dhanushka H.; Morton, Derrick J.; Patel, Divya; Joshi, Jugal; Upadhyay, Sunil; Chaudhary, Jaideep, E-mail: jchaudhary@cau.edu

    2016-09-09

    Deregulation of tumor suppressor genes is associated with tumorigenesis and the development of cancer. In prostate cancer, ID4 is epigenetically silenced and acts as a tumor suppressor. In normal prostate epithelial cells, ID4 collaborates with androgen receptor (AR) and p53 to exert its tumor suppressor activity. Previous studies have shown that ID4 promotes tumor suppressive function of AR whereas loss of ID4 results in tumor promoter activity of AR. Previous study from our lab showed that ectopic ID4 expression in DU145 attenuates proliferation and promotes AR expression suggesting that ID4 dependent AR activity is tumor suppressive. In this study, we examined the effect of ectopic expression of ID4 on highly malignant prostate cancer cell, PC3. Here we show that stable overexpression of ID4 in PC3 cells leads to increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation and migration. In addition, in vivo studies showed a decrease in tumor size and volume of ID4 overexpressing PC3 cells, in nude mice. At the molecular level, these changes were associated with increased androgen receptor (AR), p21, and AR dependent FKBP51 expression. At the mechanistic level, ID4 may regulate the expression or function of AR through specific but yet unknown AR co-regulators that may determine the final outcome of AR function. - Highlights: • ID4 expression induces AR expression in PC3 cells, which generally lack AR. • ID4 expression increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation and invasion. • Overexpression of ID4 reduces tumor growth of subcutaneous xenografts in vivo. • ID4 induces p21 and FKBP51 expression- co-factors of AR tumor suppressor activity.

  7. Biogenic selenium nanoparticles induce ROS-mediated necroptosis in PC-3 cancer cells through TNF activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkusre, Praveen; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2017-06-07

    Selenium is well documented to inhibit cancer at higher doses; however, the mechanism behind this inhibition varies widely depending on the cell type and selenium species. Previously, we have demonstrated that Bacillus licheniformis JS2 derived biogenic selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) induce non-apoptotic cell death in prostate adenocarcinoma cell line, PC-3, at a minimal concentration of 2 µg Se/ml, without causing toxicity to the primary cells. However, the mechanism behind its anticancer activity was elusive. Our results have shown that these SeNPs at a concentration of 2 µg Se/ml were able to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated necroptosis in PC-3 cells by gaining cellular internalization. Real-time qPCR analysis showed increased expression of necroptosis associated tumor necrotic factor (TNF) and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1). An increased expression of RIP1 protein was also observed at the translational level upon SeNP treatment. Moreover, the cell viability was significantly increased in the presence of necroptosis inhibitor, Necrostatin-1. Data suggest that our biogenic SeNPs induce cell death in PC-3 cells by the ROS-mediated activation of necroptosis, independent to RIP3 and MLKL, regulated by a RIP1 kinase.

  8. Molecular lipidomics of exosomes released by PC-3 prostate cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llorente, A.; Skotland, T.; Sylvanne, T.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular lipid composition of exosomes is largely unknown. In this study, sophisticated shotgun and targeted molecular lipidomic assays were performed for in-depth analysis of the lipidomes of the metastatic prostate cancer cell line, PC-3, and their released exosomes. This study, based...... in the quantification of approximately 280 molecular lipid species, provides the most extensive lipid analysis of cells and exosomes to date. Interestingly, major differences were found in the lipid composition of exosomes compared to parent cells. Exosomes show a remarkable enrichment of distinct lipids, demonstrating...

  9. Anticancer effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract on prostate cancer cell line (PC-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Suresh, P K; Vijayababu, M R; Arunkumar, A; Arunakaran, J

    2006-04-21

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most prevalent cancer and the leading cause of male cancer death. Azadirachta indica (neem tree) has been used successfully centuries to reduce tumors by herbalists throughout Southeast Asia. Here the present study indicated that an ethanolic extract of neem has been shown to cause cell death of prostate cancer cells (PC-3) by inducing apoptosis as evidenced by a dose-dependent increase in DNA fragmentation and a decrease in cell viability. Western blot studies indicated that treatment with neem extract showed decreased level of Bcl-2, which is anti-apoptotic protein and increased the level of Bax protein. So the neem extract could be potentially effective against prostate cancer treatment.

  10. Regulation of Erk1/2 activation by osteopontin in PC3 human prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chellaiah Meenakshi A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteopontin (OPN has been shown to play many roles in the progression of cancer. We have recently demonstrated the activation of Akt by OPN. Integrin-linked kinase and PI3-kinase are integral proteins in OPN/AKT pathway in PC3 cells. To investigate the role of the extracellular receptors in OPN signaling, we have examined the spatio-temporal regulation of CD44 and integrin αvβ3 receptor in OPN-induced Akt activation in PC3 cells. Results Here, our studies demonstrate that OPN can activate Akt either through the αVβ3 integrin or the CD44 cell surface receptor. Members of the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK family have been shown to be up-regulated in a variety of human cancers and have been implicated in the metastatic behavior. Our studies have demonstrated an increase in the phosphorylation of c-Raf at Ser259 and Ser338 in PC3 cells over-expressing OPN. This increase matches up with the Erk1/2 phosphorylation at Thr202/204 and activation. However, the inhibition of Akt activity augments the phosphorylation state of ERK1/2 to two to three fold with a concomitant reduction in the phosphorylation state of c-Raf at Ser259. Conclusions Regulation c-Raf phosphorylation at Ser259 has a role in the anti-apoptotic pathways mediated by Akt or Raf/MEK/ERK proteins. OPN may have dual effects in the activation of Erk1/2. We propose this based on the observations that while OPN activates c-Raf and Erk1/2; it also acts to inhibit c-Raf and Erk1/2 activation through Akt pathway. Our observations suggest that the activation of c-Raf-ERK cascade may promote cell cycle arrest in prostate cancer cells and OPN signaling has a role in the anti-apoptotic mechanism.

  11. 5-Aminoimidazole-4-Carboxamide Riboside Enhances Effect of Ionizing Radiation in PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isebaert, Sofie F., E-mail: sofie.isebaert@med.kuleuven.be [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven Campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Swinnen, Johannes V. [Department of Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); McBride, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Begg, Adrian C. [Division of Experimental Therapy, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven Campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The nucleoside 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) is a low-energy mimetic and adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonist that can affect the phenotype of malignant cells by diminishing their anabolism. It does this by being converted to 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide (ZMP), an AMP analog. We combined this promising antineoplastic agent with ionizing radiation in an attempt to increase its efficacy. Methods and Materials: The effect of AICAR on cell proliferation, cell viability, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species production, radiosensitivity, and AMPK activation was determined in the human prostate cancer cell line PC3. To elucidate the radiosensitizing mechanism, clonogenic survival assays in the presence of a drug agonist or antagonist or with small interfering RNA targeting AMPK were done, as well as measurements of ZMP production and double strand break repair. Moreover, immunoblot analysis of the radiation response signaling pathways after AICAR treatment was performed. Results: The incubation of human PC3 prostate cancer cells with AICAR-activated AMPK inhibited cell proliferation, decreased viability, increased apoptosis, and generated reactive oxygen species in a dose- and time-dependent manner. None of these endpoints gave more than additive effects when radiation was added. Radiosensitization was observed but only after 72 hours of treatment with 250 {mu}M AICAR, suggesting that it was independent of AMPK activation. This finding was confirmed by small interfering RNA knockdown of AMPK. The mechanism of radiosensitization was associated with imbalanced deoxynucleotide pools owing to ZMP accumulation after AICAR administration that interfered with DNA repair. Conclusions: Our findings on the favorable interaction between low doses of AICAR and ionizing radiation in PC3 cells could open new perspectives for the clinical use of this or similar compounds. However, additional research is still required

  12. Fatty acid regulates gene expression and growth of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Chen, Y.; Tjandrawinata, R. R.

    2001-01-01

    It has been proposed that the omega-6 fatty acids increase the rate of tumor growth. Here we test that hypothesis in the PC-3 human prostate tumor. We found that the essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA), and the AA metabolite PGE(2) stimulate tumor growth while oleic acid (OA) and the omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) inhibited growth. In examining the role of AA in growth response, we extended our studies to analyze changes in early gene expression induced by AA. We demonstrate that c-fos expression is increased within minutes of addition in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the immediate early gene cox-2 is also increased in the presence of AA in a dose-dependent manner, while the constitutive cox-1 message was not increased. Three hours after exposure to AA, the synthesis of PGE(2) via COX-2 was also increased. Previous studies have demonstrated that AA was primarily delivered by low density lipoprotein (LDL) via its receptor (LDLr). Since it is known that hepatomas, acute myelogenous leukemia and colorectal tumors lack normal cholesterol feedback, we examined the role of the LDLr in growth regulation of the PC-3 prostate cancer cells. Analysis of ldlr mRNA expression and LDLr function demonstrated that human PC-3 prostate cancer cells lack normal feedback regulation. While exogenous LDL caused a significant stimulation of cell growth and PGE(2) synthesis, no change was seen in regulation of the LDLr by LDL. Taken together, these data show that normal cholesterol feedback of ldlr message and protein is lost in prostate cancer. These data suggest that unregulated over-expression of LDLr in tumor cells would permit increased availability of AA, which induces immediate early genes c-fos and cox-2 within minutes of uptake.

  13. Urtica dioica dichloromethane extract induce apoptosis from intrinsic pathway on human prostate cancer cells (PC3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A; Mansoori, B; Aghapour, M; Baradaran, B

    2016-03-31

    Prostate cancer is considered as the major cause of death among men around the world. There are a number of medicinal plants triggering apoptosis response in cancer cells, thus have a therapeutic potential. Therefore, further studies to characterize beneficial properties of these plants in order to introduce novel anti-cancer drugs are the interest of recent researches on the alternative medicine. On the other hand, due to traditional uses and availability of Urtica dioica extract, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of this medicinal herb on pc3 prostate cancer cell line. In the present study the cytotoxic effects of Urtica dioica extract were assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and trypan blue viability dye. Then, DNA fragmentation and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were exploited to measure cell death and apoptosis stage. The expression levels of caspase 3, caspase 9 and Bcl-2 genes were quantified by Real-Time PCR. Finally, Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. MTT assay showed that dichloromethanolic extract of Urtica dioica significantly inhibited the cell growth. According to the DNA fragmentation and TUNEL assay results, the herbal extract was able to induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Our findings also demonstrated that the plant extract substantially increases the caspase 3 and 9 mRNA expression, while decreases Bcl-2. Cell cycle arrest was occurred in G2 stage, due to the results of flow cytometry. These results indicate that dichloromethanolic extract of Urtica dioica can successfully induce apoptosis in PC3 cells. Therefore, it could be used as a novel therapeutic candidate for prostate tumor treatment.

  14. In PC3 prostate cancer cells ephrin receptors crosstalk to β1-integrins to strengthen adhesion to collagen type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Wang, Jinghe; Muller, Daniel J.; Helenius, Jonne

    2015-01-01

    Eph receptor (Eph) and ephrin signaling can play central roles in prostate cancer and other cancer types. Exposed to ephrin-A1 PC3 prostate cancer cells alter adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. However, whether PC3 cells increase or reduce adhesion, and by which mechanisms they change adhesion to the ECM remains to be characterized. Here, we assay how ephrin-A1 stimulates PC3 cells to adhere to ECM proteins using single-cell force spectroscopy. We find that PC3 cells binding to immobilized ephrin-A1 but not to solubilized ephrin-A1 specifically strengthen adhesion to collagen I. This Eph-ephrin-A1 signaling, which we suppose is based on mechanotransduction, stimulates β1-subunit containing integrin adhesion via the protein kinase Akt and the guanine nucleotide-exchange factor cytohesin. Inhibiting the small GTPases, Rap1 or Rac1, generally lowered adhesion of PC3 prostate cancer cells. Our finding suggests a mechanism by which PC3 prostate cancer cells exposed to ephrins crosstalk to β1-integrins and preferably metastasize in bone, a collagen I rich tissue. PMID:25644492

  15. Mechanism of paclitaxel resistance in a human prostate cancer cell line, PC3-PR, and its sensitization by cabazitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobue, Sayaka; Mizutani, Naoki; Aoyama, Yuka; Kawamoto, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Motoshi; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Ichihara, Masatoshi; Murate, Takashi

    2016-10-28

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is a microtubule-targeting drug widely used for the treatment of a variety of cancers. However, drug resistance can emerge after a series of treatments, and this can seriously affect the patient's prognosis. Here, we analyzed the mechanism of PTX resistance using a human prostate cancer cell line, PC3, and its PTX-resistant subline, PC3-PR. Compared with PC3, PC3-PR exhibited some unique phenotypes that might be associated with PTX resistance, including decreased expression of acetylated α-tubulin and the cell cycle regulator p21, and increased expression of βIII tubulin, histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2. The drug exporters MDR1 and MRP1 were not involved in PTX resistance. Although cabazitaxel (CTX), a novel taxoid, has been reported to overcome PTX resistance, its mechanism of action is unknown. We found that treatment of PC3-PR cells with CTX induced expression of acetylated α-tubulin and p21, but not the related regulators p27, p15, and p16 or the Bcl2 family proteins. The pan-HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A and suberanilohydroxamic acid and the HDAC6-specific inhibitor tubacin inhibited PC3-PR proliferation and increased expression of p21 and acetylated α-tubulin in a manner similar to CTX. Our data shed light on the cellular response to PTX and CTX. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Induction of apoptosis in hormone-resistant human prostate cancer PC3 cells by inactivated Sendai virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Gong, Xiao Cheng; Chen, Ze Dong; Xu, Xiao Shuang; Zhang, Quan; Xu, Xiang Ming

    2014-07-01

    Inactivated Sendai virus particle [hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E)] has a potential oncolytic effect due to its ability to induce apoptosis in tumor cells. However, the molecular mechanism of apoptosis induction in cancer cells mediated by HVJ-E has not been fully elucidated. This paper aims to investigate the underlying mechanism of apoptosis induction by HVJ-E in prostate cancer cells (PC3). PC3 cells were treated with HVJ-E at various MOI, and then interferon-β (IFN-β) production, and the cell viability and apoptosis were detected by ELISA, MTT-based assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Next, the roles of Jak-Stat, MAPK and Akt pathways played in HVJ-E-induced apoptosis in PC3 cells were analyzed by immunoblot assay. To further evaluate the cytotoxic effect of HVJ-E on PC3 cells, HVJ-E was intratumorally injected into prostate cancers on BALB/c-nude mice, and the tumor volume was monitored for 36 days. HVJ-E induced IFN-β production and activated Jak-Stat signaling pathway, which resulted in the activation of caspase-8, caspase-3, and PARP in PC3 prostate cancer cells post HVJ-E treatment. Furthermore, we observed for the first time that p38 and Jnk MAPKs in PC3 cells contributed to HVJ-E-induced apoptosis. In addition, intratumoral HVJ-E treatment displayed a direct inhibitory effect in an in vivo BALB/c nude mouse prostate cancer model. Our findings have provided novel insights into the underlying mechanisms by which HVJ-E induces apoptosis in tumor cells. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  17. Skip Regulates TGF-β1-Induced Extracellular Matrix Degrading Proteases Expression in Human PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Villar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether Ski-interacting protein (SKIP regulates TGF-β1-stimulated expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, and uPA Inhibitor (PAI-1 in the androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell model. Materials and Methods. PC-3 prostate cancer cell line was used. The role of SKIP was evaluated using synthetic small interference RNA (siRNA compounds. The expression of uPA, MMP-9, and PAI-1 was evaluated by zymography assays, RT-PCR, and promoter transactivation analysis. Results. In PC-3 cells TGF-β1 treatment stimulated uPA, PAI-1, and MMP-9 expressions. The knockdown of SKIP in PC-3 cells enhanced the basal level of uPA, and TGF-β1 treatment inhibited uPA production. Both PAI-1 and MMP-9 production levels were increased in response to TGF-β1. The ectopic expression of SKIP inhibited both TGF-β1-induced uPA and MMP-9 promoter transactivation, while PAI-1 promoter response to the factor was unaffected. Conclusions. SKIP regulates the expression of uPA, PAI-1, and MMP-9 stimulated by TGF-β1 in PC-3 cells. Thus, SKIP is implicated in the regulation of extracellular matrix degradation and can therefore be suggested as a novel therapeutic target in prostate cancer treatment.

  18. Ginsenoside Rg3 attenuates cell migration via inhibition of aquaporin 1 expression in PC-3M prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xue-Yang; Guo, Hao; Han, Jing; Hao, Feng; An, Yu; Xu, Yan; Xiaokaiti, Yilixiati; Pan, Yan; Li, Xue-Jun

    2012-05-15

    Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), one of the bioactive extracts found in ginseng root, was reported to have anti-cancer activity in various cancer models. The anti-proliferation effect of Rg3 on prostate cancer cells has been well reported. To test whether Rg3 has an anti-metastatic effect on prostate cancer, we treated a highly metastatic PC-3M prostate cancer cell line with Rg3. We found that Rg3 (10μM) led to remarkable inhibition of PC-3M cell migration. Simultaneously, exposure to Rg3 suppressed expression of the aquaporin 1 (AQP1) water channel protein, which has previously been reported to be involved in cell migration. Overexpression of AQP1 attenuated Rg3-induced inhibition of cell migration, and introduction of a shRNA targeting AQP1 abrogated the inhibitory effect of Rg3, although the basal level of cell migration was decreased by RNA interference. In mechanism study, estrogen receptor- and glucocorticoid receptor-dependent pathways are proved uninvolved in the AQP1 regulation by Rg3. However, Rg3 treatment triggered the activation of p38 MAPK; and SB202190, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, antagonized the Rg3-induced regulation of AQP1 and cell migration, suggesting a crucial role for p38 in the regulation process. Deletion analysis of the promoter region of AQP1 was also conducted using dual-luciferase assay, which indicated that the -1000 bp to -200 bp promoter region was involved in the AQP1 regulation by Rg3. In all, we conclude that Rg3 effectively suppresses migration of PC-3M cells by down-regulating AQP1 expression through p38 MAPK pathway and some transcription factors acting on the AQP1 promoter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Steroids from Commiphora mukul display antiproliferative effect against human prostate cancer PC3 cells via induction of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tao; Zhang, Li; Wang, Yan-Yan; Fan, Pei-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Lin, Zhao-Min; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2012-07-15

    Two new stigmastane-type steroids, stigmasta-5,22E-diene-3β,11α-diol (1) and stigmasta-5,22E-diene-3β,7α,11α-triol (2), together with eight known compounds, were isolated from the resinous exudates of Commiphora mukul. Their structures were established by extensive analysis of their HR-MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY) spectra. The isolates were evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against four human cancer cell lines. Compound 2 demonstrated inhibitory effects with IC(50) values of 5.21, 9.04, 10.94 and 16.56 μM, respectively, against K562, MCF-7, PC3 and DU145 human cancer cell lines. Further study showed that 2 was able to enforce the PC3 cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, and induce the apoptosis of PC3 cells by activation of Bax, caspases 3 and 9, and by inhibition of Bcl-2. It was also found that 1 inhibited proliferation of PC3 cells via G0/G1 phase arrest of the cell cycle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lysophosphatidic acid induces reactive oxygen species generation by activating protein kinase C in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chu-Cheng; Lin, Chuan-En; Lin, Yueh-Chien [Institute of Zoology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ju, Tsai-Kai [Instrumentation Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Technology Commons, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Yuan-Li [Department of Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Ming-Shyue [Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Jiun-Hong [Institute of Zoology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Life Science, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Hsinyu, E-mail: hsinyu@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Zoology, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Life Science, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Center for Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Research Center for Developmental Biology and Regenerative Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •LPA induces ROS generation through LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 3}. •LPA induces ROS generation by activating PLC. •PKCζ mediates LPA-induced ROS generation. -- Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in males, and PC-3 is a cell model popularly used for investigating the behavior of late stage prostate cancer. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lysophospholipid that mediates multiple behaviors in cancer cells, such as proliferation, migration and adhesion. We have previously demonstrated that LPA enhances vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C expression in PC-3 cells by activating the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is known to be an important mediator in cancer progression. Using flow cytometry, we showed that LPA triggers ROS generation within 10 min and that the generated ROS can be suppressed by pretreatment with the NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibitor diphenylene iodonium. In addition, transfection with LPA{sub 1} and LPA{sub 3} siRNA efficiently blocked LPA-induced ROS production, suggesting that both receptors are involved in this pathway. Using specific inhibitors and siRNA, phospholipase C (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) were also suggested to participate in LPA-induced ROS generation. Overall, we demonstrated that LPA induces ROS generation in PC-3 prostate cancer cells and this is mediated through the PLC/PKC/Nox pathway.

  1. Isolation of eugenyl β-primeveroside from Camellia sasanqua and its anticancer activity in PC3 prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chieh Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of tea trees have focused on their ornamental properties, there are fewer published studies on their medical values. The purpose of this study was to compare the chemical constituents and the biological potential of the water extract of leaves in eight species of Camellia including Camellia sinensis. Among eight Camellia species, Camellia sasanqua showed potent anticancer activities in prostate cancer PC3 cells. In addition to catechins, the major component, eugenyl β-primeveroside was detected in C. sasanqua. Eugenyl β-primeveroside blocked the progression of cell cycle at G1 phase by inducing p53 expression and further upregulating p21 expression. Moreover, eugenyl β-primeveroside induced apoptosis in PC3 prostate cancer cells. Our results suggest that C. sasanqua may have anticancer potential.

  2. U94 alters FN1 and ANGPTL4 gene expression and inhibits tumorigenesis of prostate cancer cell line PC3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Wai-Yee

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insensitivity of advanced-stage prostate cancer to androgen ablation therapy is a serious problem in clinical practice because it is associated with aggressive progression and poor prognosis. Targeted therapeutic drug discovery efforts are thwarted by lack of adequate knowledge of gene(s associated with prostate tumorigenesis. Therefore there is the need for studies to provide leads to targeted intervention measures. Here we propose that stable expression of U94, a tumor suppressor gene encoded by human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A, could alter gene expression and thereby inhibit the tumorigenicity of PC3 cell line. Microarray gene expression profiling on U94 recombinant PC3 cell line could reveal genes that would elucidate prostate cancer biology, and hopefully identify potential therapeutic targets. Results We have shown that stable expression of U94 gene in PC3 cell line inhibited its focus formation in culture, and tumorigenesis in nude mice. Moreover gene expression profiling revealed dramatic upregulation of FN 1 (fibronectin, 91 ± 16-fold, and profound downregulation of ANGPTL 4 (angiopoietin-like-4, 20 ± 4-fold in U94 recombinant PC3 cell line. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR analysis showed that the pattern of expression of FN 1 and ANGPTL 4 mRNA were consistent with the microarray data. Based on previous reports, the findings in this study implicate upregulation of FN 1 and downregulation of ANGPTL 4 in the anti tumor activity of U94. Genes with cancer inhibitory activities that were also upregulated include SERPINE 2 (serine/cysteine protease inhibitor 2, 7 ± 1-fold increase and ADAMTS 1 (a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 7 ± 2-fold increase. Additionally, SPUVE 23 (serine protease 23 that is pro-tumorigenic was significantly downregulated (10 ± 1-fold. Conclusion The dramatic upregulation of FN 1 and downregulation of ANGPTL 4 genes in PC3 cell line

  3. Whole-Genome Sequence of the Metastatic PC3 and LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Seim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The bone metastasis-derived PC3 and the lymph node metastasis-derived LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines are widely studied, having been described in thousands of publications over the last four decades. Here, we report short-read whole-genome sequencing (WGS and de novo assembly of PC3 (ATCC CRL-1435 and LNCaP (clone FGC; ATCC CRL-1740 at ∼70 × coverage. A known homozygous mutation in TP53 and homozygous loss of PTEN were robustly identified in the PC3 cell line, whereas the LNCaP cell line exhibited a larger number of putative inactivating somatic point and indel mutations (and in particular a loss of stop codon events. This study also provides preliminary evidence that loss of one or both copies of the tumor suppressor Capicua (CIC contributes to primary tumor relapse and metastatic progression, potentially offering a treatment target for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC. Our work provides a resource for genetic, genomic, and biological studies employing two commonly-used prostate cancer cell lines.

  4. Whole-Genome Sequence of the Metastatic PC3 and LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Inge; Jeffery, Penny L; Thomas, Patrick B; Nelson, Colleen C; Chopin, Lisa K

    2017-06-07

    The bone metastasis-derived PC3 and the lymph node metastasis-derived LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines are widely studied, having been described in thousands of publications over the last four decades. Here, we report short-read whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and de novo assembly of PC3 (ATCC CRL-1435) and LNCaP (clone FGC; ATCC CRL-1740) at ∼70 × coverage. A known homozygous mutation in TP53 and homozygous loss of PTEN were robustly identified in the PC3 cell line, whereas the LNCaP cell line exhibited a larger number of putative inactivating somatic point and indel mutations (and in particular a loss of stop codon events). This study also provides preliminary evidence that loss of one or both copies of the tumor suppressor Capicua (CIC) contributes to primary tumor relapse and metastatic progression, potentially offering a treatment target for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Our work provides a resource for genetic, genomic, and biological studies employing two commonly-used prostate cancer cell lines. Copyright © 2017 Seim et al.

  5. Osteopontin and MMP9: Associations with VEGF Expression/Secretion and Angiogenesis in PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Aditi; Zhou, Cindy Q.; Chellaiah, Meenakshi A., E-mail: mchellaiah@umaryland.edu [Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, Dental School, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2013-05-27

    Osteopontin and MMP9 are implicated in angiogenesis and cancer progression. The objective of this study is to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying angiogenesis, and to elucidate the role of osteopontin in this process. We report here that osteopontin/αvβ3 signaling pathway which involves ERK1/2 phosphorylation regulates the expression of VEGF. An inhibitor to MEK or curcumin significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and expression of VEGF. MMP9 knockdown reduces the secretion but not the expression of VEGF. Moreover, MMP9 knockdown increases the release of angiostatin, a key protein that suppresses angiogenesis. Conditioned media from PC3 cells treated with curcumin or MEK inhibitor inhibited tube formation in vitro in human microvascular endothelial cells. Similar inhibitory effect on tube formation was found with conditioned media collected from PC3 cells expressing mutant-osteopontin at integrin-binding site and knockdown of osteopontin or MMP9. We conclude that MMP9 activation is associated with angiogenesis via regulation of secretion of VEGF and angiostatin in PC3 cells. Curcumin is thus a potential drug for cancer treatment because it demonstrated anti-angiogenic and anti-invasive properties.

  6. Lysophosphatidic acid enhances vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-En Lin

    Full Text Available Clinical evidence suggests that lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis are important processes during the progression of prostate cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-C was shown to be a key regulator in these processes. Our previous studies demonstrated that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, a low-molecular-weight lipid growth factor, enhances VEGF-C expression in human endothelial cells. We previously demonstrated that the LPA receptor plays an important role in lymphatic development in zebrafish embryos. However, the effects of LPA on VEGF-C expression in prostate cancer are not known. Herein, we demonstrate that LPA up-regulated VEGF-C expression in three different human prostate cancer cell lines. In PC-3 human prostate cancer cells, the enhancing effects of LPA were mediated through both LPA1 and LPA3. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS production and lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF expression were involved in LPA(1/3-dependent VEGF-C expression. Furthermore, autotaxin (ATX, an enzyme responsible for LPA synthesis, also participates in regulating VEGF-C expression. By interrupting LPA(1/3 of PC-3, conditioned medium (CM -induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC lymphatic markers expression was also blocked. In summary, we found that LPA enhances VEGF-C expression through activating LPA(1/3-, ROS-, and LEDGF-dependent pathways. These novel findings could potentially shed light on developing new strategies for preventing lymphatic metastasis of prostate cancer.

  7. Photothermal therapy to damage PC3 cancer cells: in vitro studies of a pulsed laser (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Romero, Noe; Aguilar, Guillermo; Devia-Cruz, Luis F.; Banks, Darren; Zhang, Bin; Halaney, David L.

    2017-02-01

    Laser-nanoparticles interactions have been widely used for several years. In biomedicine, several in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown promising results for the detection and treatment of cancer. One of the techniques of interest to us, is the nanoparticle-assisted photothermal therapy (PTT), which consists of irradiating cancer cells incubated with nanoparticles with either a pulsed or continuous (cw) laser in order to damage the cells. However, there is still a debate over which type of laser is most effective for PTT for cancer treatment. On the one hand, cw lasers are minimally invasive and can be used for both detection and treatment of tumors. On the other hand, pulsed lasers offer great spatial precision and can deposit higher energy fluences than cw lasers, making them very efficient for inducing cavitation to damage cancer cells and tumors mechanically. The aim of this study is to investigate whether simultaneous application of cw and pulsed laser could offer a synergetic enhancement of PTT efficacy to damage cancer cells in vitro, compared to either laser applied individually. PTT efficacy is evaluated through cell viability tests following the irradiation of prostate cancer (PC3) cells incubated with gold nanorods (5.7 X10 10 p/ml). By irradiating the PC3-nanorod solution with the cw laser at 808 nm for 60 seconds, the temperature increases from 37.5 to 45°C, which damages some cancer cells via the heat shock response within the cells, and also could increase their sensitivity to the mechanical stress caused by the shock wave generated from inducing cavitation in the solution by the pulsed laser irradiation.

  8. Overcoming drug resistance in hormone- and drug-refractory prostate cancer cell line, PC-3 by docetaxel and gossypol combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Ercument; Karaca, Burcak; Kucukzeybek, Yuksel; Gorumlu, Gurbuz; Gul, Mustafa K; Erten, Cigdem; Atmaca, Harika; Uzunoglu, Selim; Karabulut, Bulent; Sanli, Ulus A; Uslu, Ruchan

    2010-03-01

    Drug resistance is a significant challenge of daily oncology practice. Docetaxel and gossypol both have antitumoral activity in hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). Our results revealed that docetaxel and gossypol were synergistically cytotoxic and apoptotic in PC-3 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We further investigated the expression profiles of genes involved in drug resistance and metabolism with a Human Cancer Drug Resistance and Metabolism PCR Array (SuperArray). Six of the 84 genes that are known to regulate drug resistance, metabolism, cell cycle, DNA repair and oncogenesis were downregulated >or=3-fold change by the combination treatment. These results may be important in devising mechanism-based and targeted therapeutic strategies for prostate cancer, especially in devising combination therapy for drug resistant prostate cancers.

  9. Carbon ion irradiation of the human prostate cancer cell line PC3: A whole genome microarray study

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUETENS, ANNELIES; MOREELS, MARJAN; QUINTENS, ROEL; CHIRIOTTI, SABINA; TABURY, KEVIN; MICHAUX, ARLETTE; GRÉGOIRE, VINCENT; BAATOUT, SARAH

    2014-01-01

    Hadrontherapy is a form of external radiation therapy, which uses beams of charged particles such as carbon ions. Compared to conventional radiotherapy with photons, the main advantage of carbon ion therapy is the precise dose localization along with an increased biological effectiveness. The first results obtained from prostate cancer patients treated with carbon ion therapy showed good local tumor control and survival rates. In view of this advanced treatment modality we investigated the effects of irradiation with different beam qualities on gene expression changes in the PC3 prostate adenocarcinoma cell line. For this purpose, PC3 cells were irradiated with various doses (0.0, 0.5 and 2.0 Gy) of carbon ions (LET=33.7 keV/μm) at the beam of the Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds (Caen, France). Comparative experiments with X-rays were performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre. Genome-wide gene expression was analyzed using microarrays. Our results show a downregulation in many genes involved in cell cycle and cell organization processes after 2.0 Gy irradiation. This effect was more pronounced after carbon ion irradiation compared with X-rays. Furthermore, we found a significant downregulation of many genes related to cell motility. Several of these changes were confirmed using qPCR. In addition, recurrence-free survival analysis of prostate cancer patients based on one of these motility genes (FN1) revealed that patients with low expression levels had a prolonged recurrence-free survival time, indicating that this gene may be a potential prognostic biomarker for prostate cancer. Understanding how different radiation qualities affect the cellular behavior of prostate cancer cells is important to improve the clinical outcome of cancer radiation therapy. PMID:24504141

  10. Ectopic expression of the ATP synthase β subunit on the membrane of PC-3M cells supports its potential role in prostate cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Li, Yulin; Li, Gaiyun; Zhou, Zilong; Chang, Xiaona; Xia, Yang; Dong, Xinjie; Liu, Zhijing; Ren, Bo; Liu, Wei; Li, Yilei

    2017-04-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer is associated with high mortality rates. Identification of metastasis-related proteins may facilitate the development of novel therapies for the treatment of metastatic disease. In the present study, we aimed to identify prostate cancer metastasis-associated membrane proteins. We developed a phage-displayed 7-mer peptide library to screen the target peptides that were specifically bound to PC-3M cells with subtractive panning from normal prostate cells and PC-3 prostate cancer cells. A novel short peptide (B04) was found to have high affinity to highly metastatic PC-3M cells. ATP synthase β subunit (ATP5B) was then identified as a binding partner of B04 on the PC-3M cell surface. ATP5B was expressed on the PC-3M cell membrane and on highly malignant human prostate cancer specimens, as shown using multiple methodologies. Furthermore, ATP5B-positive gold particles were detected on the cellular and mitochondrial membranes by immunoelectromicroscopy. These results implied the possibility that ATP5B may translocate from the inner mitochondrial membrane to the outer surface of PC-3M cells. Additional analysis showed that incubation of B04 with PC-3M cells reduced the detection of ATP5B by western blotting and flow cytometry and significantly inhibited the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of PC-3M cells. In conclusion, ATP5B, as a binding partner of a metastasis-related short peptide (B04) on prostate cancer cells, is involved in promoting prostate cancer metastasis. In conclusion, ATP5B may be a promising biomarker and therapeutic target for highly metastatic malignancies.

  11. GPNMB/OA protein increases the invasiveness of human metastatic prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and PC3 through MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorentini, Chiara; Bodei, Serena; Bedussi, Francesca; Fragni, Martina; Bonini, Sara Anna [Section of Pharmacology, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, V.le Europa 11, 25124 Brescia (Italy); Simeone, Claudio; Zani, Danilo [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Radiology and Public Health, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili 1, 25124 Brescia (Italy); Berruti, Alfredo [Medical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Radiology, and Public Health, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili 1, 25124 Brescia (Italy); Missale, Cristina; Memo, Maurizio; Spano, PierFranco [Section of Pharmacology, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, V.le Europa 11, 25124 Brescia (Italy); Sigala, Sandra, E-mail: sigala@med.unibs.it [Section of Pharmacology, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, V.le Europa 11, 25124 Brescia (Italy)

    2014-04-15

    Non-metastatic glycoprotein melanoma protein B (GPNMB), also known as osteoactivin (OA) is expressed in a wide array of tumors and represents an emerging target for drug development. In this study, we investigated the role of GPNMB/OA in the progression of human metastatic DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells. GPNMB/OA contribution in PCa malignant phenotype has been analyzed by small interfering RNA-induced GPNMB/OA silencing. We found that following GPNMB/OA silencing the migration capability of both DU145 and PC3 cells, evaluated by using in vitro invasivity assay, as well as the metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity were equally strongly inhibited. By contrast knocking down GPNMB/OA weakly attenuated cell proliferation rate of DU145, an effect that paralleled with an increase number of apoptotic cells. However, PC3 cell growth seems to be not affected by GPNMB/OA. Together, these data reveal that GPNMB/OA acts as a critical molecular mediator promoting the acquisition of the more aggressive, pro-metastatic phenotype distinctive of human DU145 and PC3 cell lines. - Highlights: • GPNMB/OA expression correlates with DU145 and PC3 cells malignant phenotype. • GPNMB/OA silencing affects the migration capability of both DU145 and PC3 cells. • GPNMB/OA increases invasiveness by up-regulating MMPs activity. • GPNMB/OA promotes DU145 and PC3 cells progression into a more aggressive phenotype.

  12. Combinatorial cytotoxic effects of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale on the PC-3M prostate cancer cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurapati, Kesava Rao V.; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Kadiyala, Dakshayani B.; Zainulabedin, Saiyed M.; Gandhi, Nimisha; Sathaye, Sadhana S.; Indap, Manohar A.; Boukli, Nawal; Rodriguez, Jose W.; Nair, Madhavan P.N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many plant-derived products exhibit potent chemopreventive activity against animal tumor models as well as rodent and human cancer cell lines. They have low side effects and toxicity and presumably modulate the factors that are critical for cell proliferation, differentiation, senescence and apoptosis. The present study investigates the effects of some medicinal plant extracts from generally recognized as safe plants that may be useful in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Methods Clonogenic assays using logarithmically-growing cells were performed to test the effect. The cytotoxic effects of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were studied using sulforhodamine B assay, tetrazolium dye assay, colony morphology and microscopic analysis. Results Out of the 13 lyophilized plant-derived extracts evaluated for growth-inhibitory effects on the PC-3M prostate cancer cell line, two extracts derived from C. longa and Z. officinale showed significant inhibitory effects on colony-forming ability. The individual and augmentative effects of these two extracts were tested for their narrow range effective lower concentration on PC-3M in clonogenic assays. At relatively lower concentrations, C. longa showed significant inhibition of colony formation in clonogenic assays; whereas at same concentrations Z. officinale showed only moderate inhibitory effects. However, when both the agents were tested together at the same concentrations, the combined effects were much more significant than their individual ones. On normal prostate epithelial cells both C. longa and Z. officinale had similar effects but at a lower magnitude. These observations were confirmed by several cytotoxicity assays involving the morphological appearance of the colonies, microscopic observations, per cent inhibition in comparison to control by sulforhodamine B and tetrazolium dye assay. Conclusions From these observations, it was concluded that the combined effects of C. longa and Z. officinale

  13. Activities of Ten Essential Oils towards Propionibacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549 and MCF-7 Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangang Zu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ten essential oils, namely, mint (Mentha spicata L.,Lamiaceae, ginger (Zingiber officinaleRosc.,Zingiberaceae, lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.,Rutaceae, grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae, jasmine (Jasminum grandiflora L.,Oleaceae, lavender (Mill.,Lamiaceae, chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L., Compositae, thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae, rose (Rosa damascena Mill.,Rosaceae and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicumN. Lauraceae were tested for their antibacterial activities towards Propionibacterium acnes and in vitro toxicology against three human cancer cell lines. Thyme, cinnamon and rose essential oils exhibited the best antibacterial activities towards P. acnes, with inhibition diameters of 40 ± 1.2 mm, 33.5 ± 1.5 mm and 16.5 ± 0.7 mm, and minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.016% (v/v, 0.016% (v/v and 0.031% (v/v, respectively. Time-kill dynamic procedures showed that thyme, cinnamon, rose, and lavender essential oils exhibited the strongest bactericidal activities at a concentration of 0.25% (v/v, and P. acnes was completely killed after 5 min. The thyme essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC50 values on PC-3, A549 and MCF-7 tumor cell lines were 0.010% (v/v, 0.011% (v/v and 0.030% (v/v, respectively. The cytotoxicity of 10 essential oils on human prostate carcinoma cell (PC-3 was significantly stronger than on human lung carcinoma (A549 and human breast cancer (MCF-7 cell lines.

  14. Combinatorial cytotoxic effects of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale on the PC-3M prostate cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurapati, Kesava Rao V; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Kadiyala, Dakshayani B; Zainulabedin, Saiyed M; Gandhi, Nimisha; Sathaye, Sadhana S; Indap, Manohar A; Boukli, Nawal; Rodriguez, Jose W; Nair, Madhavan P N

    2012-01-01

    Many plant-derived products exhibit potent chemopreventive activity against animal tumor models as well as rodent and human cancer cell lines. They have low side effects and toxicity and presumably modulate the factors that are critical for cell proliferation, differentiation, senescence and apoptosis. The present study investigates the effects of some medicinal plant extracts from generally recognized as safe plants that may be useful in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Clonogenic assays using logarithmically-growing cells were performed to test the effect. The cytotoxic effects of Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were studied using sulforhodamine B assay, tetrazolium dye assay, colony morphology and microscopic analysis. Out of the 13 lyophilized plant-derived extracts evaluated for growth-inhibitory effects on the PC-3M prostate cancer cell line, two extracts derived from C. longa and Z. officinale showed significant inhibitory effects on colony-forming ability. The individual and augmentative effects of these two extracts were tested for their narrow range effective lower concentration on PC-3M in clonogenic assays. At relatively lower concentrations, C. longa showed significant inhibition of colony formation in clonogenic assays; whereas at same concentrations Z. officinale showed only moderate inhibitory effects. However, when both the agents were tested together at the same concentrations, the combined effects were much more significant than their individual ones. On normal prostate epithelial cells both C. longa and Z. officinale had similar effects but at a lower magnitude. These observations were confirmed by several cytotoxicity assays involving the morphological appearance of the colonies, microscopic observations, per cent inhibition in comparison to control by sulforhodamine B and tetrazolium dye assay. From these observations, it was concluded that the combined effects of C. longa and Z. officinale are much greater than their individual

  15. Effect of thymol on Ca²⁺ homeostasis and viability in PC3 human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jeng-Hsien; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Chen, I-Shu; Lu, Ti; Lin, Ko-Long; Yu, Chia-Cheng; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Chang, Hong-Tai; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Ho, Chin-Man; Chang, Wen-Teng; Shieh, Pochuen; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2017-02-28

    Thymol is a phenolic compound that affects physiology in different cell models. However, whether thymol affects Ca²⁺ homeostasis in prostate cancer cells is unknown. The action of this compound on cytosolic Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺]i) and viability in PC3 human prostate cancer cells was explored. The results show that thymol at concentrations of 100-1500 μM caused [Ca²⁺]i rises in a concentration-dependent manner. Removal of extracellular Ca²⁺ reduced thymol’s effect by approximately 80%. Thymol-induced Ca²⁺ entry was confirmed by Mn²⁺ entry-induced quench of fura-2 fluorescence, and was inhibited by approximately 30% by Ca²⁺ entry modulators (nifedipine, econazole, SKF96365), and the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X. In Ca²⁺-free medium, treatment with the endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ pump inhibitor thapsigargin abolished thymol-induced [Ca²⁺]i rises. Treatment with thymol also abolished thapsigargin-induced [Ca²⁺]i rises. Thymol-induced Ca²⁺ release from the endoplasmic reticulum was abolished by the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122. Thymol at 100-900 μM decreased cell viability, which was not reversed by pretreatment with the Ca²⁺ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N’,N’-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA/AM). Together, in PC3 cells, thymol induced [Ca²⁺]i rises by inducing PLC-dependent Ca²⁺ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca²⁺ entry via PKC-sensitive store-operated Ca²⁺ channels and other unknown channels. Thymol also induced Ca²⁺-dissociated cell death.

  16. Doxorubicin-loaded magnetic nanoparticle clusters for chemo-photothermal treatment of the prostate cancer cell line PC3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weibing; Zheng, Xinmin [Department of Urology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China); Shen, Shun [School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, No. 826 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai, 201203 (China); Wang, Xinghuan, E-mail: xinghuanwang9@gmail.com [Department of Urology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 (China)

    2015-10-16

    In addition to the conventional cancer treatment such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgical management, nanomedicine-based approaches have attracted widespread attention in recent years. In this paper, a promising nanocarrier, magnetic nanoparticle clusters (MNCs) as porous materials which provided enough room on the surface, was developed for loading chemotherapeutic agent of doxorubicin (DOX). Moreover, MNCs are a good near-infrared (NIR) photothermal mediator. Thus, MNCs have great potential both in photothermal therapy (PTT) and drug delivery for chemo-photothermal therapy of cancer. We firstly explored the destruction of prostate cancer in vitro by the combination of PTT and chemotherapy using DOX@MNCs. Upon NIR irradiation at 808 nm, more cancer cells were killed when PC3 cells incubated with DOX@MNCs, owing to both MNCs-mediated photothermal ablation and cytotoxicity of light-triggered DOX release. Compared with PTT or chemotherapy alone, the chemo-photothermal therapy by DOX@MNCs showed a synergistically higher therapeutic efficacy. - Highlights: • MNCs have great potential both in photothermal therapy and drug delivery. • DOX@MNCs were used for chemo-photothermal therapy of prostate cancer cells. • DOX@MNCs showed a synergistically higher therapeutic efficacy.

  17. Metformin inhibits the proliferation of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells via the downregulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Haruo, E-mail: hal.kato@gunma-u.ac.jp; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Furuya, Yosuke; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Koike, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2015-05-22

    Metformin is a biguanide drug that is widely used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Recent studies have shown that metformin inhibits cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-tumor mechanisms of metformin include activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase/mTOR pathway and direct inhibition of insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-mediated cellular proliferation. However, the anti-tumor mechanism in prostate cancer remains unclear. Because activation of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is required for prostate cell proliferation, IGF-1R inhibitors may be of therapeutic value. Accordingly, we examined the effects of metformin on IGF-1R signaling in prostate cancer cells. Metformin significantly inhibited PC-3 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. IGF-1R mRNA expression decreased significantly after 48 h of treatment, and IGF-1R protein expression decreased in a similar manner. IGF-1R knockdown by siRNA transfection led to inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of PC-3 cells. IGF-1 activated both ERK1/2 and Akt, but these effects were attenuated by metformin treatment. In addition, intraperitoneal treatment with metformin significantly reduced tumor growth and IGF-1R mRNA expression in PC-3 xenografts. Our results suggest that metformin is a potent inhibitor of the IGF-1/IGF-1R system and may be beneficial in prostate cancer treatment. - Highlights: • Metformin inhibited PC-3 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. • Metformin decreased IGF-1R mRNA and protein expressions in PC-3 cells. • Metformin inhibited IGF-1 induced ERK and Akt phosphorylations in PC-3 cells. • Metformin treatment inhibited PC-3 cell growth and IGF-1R expression in vivo. • Metformin may be a potent inhibitor of the IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling.

  18. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives on the activity of 5α-reductase isoenzymes and on cancer cell line PC-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratoeff, Eugene; Garrido, Mariana; Ramírez-Apan, Teresa; Heuze, Yvonne; Sánchez, Araceli; Soriano, Juan; Cabeza, Marisa

    2014-11-01

    It is well known that testosterone (T) under the influence of 5α-reductase enzyme is converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which causes androgen-dependent diseases. The aim of this study was to synthesize new dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives (3a-e, 4a-i, 6 and 7) having potential inhibitory activity against the 5α-reductase enzyme. This paper also reports the in vivo pharmacological effect of these steroidal molecules. The results from this study showed that all compounds exhibited low inhibitory activity for 5α-reductase type 1 and 2 enzymes and they failed to bind to the androgen receptor. Furthermore, in the in vivo experiment, steroids 3b, 4f, and 4 g showed comparable antiandrogenic activity to that of finasteride; only derivatives 4d and 7 produced a considerable decrease in the weight of the prostate gland of gonadectomized hamsters treated with (T). On the other hand, compounds 4a, f and h showed 100% inhibition of the growth of prostate cancer cell line PC-3, with compound 4 g having a 98.2% antiproliferative effect at 50 μM. The overall data indicated that these steroidal molecules, having an aromatic ester moiety at C-3 (4f-h), could have anticancer properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Annatto Tocotrienol Induces a Cytotoxic Effect on Human Prostate Cancer PC3 Cells via the Simultaneous Inhibition of Src and Stat3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Ryosuke; Sato, Ayami; Uchida, Asuka; Shiozawa, Shinya; Sato, Chiaki; Virgona, Nantiga; Yano, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most frequently occurring cancers and often acquires the potential of androgen-independent growth as a malignant phenotype. Androgen-independent prostate cancer has severe chemoresistance towards conventional chemotherapeutic agents, so a new treatment approach is required for curing such prostate cancer. In this context, the present study was undertaken to check if annatto tocotrienol (main component δ-tocotrienol) could suppress cell growth in human prostate cancer (PC3, androgen-independent type) cells via the inhibition of Src and Stat3. The tocotrienol showed cytotoxic effects on PC3 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the effect depended on G1 arrest in the cell cycle and subsequent induction of apoptosis. In a cytotoxic dose, the tocotrienol suppressed cellular growth via the simultaneous inhibition of Src and Stat3. Similarly, the treatment combination of both Src and Stat3 inhibitors induced cytotoxic effects in PC3 cells in an additive manner compared to each by itself. With respect to cell cycle regulation and the induction of apoptosis, the combination treatment showed a similar effect to that of the tocotrienol treatment. These results suggest that annatto tocotrienol effectively induces cytotoxicity in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells via the suppression of Src and Stat3.

  20. Plumbagin elicits differential proteomic responses mainly involving cell cycle, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition pathways in human prostate cancer PC-3 and DU145 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qui JX

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jia-Xuan Qiu,1,2 Zhi-Wei Zhou, 3,4 Zhi-Xu He,4 Ruan Jin Zhao,5 Xueji Zhang,6 Lun Yang,7 Shu-Feng Zhou,3,4 Zong-Fu Mao11School of Public Health, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 4Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Research Center and Sino-US Joint Laboratory for Medical Sciences, Guiyang Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, People’s Republic of China; 5Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Sarasota, FL, USA; 6Research Center for Bioengineering and Sensing Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 7Bio-X Institutes, Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Development and Neuropsychiatric Disorders (Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Plumbagin (PLB has exhibited a potent anticancer effect in preclinical studies, but the molecular interactome remains elusive. This study aimed to compare the quantitative proteomic responses to PLB treatment in human prostate cancer PC-3 and DU145 cells using the approach of stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC. The data were finally validated using Western blot assay. First, the bioinformatic analysis predicted that PLB could interact with 78 proteins that were involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis, immunity, and signal transduction. Our quantitative proteomic study using SILAC revealed that there were at least 1,225 and 267 proteins interacting with PLB and there were 341 and 107 signaling pathways and cellular functions potentially regulated by PLB in PC-3 and DU145 cells, respectively. These proteins and pathways played a

  1. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence biosensing for the detection of prostate PC-3 cancer cells incorporating antibody as capture probe and ruthenium complex-labelled wheat germ agglutinin as signal probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haiying [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Department of Chemistry, Yuncheng University, Yuncheng 044300 (China); Li, Zhejian; Shan, Meng; Li, Congcong; Qi, Honglan; Gao, Qiang [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Wang, Jinyi [College of Science and College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A& F University, Yangling 712100 (China); Zhang, Chengxiao, E-mail: cxzhang@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China)

    2015-03-10

    Highlights: • A novel biosensor was developed for the detection of prostate cancer cells. • The selectivity of the biosensor was improved using antibody as capture probe. • The biosensor showed the low extremely detection limit of 2.6 × 10{sup 2} cells mL{sup −1}. • The ruthenium complex-labelled WGA can be transported in the cell vesicles. - Abstract: A highly selective and sensitive electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for the detection of prostate PC-3 cancer cells was designed using a prostate specific antibody as a capture probe and ruthenium complex-labelled wheat germ agglutinin as a signal probe. The ECL biosensor was fabricated by covalently immobilising the capture probe on a graphene oxide-coated glassy carbon electrode. Target PC-3 cells were selectively captured on the surface of the biosensor, and then, the signal probe was bound with the captured PC-3 cells to form a sandwich. In the presence of tripropylamine, the ECL intensity of the sandwich biosensor was logarithmically directly proportion to the concentration of PC-3 cells over a range from 7.0 × 10{sup 2} to 3.0 × 10{sup 4} cells mL{sup −1}, with a detection limit of 2.6 × 10{sup 2} cells mL{sup −1}. The ECL biosensor was also applied to detect prostate specific antigen with a detection limit of 0.1 ng mL{sup −1}. The high selectivity of the biosensor was demonstrated in comparison with that of a lectin-based biosensor. The strategy developed in this study may be a promising approach and could be extended to the design of ECL biosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of other cancer-related cells or cancer biomarkers using different probes.

  2. The bioactive compounds alpha-chaconine and gallic acid in potato extracts decrease survival and induce apoptosis in LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddivari, Lavanya; Vanamala, Jairam; Safe, Stephen H; Miller, J Creighton

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that colored potato extracts and an anthocyanin rich fraction suppressed lymph-node carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP) and prostate cancer-3 (PC-3) prostate cancer cell proliferation and induced apoptosis via caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid, catechin, malvidin, and glycoalkaloids (alpha-chaconine and solanine) have now been identified as the major bioactive components of potato, and their effects on LNCaP and PC-3 cell proliferation and apoptosis have been investigated. alpha-chaconine (5 microg/ml) and gallic acid (15 microg/ml) exhibited potent antiproliferative properties and increased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 levels in both cell lines. Both alpha-chaconine and gallic acid induced poly [adenosine diphosphate (ADP)] ribose polymerase cleavage and caspase-dependent apoptosis in LNCaP cells; however, caspase-independent apoptosis through nuclear translocation of endonuclease G was observed in both LNCaP and PC-3 cells. alpha-chaconine and gallic acid activated c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), and this response played a major role in induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis in LNCaP cells; whereas modulation of JNK and mitogen-activated protein kinase did not affect alpha-chaconine- and gallic acid-induced caspase-independent apoptosis. These results suggest that apoptosis induced by whole potato extracts in prostate cancer cell lines may be in part due to alpha-chaconine and gallic acid.

  3. Pristimerin Inhibits Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis by Targeting PC-3 Stem Cell Characteristics and VEGF-Induced Vasculogenesis of BM-EPCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Prostate cancer (PCa is one of the most common malignant cancers and a major leading cause of cancer deaths in men. Cancer stem-like cells are shown to be highly tumorigenic, pro-angiogenic and can significantly contribute to tumor new vessel formation and bone marrow derived-EPCs (BM-EPCs are shown to recruit to the angiogenic switch in tumor growth and metastatic progression, suggesting the importance of targeting cancer stem cells (CSCs and EPCs for novel tumor therapies. Pristimerin, an active component isolated from Celastraceae and Hippocrateaceae, has shown anti-tumor effects in some cell lines in previous studies. However, the effect and mechanism of Pristimerin on CSCs and EPCs in PCa bone metastasis are not well studied. Methods: The effect of Pristimerin on PC-3 stem cell characteristics and metastasis were detected by spheroid formation, CD133 and CD44 protein expression, matrix-gel invasive assay and colony-formation assay in vitro, VEGF and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression by ELISA assay, and tumor tumorigenicity by X-ray and MR in NOD-SCID mice model in vivo. In addition, we also detected the effect of Pristimerin on VEGF-induced vasculogenesis and protein expression of BM-EPCs. Results: Pristimerin could significantly inhibit spheroid formation and protein expression of CD133 and CD44, reduce VEGF and pro-inflammation cytokines expression of PC-3 cell, and prevent the xenografted PC-3 tumor growth in the bone of nude mice. The present data also showed that Pristimerin significantly inhibited VEGF-induced vasculogenesis of BM-EPCs by suppressing the EPCs functions including proliferation, adhesion, migration, tube formation and inactivation the phosphorylation of VEGFR-2, Akt and eNOS. Conclusion: These data provide evidence that Pristimerin has strong potential for development as a novel agent against prostate bone metastasis by suppressing PC-3 stem cell characteristics and VEGF-induced vasculogenesis of BM-EPCs.

  4. Bioenergetic and Antiapoptotic Properties of Mitochondria from Cultured Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines PC-3, DU145 and LNCaP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, Alexander; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to reveal the metabolic features of mitochondria that might be essential for inhibition of apoptotic potential in prostate cancer cells. We studied mitochondria isolated from normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC), metastatic prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, PC-3, DU145; and non-prostate cancer cells - human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells; and normal human lymphoblastoid cells. PrEC cells contained 2 to 4 times less mitochondria per gram of cells than the three PC cell lines. Respiratory activities of PrEC cell mitochondria were 5-20-fold lower than PC mitochondria, depending on substrates and the metabolic state, due to lower content and lower activity of the respiratory enzyme complexes. Mitochondria from the three metastatic prostate cancer cell lines revealed several features that are distinctive only to these cells: low affinity of Complex I for NADH, 20-30 mV higher electrical membrane potential (ΔΨ). Unprotected with cyclosporine A (CsA) the PC-3 mitochondria required 4 times more Ca2+ to open the permeability transition pore (mPTP) when compared with the PrEC mitochondria, and they did not undergo swelling even in the presence of alamethicin, a large pore forming antibiotic. In the presence of CsA, the PC-3 mitochondria did not open spontaneously the mPTP. We conclude that the low apoptotic potential of the metastatic PC cells may arise from inhibition of the Ca2+-dependent permeability transition due to a very high ΔΨ and higher capacity to sequester Ca2+. We suggest that due to the high ΔΨ, mitochondrial metabolism of the metastatic prostate cancer cells is predominantly based on utilization of glutamate and glutamine, which may promote development of cachexia. PMID:23951286

  5. Bioenergetic and antiapoptotic properties of mitochondria from cultured human prostate cancer cell lines PC-3, DU145 and LNCaP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Panov

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to reveal the metabolic features of mitochondria that might be essential for inhibition of apoptotic potential in prostate cancer cells. We studied mitochondria isolated from normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC, metastatic prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, PC-3, DU145; and non-prostate cancer cells - human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells; and normal human lymphoblastoid cells. PrEC cells contained 2 to 4 times less mitochondria per gram of cells than the three PC cell lines. Respiratory activities of PrEC cell mitochondria were 5-20-fold lower than PC mitochondria, depending on substrates and the metabolic state, due to lower content and lower activity of the respiratory enzyme complexes. Mitochondria from the three metastatic prostate cancer cell lines revealed several features that are distinctive only to these cells: low affinity of Complex I for NADH, 20-30 mV higher electrical membrane potential (ΔΨ. Unprotected with cyclosporine A (CsA the PC-3 mitochondria required 4 times more Ca²⁺ to open the permeability transition pore (mPTP when compared with the PrEC mitochondria, and they did not undergo swelling even in the presence of alamethicin, a large pore forming antibiotic. In the presence of CsA, the PC-3 mitochondria did not open spontaneously the mPTP. We conclude that the low apoptotic potential of the metastatic PC cells may arise from inhibition of the Ca²⁺-dependent permeability transition due to a very high ΔΨ and higher capacity to sequester Ca²⁺. We suggest that due to the high ΔΨ, mitochondrial metabolism of the metastatic prostate cancer cells is predominantly based on utilization of glutamate and glutamine, which may promote development of cachexia.

  6. Gleditsia sinensis Thorn Attenuates the Collagen-Based Migration of PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells through the Suppression of α2β1 Integrin Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Ryu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gleditsia sinensis thorns (GST have been used as a traditional medicine for carbuncles and skin diseases. The purpose of this study was to decide whether non-toxicological levels of water extract of GST (WEGST are effective in inhibiting the progress of prostate cancer formation and to identify the target molecule involved in the WEGST-mediated inhibitory process of prostate cancer cell migration and in vivo tumor formation. Through the Boyden chamber migration assay, we found that non-toxic levels of WEGST could not attenuate the PC3 migration to the bottom area coated with serum but significantly inhibited PC3 cell migration to the collagen-coated bottom area. We also found that non-toxic levels of WEGST significantly attenuated collagen against adhesion. Interestingly, ectopic administration of WEGST could not affect the expression of α2β1 integrin, which is known as a receptor of collagen. However, when the PC3 cells adhered to a collagen-coated plate, the expression of α2 integrin but not that of β1 integrin was significantly inhibited by the administration of non-toxic levels of WEGST, leading to the inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK phosphorylation. Furthermore, oral administration of WEGST (25 mg/kg/day significantly inhibited the size of a PC3 cell-xenografted tumor. Taken together, these results suggest a novel molecular mechanism for WEGST to inhibit prostate cancer progression at particular stages, such as collagen-mediated adhesion and migration, and it might provide further development for the therapeutic use of WEGST in the treatment of prostate cancer progression.

  7. Use of real-time cellular analysis and Plackett-Burman design to develop the serum-free media for PC-3 prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ai; Chen, Fahai; Ning, Chunhong; Wu, Haiming; Song, Huanfang; Wu, Yanqing; Chen, Rong; Zhou, Kaihua; Xu, Xiaoling; Lu, Yinxiang; Gao, Jimin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we developed a rapid strategy to screen a serum-free medium for culturing the anchorage-dependent PC-3 prostate cancer cells, which was going to be prepared in large scale to generate GM-CSF/TNFα-surface-modified whole cell prostate cancer vaccine. Automated real-time cellular analysis as a rapid and non-invasive technology was used to monitor the growth of PC-3 cells in 16-well plates. At the same time, Plackett-Burman design was employed to identify the most influential formulation by integrating relevant information statistically. The effects of the 16 selected factors were evaluated during exponential cell growth and three medium constituents (EGF, FGF and linoleic acid) were identified to have significant effects on the cell growth. Subsequently, the response surface methodology with central composite design was applied to determine the interactions among the three factors so that these factors were optimized to improve cell growth. Finally, the prediction of the best combination was made under the maximal response to optimize cell growth by Design-Expert software 7.0. A total of 20 experiments were conducted to construct a quadratic model and a second-order polynomial equation. With the optimized combination validated by the stability test of serial passaging PC-3 cells, the serum-free medium had similar cell density and cell viability to the original serum medium. In summary, this high-throughput scheme minimized the screening time and may thus provide a new platform to efficiently develop the serum-free media for adherent cells.

  8. Preparation of catechin extracts and nanoemulsions from green tea leaf waste and their inhibition effect on prostate cancer cell PC-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yin-Jieh; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is one of the most commonly consumed natural health beverages in Taiwan’s market, with the major functional component catechin being shown to possess several biological activities such as antioxidation, anticancer, and prevention of cardiovascular disease. The objectives of this study were to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method to determine the variety and content of catechins in green tea leaf waste, a by-product obtained during processing of tea beverage. In addition, catechin nanoemulsion was prepared to study its inhibition effect on prostate cancer cell PC-3. Results showed that a total of eight catechin standards were separated within 25 minutes by using a Gemini C18 column and a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid (A) and acetonitrile (B) with flow rate at 1 mL/min, column temperature at 30°C, and detection wavelength at 280 nm. Among various extraction solvents, 50% ethanol generated the highest yield of total catechins from tea leaf waste, of which five catechins were identified and quantified. The catechin nanoemulsion was composed of catechin extract, lecithin, Tween 80, and deionized water in an appropriate proportion, with the mean particle size being 11.45 nm, encapsulation efficiency 88.1%, and zeta potential −66.3 mV. A high stability of catechin nanoemulsion was shown over a storage period of 120 days at 4°C. Both catechin extract and nanoemulsion could inhibit growth of PC-3 tumor cells, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration being 15.4 μg/mL and 8.5 μg/mL, respectively. The PC-3 cell cycle was arrested at S phase through elevation of P27 expression and decline of cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 expression. In addition, both catechin extract and nanoemulsion could induce apoptosis of PC-3 cells through decrease in B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2) expression and increase in cytochrome c expression for activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and

  9. Preparation of catechin extracts and nanoemulsions from green tea leaf waste and their inhibition effect on prostate cancer cell PC-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yin-Jieh; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is one of the most commonly consumed natural health beverages in Taiwan's market, with the major functional component catechin being shown to possess several biological activities such as antioxidation, anticancer, and prevention of cardiovascular disease. The objectives of this study were to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to determine the variety and content of catechins in green tea leaf waste, a by-product obtained during processing of tea beverage. In addition, catechin nanoemulsion was prepared to study its inhibition effect on prostate cancer cell PC-3. Results showed that a total of eight catechin standards were separated within 25 minutes by using a Gemini C18 column and a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid (A) and acetonitrile (B) with flow rate at 1 mL/min, column temperature at 30°C, and detection wavelength at 280 nm. Among various extraction solvents, 50% ethanol generated the highest yield of total catechins from tea leaf waste, of which five catechins were identified and quantified. The catechin nanoemulsion was composed of catechin extract, lecithin, Tween 80, and deionized water in an appropriate proportion, with the mean particle size being 11.45 nm, encapsulation efficiency 88.1%, and zeta potential -66.3 mV. A high stability of catechin nanoemulsion was shown over a storage period of 120 days at 4°C. Both catechin extract and nanoemulsion could inhibit growth of PC-3 tumor cells, with the half maximal inhibitory concentration being 15.4 μg/mL and 8.5 μg/mL, respectively. The PC-3 cell cycle was arrested at S phase through elevation of P27 expression and decline of cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 expression. In addition, both catechin extract and nanoemulsion could induce apoptosis of PC-3 cells through decrease in B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2) expression and increase in cytochrome c expression for activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and

  10. Isolation of three new annonaceous acetogenins from Graviola fruit (Annona muricata) and their anti-proliferation on human prostate cancer cell PC-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shi; Liu, Jingchun; Zhou, Ninghui; Zhu, Wenjun; Dou, Q Ping; Zhou, Kequan

    2016-09-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fruit powder of Graviola (Annona muricata) was continued to be conducted and yielded three more novel bioactive compounds: C-35 annonaceous acetogenins, muricins M and N, and C-37 annonaceous acetogenins, muricenin. They all contain a mono-tetrahydrofuran ring and four hydroxyl groups. The structures were elucidated by spectral methods and chemical modification after isolation via open column chromatographic separation and HPLC purification. Especially, murices M and N demonstrated more potent anti-proliferative activities against human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phyllanthus spp. induces selective growth inhibition of PC-3 and MeWo human cancer cells through modulation of cell cycle and induction of apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Quan Tang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phyllanthus is a traditional medicinal plant that has been used in the treatment of many diseases including hepatitis and diabetes. The main aim of the present work was to investigate the potential cytotoxic effects of aqueous and methanolic extracts of four Phyllanthus species (P.amarus, P.niruri, P.urinaria and P.watsonii against skin melanoma and prostate cancer cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Phyllanthus plant appears to possess cytotoxic properties with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50 values of 150-300 µg/ml for aqueous extract and 50-150 µg/ml for methanolic extract that were determined using the MTS reduction assay. In comparison, the plant extracts did not show any significant cytotoxicity on normal human skin (CCD-1127Sk and prostate (RWPE-1 cells. The extracts appeared to act by causing the formation of a clear "ladder" fragmentation of apoptotic DNA on agarose gel, displayed TUNEL-positive cells with an elevation of caspase-3 and -7 activities. The Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH level was lower than 15% in Phyllanthus treated-cancer cells. These indicate that Phyllanthus extracts have the ability to induce apoptosis with minimal necrotic effects. Furthermore, cell cycle analysis revealed that Phyllanthus induced a Go/G1-phase arrest on PC-3 cells and a S-phase arrest on MeWo cells and these were accompanied by accumulation of cells in the Sub-G1 (apoptosis phase. The cytotoxic properties may be due to the presence of polyphenol compounds such as ellagitannins, gallotannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids found both in the water and methanol extract of the plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Phyllanthus plant exerts its growth inhibition effect in a selective manner towards cancer cells through the modulation of cell cycle and induction of apoptosis via caspases activation in melanoma and prostate cancer cells. Hence, Phyllanthus may be sourced for the development of a potent apoptosis-inducing anticancer

  12. Epidermal growth factor potentiates in vitro metastatic behaviour of human prostate cancer PC-3M cells: involvement of voltage-gated sodium channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uysal-Onganer Pinar

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a high level of functional voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC expression has been found in strongly metastatic human and rat prostate cancer (PCa cells, the mechanism(s responsible for the upregulation is unknown. The concentration of epidermal growth factor (EGF, a modulator of ion channels, in the body is highest in prostatic fluid. Thus, EGF could be involved in the VGSC upregulation in PCa. The effects of EGF on VGSC expression in the highly metastatic human PCa PC-3M cell line, which was shown previously to express both functional VGSCs and EGF receptors, were investigated. A quantitative approach, from gene level to cell behaviour, was used. mRNA levels were determined by real-time PCR. Protein expression was studied by Western blots and immunocytochemistry and digital image analysis. Functional assays involved measurements of transverse migration, endocytic membrane activity and Matrigel invasion. Results Exogenous EGF enhanced the cells' in vitro metastatic behaviours (migration, endocytosis and invasion. Endogenous EGF had a similar involvement. EGF increased VGSC Nav1.7 (predominant isoform in PCa mRNA and protein expressions. Co-application of the highly specific VGSC blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX suppressed the effect of EGF on all three metastatic cell behaviours studied. Conclusion 1 EGF has a major involvement in the upregulation of functional VGSC expression in human PCa PC-3M cells. (2 VGSC activity has a significant intermediary role in potentiating effect of EGF in human PCa.

  13. Fractionated Ocimum gratissimum leaf extract inhibit prostate cancer (PC3·AR) cells growth by reducing androgen receptor and survivin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekunwe, Stephen I; Hall, Sakeli M; Luo, Xuan; Wang, Hengshan; Begonia, Gregorio B

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the antiproliferative activity of the organic solvent-soluble and aqueous extracts of Ocimum gratissimum leaf against the prostate cancer cells PC3·AR were evaluated by their inhibitory effects on the Androgen Receptor (AR) and Survivin protein. Two organic solvent-soluble extracts P2 and P3-2, and a water- soluble extract, PS/PT1, were found to reduce AR and Survivin levels in a time-dependent manner. In addition, extract PS/PT1, also exhibited the inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent manner. This is the first time that the inhibitory eff ects of O. gratissimum extracts have been evaluated on the Androgen Receptor (AR) and Survivin protein. The results encouraged the further studies of O. gratissimum as a potential treatment of prostate cancer.

  14. Biosynthesis, Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Effects Against Prostate Cancer (PC-3) Cells of Silver Nanoparticles Using Dimocarpus Longan Lour. Peel Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Du, Zhiyun; Ma, Shijing; Cheng, Shupeng; Jiang, Sen; Liu, Yue; Li, Dongli; Huang, Huarong; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Xi

    2016-06-01

    Metal nanoparticles, particularly silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), are developing more important roles as diagnostic and therapeutic agents for cancers with the improvement of eco-friendly synthesis methods. This study demonstrates the biosynthesis, antibacterial activity, and anticancer effects of silver nanoparticles using Dimocarpus Longan Lour. peel aqueous extract. The AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR). The bactericidal properties of the synthesized AgNPs were observed via the agar dilution method and the growth inhibition test. The cytotoxicity effect was explored on human prostate cancer PC-3 cells in vitro by trypan blue assay. The expressions of phosphorylated stat 3, bcl-2, survivin, and caspase-3 were examined by Western blot analysis. The longan peel extract acted as a strong reducing and stabilizing agent during the synthesis. Water-soluble AgNPs of size 9-32 nm was gathered with a face-centered cubic structure. The AgNPs had potent bactericidal activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria with a dose-related effect. AgNPs also showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity against PC-3 cells through a decrease of stat 3, bcl-2, and survivin, as well as an increase in caspase-3. These findings confirm the bactericidal properties and explored a potential anticancer application of AgNPs for prostate cancer therapy. Further research should be focused on the comprehensive study of molecular mechanism and in vivo effects on the prostate cancer.

  15. Asterosaponins from the Starfish Astropecten monacanthus suppress growth and induce apoptosis in HL-60, PC-3, and SNU-C5 human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Luyen, Bui Thi Thuy; Kim, Eun-Ji; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Kim, Sohyun; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Kiem, Phan Van; Minh, Chau Van; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    Using various chromatographic experiments, six asterosaponins (1-6) were isolated from the MeOH extract of the Vietnamese starfish Astropecten monacanthus. The cytotoxic activities of the MeOH extract and six asterosaponins were evaluated on three human cancer cell lines, HL-60 (promyelocytic leukemia), PC-3 (prostate cancer), and SNU-C5 (colorectal cancer). Relative to the effects of the postitive control mitoxantrone, the MeOH extract (with IC50 values ranging from 0.84±0.03 to 3.96±0.14 µg/mL) and astrosterioside D (5) (with IC50 values ranging from 4.31±0.07 to 5.21±0.15 µM) exhibited potent cytotoxic effects against all three tested human cancer cell lines. In addition, the MeOH extract and astrosterioside D (5) have an effect on leading to apoptosis. Interestingly, the apoptosis of induction was accompanied by down-regulation of phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, and decrease of c-myc expression. Further studies are required to establish use of the asterosaponins from A. monacanthus as remedial and/or nutraceutical purposes.

  16. The proteasome inhibitor MG-132 sensitizes PC-3 prostate cancer cells to ionizing radiation by a DNA-PK-independent mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McBride William H

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By modulating the expression levels of specific signal transduction molecules, the 26S proteasome plays a central role in determining cell cycle progression or arrest and cell survival or death in response to stress stimuli, including ionizing radiation. Inhibition of proteasome function by specific drugs results in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and radiosensitization of many cancer cell lines. This study investigates whether there is also a concomitant increase in cellular radiosensitivity if proteasome inhibition occurs only transiently before radiation. Further, since proteasome inhibition has been shown to activate caspase-3, which is involved in apoptosis, and caspase-3 can cleave DNA-PKcs, which is involved in DNA-double strand repair, the hypothesis was tested that caspase-3 activation was essential for both apoptosis and radiosensitization following proteasome inhibition. Methods Prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells were treated with the reversible proteasome inhibitor MG-132. Cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, DNA-PKcs protein levels and DNA-PK activity were monitored. Radiosensitivity was assessed using a clonogenic assay. Results Inhibition of proteasome function caused cell cycle arrest and apoptosis but this did not involve early activation of caspase-3. Short-time inhibition of proteasome function also caused radiosensitization but this did not involve a decrease in DNA-PKcs protein levels or DNA-PK activity. Conclusion We conclude that caspase-dependent cleavage of DNA-PKcs during apoptosis does not contribute to the radiosensitizing effects of MG-132.

  17. The Effects of Lycopene on the Methylation of the GSTP1 Promoter and Global Methylation in Prostatic Cancer Cell Lines PC3 and LNCaP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA (cytosine-5- methylation silencing of GSTP1 function occurs in prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa. Previous studies have shown that there is an inverse relationship between dietary lycopene intake and the risk of PCa. However, it is unknown whether lycopene reactivates the tumor suppressor gene glutathioneS-transferase-π (GSTP1 by demethylation of the hypermethylated CpGs that act to silence the GSTP1 promoter. Here, we demonstrated that lycopene treatment significantly decreased the methylation levels of the GSTP1 promoter and increased the mRNA and protein levels of GSTP1 in an androgen-independent PC-3 cell line. In contrast, lycopene treatment did not demethylate the GSTP1 promoter or increase GSTP1 expression in the androgen-dependent LNCaP cell line. DNA methyltransferase (DNMT 3A protein levels were downregulated in PC-3 cells following lycopene treatment; however, DNMT1 and DNMT3B levels were unchanged. Furthermore, the long interspersed element (LINE-1 and short interspersed element ALU were not demethylated when treated by lycopene. In LNCaP cells, lycopene treatment did not affect any detected DNMT protein expression, and the methylation levels of LINE-1 and ALU were decreased. These results indicated that the protective effect of lycopene on the prostate is different between androgen-dependent and androgen-independent derived PCa cells. Further, in vivo studies should be conducted to confirm these promising results and to evaluate the potential role of lycopene in the protection of the prostate.

  18. ASF-4-1 fibroblast-rich culture increases chemoresistance and mTOR expression of pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells at the invasive front in vitro, and promotes tumor growth and invasion in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Masaya; Kanayama, Kazuki; Hirokawa, Yoshifumi S; Shiraishi, Taizo

    2016-04-01

    Pancreatic cancer develops dense stromal tissue through the desmoplastic reaction. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a fibroblast-rich environment on the malignant potential of pancreatic cancer. Cells from the human pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 were mixed at a ratio of 1:3 (fibroblast-rich) or 1:1 (fibroblast-poor) with cells from the human skin fibroblast line ASF-4-1. In the fibroblast-rich co-culture, tumor budding was observed and BxPC-3 cells were found to be more resistant to gemcitabine than those in the fibroblast-poor co-culture. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the expression of mammalian target of rapamycin was increased at the invasive front of fibroblast-rich co-cultures. In addition, in mouse xenografts of fibroblast-rich co-cultures, tumors were larger and had a higher Ki-67 index compared with that of the fibroblast-poor co-culture xenografts. These results indicate that fibroblast-rich co-cultures may promote the malignant potential of the pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3, both in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Cycloartan-24-ene-1α,2α,3β-triol, a cycloartane-type triterpenoid from the resinous exudates of Commiphora myrrha, induces apoptosis in human prostatic cancer PC-3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenyan; Su, Xiaojie; Dong, Xiaoyan; Chen, Yingli; Zhou, Chunlan; Xin, Ping; Yu, Chunhao; Wei, Taiming

    2015-03-01

    Plant-derived antitumor drugs are currently used in chemotherapy. Cycloartane triterpenoids have shown a cytotoxic effect on human prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to isolate a cycloartane triterpenoid from Commiphora myrrha and evaluate its anticancer potential. Cycloartan-24-ene-1α,2α,3β-triol (MY-1) was isolated from Commiphora myrrha, and its structure was determined through 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of MY-1 on human prostatic cancer PC-3 cells were estimated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometric analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining assay, and the expression of apoptotic-related proteins were evaluated by western blotting. MY-1 showed cytotoxic activity on PC-3 cells in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 9.6 µM at 24 h. MY-1 induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed that MY-1 regulated the expression levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), p53 and caspase-3 in the PC-3 cells. These findings indicate that MY-1 exerts significantly pro-apoptotic activity against human hormone-independent prostatic cancer and support MY-1 as a potential anticancer drug.

  20. Evaluation of the radio modifier effect of propolis on chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and human prostate cancer (PC3) cells, irradiated with 60-CO; Avaliacao do efeito radiomodificador da propolis em celulas de ovario de hamster chines (CHO-K1) e em celulas tumorais de prostata (PC3), irradiadas com CO-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Geyza Spigoti

    2011-07-01

    In the last decades, it has been given a great interest to investigations concerning natural, effective, nontoxic compounds with radioprotective potential together with the increasing utilization of different types of ionizing radiation for various applications. Among them propolis, a resinous compound produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera), has been considered quite promising, since it presents several advantageous biological characteristics, i. e., anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant and also free radical scavenging action. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Brazilian propolis, collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) and human prostate cancer (PC3) cells, irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma} radiation. For this purpose, three interlinked parameters were analyzed: micronucleus induction, cell viability and clonogenic death. The choice of these parameters was justified by their biological significance, in addition to the fact that they are readily observable and measurable in irradiated cells. The cytogenetic data obtained showed a radioprotective effect of propolis (5-100 {mu}g/ml) in the induction of DNA damage for both cell lines, irradiated with doses of 1 - 4 Gy. The cytotoxicity assay, however, showed a prominent antiproliferative effect of propolis (50 - 400{mu}/ml) in PC3 cells irradiated with 5 G{gamma}. The survival curves obtained were adequately fitted by a linear-quadratic model, where the {alpha} coefficient was higher in CHO-K1 cells. Concerning the clonogenic capacity, PC3 cells were more radiosensitive than CHO-K1 cells at the higher doses of the survival curve. Propolis at the concentrations of 30 - 100 {mu}g/ml, did not influence the clonogenic potential of PC3 cells, since the survival curves, associated or not with propolis, were found similar, although the combined treatment in CHO-K1 cells exhibited a stimulating proliferative effect. The data

  1. Development of a new rutin nanoemulsion and its application on prostate carcinoma PC3 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad; Sahabjada, -; Akhtar, Juber; Hussain, Arshad; Badaruddeen, -; Arshad, Md; Mishra, Anuradha

    2017-01-01

    Biological effects of rutin bioactive are limited due to its poor oral bioavailability and its degradation in aqueous environments. For the purpose of bioenhancement, different nanoemulsion systems of rutin were developed by aqueous titration method using water as dispersion media. The nanoemulsion systems were characterized for surface morphology, droplet size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, in vitro release profile and the formulations were optimized. The anticancer potential of optimized nanoemulsion was evaluated by cells viability (MTT) assay, nuclear condensation, and ROS activity using human prostate cancer (PC3) cell line. On the basis of cell viability data the inhibitory concentration (IC50) value for optimized nanoemulsion formulation on PC3 cancer cells was found to be 11.8 μM. Fluorescent microscopic analysis and intracellular ROS generation demonstrated significant ROS induction that might lead to triggering the apoptosis pathway. In conclusion, developed nanoemulsion displayed significant efficacy against prostate carcinoma cells.

  2. Label-free real-time acoustic sensing of microvesicle release from prostate cancer (PC3) cells using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Dan; Lange, Sigrun; Kholia, Sharad; Jorfi, Samireh; Antwi-Baffour, Samuel; Inal, Jameel

    2014-10-24

    Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance with dissipation monitoring, QCM-D (label-free system) measuring changes in resonant frequency (Δf) that equate to mass deposited on a sensor, we showed the attachment, over a 60min period, of a monolayer of PC3 cells to the gold electrodes of the quartz crystal sensor, which had been rendered hydrophilic. That MVs were released upon BzATP stimulation of cells was confirmed by NTA analysis (average 250nm diameter), flow cytometry, showing high phosphatidylserine exposition and by fluorescent (Annexin V Alexa Fluor® 488-positive) and electron microscopy. Over a period of 1000s (16.7min) during which early apoptosis increased from 4% plateauing at 10% and late apoptosis rose to 2%, the Δf increased 20Hz, thereupon remaining constant for the last 1000s of the experiment. Using the Sauerbrey equation, the loss in mass, which corresponded to the release of 2.36×10(6)MVs, was calculated to be 23ng. We therefore estimated the mass of an MV to be 0.24pg. With the deposition on the QCM-D of 3.5×10(7)MVs over 200s, the decrease in Δf (Hz) gave an estimate of 0.235pg per MV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Label-free real-time acoustic sensing of microvesicle release from prostate cancer (PC3) cells using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, Dan [Cellular and Molecular Immunology Research Centre, School of Human Sciences, London Metropolitan University, London (United Kingdom); Lange, Sigrun [University College London School of Pharmacy, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX (United Kingdom); Kholia, Sharad; Jorfi, Samireh; Antwi-Baffour, Samuel [Cellular and Molecular Immunology Research Centre, School of Human Sciences, London Metropolitan University, London (United Kingdom); Inal, Jameel, E-mail: j.inal@londonmet.ac.uk [Cellular and Molecular Immunology Research Centre, School of Human Sciences, London Metropolitan University, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • Microvesiculating cells record loss of mass on a Quartz Crystal Microbalance. • Using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance microvesicles are measured at 0.24 pg. • The QCM-D reveals loss in viscoelastic properties in microvesiculating cells. - Abstract: Using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance with dissipation monitoring, QCM-D (label-free system) measuring changes in resonant frequency (Δf) that equate to mass deposited on a sensor, we showed the attachment, over a 60 min period, of a monolayer of PC3 cells to the gold electrodes of the quartz crystal sensor, which had been rendered hydrophilic. That MVs were released upon BzATP stimulation of cells was confirmed by NTA analysis (average 250 nm diameter), flow cytometry, showing high phosphatidylserine exposition and by fluorescent (Annexin V Alexa Fluor® 488-positive) and electron microscopy. Over a period of 1000s (16.7 min) during which early apoptosis increased from 4% plateauing at 10% and late apoptosis rose to 2%, the Δf increased 20 Hz, thereupon remaining constant for the last 1000s of the experiment. Using the Sauerbrey equation, the loss in mass, which corresponded to the release of 2.36 × 10{sup 6} MVs, was calculated to be 23 ng. We therefore estimated the mass of an MV to be 0.24 pg. With the deposition on the QCM-D of 3.5 × 10{sup 7} MVs over 200s, the decrease in Δf (Hz) gave an estimate of 0.235 pg per MV.

  4. Validation of the Antiproliferative Effects of Organic Extracts from the Green Husk of Juglans regia L. on PC-3 Human Prostate Cancer Cells by Assessment of Apoptosis-Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Alshatwi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increased use of plant-based cancer chemotherapy, exploring the antiproliferative effects of phytochemicals for anticancer drug design has gained considerable attention worldwide. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of walnut green husk extracts on cell proliferation and to determine the possible molecular mechanism of extract-induced cell death by quantifying the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspases-3, and Tp53. PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. In this study, we found that green husk extracts suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner by modulating expression of apoptosis-related genes. This involved DNA fragmentation (determined by TUNEL assay and significant changes in levels of mRNA and the expression of corresponding proteins. An increase in expressions of Bax, caspase-3, and tp53 genes and their corresponding proteins was detected using real-time PCR and western blot analysis in PC-3 cells treated with the green husk organic extracts. In contrast, Bcl2 expression was downregulated after exposure to the extracts. Our data suggest the presence of bioactive compound(s in walnut green husks that are capable of killing prostate carcinoma cells by inducing apoptosis and that the husks are a candidate source of anticancer drugs.

  5. Establishment and characterization of a human prostatic carcinoma cell line (PC-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaighn, M E; Narayan, K S; Ohnuki, Y; Lechner, J F; Jones, L W

    1979-07-01

    The establishment, characterization, and tumorigenicity of a new epithelial cell line (PC-3) from a human prostatic adenocarcinoma metastatic to bone is reported. The cultured cells show anchorage-independent growth in both monolayers and in soft agar suspension and produce subcutaneous tumors in nude mice. Culture of the transplanted tumor yielded a human cell line with characteristics identical to those used initially to produce the tumor. PC-3 has a greatly reduced dependence upon serum for growth when compared to normal prostatic epithelial cells and does not respond to androgens, glucocorticoids, or epidermal or fibroblast gowth factors. Karyotypic analysis by quinacrine banding revealed the cells to be completely aneuploid with a modal chromosome number in the hypotriploid range. At least 10 distinctive marker chromosomes were identified. The overall karyotype as well as the marker chromosomes are distinct from those of the HeLa cell. Electron microscopic studies revealed many features common to neoplastic cells of epithelial origin including numerous microvilli, junctional complexes, abnormal nuclei and nucleoli, abnormal mitochondria, annulate lamellae, and lipoidal bodies. Overall, the functional and morphologic characteristics of PC-3 are those of a poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma. These cells should be useful in investigating the biochemical changes in advanced prostatic cancer cells and in assessing their response to chemotherapeutic agents.

  6. Silibinin inhibits fibronectin induced motility, invasiveness and survival in human prostate carcinoma PC3 cells via targeting integrin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deep, Gagan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado Cancer Center, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Kumar, Rahul; Jain, Anil K. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Agarwal, Chapla [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado Cancer Center, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.agarwal@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado Cancer Center, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Silibinin inhibits fibronectin-induce motile morphology in PC3 cells. • Silibinin inhibits fibronectin-induced migration and invasion in PC3 cells. • Silibinin targets fibronectin-induced integrins and downstream signaling molecule. - Abstract: Prostate cancer (PCA) is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. Preventing or inhibiting metastasis-related events through non-toxic agents could be a useful approach for lowering high mortality among PCA patients. We have earlier reported that natural flavonoid silibinin possesses strong anti-metastatic efficacy against PCA however, mechanism/s of its action still remains largely unknown. One of the major events during metastasis is the replacement of cell–cell interaction with integrins-based cell–matrix interaction that controls motility, invasiveness and survival of cancer cells. Accordingly, here we examined silibinin effect on advanced human PCA PC3 cells’ interaction with extracellular matrix component fibronectin. Silibinin (50–200 μM) treatment significantly decreased the fibronectin (5 μg/ml)-induced motile morphology via targeting actin cytoskeleton organization in PC3 cells. Silibinin also decreased the fibronectin-induced cell proliferation and motility but significantly increased cell death in PC3 cells. Silibinin also inhibited the PC3 cells invasiveness in Transwell invasion assays with fibronectin or cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) serving as chemoattractant. Importantly, PC3-luc cells cultured on fibronectin showed rapid dissemination and localized in lungs following tail vein injection in athymic male nude mice; however, in silibinin-treated PC3-luc cells, dissemination and lung localization was largely compromised. Molecular analyses revealed that silibinin treatment modulated the fibronectin-induced expression of integrins (α5, αV, β1 and β3), actin-remodeling (FAK, Src, GTPases, ARP2 and cortactin), apoptosis (cPARP and

  7. Echinophora platyloba DC (Apiaceae crude extract induces apoptosis in human prostate adenocarcinoma cells (PC 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zare Shahneh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer is the second leading malignancy worldwide and the second prominent cause of cancer-related deaths among men. Therefore, there is a serious necessity for finding advanced alternative therapeutic measures against this lethal malignancy. In this article, we report the cytotoxicity and the mechanism of cell death of the methanolic extract prepared from Echinophora platyloba DC plant against human prostate adenocarcinoma PC 3 cell line and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells HUVEC cell line. Methods: Cytotoxicity and viability of the methanolic extract were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and dye exclusion assay. Cell death enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was employed to quantify the nucleosome production resulting from nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and determine whether the mechanism involves induction of apoptosis or necrosis. The cell death was identified as apoptosis using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay and DNA fragmentation gel electrophoresis. Results: E. platyloba could decrease cell viability in malignant cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 values against PC 3 were determined as 236.136 ± 12.4, 143.400 ± 7.2, and 69.383 ± 1.29 μg/ml after 24, 36, and 48 h, respectively, but there was no significant activity in HUVEC normal cell (IC50 > 800 μg/ml. Morphological characterizations and DNA laddering assay showed that the methanolic extract treated cells displayed marked apoptotic characteristics such as nuclear fragmentation, appearance of apoptotic bodies, and DNA laddering fragment. Increase in an early apoptotic population was observed in a dose-dependent manner. PC 3 cell death elicited by the extract was found to be apoptotic in nature based a clear indication of TUNEL assay and gel electrophoresis DNA fragmentation, which is a hallmark of apoptosis

  8. Zinc Protoporphyrin Upregulates Heme Oxygenase-1 in PC-3 Cells via the Stress Response Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C. M. Kwok

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP, a naturally occurring molecule formed in iron deficiency or lead poisoning, is a potent competitive inhibitor of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1. It also regulates expression of HO-1 at the transcriptional level. However, the effect of ZnPP on HO-1 expression is controversial. It was shown to induce HO-1 expression in some cells, but suppress it in others. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of ZnPP on HO-1 expression in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Incubation of PC-3 cells with 10 μM ZnPP for 4 h showed only a slight induction of HO-1 mRNA and protein, but the induction was high after 16 h and was maintained through 48 h of incubation. Of all the known responsive elements in the HO-1 promoter, ZnPP activated mainly the stress response elements. Of the various protein kinase inhibitors and antioxidant tested, only Ro 31-8220 abrogated ZnPP-induced HO-1 expression, suggesting that activation of HO-1 gene by ZnPP may involve protein kinase C (PKC. The involvement of PKC α, β, δ, η, θ, and ζ isoforms was ruled out by the use of specific inhibitors. The isoform of PKC involved and participation of other transcription factors remain to be studied.

  9. Pharmacodynamics of TRPV1 Agonists in a Bioassay Using Human PC-3 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Alvarez-Berdugo; Marcel Jiménez; Pere Clavé; Laia Rofes

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. TRPV1 is a multimodal channel mainly expressed in sensory neurons. We aimed to explore the pharmacodynamics of the TRPV1 agonists, capsaicin, natural capsaicinoids, and piperine in an in vitro bioassay using human PC-3 cells and to examine desensitization and the effect of the specific antagonist SB366791. Methods. PC-3 cells expressing TRPV1 were incubated with Fluo-4. Fluorescence emission changes following exposition to agonists with and without preincubation with antagonists were...

  10. IGF-1R peptide vaccines/mimics inhibit the growth of BxPC3 and JIMT-1 cancer cells and exhibit synergistic antitumor effects with HER-1 and HER-2 peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Kevin Chu; Miller, Megan J; Overholser, Jay; Donnelly, Siobhan M; Nahta, Rita; Kaumaya, Pravin Tp

    2014-11-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays a crucial role in cellular growth, proliferation, transformation, and inhibition of apoptosis. A myriad of human cancer types have been shown to overexpress IGF-1R, including breast and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. IGF-1R signaling interferes with numerous receptor pathways, rendering tumor cells resistant to chemotherapy, anti-hormonal therapy, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, also known as HER-1) and v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, (ERBB2, best known as HER-2) -targeted therapies. Targeting the IGF:IGF-1R axis with innovative peptide inhibitors and vaccine antibodies thus represents a promising therapeutic strategy to overcome drug resistance and to provide new avenues for individualized and combinatorial treatment strategies. In this study, we designed, synthesized, and characterized several B-cell epitopes from the IGF-1:IGF-1R axis. The chimeric peptide epitopes were highly immunogenic in outbred rabbits, eliciting high levels of peptide vaccine antibodies. The IGF-1R peptide antibodies and peptide mimics inhibited cell proliferation and receptor phosphorylation, induced apoptosis and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and significantly inhibited tumor growth in the transplantable BxPC-3 pancreatic and JIMT-1 breast cancer models. Our results showed that the peptides and antibodies targeting residues 56-81 and 233-251 are potential therapeutic and vaccine candidates for the treatment of IGF-1R-expressing cancers, including those that are resistant to the HER-2-targeted antibody, trastuzumab. Additionally, we found additive antitumor effects for the combination treatment of the IGF-1R 56-81 epitope with HER-1-418 and HER-2-597 epitopes. Treatment with the IGF-1R/HER-1 or IGF-1R/HER-2 combination inhibited proliferation, invasion, and receptor phosphorylation, and induced apoptosis and ADCC, to a greater degree than single agents.

  11. Thiosemicarbazone Derivative Induces in vitro Apoptosis in Metastatic PC-3 Cells via Activation of Mitochondrial Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniah, Saravana Kumar; Tan, Kong Wai; Ng, Seik Weng; Sim, Kae Shin

    2017-01-01

    Thiosemicarbazone (TSC) is a Schiff base that has been receiving considerable attention owing to its promising biological implication and remarkable pharmacological properties. The most promising drug candidate of this class would be Triapine (3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone) which has entered phase II clinical trials as a potent anti-cancer chemotherapeutic agent. The current research aimed to synthesize several Schiff base ligands from (3-formyl-4-hydroxyphenyl) methyltriphenylphosphonium (T). Additionally, the current research aimed to study the growth inhibitory effect of triphenylphosphonium containing thiosemicarbazone derivatives on PC-3 cells by deciphering the mechanisms involved in cell death. The compounds were characterized by various spectroscopic methods (infrared spectra, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HRESIMS and X-ray crystallography) and the results were in conformity with the structure of the targeted compounds. Growth inhibitory effect of the compounds were performed against six human cell lines. DM(tsc)T displayed most potent activity against PC-3 cells with IC50 value of 2.64 ± 0.33 μM, surpassing that of the positive control cisplatin (5.47 ± 0.06 μM). There were marked morphological changes observed in DM(tsc)T treated cells stained with acridine orange and ethidium bromide which were indicative of cell apoptosis. Treatment with DM(tsc)T showed that the cell cycle is arrested in the G0/G1 phase after 72 hours. Mitochondrial membrane potential loss was observed in cells treated with DM(tsc)T, indicating the apoptosis could be due to mitochondria mediated pathway. This study indicates that DM(tsc)T would serve as a lead scaffold for rational anticancer agent development. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Effects of the radiolysis products of sennoside A on HepG2 and PC-3 cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Ho; Jo, Min Ho [Research Division for Biotechnology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Radiolysis of sennoside A was carried out by gamma irradiation and the anti-cancer activities of the radiolysis product were evaluated. An aqueous solution of sennoside A was exposed to 0.5-3 kGy of gamma irradiation and the radiolysis products were analyzed by HPLC. A fraction of radiolysis product (RLF) of sennoside A was isolated and the RLF was presumed as a rhein-8-β-D-glucoside. The anticancer effect of the RLF was compared with the sennoside and rhein using a in vitro assay system of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) and human hepatoma HepG2 cells. The cell viability of PC-3 and HepG2 cell was significantly decreased to 12.4±1.2% and 32.4±2.1%, respectively, by the treatment of 0.6 μM of RLF. The sennoside A (range from 0 to 25 μM) had no cytotoxic effect on PC-3 and HepG2 cells, while the rhein had the effect on HepG2 cells with a LD{sub 50} at 80 μM.

  13. PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells release signal substances that influence the migratory activity of cells in the tumor's microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zänker Kurt S

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor cells interact with the cells of the microenvironment not only by cell-cell-contacts but also by the release of signal substances. These substances are known to induce tumor vascularization, especially under hypoxic conditions, but are also supposed to provoke other processes such as tumor innervation and inflammatory conditions. Inflammation is mediated by two organ systems, the neuroendocrine system and the immune system. Therefore, we investigated the influence of substances released by PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells as well as neutrophil granulocytes and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, especially with regard to their migratory activity. Results PC-3 cells express several cytokines and growth factors including vascular endothelial growth factors, fibroblast growth factors, interleukins and neurotrophic factors. SH-SY5Y cells are impaired in their migratory activity by PC-3 cell culture supernatant, but orientate chemotactically towards the source. Neutrophil granulocytes increase their locomotory activity only in response to cell culture supernantant of hypoxic but not of normoxic PC-3 cells. In contrast, cytotoxic T lymphocytes do not change their migratory activity in response to either culture supernatant, but increase their cytotoxicity, whereas supernatant of normoxic PC-3 cells leads to a stronger increase than that of hypoxic PC-3 cells. Conclusions PC-3 cells release several signal substances that influence the behavior of the cells in the tumor's microenvironment, whereas no clear pattern towards proinflammatory or immunosuppressive conditions can be seen.

  14. King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase induces apoptosis in PC-3 cells and suppresses PC-3 solid tumor growth in a tumor xenograft mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mui Li; Fung, Shin Yee; Chung, Ivy; Pailoor, Jayalakshmi; Cheah, Swee Hung; Tan, Nget Hong

    2014-01-01

    King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase (OH-LAAO), a heat stable enzyme, has been shown to exhibit very potent anti-proliferative activity against human breast and lung tumorigenic cells but not in their non-tumorigenic counterparts. We further examine its in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity in a human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) model. OH-LAAO demonstrated potent cytotoxicity against PC-3 cells with IC50 of 0.05 µg/mL after 72 h incubation in vitro. It induced apoptosis as evidenced with an increase in caspase-3/7 cleavages and an increase in annexin V-stained cells. To examine its in vivo anti-tumor activity, we treated PC-3 tumor xenograft implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient NU/NU (nude) mice with 1 µg/g OH-LAAO given intraperitoneally (i.p.). After 8 weeks of treatment, OH-LAAO treated PC-3 tumors were markedly inhibited, when compared to the control group (P cobra venom LAAO can potentially be developed to treat prostate cancer and other solid tumors.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of antitumor effect and induction apoptosis in PC-3 cells of extract from Patrinia heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Patrinia heterophylla Bunge, Caprifoliaceae, is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used for cancer therapy. In our study, a panel of human cancer cells was treated with extract of Patrinia heterophylla Bunge. (PHEB, MTT study showed that PC-3 Human prostate adenocarcinoma was the most responsive (IC50 9.21±0.32 µg/mL one to cell growth inhibition, the further study also demonstrated that PHEB could inhibit the proliferation of PC-3 based on a concentration-and time-dependent manner. The transplanted model of sarcoma 180 (S180 and hepatoma 22 (H22 was established in mice, the study demonstrated that i.p. administration of 20, 40, 60 mg/kg PHEB exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of transplantation tumor, with inhibition rate 23.9, 48.4 and 53.6% on S180 and 21.0, 46.3 and 57.2% on H22, respectively. To investigate the molecular mechanism of PHEB in PC-3, the morphological changes of apoptosis were observed by fluorescent microscopy, apoptosis rate was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM. Morphological characterizations such as apoptotic bodies and membrane blebs were shown by microscopy. The increase of an early apoptotic population was observed in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that PHEB has anti-tumor effects and its mechanism is attributed partially to apoptosis induced.

  16. Evaluation of anticancer activity of Cordia dichotoma leaves against a human prostate carcinoma cell line, PC3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Azizur; Sahabjada; Akhtar, Juber

    2017-07-01

    Mechanisms of antioxidant and apoptosis induction may be involved in the management of cancer by medicinal plants. Aim of the study was designed to evaluate anticancer activity of the methanolic extract of Cordia dichotoma leaves (MECD) against a human prostate carcinoma cell line, PC3. Flavonoid content was determined by colorimetric principle and antioxidant activity by various in vitro assays. MTT, DCFH-DA and DAPI staining assays were performed for the evaluation of cytotoxicity, analysis of induction of apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity level by MECD against human prostate carcinoma cell line, PC3. Flavonoid content was found to be 160 mg QE/g extract. IC50 values for MECD treatment in various assays based on scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylenebenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), nitric oxide, peroxy radical, superoxide anion, hydroxy radical were found to be 315.5, 38, 476, 523, 197, 82 μg/ml respectively. MECD exposure to PC3 cells significantly increased the cell death (p < 0.001, IC50 = 74.5 μg/ml), nuclear condensation, apoptosis (p < 0.001) and induced production of ROS (p < 0.001) initiating apoptotic cascade in a dose dependent manner. This study confirms that MECD possesses antioxidant property and can prevent carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress. MECD possesses anticancer activity and lead to PC3 cell death via induction of apoptosis mediated through excessive ROS generation. Flavonoids in MECD may be responsible for these activities due to dual antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties.

  17. In vitro and in vivo double-enhanced suicide gene therapy mediated by generation 5 polyamidoamine dendrimers for PC-3 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most frequently used and efficient suicide gene therapies for prostate cancer is HSV-TK/GCV system, but its application has been limited due to lack of favorable gene vector and the reduction of "bystander effect". We investigated the effect of a novel combination of HSV-TK/GCV fused with Cx43 and gemcitabine using non-viral vector generation 5 polyamidoamine dendrimers (G5-PAMAM-D on PC-3 cells. Methods RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect TK and Cx43 expression. Cell viability and proliferation were measured by using MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was detected with double-staining of Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI by flow cytometry. Nude mice models were established to evaluate the therapeutic effect in vivo. Results G5-PAMAM-D efficiently delivered recombinant plasmids into PC-3 cells and HSV-TK and Cx43 could be expressed successfully. With gemcitabine, G5-PAMAM-D mediated HSV-TK and Cx43 expression effectively inhibited prostate cancer PC-3 cell proliferation, leading to more cellular apoptosis and inhibiting PC-3 tumor growth in nude mice models. Conclusions This study illustrates that this new suicide gene system mediated by G5-PAMAM-D is effective in decreasing PC-3 cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis, and inhibiting tumor growth in vivo. In a word, our study could provide a potential approach for gene therapy of prostate cancer.

  18. Inhibition of Hypoxia Inducible Factor Alpha and Astrocyte-Elevated Gene-1 Mediates Cryptotanshinone Exerted Antitumor Activity in Hypoxic PC-3 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jeong Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cryptotanshinone (CT was known to exert antitumor activity in several cancers, its molecular mechanism under hypoxia still remains unclear. Here, the roles of AEG-1 and HIF-1α in CT-induced antitumor activity were investigated in hypoxic PC-3 cells. CT exerted cytotoxicity against prostate cancer cells and suppressed HIF-1α accumulation and AEG-1 expression in hypoxic PC-3 cells. Also, AEG-1 was overexpressed in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, HIF-1α siRNA transfection enhanced the cleavages of caspase-9,3, and PAPR and decreased expression of Bcl-2 and AEG1 induced by CT in hypoxic PC-3 cells. Of note, DMOG enhanced the stability of AEG-1 and HIF-1α during hypoxia. Additionally, CT significantly reduced cellular level of VEGF in PC-3 cells and disturbed tube formation of HUVECs. Consistently, ChIP assay revealed that CT inhibited the binding of HIF-1α to VEGF promoter. Furthermore, CT at 10 mg/kg suppressed the growth of PC-3 cells in BALB/c athymic nude mice by 46.4% compared to untreated control. Consistently, immunohistochemistry revealed decreased expression of Ki-67, CD34, VEGF, carbonic anhydrase IX, and AEG-1 indices in CT-treated group compared to untreated control. Overall, our findings suggest that CT exerts antitumor activity via inhibition of HIF-1α, AEG1, and VEGF as a potent chemotherapeutic agent.

  19. Pharmacodynamics of TRPV1 Agonists in a Bioassay Using Human PC-3 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Marcel; Clavé, Pere

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. TRPV1 is a multimodal channel mainly expressed in sensory neurons. We aimed to explore the pharmacodynamics of the TRPV1 agonists, capsaicin, natural capsaicinoids, and piperine in an in vitro bioassay using human PC-3 cells and to examine desensitization and the effect of the specific antagonist SB366791. Methods. PC-3 cells expressing TRPV1 were incubated with Fluo-4. Fluorescence emission changes following exposition to agonists with and without preincubation with antagonists were assessed and referred to maximal fluorescence following the addition of ionomycin. Concentration-response curves were fitted to the Hill equation. Results. Capsaicin and piperine had similar pharmacodynamics (E max 204.8 ± 184.3% piperine versus 176.6 ± 35.83% capsaicin, P = 0.8814, Hill coefficient 0.70 ± 0.50 piperine versus 1.59 ± 0.86 capsaicin, P = 0.3752). In contrast, capsaicinoids had lower E max (40.99 ± 6.14% capsaicinoids versus 176.6 ± 35.83% capsaicin, P capsaicinoids. These agonists present desensitization and their effect is significantly reduced by a TRPV1-specific antagonist. In addition, PC-3 cell bioassays proved useful in the study of TRPV1 pharmacodynamics. PMID:24688365

  20. Pharmacodynamics of TRPV1 Agonists in a Bioassay Using Human PC-3 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alvarez-Berdugo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. TRPV1 is a multimodal channel mainly expressed in sensory neurons. We aimed to explore the pharmacodynamics of the TRPV1 agonists, capsaicin, natural capsaicinoids, and piperine in an in vitro bioassay using human PC-3 cells and to examine desensitization and the effect of the specific antagonist SB366791. Methods. PC-3 cells expressing TRPV1 were incubated with Fluo-4. Fluorescence emission changes following exposition to agonists with and without preincubation with antagonists were assessed and referred to maximal fluorescence following the addition of ionomycin. Concentration-response curves were fitted to the Hill equation. Results. Capsaicin and piperine had similar pharmacodynamics (Emax 204.8 ± 184.3% piperine versus 176.6 ± 35.83% capsaicin, P=0.8814, Hill coefficient 0.70 ± 0.50 piperine versus 1.59 ± 0.86 capsaicin, P=0.3752. In contrast, capsaicinoids had lower Emax (40.99 ± 6.14% capsaicinoids versus 176.6 ± 35.83% capsaicin, P<0.001. All the TRPV1 agonists showed significant desensitization after the second exposition and their effects were strongly inhibited by SB366791. Conclusion. TRPV1 receptor is successfully stimulated by capsaicin, piperine, and natural capsaicinoids. These agonists present desensitization and their effect is significantly reduced by a TRPV1-specific antagonist. In addition, PC-3 cell bioassays proved useful in the study of TRPV1 pharmacodynamics.

  1. Pharmacodynamics of TRPV1 agonists in a bioassay using human PC-3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Berdugo, Daniel; Jiménez, Marcel; Clavé, Pere; Rofes, Laia

    2014-01-01

    TRPV1 is a multimodal channel mainly expressed in sensory neurons. We aimed to explore the pharmacodynamics of the TRPV1 agonists, capsaicin, natural capsaicinoids, and piperine in an in vitro bioassay using human PC-3 cells and to examine desensitization and the effect of the specific antagonist SB366791. PC-3 cells expressing TRPV1 were incubated with Fluo-4. Fluorescence emission changes following exposition to agonists with and without preincubation with antagonists were assessed and referred to maximal fluorescence following the addition of ionomycin. Concentration-response curves were fitted to the Hill equation. Capsaicin and piperine had similar pharmacodynamics (E max 204.8 ± 184.3% piperine versus 176.6 ± 35.83% capsaicin, P = 0.8814, Hill coefficient 0.70 ± 0.50 piperine versus 1.59 ± 0.86 capsaicin, P = 0.3752). In contrast, capsaicinoids had lower E max (40.99 ± 6.14% capsaicinoids versus 176.6 ± 35.83% capsaicin, P capsaicinoids. These agonists present desensitization and their effect is significantly reduced by a TRPV1-specific antagonist. In addition, PC-3 cell bioassays proved useful in the study of TRPV1 pharmacodynamics.

  2. 3-D measurement of osmotic dehydration of isolated and adhered PC-3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimori, Takashi; Takamatsu, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    Cell dehydration during freezing results from an elevated concentration of electrolytes in the extracellular medium that is deeply involved in cellular injury. We undertook real-time threedimensional (3-D) observation of osmotic dehydration of cells, motivated by a comparison of cellular responses between isolated cells in suspension and cultured cells adhering to a surface since several studies have suggested a difference in freeze tolerance between cell suspensions and monolayers. A laser confocal scanner was used with a perfusion microscope to capture sectional images of chloromethylbenzamido (DiI)-stained PC-3 cells that were exposed to an increase in NaCl concentration from 0.15 to 0.5M at 23 degrees C. Change in cell volume was determined from reconstructed 3-D images taken every 2.5s. When cells were exposed to an elevated NaCl concentration, isolated cells contracted and markedly distorted from their original spherical shape. In contrast, adhered cells showed only a reduction in height and kept their basal area constant. Apparent membrane hydraulic conductivity did not vary considerably between isolated and adhered cells, suggesting a negligible effect of the cytoskeletal structure on the rate of water transport. The surface area that contributed to water transport in adhered PC-3 cells was nearly equal to or slightly smaller than that present in isolated cells. Therefore, the similarity in properties and dimensions between isolated and adhered cells indicate that there will be similar extents of dehydration, resulting in a similar degree of supercooling during freezing.

  3. Punicalagin, a polyphenol from pomegranate fruit, induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in human PC-3 and LNCaP cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin; Erguen, Bettina; Nitzsche, Bianca; Höpfner, Michael; Jung, Klaus; Rabien, Anja

    2017-08-25

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is an international health problem and search for its effective treatment is in progress. Punicalagin (PN), polyphenol from pomegranate fruit, is known to exhibit potent anticancer activity in lung, breast and cervical cells. However, there is paucity of information on its effect in PCa. This study evaluated anti-proliferative effects of PN and its effects on extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in PCa cells, and angiogenesis in chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Antioxidant activities of PN were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LPO) methods. PCa (PC-3 and LNCaP) and normal prostate (BPH-1) cells were cultured and treated with PN (10, 50 and 100 μM). Cytotoxicity and viability effects of PN were determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and XTT assays, respectively. Antiangiogenic effects were measured using CAM assay, while apoptosis was assessed by DNA fragmentation, enrichment factor by Cell Death Detection ELISA kit and expressions of caspases-3 and -8. Results showed that PN (10-200 μM) significantly scavenged DPPH and inhibited LPO in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, PN (10-100 μM) concentration-dependently inhibited viability in PC-3 and LNCaP, while viability in BPH-1 was insignificantly affected. PN had low toxicity on cells in vitro at concentrations tested. Also, PN (100 μM) increased enrichment factor in PC-3 (2.34 ± 0.05) and LNCaP (2.31 ± 0.26) relative to control (1.00 ± 0.00). In addition, PN (50 μM) decreased the network of vessels in CAM, suggesting its anti-angiogenic effect. Moreso, PN increased the expressions of caspases-3 and -8 in PC-3. Overall, PN exerts anti-proliferative activity in PCa cells via induction of apoptosis and anti-angiogenic effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. In Vitro Incorporation of Radioiodinated Eugenol on Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines (Caco2, MCF7, and PC3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervis, Emine; Yurt Kilcar, Ayfer; Medine, Emin Ilker; Tekin, Volkan; Cetkin, Buse; Uygur, Emre; Muftuler, Fazilet Zumrut Biber

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the synthesis of radiolabeled plant origin compounds has been increased due to their high uptake on some cancer cell lines. Eugenol (EUG), a phenolic natural compound in the essential oils of different spices such as Syzygium aromaticum (clove), Pimenta racemosa (bay leaves), and Cinnamomum verum (cinnamon leaf), has been exploited for various medicinal applications. EUG has antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory functions and several anticancer properties. The objective of this article is to synthesize radioiodinated (131I) EUG and investigate its effect on Caco2, MCF7, and PC3 adenocarcinoma cell lines. It is observed that radioiodinated EUG would have potential on therapy and imaging due to its notable uptakes in studied cells.

  5. Synthesis of Pregnane Derivatives, Their Cytotoxicity on LNCap and PC-3 Cells, and Screening on 5α-Reductase Inhibitory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeong Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of epoxy- and/or 20-oxime pregnanes were synthesized from commercially available pregnenolone. Compounds 1, 3, 7, 8 and 11-13 were evaluated for cytotoxicity activity towards LNCaP (androgen-dependent and PC-3 (androgenindependent prostate cancer cells. Compound 13 showed the highest activity on both LNCaP (IC50 15.17 μM and PC-3 (IC50 11.83 μM cell lines. Compound 11 showed weak activity on LNCaP cells (IC50 71.85 μM and 8 showed the weak activity on PC-3 cells (IC50 68.95 μM, respectively. The 5α-reductase II (5AR2 inhibitory effects of compounds 1-3, 5 and 7-13 were investigated in a convenient screening model, in which compounds 5, 8, 11 and 12 were observed to be potential inhibitors of 5α-reductase, in particular, the 4-azasteroid 11, that also inhibited cell proliferation of androgen-dependent cells and 8, that in addition inhibited PC-3 cells more potently than LNCaP cells.

  6. Novel Lignan and stilbenoid mixture shows anticarcinogenic efficacy in preclinical PC-3M-luc2 prostate cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Yatkin

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common cancer of men in the Western world, and novel approaches for prostate cancer risk reduction are needed. Plant-derived phenolic compounds attenuate prostate cancer growth in preclinical models by several mechanisms, which is in line with epidemiological findings suggesting that consumption of plant-based diets is associated with low risk of prostate cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of a novel lignan-stilbenoid mixture in PC-3M-luc2 human prostate cancer cells in vitro and in orthotopic xenografts. Lignan and stilbenoid -rich extract was obtained from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris knots. Pine knot extract as well as stilbenoids (methyl pinosylvin and pinosylvin, and lignans (matairesinol and nortrachelogenin present in pine knot extract showed antiproliferative and proapoptotic efficacy at ≥ 40 μM concentration in vitro. Furthermore, pine knot extract derived stilbenoids enhanced tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL induced apoptosis already at ≥ 10 μM concentrations. In orthotopic PC-3M-luc2 xenograft bearing immunocompromized mice, three-week peroral exposure to pine knot extract (52 mg of lignans and stilbenoids per kg of body weight was well tolerated and showed anti-tumorigenic efficacy, demonstrated by multivariate analysis combining essential markers of tumor growth (i.e. tumor volume, vascularization, and cell proliferation. Methyl pinosylvin, pinosylvin, matairesinol, nortrachelogenin, as well as resveratrol, a metabolite of pinosylvin, were detected in serum at total concentration of 7-73 μM, confirming the bioavailability of pine knot extract derived lignans and stilbenoids. In summary, our data indicates that pine knot extract is a novel and cost-effective source of resveratrol, methyl pinosylvin and other bioactive lignans and stilbenoids. Pine knot extract shows anticarcinogenic efficacy in preclinical prostate cancer model, and our in

  7. Changes of Gene Expression in the Apoptosis Pathway in Lncap and PC3 Cells Exposed to X-Rays or Protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Rohde, Larry H.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Wu, Honglu

    2009-01-01

    Radio-resistant or recurrent prostate cancer represents a serious health risk for approximately 20%-30% of patients treated with primary radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. In our current studies, we investigated the expressions of apoptosis related gene expression profile (84 genes) in two distinct prostate cell lines Lncap (P53+ and AR+) and PC3 (P53- and AR-) before and after exposure to X-rays or protons, using cDNA PCR arrays. In Lncap cells, 10Gy X-ray radiation significantly induced the expression of 19 out of 84 genes at 4h after irradiation. The changed genes were mostly in death and death receptor domain families, TNF ligand and receptor families, and apoptotic group of the BCL2 family, especially in P53 related genes, such as FAS, BAX, BAK1 and GADD45A. In PC3, X-rays only induced the expression of 3 genes, including an increased expression of BIRC3. There was no difference of the X-ray mediated cell killing in both cell lines using the cell cycle analysis. However, these X-ray-induced gene expression differences between PC3 and Lncap may explain the phenotype of PC3 cells that shows more tolerant not only to radiation, but also to other apoptosis inducing and sensitizing reagents. To compare the effectiveness of cell killing with X-rays, we also exposed PC3 cells to 10Gy protons at the Bragg peak region. Protons did not induce more apoptosis than X-rays for the same dose. In comparison to X-rays, protons significantly altered expressions of 13 genes in PC3, which included decreased expressions of anti-apoptosis genes (BCL2 and BCL2L2), and increased expressions of death and death receptor domain family genes, TNF ligand and receptor family and several kinases (FAS, DAPK1 and RIPK2). These data suggest that proton treatment is more effective in influencing the apoptosis pathways in PC3 cells than X-rays, thus protons may be more effective in the treatment of specific prostate tumor.

  8. Antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptosis in PC-3 cells by the chalcone cardamonin from Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae) in a bioactivity-guided study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoal, Aislan Cristina Rheder Fagundes; Ehrenfried, Carlos Augusto; Lopez, Begoña Gimenez-Cassina; de Araujo, Thiago Matos; Pascoal, Vinicius D'ávila Bitencourt; Gilioli, Rovilson; Anhê, Gabriel Forato; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca Goes; Carvalho, João Ernesto de; Stefanello, Maria Elida Alves; Salvador, Marcos José

    2014-02-07

    The Myrtaceae family is a common source of medicines used in the treatment of numerous diseases in South America. In Brazil, fruits of the Campomanesia species are widely used to make liqueurs, juices and sweets, whereas leaves are traditionally employed as a medicine for dysentery, stomach problems, diarrhea, cystitis and urethritis. Ethanol extracts of Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae) leaves and fruits were evaluated against prostate cancer cells (PC-3). The compound (2E)-1-(2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxyphenyl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one, cardamonin) was isolated from ethanol extracts of C. adamantium leaves in a bioactivity-guided study and quantified by UPLC-MS/MS. In vitro studies showed that the isolated chalcone cardamonin inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation and decreased the expression of NFkB1. Moreover, analysis by flow cytometry showed that this compound induced DNA fragmentation, suggesting an effect on apoptosis induction in the PC-3 cell line.

  9. Doxycycline down-regulates matrix metalloproteinase expression and inhibits NF-κB signaling in LPS-induced PC3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogut, Deniz; Reel, Buket; Gonen Korkmaz, Ceren; Arun, Mehmet Zuhuri; Cilaker Micili, Serap; Ergur, Bekir Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase enzymes (MMPs) play important role in inflammation, malignant cell proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis by mediating extracellular matrix degradation. Doxycycline, a synthetic tetracycline, behaves as a MMP inhibitor at a subantimicrobial dose and inhibits tumor cell proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis. The aberrant activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) causes activation of MMPs and thereby proliferation and invasion of cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of doxycycline on the expression of MMPs in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PC3 human prostate cancer cells and the possible role of NF-κB signaling. PC3 cells were incubated with LPS (0.5 μg/mL) for 24 h in the presence or absence of doxycycline (5 μg/mL). The effects of LPS and doxycycline on the expressions of MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-10, NF-κB/p65, IκB-α, p-IκB-α, IKK-β were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry in PC3 cells. Furthermore, relative proteinase activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were determined by gelatin zymography. LPS increased expression and activity of MMP-9 and expression of MMP-8, MMP-10, NF-κB /p65, p-IκB-α, IKK-β and doxycycline down-regulated its effects with the exception of MMP-10 expression. The expression of MMP-2 and IκB-α was affected by neither LPS nor doxycycline. Our findings indicate that doxycycline inhibits the expression of various MMPs and NF-κB signaling may play a role in the regulation of MMPs expression in LPS-induced PC3 human prostate cancer cells.

  10. King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) Venom L-Amino Acid Oxidase Induces Apoptosis in PC-3 Cells and Suppresses PC-3 Solid Tumor Growth in a Tumor Xenograft Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Mui Li; Fung, Shin Yee; Chung, Ivy; Pailoor, Jayalakshmi; Cheah, Swee Hung; Tan, Nget Hong

    2014-01-01

    King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase (OH-LAAO), a heat stable enzyme, has been shown to exhibit very potent anti-proliferative activity against human breast and lung tumorigenic cells but not in their non-tumorigenic counterparts. We further examine its in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity in a human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) model. OH-LAAO demonstrated potent cytotoxicity against PC-3 cells with IC50 of 0.05 µg/mL after 72 h incubation in vitro. It induced apop...

  11. Apoptotic effect of IP6 was not enhanced by co-treatment with myo-inositol in prostate carcinoma PC3 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; Jang, Yu-mi; Kim, Harriet

    2007-01-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a major constituent of most cereals, legumes, nuts, oil seeds and soybean. Previous studies reported the anticancer effect of IP6 and suggested that co-treatment of IP6 with inositol may enhance anticancer effect of IP6. Although the anticancer effect of IP6 has been intensively studied, the combinational effect of IP6 and inositol and involved mechanisms are not well understood so far. In the present study, we investigated the effect of IP6 and myo-inositol (MI) on cell cycle regulation and apoptosis using PC3 prostate cancer cell lines. When cells were co-treated with IP6 and MI, the extent of cell growth inhibition was significantly increased than that by IP6 alone. To identify the effect of IP6 and MI on apoptosis, the activity of caspase-3 was measured. The caspase-3 activity was significantly increased when cells were treated with either IP6 alone or both IP6 and MI, with no significant enhancement by co-treatment. To investigate the effect of IP6 and MI of cell cycle arrest, we measured p21 mRNA expression in PC3 cells and observed significant increase in p21 mRNA by IP6. But synergistic regulation by co-treatment with IP6 and MI was not observed. In addition, there was no significant effect by co-treatment compared to IP6 treatment on the regulation of cell cycle progression although IP6 significantly changed cell cycle distribution in the presence of MI or not. Therefore, these findings support that IP6 has anticancer function by induction of apoptosis and regulation of cell cycle. However, synergistic effect by MI on cell cycle regulation and apoptosis was not observed in PC3 prostate cancer cells. PMID:20368938

  12. Apoptosis induction in MDA-MB-435S, Hep3B and PC-3 cell lines by Rheum emodi rhizome extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, V; Guha, Gunjan; Kumar, R Ashok

    2011-01-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating apoptosis induction potentials of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Rheum emodi Wall. ex Meissn. rhizome. The ability of the extracts to induce apoptosis in MDA-MB-435S (human breast carcinoma), Hep3B (human hepatocellular carcinoma) and PC-3 (human prostate cancer) cell lines were tested by ELISA to detect cellular DNA fragmentation. Results obtained from the present study confirm that the extracts target the cancerous cells towards apoptosis. The study concludes that R. emodi possess anticancer metabolites that can be isolated and used as precursors in development of anticancer drugs. Suppression of apoptosis might contribute to tumor development by means of accumulation of continuously proliferating cells. The strategy employed in this study, to induce apoptosis in the tumor cells, could be a potential target of therapeutic intervention of cancers.

  13. Radiochemical investigations of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-8-Aoc-BBN[7-14]NH{sub 2}: an in vitro/in vivo assessment of the targeting ability of this new radiopharmaceutical for PC-3 human prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C. Jeffrey; Gali, Hariprasad; Sieckman, Gary L.; Hayes, Donald L.; Owen, Nellie K.; Mazuru, Dana G.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Hoffman, Timothy J. E-mail: HoffmanT@health.missouri.edu

    2003-02-01

    Bombesin (BBN), a 14 amino acid peptide, is an analogue of human gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) that binds to GRP receptors (GRPr) with high affinity and specificity. The GRPr is over expressed on a variety of human cancer cells including prostate, breast, lung, and pancreatic cancers. The specific aim of this study was to identify a BBN analogue that can be radiolabeled with {sup 177}Lu and maintains high specificity for GRPr positive prostate cancer tumors in vivo. A preselected synthetic sequence via solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) was designed to produce a DOTA-BBN (DOTA 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid) conjugate with the following general structure: DOTA-X-Q-W-A-V-G-H-L-M-(NH{sub 2}), where the spacer group, X = {omega}-NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 7}COOH (8-Aoc). The BBN-construct was purified by reversed phase-HPLC (RP-HPLC). Electrospray Mass Spectrometry (ES-MS) was used to characterize both metallated and non-metallated BBN-conjugates. The new DOTA-conjugate was metallated with {sup 177}Lu(III)Cl{sub 3} or non-radioactive Lu(III)Cl{sub 3}. The {sup 177}Lu(III)- and non-radiolabeled Lu(III)-conjugates exhibit the same retention times under identical RP-HPLC conditions. The {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-8-Aoc-BBN[7-14]NH{sub 2} conjugate was found to exhibit optimal pharmacokinetic properties in CF-1 normal mice. In vitro and in vivo models demonstrated the ability of the {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-8-Aoc-BBN[7-14]NH{sub 2} conjugate to specifically target GRP receptors expressed on PC-3 human prostate cancer cells.

  14. Finasteride Increases the Expression of Hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NF-E2-Related Factor-2 (Nrf2) Proteins in PC-3 Cells: Implication of Finasteride-Mediated High-Grade Prostate Tumor Occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Do-Kyung; Lee, June; Keum, Young-Sam

    2013-01-01

    A number of naturally-occurring or synthetic chemicals have been reported to exhibit prostate chemopreventive effects. Synthetic 5α-reductase (5-AR) inhibitors, e.g. finasteride and durasteride, gained special interests as possible prostate chemopreventive agents. Indeed, two large-scale epidemiological studies have demonstrated that finasteride or durasteride significantly reduced the incidence of prostate cancer formation in men. However, these studies have raised an unexpected concern; finasteride and durasteride increased the occurrence of aggressive prostate tumor formation. In the present study, we have observed that treatment of finasteride did not affect the growth of androgen-refractory PC-3 prostate cancer cells. Finasteride also failed to induce apoptosis or affect the expression of proto-oncogenes in PC-3 cells. Interestingly, we found that treatment of finasteride induced the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 proteins in PC-3 cells. In particular, basal level of Nrf2 protein was higher in androgen-refractory prostate cancer cells, e.g. DU-145 and PC-3 cells, compared with androgen-responsive prostate cancer cells, e.g. LNCaP cells. Also, treatment of finasteride resulted in a selective induction of Nrf2 protein in DU-145 and PC-3 cells, but not in LNCaP cells. In view of the fact that upregulation of Nrf2-mediated phase II cytoprotective enzymes contribute to attenuating tumor promotion in normal cells, but, on the other hand, confers a selective advantage for cancer cells to proliferate and survive against chemical carcinogenesis and other forms of toxicity, we propose that finasteride-mediated induction of Nrf2 protein might be responsible, at least in part, for an increased risk of high-grade prostate tumor formation in men.

  15. Ghrelin inhibits proliferation and increases T-type Ca{sup 2+} channel expression in PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Lezama, Nundehui; Hernandez-Elvira, Mariana [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Institute of Physiology, Autonomous University of Puebla (BUAP), Puebla (Mexico); Sandoval, Alejandro [School of Medicine FES Iztacala, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Tlalnepantla (Mexico); Monroy, Alma; Felix, Ricardo [Department of Cell Biology, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute (Cinvestav-IPN), Mexico City (Mexico); Monjaraz, Eduardo, E-mail: emguzman@siu.buap.mx [Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, Institute of Physiology, Autonomous University of Puebla (BUAP), Puebla (Mexico)

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Ghrelin decreases prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells proliferation. {yields} Ghrelin favors apoptosis in PC-3 cells. {yields} Ghrelin increase in intracellular free Ca{sup 2+} levels in PC-3 cells. {yields} Grelin up-regulates expression of T-type Ca{sup 2+} channels in PC-3 cells. {yields} PC-3 cells express T-channels of the Ca{sub V}3.1 and Ca{sub V}3.2 subtype. -- Abstract: Ghrelin is a multifunctional peptide hormone with roles in growth hormone release, food intake and cell proliferation. With ghrelin now recognized as important in neoplastic processes, the aim of this report is to present findings from a series of in vitro studies evaluating the cellular mechanisms involved in ghrelin regulation of proliferation in the PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells. The results showed that ghrelin significantly decreased proliferation and induced apoptosis. Consistent with a role in apoptosis, an increase in intracellular free Ca{sup 2+} levels was observed in the ghrelin-treated cells, which was accompanied by up-regulated expression of T-type voltage-gated Ca{sup 2+} channels. Interestingly, T-channel antagonists were able to prevent the effects of ghrelin on cell proliferation. These results suggest that ghrelin inhibits proliferation and may promote apoptosis by regulating T-type Ca{sup 2+} channel expression.

  16. Flavonoids from persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) leaves inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in PC-3 cells by activation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan; Ren, Kai; Dong, Huanhuan; Song, Fei; Chen, Jing; Guo, Youtian; Liu, Yanshan; Tao, Weijie; Zhang, Yali

    2017-09-25

    Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) leaves are extensively used in Chinese medicine and are also excellent source of dietary polyphenols. Here we investigated the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of the total flavonoids extracted from persimmon leaves (FPL) in PC-3 cells. After treating cells with different concentration of FPL, Quercetin or Rutin for 24 h, MTT and flow cytometry were used to measure the cytotoxicity, apoptotic rate and cell cycle arrest. Compared with Quercetin and Rutin, FPL showed higher cytotoxicity at 12.5 and 25 μg/ml concentrations and also presented lower IC50 in PC-3 cells. In addition, FPL induced PC-3 cells apoptosis by activation of oxidative stress, as detected by ROS, MDA, nitrite and iNOS activity, and increased mitochondrial membrane permeability. Morphological changes, inactivation of Bcl-2, upregulation of BAX, release of cytochrome c and activation of downstream apoptotic signaling in FPL-treated PC-3 cells also suggested apoptotic death. Meanwhile, FPL significantly inhibited migration of PC-3 cells. Therefore, FPL inhibited proliferation, migration and induced apoptosis of PC-3 cells by activation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial-related apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Androgen-mediated cholesterol metabolism in LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines is regulated through two different isoforms of acyl-coenzyme A:Cholesterol Acyltransferase (ACAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jennifer A; Wasan, Kishor M; Nelson, Colleen C; Guns, Emma S; Leon, Carlos G

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the effect of an androgen agonist, R1881, on intracellular cholesterol synthesis and esterification in androgen-sensitive (AS) prostate cancer (LNCaP) cells. We investigated the activity and expression of cholesterol metabolism enzymes, HMG-CoA-reductase and ACAT in the LNCaP and PC-3 (androgen-independent control) models. Microsomal PC-3 HMG-CoA-reductase activity was increased with R1881 despite having similar cholesterol levels while increased cholesterol levels in microsomes from LNCaPs treated with R1881 (L+) were associated with increased HMG-CoA reductase activity. Increased intracellular cholesteryl esters (CE) found in (L+) were not associated with an increased ACAT1 activity. There was no effect from androgen treatment on ACAT1 protein expression in theses cells; however, ACAT2 expression was induced upon R1881 treatment. In contrast, we found an increase in the in vitro ACAT1 activity in PC-3 cells treated with androgen (P+). Only ACAT1 expression was induced in P+. We further assessed the expression of STAT1 alpha, a transcriptional activator that modulates ACAT1 expression. STAT1 alpha expression and phosphorylation were induced in P+. To determine the role of the AR on ACAT1 expression and esterification, we treated PC-3 cells overexpressing the androgen receptor with R1881 (PAR+). AR expression was decreased in PAR+ cells; ACAT1 protein expression and cholesterol ester levels were also decreased, however, ACAT2 remained unchanged. STAT1 alpha expression was decreased in PAR+. Overall, these findings support the importance of cholesterol metabolism regulation within prostate cancer cells and unravel a novel role for STAT1 alpha in prostate cancer metabolism. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Differential metastasis-associated gene analysis of prostate carcinoma cells derived from primary tumor and spontaneous lymphatic metastasis in nude mice with orthotopic implantation of PC-3M cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jian Hong; Sun, Zu Yue; Meng, Xue Lian; Wu, Jian Hui; He, Gui Lin; Liu, Gui Ming; Jiang, Xiu Rong

    2006-02-20

    The purpose of these studies was to explore the genes associated with invasion and metastasis of human prostatic carcinoma line PC-3M in nude mice. After PC-3M cells were inoculated in orthotopic site (prostate) in male nude mice for two months, tumor cells were isolated from primary tumor and lymph node metastasis in the same mouse, respectively. Cell invasion and adhesion ability in vitro were first compared between two cell lines. Then human metastasis-related genes differentially expressed between them were analyzed by utilizing cDNA microarray technique. The in vitro cell invasion and adhesion potential of tumor cells from lymph node metastasis was significantly higher than those from primary tumor, Metastasis-related genes differentially expressed between those two cell lines were identified, all of them were up-regulated in the tumor cells from lymph node metastasis and could be categorized as: (1) genes encoding cellular matrix-degrading proteolytic enzyme including cathepsin and MMP; (2) genes encoding transcription factors; (3) genes related to heterotypic adhesion of tumor cells; (4) genes encoding cell surface receptors. Moreover, Four genes were chosen for semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis, they showed a consistent expression pattern with that of cDNA microarray analysis. We concluded that the lymph node metastasis in nude mice given an injection of PC-3M cells in the prostate is a selective process favoring the survival and growth of a special subpopulation derived from primary tumor with specific genetic alterations, which may play a pivotal role in the metastasis of prostate cancer. Identification and further characterization of these genes may allow a better understanding of lymphatic metastasis in prostate carcinoma.

  19. Evaluation of cytotoxic effect of methanolic extracts isolated from endemic plants of Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province on PC-3, MCF-7, Hep G2, CHO and B16-F10 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Tayarani-Najaran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: To date, thousands of secondary metabolites have been isolated from plants and microorganisms and there is an unprecedented attention towards potential biomedical applications of natural compounds. In this study, cytotoxic properties of methanol extracts of Stachys obtusicrena, Aristolochia olivieri, Linum album, Dionysia sawyeri, Ajuga chamaecistus, Achillea kellalensis, Nepeta glomerulosa, Phlomis aucheria, Tanacetum dumosum, Dianthus orientalis, Scutellaria multicaulis, Cicer oxyodon and Picris oligocephalum which are widely grown in Iran, were investigated on PC-3 (prostat cancer, MCF-7 (breast cancer, Hep-G2 (liver cancer, CHO (ovarian cancer and B16-F10 (melanoma cell lines. Methods: The cancer cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 and incubated with different concentrations of the plant extracts. Cell viability was quantitated by Alamar blue® assay. The apoptotic cells were determined by PI coloring and Flow Cytometry (Sub-G1 peak. Results: The methanol extracts of D. sawyeri, S. obtusicrena, and C. oxyodon significantly decreased the viability of CHO cells. The Methanol extract of D. sawyer and L. album had cytotoxic effects on B16-F10 cells, whereas no toxicity was observed in MCF-7, Hep-G2 and PC-3 cell lines after incubation of the cancer cells with the plant extracts. The PI staining results showed that D. sawyeri, S. obtusicrena, and C. oxyodon in CHO cancer cells could induce apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion: Screening plants to find the most cytotoxic extract showed D. sawyeri, S. obtusicrena, C. oxyodon and L. album had the potential for further analysis toward finding active phytochemicals with cytotoxic activity.

  20. F10 Inhibits Growth of PC3 Xenografts and Enhances the Effects of Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmeiner, William H; Willingham, Mark C; Bourland, J Daniel; Hatcher, Heather C; Smith, Thomas L; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Blackstock, William

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy remains of limited use for the treatment of prostate cancer with only one drug, docetaxel, demonstrating a modest survival advantage for treatment of late-stage disease. Data from the NCI 60 cell line screen indicated that the castration-resistant prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and DU145 were more sensitive than average to the novel polymeric fluoropyrimidine (FP), F10, despite displaying less than average sensitivity to the widely-used FP, 5FU. Here, we show that F10 treatment of PC3 xenografts results in a significant survival advantage (treatment to control ratio (T/C) days = 18; p < 0.001; n = 16) relative to control mice treated with saline. F10 (40 mg/kg/dose) was administered via jugular vein catheterization 3-times per week for five weeks. This aggressive dosing regimen was completed with no drug-induced weight loss and with no evidence of toxicity. F10 was also shown to sensitize PC3 cells to radiation and F10 was also shown to be a potent radiosensitizer of PC3 xenografts in vivo with F10 in combination with radiation resulting in significantly greater regression of PC3 xenografts than radiation alone. The results indicate that F10 in this pre-clinical setting is an effective chemotherapeutic agent and possesses significant radiosensitizing properties.

  1. Cyclic AMP Induces Transforming Growth Factor β2 Gene Expression and Growth Arrest in the Human Androgen-Independent Prostate Carcinoma Cell Line PC-3

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yung-Jue Bang; Seong-Jin Kim; David Danielpour; Michael A. O'Reilly; Kyung Young Kim; Charles E. Myers; Jane B. Trepel

    1992-01-01

    .... To develop an additional approach to the treatment of advanced prostate cancer, we have been studying the signal transductions controlling the growth of human androgen-independent prostate carcinoma cell lines...

  2. Cyclic AMP induces transforming growth factor beta 2 gene expression and growth arrest in the human androgen-independent prostate carcinoma cell line PC-3

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Y J Bang; S J Kim; D Danielpour; M A O'Reilly; K Y Kim; C E Myers; J B Trepel

    1992-01-01

    .... To develop an additional approach to the treatment of advanced prostate cancer, we have been studying the signal transductions controlling the growth of human androgen-independent prostate carcinoma cell lines...

  3. Wine polyphenols exert antineoplasic effect on androgen resistant PC-3 cell line through the inhibition of the transcriptional activity of COX-2 promoter mediated by NF-kβ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruelo, A; de Las Heras, M M; Redondo, C; Ramón de Fata, F; Romero, I; Angulo, J C

    2014-09-01

    Mediterranean diet may play a role in the prevention of prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is associated with increased cellular proliferation, prevents apoptosis and favors tumor invasion. We intend to clarify whether resveratrol and other polyphenols effectively inhibit COX-2 activity and induce apoptosis in hormone-resistant PC-3 cell line. PC-3 cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of gallic acid, tannic acid, quercetin, and resveratrol in presence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA; 50 μg/ml) that induces COX-2 expression. Total RNA was extracted and COX-2 expression was analyzed by relative quantification real-time PCR (ΔΔCt method). COX-2 activity was determined by PGE-2 detection using ELISA. Caspase 3/7 luminescence assay was used to disclose apoptosis. Transitory transfection with short human COX-2 (phPES2 -327/+59) and p5xNF-kβ-Luc plasmids determined COX-2 promoter activity and specifically that dependant of NF-kβ. COX-2 expression was not modified in media devoid of PMA. However, under PMA induction tannic acid (2.08 ±.21), gallic acid (2.46 ±.16), quercetin (1.78 ±.14) and resveratrol (1.15 ±.16) significantly inhibited COX-2 mRNA with respect to control (3.14 ±.07), what means a 34%, 23%, 46% and 61% reduction, respectively. The inhibition in the levels of PGE-2 followed a similar pattern. All compounds studied induced apoptosis at 48 h, although at a different rate. PMA caused a rise in activity 7.4 ±.23 times phPES2 -327/+59 and 2.0 ±.1 times p5xNF-kβ-Luc at 6h compared to basal. Resveratrol suppressed these effects 17.1 ±.21 and 32.4 ±.18 times, respectively. Similarly, but to a lesser extent, the rest of evaluated polyphenols diminished PMA inductor effect on the activity of both promoters. Polyphenols inhibit transcriptional activity of COX-2 promoter mediated by NF-kβ. This effect could explain, at least in part, the induction of apoptosis in vitro by

  4. Cyclic AMP induces transforming growth factor beta 2 gene expression and growth arrest in the human androgen-independent prostate carcinoma cell line PC-3.

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Y J; Kim, S.J.; Danielpour, D; O Reilly, M. A.; Kim, K Y; Myers, C E; Trepel, J B

    1992-01-01

    The standard therapy for advanced prostate cancer is androgen ablation. Despite transitory responses, hormonally treated patients ultimately relapse with androgen-independent disease that is resistant to further hormonal manipulation and cytotoxic chemotherapy. To develop an additional approach to the treatment of advanced prostate cancer, we have been studying the signal transductions controlling the growth of human androgen-independent prostate carcinoma cell lines. We report here that elev...

  5. Prostate cancer cells specifically reorganize epithelial cell-fibroblast communication through proteoglycan and junction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhovskih, Anastasia V; Kashuba, Vladimir I; Klein, George; Grigorieva, Elvira V

    2017-01-02

    Microenvironment and stromal fibroblasts are able to inhibit tumor cell proliferation both through secreted signaling molecules and direct cell-cell interactions but molecular mechanisms of these effects remain unclear. In this study, we investigated a role of cell-cell contact-related molecules (protein ECM components, proteoglycans (PGs) and junction-related molecules) in intercellular communications between the human TERT immortalized fibroblasts (BjTERT fibroblasts) and normal (PNT2) or cancer (LNCaP, PC3, DU145) prostate epithelial cells. It was shown that BjTERT-PNT2 cell coculture resulted in significant decrease of both BjTERT and PNT2 proliferation rates and reorganization of transcriptional activity of cell-cell contact-related genes in both cell types. Immunocytochemical staining revealed redistribution of DCN and LUM in PNT2 cells and significant increase of SDC1 at the intercellular contact zones between BjTERT and PNT2 cells, suggesting active involvement of the PGs in cell-cell contacts and contact inhibition of cell proliferation. Unlike to PNT2 cells, PC3 cells did not respond to BjTERT in terms of PGs expression, moderately increased transcriptional activity of junctions-related genes (especially tight junction) and failed to establish PC3-BjTERT contacts. At the same time, PC3 cells significantly down-regulated junctions-related genes (especially focal adhesions and adherens junctions) in BjTERT fibroblasts resulting in visible preference for homotypic PC3-PC3 over heterotypic PC3-BjTERT contacts and autonomous growth of PC3 clones. Taken together, the results demonstrate that an instructing role of fibroblasts to normal prostate epithelial cells is revoked by cancer cells through deregulation of proteoglycans and junction molecules expression and overall disorganization of fibroblast-cancer cell communication.

  6. Coffee inhibits nuclear factor-kappa B in prostate cancer cells and xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolberg, Marit; Pedersen, Sigrid; Mitake, Maiko; Holm, Kristine Lillebø; Bøhn, Siv Kjølsrud; Blomhoff, Heidi Kiil; Carlsen, Harald; Blomhoff, Rune; Paur, Ingvild

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation contributes to prostate cancer and the transcription factor Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is constitutively active in most such cancers. We examine the effects of coffee on NF-κB and on the regulation of selected genes in human-derived prostate cancer cells (PC3) and in PC3 xenografts in athymic nude mice. PC3 cells stably transduced with an NF-κB-luciferase reporter were used both in vitro and for xenografts. NF-κB activity was measured by reporter assays, DNA binding and in vivo imaging. Gene expression was measured in PC3 cells, xenografts and tumor microenvironment by low-density arrays. Western blotting of activated caspases was used to quantify apoptosis. Coffee inhibited TNFα-induced NF-κB activity and DNA-binding in PC3 cells. Furthermore, coffee increased apoptosis and modulated expression of a number of inflammation- and cancer-related genes in TNFα-treated PC3 cells. In vivo imaging revealed a 31% lower NF-κB-luciferase activation in the xenografts of the mice receiving 5% coffee compared to control mice. Interestingly, we observed major changes in gene expression in the PC3 cells in xenografts as compared to PC3 cells in vitro. In PC3 xenografts, genes related to inflammation, apoptosis and cytoprotection were down-regulated in mice receiving coffee, and coffee also affected the gene expression in the xenograft microenvironment. Our data demonstrate that coffee inhibits NF-κB activity in PC3 cells in vitro and in xenografts. Furthermore, coffee modulates transcription of genes related to prostate cancer and inflammation. Our results are the first to suggest mechanistic links between coffee consumption and prostate cancer in an experimental mouse model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pc3 pulsations during variable IMF conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Villante

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Pc3 geomagnetic field fluctuations detected at low latitude (L'Aquila, Italy during the passage of a high velocity solar wind stream, characterized by variable interplanetary magnetic field conditions, are analyzed. Higher frequency resonant fluctuations and lower frequency phenomena are simultaneously observed; the intermittent appearance and the variable frequency of the longer period modes can be well interpreted in terms of the variable IMF elements; moreover their polarization characteristics are consistent with an origin related to external waves propagating in antisunward direction. A comparison with simultaneous observations performed at Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica provides additional evidence for a clear relationship between the IMF and Pc3 pulsations also at very high latitudes.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind · magnetosphere interactions

  8. Pc3 pulsations during variable IMF conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Villante

    Full Text Available Pc3 geomagnetic field fluctuations detected at low latitude (L'Aquila, Italy during the passage of a high velocity solar wind stream, characterized by variable interplanetary magnetic field conditions, are analyzed. Higher frequency resonant fluctuations and lower frequency phenomena are simultaneously observed; the intermittent appearance and the variable frequency of the longer period modes can be well interpreted in terms of the variable IMF elements; moreover their polarization characteristics are consistent with an origin related to external waves propagating in antisunward direction. A comparison with simultaneous observations performed at Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica provides additional evidence for a clear relationship between the IMF and Pc3 pulsations also at very high latitudes.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind · magnetosphere interactions

  9. Prostate Cancer Heterogeneous High-Metastatic Multi-Organ-Colonizing Chemo-Resistant Variants Selected by Serial Metastatic Passage in Nude Mice Are Highly Enriched for Multinucleate Giant Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available In order to further understand the role of tumor heterogeneity in metastasis and chemo-resistance, high metastatic PC-3 human prostate cancer variants were selected by injecting parental PC-3 cells, expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP in the footpad of nude mice, which then metastasize to inguinal lymph nodes. The PC-3-GFP cells which metastasized to the inguinal lymph nodes were collected and were re-injected to the footpad. After 6 such cycles, the PC-3-GFP cells collected from inguinal lymph nodes (PC-3-GFP-LN were again injected to the footpad. PC-3-GFP-LN showed 100% metastasis to major lymph nodes (popliteal, inguinal, axillary, and cervical, and 100% metastasis to bone and lung. The percent of giant cell variants was enriched in PC-3-GFP-LN-6 compared to parental cells and increased with each cycle of selection, which in turn had increased metastasis. PC-3-GFP-LN-6 cells were resistant to 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin and cisplatinum, compared to parental PC-3. However, PC-3-GFP-LN-6 was sensitive to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM herbal mixture LQ, similar to the parental cells. These results suggest that PC-3 tumors are heterogenous and that subpopulations of highly metastatic, drug-resistant cells can be step-wise selected using a mouse model of tumor progression.

  10. α-Solanine Inhibits Invasion of Human Prostate Cancer Cell by Suppressing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and MMPs Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Kun-Hung Shen; Alex Chien-Hwa Liao; Jui-Hsiang Hung; Wei-Jiunn Lee; Kai-Chieh Hu; Pin-Tsen Lin; Ruei-Fang Liao; Pin-Shern Chen

    2014-01-01

    α-Solanine, a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid found in nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn.), was found to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the mechanism involved in suppression of cancer cell metastasis by α-solanine remains unclear. This study investigates the suppression mechanism of α-solanine on motility of the human prostate cancer cell PC-3. Results show that α-solanine reduces the viability of PC-3 cells. When treated with non-toxic doses of ...

  11. Identification and Characterization of Membrane Androgen Receptors in the ZIP9 Zinc Transporter Subfamily: II. Role of Human ZIP9 in Testosterone-Induced Prostate and Breast Cancer Cell Apoptosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas, Peter; Pang, Yefei; Dong, Jing; Berg, A. Håkan

    2014-01-01

    ...) encoding a protein with characteristics of a membrane androgen receptor (mAR). Here, we demonstrate that human ZIP9 expressed in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells and stably overexpressed in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells (PC-3-ZIP9...

  12. Targeting Apoptotic Activity Against Prostate Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Jaworska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous data suggest that an increase of cancer stem cells (CSCs in tumor mass can be the reason for failure of conventional therapies because of their resistance. CD44+/CD24− cells are a putative cancer stem cells subpopulation in prostate cancer. TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand is an activator of apoptosis in tumor cells. However, some tumors are TRAIL-resistant. Cancer cells can be re-sensitized to TRAIL induced apoptosis by a combination of TRAIL and taxanes. The aim of this work was to analyze the enhancement of the anticancer effect of TRAIL by paclitaxel, cabazitaxel and docetaxel in the whole population of PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells, but also in CD44+/CD24− prostate cancer stem cells. We examined the apoptotic effect of TRAIL and taxanes using flow cytometry and Annexin-V-PE staining. The co-treatment with taxanes and TRAIL enhanced significantly the apoptosis in CD44+/CD24− cells only in PC3 cell line but not in DU145 cells. We discovered also that taxanes can increase the expression of death receptor TRAIL-R2 in PC3 prostate cancer cells. The results of our study show that treatment with paclitaxel, cabazitaxel and docetaxel is able to enhance the apoptosis induced by TRAIL even in prostate cancer stem cells.

  13. Noninvasive discrimination between human normal and cancer cells by analysis of intracellular distribution of phase-shift data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Mutsumi; Tokunaga, Naochika

    2015-08-01

    Aiming to establish a method for the noninvasive discrimination of cancer cells from normal cells in adherent culture, we investigated to employ all phase shift data for all pixels inside a cell. The bird's-eye views of phase shifts of human prostate epithelial cells (PRECs) and human prostatic carcinoma epithelial cell (PC-3) lines acquired by phase-shifting laser microscopy showed tableland and cone shapes, respectively, while treatment of PRECs with cytochalasin D resulted in the cone shape. So, the profile of phase shift in both sections towards the x- and y-axes of the views through the peaks of the phase shifts in PRECs and PC-3 cells were trapezoid-like and triangle-like, respectively. Typical profiles of phase shifts in a section in PRECs or PC-3 cells were calculated by averaging from 10 cells and smoothing. Cancer index is defined as the deduction of sums of the squared difference between a real cell and the typical profiles for a PREC and a PC-3 cell. The cancer indices for PC-3 and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were positive, while those for PRECs and human normal cryopreserved hepatocytes were negative. Cancer indices along the major axis of fibroblast-like cells of normal mesenchymal stem cells and the osteosarcoma cell line were negative and positive, respectively. Consequently, several cancer cells could be noninvasively discriminated from normal cells by calculating the cancer index employing phase shift for all pixels inside the cells.

  14. The Akt-inhibitor Erufosine induces apoptotic cell death in prostate cancer cells and increases the short term effects of ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eibl Hans-Jörg

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Purpose The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway is frequently deregulated in prostate cancer and associated with neoplastic transformation, malignant progression, and enhanced resistance to classical chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Thus, it is a promising target for therapeutic intervention. In the present study, the cytotoxic action of the Akt inhibitor Erufosine (ErPC3 was analyzed in prostate cancer cells and compared to the cytotoxicity of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Moreover, the efficacy of combined treatment with Akt inhibitors and ionizing radiation in prostate cancer cells was examined. Materials and methods Prostate cancer cell lines PC3, DU145, and LNCaP were treated with ErPC3 (1-100 µM, LY294002 (25-100 µM, irradiated (0-10 Gy, or subjected to combined treatments. Cell viability was determined by the WST-1 assay. Apoptosis induction was analyzed by flow cytometry after staining with propidium iodide in a hypotonic citrate buffer, and by Western blotting using antibodies against caspase-3 and its substrate PARP. Akt activity and regulation of the expression of Bcl-2 family members and key downstream effectors involved in apoptosis regulation were examined by Western blot analysis. Results The Akt inhibitor ErPC3 exerted anti-neoplastic effects in prostate cancer cells, however with different potency. The anti-neoplastic action of ErPC3 was associated with reduced phosphoserine 473-Akt levels and induction of apoptosis. PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells were also sensitive to treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. However, the ErPC3-sensitive PC3-cells were less susceptible to LY294002 than the ErPC3-refractory LNCaP cells. Although both cell lines were largely resistant to radiation-induced apoptosis, both cell lines showed higher levels of apoptotic cell death when ErPC3 was combined with radiotherapy. Conclusions Our data suggest that constitutive Akt activation and survival are

  15. Comparative uptake of polyamines by prostate and non-prostate cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinath, P.; McQuarrie, S.A.; Suresh, M.R. E-mail: msuresh@pharmacy.ualberta.ca

    2002-05-01

    The Km and Vmax of [{sup 14}C]-radiolabeled polyamines were determined for PC-3 and AT3B-1 cell lines. With PC-3 Km values are in the following order: ornithine> spermidine> spermine> putrescine, while with AT3B-1 it was spermidine> ornithine> spermine> putrescine. To determine which of these polyamines exhibit higher accumulation, the relative uptake of all the four amines was studied with prostate (PC-3, AT3B-1, LNCaP) and non-prostate (MCF-7, KLN-205, OVCAR) cell lines at 10 and 20 {mu}M after 1 hour. Spermine and spermidine accumulated at higher levels in prostate (AT3B-1 and LNCaP) over non-prostate cell lines (p<0.01). Putrescine accumulated more in PC-3 and LNCaP than the non-prostate cancer cells.

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Apoptogenic Effects of Several Coumarins on Human Cancer Cell Lines: Osthole Induces Apoptosis in p53-Deficient H1299 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Shokoohinia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are excellent resources for finding lead structures for the development of chemotherapeutic agents. Coumarins are a class of natural compounds found in a variety of plants. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic potential of coumarins isolated from Prangos ferulacea (L. Lindl. in PC3, SKNMC, and H1299 (p53 null human carcinoma cell lines. Osthole proved to be an outstanding potent cytotoxic agent especially against PC3 cells. Isoimperatorin exhibited moderate inhibitory effect against SKNMC and PC3 cell lines. Oxypeucedanin and braylin did not display any cytotoxic activity. In the next set of experiments, the apoptotic potentials of osthole and isoimperatorin were investigated. Induction of apoptosis by isoimperatorin was accompanied by an increase in activation of caspase-3, -8, and -9 in SKNMC cells and caspase-3 and -9 in PC3 cells. Moreover, isoimperatorin induced apoptosis by upregulating Bax and Smac/DIABLO genes in PC3 and SKNMC cells. Osthole induced apoptosis by downregulating antiapoptotic Bcl-2 in only PC3 cells and upregulating the proapoptotic genes Bax and Smac/DIABLO in PC3, SKNMC, and H1299 cells. The effects of osthole on H1299 cells are important because the loss of p53 has been associated with poor clinical prognosis in cancer treatment.

  17. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A54A-1PC3B [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1A54A-1PC3B 1A54 1PC3 A B --------EASLTGAGATFPAPVYAKWADTYQKET-GNK...Chain> 1PC3 B 1PC3...CA 355 LEU CA 306 GLY CA 308 GLY CA 333 1PC3... B 1PC3B TVDFPAVP...ne> ALA CA 404 ASN CA 326 1PC3

  18. Forced Expression of ZNF143 Restrains Cancer Cell Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Hiroto, E-mail: h-izumi@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Yasuniwa, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kuma, Akihiro; Kitamura, Noriaki; Kohno, Kimitoshi [Department of Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan)

    2011-10-19

    We previously reported that the transcription factor Zinc Finger Protein 143 (ZNF143) regulates the expression of genes associated with cell cycle and cell division, and that downregulation of ZNF143 induces cell cycle arrest at G2/M. To assess the function of ZNF143 expression in the cell cycle, we established two cells with forced expression of ZNF143 derived from PC3 prostate cancer cell lines. These cell lines overexpress genes associated with cell cycle and cell division, such as polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), aurora kinase B (AURKB) and some minichromosome maintenance complex components (MCM). However, the doubling time of cells with forced expression of ZNF143 was approximately twice as long as its control counterpart cell line. Analysis following serum starvation and re-seeding showed that PC3 cells were synchronized at G1 in the cell cycle. Also, ZNF143 expression fluctuated, and was at its lowest level in G2/M. However, PC3 cells with forced expression of ZNF143 synchronized at G2/M, and showed lack of cell cycle-dependent fluctuation of nuclear expression of MCM proteins. Furthermore, G2/M population of both cisplatin-resistant PCDP6 cells over-expressing ZNF143 (derived from PC3 cells) and cells with forced expression of ZNF143 was significantly higher than that of each counterpart, and the doubling time of PCDP6 cells is about 2.5 times longer than that of PC3 cells. These data suggested that fluctuations in ZNF143 expression are required both for gene expression associated with cell cycle and for cell division.

  19. Forced Expression of ZNF143 Restrains Cancer Cell Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimitoshi Kohno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that the transcription factor Zinc Finger Protein 143 (ZNF143 regulates the expression of genes associated with cell cycle and cell division, and that downregulation of ZNF143 induces cell cycle arrest at G2/M. To assess the function of ZNF143 expression in the cell cycle, we established two cells with forced expression of ZNF143 derived from PC3 prostate cancer cell lines. These cell lines overexpress genes associated with cell cycle and cell division, such as polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1, aurora kinase B (AURKB and some minichromosome maintenance complex components (MCM. However, the doubling time of cells with forced expression of ZNF143 was approximately twice as long as its control counterpart cell line. Analysis following serum starvation and re-seeding showed that PC3 cells were synchronized at G1 in the cell cycle. Also, ZNF143 expression fluctuated, and was at its lowest level in G2/M. However, PC3 cells with forced expression of ZNF143 synchronized at G2/M, and showed lack of cell cycle-dependent fluctuation of nuclear expression of MCM proteins. Furthermore, G2/M population of both cisplatin-resistant PCDP6 cells over-expressing ZNF143 (derived from PC3 cells and cells with forced expression of ZNF143 was significantly higher than that of each counterpart, and the doubling time of PCDP6 cells is about 2.5 times longer than that of PC3 cells. These data suggested that fluctuations in ZNF143 expression are required both for gene expression associated with cell cycle and for cell division.

  20. Forced Expression of ZNF143 Restrains Cancer Cell Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hiroto; Yasuniwa, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kuma, Akihiro; Kitamura, Noriaki; Kohno, Kimitoshi

    2011-10-19

    We previously reported that the transcription factor Zinc Finger Protein 143 (ZNF143) regulates the expression of genes associated with cell cycle and cell division, and that downregulation of ZNF143 induces cell cycle arrest at G2/M. To assess the function of ZNF143 expression in the cell cycle, we established two cells with forced expression of ZNF143 derived from PC3 prostate cancer cell lines. These cell lines overexpress genes associated with cell cycle and cell division, such as polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), aurora kinase B (AURKB) and some minichromosome maintenance complex components (MCM). However, the doubling time of cells with forced expression of ZNF143 was approximately twice as long as its control counterpart cell line. Analysis following serum starvation and re-seeding showed that PC3 cells were synchronized at G1 in the cell cycle. Also, ZNF143 expression fluctuated, and was at its lowest level in G2/M. However, PC3 cells with forced expression of ZNF143 synchronized at G2/M, and showed lack of cell cycle-dependent fluctuation of nuclear expression of MCM proteins. Furthermore, G2/M population of both cisplatin-resistant PCDP6 cells over-expressing ZNF143 (derived from PC3 cells) and cells with forced expression of ZNF143 was significantly higher than that of each counterpart, and the doubling time of PCDP6 cells is about 2.5 times longer than that of PC3 cells. These data suggested that fluctuations in ZNF143 expression are required both for gene expression associated with cell cycle and for cell division.

  1. Alendronate decreases orthotopic PC-3 prostate tumor growth and metastasis to prostate-draining lymph nodes in nude mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väänänen Kalervo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic prostate cancer is associated with a high morbidity and mortality but the spreading mechanisms are still poorly understood. The aminobisphosphonate alendronate, used to reduce bone loss, has also been shown to inhibit the invasion and migration of prostate cancer cells in vitro. We used a modified orthotopic PC-3 nude mouse tumor model of human prostate cancer to study whether alendronate affects prostate tumor growth and metastasis. Methods PC-3 cells (5 × 105 were implanted in the prostates of nude mice and the mice were treated with alendronate (0.5 mg/kg/day in PBS, s.c. or vehicle for 4 weeks. After sacrifice, the sizes of tumor-bearing prostates were measured and the tumors and prostate-draining regional iliac and sacral lymph nodes were excised for studies on markers of proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, using histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry. Results Tumor occurrence in the prostate was 73% in the alendronate-treated group and 81% in the control group. Mean tumor size (218 mm3, range: 96–485 mm3, n = 11 in the alendronate-treated mice was 41% of that in the control mice (513 mm3, range: 209–1350 mm3, n = 13 (p p p p Conclusion Our results demonstrate that alendronate treatment opposes growth of orthotopic PC-3 tumors and decreases tumor metastasis to prostate-draining lymph nodes. This effect could be at least partly explained by decreased angiogenesis and increased apoptosis. The results suggest that bisphosphonates have anti-tumoral and anti-invasive effects on primary prostate cancer.

  2. Dietary lutein modulates growth and survival genes in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi, Mohamed M; Kanakasabai, Saravanan; Gokarn, Sarita V; Krueger, Eric G; Bright, John J

    2015-02-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid pigment present in fruits and vegetables that has anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. In this study, we examined the effect of lutein on proliferation and survival-associated genes in prostate cancer (PC-3) cells. We found that in vitro culture of PC-3 cells with lutein induced mild decrease in proliferation that improved in combination treatment with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists and other chemotherapeutic agents. Flow cytometry analyses showed that lutein improved drug-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in prostate cancer. Gene array and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that lutein altered the expression of growth and apoptosis-associated biomarker genes in PC-3 cells. These findings highlight that lutein modulates the expression of growth and survival-associated genes in prostate cancer cells.

  3. Regulation of DNA synthesis and the cell cycle in human prostate cancer cells and lymphocytes by ovine uterine serpin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Peter J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uterine serpins are members of the serine proteinase inhibitor superfamily. Like some other serpins, these proteins do not appear to be functional proteinase inhibitors. The most studied member of the group, ovine uterine serpin (OvUS, inhibits proliferation of several cell types including activated lymphocytes, bovine preimplantation embryos, and cell lines for lymphoma, canine primary osteosarcoma and human prostate cancer (PC-3 cells. The goal for the present study was to evaluate the mechanism by which OvUS inhibits cell proliferation. In particular, it was tested whether inhibition of DNA synthesis in PC-3 cells involves cytotoxic actions of OvUS or the induction of apoptosis. The effect of OvUS in the production of the autocrine and angiogenic cytokine interleukin (IL-8 by PC-3 cells was also determined. Finally, it was tested whether OvUS blocks specific steps in the cell cycle using both PC-3 cells and lymphocytes. Results Recombinant OvUS blocked proliferation of PC-3 cells at concentrations as low as 8 μg/ml as determined by measurements of [3H]thymidine incorporation or ATP content per well. Treatment of PC-3 cells with OvUS did not cause cytotoxicity or apoptosis or alter interleukin-8 secretion into medium. Results from flow cytometry experiments showed that OvUS blocked the entry of PC-3 cells into S phase and the exit from G2/M phase. In addition, OvUS blocked entry of lymphocytes into S phase following activation of proliferation with phytohemagglutinin. Conclusion Results indicate that OvUS acts to block cell proliferation through disruption of the cell cycle dynamics rather than induction of cytotoxicity or apoptosis. The finding that OvUS can regulate cell proliferation makes this one of only a few serpins that function to inhibit cell growth.

  4. Lithocholic acid induces endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction in human prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Gafar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lithocholic acid (LCA is a secondary bile acid that is selectively toxic to human neuroblastoma, breast and prostate cancer cells, whilst sparing normal cells. We previously reported that LCA inhibited cell viability and proliferation and induced apoptosis and necrosis of androgen-dependent LNCaP and androgen-independent PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction in the toxicity of LCA in PC-3 and autophagy deficient, androgen-independent DU-145 cells. LCA induced ER stress-related proteins, such as CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP, and the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2-alpha (p-eIF2α and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (p-JNK in both cancer cell-types. The p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA and B cell lymphoma-like protein 11 (BIM levels were decreased at overtly toxic LCA concentrations, although PUMA levels increased at lower LCA concentrations in both cell lines. LCA induced autophagy-related conversion of microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (LC3BI–LC3BII, and autophagy-related protein ATG5 in PC-3 cells, but not in autophagy-deficient DU-145 cells. LCA (>10 µM increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS concentration-dependently in PC-3 cells, whereas ROS levels were not affected in DU-145 cells. Salubrinal, an inhibitor of eIF2α dephosphorylation and ER stress, reduced LCA-induced CHOP levels slightly in PC-3, but not DU-145 cells. Salubrinal pre-treatment increased the cytotoxicity of LCA in PC-3 and DU-145 cells and resulted in a statistically significant loss of cell viability at normally non-toxic concentrations of LCA. The late-stage autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 exacerbated LCA toxicity at subtoxic LCA concentrations in PC-3 cells. The antioxidant α-tocotrienol strongly inhibited the toxicity of LCA in PC-3 cells, but not in DU-145 cells

  5. Lithocholic acid induces endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction in human prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafar, Ahmed A.; Draz, Hossam M.; Goldberg, Alexander A.; Bashandy, Mohamed A.; Bakry, Sayed; Khalifa, Mahmoud A.; AbuShair, Walid; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    Lithocholic acid (LCA) is a secondary bile acid that is selectively toxic to human neuroblastoma, breast and prostate cancer cells, whilst sparing normal cells. We previously reported that LCA inhibited cell viability and proliferation and induced apoptosis and necrosis of androgen-dependent LNCaP and androgen-independent PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, autophagy and mitochondrial dysfunction in the toxicity of LCA in PC-3 and autophagy deficient, androgen-independent DU-145 cells. LCA induced ER stress-related proteins, such as CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), and the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2-alpha (p-eIF2α) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (p-JNK) in both cancer cell-types. The p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) and B cell lymphoma-like protein 11 (BIM) levels were decreased at overtly toxic LCA concentrations, although PUMA levels increased at lower LCA concentrations in both cell lines. LCA induced autophagy-related conversion of microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (LC3BI–LC3BII), and autophagy-related protein ATG5 in PC-3 cells, but not in autophagy-deficient DU-145 cells. LCA (>10 µM) increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration-dependently in PC-3 cells, whereas ROS levels were not affected in DU-145 cells. Salubrinal, an inhibitor of eIF2α dephosphorylation and ER stress, reduced LCA-induced CHOP levels slightly in PC-3, but not DU-145 cells. Salubrinal pre-treatment increased the cytotoxicity of LCA in PC-3 and DU-145 cells and resulted in a statistically significant loss of cell viability at normally non-toxic concentrations of LCA. The late-stage autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 exacerbated LCA toxicity at subtoxic LCA concentrations in PC-3 cells. The antioxidant α-tocotrienol strongly inhibited the toxicity of LCA in PC-3 cells, but not in DU-145 cells. Collectively

  6. Acetonitrile extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Radix exhibits growth-inhibitory effects on prostate cancer cells through the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, June; Choi, Bu Young; Keum, Young-Sam

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, the effects of the acetonitrile or water extracts from 400 selected traditional medicinal plants on the growth of PC-3 cells were investigated, and it was demonstrated that an acetonitrile extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza Radix exhibited the most marked cytotoxic effects on PC-3 cells. It was observed that the acetonitrile extract of S. miltiorrhiza Radix induced marked cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PC-3 cells through the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species. It was also demonstrated that oral administration of the acetonitrile extract of S. miltiorrhiza Radix decreased the incidence and growth of PC-3 tumor xenografts in nude mice. The results of the present study suggest that the acetonitrile extract of S. miltiorrhiza Radix exhibits marked inhibitory effects on the growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A54A-1PC3A [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1A54A-1PC3A 1A54 1PC3 A A --------EASLTGAGATFPAPVYAKWADTYQKET-GNK...A 378 PHE CA 440 GLN CA 487 PHE CA 535 1PC3... A 1PC3A LYS CA 277 ASN CA 192 1PC3 A 1PC3A LSKQDPEGWGK

  8. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells and inhibits prostate cancer growth in a xenograft mouse model of human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiong; Li, Zhuoneng; Yan, Jun; Zhu, Fan; Xu, Ruo-Jun; Cai, Yi-Zhong

    2009-08-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are important functional constituents in red-colored fruits of L. barbarum (Guo Qi Zi, a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant commonly known as Goji berry or wolfberry). The influence of LBP on human prostate cancer cells was systematically investigated in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro effects of LBP on two cell lines (PC-3 and DU-145) were examined by using trypan blue exclusion staining, single-cell gel electrophoresis, flow cytometry, terminal dUTP nick-end labeling assay, and immunohistochemical assay (assessment of Bcl-2 and Bax expression). The in vivo effect of LBP on PC-3 cells was assessed in the nude mouse xenograft tumor model. The in vitro results showed that LBP can dose- and time-dependently inhibit the growth of both PC-3 and DU-145 cells. LBP caused the breakage of DNA strands of PC-3 and DU-145 cells; the tail frequency and tail length were significantly higher than that of control cells. LBP also markedly induced PC-3 and DU-145 cell apoptosis, with the highest apoptosis rates at 41.5% and 35.5%, respectively. The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein expression following LBP treatments decreased significantly with a dose-effect relationship, which suggested that LBP can regulate the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax to induce apoptosis of PC-3 and DU-145 cells. The in vivo experimental results indicate that LBP might significantly inhibit PC-3 tumor growth in nude mice. Both the tumor volume and weight of the LBP treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group.

  9. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 expression in prostate cancer cells modulates the oxidative response in bone cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Ferrando

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is a leading cause of death among males. It is currently estimated that inflammatory responses are linked to 15-20% of all deaths from cancer worldwide. PCa is dominated by complications arising from metastasis to the bone where the tumor cells interact with the bone microenvironment impairing the balance between bone formation and degradation. However, the molecular nature of this interaction is not completely understood. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 counteracts oxidative damage and inflammation. Previous studies from our laboratory showed that HO-1 is implicated in PCa, demonstrating that endogenous HO-1 inhibits bone derived-prostate cancer cells proliferation, invasion and migration and decreases tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. The aim of this work was to analyze the impact of HO-1 modulated PCa cells on osteoblasts proliferation in vitro and on bone remodeling in vivo. Using a co-culture system of PC3 cells with primary mice osteoblasts (PMOs, we demonstrated that HO-1 pharmacological induction (hemin treatment abrogated the diminution of PMOs proliferation induced by PCa cells and decreased the expression of osteoclast-modulating factors in osteoblasts. No changes were detected in the expression of genes involved in osteoblasts differentiation. However, co-culture of hemin pre-treated PC3 cells (PC3 Hem with PMOs provoked an oxidative status and activated FoxO signaling in osteoblasts. The percentage of active osteoblasts positive for HO-1 increased in calvarias explants co-cultured with PC3 Hem cells. Nuclear HO-1 expression was detected in tumors generated by in vivo bone injection of HO-1 stable transfected PC3 (PC3HO-1 cells in the femur of SCID mice. These results suggest that HO-1 has the potential to modify the bone microenvironment impacting on PCa bone metastasis.

  10. Radio-sensitization of Prostate Cancer Cells by Monensin Treatment and its associated Gene Expression Profiling Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang Ye; Rohde, Larry H.; Wu, Honglu

    2008-01-01

    Radio-resistant or recurrent prostate cancer represents a serious health risk for approximately 20%-30% of patients treated with primary radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Here, we investigated the effect of monensin on sensitizing radiation mediated cell killing of two radio-resistant prostate cell lines Lncap (P53+ and AR+) and PC3 (P53- and AR-). Treatment with monensin alone (5 micromoles-20 micromoles) showed a significant direct cell killing of Lncap (10-30%), but not PC3 cells. Monensin was also shown to successfully sensitize Lncap cells to X-ray radiation (2Gy-10Gy) mediated cell death, up to 50% of killing with the combined treatment. To better understand the mechanisms of radio-resistance of these two cell lines and their different response to monensin, the apoptosis related gene expression profiles in both cell lines were analyzed using cDNA PCR array. Without any treatment, PC3 showed a much higher expression level of antiapoptosis genes than Lncap in the BCL2 family, the caspase/card family and the TNF ligand/receptor family. At 2 hr after 20 micormolar monensin treatment alone, only the TRAF and CIDE family showed a greater induction in Lncap cells than in PC3. Exposures to 10 Gy X-rays alone of Lncap cells significantly induced gene expression levels in the death and death receptor domain family, the TNF ligand and receptor family, and apoptotic group of BCL2 family; whereas exposures of PC3 induced only the expression of genes in the anti-apoptosis group of CASP and CARD family. Furthermore, we selectively suppressed the expression of several anti-apoptosis genes (BCL-xl, Bcl2A1, BIRC2, BIRC3 and CASP2) in PC3 cells by using the siRNA treatment. Exposure to 10Gy X-rays alone showed an enhanced cell killing (about 15%) in BCL-x1 silenced cells, but not in cells with siRNA treatment targeting other anti-apoptosis genes. We also exposed PC3 cells to protons in the Bragg peak region to compare the effectiveness of cell killing

  11. Forced Expression of ZNF143 Restrains Cancer Cell Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kimitoshi Kohno; Noriaki Kitamura; Akihiro Kuma; Yoshihiro Yasuniwa; Takahiro Yamaguchi; Masaki Akiyama; Hiroto Izumi

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that the transcription factor Zinc Finger Protein 143 (ZNF143) regulates the expression of genes associated with cell cycle and cell division, and that downregulation of ZNF143 induces cell cycle arrest at G2/M. To assess the function of ZNF143 expression in the cell cycle, we established two cells with forced expression of ZNF143 derived from PC3 prostate cancer cell lines. These cell lines overexpress genes associated with cell cycle and cell division, such as polo-li...

  12. Empirically modelled Pc3 activity based on solar wind parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Heilig

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It is known that under certain solar wind (SW/interplanetary magnetic field (IMF conditions (e.g. high SW speed, low cone angle the occurrence of ground-level Pc3–4 pulsations is more likely. In this paper we demonstrate that in the event of anomalously low SW particle density, Pc3 activity is extremely low regardless of otherwise favourable SW speed and cone angle. We re-investigate the SW control of Pc3 pulsation activity through a statistical analysis and two empirical models with emphasis on the influence of SW density on Pc3 activity. We utilise SW and IMF measurements from the OMNI project and ground-based magnetometer measurements from the MM100 array to relate SW and IMF measurements to the occurrence of Pc3 activity. Multiple linear regression and artificial neural network models are used in iterative processes in order to identify sets of SW-based input parameters, which optimally reproduce a set of Pc3 activity data. The inclusion of SW density in the parameter set significantly improves the models. Not only the density itself, but other density related parameters, such as the dynamic pressure of the SW, or the standoff distance of the magnetopause work equally well in the model. The disappearance of Pc3s during low-density events can have at least four reasons according to the existing upstream wave theory: 1. Pausing the ion-cyclotron resonance that generates the upstream ultra low frequency waves in the absence of protons, 2. Weakening of the bow shock that implies less efficient reflection, 3. The SW becomes sub-Alfvénic and hence it is not able to sweep back the waves propagating upstream with the Alfvén-speed, and 4. The increase of the standoff distance of the magnetopause (and of the bow shock. Although the models cannot account for the lack of Pc3s during intervals when the SW density is extremely low, the resulting sets of optimal model inputs support the generation of mid latitude Pc3 activity predominantly through

  13. (99m)Technetium-HYNIC(tricine/TPPTS)-Aca-Bombesin(7-14) as a Targeted Imaging Agent with MicroSPECT in a PC-3 Prostate Cancer Xenograft Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ananias, Hildo J. K.; Yu, Zilin; Dierckx, Rudi A.; van der Wiele, Christophe; Helfrich, Wijnand; Wang, Fan; Tan, Yongjun; Chen, Xiaoyuan; de Jong, Igle J.; Elsinga, Philip H.

    2011-01-01

    The peptide bombesin (BN) and derivates thereof show high binding affinity for the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR), which is highly expressed in primary and metastasized prostate cancer. We have synthesized a new BN-based radiopharmaceutical

  14. Simvastatin Up-Regulates Annexin A10 That Can Inhibit the Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion in Androgen-Independent Human Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Kato, Haruo; Furuya, Yosuke; Koike, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2017-03-01

    Statins have recently been studied for their proapoptotic and antimetastatic effects. However, the exact mechanisms of their anticancer actions remain unclear. Using microarrays, we discovered up-regulation of annexin A10 (ANXA10) in PC-3 cells after simvastatin treatment. ANXA10 reportedly has antitumor effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects of simvastatin on ANXA10 signaling in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. PC-3, LNCaP-LA (which were derived from LNCaP cells and cultured in 10% charcoal-stripped fetal bovine serum for 3 months), and DU145 human prostate cancer cell lines were used. Prostate tissues were collected from 60 patients (benign prostatic hyperplasia [BPH], n = 20; prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 7, n = 20; prostate cancer with a Gleason score of 8-10, n = 20) at the time of prostate biopsies performed. We used a nude mouse tumor xenograft model with administration of simvastatin or phosphate-buffered saline via intraperitoneal injection. Simvastatin inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of PC-3, LNCaP-LA, and DU145 cells. The expression level of ANXA10 was up-regulated by simvastatin in PC-3, LNCaP-LA, and DU145 cells. Transfection with ANXA10 inhibited PC-3 and LNCaP-LA cells proliferation, migration, and invasion. Knockdown of ANXA10 by siRNA increased the proliferation of PC-3 and LNCaP-LA cells. In a nude mouse xenograft model of PC-3 cells, simvastatin induced both reduction in the tumor size and up-regulation of ANXA10 expression. In human prostate biopsy samples, ANXA10 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the prostate cancer group than in the BPH group. Next, we found that up-regulation of ANXA10 in PC-3 resulted in down-regulation of S100 calcium binding protein A4 (S100A4), which is reportedly correlated with aggressiveness and a worse prognosis for patients with different types of carcinomas. Expression of S100A4 was down-regulated by simvastatin. In PC-3 cells, knockdown of S

  15. Single Cell Characterization of Prostate Cancer-Circulating Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    single LNCaP, PC-3, and T24 cells passed the quality control standards for >60% alignment and ឱ% median alignment CV typically applied to large...were obtained from surgically removed prostates under a separate IRB-approved protocol. Cell Culture and Cell Spiking LNCaP, PC-3, and T24 cells were...definition). The sequencing data from the single LNCaP, PC-3, and T24 cells passed the quality control standards for .60% alignment and ,65% median

  16. Study on the Cytotoxic Activity of Drimane Sesquiterpenes and Nordrimane Compounds against Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Montenegro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve drimanes, including polygodial (1, isopolygodial (2, drimenol (3, confertifolin (4, and isodrimenin (5, were obtained from natural sources. Semi-synthetic derivatives 6–12 were obtained from 1 and 2, and cytotoxic activity was evaluated in vitro against cancer cell lines (HT-29, MDA-MB231, DHF, MCF-7, PC-3, DU-145, and CoN. IC50 values were determined at concentrations of 12.5–100 µM of each compound for 72 h. In addition, it was found that polygodial (1, 8, and 12 induced changes in mitochondrial membrane permeability in CoN, MCF-7, and PC-3 cells.

  17. [Effect of androgen receptor on IgG expression, proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yu-Lin; Guo, Kai; Zeng, Ying-Ke; Wu, Kai-Hui; Tang, Chen; Zheng, Shao-Bo

    2017-03-20

    To investigate the effect of androgen receptor (AR) on IgG protein expression and the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of AR protein and IgG in androgen-dependent prostate cancer LNCap cells and castration-resistant prostate cancer PC-3 cells. In AR-overexpressing cells (PC-3-AR cells) established by transfecting PC-3 with AR gene (pCDNA3.1) and LNCap cells with small interfering RNA-mediated AR silencing (LNCap-siAR cells) were analyzed for expressions of AR protein and IgG with Western blotting; the expression of IgG mRNA was detected by Q-PCR, and the cell proliferation and migration were assessed with MTT assay and wound healing assay, respectively. Compared with PC-3 cells, LNCap cells expressed a higher level of AR protein and a lower level of IgG (PIgG (PIgG (PIgG and is associated with the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells in vitro.

  18. Apoptotic death of prostate cancer cells by a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-II antagonist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumi Park

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I has attracted strong attention as a hormonal therapeutic tool, particularly for androgen-dependent prostate cancer patients. However, the androgen-independency of the cancer in advanced stages has spurred researchers to look for new medical treatments. In previous reports, we developed the GnRH-II antagonist Trp-1 to inhibit proliferation and stimulate the autophagic death of various prostate cancer cells, including androgen-independent cells. We further screened many GnRH-II antagonists to identify molecules with higher efficiency. Here, we investigated the effect of SN09-2 on the growth of PC3 prostate cancer cells. SN09-2 reduced the growth of prostate cancer cells but had no effect on cells derived from other tissues. Compared with Trp-1, SN09-2 conspicuously inhibited prostate cancer cell growth, even at low concentrations. SN09-2-induced PC3 cell growth inhibition was associated with decreased membrane potential in mitochondria where the antagonist was accumulated, and increased mitochondrial and cytosolic reactive oxygen species. SN09-2 induced lactate dehydrogenase release into the media and annexin V-staining on the PC3 cell surface, suggesting that the antagonist stimulated prostate cancer cell death by activating apoptotic signaling pathways. Furthermore, cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol and caspase-3 activation occurred in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. SN09-2 also inhibited the growth of PC3 cells xenotransplanted into nude mice. These results demonstrate that SN09-2 directly induces mitochondrial dysfunction and the consequent ROS generation, leading to not only growth inhibition but also apoptosis of prostate cancer cells.

  19. RhoC and ROCKs regulate cancer cell interactions with endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymond, Nicolas; Im, Jae Hong; Garg, Ritu; Cox, Susan; Soyer, Magali; Riou, Philippe; Colomba, Audrey; Muschel, Ruth J; Ridley, Anne J

    2015-06-01

    RhoC is a member of the Rho GTPase family that is implicated in cancer progression by stimulating cancer cell invasiveness. Here we report that RhoC regulates the interaction of cancer cells with vascular endothelial cells (ECs), a crucial step in the metastatic process. RhoC depletion by RNAi reduces PC3 prostate cancer cell adhesion to ECs, intercalation between ECs as well as transendothelial migration in vitro. Depletion of the kinases ROCK1 and ROCK2, two known RhoC downstream effectors, similarly decreases cancer interaction with ECs. RhoC also regulates the extension of protrusions made by cancer cells on vascular ECs in vivo. Transient RhoC depletion is sufficient to reduce both early PC3 cell retention in the lungs and experimental metastasis formation in vivo. Our results indicate RhoC plays a central role in cancer cell interaction with vascular ECs, which is a critical event for cancer progression. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Imaging the Role of Multinucleate Pancreatic Cancer Cells and Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in Peritoneal Metastasis in Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kosuke; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Nakamura, Miki; Matsumoto, Takuro; Aoki, Hitomi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masahito; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-07-01

    The interaction between pancreatic-cancer cells and stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) is of particular importance in cancer progression and metastasis. The present report demonstrates the role of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and multinucleate pancreatic-cancer cells in peritoneal metastasis. An orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer was established with the human pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC3, which stably expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP). BxPC3-GFP cells formed peritoneal metastases by week 18 after orthotopic implantation. Using an Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope, multi-nucleated cancer cells were frequently observed in the peritoneal metastases. The primary pancreatic tumor and peritoneal-metastases were harvested, cultured and then transplanted subcutaneously. Subcutaneous tumors established from peritoneal-metastatic cells were larger than subcutaneous tumors established from primary-tumor cells. Subcutaneous tumors of each type were subsequently cultured in vitro. CAFs were observed growing out from the tumors established from peritoneal-metastatic cells, but not the tumors established from the primary cancer. The results of the present study suggest that multi-nucleated cancer cells and CAFs were related to peritoneal metastasis of pancreatic cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Cavin-1/PTRF alters prostate cancer cell-derived extracellular vesicle content and internalization to attenuate extracellular vesicle-mediated osteoclastogenesis and osteoblast proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry L. Inder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumour-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs play a role in tumour progression; however, the spectrum of molecular mechanisms regulating EV secretion and cargo selection remain to be fully elucidated. We have reported that cavin-1 expression in prostate cancer PC3 cells reduced the abundance of a subset of EV proteins, concomitant with reduced xenograft tumour growth and metastasis. Methods: We examined the functional outcomes and mechanisms of cavin-1 expression on PC3-derived EVs (PC3-EVs. Results: PC3-EVs were internalized by osteoclast precursor RAW264.7 cells and primary human osteoblasts (hOBs in vitro, stimulating osteoclastogenesis 37-fold and hOB proliferation 1.5-fold, respectively. Strikingly, EVs derived from cavin-1-expressing PC3 cells (cavin-1-PC3-EVs failed to induce multinucleate osteoblasts or hOB proliferation. Cavin-1 was not detected in EVs, indicating an indirect mechanism of action. EV morphology, size and quantity were also not affected by cavin-1 expression, suggesting that cavin-1 modulated EV cargo recruitment rather than release. While cavin-1-EVs had no osteoclastogenic function, they were internalized by RAW264.7 cells but at a reduced efficiency compared to control EVs. EV surface proteins are required for internalization of PC3-EVs by RAW264.7 cells, as proteinase K treatment abolished uptake of both control and cavin-1-PC3-EVs. Removal of sialic acid modifications by neuraminidase treatment increased the amount of control PC3-EVs internalized by RAW264.7 cells, without affecting cavin-1-PC3-EVs. This suggests that cavin-1 expression altered the glycosylation modifications on PC3-EV surface. Finally, cavin-1 expression did not affect EV in vivo tissue targeting as both control and cavin-1-PC3-EVs were predominantly retained in the lung and bone 24 hours after injection into mice. Discussion: Taken together, our results reveal a novel pathway for EV cargo sorting, and highlight the potential of utilizing

  2. Early Reporting of Apoptosis by Real-time Imaging of Cancer Cells Labeled with Green Fluorescent Protein in the Nucleus and Red Fluorescent Protein in the Cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Meng; Jiang, Ping; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-05-01

    We previously developed PC-3 human prostate cancer cells expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) in the cytoplasm and green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked to histone H2B expressed in the nucleus. We demonstrate in the present report the use of these dual-color cells for early detection of apoptosis in the presence of cancer chemotherapy agents. Induction of apoptosis was observed by real-time imaging of cytoplasmic and nuclear size and shape changes and nuclear fragmentation using fluorescence microscopy. Apoptosis was also detected by measuring DNA fragmentation. The cancer chemotherapy agents paclitaxel and vinblastine were used for induction of apoptosis. When the PC-3 dual-color cells were treated with paclitaxel or vinblastine, cytoplasmic and nuclear size and shape changes and nuclear fragmentation were observed by 24 hours. The paclitaxel-treated PC-3 dual-color cells exhibited ring-like structures formed by the fragmented nuclei, which could be brightly visualized by H2B-GFP fluorescence. Apoptosis was also detected by the dual-color PC-3 cells by 24 hours when treated with vinblastine. However, no nuclear ring-like structures were formed in the PC-3 cells by vinblastine treatment. In contrast, DNA fragmentation could not be observed in PC-3 cells until 48 hours after exposure to paclitaxel. Dual-color PC-3 cells can serve as a simple real-time early reporter of apoptosis and as a screen for novel cancer therapeutics or genotoxic agents. The dual-color cell real-time imaging assay is a more sensitive and earlier reporter for apoptosis than the DNA fragmentation assay. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of the selenium metabolism in cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunøe, Kristoffer; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Stürup, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare different selenium species for their ability to induce cell death in different cancer cell lines, while investigating the underlying chemistry by speciation analysis. A prostate cancer cell line (PC-3), a colon cancer cell line (HT-29) and a leukaemia cell line...... (Jurkat E6-1) were incubated with five selenium compounds representing inorganic as well as organic Se compounds in different oxidation states. Selenomethionine (SeMet), Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys), methylseleninic acid (MeSeA), selenite and selenate in the concentration range 5-100 mu M were...... incubated with cells for 24 h and the induction of cell death was measured using flow cytometry. The amounts of total selenium in cell medium, cell lysate and the insoluble fractions was determined by ICP-MS. Speciation analysis of cellular fractions was performed by reversed phase, anion exchange and size...

  4. Adipose-derived stromal cells inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation inducing apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahara, Kiyoshi [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Ii, Masaaki, E-mail: masaii@art.osaka-med.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Inamoto, Teruo; Komura, Kazumasa; Ibuki, Naokazu; Minami, Koichiro; Uehara, Hirofumi; Hirano, Hajime; Nomi, Hayahito; Kiyama, Satoshi [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Asahi, Michio [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan); Azuma, Haruhito [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical College, Osaka (Japan)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • AdSC transplantation exhibits inhibitory effect on tumor progressions of PCa cells. • AdSC-induced PCa cell apoptosis may occur via the TGF-β signaling pathway. • High expression of the TGF-β1 gene in AdSCs. - Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have generated a great deal of interest in the field of regenerative medicine. Adipose-derived stromal cells (AdSCs) are known to exhibit extensive proliferation potential and can undergo multilineage differentiation, sharing similar characteristics to bone marrow-derived MSCs. However, as the effect of AdSCs on tumor growth has not been studied sufficiently, we assessed the degree to which AdSCs affect the proliferation of prostate cancer (PCa) cell. Human AdSCs exerted an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of androgen-responsive (LNCaP) and androgen-nonresponsive (PC3) human PCa cells, while normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) did not, and in fact promoted PCa cell proliferation to a degree. Moreover, AdSCs induced apoptosis of LNCaP cells and PC3 cells, activating the caspase3/7 signaling pathway. cDNA microarray analysis suggested that AdSC-induced apoptosis in both LNCaP and PC3 cells was related to the TGF-β signaling pathway. Consistent with our in vitro observations, local transplantation of AdSCs delayed the growth of tumors derived from both LNCaP- and PC3-xenografts in immunodeficient mice. This is the first preclinical study to have directly demonstrated that AdSC-induced PCa cell apoptosis may occur via the TGF-β signaling pathway, irrespective of androgen-responsiveness. Since autologous AdSCs can be easily isolated from adipose tissue without any ethical concerns, we suggest that therapy with these cells could be a novel approach for patients with PCa.

  5. ESM-1 siRNA Knockdown Decreased Migration and Expression of CXCL3 in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, Juan; Geliebter, Jan; Reyes, Niradiz

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 (ESM-1), also known as endocan, is a soluble proteoglycan expressed by the vascular endothelium, which also circulates in the bloodstream. Inflammatory cytokines and proangiogenic growth factors increase its expression, and increased serum levels have been reported in several cancer types and immunocompetent patients with sepsis. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression profile of CXC-chemokines and the effects of ESM-1 gene knockdown in proliferation, migration and CXC-chemokine expression in highly metastatic human prostate PC-3 cells. Expression profiles of CXC-chemokines were analyzed in metastatic PC-3 and non-tumorigenic PWR-1E cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ESM-1 was performed into PC-3 cells, which were subsequently tested for cell migration and proliferation. Effect of siRNA transfection on CXC-chemokine expression was further quantified at the transcript and protein level. RT-qPCR analysis and sandwich ELISA assay revealed higher levels of ESM-1 and several CXC-chemokines in metastatic PC-3 cells compared to non-tumorigenic PWR-1E. Transfection of PC-3 cells with ESM-1-siRNA decreased cell migration with no effect on proliferation, and it was accompanied by decrease in the transcript and protein levels of the angiogenic chemokine CXCL3. We report here for the first time the ESM-1 targeting in PC-3 cells, which resulted in decreased migration, which may be related, at least in part, to decreased expression of the angiogenic CXCL3 chemokine, whose expression was found to be reduced in ESM-1-siRNA transfected cells. Additional studies are required to ascertain the biological role of ESM-1 in prostate cancer cells and the link with the expression of CXCL3. PMID:28533735

  6. Hydrogen sulfide mediates the anti-survival effect of sulforaphane on human prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Yanxi [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay (Canada); College of Life Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan (China); Wu, Bo [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay (Canada); Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China); Cao, Qiuhui [Department of Biology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay (Canada); Wu, Lingyun [Department of Pathophysiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin (China); Department of Pharmacology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Yang, Guangdong, E-mail: gyang@lakeheadu.ca [The School of Kinesiology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay (Canada)

    2011-12-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is a novel gasotransmitter that regulates cell proliferation and other cellular functions. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a sulfur-containing compound that exhibits anticancer properties, and young sprouts of broccoli are particularly rich in SFN. There is consistent epidemiological evidence that the consumption of sulfur-containing vegetables, such as garlic and cruciferous vegetables, may help reduce the occurrence of prostate cancer. Here we found that a large amount of H{sub 2}S is released when SFN is added into cell culture medium or mixed with mouse liver homogenates, respectively. Both SFN and NaHS (a H{sub 2}S donor) decreased the viability of PC-3 cells (a human prostate cancer cell line) in a dose-dependent manner, and supplement of methemoglobin or oxidized glutathione (two H{sub 2}S scavengers) reversed SFN-reduced cell viability. We further found both cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine beta-synthase are expressed in PC-3 cells and mouse prostate tissues. H{sub 2}S production in prostate tissues from CSE knockout mice was only 20% of that from wild-type mice, suggesting CSE is a major H{sub 2}S-producing enzyme in prostate. CSE overexpression enhanced H{sub 2}S production and inhibited cell viability in PC-3 cells. In addition, both SFN and NaHS activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Pre-treatment of PC-3 cells with methemoglobin decreased SFN-stimulated MAPK activities. Suppression of both p38 MAPK and JNK reversed H{sub 2}S- or SFN-reduced viability of PC-3 cells. Our results demonstrated that H{sub 2}S mediates the inhibitory effect of SFN on the proliferation of PC-3 cells, which suggests that H{sub 2}S-releasing diet or drug might be beneficial in the treatment of prostate cancer. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large amount of H{sub 2}S is released from sulforaphane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}S mediates the anti-survival effect of

  7. Variable metastatic potentials correlate with differential plectin and vimentin expression in syngeneic androgen independent prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya C Burch

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a clinically heterogeneous disease, ranging from indolent asymptomatic disease to very aggressive metastatic and life threatening forms of the disease. Distant metastasis represents the major lethal cause of prostate cancer. The most critical clinical challenge in the management of the patients is identifying those individuals at risk of developing metastatic disease. To understand the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer metastasis and identify markers with metastatic potential, we have analyzed protein expression in two syngeneic prostate cancer cells lines PC3-N2 and PC3-ML2 using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation labeling and multi-dimensional protein identification technology liquid chromatography matrix assisted laser desorption ionization tandem mass spectrometry. PC3-N2 is lowly metastatic while PC3-ML2 highly metastatic. A total of 1,756 proteins were identified in the analyses with 130 proteins showing different expression levels (p<0.01 in the two cell lines. Out of these, 68 proteins were found to be significantly up-regulated while 62 are significantly down-regulated in PC3-ML2 cells compared with PC3-N2 cells. The upregulation of plectin and vimentin which were the most significantly differentially expressed were validated by Western blot and their functional relevance with respect to invasion and migration was determined by siRNA gene silencing. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that up-regulation of vimentin and plectin expression positively correlates with the invasion and metastasis of androgen-independent PCA.

  8. The calcimimetic R-568 induces apoptotic cell death in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Guangming

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased serum level of parathyroid hormone (PTH was found in metastatic prostate cancers. Calcimimetic R-568 was reported to reduce PTH expression, to suppress cell proliferation and to induce apoptosis in parathyroid cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of R-568 on cellular survival of prostate cancer cells. Methods Prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and PC-3 were used in this study. Cellular survival was determined with MTT, trypan blue exclusion and fluorescent Live/Death assays. Western blot assay was utilized to assess apoptotic events induced by R-568 treatment. JC-1 staining was used to evaluate mitochondrial membrane potential. Results In cultured prostate cancer LNCaP and PC-3 cells, R-568 treatment significantly reduced cellular survival in a dose- and time-dependent manner. R-568-induced cell death was an apoptotic event, as evidenced by caspase-3 processing and PARP cleavage, as well as JC-1 color change in mitochondria. Knocking down calcium sensing receptor (CaSR significantly reduced R-568-induced cytotoxicity. Enforced expression of Bcl-xL gene abolished R-568-induced cell death, while loss of Bcl-xL expression led to increased cell death in R-568-treated LNCaP cells,. Conclusion Taken together, our data demonstrated that calcimimetic R-568 triggers an intrinsic mitochondria-related apoptotic pathway, which is dependent on the CaSR and is modulated by Bcl-xL anti-apoptotic pathway.

  9. Combination of α-Tomatine and Curcumin Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Human Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huarong Huang

    Full Text Available α-Tomatine is a glycoalkaloid found in tomatoes and curcumin is a major yellow pigment of turmeric. In the present study, the combined effect of these two compounds on prostate cancer cells was studied. Treatment of different prostate cancer cells with curcumin or α-tomatine alone resulted in growth inhibition and apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. Combinations of α-tomatine and curcumin synergistically inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Effects of the α-tomatine and curcumin combination were associated with synergistic inhibition of NF-κB activity and a potent decrease in the expression of its downstream gene Bcl-2 in the cells. Moreover, strong decreases in the levels of phospho-Akt and phosphor-ERK1/2 were found in PC-3 cells treated with α-tomatine and curcumin in combination. In animal experiment, SCID mice with PC-3 xenograft tumors were treated with α-tomatine and curcumin. Combination of α-tomatine and curcumin more potently inhibited the growth of PC-3 tumors than either agent alone. Results from the present study indicate that α-tomatine in combination with curcumin may be an effective strategy for inhibiting the growth of prostate cancer.

  10. Characterisation and Manipulation of Docetaxel Resistant Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Amanda J

    2011-10-07

    Abstract Background There is no effective treatment strategy for advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer. Although Docetaxel (Taxotere®) represents the most active chemotherapeutic agent it only gives a modest survival advantage with most patients eventually progressing because of inherent or acquired drug resistance. The aims of this study were to further investigate the mechanisms of resistance to Docetaxel. Three Docetaxel resistant sub-lines were generated and confirmed to be resistant to the apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects of increasing concentrations of Docetaxel. Results The resistant DU-145 R and 22RV1 R had expression of P-glycoprotein and its inhibition with Elacridar partially and totally reversed the resistant phenotype in the two cell lines respectively, which was not seen in the PC-3 resistant sublines. Resistance was also not mediated in the PC-3 cells by cellular senescence or autophagy but multiple changes in pro- and anti-apoptotic genes and proteins were demonstrated. Even though there were lower basal levels of NF-κB activity in the PC-3 D12 cells compared to the Parental PC-3, docetaxel induced higher NF-κB activity and IκB phosphorylation at 3 and 6 hours with only minor changes in the DU-145 cells. Inhibition of NF-κB with the BAY 11-7082 inhibitor reversed the resistance to Docetaxel. Conclusion This study confirms that multiple mechanisms contribute to Docetaxel resistance and the central transcription factor NF-κB plays an immensely important role in determining docetaxel-resistance which may represent an appropriate therapeutic target.

  11. Andrographolide inhibits prostate cancer by targeting cell cycle regulators, CXCR3 and CXCR7 chemokine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Hina; Kapur, Neeraj; Singh, Rajesh; Sonpavde, Guru; Lillard, James W; Singh, Shailesh

    2016-01-01

    Despite state of the art cancer diagnostics and therapies offered in clinic, prostate cancer (PCa) remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Hence, more robust therapeutic/preventive regimes are required to combat this lethal disease. In the current study, we have tested the efficacy of Andrographolide (AG), a bioactive diterpenoid isolated from Andrographis paniculata, against PCa. This natural agent selectively affects PCa cell viability in a dose and time-dependent manner, without affecting primary prostate epithelial cells. Furthermore, AG showed differential effect on cell cycle phases in LNCaP, C4-2b and PC3 cells compared to retinoblastoma protein (RB(-/-)) and CDKN2A lacking DU-145 cells. G2/M transition was blocked in LNCaP, C4-2b and PC3 after AG treatment whereas DU-145 cells failed to transit G1/S phase. This difference was primarily due to differential activation of cell cycle regulators in these cell lines. Levels of cyclin A2 after AG treatment increased in all PCa cells line. Cyclin B1 levels increased in LNCaP and PC3, decreased in C4-2b and showed no difference in DU-145 cells after AG treatment. AG decreased cyclin E2 levels only in PC3 and DU-145 cells. It also altered Rb, H3, Wee1 and CDC2 phosphorylation in PCa cells. Intriguingly, AG reduced cell viability and the ability of PCa cells to migrate via modulating CXCL11 and CXCR3 and CXCR7 expression. The significant impact of AG on cellular and molecular processes involved in PCa progression suggests its potential use as a therapeutic and/or preventive agent for PCa.

  12. Activation of NF-kappa B signaling promotes growth of prostate cancer cells in bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjie Jin

    Full Text Available Patients with advanced prostate cancer almost invariably develop osseous metastasis. Although many studies indicate that the activation of NF-κB signaling appears to be correlated with advanced cancer and promotes tumor metastasis by influencing tumor cell migration and angiogenesis, the influence of altered NF-κB signaling in prostate cancer cells within boney metastatic lesions is not clearly understood. While C4-2B and PC3 prostate cancer cells grow well in the bone, LNCaP cells are difficult to grow in murine bone following intraskeletal injection. Our studies show that when compared to LNCaP, NF-κB activity is significantly higher in C4-2B and PC3, and that the activation of NF-κB signaling in prostate cancer cells resulted in the increased expression of the osteoclast inducing genes PTHrP and RANKL. Further, conditioned medium derived from NF-κB activated LNCaP cells induce osteoclast differentiation. In addition, inactivation of NF-κB signaling in prostate cancer cells inhibited tumor formation in the bone, both in the osteolytic PC3 and osteoblastic/osteoclastic mixed C4-2B cells; while the activation of NF-κB signaling in LNCaP cells promoted tumor establishment and proliferation in the bone. The activation of NF-κB in LNCaP cells resulted in the formation of an osteoblastic/osteoclastic mixed tumor with increased osteoclasts surrounding the new formed bone, similar to metastases commonly seen in patients with prostate cancer. These results indicate that osteoclastic reaction is required even in the osteoblastic cancer cells and the activation of NF-κB signaling in prostate cancer cells increases osteoclastogenesis by up-regulating osteoclastogenic genes, thereby contributing to bone metastatic formation.

  13. Reactive Oxygen Species Mediate Isoalantolactone-Induced Apoptosis in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Isoalantolactone, a medicinal plant-derived natural compound, is known to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. However, its effect on apoptosis in prostate cancer cells has not been addressed. Thus, we examined the effects of isoalantolactone on prostate cancer cells. It was found that isoalantolactone inhibits growth of both androgen-sensitive (LNCaP as well as androgen-independent (PC3 and DU-145 prostate cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, our results indicate that isoalantolactone-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer PC3 cells is associated with the generation of ROS and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm. In addition, isoalantolactone triggers apoptosis in prostate cancer cells via up-regulation of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2, survivin, and significant activation of caspase-3. Isoalantolactone-induced apoptosis is markedly abrogated when the cells were pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a specific ROS inhibitor, suggesting that the apoptosis-inducing effect of isoalantolactone in prostate cancer cells is mediated by reactive oxygen species. These findings indicate that isoalantolactone induces reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis in prostate cancer cells via a novel mechanism involving inhibition of survivin and provide the rationale for further in vivo and preclinical investigation of isoalantolactone against human prostate cancer.

  14. Piperine inhibits the proliferation of human prostate cancer cells via induction of cell cycle arrest and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Dong-yun; Zeng, Long-hui; Pan, Hao; Xu, Li-hui; Wang, Yao; Liu, Kun-peng; He, Xian-hui

    2013-10-01

    Piperine, an alkaloid from black and long peppers (Piper nigrum Linn & Piper longum Linn), has been reported to exhibit antitumor activities in vitro and in vivo. To further understand the antitumor mechanism of piperine, we investigated the growth inhibitory effects of piperine on human prostate cancer DU145, PC-3 and LNCaP cells. Piperine treatment resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of the proliferation of these cell lines. Cell cycle arrest at G₀/G₁ was induced and cyclin D1 and cyclin A were downregulated upon piperine treatment. Notably, the level of p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1) was increased dose-dependently by piperine treatment in both LNCaP and DU145 but not in PC-3 cells, in line with more robust cell cycle arrest in the former two cell lines than the latter one. Although piperine induced low levels of apoptosis, it promoted autophagy as evidenced by the increased level of LC3B-II and the formation of LC3B puncta in LNCaP and PC-3 cells. The piperine-induced autophagic flux was further confirmed by assaying LC3-II accumulation and LC3B puncta formation in the presence of chloroquine, a well-known autophagy inhibitor. Taken together, these results indicated that piperine exhibited anti-proliferative effect in human prostate cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and autophagy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Syndecan-1 responsive microRNA-126 and 149 regulate cell proliferation in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tomomi; Shimada, Keiji [Department of Pathology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Nara (Japan); Tatsumi, Yoshihiro [Department of Pathology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Nara (Japan); Department of Urology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Nara (Japan); Fujimoto, Kiyohide [Department of Urology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Nara (Japan); Konishi, Noboru, E-mail: nkonishi@naramed-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Nara (Japan)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Syndecan-1 is highly expressed in androgen independent prostate cancer cells, PC3. • Syndecan-1 regulates the expression of miR-126 and -149 in prostate cancer cells. • MiR-126 and 149 control cell growth via p21 induction and senescence mechanism. • MiR-126 and 149 promote cell proliferation by suppressing SOX2, NANOG, and Oct4. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short (19–24 nt), low molecular weight RNAs that play important roles in the regulation of target genes associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, and development, by binding to the 3′-untranslated region of the target mRNAs. In this study, we examined the expression of miRNA-126 (miR-126) and miR-149 in prostate cancer, and investigated the molecular mechanisms by which they affect syndecan-1 in prostate cancer. Functional analysis of miR-126 and miR-149 was conducted in the prostate cancer cell lines, PC3, Du145, and LNCaP. The expression levels of SOX2, NANOG, Oct4, miR-126 and miR-149 were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. After silencing syndecan-1, miR-126, and/or miR-149 in the PC3 cells, cell proliferation, senescence, and p21 induction were assessed using the MTS assay, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) assay, and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Compared to the Du145 and LNCaP cells, PC3 cells exhibited higher expression of syndecan-1. When syndecan-1 was silenced, the PC3 cells showed reduced expression of miR-126 and miR-149 most effectively. Suppression of miR-126 and/or miR-149 significantly inhibited cell growth via p21 induction and subsequently, induced senescence. The mRNA expression levels of SOX2, NANOG, and Oct4 were significantly increased in response to the silencing of miR-126 and/or miR-149. Our results suggest that miR-126 and miR-149 are associated with the expression of syndecan-1 in prostate cancer cells. These miRNAs promote cell proliferation by suppressing SOX2, NANOG, and Oct4. The regulation of these factors by mi

  16. Crude Garlic Extract Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis of Cancer Cells In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagul, Mukta; Kakumanu, Srikanth; Wilson, Thomas A

    2015-07-01

    Garlic and its lipid-based extracts have played an important medicinal role in humans for centuries that includes antimicrobial, hypoglycemic, and lipid-lowering properties. The present study was to investigate the effects of crude garlic extract (CGE) on the proliferation of human breast, prostate, hepatic, and colon cancer cell lines and mouse macrophageal cells, not previously studied. The human cancer cell lines, such as hepatic (Hep-G2), colon (Caco-2), prostate (PC-3), and breast (MCF-7), were propagated at 37°C; air/CO2 (95:5 v/v) using the ATCC-formulated RPMI-1640 Medium and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), while the mouse macrophage cell line (TIB-71) was propagated at 37°C; air/CO2 (95:5 v/v) using the ATCC-formulated DMEM and 10% FBS. All cells were plated at a density of ∼5000 cells/well. After overnight incubation, the cells were treated with 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, or 1 μg/mL of CGE an additional 72 h. Inhibition of cell proliferation of 80-90% was observed for Hep-G2, MCF-7, TIB-71, and PC-3 cells, but only 40-55% for the Caco-2 cells when treated with 0.25, 0.5, or 1 μg/mL. In a coculture study of Caco-2 and TIB-71 cells, inhibition of cell proliferation of 90% was observed for Caco-2 cells compared to the 40-55% when cultured separately. CGE also induced cell cycle arrest and had a fourfold increase in caspase activity (apoptosis) in PC-3 cells when treated at a dose of 0.5 or 1 μg/mL. This investigation of CGE clearly highlights the fact that the lipid bioactive compounds in CGE have the potential as promising anticancer agents.

  17. DNA fragmentation and apoptosis induced by safranal in human prostate cancer cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Samarghandian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Apoptosis, an important mechanism that contributes to cell growth reduction, is reported to be induced by Crocus sativus (Saffron in different cancer types. However, limited effort has been made to correlate these effects to the active ingredients of saffron. The present study was designed to elucidate cytotoxic and apoptosis induction by safranal, the major coloring compound in saffron, in a human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3. Materials and Methods: PC-3 and human fetal lung fibroblast (MRC-5 cells were cultured and exposed to safranal (5, 10, 15, and 20 μg/ml. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay was performed to assess cytotoxicity. DNA fragmentation was assessed by gel electrophoresis. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of safranal, and cell morphologic changes and apoptosis were determined by the normal inverted microscope, Annexin V, and propidium iodide, followed by flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Results: MTT assay revealed a remarkable and concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of safranal on PC-3 cells in comparison with non-malignant cell line. The morphologic alterations of the cells confirmed the MTT results. The IC 50 values against PC-3 cells were found to be 13.0 ΁ 0.07 and 6.4 ΁ 0.09 μg/ml at 48 and 72 h, respectively. Safranal induced an early and late apoptosis in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells, indicating apoptosis is involved in this toxicity. DNA analysis revealed typical ladders as early as 48 and 72 h after treatment, indicative of apoptosis. Conclusions: Our preclinical study demonstrated a prostate cancer cell line to be highly sensitive to safranal-mediated growth inhibition and apoptotic cell death. Although the molecular mechanisms of safranal action are not clearly understood, it appears to have potential as a therapeutic agent.

  18. Targeting Quiescence in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    cell quiescence, cancer recurrence 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...limit to 20 words). GAS6 Growth arrest specific 6 HSC Hematopoietic stem cells HSC Niche Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niche PC3 Prostate...distributions of cancer cells in the Hematopoietic Stem cell niche* (Timepoints throughout 1-7 months will be examined) 1-7 months Optimization

  19. Piperine, a Bioactive Component of Pepper Spice Exerts Therapeutic Effects on Androgen Dependent and Androgen Independent Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash Samykutty

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common solid malignancy in men, with 32,000 deaths annually. Piperine, a major alkaloid constituent of black pepper, has previously been reported to have anti-cancer activity in variety of cancer cell lines. The effect of piperine against prostate cancer is not currently known. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the anti-tumor mechanisms of piperine on androgen dependent and androgen independent prostate cancer cells. Here, we show that piperine inhibited the proliferation of LNCaP, PC-3, 22RV1 and DU-145 prostate cancer cells in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, Annexin-V staining demonstrated that piperine treatment induced apoptosis in hormone dependent prostate cancer cells (LNCaP. Using global caspase activation assay, we show that piperine-induced apoptosis resulted in caspase activation in LNCaP and PC-3 cells. Further studies revealed that piperine treatment resulted in the activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP-1 proteins in LNCaP, PC-3 and DU-145 prostate cancer cells. Piperine treatment also disrupted androgen receptor (AR expression in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Our evaluations further show that there is a significant reduction of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA levels following piperine treatment in LNCaP cells. NF-kB and STAT-3 transcription factors have previously been shown to play a role in angiogenesis and invasion of prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, treatment of LNCaP, PC-3 and DU-145 prostate cancer cells with piperine resulted in reduced expression of phosphorylated STAT-3 and Nuclear factor-κB (NF-kB transcription factors. These results correlated with the results of Boyden chamber assay, wherein piperine treatment reduced the cell migration of LNCaP and PC-3 cells. Finally, we show that piperine treatment significantly reduced the androgen dependent and androgen independent tumor growth in nude mice model xenotransplanted with prostate cancer cells. Taken together, these

  20. Pleiotropic effects of cancer cells' secreted factors on human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-toub, Mashael; Almusa, Abdulaziz; Almajed, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    cells' secreted factors as represented by a panel of human cancer cell lines (breast (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231); prostate (PC-3); lung (NCI-H522); colon (HT-29) and head & neck (FaDu)) on the biological characteristics of MSCs. METHODS: Morphological changes were assessed using fluorescence microscopy......, but not from MCF7 and HT-29, developed an elongated, spindle-shaped morphology with bipolar processes. In association with phenotypic changes, genome-wide gene expression and bioinformatics analysis revealed an enhanced pro-inflammatory response of those MSCs. Pharmacological inhibitions of FAK and MAPKK......INTRODUCTION: Studying cancer tumors' microenvironment may reveal a novel role in driving cancer progression and metastasis. The biological interaction between stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (MSCs) and cancer cells remains incompletely understood. Herein, we investigated the effects of tumor...

  1. Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor C increases growth and alters the metastatic pattern of orthotopic PC-3 prostate tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Väänänen H Kalervo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and distant sites but the roles of lymphatic and hematogenous pathways in metastasis are not fully understood. Methods We studied the roles of VEGF-C and VEGFR3 in prostate cancer metastasis by blocking VEGFR3 using intravenous adenovirus-delivered VEGFR3-Ig fusion protein (VEGFR3-Ig and by ectopic expression of VEGF-C in PC-3 prostate tumors in nude mice. Results VEGFR3-Ig decreased the density of lymphatic capillaries in orthotopic PC-3 tumors (p p p p Conclusion The data suggest that even though VEGF-C/VEGFR3 pathway is primarily required for lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis, an increased level of VEGF-C can also stimulate angiogenesis, which is associated with growth of orthotopic prostate tumors and a switch from a primary pattern of lymph node metastasis to an increased proportion of metastases at distant sites.

  2. Glucose-6-Phosphatase Catalytic Subunit 3 (G6PC3 Deficiency Associated With Autoinflammatory Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Mistry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available G6PC3 deficiency typically causes severe congenital neutropenia, associated with susceptibility to infections, cardiac and urogenital abnormalities. However, here we describe two boys of Pakistani origin who were found to have G6PC3 deficiency due to c.130 C>T mutation, but who have clinical phenotypes that are typical for a systemic autoinflammatory syndrome. The index case presented with combination of unexplained fevers, severe mucosal ulcers, abdominal symptoms, and inflammatory arthritis. He eventually fully responded to anti-TNF therapy. In this study, we show that compared with healthy controls, neutrophils and monocytes from patients have reduced glycolytic reserve. Considering that healthy myeloid cells have been shown to switch their metabolic pathways to glycolysis in response to inflammatory cues, we studied what impact this might have on production of the inflammatory cytokines. We have demonstrated that patients’ monocytes, in response to lipopolysaccharide, show significantly increased production of IL-1β and IL-18, which is NLRP3 inflammasome dependent. Furthermore, additional whole blood assays have also shown an enhanced production of IL-6 and TNF from the patients’ cells. These cases provide further proof that autoinflammatory complications are also seen within the spectrum of primary immune deficiencies, and resulting from a wider dysregulation of the immune responses.

  3. Calorimetric signatures of human cancer cells and their nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todinova, S. [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 21, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Stoyanova, E. [Department of Molecular Immunology, Institute of Biology and Immunology of Reproduction, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shose Blvd. 73, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Krumova, S., E-mail: sakrumo@gmail.com [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 21, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Iliev, I. [Institute of Experimental Morphology, Pathology and Anthropology with Museum, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 25, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Taneva, S.G. [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 21, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2016-01-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Two temperature ranges are distinguished in the thermograms of cells/nuclei. • Different thermodynamic properties of cancer and normal human cells/nuclei. • Dramatic reduction of the enthalpy of the low-temperature range in cancer cells. • Oxaliplatin and 5-FU affect the nuclear matrix proteins and the DNA stability. - Abstract: The human cancer cell lines HeLa, JEG-3, Hep G2, SSC-9, PC-3, HT-29, MCF7 and their isolated nuclei were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry. The calorimetric profiles differed from normal human fibroblast (BJ) cells in the two well distinguished temperature ranges—the high-temperature range (H{sub T}, due to DNA-containing structures) and the low-temperature range (L{sub T}, assigned to the nuclear matrix and cellular proteins). The enthalpy of the L{sub T} range, and, respectively the ratio of the enthalpies of the L{sub T}- vs. H{sub T}-range, ΔH{sub L}/ΔH{sub H}, is strongly reduced for all cancer cells compared to normal fibroblasts. On the contrary, for most of the cancer nuclei this ratio is higher compared to normal nuclei. The HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells/nuclei differed most drastically from normal human fibroblast cells/nuclei. Our data also reveal that the treatment of HT-29 cancer cells with cytostatic drugs affects not only the DNA replication but also the cellular proteome.

  4. Monascuspiloin enhances the radiation sensitivity of human prostate cancer cells by stimulating endoplasmic reticulum stress and inducing autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Wen Chiu

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a very common cancer among males. Traditional treatments for prostate cancer have limited efficacy; therefore, new therapeutic strategies and/or new adjuvant drugs must be explored. Red yeast rice (RYR is a traditional food spice made in Asia by fermenting white rice with Monascus purpureus Went yeast. Accumulating evidence indicates that RYR has antitumor activity. In this study, PC-3 cells (human prostate cancer cells were used to investigate the anti-cancer effects of ionizing radiation (IR combined with monascuspiloin (MP, a yellow pigment isolated from Monascus pilosus M93-fermented rice and to determine the underlying mechanisms of these effects in vitro and in vivo. We found that IR combined with MP showed increased therapeutic efficacy when compared with either treatment alone in PC-3 cells. In addition, the combined treatment enhanced DNA damage and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress. The combined treatment induced primarily autophagy in PC-3 cells, and the cell death that was induced by the combined treatment was chiefly the result of inhibition of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathways. In an in vivo study, the combination treatment showed greater anti-tumor growth effects. These novel findings suggest that the combined treatment could be a potential therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer.

  5. Subditine, a new monoterpenoid indole alkaloid from bark of Nauclea subdita (Korth. Steud. induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook Yee Liew

    Full Text Available In this study, a new apoptotic monoterpenoid indole alkaloid, subditine (1, and four known compounds were isolated from the bark of Nauclea subdita. Complete (1H- and (13C- NMR data of the new compound were reported. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated with various spectroscopic methods such as 1D- and 2D- NMR, IR, UV and LCMS. All five compounds were screened for cytotoxic activities on LNCaP and PC-3 human prostate cancer cell-lines. Among the five compounds, the new alkaloid, subditine (1, demonstrated the most potent cell growth inhibition activity and selective against LNCaP with an IC50 of 12.24±0.19 µM and PC-3 with an IC50 of 13.97±0.32 µM, compared to RWPE human normal epithelial cell line (IC50 = 30.48±0.08 µM. Subditine (1 treatment induced apoptosis in LNCaP and PC-3 as evidenced by increased cell permeability, disruption of cytoskeletal structures and increased nuclear fragmentation. In addition, subditine (1 enhanced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production, as reflected by increased expression of glutathione reductase (GR to scavenge damaging free radicals in both prostate cancer cell-lines. Excessive ROS could lead to disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, release of cytochrome c and subsequent caspase 9, 3/7 activation. Further Western blot analyses showed subditine (1 induced down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl expression, whereas p53 was up-regulated in LNCaP (p53-wild-type, but not in PC-3 (p53-null. Overall, our data demonstrated that the new compound subditine (1 exerts anti-proliferative effect on LNCaP and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells through induction of apoptosis.

  6. XAF1 expression and regulatory effects of somatostatin on XAF1 in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chunde

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatostatin prevents cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. Downregulation of the XAF1 transcript may occur during the development of prostate cancer. It is interesting to evaluate the potential regulatory effects of somatostatin on XAF1 expression during the development of prostate cancer cells. Methods XAF1 mRNA and protein expression in human prostate epithelial cells RWPE-1, androgen dependent prostate cancer LNCaP, and androgen independent DU145 and PC3 cells were evaluated using RT-PCR and Western blot. The regulation of XAF1 mRNA and protein expression by somatostatin and its analogue Octreotide was evaluated. Results Substantial levels of XAF1 mRNA and proteins were detected in RWPE-1 cells, whereas prostate cancer cells LNCaP, DU145 and PC3 exhibited lower XAF1 expression. Somatostatin and Octreotide up-regulated XAF1 mRNA and protein expression in all prostate cancer cell lines. Conclusions XAF1 down-regulation may contribute to the prostate cancer development. The enhanced XAF1 expression by somatostatin indicates a promising strategy for prostate cancer therapy.

  7. A combination of desmopressin and docetaxel inhibit cell proliferation and invasion mediated by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in human prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Hiroshi; Klotz, Laurence H. [Division of Urology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); Sugar, Linda M. [Department of Pathology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); Kiss, Alexander [Department of Research Design and Biostatistics, Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); Venkateswaran, Vasundara, E-mail: vasundara.venkateswaran@sunnybrook.ca [Division of Urology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-08-28

    Background: This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a combination treatment using both desmopressin and docetaxel in prostate cancer treatment. Desmopressin is a well-known synthetic analogue of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin. It has recently been demonstrated to inhibit tumor progression and metastasis in in vivo models. Docetaxel is widely used for the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. However, durable responses have been uncommon to date. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of desmopressin in combination with docetaxel in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Two prostate cancer cells (PC3, LNCaP) were treated with different concentrations of desmopressin alone, docetaxel alone, and a combination of desmopressin and docetaxel. Cell proliferation was determined by MTS assay. The anti-invasive and anti-migration potential of desmopressin and in combination with docetaxel were examined by wound healing assay, migration chamber assay, and matrigel invasion assay. Results: The combination of desmopressin and docetaxel resulted in a significant inhibition of PC3 and LNCaP cell proliferation (p < 0.01). Additionally, cell migration and invasion were also inhibited by the combination when compared to that of either treatment alone in PC3 cells (p < 0.01). The anti-tumor effect of this combination treatment was associated with down-regulation of both urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in PC3 cells. Conclusions: We are the first to elucidate the anti-tumor and anti-metastatic potential of desmopressin in combination with docetaxel in a prostate cancer model via the uPA-MMP pathway. Our finding could potentially contribute to the therapeutic profile of desmopressin and enhance the efficacy of docetaxel based treatment for CRPC. - Highlights: • Desmopressin inhibits cell proliferation in prostate cancer cells. • The expression of cyclin A and CDK2

  8. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carcinoma Small cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Secondhand smoke and lung cancer Normal lungs and alveoli Respiratory system Smoking hazards Bronchoscope References Horn L, Eisenberg R, ...

  9. Cell phones and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of exposure ...

  10. Metformin inhibits prostate cancer cell proliferation, migration, and tumor growth through upregulation of PEDF expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowan; Li, Chenli; He, Tiantian; Mao, Jiating; Li, Chunmei; Lyu, Jianxin; Meng, Qing H

    2016-05-03

    Metformin has been reported to inhibit the growth of various types of cancers, including prostate cancer. Yet the mode of anti-cancer action of metformin and the underlying mechanisms remain not fully elucidated. We hypothesized that the antitumorigenic effects of metformin are mediated through upregulation of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) expression in prostate cancer cells. In this report, metformin treatment significantly inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of prostate cancer cells, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, Metformin markedly suppressed migration and invasion and induced apoptosis of both LNCaP and PC3 cancer cells. Metformin also reduced PC3 tumor growth in BALB/c nude mice in vivo. Furthermore, metformin treatment was associated with higher PEDF expression in both prostate cancer cells and tumor tissue. Taken together, metformin inhibits prostate cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion and tumor growth, and these activities are mediated by upregulation of PEDF expression. These findings provide a novel insight into the molecular functions of metformin as an anticancer agent.

  11. Repositioning "old" drugs for new causes: identifying new inhibitors of prostate cancer cell migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Esha T; Upadhyaya, Akanksha; Philp, Lisa K; Tang, Tiffany; Skalamera, Dubravka; Gunter, Jennifer; Nelson, Colleen C; Williams, Elizabeth D; Hollier, Brett G

    2016-04-01

    The majority of prostate cancer (PCa) deaths occur due to the metastatic spread of tumor cells to distant organs. Currently, there is a lack of effective therapies once tumor cells have spread outside the prostate. It is therefore imperative to rapidly develop therapeutics to inhibit the metastatic spread of tumor cells. Gain of cell motility and invasive properties is the first step of metastasis and by inhibiting motility one can potentially inhibit metastasis. Using the drug repositioning strategy, we developed a cell-based multi-parameter primary screening assay to identify drugs that inhibit the migratory and invasive properties of metastatic PC-3 PCa cells. Following the completion of the primary screening assay, 33 drugs were identified from an FDA approved drug library that either inhibited migration or were cytotoxic to the PC-3 cells. Based on the data obtained from the subsequent validation studies, mitoxantrone hydrochloride, simvastatin, fluvastatin and vandetanib were identified as strong candidates that can inhibit both the migration and invasion of PC-3 cells without significantly affecting cell viability. By employing the drug repositioning strategy instead of a de novo drug discovery and development strategy, the identified drug candidates have the potential to be rapidly translated into the clinic for the management of men with aggressive forms of PCa.

  12. Additive naftopidil treatment synergizes docetaxel-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kenichiro; Matsuoka, Izumi; Kajiwara, Shinya; Sasaki, Takeshi; Miki, Manabu; Kato, Manabu; Kanda, Hideki; Arima, Kiminobu; Shiraishi, Taizo; Sugimura, Yoshiki

    2018-01-01

    Docetaxel (DTX) is a standard chemotherapeutic drug for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), although adverse events are common. To overcome this problem, researchers have evaluated the efficacy of DTX treatment in combination with other drugs. Naftopidil is a tubulin-binding drug with fewer adverse events, implying the usefulness of this drug in clinical applications when combined with DTX. Here, we investigated the efficacy of additive naftopidil treatment in combination with DTX on prostate cancer (PCa) cells. The effects of combination treatment with DTX plus naftopidil were analyzed using two animal models of LNCaP cells plus PrSC xenografts (sub-renal capsule grafting) and PC-3 xenografts (intratibial injection). Combination treatment with DTX plus naftopidil significantly inhibited cell growth in LNCaP cells compared with DTX alone. Analysis of the cooperativity index (CI) showed that combination treatment exhibited additive effects on DTX-induced growth inhibition in LNCaP cells. In contrast, combination treatment showed more than an additive (synergistic) effect on DTX-induced apoptosis in LNCaP and PC-3 cells. In LNCaP cells plus PrSC xenografts, combination treatment showed synergistic effects on DTX-induced apoptosis. The synergistic effects of naftopidil on DTX-induced apoptosis were also observed in PC-3 xenografts. Our results demonstrated that additive naftopidil treatment in combination with DTX increased the efficacy of DTX for the treatment of LNCaP and PC-3 tumors in vivo. Thus, additive naftopidil treatment showed a synergistic effect on DTX-induced apoptosis in PCa cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that this treatment approach may yield improved clinical benefits compared with DTX alone.

  13. Comparative analysis of gene expression in normal and cancer human prostate cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Rosenberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the main causes of mortality in men with malignant tumors. The urgent problem was a search for biomarkers of prostate cancer, which would allow distinguishing between aggressive metastatic and latent tumors. The aim of this work was to search for differentially expressed genes in normal epithelial cells PNT2 and prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, DU145 and PC3, produced from tumors with different aggressiveness and metas­tatic ability. Such genes might be used to create a panel of prognostic markers for aggressiveness and metastasis. Relative gene expression of 65 cancer-related genes was determined by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR. Expression of 29 genes was changed in LNCaP cells, 20 genes in DU145 and 16 genes in PC3 cell lines, compared with normal line PNT2. The obtained data make it possible to conclude that the epithelial-mesenchymal cell transition took place, which involved the loss of epithelial markers, reduced cell adhesion and increased migration. We have also found few differentially expressed genes among 3 prostate cancer cell lines. We have found that genes, involved in cell adhesion (CDH1, invasiveness and metastasis (IL8, CXCL2 and cell cycle control (P16, CCNE1 underwent most changes. These genes might be used for diagnosis and prognosis of invasive metastatic prostate tumors.

  14. Magnolol causes alterations in the cell cycle in androgen insensitive human prostate cancer cells in vitro by affecting expression of key cell cycle regulatory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Brendan T; McDougall, Luke; Catalli, Adriana; Hurta, Robert A R

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer, one of the most common cancers in the Western world, affects many men worldwide. This study investigated the effects of magnolol, a compound found in the roots and bark of the magnolia tree Magnolia officinalis, on the behavior of 2 androgen insensitive human prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and PC3, in vitro. Magnolol, in a 24-h exposure at 40 and 80 μM, was found to be cytotoxic to cells. Magnolol also affected cell cycle progression of DU145 and PC3 cells, resulting in alterations to the cell cycle and subsequently decreasing the proportion of cells entering the G2/M-phase of the cell cycle. Magnolol inhibited the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins including cyclins A, B1, D1, and E, as well as CDK2 and CDK4. Protein expression levels of pRBp107 decreased and pRBp130 protein expression levels increased in response to magnolol exposure, whereas p16(INK4a), p21, and p27 protein expression levels were apparently unchanged post 24-h exposure. Magnolol exposure at 6 h did increase p27 protein expression levels. This study has demonstrated that magnolol can alter the behavior of androgen insensitive human prostate cancer cells in vitro and suggests that magnolol may have potential as a novel anti-prostate cancer agent.

  15. Metafectene is superior to lipofectamine in the transfection of G(s) alpha prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Omara-Opyene, A Levi; Klösel, Roland

    2004-10-01

    Transfection efficiency of the novel reagent metafectene has not been compared with that of lipofectamine in the published English literature. We used these agents to transfect two prostate cancer cell lines, PC3 and G(s) alpha, with a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) expression vector that generates double-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) for RNA interference (RNAi). Cotransfection of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene revealed that the mean (+/- standard deviation) transfection efficiencies with lipofectamine were 5.8+/-0.4% for PC3 cells and 3.6+/-1.5% for G(s) alpha cells. Mean transfection efficiency with metafectene declined to 0.1+/-0% for PC3 cells but improved to 54.6+/-5.5% for G(s) alpha cells. With G(s) alpha cells, metafectene transfection of GFP plasmid alone yielded 46.9% positive cells, and cotransfection with CD44v9 expression vector yielded 45.9% positive cells. The visual impact of the transfected RNAi construct was detectable at the protein level 4 to 6 d posttransfection and was more dramatic after using metafectene than after using lipofectamine. Thus, in vitro, metafectene transfection efficiency was sufficient to allow us to assess the functional significance of our RNAi construct, suggesting metafectene as an excellent candidate for RNAi-mediated anticancer gene therapy.

  16. The gastrin/cholecystokinin-B receptor on prostate cells--a novel target for bifunctional prostate cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturzu, Alexander; Klose, Uwe; Sheikh, Sumbla; Echner, Hartmut; Kalbacher, Hubert; Deeg, Martin; Nägele, Thomas; Schwentner, Christian; Ernemann, Ulrike; Heckl, Stefan

    2014-02-14

    The means of identifying prostate carcinoma and its metastases are limited. The contrast agents used in magnetic resonance imaging clinical diagnostics are not taken up into the tumor cells, but only accumulate in the interstitial space of the highly vasculated tumor. We examined the gastrin/cholecystokinin-B receptor as a possible target for prostate-specific detection using the C-terminal seven amino acid sequence of the gastrin peptide hormone. The correct sequence and a scrambled control sequence were coupled to the fluorescent dye rhodamine and the magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent gadolinium (Gd)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). Expression analysis of the gastrin receptor mRNA was performed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction on PC3 prostate carcinoma cells, U373 glioma, U2OS osteosarcoma and Colo205 colon carcinoma cells. After having confirmed elevated expression of gastrin receptor in PC3 cells and very low expression of the receptor in Colo205 cells, these two cell lines were used to create tumor xenografts on nude mice for in vivo experiments. Confocal lasers scanning microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging showed a high specificity of the correct conjugate for the PC3 xenografts. Staining of the PC3 xenografts was much weaker with the scrambled conjugate while the Colo205 xenografts showed no marked staining with any of the conjugates. In vitro experiments comparing the correct and scrambled conjugates on PC3 cells by magnetic resonance relaxometry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting confirmed markedly higher specificity of the correct conjugate. The investigations show that the gastrin receptor is a promising tumor cell surface target for future prostate-cancer-specific imaging applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Finasteride inhibits human prostate cancer cell invasion through MMP2 and MMP9 downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Andrei; Delella, Flávia K; Almeida, Rodrigo; Lacorte, Lívia Maria; Fávaro, Wágner José; Deffune, Elenice; Felisbino, Sérgio L

    2013-01-01

    The use of the 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) finasteride and dutasteride for prostate cancer prevention is still under debate. The FDA recently concluded that the increased prevalence of high-grade tumors among 5-ARI-treated patients must not be neglected, and they decided to disallow the use of 5-ARIs for prostate cancer prevention. This study was conducted to verify the effects of finasteride on prostate cell migration and invasion and the related enzymes/proteins in normal human and tumoral prostatic cell lines. RWPE-1, LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 cells were cultivated to 60% confluence and exposed for different periods to either 10 µM or 50 µM finasteride that was diluted in culture medium. The conditioned media were collected and concentrated, and MMP2 and MMP9 activities and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 protein expression were determined. Cell viability, migration and invasion were analyzed, and the remaining cell extracts were submitted to androgen receptor (AR) detection by western blotting techniques. Experiments were carried out in triplicate. Cell viability was not significantly affected by finasteride exposure. Finasteride significantly downregulated MMP2 and MMP9 activities in RWPE-1 and PC3 cells and MMP2 in DU145 cells. TIMP-2 expression in RWPE-1 cells was upregulated after exposure. The cell invasion of all four tested cell lines was inhibited by exposure to 50 µM of finasteride, and migration inhibition only occurred for RWPE-1 and LNCaP cells. AR was expressed by LNCaP, RWPE-1 and PC3 cells. Although the debate on the higher incidence of high-grade prostate cancer among 5-ARI-treated patients remains, our findings indicate that finasteride may attenuate tumor aggressiveness and invasion, which could vary depending on the androgen responsiveness of a patient's prostate cells.

  18. Finasteride inhibits human prostate cancer cell invasion through MMP2 and MMP9 downregulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Moroz

    Full Text Available The use of the 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs finasteride and dutasteride for prostate cancer prevention is still under debate. The FDA recently concluded that the increased prevalence of high-grade tumors among 5-ARI-treated patients must not be neglected, and they decided to disallow the use of 5-ARIs for prostate cancer prevention. This study was conducted to verify the effects of finasteride on prostate cell migration and invasion and the related enzymes/proteins in normal human and tumoral prostatic cell lines.RWPE-1, LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 cells were cultivated to 60% confluence and exposed for different periods to either 10 µM or 50 µM finasteride that was diluted in culture medium. The conditioned media were collected and concentrated, and MMP2 and MMP9 activities and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 protein expression were determined. Cell viability, migration and invasion were analyzed, and the remaining cell extracts were submitted to androgen receptor (AR detection by western blotting techniques. Experiments were carried out in triplicate.Cell viability was not significantly affected by finasteride exposure. Finasteride significantly downregulated MMP2 and MMP9 activities in RWPE-1 and PC3 cells and MMP2 in DU145 cells. TIMP-2 expression in RWPE-1 cells was upregulated after exposure. The cell invasion of all four tested cell lines was inhibited by exposure to 50 µM of finasteride, and migration inhibition only occurred for RWPE-1 and LNCaP cells. AR was expressed by LNCaP, RWPE-1 and PC3 cells.Although the debate on the higher incidence of high-grade prostate cancer among 5-ARI-treated patients remains, our findings indicate that finasteride may attenuate tumor aggressiveness and invasion, which could vary depending on the androgen responsiveness of a patient's prostate cells.

  19. Phospholipase D inhibitors reduce human prostate cancer cell proliferation and colony formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Amanda R; Maitland, Norman J; Berney, Daniel M; Rumsby, Martin G

    2018-01-01

    Phospholipases D1 and D2 (PLD1/2) hydrolyse cell membrane glycerophospholipids to generate phosphatidic acid, a signalling lipid, which regulates cell growth and cancer progression through effects on mTOR and PKB/Akt. PLD expression and/or activity is raised in breast, colorectal, gastric, kidney and thyroid carcinomas but its role in prostate cancer (PCa), the major cancer of men in the western world, is unclear. PLD1 protein expression in cultured PNT2C2, PNT1A, P4E6, LNCaP, PC3, PC3M, VCaP, 22RV1 cell lines and patient-derived PCa cells was analysed by western blotting. PLD1 protein localisation in normal, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) tissue sections and in a PCa tissue microarray (TMA) was examined by immunohistochemistry. PLD activity in PCa tissue was assayed using an Amplex Red method. The effect of PLD inhibitors on PCa cell viability was measured using MTS and colony forming assays. PLD1 protein expression was low in the luminal prostate cell lines (LNCaP, VCaP, 22RV1) compared with basal lines (PC3 and PC3M). PLD1 protein expression was elevated in BPH biopsy tissue relative to normal and PCa samples. In normal and BPH tissue, PLD1 was predominantly detected in basal cells as well in some stromal cells, rather than in luminal cells. In PCa tissue, luminal cells expressed PLD1. In a PCa TMA, the mean peroxidase intensity per DAB-stained Gleason 6 and 7 tissue section was significantly higher than in sections graded Gleason 9. In CRPC tissue, PLD1 was expressed prominently in the stromal compartment, in luminal cells in occasional glands and in an expanding population of cells that co-expressed chromogranin A and neurone-specific enolase. Levels of PLD activity in normal and PCa tissue samples were similar. A specific PLD1 inhibitor markedly reduced the survival of both prostate cell lines and patient-derived PCa cells compared with two dual PLD1/PLD2 inhibitors. Short-term exposure of PCa cells to the

  20. Induction of the p75NTR by Aryl Propionic Acids in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    flurbiprofen, which lacks COX inhibitory activity, was able to inhibit progression of prostate cancer in the TRAMP mouse (11). In addition...progression of prostate cancer in the TRAMP mouse. Cancer Res 2000;60:2203-8. 12) Krygier S, Djakiew D. The neurotrophin receptor p75NTR is a tumor...incubated in the presence of 5% CO2 and air at 37jC. Figure 1. Immunoblots of p75NTR levels in PC-3 and DU-145 cells following 48 h treatment with 0, 0.1

  1. Multipoint Observations of Low Latitude ULF Pc3 Waves in South ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The solar wind provides the energy for the earth's magne- tospheric processes. Pc3-5 geomagnetic pulsations can be generated either externally or internally with respect to the magnetosphere. The Pc3 studies undertaken in the past have been confined to middle and high latitudes. The spatial and temporal variations ...

  2. Antiproliferative Evaluation of Isofuranodiene on Breast and Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Buccioni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The anticancer activity of isofuranodiene, extracted from Smyrnium olusatrum, was evaluated in human breast adenocarcinomas MDA-MB 231 and BT 474, and Caucasian prostate adenocarcinoma PC 3 cell lines by MTS assay. MTS assay showed a dose-dependent growth inhibition in the tumor cell lines after isofuranodiene treatment. The best antiproliferative activity of the isofuranodiene was found on PC 3 cells with an IC50 value of 29 μM, which was slightly less than the inhibition against the two breast adenocarcinoma cell lines with IC50 values of 59 and 55 μM on MDA-MB 231 and BT 474, respectively. Hoechst 33258 assay was performed in order to study the growth inhibition mechanism in prostate cancer cell line; the results indicate that isofuranodiene induces apoptosis. Overall, the understudy compound has a good anticancer activity especially towards the PC 3. On the contrary, it is less active on Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO and human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 appearing as a good candidate as a potential natural anticancer drug with low side effects.

  3. Protease-activated receptor-2 expression and the role of trypsin in cell proliferation in human pancreatic cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Koichi; Yi, Shuangqin; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Amaya, Kohji; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Kayahara, Masato; Ninomiya, Itasu; Fushida, Sachio; Fujimura, Takashi; Nishimura, Gen-Ichi; Miwa, Koichi

    2003-07-01

    Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 is a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by trypsin. The purpose of this study was to examine PAR-2 expression and the role of trypsin in cell proliferation in human pancreatic cancer cells. All four pancreatic cancer cell lines studied, from well to undifferentiated types, AsPC-1, BxPC-3, Panc-1, and MIAPaCa-2, had significant levels of PAR-2 mRNA detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and showed a band of about 55 kDa corresponding to the known molecular weight of PAR-2: AsPC-1, BxPC-3 and Panc-1 showed a strong band, and MIAPaCa-2 showed a weak one. Immunocytochemically, AsPC-1, BxPC-3, and Panc-1 showed intense immunostaining for PAR-2, predominantly in the plasma membrane, while in MIAPaCa-2, immunostaining was weak. Proliferative activity of AsPC-1 cells was increased by concentrations of trypsin as low as 10 nM, and activity peaked at a concentration of 100 nM, representing almost 60% of that induced by 10% fetal bovine serum. In contrast, trypsin had no significant effect on proliferation of MIAPaCa-2 cells. These findings suggest that trypsin plays a role in the growth of PAR-2-positive pancreatic cancer cells and serves as a potent mitogen in vitro, functioning as a growth factor.

  4. Liver Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sameh Mikhail; Aiwu Ruth He

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignancy of the liver in adults. It is also the fifth most common solid cancer worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Recent research supports that liver cancer is a disease of adult stem cells. From the models of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis, there may be at least three distinct cell lineages with progenitor properties susceptible to neoplastic transformation. Identification of specific cell surface markers fo...

  5. Enrichment of prostate cancer stem-like cells from human prostate cancer cell lines by culture in serum-free medium and chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Xing; Zheng, Xinmin; Wang, Xinghuan; Li, Shiwen; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Zhonghua; Xia, Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of rare subpopulations of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has created a new focus in cancer research. As CSCs demonstrate resistance to chemoradiation therapy relative to other cancer cells, this allows the enrichment of CSC populations by killing apoptosis-susceptible cancer cells. In this study, three commonly used human prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines (DU145, PC-3 and LNCaP) were examined for their expression of the putative stem cell markers CD133 and CD44 via flow cytometric analysis. Under normal culture conditions, CD133(+)/CD44(+) cells were only present in the DU145 cell line, and comprised only a minor percentage (0.1% ± 0.01%) of the total population. However, the proportion of these CD133(+)/CD44(+) prostate CSCs could be increased in these cell lines via culture in serum-free medium (SFM), or through chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Indeed, after culture in SFM, the proportion of CD133(+)/CD44(+) cells in DU145 and PC-3 had increased to 10.3% and 3.0%, respectively. Moreover, the proportion had increased to 9.8% enriched by chemotherapy and 3.5% by radiotherapy in DU145. Colony-formation tests, cell invasion assays, and tumor xenografts in BALB/c nude mice were used to evaluate the stem cell properties of CD133(+)/CD44(+) PCa cells that were isolated via fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). CD133(+)/CD44(+) cells had an enhanced colony-formation capability and invasive ability in vitro, and displayed greater tumorigenic properties in vivo. These results demonstrate the presence of CD133(+)/CD44(+) prostate CSCs in established PCa cell lines and that populations of these cells can be enriched by culture in SFM or chemoradiotherapy. Finding novel therapies to override chemoradiation resistance in the prostate CSCs is the key to improve long-term results in PCa management.

  6. Cancer stem cell metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peiris-Pagès, Maria; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Pestell, Richard G; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    .... Cancer stem cells also seem to adapt their metabolism to microenvironmental changes by conveniently shifting energy production from one pathway to another, or by acquiring intermediate metabolic phenotypes...

  7. DMAPT inhibits NF-κB activity and increases sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to X-rays in vitro and in tumor xenografts in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, Marc S; Turchan, William T; Alpuche, Melanie E; Watson, Christopher N; Estabrook, Neil C; Chin-Sinex, Helen; Shapiro, Jeremy B; Imasuen-Williams, Imade E; Rangel, Gabriel; Gilley, David P; Huda, Nazmul; Crooks, Peter A; Shapiro, Ronald H

    2017-11-01

    Constitutive activation of the pro-survival transcription factor NF-κB has been associated with resistance to both chemotherapy and radiation therapy in many human cancers, including prostate cancer. Our lab and others have demonstrated that the natural product parthenolide can inhibit NF-κB activity and sensitize PC-3 prostate cancers cells to X-rays in vitro; however, parthenolide has poor bioavailability in vivo and therefore has little clinical utility in this regard. We show here that treatment of PC-3 and DU145 human prostate cancer cells with dimethylaminoparthenolide (DMAPT), a parthenolide derivative with increased bioavailability, inhibits constitutive and radiation-induced NF-κB binding activity and slows prostate cancer cell growth. We also show that DMAPT increases single and fractionated X-ray-induced killing of prostate cancer cells through inhibition of DNA double strand break repair and also that DMAPT-induced radiosensitization is, at least partially, dependent upon the alteration of intracellular thiol reduction-oxidation chemistry. Finally, we demonstrate that the treatment of PC-3 prostate tumor xenografts with oral DMAPT in addition to radiation therapy significantly decreases tumor growth and results in significantly smaller tumor volumes compared to xenografts treated with either DMAPT or radiation therapy alone, suggesting that DMAPT might have a potential clinical role as a radiosensitizing agent in the treatment of prostate cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of Morus nigra extract on human prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Turan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Morus nigra L. belongs to the family Moraceae and is frequently used in traditional medicine. Numerous studies have investigated the antiproliferative effects of various extracts of different Morus species, but studies involving the in vitro cytotoxic effect of M. nigra extract are very limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of dimethyl sulfoxide extract of M. nigra (DEM and to investigate, for the first time, the probable cytotoxic effect in human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3 cells together with the mechanism involved. Methods: Total polyphenolic contents (TPC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and phenolic compounds of DEM were evaluated using spectrophotometric procedures and HPLC. The cytotoxic effect of DEM on PC-3 cells was revealed using the MTT assay. Mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic effect of DEM on PC-3 cells were then investigated in terms of apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle using flow cytometry, while caspase activity was investigated using luminometric analysis. Results: TPC and FRAP values were 20.7 ± 0.3 mg gallic acid equivalents and 48.8 ± 1.6 mg trolox equivalents per g sample, respectively. Ascorbic acid and chlorogenic acid were the major phenolic compounds detected at HPLC analysis. DEM arrested the cell cycle of PC-3 cells at the G1 phase, induced apoptosis via increased caspase activity and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusions: Our results indicate that M. nigra may be a novel candidate for the development of new natural product based therapeutic agents against prostate cancer.

  9. Apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects of Salvia triloba extract in prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Harika; Bozkurt, Emir

    2016-03-01

    Plants, due to their remarkable composition, are considered as natural resources of bioactive compounds with specific biological activities. Salvia genus (Lamiaceae) has been used around the world in complementary medicine since ancient times. We investigated the cytotoxic, apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects of methanolic Salvia triloba extract (STE) in prostate cancer cells. Cell viability was evaluated by XTT; apoptosis was investigated by DNA fragmentation and caspase 3/7 activity assays. Changes in the angiogenic cytokine levels were investigated by human angiogenesis antibody array. Scratch assay was used to determine the cell motility. STE induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner in both cancer cells; however, it was not cytotoxic to normal cells. Cell motility was reduced in PC-3, DU-145 and HUVEC cells by STE treatment. ANG, ENA-78, bFGF, EGF, IGF-1 and VEGF-D levels were significantly decreased by -2.9, -3.7, -1.7, -1.7, -2.0 and -1.8 fold in STE-treated DU-145 cells, however, ANG, IL-8, LEP, RANTES, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and VEGF levels were significantly decreased by -5.1, -2.0, -2.4, -3.1, -1.5, -2.0 and -2.5 fold in PC-3 cells. These data suggest that STE might be a promising candidate for anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic treatment of prostate cancer.

  10. Cancer cells differentially activate and thrive on de novo lipid synthesis pathways in a low-lipid environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle W Daniëls

    Full Text Available Increased lipogenesis is a hallmark of a wide variety of cancers and is under intense investigation as potential antineoplastic target. Although brisk lipogenesis is observed in the presence of exogenous lipids, evidence is mounting that these lipids may adversely affect the efficacy of inhibitors of lipogenic pathways. Therefore, to fully exploit the therapeutic potential of lipid synthesis inhibitors, a better understanding of the interrelationship between de novo lipid synthesis and exogenous lipids and their respective role in cancer cell proliferation and therapeutic response to lipogenesis inhibitors is of critical importance. Here, we show that the proliferation of various cancer cell lines (PC3M, HepG2, HOP62 and T24 is attenuated when cultured in lipid-reduced conditions in a cell line-dependent manner, with PC3M being the least affected. Interestingly, all cell lines--lipogenic (PC3M, HepG2, HOP62 as well as non-lipogenic (T24--raised their lipogenic activity in these conditions, albeit to a different degree. Cells that attained the highest lipogenic activity under these conditions were best able to cope with lipid reduction in term of proliferative capacity. Supplementation of the medium with very low density lipoproteins, free fatty acids and cholesterol reversed this activation, indicating that the mere lack of lipids is sufficient to activate de novo lipogenesis in cancer cells. Consequently, cancer cells grown in lipid-reduced conditions became more dependent on de novo lipid synthesis pathways and were more sensitive to inhibitors of lipogenic pathways, like Soraphen A and Simvastatin. Collectively, these data indicate that limitation of access to exogenous lipids, as may occur in intact tumors, activates de novo lipogenesis is cancer cells, helps them to thrive under these conditions and makes them more vulnerable to lipogenesis inhibitors. These observations have important implications for the design of new antineoplastic

  11. Amygdalin delays cell cycle progression and blocks growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarević, Jasmina; Tsaur, Igor; Juengel, Eva; Borgmann, Hendrik; Nelson, Karen; Thomas, Christian; Bartsch, Georg; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A

    2016-02-15

    Despite impressive survival benefits from new agents to treat metastasized prostate cancer (PCa), progressive drug resistance hinders long-term response and restricts the efficacy of subsequent therapy. Due to reported antitumor activity of amygdalin and growing popularity for complementary and alternative medicine the potential of this natural, widely used substance to exert antineoplastic effects on prostate cancer cells has been assessed. LNCaP (castration-sensitive), DU-145 and PC3 cells (castration-resistant) were exposed to different concentrations of amygdalin for 24h or 2weeks. Cell growth was measured by the MTT test, clonal formation by the clonogenic assay. Flow cytometry served to investigate apoptosis and cell cycle phases. Cell cycle regulating proteins and the mTOR-akt signaling axis were analyzed by western blotting. Amygdalin dose-dependently diminished tumor cell growth with maximum effects at 10mg/ml. Apoptosis of PC3 and LNCaP but not of DU-145 cells was reduced, whereas colony formation was suppressed in all cell lines. A decrease in the number of G2/M- and S-phase cells along with an elevated number of G0/G1-phase cells was recorded. The cell cycle proteins cdk 1, cdk 2 and cdk 4 as well as cyclin A, cyclin B and cyclin D3 were modulated by amygdalin after both 24h and 2weeks. Distinct effects on p19 and p27 expression and on Akt, Rictor and Raptor activation became evident only after 2weeks. Amygdalin exhibits significant antitumor activity in both castration-sensitive and castration-resistant PCa cell lines and merits further evaluation for therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CD47-CAR-T Cells Effectively Kill Target Cancer Cells and Block Pancreatic Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Golubovskaya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available CD47 is a glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is often overexpressed in different types of hematological and solid cancer tumors and plays important role in blocking phagocytosis, increased tumor survival, metastasis and angiogenesis. In the present report, we designed CAR (chimeric antigen receptor-T cells that bind CD47 antigen. We used ScFv (single chain variable fragment from mouse CD47 antibody to generate CD47-CAR-T cells for targeting different cancer cell lines. CD47-CAR-T cells effectively killed ovarian, pancreatic and other cancer cells and produced high level of cytokines that correlated with expression of CD47 antigen. In addition, CD47-CAR-T cells significantly blocked BxPC3 pancreatic xenograft tumor growth after intratumoral injection into NSG mice. Moreover, we humanized mouse CD47 ScFv and showed that it effectively bound CD47 antigen. The humanized CD47-CAR-T cells also specifically killed ovarian, pancreatic, and cervical cancer cell lines and produced IL-2 that correlated with expression of CD47. Thus, CD47-CAR-T cells can be used as a novel cellular therapeutic agent for treating different types of cancer.

  13. CD47-CAR-T Cells Effectively Kill Target Cancer Cells and Block Pancreatic Tumor Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovskaya, Vita; Berahovich, Robert; Zhou, Hua; Xu, Shirley; Harto, Hizkia; Li, Le; Chao, Cheng-Chi; Mao, Mike Ming; Wu, Lijun

    2017-10-21

    CD47 is a glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is often overexpressed in different types of hematological and solid cancer tumors and plays important role in blocking phagocytosis, increased tumor survival, metastasis and angiogenesis. In the present report, we designed CAR (chimeric antigen receptor)-T cells that bind CD47 antigen. We used ScFv (single chain variable fragment) from mouse CD47 antibody to generate CD47-CAR-T cells for targeting different cancer cell lines. CD47-CAR-T cells effectively killed ovarian, pancreatic and other cancer cells and produced high level of cytokines that correlated with expression of CD47 antigen. In addition, CD47-CAR-T cells significantly blocked BxPC3 pancreatic xenograft tumor growth after intratumoral injection into NSG mice. Moreover, we humanized mouse CD47 ScFv and showed that it effectively bound CD47 antigen. The humanized CD47-CAR-T cells also specifically killed ovarian, pancreatic, and cervical cancer cell lines and produced IL-2 that correlated with expression of CD47. Thus, CD47-CAR-T cells can be used as a novel cellular therapeutic agent for treating different types of cancer.

  14. Natural compound Alternol induces oxidative stress-dependent apoptotic cell death preferentially in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuzhe; Chen, Ruibao; Huang, Yan; Li, Guodong; Huang, Yiling; Chen, Jiepeng; Duan, Lili; Zhu, Bao-Ting; Thrasher, J Brantley; Zhang, Xu; Li, Benyi

    2014-06-01

    Prostate cancers at the late stage of castration resistance are not responding well to most of current therapies available in clinic, reflecting a desperate need of novel treatment for this life-threatening disease. In this study, we evaluated the anticancer effect of a recently isolated natural compound, Alternol, in multiple prostate cancer cell lines with the properties of advanced prostate cancers in comparison to prostate-derived nonmalignant cells. As assessed by trypan blue exclusion assay, significant cell death was observed in all prostate cancer cell lines except DU145 but not in nonmalignant (RWPE-1 and BPH1) cells. Further analyses revealed that Alternol-induced cell death was an apoptotic response in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as evidenced by the appearance of apoptosis hallmarks such as caspase-3 processing and PARP cleavage. Interestingly, Alternol-induced cell death was completely abolished by reactive oxygen species scavengers N-acetylcysteine and dihydrolipoic acid. We also demonstrated that the proapoptotic Bax protein was activated after Alternol treatment and was critical for Alternol-induced apoptosis. Animal xenograft experiments in nude mice showed that Alternol treatment largely suppressed tumor growth of PC-3 xenografts but not Bax-null DU-145 xenografts in vivo. These data suggest that Alternol might serve as a novel anticancer agent for patients with late-stage prostate cancer. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Survivin gene silencing sensitizes prostate cancer cells to selenium growth inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xichun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide. Survivin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP protein family that is expressed in the majority of human tumors including prostate cancer, but is barely detectable in terminally differentiated normal cells. Downregulation of survivin could sensitize prostate cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. Selenium is an essential trace element. Several studies have shown that selenium compounds inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells. The objective of this study is to investigate whether survivin gene silencing in conjunction with selenium treatment could enhance the therapeutic efficacy for prostate cancer and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods Expression of survivin was analyzed in a collection of normal and malignant prostatic tissues by immunohistochemical staining. In vitro studies were conducted in PC-3M, C4-2B, and 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells. The effect of selenium on survivin expression was analyzed by Western blotting and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Survivin gene knockdown was carried out by transfecting cells with a short hairpin RNA (shRNA designed against survivin. Cell proliferation was quantitated by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl- 2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT assay and apoptosis by propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry analysis. Finally, in vivo tumor growth assay was performed by establishing PC-3M xenograft in nude mice and monitoring tumor growth following transfection and treatment. Results We found that survivin was undetectable in normal prostatic tissues but was highly expressed in prostate cancers. Survivin knockdown or selenium treatment inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells, but the selenium effect was modest. In contrast to what have been observed in other cell lines, selenium treatment had little or no effect on survivin expression in several androgen

  16. Basal cell cancer (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biopsy is needed to prove the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. Treatment varies depending on the size, depth, and location of the cancer. Early treatment by a dermatologist may result in a cure ... is required to watch for new sites of basal cell cancer.

  17. Cytotoxic activity of N, N'-Bis (2-hydroxybenzyl) ethylenediamine derivatives in human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Musiliyu A; Badisa, Veera L D; Latinwo, Lekan M

    2014-04-01

    Compounds containing ethylenediamine (-NCH2CH2N-) moiety are known to exhibit antimicrobial, -fungal, -bacterial, -tuberculosis and -cancer activities. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic activity of N,N'-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl)- (6), N,N'-bis(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzyl)- (7) and N,N'-bis(5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzyl) (8)- ethylenediamine dihydrochlorides; and N,N'-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl)- (9), N,N'-bis(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzyl)- (10) and N,N'-bis(5-chloro-2-hydroxybenzyl) (11)- ethylenediamine toward human lung (A549), breast (MDA-MB-231) and prostate (PC3) cancer cell lines after 24-h treatment using crystal violet dye binding assay. Effects on the cell cycle the using flow cytometry, and mitochondrial membrane potential using rhodamine-123 florescent dye were also evaluated. Compounds 7 and 8 exhibit cytotoxic activity, causing cell arrest at different phases of the cell cycle and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in the above cancer cell lines. These findings clearly demonstrate, to our knowledge for the first time, that ethylenediamine dihydrochloride salts-compounds 7 and 8-exhibit concentration-dependent cytotoxic activity towards A549, MDA-MB-231 and PC3 cancer cell lines, which may serve as a basis for future work on novel therapeutic agents.

  18. Prostate cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shi-Ming; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2012-06-01

    Stem cells have long been implicated in prostate gland formation. The prostate undergoes regression after androgen deprivation and regeneration after testosterone replacement. Regenerative studies suggest that these cells are found in the proximal ducts and basal layer of the prostate. Many characteristics of prostate cancer indicate that it originates from stem cells. For example, the putative androgen receptor-negative (AR(-)) status of prostate stem cells renders them inherently insensitive to androgen blockade therapy. The androgen-regulated gene fusion TMPRSS2-ERG could be used to clarify both the cells of origin and the evolution of prostate cancer cells. In this review, we show that the hypothesis that distinct subtypes of cancer result from abnormalities within specific cell types-the stem cell theory of cancer-may instigate a major paradigm shift in cancer research and therapy. Ultimately, the stem cell theory of cancers will affect how we practice clinical oncology: our diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy of prostate and other cancers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Synergistic and Selective Cancer Cell Killing Mediated by the Oncolytic Adenoviral Mutant AdΔΔ and Dietary Phytochemicals in Prostate Cancer Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Virginie; Ekblad, Maria; Sweeney, Katrina; Müller, Heike; Busch, Kristina Hammarén; Johnsen, Camilla Tørnqvist; Kang, Na Ra; Lemoine, Nick R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract AdΔΔ is an oncolytic adenoviral mutant that has been engineered to selectively target tumors with deregulated cell cycle and apoptosis pathways. AdΔΔ potentiates apoptotic cell death induced by drugs, including mitoxantrone and docetaxel, which are commonly used to treat prostate cancer. Here, we demonstrate that AdΔΔ can also interact synergistically with dietary phytochemicals known to have anti-cancer activities, without incurring the toxic side effects of chemodrugs. Curcumin, genistein, epigallocatechin-gallate, equol, and resveratrol efficiently killed both androgen-receptor positive (22Rv1) and negative cell lines (PC-3, DU145) in combination with adenoviral mutants. Synergistic cell killing was demonstrated with wild-type virus (Ad5) and AdΔΔ in combination with equol and resveratrol. EC50 values for both phytochemicals and viruses were reduced three- to eightfold in all three combination-treated cell lines. The most potent efficacy was achieved in the cytotoxic drug- and virus-insensitive PC-3 cells, both in vitro and in vivo, while cell killing in normal bronchial epithelial cells was not enhanced. Although equol and resveratrol induced only low levels of apoptosis when administered alone, in combination with wild-type virus or AdΔΔ, the level of apoptotic cell death was significantly increased in PC-3 and DU145 cells. In vivo studies using suboptimal doses of AdΔΔ and equol or resveratrol, showed reduced tumor growth without toxicity to normal tissue. These findings identify novel functions for AdΔΔ and phytochemicals in promoting cancer cell killing and apoptosis, suggesting the use of these natural nontoxic compounds might be a feasible and currently unexploited anti-cancer strategy. PMID:22788991

  20. Antiproliferative activity of the dietary isothiocyanate erucin, a bioactive compound from cruciferous vegetables, on human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchini, Antonietta; Traka, Maria H; Catania, Stefania; Miceli, Natalizia; Taviano, Maria Fernanda; Maimone, Patrizia; Francisco, Marta; Mithen, Richard F; Costa, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that many dietary agents, such as isothiocyanates (ITCs) from cruciferous vegetables, can retard or prevent the process of prostate carcinogenesis. Erucin (ER) is a dietary ITC, which has been recently considered a promising cancer chemopreventive phytochemical. The potential protective activity of ER against prostate cancer was investigated using prostate adenocarcinoma cells (PC3), to analyze its effects on pathways involved in cell growth regulation, such as the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDKs) inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1) (p21), phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/AKT, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 signaling pathways. We have shown for the first time that ER increases significantly p21 protein expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner to inhibit PC3 cell proliferation (P ≤ 0.01). Compared to the structurally related sulforaphane, a well-studied broccoli-derived ITC, ER showed lower potency in inhibiting proliferation of PC3 cells, as well as in modulating p21 and pERK1/2 protein levels. Neither of the naturally occurring ITCs was able to affect significantly pAKT protein levels in prostate cells at all concentrations tested (0-25 μM). It is clearly important for the translation of laboratory findings to clinical approaches to investigate in animal and cell studies the molecular mechanisms by which ITCs may exert health promoting effects.

  1. Studying circulating prostate cancer cells by in-vivo flow cytometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin; Gu, Zhengqin; Chen, Tong; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Xunbin

    2012-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in American men and the second leading cause of deaths from cancer, after lung cancer. The tumor usually grows slowly and remains confined to the gland for many years. As the cancer advances, however, it can metastasize throughout other areas of the body, such as the bones, lungs, and liver. Surgical resection, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the foundation of current prostate cancer therapies. Treatments for prostate cause both short- and long-term side effects that may be difficult to accept. Molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer metastasis need to be understood better and new therapies must be developed to selectively target to unique characteristics of cancer cell growth and metastasis. We have developed the "in vivo microscopy" to study the mechanisms that govern prostate cancer cell spread through the microenvironment in vivo in real-time confocal near-infrared fluorescence imaging. A recently developed "in vivo flow cytometer" and optical imaging are used to assess prostate cancer cell spreading and the circulation kinetics of prostate cancer cells. We have measured the depletion kinetics of cancer cells with different metastatic potential. Interestingly, more invasive PC-3 prostate cancer cells are depleted faster from the circulation than LNCaP cells.

  2. Epidermal growth factor increases LRF/Pokemon expression in human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Himanshu; Aggarwal, Anshu; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2011-10-01

    Leukemia/lymphoma related factor/POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (LRF/Pokemon) is a member of the POK family of proteins that promotes oncogenesis in several forms of cancer. Recently, we found higher LRF expression in human breast and prostate carcinomas compared to the corresponding normal tissues. The aim of this study was to examine the regulation of LRF expression in human prostate cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptors mediate several tumorigenic cascades that regulate cell differentiation, proliferation, migration and survival of prostate cancer cells. There was significantly higher level of LRF expression in the nucleus of LNCaP and PC-3 cells than RWPE-1 cells. A significant increase in LRF expression was observed with increasing doses of EGF in more aggressive and androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells suggesting that EGF signaling pathway is critical in upregulating the expression of LRF/Pokemon to promote oncogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Anti Tumoral Properties of Punica Granatum (Pomegranate) Peel Extract on Different Human Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modaeinama, Sina; Abasi, Mozhgan; Abbasi, Mehran Mesgari; Jahanban-Esfahlan, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants, especially examples rich in polyphenolic compounds, have been suggested to be chemopreventive on account of antioxidative properties. Punica granatum (PG) (pomegranate) is a well known fruit in this context, but its cytotoxicity in cancer cells has not been extensively studied. Here, we investigated the antiproliferative properties of a peel extract of PG from Iran in different human cancer cells. A methanolic extract of pomegranate peel (PPE) was prepared. Total phenolic content(TPC) and total flavonoid conetnt (TFC) were determined by colorimetric assays. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH radical scavenging activity. The cytotoxicity of different doses of PPE (0, 5, 20, 100, 250, 500, 1000 μg/ml) was evaluated by MTT assays with A549 (lung non small cell cancer), MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), SKOV3 (ovarian cancer), and PC-3 (prostate adenocarcinoma) cells. Significant (Pcancer cells, PPE reduced the cell viability to values below 40%, even at the lowest doses. In all cases, IC50 was determined at doses below 5μg/ml. In this regard, MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells were the most responsive cells to antiprolifreative effects of PPE with a maximum mean growth inhibition of 81.0% vs. 69.4%, 79.3% and 77.5% in SKOV3, PC-3 and A549 cells, respectively. Low doses of PPE exert potent anti-proliferative effects in different human cancer cells and it seems that MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells are the most cells and SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells the least responsive in this regard. However, the mechanisms of action need to be addressed.

  4. Development of a unique mouse model for pancreatic cancer lymphatic metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jiang; Luo, Guopei; Liu, Chen; Cui, Xiaobo; Satoh, Kei; Xiao, Zhiwen; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Jin; Ni, Quanxing; Li, Min; Yu, Xianjun

    2012-11-01

    Lymphatic metastasis of pancreatic cancer is a predictor of poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown, thus, making the development of appropriate cell lines and experimental models critically important for future investigations. The purpose of the present study was to establish a 'pancreatic cancer cell and mouse model with high lymphatic metastasis potential' for in-depth study of the underlying mechanisms. The BxPC-3-LN subline, derived from the BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer cell line, was established through serial passages in nude mice via footpad injections. The subline was able to develop notable lymphatic metastases in 100% of the recipient mice 8 weeks after tumor cell implantation. Compared with the parental BxPC-3 cells, BxPC-3-LN cells were more aggressive, displaying invasive ultrastructure, increased migration and invasion ability, and chemoresistance. Metastasis-related gene alteration including upregulation of MMP14, MMP24, MIF and ADRM1, and downregulation of TGFB2 and ROBO1 were also observed in BxPC-3-LN cells by cDNA microarrays. Thus, the newly selected BxPC-3-LN subline can serve as a unique model for further study of lymphatic metastasis of pancreatic cancer.

  5. Cell Fusion as a Cofactor in Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    vesicular stomatitis virus ( VSV ), to be reversibly activated by a brief incubation in mildly acidic medium. The advantages of this method are that it is not...fusion. However, our findings indicated a different and unexpected to us mechanism. We found that PC-3 released one or more infectious viruses that...transferred the retroviral vectors that encoded RFP and EGFP in PC-3 cells. Since these vectors were based on mouse leukemia virus (MLV), we

  6. Embelin-Induced Apoptosis of Human Prostate Cancer Cells Is Mediated through Modulation of Akt and β-Catenin Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahee Park

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that embelin, an active component of Embelia ribes, induces apoptosis in human cancer cells, but the detailed mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we have investigated the effect of embelin on the growth of human prostate cancer cells. Embelin strongly inhibited cell growth especially in human prostate cancer cell lines, including PC3, DU145, LNCaP-LN3 and normal prostate epithelial cell, RWPE-1 compared to breast cancer (MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and T47D, hepatoma (HepG2, Hep3B, and HuH-7, or choriocarcinoma (JEG-3. We observed that embelin induced apoptosis of PC3 cells in a time-dependent manner correlated with decreased expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1, increased translocation of Bax into mitochondria, and a reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, embelin induced voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC 1 expression and oligomerization, which may promote cytochrome c and AIF release. Because embelin was able to inhibit Akt activation and cyclooxygenase-2 expression, the effects on Wnt/ β-catenin signaling were determined. Embelin activated glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β by preventing phosphorylation and suppressed β-catenin expression. Attenuation of β-catenin-mediated TCF transcriptional activity and gene transcription, such as cyclin D1, c-myc, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-7, were shown in embelin-treated cells. The changes in β-catenin levels in response to embelin were blocked by lithium chloride, a GSK-3 inhibitor, indicating that embelin may decrease β-catenin expression via GSK-3β activation. Furthermore, exposure of PC3 cells to embelin resulted in a significant decrease in cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, these findings suggest that inhibition of Akt signaling and activation of GSK-3β partially contributes to the pro-apoptotic effect of embelin in prostate cancer cells.

  7. Breast cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Owens

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarise what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically.

  8. Cholestane-3β, 5α, 6β-triol suppresses proliferation, migration, and invasion of human prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Lin

    Full Text Available Oxysterols are oxidation products of cholesterol. Cholestane-3β, 5α, 6β-triol (abbreviated as triol is one of the most abundant and active oxysterols. Here, we report that triol exhibits anti-cancer activity against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment of cells with triol dose-dependently suppressed proliferation of LNCaP CDXR-3, DU-145, and PC-3 human prostate cancer cells and reduced colony formation in soft agar. Oral administration of triol at 20 mg/kg daily for three weeks significantly retarded the growth of PC-3 xenografts in nude mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that triol treatment at 10-40 µM caused G1 cell cycle arrest while the TUNEL assay indicated that triol treatment at 20-40 µM induced apoptosis in all three cell lines. Micro-Western Arrays and traditional Western blotting methods indicated that triol treatment resulted in reduced expression of Akt1, phospho-Akt Ser473, phospho-Akt Thr308, PDK1, c-Myc, and Skp2 protein levels as well as accumulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip. Triol treatment also resulted in reduced Akt1 protein expression in PC-3 xenografts. Overexpression of Skp2 in PC-3 cells partially rescued the growth inhibition caused by triol. Triol treatment suppressed migration and invasion of DU-145, PC-3, and CDXR-3 cells. The expression levels of proteins associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition as well as focal adhesion kinase were affected by triol treatment in these cells. Triol treatment caused increased expression of E-cadherin protein levels but decreased expression of N-cadherin, vimentin, Slug, FAK, phospho-FAK Ser722, and phospho-FAK Tyr861 protein levels. Confocal laser microscopy revealed redistribution of β-actin and α-tubulin at the periphery of the CDXR-3 and DU-145 cells. Our observations suggest that triol may represent a promising therapeutic agent for advanced metastatic prostate cancer.

  9. Knockdown of Phospholipase Cε (PLCε) Inhibits Cell Proliferation via Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome 10 (PTEN)/AKT Signaling Pathway in Human Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Fan, Yanru; Du, Zhongbo; Fan, Jiaxin; Hao, Yanni; Wang, Jinhua; Wu, Xiaohou; Luo, Chunli

    2018-01-13

    BACKGROUND Phospholipase Cε (PLCε), a member of the plc family, has been extensively studied to reveal its role in the regulation of different cell functions, but understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited. In the present study, we explored the effects of PLCε on PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) in cell proliferation in prostate cancer cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS We assessed PLCε and PTEN expression in human benign prostate tissues compared to prostate cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry. Lentivirus-shPLCε (LV-shPLCε) was designed to silence PLCε expression in DU145 and PC3 cell lines, and the effectiveness was tested by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. MTT assay and colony formation assay were conducted to observe cell proliferation. Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays were used to detect changed PTEN expression in DU145. RESULTS We observed that PLCε expression was reduced in human benign prostate tissues compared to prostate cancer tissues, while PTEN expression showed the opposite trend. Silencing of the PLCε gene significantly inhibited cell proliferation in DU145 and PC3 cell lines. DU145 is a PTEN-expressing cell, while PC3 is PTEN-deficient. After infection by LV-shPLCε, we noticed that PTEN expression was up-regulated in DU145 cells but not in PC3 cells. Furthermore, we found that PLCε gene knockdown decreased P-AKT protein levels, but AKT protein levels were not affected. Immunofluorescence assays showed that PTEN expression had an intracellular distribution change in the DU145 cell line, and Western blot analysis showed that PTEN was obviously up-regulated in cell nucleus and cytoplasm. CONCLUSIONS PLCε is an oncogene, and knockdown of expression of PLCe inhibits PCa cells proliferation via the PTEN/AKT signaling pathway.

  10. Gastrin regulates ABCG2 to promote the migration, invasion and side populations in pancreatic cancer cells via activation of NF-κB signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Juan; Xin, Beibei; Wang, Hui; He, Xiaodan [School of Medicine, Nankai University, 94 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wei, Wei; Zhang, Ti [Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Huanhu West Road, Tianjin 300060 (China); Shen, Xiaohong, E-mail: zebal2014@163.com [School of Medicine, Nankai University, 94 Weijin Road, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2016-08-01

    Gastrin is absent in most normal adult pancreatic tissues but is highly expressed in pancreatic cancer tissues. Although Gastrin expression was reported to be associated with tumor proliferation in human pancreatic cancer, studies on the relationship between Gastrin and tumor metastasis in pancreatic cancer are rare. In this study, we performed an analysis to determine the effects of Gastrin on modulating the side populations, cell proportion and tumor cell metastatic potential and invasion activity and explored its mechanisms in pancreatic cancer. We indicated that Gastrin and ABCG2 were widely expressed in pancreatic cancer cell lines and overexpressed in cancer tissues. Gastrin induced ABCG2 expression, and this effect was mediated by NF-κB activation. Gastrin regulated the SP proportion of BxPC-3 cells via modulating ABCG2 expression. Through the regulation of the functions of NF-κB/ABCG2, Gastrin functionally promoted the migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer cell. The present study indicated that Gastrin induced ABCG2 expression by activating NF-κB and thereby modulated the SP proportion, tumor cell metastatic potential and invasion activity in pancreatic cancer. Gastrin could serve as an effective therapeutic target for the metastasis of pancreatic cancer. - Highlights: • Gastrin induces ABCG2 expression mediated by NF-κB activation. • Gastrin regulates NF-κB's function that binds to the ABCG2 promoter in BxPC-3 cells. • Gastrin promotes the SP proportion in BxPC-3 cells by modulating ABCG2 expression via activation of NF-κB molecule. • Gastrin induces an increase in migration and invasion potential in pancreatic cancer cell by regulating NF-κB/ABCG2 signaling.

  11. The Amaryllidaceae Isocarbostyril Narciclasine Induces Apoptosis By Activation of the Death Receptor and/or Mitochondrial Pathways in Cancer Cells But Not in Normal Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Dumont

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Our study has shown that the Amaryllidaceae isocarbostyril narciclasine induces marked apoptosismediated cytotoxic effects in human cancer cells but not in normal fibroblasts by triggering the activation of the initiator caspases of the death receptor pathway (caspase-8 and caspase-10 at least in human MCF-7 breast and PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells. The formation of the Fas and death receptor 4 (DR4 death-inducing signaling complex was clearly evidenced in MCF-7 and PC-3 cancer cells. Caspase-8 was found to interact with Fas and DR4 receptors on narciclasine treatment. However, narciclasine-induced downstream apoptotic pathways in MCF-7 cells diverged from those in PC-3 cells, where caspase-8 directly activated effector caspases such as caspase-3 in the absence of any further release of mitochondrial proapoptotic effectors. In contrast, in MCF-7 cells, the apoptotic process was found to require an amplification step that is mitochondria-dependent, with Bid processing, release of cytochrome c, caspase-9 activation. It is postulated that the high selectivity of narciclasine to cancer cells might be linked, at least in part, to this activation of the death receptor pathway. Normal human fibroblasts appear approximately 250-fold less sensitive to narciclasine, which does not induce apoptosis in these cells probably due to the absence of death receptor pathway activation.

  12. HPMA copolymer-based combination therapy toxic to both prostate cancer stem/progenitor cells and differentiated cells induces durable anti-tumor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Yang, Jiyuan; Rhim, Johng S; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2013-12-28

    Current treatments for prostate cancer are still not satisfactory, often resulting in tumor regrowth and metastasis. One of the main reasons for the ineffective anti-prostate cancer treatments is the failure to deplete cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) - a subset of cancer cells with enhanced tumorigenic capacity. Thus, combination of agents against both CSCs and bulk tumor cells may offer better therapeutic benefits. Several molecules with anti-cancer stem/progenitor cell activities have been under preclinical evaluations. However, their low solubility and nonspecific toxicity limit their clinical translation. Herein, we designed a combination macromolecular therapy containing two drug conjugates: HPMA copolymer-cyclopamine conjugate (P-CYP) preferentially toxic to cancer stem/progenitor cells, and HPMA copolymer-docetaxel conjugate (P-DTX) effective in debulking the tumor mass. Both conjugates were synthesized using RAFT (reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer) polymerization resulting in narrow molecular weight distribution. The killing effects of the two conjugates against bulk tumor cells and CSCs were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In PC-3 or RC-92a/hTERT prostate cancer cells, P-CYP preferentially kills and impairs the function of CD133+ prostate cancer stem/progenitor cells; P-DTX was able to kill bulk tumor cells instead of CSCs. In a PC-3 xenograft mice model, combination of P-DTX and P-CYP showed the most effective and persistent tumor growth inhibitory effect. In addition, residual tumors contained less CD133+ cancer cells following combination or P-CYP treatments, indicating selective killing of cancer cells with stem/progenitor cell properties. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Omeprazole Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Cell Invasion through a Nongenomic Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Un-Ho; Kim, Sang-Bae; Safe, Stephen

    2015-05-18

    Omeprazole and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists that inhibit the invasion of breast cancer cells through inhibition of CXCR4 transcription. Treatment of highly invasive Panc1 pancreatic cancer cells with TCDD, omeprazole, and seven other AhR-active pharmaceuticals showed that only omeprazole and tranilast, but not TCDD, inhibited invasion in a Boyden chamber assay. Similar results were observed in MiaPaCa2 cells, another quasimensenchymal pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (QM-PDA) pancreatic cancer cell line, whereas invasion was not observed with BxPC3 or L3.6pL cells, which are classified as classical (less invasive) pancreatic cancer cells. It was also observed in QM-PDA cells that TCDD, omeprazole, and tranilast did not induce CYP1A1 or CXCR4 and that treatment with these compounds did not result in nuclear uptake of AhR. In contrast, treatment of BxPC3 and L3.6pL cells with these AhR ligands resulted in induction of CYP1A1 (by TCDD) and nuclear uptake of AhR, which was similar to that observed for Ah-responsive MDA-MB-468 breast and HepG2 liver cancer cell lines. Results of AhR and AhR nuclear translocator (Arnt) knockdown experiments in Panc1 and MiaPaCa2 cells demonstrated that omeprazole- and tranilast-mediated inhibition of invasion was AhR-dependent but Arnt-independent. These results demonstrate that in the most highly invasive subtype of pancreatic cancer cells (QM-PDA) the selective AhR modulators omeprazole and tranilast inhibit invasion through a nongenomic AhR pathway.

  14. Hurthle Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breath Hurthle cell cancer Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  15. Basal cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basal cell skin cancer almost never spreads. If it is left untreated, it may spread into surrounding areas and nearby tissues and bone. In these cases, treatment can injure the appearance of the skin.

  16. CXCR4-gp120-IIIB interactions induce caspase-mediated apoptosis of prostate cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shailesh; Bond, Vincent C; Powell, Michael; Singh, Udai P; Bumpers, Harvey L; Grizzle, William E; Lillard, James W

    2009-01-01

    CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) has been implicated in prostate cancer metastasis and this receptor also acts as a coreceptor for HIV-1 120-kDa glycoprotein variant IIIB (gp120-IIIB). The interaction between CXCR4 and gp120-IIIB has been shown to mediate apoptosis of both immune and endothelial cells. In this study, we have examined the effects of gp120-IIIB on hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells (PC3 and DU145) in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Normal prostatic epithelial (PrEC) and prostate cancer cell lines were treated with gp120-IIIB with or without anti-CXCR4 antibody. Caspase expression was evaluated by real-time PCR and active caspase assays. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. gp120-IIIB treatment correlated with active caspase-3 and -9 expression and apoptosis of prostate cancer cells but not PrEC cells. This effect was significantly inhibited after CXCR4 blockade. PC3 and DU145 tumor-bearing mice received intraperitoneal injections of gp120-IIIB and controls received bovine serum albumin in PBS. PC3 and DU145 tumor sizes were measured over time and excised tumors were evaluated for CD44, CD34, lymphatic endothelial cell marker LYVE-1, active caspase-3, and active caspase-9 expression by immunohistochemistry. The tumor size in mice receiving gp120-IIIB was significantly smaller than compared with tumors in control mice. This regression was associated with significant decreases in CD44, CD34, and LYVE-1 and increases in active caspase-3 and -9 expression. These results suggest that gp120-IIIB induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells and reduced tumor-associated lymphoendothelial cells.

  17. Sarcosine induces increase in HER2/neu expression in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Malin; Bouchelouche, Pierre; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) is involved in progression of prostate cancer. Recently, sarcosine was reported to be highly increased during prostate cancer progression, and exogenous sarcosine induces an invasive phenotype in benign prostate...... epithelial cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of sarcosine on HER2/neu expression in prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP (androgen dependent), PC-3 and DU145 (both androgen independent). Relative amounts of HER2/neu and androgen receptor (AR) transcripts were determined using RT......-qPCR. Total expression of HER2/neu was confirmed by Western blot (WB). HER2/neu protein on the surface of living LNCaP cells was visualized by confocal microscopy using a HER2/neu-specific fluorescent probe. Exposure of LNCaP cells to 50 µM sarcosine for 24 h resulted in a 58% increase of the HER2/neu m...

  18. Silencing CAPN2 Expression Inhibited Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells Proliferation and Invasion via AKT/mTOR Signal Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mRNA expression of CAPN2 was upregulated in CRPC cells (DU145 and PC3 than that in non-CRPC cells. Silencing CAPN2 expression could inhibit DU145 and PC3 cells proliferation by cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Knockdown of CPAN2 level suppressed the migration and invasion capacity of CRPC cells by reducing matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 activation, as well as repressing the phosphorylation protein expression of AKT and mTOR. In addition, we found that the expression of CAPN2 was elevated in Pca tissues than that in normal control tissues. Therefore, we showed the important roles of CAPN2 in the development and progression in CRPC cells, suggesting a new therapeutic intervention for treating castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.

  19. Cancer stem cells revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batlle, Eduard; Clevers, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept was proposed four decades ago, and states that tumor growth, analogous to the renewal of healthy tissues, is fueled by small numbers of dedicated stem cells. It has gradually become clear that many tumors harbor CSCs in dedicated niches, and yet their

  20. Effects of cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP triple knockdown on prostate cancer cell susceptibility to apoptosis, cell survival and proliferation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gill, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Manipulating apoptotic resistance represents an important strategy for the treatment of hormone refractory prostate cancer. We hypothesised that the Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) Proteins may be mediating this resistance and knockdown of cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP would increase sensitivity to apoptosis. METHODS: cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP where knocked down either individually or in combination using siRNA in androgen independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells as confirmed by real-time PCR and western blotting. Cells were then treated with TRAIL, Etoposide, or Tunicamycin, and apoptosis assessed by PI DNA staining. Apoptosis was confirmed with Annexin V labelling and measurement of PARP cleavage, and was inhibited using the pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD.fmk. Clonogenic assays and assessment of ID-1 expression by western blotting were used to measure recovery and proliferation. RESULTS: PC-3 are resistant to TRAIL induced apoptosis and have elevated expression of cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP. Combined knockdown sensitised PC-3 to TRAIL induced apoptosis, but not to Etoposide or Tunicmycin, with corresponding increases in caspase activity and PARP cleavage which was inhibited by ZVAD.fmk. Triple knock down decreased proliferation which was confirmed by decreased ID-1 expression. CONCLUSION: Simultaneous knock down of the IAPs not only sensitised the PC-3 to TRAIL but also inhibited their proliferation rates and clonogenic survival. The inability to alter sensitivity to other triggers of apoptosis suggests that this effect is specific for death receptor pathways and knock down might facilitate immune-surveillance mechanisms to counter cancer progression and, in combination with therapeutic approaches using TRAIL, could represent an important treatment strategy.

  1. Effects of cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP triple knockdown on prostate cancer cell susceptibility to apoptosis, cell survival and proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowling Catherine

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manipulating apoptotic resistance represents an important strategy for the treatment of hormone refractory prostate cancer. We hypothesised that the Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP Proteins may be mediating this resistance and knockdown of cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP would increase sensitivity to apoptosis. Methods cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP where knocked down either individually or in combination using siRNA in androgen independent prostate cancer PC-3 cells as confirmed by real-time PCR and western blotting. Cells were then treated with TRAIL, Etoposide, or Tunicamycin, and apoptosis assessed by PI DNA staining. Apoptosis was confirmed with Annexin V labelling and measurement of PARP cleavage, and was inhibited using the pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD.fmk. Clonogenic assays and assessment of ID-1 expression by western blotting were used to measure recovery and proliferation. Results PC-3 are resistant to TRAIL induced apoptosis and have elevated expression of cIAP-1, cIAP-2 and XIAP. Combined knockdown sensitised PC-3 to TRAIL induced apoptosis, but not to Etoposide or Tunicmycin, with corresponding increases in caspase activity and PARP cleavage which was inhibited by ZVAD.fmk. Triple knock down decreased proliferation which was confirmed by decreased ID-1 expression. Conclusion Simultaneous knock down of the IAPs not only sensitised the PC-3 to TRAIL but also inhibited their proliferation rates and clonogenic survival. The inability to alter sensitivity to other triggers of apoptosis suggests that this effect is specific for death receptor pathways and knock down might facilitate immune-surveillance mechanisms to counter cancer progression and, in combination with therapeutic approaches using TRAIL, could represent an important treatment strategy.

  2. Differential role of PTEN in transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) effects on proliferation and migration in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough-Allah, Mawiyah N; Millena, Ana C; Khan, Shafiq A

    2018-04-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) acts as a tumor suppressor in normal epithelial cells but as a tumor promoter in advanced prostate cancer cells. PI3-kinase pathway mediates TGF-β effects on prostate cancer cell migration and invasion. PTEN inhibits PI3-kinase pathway and is frequently mutated in prostate cancers. We investigated possible role(s) of PTEN in TGF-β effects on proliferation and migration in prostate cancer cells. Expression of PTEN mRNA and proteins were determined using RT-PCR and Western blotting in RWPE1 and DU145 cells. We also studied the role of PTEN in TGF-β effects on cell proliferation and migration in DU145 cells after transient silencing of endogenous PTEN. Conversely, we determined the role of PTEN in cell proliferation and migration after over-expression of PTEN in PC3 cells which lack endogenous PTEN. TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 had no effect on PTEN mRNA levels but both isoforms increased PTEN protein levels in DU145 and RWPE1 cells indicating that PTEN may mediate TGF-β effects on cell proliferation. Knockdown of PTEN in DU145 cells resulted in significant increase in cell proliferation which was not affected by TGF-β isoforms. PTEN overexpression in PC3 cells inhibited cell proliferation. Knockdown of endogenous PTEN enhanced cell migration in DU145 cells, whereas PTEN overexpression reduced migration in PC3 cells and reduced phosphorylation of AKT in response to TGF-β. We conclude that PTEN plays a role in inhibitory effects of TGF-β on cell proliferation whereas its absence may enhance TGF-β effects on activation of PI3-kinase pathway and cell migration. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Inflammation and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigdar, Sarah; Li, Yong; Bhattacharya, Santanu; O'Connor, Michael; Pu, Chunwen; Lin, Jia; Wang, Tao; Xiang, Dongxi; Kong, Lingxue; Wei, Ming Q; Zhu, Yimin; Zhou, Shufeng; Duan, Wei

    2014-04-10

    Cancer stem cells are becoming recognised as being responsible for metastasis and treatment resistance. The complex cellular and molecular network that regulates cancer stem cells and the role that inflammation plays in cancer progression are slowly being elucidated. Cytokines, secreted by tumour associated immune cells, activate the necessary pathways required by cancer stem cells to facilitate cancer stem cells progressing through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migrating to distant sites. Once in situ, these cancer stem cells can secrete their own attractants, thus providing an environment whereby these cells can continue to propagate the tumour in a secondary niche. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemoresistance in prostate cancer cells is regulated by miRNAs and Hedgehog pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Singh

    Full Text Available Many prostate cancers relapse due to the generation of chemoresistance rendering first-line treatment drugs like paclitaxel (PTX ineffective. The present study aims to determine the role of miRNAs and Hedgehog (Hh pathway in chemoresistant prostate cancer and to evaluate the combination therapy using Hh inhibitor cyclopamine (CYA. Studies were conducted on PTX resistant DU145-TXR and PC3-TXR cell lines and clinical prostate tissues. Drug sensitivity and apoptosis assays showed significantly improved cytotoxicity with combination of PTX and CYA. To distinguish the presence of cancer stem cell like side populations (SP, Hoechst 33342 flow cytometry method was used. PTX resistant DU145 and PC3 cells, as well as human prostate cancer tissue possess a distinct SP fraction. Nearly 75% of the SP cells are in the G0/G1 phase compared to 62% for non-SP cells and have higher expression of stem cell markers as well. SP cell fraction was increased following PTX monotherapy and treatment with CYA or CYA plus PTX effectively reduced their numbers suggesting the effectiveness of combination therapy. SP fraction cells were allowed to differentiate and reanalyzed by Hoechst staining and gene expression analysis. Post differentiation, SP cells constitute 15.8% of total viable cells which decreases to 0.6% on treatment with CYA. The expression levels of P-gp efflux protein were also significantly decreased on treatment with PTX and CYA combination. MicroRNA profiling of DU145-TXR and PC3-TXR cells and prostate cancer tissue from the patients showed decreased expression of tumor suppressor miRNAs such as miR34a and miR200c. Treatment with PTX and CYA combination restored the expression of miR200c and 34a, confirming their role in modulating chemoresistance. We have shown that supplementing mitotic stabilizer drugs such as PTX with Hh-inhibitor CYA can reverse PTX chemoresistance and eliminate SP fraction in androgen independent, metastatic prostate cancer cell

  5. Fever-range hyperthermia vs. hypothermia effect on cancer cell viability, proliferation and HSP90 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamida, Dimitra; Karagounis, Ilias V; Mitrakas, Achilleas; Kalamida, Sofia; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Koukourakis, Michael I

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of fever-range hyperthermia and mild hypothermia on human cancer cells focusing on cell viability, proliferation and HSP90 expression. A549 and H1299 lung carcinoma, MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma, U87MG and T98G glioblastoma, DU145 and PC3 prostate carcinoma and MRC5 normal fetal lung fibroblasts cell lines were studied. After 3-day exposure to 34°C, 37°C and 40°C, cell viability was determined. Cell proliferation (ki67 index), apoptosis (Caspase 9) and HSP90 expression was studied by confocal microscopy. Viability/proliferation experiments demonstrated that MRC5 fibroblasts were extremely sensitive to hyperthermia, while they were the most resistant to hypothermia. T98G and A549 were thermo-tolerant, the remaining being thermo-sensitive to a varying degree. Nonetheless, as a universal effect, hypothermia reduced viability/proliferation in all cell lines. Hyperthermia sharply induced Caspase 9 in the U87MG most thermo-sensitive cell line. In T98G and A549 thermo-tolerant cell lines, the levels of Caspase 9 declined. Moreover, hyperthermia strongly induced the HSP90 levels in T98G, whilst a sharp decrease was recorded in the thermo-sensitive PC3 and U87MG cell lines. Hyperthermia sensitized thermo-sensitive cancer cell lines to cisplatin and temozolomide, whilst its sensitizing effect was diminished in thermo-tolerant cell lines. The existence of thermo-tolerant and thermo-sensitive cancer cell lines was confirmed, which further encourages research to classify human tumor thermic predilection for patient stratification in clinical trials. Of interest, mild hypothermia had a universal suppressing effect on cancer cell proliferation, further supporting the radio-sensitization hypothesis through reduction of oxygen and metabolic demands.

  6. Fever-range hyperthermia vs. hypothermia effect on cancer cell viability, proliferation and HSP90 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Kalamida

    Full Text Available The current study examines the effect of fever-range hyperthermia and mild hypothermia on human cancer cells focusing on cell viability, proliferation and HSP90 expression.A549 and H1299 lung carcinoma, MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma, U87MG and T98G glioblastoma, DU145 and PC3 prostate carcinoma and MRC5 normal fetal lung fibroblasts cell lines were studied. After 3-day exposure to 34°C, 37°C and 40°C, cell viability was determined. Cell proliferation (ki67 index, apoptosis (Caspase 9 and HSP90 expression was studied by confocal microscopy.Viability/proliferation experiments demonstrated that MRC5 fibroblasts were extremely sensitive to hyperthermia, while they were the most resistant to hypothermia. T98G and A549 were thermo-tolerant, the remaining being thermo-sensitive to a varying degree. Nonetheless, as a universal effect, hypothermia reduced viability/proliferation in all cell lines. Hyperthermia sharply induced Caspase 9 in the U87MG most thermo-sensitive cell line. In T98G and A549 thermo-tolerant cell lines, the levels of Caspase 9 declined. Moreover, hyperthermia strongly induced the HSP90 levels in T98G, whilst a sharp decrease was recorded in the thermo-sensitive PC3 and U87MG cell lines. Hyperthermia sensitized thermo-sensitive cancer cell lines to cisplatin and temozolomide, whilst its sensitizing effect was diminished in thermo-tolerant cell lines.The existence of thermo-tolerant and thermo-sensitive cancer cell lines was confirmed, which further encourages research to classify human tumor thermic predilection for patient stratification in clinical trials. Of interest, mild hypothermia had a universal suppressing effect on cancer cell proliferation, further supporting the radio-sensitization hypothesis through reduction of oxygen and metabolic demands.

  7. Differences of statin activity in 2D and 3D pancreatic cancer cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paškevičiūtė M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Miglė Paškevičiūtė,1 Vilma Petrikaitė1,21Department of Drug Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania; 2Department of Biothermodynamics and Drug Design, Vilnius University Institute of Biotechnology, Vilnius, LithuaniaPurpose: To evaluate the anticancer activity of lovastatin (LOVA, mevastatin (MEVA, pitavastatin (PITA, and simvastatin (SIMVA in 2D and 3D models of three human pancreatic cancer cell lines (BxPC-3, MIA PaCa-2, and PANC-1.Methods: The effect of statins on cell viability was estimated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test. The activity of statins in 3D pancreatic cancer cell cultures was examined by measuring the size change of spheroids. The type of cell death was identified by cell staining with Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide. The activity of statins on the clonogenicity of cancer cells was tested by evaluating the effect on the colony-forming ability of cells.Results: The rank order of the activity of tested statins on cell viability was as follows: PITA > SIMVA > LOVA > MEVA. Among the tested statins, PITA had the greatest effect on cell viability (half maximal effective concentration values after 72 h on BxPC-3, MIA PaCa-2, and PANC-1 cells were 1.4±0.4 µM, 1.0±0.2 µM, and 1.0±0.5 µM, respectively. PITA also showed the strongest effect on tumor spheroid growth. Statins suppressed the colony formation of cancer cells. PITA demonstrated the greatest reduction in colony size and number. Apoptosis and necrosis assay results showed that at lower concentrations statins mostly induced cell death through apoptosis, whereas higher concentrations of compounds activated also necrotic processes.Conclusion: Statins, especially PITA, demonstrate an anticancer activity against pancreatic cancer cell lines BxPC-3, MIA PaCa-2, and PANC-1 in both 2D and 3D models.Keywords: HMG-CoA reductase, cell viability, spheroid, apoptosis

  8. The chemomodulatory effects of glufosfamide on docetaxel cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem T. Attia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Glufosfamide (GLU is a glucose conjugate of ifosfamide in which isophosphoramide mustard is glycosidically linked to the β-D-glucose molecule. Based on GLU structure, it is considered a targeted chemotherapy with fewer side effects. The main objective of the current study is to assess the cytotoxic potential of GLU for the first time in prostate cancer (PC cells representing different stages of the tumor. Furthermore, this study examined the potential synergistic activity of GLU in combination with docetaxel (DOC. Methods. Two different cell lines were used, LNCaP and PC-3. Concentration-response curves were assessed. The tested groups per cell line were, control, GLU, DOC and combination. Treatment duration was 72 h. Cytotoxicity was assessed using sulforhodamine B (SRB assay and half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 was calculated. Synergy analyses were performed using Calcusyn®software. Subsequent mechanistic studies included β-glucosidase activity assay, glucose uptake and apoptosis studies, namely annexin V-FITC assay and the protein expression of mitochondrial pathway signals including Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase 9 and 3 were assessed. Data are presented as mean ± SD; comparisons were carried out using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer’s test for post hoc analysis. Results. GLU induced cytotoxicity in both cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 in PC-3 cells was significantly lower by 19% when compared to that of LNCaP cells. The IC50 of combining both drugs showed comparable effect to DOC in PC-3 but was tremendously lowered by 49% compared to the same group in LNCaP cell line. β-glucosidase activity was higher in LNCaP by about 67% compared to that determined in PC-3 cells while the glucose uptake in PC-3 cells was almost 2 folds that found in LNCaP cells. These results were directly correlated to the efficacy of GLU in each cell line. Treatment of PC cells with GLU as single

  9. An Atomic Force Microscope Study Revealed Two Mechanisms in the Effect of Anticancer Drugs on Rate-Dependent Young's Modulus of Human Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ren

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of cells have been recognized as a biomarker for cellular cytoskeletal organization. As chemical treatments lead to cell cytoskeletal rearrangements, thereby, modifications of cellular mechanical properties, investigating cellular mechanical property variations provides insightful knowledge to effects of chemical treatments on cancer cells. In this study, the effects of eight different anticancer drugs on the mechanical properties of human prostate cancer cell (PC-3 are investigated using a recently developed control-based nanoindentation measurement (CNM protocol on atomic force microscope (AFM. The CNM protocol overcomes the limits of other existing methods to in-liquid nanoindentation measurement of live cells on AFM, particularly for measuring mechanical properties of live cells. The Young's modulus of PC-3 cells treated by the eight drugs was measured by varying force loading rates over three orders of magnitude, and compared to the values of the control. The results showed that the Young's modulus of the PC-3 cells increased substantially by the eight drugs tested, and became much more pronounced as the force load rate increased. Moreover, two distinct trends were clearly expressed, where under the treatment of Disulfiram, paclitaxel, and MK-2206, the exponent coefficient of the frequency- modulus function remained almost unchanged, while with Celebrex, BAY, Totamine, TPA, and Vaproic acid, the exponential rate was significantly increased.

  10. MicroRNA-218 inhibits cell invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer via regulating ROBO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hang; Hao, Si-Jie; Yao, Lie; Yang, Feng; Di, Yang; Li, Ji; Jiang, Yong-Jian; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang

    2014-10-01

    miRNA-218 is a highlighted tumor suppressor and its underlying role in tumor progression is still unknown. Here, we restored the expression of miRNA-218 in pancreatic cancer to clarify the function and potent downstream pathway of miRNA-218. The expressions of both miRNA-218 and its potent target gene ROBO1 were revealed by RT-PCR and western blotting analysis. Transfection of miRNA-218 precursor mimics and luciferase assay were performed to elucidate the regulation mechanism between miRNA-218 and ROBO1. Cells, stably expressing miRNA-218 followed by forced expression of mutant ROBO1, were established through co-transfections of both lentivirus vector and plasmid vector. The cell migration and invasion abilities were evaluated by migration assay and invasion assay respectively. An increased expression of ROBO1 was revealed in cell BxPC-3-LN compared with cell BxPC-3. Elevated expression of miRNA-218 would suppress the expression of ROBO1 via complementary binding to a specific region within 3'UTR of ROBO1 mRNA (sites 971-978) in pancreatic cancer cells. Stably restoring the expression of miRNA-218 in pancreatic cancer significantly downregulated the expression of ROBO1 and effectively inhibited cell migration and invasion. Forced expression of mutant ROBO1 could reverse the repression effects of miRNA-218 on cell migration and invasion. Consequently, miRNA-218 acted as a tumor suppressor in pancreatic cancer by inhibiting cell invasion and migration. ROBO1 was a functional target of miRNA-218's downstream pathway involving in cell invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer.

  11. Pterostilbene-isothiocyanate conjugate suppresses growth of prostate cancer cells irrespective of androgen receptor status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Nikhil

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy and anti-hormonal therapies are the most common treatments for non-organ-confined prostate cancer (PCa. However, the effectiveness of these therapies is limited, thus necessitating the development of alternative approaches. The present study focused on analyzing the role of pterostilbene (PTER-isothiocyanate (ITC conjugate--a novel class of hybrid compound synthesized by appending an ITC moiety on PTER backbone--in regulating the functions of androgen receptor (AR, thereby causing apoptosis of PCa cells. The conjugate molecule caused 50% growth inhibition (IC50 at 40 ± 1.12 and 45 ± 1.50 μM in AR positive (LNCaP and negative (PC-3 cells, respectively. The reduced proliferation of PC-3 as well as LNCaP cells by conjugate correlated with accumulation of cells in G2/M phase and induction of caspase dependent apoptosis. Both PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways played an important and differential role in conjugate-induced apoptosis of these PCa cells. While the inhibitor of Akt (A6730 or Akt-specific small interference RNA (siRNA greatly sensitized PC-3 cells to conjugate-induced apoptosis, on the contrary, apoptosis was accelerated by inhibition of ERK (by PD98059 or ERK siRNA in case of LNCaP cells, both ultimately culminating in the expression of cleaved caspase-3 protein. Moreover, anti-androgenic activity of the conjugate was mediated by decreased expression of AR and its co-activators (SRC-1, GRIP-1, thus interfering in their interactions with AR. All these data suggests that conjugate-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis are partly mediated by the down regulation of AR, Akt, and ERK signaling. These observations provide a rationale for devising novel therapeutic approaches for treating PCa by using conjugate alone or in combination with other therapeutics.

  12. Genome rearrangement affects RNA virus adaptability on prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra ePesko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene order is often highly conserved within taxonomic groups, such that organisms with rearranged genomes tend to be less fit than wildtype gene orders, and suggesting natural selection favors genome architectures that maximize fitness. But it is unclear whether rearranged genomes hinder adaptability: capacity to evolutionarily improve in a new environment. Negative-sense nonsegmented RNA viruses (order Mononegavirales have specific genome architecture: 3′ UTR – core protein genes – envelope protein genes – RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase gene – 5′ UTR. To test how genome architecture affects RNA virus evolution, we examined vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV variants with the nucleocapsid (N gene moved sequentially downstream in the genome. Because RNA polymerase stuttering in VSV replication causes greater mRNA production in upstream genes, N-gene translocation towards the 5’ end leads to stepwise decreases in N transcription, viral replication and progeny production, and also impacts the activation of type 1 interferon mediated antiviral responses. We evolved VSV gene-order variants in two prostate cancer cell lines: LNCap cells deficient in innate immune response to viral infection, and PC3 cells that mount an IFN stimulated anti-viral response to infection. We observed that gene order affects phenotypic adaptability (reproductive growth; viral suppression of immune function, especially on PC3 cells that strongly select against virus infection. Overall, populations derived from the least-fit ancestor (most-altered N position architecture adapted fastest, consistent with theory predicting populations with low initial fitness should improve faster in evolutionary time. Also, we observed correlated responses to selection, where viruses improved across both hosts, rather than suffer fitness trade-offs on unselected hosts. Whole genomics revealed multiple mutations in evolved variants, some of which were conserved across selective

  13. Inhibition of the aquaporin 3 water channel increases the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M; Bokaee, S; Davies, J; Harrington, K J; Pandha, H

    2009-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are intrinsic membrane proteins that facilitate selective water and small solute movement across the plasma membrane. In this study, we investigate the role of inhibiting AQPs in sensitising prostate cancer cells to cryotherapy. PC-3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells were cooled to 0, −5 and −10°C. The expression of AQP3 in response to freezing was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT–qPCR) and western blot analysis. Aquaporins were inhibited using mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplex, and cell survival was assessed using a colorimetric assay. There was a significant increase in AQP3 expression in response to freezing. Cells treated with AQP3 siRNA were more sensitive to cryoinjury compared with control cells (Pcryotherapy. PMID:19513079

  14. GLUT1 regulates cell glycolysis and proliferation in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hengjun; Wang, Jun; Yan, Weixin; Cui, Yubin; Chen, Zheng; Gao, Xin; Wen, Xingqiao; Chen, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) plays a critical role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression in multiple cancer types. However, the specific function and clinical significance of GLUT1 in prostate cancer (PCa) are still unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the role of GLUT1 in PCa. GLUT1 protein levels in prostate cancer tissue and tumor-adjacent normal tissues were measured and compared. Furthermore, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were both used to detect GLUT1 expression levels in different PCa cell lines. Flow cytometry and cell-based assays, such as a glucose uptake and lactate secretion assay, CCK-8 assay, and transwell migration and wound healing assay, were used to monitor cancer cell cycle distribution, glycolysis, proliferation, and motility, respectively. Moreover, a mouse tumor xenograft model was used to investigate the role of GLUT1 in tumor progression in vivo. GLUT1 expression levels are higher in PCa tissues than in tumor-adjacent normal tissues. The results from real-time PCR and Western blot analysis revealed a similar increase in the GLUT1 expression levels in PCa cell lines. Moreover, knockdown of GLUT1 inhibits cell glycolysis and proliferation and leads to cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase in the 22RV1 cell line but not in the PC3 cell line. In vivo experiments further confirmed that GLUT1 knockdown inhibits the growth of tumors derived from the 22RV1 cell line. In addition, we also showed that GLUT1 knockdown has no effect on cell migration in vitro. GLUT1 may play an important role in PCa progression via mediating glycolysis and proliferation. Our study also indicated a potential crosstalk between GLUT1-mediated glycolysis and androgen sensitivity in PCa. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine inhibit bladder cancer cell growth by targeting basal autophagy and enhancing apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chia Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloroquine (CQ and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ, two antimalarial drugs, are suggested to have potential anticancer properties. in the present study, we investigated the effects of CQ and HCQ on cell growth of bladder cancer with emphasis on autophagy inhibition and apoptosis induction in vitro. The results showed that CQ and HCQ inhibited the proliferation of multiple human bladder cell lines (including RT4, 5637, and T24 in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, especially in advanced bladder cancer cell lines (5637 and T24 compared to immortalized uroepithelial cells (SV-Huc-1 or other reference cancer cell lines (PC3 and MCF-7. We found that 24-hour treatment of CQ or HCQ significantly decreased the clonogenic formation in 5637 and T24 cells compared to SV-Huc-1. As human bladder cancer tumor exhibits high basal level of autophagic activities, we detected the autophagic flux in cells treated with CQ and HCQ, showing an alternation in LC3 flux in CQ- or HCQ-treated cells. Moreover, bladder cancer cells treated with CQ and HCQ underwent apoptosis, resulting in increased caspase 3/7 activities, increased level of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, caspase 3, and DNA fragmentation. Given these results, targeting autophagy with CQ and HCQ represents an effective cancer therapeutic strategy against human bladder cancer.

  16. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine inhibit bladder cancer cell growth by targeting basal autophagy and enhancing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chia; Lin, Ji-Fan; Wen, Sheng-I; Yang, Shan-Che; Tsai, Te-Fu; Chen, Hung-En; Chou, Kuang-Yu; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

    2017-05-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), two antimalarial drugs, are suggested to have potential anticancer properties. in the present study, we investigated the effects of CQ and HCQ on cell growth of bladder cancer with emphasis on autophagy inhibition and apoptosis induction in vitro. The results showed that CQ and HCQ inhibited the proliferation of multiple human bladder cell lines (including RT4, 5637, and T24) in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, especially in advanced bladder cancer cell lines (5637 and T24) compared to immortalized uroepithelial cells (SV-Huc-1) or other reference cancer cell lines (PC3 and MCF-7). We found that 24-hour treatment of CQ or HCQ significantly decreased the clonogenic formation in 5637 and T24 cells compared to SV-Huc-1. As human bladder cancer tumor exhibits high basal level of autophagic activities, we detected the autophagic flux in cells treated with CQ and HCQ, showing an alternation in LC3 flux in CQ- or HCQ-treated cells. Moreover, bladder cancer cells treated with CQ and HCQ underwent apoptosis, resulting in increased caspase 3/7 activities, increased level of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase 3, and DNA fragmentation. Given these results, targeting autophagy with CQ and HCQ represents an effective cancer therapeutic strategy against human bladder cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  17. Combined Effects of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles and Chemotherapeutic Agents on Prostate Cancer Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Kojima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC have poor outcomes. Docetaxel (DTX-based therapy is a current standard treatment for patients with mCRPC. Approaches combining conventional chemotherapeutic agents and nanoparticles (NPs, particularly iron oxide NPs, may overcome the serious side effects and drug resistance, resulting in the establishment of new therapeutic strategies. We previously reported the combined effects of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs with DTX on prostate cancer cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated the combined effects of Fe3O4 NPs and rapamycin or carboplatin on prostate cancer cells in vitro. Treatment of DU145 and PC-3 cells with Fe3O4 NPs increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of both cell lines with 100 μg/mL Fe3O4 NPs for 72 h resulted in significant inhibition of cell viability with a different inhibitory effect. Combination treatments with 100 µg/mL Fe3O4 NPs and 10 µM carboplatin or 10 nM rapamycin in DU145 and PC-3 cells significantly decreased cell viability. Synergistic effects on apoptosis were observed in PC-3 cells treated with Fe3O4 NPs and rapamycin and in DU145 cells with Fe3O4 NPs and carboplatin. These results suggest the possibility of combination therapy with Fe3O4 NPs and various chemotherapeutic agents as a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with mCRPC.

  18. Examining the relationship between Cu-ATSM hypoxia selectivity and fatty acid synthase expression in human prostate cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavere, Amy L. [Division of Radiological Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Lewis, Jason S. [Division of Radiological Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)], E-mail: j.s.lewis@wustl.edu

    2008-04-15

    Introduction: Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with copper (II)-diacetyl-bis(N{sup 4}-Methylthiosemicarbazone)(Cu-ATSM) for delineating hypoxia has provided valuable clinical information, but investigations in animal models of prostate cancer have shown some inconsistencies. As a defense mechanism in prostate cancer cells, the fatty acid synthesis pathway harnesses its oxidizing power for improving the redox balance despite conditions of extreme hypoxia, potentially altering Cu-ATSM hypoxia selectivity. Methods: Human prostate tumor-cultured cell lines (PC-3, 22Rv1, LNCaP and LAPC-4), were treated with a fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitor (C75, 100 {mu}M) under anoxia. The {sup 64}Cu-ATSM uptake in these treated cells and nontreated anoxic cells was then examined. Fatty acid synthase expression level in each cell line was subsequently quantified by ELISA. An additional study was performed in PC-3 cells to examine the relationship between the restoration of {sup 64}Cu-ATSM hypoxia selectivity and the concentration of C75 (100, 20, 4 or 0.8 {mu}M) administered to the cells. Results: Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis with C75 resulted in a significant increase in {sup 64}Cu-ATSM retention in prostate tumor cells in vitro under anoxia over 60 min. Inhibition studies demonstrated higher uptake values of 20.9{+-}3.27%, 103.0{+-}32.6%, 144.2{+-}32.3% and 200.1{+-}79.3% at 15 min over control values for LAPC-4, PC-3, LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells, respectively. A correlation was seen (R{sup 2}=.911) with FAS expression plotted against percentage change in {sup 64}Cu-ATSM uptake with C75 treatment. Conclusions: Although Cu-ATSM has clinical relevance in the PET imaging of hypoxia in many tumor types, its translation to the imaging of prostate cancer may be limited by the overexpression of FAS associated with prostatic malignancies.

  19. The superoxide scavenger TEMPOL induces urokinase receptor (uPAR expression in human prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Joseph

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is little understanding of the effect that reactive oxygen metabolites have on cellular behavior during the processes of invasion and metastasis. These oxygen metabolites could interact with a number of targets modulating their function such as enzymes involved in basement membrane dissolution, adhesion molecules involved in motility or receptors involved in proliferation. We investigated the effect of increased scavenging of superoxide anions on the expression of the urokinase receptor (uPAR in PC-3M human prostate cancer cells. Urokinase receptor is a GPI-linked cell surface molecule which mediates multiple functions including adhesion, proliferation and pericellular proteolysis. Addition of the superoxide scavenger 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy (TEMPOL to PC-3M cultures stimulated expression of uPAR protein peaking between 48 and 72 hours. Cell surface expression of the uPAR was also increased. Surprisingly, uPAR transcript levels increased only slightly and this mild increase did not coincide with the striking degree of protein increase. This disparity indicates that the TEMPOL effect on uPAR occurs through a post-transcriptional mechanism. TEMPOL presence in PC-3M cultures reduced intracellular superoxide-type species by 75% as assayed by NBT dye conversion; however this reduction significantly diminished within hours following TEMPOL removal. The time gap between TEMPOL treatment and peak uPAR protein expression suggests that reduction of reactive oxygen metabolites in prostate cancer cells initiates a multistep pathway which requires several hours to culminate in uPAR induction. These findings reveal a novel pathway for uPAR regulation involving reactive oxygens such as superoxide anion.

  20. Synergic effect of α-tocopherol and naringenin in transglutaminase-induced differentiation of human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Piera; Ricci, Pasquale; Provenzano, Bruno; Lentini, Alessandro; Tabolacci, Claudio

    2011-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Its prevention and treatment remain a challenge to clinicians. Thus, there is an urgent need to discover novel, less toxic, and more effective therapies for patients. Many vitamins and related chemicals, including vitamin E, (tocopherols) have shown their anti-cancer activities as anti-oxidants, activators of transcription factors or factors influencing epigenetic events. Although laboratory tests including the use of animal models showed that this vitamin may have anticancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be intensively studied. This review provides up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory, epidemiology and/or clinical trials on the effects of tocopherols on prostate cancer development, along with our last observations on a combined treatment of a prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) with two natural antineoplastic compounds, naringenin (NG) and α-tocopherol (α-TOC). We report the synergic effect of α-TOC and NG in transglutaminase-induced differentiation of human PC-3 prostate cancer cells. While our results are based on one histological class of tumor, the most significant implication of this observation is that establishes a new way in the screening for detecting new differentiative antineoplastic agents.

  1. TRAIL and Noxa are selectively upregulated in prostate cancer cells downstream of the RIG-I/MAVS signaling pathway by nonreplicating Sendai virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima-Miyagi, Taeko; Hatano, Koji; Nomura, Motonari; Li-Wen, Liu; Nishikawa, Tomoyuki; Saga, Kotaro; Shimbo, Takashi; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2012-11-15

    The treatment of cancer with oncolytic viruses primarily depends on the selective viral replication in cancer cells. However, a replication-incompetent hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ; Sendai virus) envelope (HVJ-E) suppresses the growth of human cancer cells as effectively as replication-competent live HVJ without producing toxic effects in nonmalignant cells. Here, we analyze the molecular mechanism of the oncolytic activity of HVJ-E. The molecules responsible for HVJ-E-induced cancer cell death were elucidated in prostate cancer cell lines, and the effect of HVJ-E on orthotopic prostate cancers was evaluated in nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice. The liposome-mediated transfer of viral RNA genome fragments from HVJ-E suppressed the viability of prostate cancer cells but not the viability of the noncancerous prostate epithelium. Knockdown experiments using siRNAs showed that the cancer cell-selective killing induced by HVJ-E was mediated by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS). Downstream of the RIG-I/MAVS pathway, both TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Noxa were upregulated by HVJ-E in the castration-resistant prostate cancer cell line PC3 but not in the noncancerous prostate epithelial cell line PNT2. TRAIL siRNA but not Noxa siRNA significantly inhibited HVJ-E-induced cell death in PC3 cells. However, Noxa siRNA effectively suppressed HVJ-E-induced cell death in DU145 cells, another castration-resistant prostate cancer cell line, in which Noxa but not TRAIL was upregulated by HVJ-E. Furthermore, the orthotopic prostate cancers were dramatically eradicated in immunodeficient mice injected with HVJ-E. The RIG-I/MAVS signaling pathway represents an attractive target for cancer therapy. ©2012 AACR.

  2. Sensitization of androgen refractory prostate cancer cells to anti-androgens through re-expression of epigenetically repressed androgen receptor - Synergistic action of quercetin and curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Kumar, Lokesh; Mohanty, Sujit K; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Rajender, Singh; Gupta, Gopal

    2016-08-15

    Epigenetic repression of Androgen Receptor (AR) gene by hypermethylation of its promoter causes resistance in prostate cancer (CaP) to androgen deprivation therapy with anti-androgens. Some dietary phytocompounds like quercetin (Q) and curcumin (C) with reported DNMT-inhibitory activity were tested for their ability to re-express the AR in AR-negative CaP cell lines PC3 and DU145. Combined treatment with Q+C was much more effective than either Q or C in inhibiting DNMT, causing global hypomethylation, restoring AR mRNA and protein levels and causing apoptosis via mitochondrial depolarization of PC3 and DU145. The functional AR protein expressed in Q+C treated cells sensitized them to dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced proliferation, bicalutamide-induced apoptosis, bound to androgen response element to increase luciferase activity in gene reporter assay and was susceptible to downregulation by AR siRNA. Bisulfite sequencing revealed high methylation of AR promoter CpG sites in AR-negative DU145 and PC3 cell lines that was significantly demethylated by Q+C treatment, which restored AR expression. Notable synergistic effects of Q+C combination in re-sensitizing androgen refractory CaP cells to AR-mediated apoptosis, their known safety in clinical use, and epidemiological evidences relating their dietary consumption with lower cancer incidences indicate their potential for use in chemoprevention of androgen resistance in prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multipoint Observations of Low Latitude ULF Pc3 Waves in South ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... An array of four low latitude induction coil magnetometers were established in south-east Australia over a longitudinal range of 17 degrees at L = 1.8 to 2.7 for carrying out the study of the effect of the solar wind velocity on these pulsations. Digital dynamic spectra showing Pc3 pulsation activity over a period ...

  4. Effective photodynamic therapy in drug-resistant prostate cancer cells utilizing a non-viral antitumor vector (a secondary publication)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masaya; Honda, Norihiro; Hazama, Hisanao; Tachikawa, Shoji; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Awazu, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: There is an urgent need to develop an efficient strategy for the treatment of drug-resistant prostate cancer. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), in which low incident levels of laser energy are used to activate a photosensitizer taken up by tumor cells, is expected as a novel therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer because of the minimal invasive nature of PDT. The present study was designed to assess the efficacy of a novel vector approach combined with a conventional porphyrin-based photosensitizer. Materials and Methods: Our group focused on a non-viral vector (hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope; HVJ-E) combined with protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) lipid, termed the porphyrus envelope (PE). It has been previously confirmed that HVJ-E has drug-delivering properties and can induce cancer-specific cell death. The PE (HVJ-E contained in PpIX lipid) was developed as a novel photosensitizer. In this study, the antitumor and PDT efficacy of the PE against hormone-antagonistic human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) were evaluated. Results and Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that, under specific circumstances, PDT using the PE was very effective against PC-3 cells. A novel therapy for drug-resistant prostate cancer based on this vector approach is eagerly anticipated. PMID:27141155

  5. A biomimetic approach to hormone resistant prostate cancer cell isolation using inactivated Sendai virus (HVJ-E).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takaharu; Uto, Koichiro; Aoyagi, Takao; Ebara, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Our study reports a versatile immobilization method of Hemagglutinating Virus of Japan Envelope (HVJ-E) for the generation of viral-mimetic surfaces for hormone resistant prostate cancer cell isolation. HVJ-E has recently attracted much attention as a new type of therapeutic material because hormone resistant prostate cancer cells such as PC-3 cells possess the HVJ-E receptors, GD1a. The HVJ-E was successfully immobilized on precursor films composed of poly-l-lysine and alginic acid via layer-by-layer assembly without changing the biological activity. The monolayer adsorption of HVJ-E particles was confirmed by quartz crystal microbalance, fluorescent and atomic force microscopy analyses. By developing the HVJ-E coating with an affinity based cell trap within a glass capillary tube, we are able to gently isolate PC-3 from LN-Cap cells that represent adenocarcinoma without compromising cell viability. We achieved approximately 100% cell separation efficiency only by 60 seconds of flowing. We believe that the proposed technique offers significant promise for the creation of a hormone resistant cancer cell trap on a broad range of materials.

  6. Development and characterization of a novel C-terminal inhibitor of Hsp90 in androgen dependent and independent prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskew Jeffery D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The molecular chaperone, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 has been shown to be overexpressed in a number of cancers, including prostate cancer, making it an important target for drug discovery. Unfortunately, results with N-terminal inhibitors from initial clinical trials have been disappointing, as toxicity and resistance resulting from induction of the heat shock response (HSR has led to both scheduling and administration concerns. Therefore, Hsp90 inhibitors that do not induce the heat shock response represent a promising new direction for the treatment of prostate cancer. Herein, the development of a C-terminal Hsp90 inhibitor, KU174, is described, which demonstrates anti-cancer activity in prostate cancer cells in the absence of a HSR and describe a novel approach to characterize Hsp90 inhibition in cancer cells. Methods PC3-MM2 and LNCaP-LN3 cells were used in both direct and indirect in vitro Hsp90 inhibition assays (DARTS, Surface Plasmon Resonance, co-immunoprecipitation, luciferase, Western blot, anti-proliferative, cytotoxicity and size exclusion chromatography to characterize the effects of KU174 in prostate cancer cells. Pilot in vivo efficacy studies were also conducted with KU174 in PC3-MM2 xenograft studies. Results KU174 exhibits robust anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activity along with client protein degradation and disruption of Hsp90 native complexes without induction of a HSR. Furthermore, KU174 demonstrates direct binding to the Hsp90 protein and Hsp90 complexes in cancer cells. In addition, in pilot in-vivo proof-of-concept studies KU174 demonstrates efficacy at 75 mg/kg in a PC3-MM2 rat tumor model. Conclusions Overall, these findings suggest C-terminal Hsp90 inhibitors have potential as therapeutic agents for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  7. Inhibition of the GTPase Rac1 mediates the antimigratory effects of metformin in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirat, Béatrice; Ader, Isabelle; Golzio, Muriel; Massa, Fabienne; Mettouchi, Amel; Laurent, Kathiane; Larbret, Frédéric; Malavaud, Bernard; Cormont, Mireille; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Cuvillier, Olivier; Tanti, Jean François; Bost, Frédéric

    2015-02-01

    Cell migration is a critical step in the progression of prostate cancer to the metastatic state, the lethal form of the disease. The antidiabetic drug metformin has been shown to display antitumoral properties in prostate cancer cell and animal models; however, its role in the formation of metastases remains poorly documented. Here, we show that metformin reduces the formation of metastases to fewer solid organs in an orthotopic metastatic prostate cancer cell model established in nude mice. As predicted, metformin hampers cell motility in PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells and triggers a radical reorganization of the cell cytoskeleton. The small GTPase Rac1 is a master regulator of cytoskeleton organization and cell migration. We report that metformin leads to a major inhibition of Rac1 GTPase activity by interfering with some of its multiple upstream signaling pathways, namely P-Rex1 (a Guanine nucleotide exchange factor and activator of Rac1), cAMP, and CXCL12/CXCR4, resulting in decreased migration of prostate cancer cells. Importantly, overexpression of a constitutively active form of Rac1, or P-Rex, as well as the inhibition of the adenylate cyclase, was able to reverse the antimigratory effects of metformin. These results establish a novel mechanism of action for metformin and highlight its potential antimetastatic properties in prostate cancer. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... squamous cell cancer include: Having light-colored skin, blue or green eyes, or blond or red hair Long-term, daily sun exposure (such as in people who work outside) Many severe sunburns early in life Older age Having had many x-rays Chemical exposure A weakened immune system, especially in ...

  9. Differential role of Sloan–Kettering Institute (Ski) protein in Nodal and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)-induced Smad signaling in prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shafiq A.

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling pathways contain both tumor suppressor and tumor promoting activities. We have demonstrated that Nodal, another member of the TGF-β superfamily, and its receptors are expressed in prostate cancer cells. Nodal and TGF-β exerted similar biological effects on prostate cells; both inhibited proliferation in WPE, RWPE1 and DU145 cells, whereas neither had any effect on the proliferation of LNCaP or PC3 cells. Interestingly, Nodal and TGF-β induced migration in PC3 cells, but not in DU145 cells. TGF-β induced predominantly phosphorylation of Smad3, whereas Nodal induced phosphorylation of only Smad2. We also determined the expression and differential role of Ski, a corepressor of Smad2/3, in Nodal and TGF-β signaling in prostate cancer cells. Similar levels of Ski mRNA were found in several established prostate cell lines; however, high levels of Ski protein were only detected in prostate cancer cells and prostate cancer tissue samples. Exogenous Nodal and TGF-β had no effects on Ski mRNA levels. On the other hand, TGF-β induced a rapid degradation of Ski protein mediated by the proteasomal pathway, whereas Nodal had no effect on Ski protein. Reduced Ski levels correlated with increased basal and TGF-β-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation. Knockdown of endogenous Ski reduced proliferation in DU145 cells and enhanced migration of PC3 cells. We conclude that high levels of Ski expression in prostate cancer cells may be responsible for repression of TGF-β and Smad3 signaling, but Ski protein levels do not influence Nodal and Smad2 signaling. PMID:22843506

  10. Differential role of Sloan-Kettering Institute (Ski) protein in Nodal and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)-induced Smad signaling in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, BaoHan T; Cody, Bianca; Cao, Yang; Khan, Shafiq A

    2012-11-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling pathways contain both tumor suppressor and tumor promoting activities. We have demonstrated that Nodal, another member of the TGF-β superfamily, and its receptors are expressed in prostate cancer cells. Nodal and TGF-β exerted similar biological effects on prostate cells; both inhibited proliferation in WPE, RWPE1 and DU145 cells, whereas neither had any effect on the proliferation of LNCaP or PC3 cells. Interestingly, Nodal and TGF-β induced migration in PC3 cells, but not in DU145 cells. TGF-β induced predominantly phosphorylation of Smad3, whereas Nodal induced phosphorylation of only Smad2. We also determined the expression and differential role of Ski, a corepressor of Smad2/3, in Nodal and TGF-β signaling in prostate cancer cells. Similar levels of Ski mRNA were found in several established prostate cell lines; however, high levels of Ski protein were only detected in prostate cancer cells and prostate cancer tissue samples. Exogenous Nodal and TGF-β had no effects on Ski mRNA levels. On the other hand, TGF-β induced a rapid degradation of Ski protein mediated by the proteasomal pathway, whereas Nodal had no effect on Ski protein. Reduced Ski levels correlated with increased basal and TGF-β-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation. Knockdown of endogenous Ski reduced proliferation in DU145 cells and enhanced migration of PC3 cells. We conclude that high levels of Ski expression in prostate cancer cells may be responsible for repression of TGF-β and Smad3 signaling, but Ski protein levels do not influence Nodal and Smad2 signaling.

  11. ABCC4 Decreases docetaxel and not cabazitaxel efficacy in prostate cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea-Lager, Daniela E; Bijnsdorp, Irene V; VAN Moorselaar, Reindert J A; VAN DEN Eertwegh, Alfons J M; Hoekstra, Otto S; Geldof, Albert A

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate cabazitaxel efficacy in a model for docetaxel-resistant prostate cancer cells and to evaluate the involvement of ATP-cassette binding protein 4 (ABCC4) with regard to multidrug resistance. Docetaxel and cabazitaxel sensitivity was measured in PC3 and R3327-MATLyLu (MLL) cell lines, using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. ABCC4 expression was examined by western blotting and its functional involvement in drug sensitivity by blocking with MK571 inhibitor. The docetaxel-resistant MLL cells (4.5-fold compared to cabazitaxel; pcabazitaxel. Cabazitaxel showed an improved therapeutic efficacy over docetaxel in ABCC4-expressing prostate cancer cells. ABCC4 appears to be an important determinant of docetaxel resistance, since its inhibition almost completely reversed resistance.

  12. α-Mangostin Suppresses the Viability and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Pancreatic Cancer Cells by Downregulating the PI3K/Akt Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinhong Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Mangostin, a natural product isolated from the pericarp of the mangosteen fruit, has been shown to inhibit the growth of tumor cells in various types of cancers. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unclear. Here, we report that α-mangostin suppressed the viability and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of pancreatic cancer cells through inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Treatment of pancreatic cancer BxPc-3 and Panc-1 cells with α-mangostin resulted in loss of cell viability, accompanied by enhanced cell apoptosis, cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, and decrease of cyclin-D1. Moreover, Transwell and Matrigel invasion assays showed that α-mangostin significantly reduced the migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. Consistent with these results, α-mangostin decreased the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, N-cadherin, and vimentin and increased the expression of E-cadherin. Furthermore, we found that α-mangostin suppressed the activity of the PI3K/Akt pathway in pancreatic cancer cells as demonstrated by the reduction of the Akt phosphorylation by α-mangostin. Finally, α-mangostin significantly inhibited the growth of BxPc-3 tumor mouse xenografts. Our results suggest that α-mangostin may be potentially used as a novel adjuvant therapy or complementary alternative medicine for the management of pancreatic cancers.

  13. Met-Independent Hepatocyte Growth Factor-mediated regulation of cell adhesion in human prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Rodney

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer cells communicate reciprocally with the stromal cells surrounding them, inside the prostate, and after metastasis, within the bone. Each tissue secretes factors for interpretation by the other. One stromally-derived factor, Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF, was found twenty years ago to regulate invasion and growth of carcinoma cells. Working with the LNCaP prostate cancer progression model, we found that these cells could respond to HGF stimulation, even in the absence of Met, the only known HGF receptor. The new HGF binding partner we find on the cell surface may help to clarify conflicts in the past literature about Met expression and HGF response in cancer cells. Methods We searched for Met or any HGF binding partner on the cells of the PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell models, using HGF immobilized on agarose beads. By using mass spectrometry analyses and sequencing we have identified nucleolin protein as a novel HGF binding partner. Antibodies against nucleolin (or HGF were able to ameliorate the stimulatory effects of HGF on met-negative prostate cancer cells. Western blots, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess nucleolin levels during prostate cancer progression in both LNCaP and PC3 models. Results We have identified HGF as a major signaling component of prostate stromal-conditioned media (SCM and have implicated the protein nucleolin in HGF signal reception by the LNCaP model prostate cancer cells. Antibodies that silence either HGF (in SCM or nucleolin (on the cell surfaces eliminate the adhesion-stimulatory effects of the SCM. Likewise, addition of purified HGF to control media mimics the action of SCM. C4-2, an LNCaP lineage-derived, androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell line, responds to HGF in a concentration-dependent manner by increasing its adhesion and reducing its migration on laminin substratum. These HGF effects are not due to shifts in the expression levels of

  14. α-Solanine inhibits invasion of human prostate cancer cell by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and MMPs expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kun-Hung; Liao, Alex Chien-Hwa; Hung, Jui-Hsiang; Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Hu, Kai-Chieh; Lin, Pin-Tsen; Liao, Ruei-Fang; Chen, Pin-Shern

    2014-08-11

    α-Solanine, a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid found in nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn.), was found to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the mechanism involved in suppression of cancer cell metastasis by α-solanine remains unclear. This study investigates the suppression mechanism of α-solanine on motility of the human prostate cancer cell PC-3. Results show that α-solanine reduces the viability of PC-3 cells. When treated with non-toxic doses of α-solanine, cell invasion is markedly suppressed by α-solanine. α-Solanine also significantly elevates epithelial marker E-cadherin expression, while it concomitantly decreases mesenchymal marker vimentin expression, suggesting it suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). α-Solanine reduces the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9 and extracellular inducer of matrix metalloproteinase (EMMPRIN), but increases the expression of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2. Immunoblotting assays indicate α-solanine is effective in suppressing the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), Akt and ERK. Moreover, α-solanine downregulates oncogenic microRNA-21 (miR-21) and upregulates tumor suppressor miR-138 expression. Taken together, the results suggest that inhibition of PC-3 cell invasion by α-solanine may be, at least in part, through blocking EMT and MMPs expression. α-Solanine also reduces ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and regulates expression of miR-21 and miR-138. These findings suggest an attractive therapeutic potential of α-solanine for suppressing invasion of prostate cancer cell.

  15. α-Solanine Inhibits Invasion of Human Prostate Cancer Cell by Suppressing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and MMPs Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Hung Shen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available α-Solanine, a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid found in nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn., was found to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the mechanism involved in suppression of cancer cell metastasis by α-solanine remains unclear. This study investigates the suppression mechanism of α-solanine on motility of the human prostate cancer cell PC-3. Results show that α-solanine reduces the viability of PC-3 cells. When treated with non-toxic doses of α-solanine, cell invasion is markedly suppressed by α-solanine. α-Solanine also significantly elevates epithelial marker E-cadherin expression, while it concomitantly decreases mesenchymal marker vimentin expression, suggesting it suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. α-Solanine reduces the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, MMP-9 and extracellular inducer of matrix metalloproteinase (EMMPRIN, but increases the expression of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Immunoblotting assays indicate α-solanine is effective in suppressing the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K, Akt and ERK. Moreover, α-solanine downregulates oncogenic microRNA-21 (miR-21 and upregulates tumor suppressor miR-138 expression. Taken together, the results suggest that inhibition of PC-3 cell invasion by α-solanine may be, at least in part, through blocking EMT and MMPs expression. α-Solanine also reduces ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and regulates expression of miR-21 and miR-138. These findings suggest an attractive therapeutic potential of α-solanine for suppressing invasion of prostate cancer cell.

  16. The engineered thymidylate kinase (TMPK/AZT enzyme-prodrug axis offers efficient bystander cell killing for suicide gene therapy of cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeya Sato

    Full Text Available We previously described a novel suicide (or 'cell fate control' gene therapy enzyme/prodrug system based on an engineered variant of human thymidylate kinase (TMPK that potentiates azidothymidine (AZT activation. Delivery of a suicide gene sequence into tumors by lentiviral transduction embodies a cancer gene therapy that could employ bystander cell killing as a mechanism driving significant tumor regression in vivo. Here we present evidence of a significant bystander cell killing in vitro and in vivo mediated by the TMPK/AZT suicide gene axis that is reliant on the formation of functional gap-junctional intercellular communications (GJICs. Potentiation of AZT activation by the engineered TMPK expressed in the human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3, resulted in effective bystander killing of PC-3 cells lacking TMPK expression--an effect that could be blocked by the GJIC inhibitor, carbenoxolone. Although GJICs are mainly formed by connexins, a new family of GJIC molecules designated pannexins has been recently identified. PC-3 cells expressed both connexin43 (Cx43 and Pannexin1 (Panx1, but Panx1 expression predominated at the plasma membrane, whereas Cx43 expression was primarily localized to the cytosol. The contribution of bystander effects to the reduction of solid tumor xenografts established by the PC-3 cell line was evaluated in an animal model. We demonstrate the contribution of bystander cell killing to tumor regression in a xenograft model relying on the delivery of expression of the TMPK suicide gene into tumors via direct intratumoral injection of recombinant therapeutic lentivirus. Taken together, our data underscore that the TMPK/AZT enzyme-prodrug axis can be effectively utilized in suicide gene therapy of solid tumors, wherein significant tumor regression can be achieved via bystander effects mediated by GJICs.

  17. The engineered thymidylate kinase (TMPK)/AZT enzyme-prodrug axis offers efficient bystander cell killing for suicide gene therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeya; Neschadim, Anton; Lavie, Arnon; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    We previously described a novel suicide (or 'cell fate control') gene therapy enzyme/prodrug system based on an engineered variant of human thymidylate kinase (TMPK) that potentiates azidothymidine (AZT) activation. Delivery of a suicide gene sequence into tumors by lentiviral transduction embodies a cancer gene therapy that could employ bystander cell killing as a mechanism driving significant tumor regression in vivo. Here we present evidence of a significant bystander cell killing in vitro and in vivo mediated by the TMPK/AZT suicide gene axis that is reliant on the formation of functional gap-junctional intercellular communications (GJICs). Potentiation of AZT activation by the engineered TMPK expressed in the human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3, resulted in effective bystander killing of PC-3 cells lacking TMPK expression--an effect that could be blocked by the GJIC inhibitor, carbenoxolone. Although GJICs are mainly formed by connexins, a new family of GJIC molecules designated pannexins has been recently identified. PC-3 cells expressed both connexin43 (Cx43) and Pannexin1 (Panx1), but Panx1 expression predominated at the plasma membrane, whereas Cx43 expression was primarily localized to the cytosol. The contribution of bystander effects to the reduction of solid tumor xenografts established by the PC-3 cell line was evaluated in an animal model. We demonstrate the contribution of bystander cell killing to tumor regression in a xenograft model relying on the delivery of expression of the TMPK suicide gene into tumors via direct intratumoral injection of recombinant therapeutic lentivirus. Taken together, our data underscore that the TMPK/AZT enzyme-prodrug axis can be effectively utilized in suicide gene therapy of solid tumors, wherein significant tumor regression can be achieved via bystander effects mediated by GJICs.

  18. Geranylated 4-Phenylcoumarins Exhibit Anticancer Effects against Human Prostate Cancer Cells through Caspase-Independent Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparji, Noor Shahirah; Chan, Gomathi; Sapili, Hani; Arshad, Norhafiza M.; In, Lionel L. A.; Awang, Khalijah; Hasima Nagoor, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Geranylated 4-phenylcoumarins, DMDP-1 & -2 isolated from Mesua elegans were investigated for anticancer potential against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment with DMDP-1 & -2 resulted in cell death in a time and dose dependent manner in an MTT assay on all cancer cell lines tested with the exception of lung adenocarcinoma cells. DMDP-1 showed highest cytotoxic efficacy in PC-3 cells while DMDP-2 was most potent in DU 145 cells. Flow cytometry indicated that both coumarins were successful to induce programmed cell death after 24 h treatment. Elucidation on the mode-of-action via protein arrays and western blotting demonstrated death induced without any significant expressions of caspases, Bcl-2 family proteins and cleaved PARP, thus suggesting the involvement of caspase-independent pathways. In identifying autophagy, analysis of GFP-LC3 showed increased punctate in PC-3 cells pre-treated with CQ and treated with DMDP-1. In these cells decreased expression of autophagosome protein, p62 and cathepsin B further confirmed autophagy. In contrary, the DU 145 cells pre-treated with CQ and treated with DMDP-2 has reduced GFP-LC3 punctate although the number of cells with obvious GFP-LC3 puncta was significantly increased in the inhibitor-treated cells. The increase level of p62 suggested leakage of cathepsin B into the cytosol to trigger potential downstream death mediators. This correlated with increased expression of cathepsin B and reduced expression after treatment with its inhibitor, CA074. Also auto-degradation of calpain-2 upon treatment with DMDP-1 &-2 and its inhibitor alone, calpeptin compared with the combination treatment, further confirmed involvement of calpain-2 in PC-3 and DU 145 cells. Treatment with DMDP-1 & -2 also showed up-regulation of total and phosphorylated p53 levels in a time dependent manner. Hence, DMDP-1 & -2 showed ability to activate multiple death pathways involving autophagy, lysosomal and endoplasmic reticulum death proteins which could

  19. Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Cell Cycle Effects for Gemcitabine and Trabectedin Combinations in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xin; Koch, Gilbert; Ait-Oudhia, Sihem; Straubinger, Robert M.; Jusko, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Combinations of gemcitabine and trabectedin exert modest synergistic cytotoxic effects on two pancreatic cancer cell lines. Here, systems pharmacodynamic (PD) models that integrate cellular response data and extend a prototype model framework were developed to characterize dynamic changes in cell cycle phases of cancer cell subpopulations in response to gemcitabine and trabectedin as single agents and in combination. Extensive experimental data were obtained for two pancreatic cancer cell lines (MiaPaCa-2 and BxPC-3), including cell proliferation rates over 0–120 h of drug exposure, and the fraction of cells in different cell cycle phases or apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that gemcitabine induced cell cycle arrest in S phase, and trabectedin induced transient cell cycle arrest in S phase that progressed to G2/M phase. Over time, cells in the control group accumulated in G0/G1 phase. Systems cell cycle models were developed based on observed mechanisms and were used to characterize both cell proliferation and cell numbers in the sub G1, G0/G1, S, and G2/M phases in the control and drug-treated groups. The proposed mathematical models captured well both single and joint effects of gemcitabine and trabectedin. Interaction parameters were applied to quantify unexplainable drug-drug interaction effects on cell cycle arrest in S phase and in inducing apoptosis. The developed models were able to identify and quantify the different underlying interactions between gemcitabine and trabectedin, and captured well our large datasets in the dimensions of time, drug concentrations, and cellular subpopulations. PMID:27895579

  20. Alcohol and Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mei Xu; Jia Luo

    2017-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption has been associated with increased risk of several cancers, including cancer of the colon, rectum, female breast, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, liver, and esophagus. It appears that alcohol exposure not only promotes carcinogenesis but also enhances the progression and aggressiveness of existing cancers. The molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol tumor promotion, however, remain unclear. Cancer stem cells (CSC), a subpopulation of cancer cells with self-renewal and ...

  1. Raman and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy studies of changes in lipid content and composition in hormone-treated breast and prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potcoava, Mariana C; Futia, Gregory L; Aughenbaugh, Jessica; Schlaepfer, Isabel R; Gibson, Emily A

    2014-01-01

    Increasing interest in the role of lipids in cancer cell proliferation and resistance to drug therapies has motivated the need to develop better tools for cellular lipid analysis. Quantification of lipids in cells is typically done by destructive chromatography protocols that do not provide spatial information on lipid distribution and prevent dynamic live cell studies. Methods that allow the analysis of lipid content in live cells are therefore of great importance. Using micro-Raman spectroscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, we generated a lipid profile for breast (T47D, MDA-MB-231) and prostate (LNCaP, PC3) cancer cells upon exposure to medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and synthetic androgen R1881. Combining Raman spectra with CARS imaging, we can study the process of hormone-mediated lipogenesis. Our results show that hormone-treated cancer cells T47D and LNCaP have an increased number and size of intracellular lipid droplets and higher degree of saturation than untreated cells. MDA-MB-231 and PC3 cancer cells showed no significant changes upon treatment. Principal component analysis with linear discriminant analysis of the Raman spectra was able to differentiate between cancer cells that were treated with MPA, R1881, and untreated.

  2. Glucose-installed, SPIO-loaded PEG- b-PCL micelles as MR contrast agents to target prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theerasilp, Man; Sunintaboon, Panya; Sungkarat, Witaya; Nasongkla, Norased

    2017-11-01

    Polymeric micelles of poly(ethylene glycol)- block-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) bearing glucose analog encapsulated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Glu-SPIO micelles) were synthesized as an MRI contrast agent to target cancer cells based on high-glucose metabolism. Compared to SPIO micelles (non-targeting SPIO micelles), Glu-SPIO micelles demonstrated higher toxicity to human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3) at high concentration. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the amount of iron in cells. It was found that the iron in cancer cells treated by Glu-SPIO micelles were 27-fold higher than cancer cells treated by SPIO micelles at the iron concentration of 25 ppm and fivefold at the iron concentration of 100 ppm. To implement Glu-SPIO micelles as a MR contrast agent, the 3-T clinical MRI was applied to determine transverse relaxivities ( r 2*) and relaxation rate (1/ T 2*) values. In vitro MRI showed different MRI signal from cancer cells after cellular uptake of SPIO micelles and Glu-SPIO micelles. Glu-SPIO micelles was highly sensitive with the r 2* in agarose gel at 155 mM-1 s-1. Moreover, the higher 1/ T 2* value was found for cancer cells treated with Glu-SPIO micelles. These results supported that glucose ligand increased the cellular uptake of micelles by PC-3 cells with over-expressing glucose transporter on the cell membrane. Thus, glucose can be used as a small molecule ligand for targeting prostate cancer cells overexpressing glucose transporter.

  3. Glucose-installed, SPIO-loaded PEG-b-PCL micelles as MR contrast agents to target prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theerasilp, Man; Sunintaboon, Panya; Sungkarat, Witaya; Nasongkla, Norased

    2017-10-01

    Polymeric micelles of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) bearing glucose analog encapsulated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Glu-SPIO micelles) were synthesized as an MRI contrast agent to target cancer cells based on high-glucose metabolism. Compared to SPIO micelles (non-targeting SPIO micelles), Glu-SPIO micelles demonstrated higher toxicity to human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3) at high concentration. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the amount of iron in cells. It was found that the iron in cancer cells treated by Glu-SPIO micelles were 27-fold higher than cancer cells treated by SPIO micelles at the iron concentration of 25 ppm and fivefold at the iron concentration of 100 ppm. To implement Glu-SPIO micelles as a MR contrast agent, the 3-T clinical MRI was applied to determine transverse relaxivities (r 2*) and relaxation rate (1/T 2*) values. In vitro MRI showed different MRI signal from cancer cells after cellular uptake of SPIO micelles and Glu-SPIO micelles. Glu-SPIO micelles was highly sensitive with the r 2* in agarose gel at 155 mM-1 s-1. Moreover, the higher 1/T 2* value was found for cancer cells treated with Glu-SPIO micelles. These results supported that glucose ligand increased the cellular uptake of micelles by PC-3 cells with over-expressing glucose transporter on the cell membrane. Thus, glucose can be used as a small molecule ligand for targeting prostate cancer cells overexpressing glucose transporter.

  4. Functional Assay of Cancer Cell Invasion Potential Based on Mechanotransduction of Focused Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Weitz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells undergo a number of biophysical changes as they transform from an indolent to an aggressive state. These changes, which include altered mechanical and electrical properties, can reveal important diagnostic information about disease status. Here, we introduce a high-throughput, functional technique for assessing cancer cell invasion potential, which works by probing for the mechanically excitable phenotype exhibited by invasive cancer cells. Cells are labeled with fluorescent calcium dye and imaged during stimulation with low-intensity focused ultrasound, a non-contact mechanical stimulus. We show that cells located at the focus of the stimulus exhibit calcium elevation for invasive prostate (PC-3 and DU-145 and bladder (T24/83 cancer cell lines, but not for non-invasive cell lines (BPH-1, PNT1A, and RT112/84. In invasive cells, ultrasound stimulation initiates a calcium wave that propagates from the cells at the transducer focus to other cells, over distances greater than 1 mm. We demonstrate that this wave is mediated by extracellular signaling molecules and can be abolished through inhibition of transient receptor potential channels and inositol trisphosphate receptors, implicating these proteins in the mechanotransduction process. If validated clinically, our technology could provide a means to assess tumor invasion potential in cytology specimens, which is not currently possible. It may therefore have applications in diseases such as bladder cancer, where cytologic diagnosis of tumor invasion could improve clinical decision-making.

  5. Secondary metabolites from Commiphora opobalsamum and their antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tao; Wan, Wenzhu; Yuan, Huiqing; Kong, Feng; Guo, Huaifang; Fan, Peihong; Lou, Hongxiang

    2007-05-01

    A cycloartane-type triterpenoid (1), an aliphatic alcohol glycoside (2), an eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoid (3), and a guaiane-type sesquiterpenoid (4) were isolated from the resinous exudates of Commiphora opobalsamum along with six known sesquiterpenoids (5-10). Their structures were established by extensive analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The isolated compounds 1-3 and 5-9 were tested against human prostate cancer cell PC 3 and LNCaP. Among them, 1 and 2 showed moderate antiproliferative effects on human prostate cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 5.7 to 23.6 microM; they were also able to inhibit the expression of androgen receptor (AR) in LNCaP cells. The six sesquiterpenoids were inactive in the bioassays.

  6. Evaluation of a novel label-free photonic-crystal biosensor imaging system for the detection of prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuna, Frank; Ding, XiaoFie; Sun, Lu-Zhe; Ye, Jing Yong

    2017-02-01

    Biomarker screening for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the current clinical standard for detection of prostate cancer. However this method has shown many limitations, mainly in its specificity, which can lead to a high false positive rate. Thus, there is a growing need in developing a more specific detection system for prostate cancer. Using a Photonic- Crystal-based biosensor in a Total-Internal-Reflection (PC-TIR) configuration, we demonstrate the use of refractive index (RI) to accomplish label-free detection of prostate cancer cells against non-cancerous prostate epithelial cells. The PC-TIR biosensor possesses an open microcavity, which in contrast to traditional closed microcavities, allows for easier access of analyte molecules or cells to interact with its sensing surface. In this study, an imaging system was designed using the PC-TIR biosensor to quantify cell RI as the contrast parameter for prostate cancer detection. Non-cancerous BPH-1 prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancer PC-3 cells were placed on a single biosensor and measured concurrently. Recorded image data was then analyzed through a home-built MatLab program. Results demonstrate that RI is a suitable variable for differentiation between prostate cancer cells and non-cancerous prostate epithelial cells. Our study shows clinical potential in utilizing RI test for the detection of prostate cancer.

  7. A combination of desmopressin and docetaxel inhibit cell proliferation and invasion mediated by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroshi; Klotz, Laurence H; Sugar, Linda M; Kiss, Alexander; Venkateswaran, Vasundara

    2015-08-28

    This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a combination treatment using both desmopressin and docetaxel in prostate cancer treatment. Desmopressin is a well-known synthetic analogue of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin. It has recently been demonstrated to inhibit tumor progression and metastasis in in vivo models. Docetaxel is widely used for the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. However, durable responses have been uncommon to date. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of desmopressin in combination with docetaxel in vitro and in vivo. Two prostate cancer cells (PC3, LNCaP) were treated with different concentrations of desmopressin alone, docetaxel alone, and a combination of desmopressin and docetaxel. Cell proliferation was determined by MTS assay. The anti-invasive and anti-migration potential of desmopressin and in combination with docetaxel were examined by wound healing assay, migration chamber assay, and matrigel invasion assay. The combination of desmopressin and docetaxel resulted in a significant inhibition of PC3 and LNCaP cell proliferation (p desmopressin in combination with docetaxel in a prostate cancer model via the uPA-MMP pathway. Our finding could potentially contribute to the therapeutic profile of desmopressin and enhance the efficacy of docetaxel based treatment for CRPC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Downregulated expression of miRNA-149 promotes apoptosis in side population cells sorted from the TSU prostate cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yatong; Zhao, Jiahui; Luo, Yong; Wang, Yongxing; Jiang, Yongguang

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify prostate cancer stem cells and determine the effects of modulating specific miRNAs on prostate CSC proliferation and apoptosis. We applied flow cytometry sorting of side population cells to cultures of prostate cancer cell lines (TSU, DU145, PC-3 and LNCaP). The proportion of SP cells in the TSU line was 1.60±0.40% (mean ± SD), while that of the DU145, PC-3 and LNCaP lines was 0.60±0.05, 0.80±0.05 and 0.60±0.20%, respectively. Because the proportion of SP cells derived from TSU cells is greater, these cells were selected to sort side population cells and non-side population cells. The stem-like properties of SP cells had been identified by in vivo and in vitro experiments, and the related study was published. RNA was extracted from the SP cells and non-SP cells and analyzed using miRNA microarray technology. Fifty-three miRNAs with significant differences in their expression were detected in total. Furthermore, 20 of these miRNAs were validated by qPCR. We found that hsa-miR‑149 expression in SP cells and non-SP cells was significantly different; hsa-miR-149 was significantly upregulated in SP cells. By constructing a vector for lentiviral infection, we found that the downregulation of hsa-miR-149 leads to a reduction in proliferation, an increase in apoptosis, and a significant reduction in the colony formation potential, thus, inhibiting tumor growth in vivo of SP cells from the TSU cell line. The present study will provide new avenues toward understanding the function of prostate cancer stem cells (PCSCs) in tumorigenicity and metastasis.

  9. [6]-Gingerol Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Cell Death of Mutant p53-expressing Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yon Jung; Wen, Jing; Bang, Seungmin; Park, Seung Woo

    2006-01-01

    [6]-Gingerol, a major phenolic compound derived from ginger, has anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. While several molecular mechanisms have been described to underlie its effects on cells in vitro and in vivo, the underlying mechanisms by which [6]-gingerol exerts anti-tumorigenic effects are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the action of [6]-gingerol on two human pancreatic cancer cell lines, HPAC expressing wild-type (wt) p53 and BxPC-3 expressing mutated p53. We found that [6]-gingerol inhibited the cell growth through cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in both cell lines. Western blot analyses indicated that [6]-gingerol decreased both Cyclin A and Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) expression. These events led to reduction in Rb phosphorylation followed by blocking of S phase entry. p53 expression was decreased by [6]-gingerol treatment in both cell lines suggesting that the induction of Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21cip1, was p53-independent. [6]-Gingerol induced mostly apoptotic death in the mutant p53-expressing cells, while no signs of early apoptosis were detected in wild type p53-expressing cells and this was related to the increased phosphorylation of AKT. These results suggest that [6]-gingerol can circumvent the resistance of mutant p53-expressing cells towards chemotherapy by inducing apoptotic cell death while it exerts cytostatic effect on wild type p53-expressing cells by inducing temporal growth arrest. PMID:17066513

  10. Cancer Stem Cells and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Dyall

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell hypothesis is becoming more widely accepted as a model for carcinogenesis. Tumours are heterogeneous both at the molecular and cellular level, containing a small population of cells that possess highly tumourigenic “stem-cell” properties. Cancer stem cells (CSCs, or tumour-initiating cells, have the ability to self-renew, generate xenografts reminiscent of the primary tumour that they were derived from, and are chemoresistant. The characterisation of the CSC population within a tumour that drives its growth could provide novel target therapeutics against these cells specifically, eradicating the cancer completely. There have been several reports describing the isolation of putative cancer stem cell populations in several cancers; however, no defined set of markers has been identified that conclusively characterises “stem-like” cancer cells. This paper highlights the current experimental approaches that have been used in the field and discusses their limitations, with specific emphasis on the identification and characterisation of the CSC population in epithelial ovarian cancer.

  11. 3,3′-Diindolylmethane, but not indole-3-carbinol, inhibits histone deacetylase activity in prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaver, Laura M., E-mail: beaverl@onid.orst.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, 307 Linus Pauling Science Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, 103 Milam Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Yu, Tian-Wei, E-mail: david.yu@oregonstate.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, 307 Linus Pauling Science Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Sokolowski, Elizabeth I., E-mail: sokolowe@onid.orst.edu [School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, 103 Milam Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Williams, David E., E-mail: david.williams@oregonstate.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, 307 Linus Pauling Science Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, 1007 Agriculture and Life Sciences Building, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Dashwood, Roderick H., E-mail: rod.dashwood@oregonstate.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, 307 Linus Pauling Science Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, 1007 Agriculture and Life Sciences Building, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Ho, Emily, E-mail: Emily.Ho@oregonstate.edu [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, 307 Linus Pauling Science Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, 103 Milam Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of developing prostate cancer. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) are phytochemicals derived from cruciferous vegetables that have shown promise in inhibiting prostate cancer in experimental models. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition is an emerging target for cancer prevention and therapy. We sought to examine the effects of I3C and DIM on HDACs in human prostate cancer cell lines: androgen insensitive PC-3 cells and androgen sensitive LNCaP cells. I3C modestly inhibited HDAC activity in LNCaP cells by 25% but no inhibition of HDAC activity was detected in PC-3 cells. In contrast, DIM significantly inhibited HDAC activity in both cell lines by as much as 66%. Decreases in HDAC activity correlated with increased expression of p21, a known target of HDAC inhibitors. DIM treatment caused a significant decrease in the expression of HDAC2 protein in both cancer cell lines but no significant change in the protein levels of HDAC1, HDAC3, HDAC4, HDAC6 or HDAC8 was detected. Taken together, these results show that inhibition of HDAC activity by DIM may contribute to the phytochemicals' anti-proliferative effects in the prostate. The ability of DIM to target aberrant epigenetic patterns, in addition to its effects on detoxification of carcinogens, may make it an effective chemopreventive agent by targeting multiple stages of prostate carcinogenesis. -- Highlights: ► DIM inhibits HDAC activity and decreases HDAC2 expression in prostate cancer cells. ► DIM is significantly more effective than I3C at inhibiting HDAC activity. ► I3C has no effect on HDAC protein expression. ► Inhibition of HDAC activity by DIM is associated with increased p21 expression. ► HDAC inhibition may be a novel epigenetic mechanism for cancer prevention with DIM.

  12. Thioredoxin 1 modulates apoptosis induced by bioactive compounds in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Rodriguez-Garcia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that natural bioactive compounds, alone or in combination with traditional chemotherapeutic agents, could be used as potential therapies to fight cancer. In this study, we employed four natural bioactive compounds (curcumin, resveratrol, melatonin, and silibinin and studied their role in redox control and ability to promote apoptosis in androgen sensitive and insensitive prostate cancer cells. Here is shown that curcumin and resveratrol promote ROS production and induce apoptosis in LNCaP and PC-3. An increase in reactive species is a trigger event in curcumin-induced apoptosis and a consequence of resveratrol effects on other pathways within these cells. Moreover, here we demonstrated that these four compounds affect differently one of the main intracellular redox regulator, the thioredoxin system. Exposure to curcumin and resveratrol promoted TRX1 oxidation and altered its subcellular location. Furthermore, resveratrol diminished TRX1 levels in PC-3 cells and increased the expression of its inhibitor TXNIP. Conversly, melatonin and silibinin only worked as cytostatic agents, reducing ROS levels and showing preventive effects against TRX oxidation. All together, this work explores the effect of compounds currently tested as chemo-preventive agents in prostate cancer therapy, on the TRX1 redox state and function. Our work shows the importance that the TRX system might have within the differences found in their mechanisms of action. These bioactive compounds trigger different responses and affect ROS production and redox systems in prostate cancer cells, suggesting the key role that redox-related pathways might play in processes like differentiation or survival in prostate cancer.

  13. Thioredoxin 1 modulates apoptosis induced by bioactive compounds in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Aida; Hevia, David; Mayo, Juan C; Gonzalez-Menendez, Pedro; Coppo, Lucia; Lu, Jun; Holmgren, Arne; Sainz, Rosa M

    2017-08-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that natural bioactive compounds, alone or in combination with traditional chemotherapeutic agents, could be used as potential therapies to fight cancer. In this study, we employed four natural bioactive compounds (curcumin, resveratrol, melatonin, and silibinin) and studied their role in redox control and ability to promote apoptosis in androgen sensitive and insensitive prostate cancer cells. Here is shown that curcumin and resveratrol promote ROS production and induce apoptosis in LNCaP and PC-3. An increase in reactive species is a trigger event in curcumin-induced apoptosis and a consequence of resveratrol effects on other pathways within these cells. Moreover, here we demonstrated that these four compounds affect differently one of the main intracellular redox regulator, the thioredoxin system. Exposure to curcumin and resveratrol promoted TRX1 oxidation and altered its subcellular location. Furthermore, resveratrol diminished TRX1 levels in PC-3 cells and increased the expression of its inhibitor TXNIP. Conversly, melatonin and silibinin only worked as cytostatic agents, reducing ROS levels and showing preventive effects against TRX oxidation. All together, this work explores the effect of compounds currently tested as chemo-preventive agents in prostate cancer therapy, on the TRX1 redox state and function. Our work shows the importance that the TRX system might have within the differences found in their mechanisms of action. These bioactive compounds trigger different responses and affect ROS production and redox systems in prostate cancer cells, suggesting the key role that redox-related pathways might play in processes like differentiation or survival in prostate cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Targeting of cytosolic phospholipase A2α impedes cell cycle re-entry of quiescent prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mu; Xie, Chanlu; Kiang, Mei-Yee; Teng, Ying; Harman, David; Tiffen, Jessamy; Wang, Qian; Sved, Paul; Bao, Shisan; Witting, Paul; Holst, Jeff; Dong, Qihan

    2015-10-27

    Cell cycle re-entry of quiescent cancer cells has been proposed to be involved in cancer progression and recurrence. Cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes membrane glycerophospholipids to release arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids that are implicated in cancer cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to determine the role of cPLA2α in cell cycle re-entry of quiescent prostate cancer cells. When PC-3 and LNCaP cells were rendered to a quiescent state, the active form of cPLA2α with a phosphorylation at Ser505 was lower compared to their proliferating state. Conversely, the phospho-cPLA2α levels were resurgent during the induction of cell cycle re-entry. Pharmacological inhibition of cPLA2α with Efipladib upon induction of cell cycle re-entry inhibited the re-entry process, as manifested by refrained DNA synthesis, persistent high proportion of cells in G0/G1 and low percentage of cells in S and G2/M phases, together with a stagnant recovery of Ki-67 expression. Simultaneously, Efipladib prohibited the emergence of Skp2 while maintained p27 at a high level in the nuclear compartment during cell cycle re-entry. Inhibition of cPLA2α also prevented an accumulation of cyclin D1/CDK4, cyclin E/CDK2, phospho-pRb, pre-replicative complex proteins CDC6, MCM7, ORC6 and DNA synthesis-related protein PCNA during induction of cell cycle re-entry. Moreover, a pre-treatment of the prostate cancer cells with Efipladib during induction of cell cycle re-entry subsequently compromised their tumorigenic capacity in vivo. Hence, cPLA2α plays an important role in cell cycle re-entry by quiescent prostate cancer cells.

  15. Tumor-associated Endo180 requires stromal-derived LOX to promote metastatic prostate cancer cell migration on human ECM surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Matthew P; King, Helen; Shah, Neel; Wang, Kai; Rodriguez-Teja, Mercedes; Gronau, Julian H; Waxman, Jonathan; Sturge, Justin

    2016-02-01

    The diverse composition and structure of extracellular matrix (ECM) interfaces encountered by tumor cells at secondary tissue sites can influence metastatic progression. Extensive in vitro and in vivo data has confirmed that metastasizing tumor cells can adopt different migratory modes in response to their microenvironment. Here we present a model that uses human stromal cell-derived matrices to demonstrate that plasticity in tumor cell movement is controlled by the tumor-associated collagen receptor Endo180 (CD280, CLEC13E, KIAA0709, MRC2, TEM9, uPARAP) and the crosslinking of collagen fibers by stromal-derived lysyl oxidase (LOX). Human osteoblast-derived and fibroblast-derived ECM supported a rounded 'amoeboid-like' mode of cell migration and enhanced Endo180 expression in three prostate cancer cell lines (PC3, VCaP, DU145). Genetic silencing of Endo180 reverted PC3 cells from their rounded mode of migration towards a bipolar 'mesenchymal-like' mode of migration and blocked their translocation on human fibroblast-derived and osteoblast-derived matrices. The concomitant decrease in PC3 cell migration and increase in Endo180 expression induced by stromal LOX inhibition indicates that the Endo180-dependent rounded mode of prostate cancer cell migration requires ECM crosslinking. In conclusion, this study introduces a realistic in vitro model for the study of metastatic prostate cancer cell plasticity and pinpoints the cooperation between tumor-associated Endo180 and the stiff microenvironment imposed by stromal-derived LOX as a potential target for limiting metastatic progression in prostate cancer.

  16. Cancer treatments transform residual cancer cell phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harless William W

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiologic wound repair and tissue regeneration are associated with distinct cellular behaviors triggered by tissue damage. Normally quiescent stem cells proliferate to regenerate damaged tissue, while relatively immobile epithelial cells can transform into a motile, tissue invasive phenotype through a partial epithelial-mesenchymal transition. These distinct cellular behaviors may have particular relevance to how cancer cells can be predicted to behave after treatments damaging a tumor. Presentation of the hypothesis Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy trigger highly conserved wound healing pathways that: (1 facilitate the phenotypic transformation of surviving cancer cells into a highly mobile, metastatic phenotype through an EMT or epithelial-mesenchymal transition and (2 induce residual cancer stem cell proliferation. Testing the hypothesis Tissue damage caused by cancer treatments will trigger the release of distinct cytokines with established roles in physiologic wound healing, EMT induction, and stem cell activation. They will be released rapidly after treatment and detectable in the patient's blood. Careful histologic evaluation of cancerous tissue before and after treatment will reveal cellular changes suggestive of EMT induction (down regulation of cytokeratin expression and cancer stem cell enrichment (stem cell markers upregulated. Implications of the hypothesis Cancer cells surviving treatment will be more capable of metastasis and resistant to conventional therapies than the pre-treatment population of cancer cells. These changes will develop rapidly after treatment and, in distinct contrast to selection pressures fostering such changes, be triggered by highly conserved wound repair signals released after tissue damage. This pattern of tissue (tumor repair may be amenable to treatment intervention at the time it is upregulated.

  17. Stem cells and solid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Stuart A C; Graham, Trevor A; Schier, Stefanie; Wright, Nicholas A; Alison, Malcolm R

    2009-07-01

    Recently, there have been significant advances in our knowledge of stem cells found in tissues that can develop solid tumours. In particular, novel stem cell markers have been identified for the first time identifying multipotential cells: a required characteristic of a stem cell. The scarcity of cancer stem cells has been questioned. Current dogma states that they are rare, but novel research has suggested that this may not be the case. Here, we review the latest literature on stem cells, particularly cancer stem cells within solid tumours. We discuss current thinking on how stem cells develop into cancer stem cells and how they protect themselves from doing so and do they express unique markers that can be used to detect stem cells. We attempt to put into perspective these latest advances in stem cell biology and their potential for cancer therapy.

  18. Novel synthetic chalcones induce apoptosis in the A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells harboring a KRAS mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiqiang; Hedblom, Andreas; Koerner, Steffi K; Li, Mailin; Jernigan, Finith E; Wegiel, Barbara; Sun, Lijun

    2016-12-01

    A series of novel chalcones were synthesized by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction of tetralones and 5-/6-indolecarboxaldehydes. Treatment of human lung cancer cell line harboring KRAS mutation (A549) with the chalcones induced dose-dependent apoptosis. Cell cycle analyses and Western blotting suggested the critical role of the chalcones in interrupting G2/M transition of cell cycle. SAR study demonstrated that substituent on the indole N atom significantly affects the anticancer activity of the chalcones, with methyl and ethyl providing the more active compounds (EC50: 110-200nM), Compound 1g was found to be >4-fold more active in the A549 cells (EC50: 110nM) than in prostate (PC3) or pancreatic cancer (CLR2119, PAN02) cells. Furthermore, compound 1l selectively induced apoptosis of lung cancer cells A549 (EC50: 0.55μM) but did not show measurable toxicity in the normal lung bronchial epithelial cells (hBEC) at doses as high as 10μM, indicating specificity towards cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cancer stem cells and personalized cancer nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gener, Petra; Rafael, Diana Fernandes de Sousa; Fernández, Yolanda; Ortega, Joan Sayós; Arango, Diego; Abasolo, Ibane; Videira, Mafalda; Schwartz, Simo

    2016-02-01

    Despite the progress in cancer treatment over the past years advanced cancer is still an incurable disease. Special attention is pointed toward cancer stem cell (CSC)-targeted therapies, because this minor cell population is responsible for the treatment resistance, metastatic growth and tumor recurrence. The recently described CSC dynamic phenotype and interconversion model of cancer growth hamper even more the possible success of current cancer treatments in advanced cancer stages. Accordingly, CSCs can be generated through dedifferentiation processes from non-CSCs, in particular, when CSC populations are depleted after treatment. In this context, the use of targeted CSC nanomedicines should be considered as a promising tool to increase CSC sensitivity and efficacy of specific anti-CSC therapies.

  20. Direct evidence of lipid translocation between adipocytes and prostate cancer cells with imaging FTIR microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazi, Ehsan; Gardner, Peter; Lockyer, Nicholas P; Hart, Claire A; Brown, Michael D; Clarke, Noel W

    2007-08-01

    Various epidemiological studies show a positive correlation between high intake of dietary FAs and metastatic prostate cancer (CaP). Moreover, CaP metastasizes to the bone marrow, which harbors a rich source of lipids stored within adipocytes. Here, we use Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to study adipocyte biochemistry and to demonstrate that PC-3 cells uptake isotopically labeled FA [deuterated palmitic acid (D(31)-PA)] from an adipocyte. Using this vibrational spectroscopic technique, we detected subcellular locations in a single adipocyte enriched with D(31)-PA using the upsilon(as+s)(C-D)(2+3) (D(31)-PA): upsilon(as+s)(C-H)(2+3) (lipid hydrocarbon) signal. In addition, larger adipocytes were found to consist of a higher percentage of D(31)-PA of the total lipid found within the adipocyte. Following background subtraction, the upsilon(as)(C-D)(2+3) signal illuminated starved PC-3 cells cocultured with D(31)-PA-loaded adipocytes, indicating translocation of the labeled FA. This study demonstrates lipid-specific translocation between adipocytes and tumor cells and the use of FTIR microspectroscopy to characterize various biomolecular features of a single adipocyte without the requirement for cell isolation and lipid extraction.

  1. Ginger phytochemicals exhibit synergy to inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmbhatt, Meera; Gundala, Sushma R.; Asif, Ghazia; Shamsi, Shahab A; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-01-01

    Dietary phytochemicals offer non-toxic therapeutic management as well as chemopreventive intervention for slow-growing prostate cancers. However, the limited success of several single-agent clinical trials suggest a paradigm shift that the health benefits of fruits and vegetables are not ascribable due to individual phytochemicals rather may be ascribed to but to synergistic interactions among them. We recently reported growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing properties of ginger extract (GE) in in vitro and in vivo prostate cancer models. Nevertheless, the nature of interactions among the constituent ginger biophenolics, viz. 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogoal, remains elusive. Here we show antiproliferative efficacy of the most-active GE biophenolics as single-agents and in binary combinations, and investigate the nature of their interactions using the Chou-Talalay combination-index (CI) method. Our data demonstrate that binary combinations of ginger phytochemicals synergistically inhibit proliferation of PC-3 cells with CI values ranging from 0.03-0.88. To appreciate synergy among phytochemicals present in GE, the natural abundance of ginger biophenolics was quantitated using LC-UV/MS. Interestingly, combining GE with its constituents (in particular, 6-gingerol) resulted in significant augmentation of GE’s antiproliferative activity. These data generate compelling grounds for further preclinical evaluation of GE alone and in combination with individual ginger biophenols for prostate cancer management. PMID:23441614

  2. Magnolol Affects Cellular Proliferation, Polyamine Biosynthesis and Catabolism-Linked Protein Expression and Associated Cellular Signaling Pathways in Human Prostate Cancer Cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan T. McKeown

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed form of cancer in men in Canada and the United States. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development and progression of many cancers, including prostate cancer. Context and purpose of this study: This study investigated the effects of magnolol, a compound found in the roots and bark of the magnolia tree Magnolia officinalis, on cellular proliferation and proliferation-linked activities of PC3 human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Results: PC3 cells exposed to magnolol at a concentration of 80 μM for 6 hours exhibited decreased protein expression of ornithine decarboxylase, a key regulator in polyamine biosynthesis, as well as affecting the expression of other proteins involved in polyamine biosynthesis and catabolism. Furthermore, protein expression of the R2 subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, a key regulatory protein associated with DNA synthesis, was significantly decreased. Finally, the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase, PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, NFκB (nuclear factor of kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells and AP-1 (activator protein 1 cellular signaling pathways were assayed to determine which, if any, of these pathways magnolol exposure would alter. Protein expressions of p-JNK-1 and c-jun were significantly increased while p-p38, JNK-1/2, PI3Kp85, p-PI3Kp85, p-Akt, NFκBp65, p-IκBα and IκBα protein expressions were significantly decreased. Conclusions: These alterations further support the anti-proliferative effects of magnolol on PC3 human prostate cancer cells in vitro and suggest that magnolol may have potential as a novel anti-prostate cancer agent.

  3. Prostate Cancer Cells in Different Androgen Receptor Status Employ Different Leucine Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Hideo; Kimura, Toru; Yamaga, Takashi; Kosaka, Takeo; Suehiro, Jun-Ichi; Sakurai, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    Leucine stimulates cancer cell proliferation through the mTOR pathway, therefore, inhibiting leucine transporters may be a novel therapeutic target for cancer. L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) 1, a Na(+) -independent amino acid transporter, is highly expressed in many tumor cells. However, leucine transporter(s) in different stages of prostate cancer, particularly in the stages of castration resistance with androgen receptor (AR) expression, is unclear. LNCaP and DU145 and PC-3 cell lines were used as a model of androgen dependent, and metastatic prostate cancer. A new "LN-cr" cell line was established after culturing LNCaP cells for 6 months under androgen-free conditions, which is considered a model of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with androgen AR expression. The expression of leucine transporters was investigated with quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence. Uptake of (14) C Leucine was examined in the presence or absence of BCH (a pan-LAT inhibitor), JPH203 (an LAT1-specific inhibitor), or Na(+) . Cell growth was assessed with MTT assay. siRNA studies were performed to evaluate the indispensability of y(+) LAT2 on leucine uptake and cell viability in LN-cr. Cell viability showed a 90% decrease in the absence of leucine in all four cell lines. LNCaP cells principally expressed LAT3, and their leucine uptake was more than 90% Na(+) -independent. BCH, but not JPH203, inhibited leucine uptake, and cell proliferation (IC50BCH :15 mM). DU145 and PC-3 cells predominantly expressed LAT1. Leucine uptake and cell growth were suppressed by BCH or JPH203 in a dose-dependent manner (IC50BCH : ∼20 mM, IC50JPH203 : ∼5 µM). In LN-cr cells, Na(+) -dependent uptake of leucine was 3.8 pmol/mgprotein/min, while, Na(+) -independent uptake was only 0.52 (P < 0.05). Leucine uptake of LN-cr was largely (∼85%) Na(+) -dependent. y(+) LAT2 expression was confirmed in LN-cr. Knockdown of y(+) LAT2 lead to significant leucine uptake inhibition (40%) and

  4. Notch activation is dispensable for D, L-sulforaphane-mediated inhibition of human prostate cancer cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Ryeong Hahm

    Full Text Available D, L-Sulforaphane (SFN, a synthetic racemic analog of broccoli constituent L-sulforaphane, is a highly promising cancer chemopreventive agent with in vivo efficacy against chemically-induced as well as oncogene-driven cancer in preclinical rodent models. Cancer chemopreventive effect of SFN is characterized by G(2/M phase cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction, and inhibition of cell migration and invasion. Moreover, SFN inhibits multiple oncogenic signaling pathways often hyperactive in human cancers, including nuclear factor-κB, Akt, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and androgen receptor. The present study was designed to determine the role of Notch signaling, which is constitutively active in many human cancers, in anticancer effects of SFN using prostate cancer cells as a model. Exposure of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3, LNCaP, and/or LNCaP-C4-2B to SFN as well as its naturally-occurring thio-, sulfinyl-, and sulfonyl-analogs resulted in cleavage (activation of Notch1, Notch2, and Notch4, which was accompanied by a decrease in levels of full-length Notch forms especially at the 16- and 24-hour time points. The SFN-mediated cleavage of Notch isoforms was associated with its transcriptional activation as evidenced by RBP-Jk-, HES-1A/B- and HEY-1 luciferase reporter assays. Migration of PC-3 and LNCaP cells was decreased significantly by RNA interference of Notch1 and Notch2, but not Notch4. Furthermore, SFN-mediated inhibition of PC-3 and LNCaP cell migration was only marginally affected by knockdown of Notch1 and Notch2. Strikingly, SFN administration to Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate transgenic mice failed to increase levels of cleaved Notch1, cleaved Notch2, and HES-1 proteins in vivo in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, well-differentiated carcinoma or poorly-differentiated prostate cancer lesions. These results indicate that Notch activation is largely dispensable for SFN-mediated inhibition of cell

  5. The Roles of ROS and Caspases in TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis and Necroptosis in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    Full Text Available Death signaling provided by tumor necrosis factor (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL can induce death in cancer cells with little cytotoxicity to normal cells; this cell death has been thought to involve caspase-dependent apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are also mediators that induce cell death, but their roles in TRAIL-induced apoptosis have not been elucidated fully. In the current study, we investigated ROS and caspases in human pancreatic cancer cells undergoing two different types of TRAIL-induced cell death, apoptosis and necroptosis. TRAIL treatment increased ROS in two TRAIL-sensitive pancreatic cancer cell lines, MiaPaCa-2 and BxPC-3, but ROS were involved in TRAIL-induced apoptosis only in MiaPaCa-2 cells. Unexpectedly, inhibition of ROS by either N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, a peroxide inhibitor, or Tempol, a superoxide inhibitor, increased the annexin V-/propidium iodide (PI+ early necrotic population in TRAIL-treated cells. Additionally, both necrostatin-1, an inhibitor of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of RIP3 decreased the annexin V-/PI+ early necrotic population after TRAIL treatment. Furthermore, an increase in early apoptosis was induced in TRAIL-treated cancer cells under inhibition of either caspase-2 or -9. Caspase-2 worked upstream of caspase-9, and no crosstalk was observed between ROS and caspase-2/-9 in TRAIL-treated cells. Together, these results indicate that ROS contribute to TRAIL-induced apoptosis in MiaPaCa-2 cells, and that ROS play an inhibitory role in TRAIL-induced necroptosis of MiaPaCa-2 and BxPC-3 cells, with caspase-2 and -9 playing regulatory roles in this process.

  6. Structure-activity relationships of a-, ß1-, and d-Tomatines and Tomatidine Against Human Breast (MDA-MB-231), Gastric (KATO-III), and Prostate (PC3) Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partial acid hydrolysis of the tetrasaccharide (lycotetraose) side chain of the tomato glycoalkaloid a-tomatine resulted in the formation of four products with three (ß1-tomatine), two ('-tomatine), one (d-tomatine), and zero (tomatidine) sugar residues. These compounds were isolated by chromatogra...

  7. Downregulation of histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferase G9a induces centrosome disruption and chromosome instability in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Kondo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modifications of the histone amino-terminal tails affect access of regulatory factors and complexes to chromatin and thereby influence biological processes. Cancer cells are characterized by prominent epigenetic dysregulation, including histone modifications. However, the functional roles of the histone methyltransferases (HMT in cancer remain unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied RNAi-based inhibition (knockdown, KD of 2 different H3K9 HMTs, SUV39H1 and G9a. Knockdown of the 2 HMTs in PC3 cancer cell line markedly inhibited cell growth and caused profound morphological changes with loss of telomerase activity and shortened telomeres. SUV39H1 KD cells showed substantial increase in G2/M fraction. G9a KD cells showed increased DNA content (1.7-fold in 2 independent clones compared with FACS analyses to control. Karyotype analyses showed that this was due to an increased number of chromosomes (from 61 to 102 in G9a KD cells compared to parental PC3. Intriguingly, we found abnormal centrosome morphology and number in about 25% of the G9a KD cells, while centrosomes were morphologically normal in control cells. Microarray analyses after KD of SUV39H1 or G9a showed very few genes up-regulated among the 39,000 genes. The silenced tumor-suppressor genes p16 and RASSF1A were not activated in KD cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that the 2 HMTs, SUV39H1 and G9a are required to perpetuate the malignant phenotype. Furthermore, G9a plays a critical role in regulating centrosome duplication presumably through chromatin structure rather than through affecting gene expression in cancer cells. Targeting these histone methyltransferases may be of therapeutic benefit in cancers.

  8. Sarcosine induces increase in HER2/neu expression in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Malin; Bouchelouche, Pierre; Kramer-Marek, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    -qPCR. Total expression of HER2/neu was confirmed by Western blot (WB). HER2/neu protein on the surface of living LNCaP cells was visualized by confocal microscopy using a HER2/neu-specific fluorescent probe. Exposure of LNCaP cells to 50 μM sarcosine for 24 h resulted in a 58% increase of the HER2/neu m...... epithelial cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of sarcosine on HER2/neu expression in prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP (androgen dependent), PC-3 and DU145 (both androgen independent). Relative amounts of HER2/neu and androgen receptor (AR) transcripts were determined using RT...

  9. Cancer stem cells, cancer cell plasticity and radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Since the first prospective identification of cancer stem cells in solid cancers the cancer stem cell hypothesis has reemerged as a research topic of increasing interest. It postulates that solid cancers are organized hierarchically with a small number of cancer stem cells driving tumor growth, repopulation after injury and metastasis. They give rise to differentiated progeny, which lack these features. The model predicts that for any therapy to provide cure, all cancer stem cells have to be eliminated while the survival of differentiated progeny is less critical. In this review we discuss recent reports challenging the idea of a unidirectional differentiation of cancer cells. These reports provide evidence supporting the idea that non-stem cancer cells exhibit a remarkable degree of plasticity that allows them to re-acquire cancer stem cell traits, especially in the context of radiation therapy. We summarize conditions under which differentiation is reversed and discuss the current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Regulation of bombesin-stimulated cyclooxygenase-2 expression in prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ives Kirk

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and the bombesin (BBS-like peptide, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP, have been implicated in the progression of hormone-refractory prostate cancer; however, a mechanistic link between the bioactive peptide and COX-2 expression in prostate cells has not been made. Results We report that BBS stimulates COX-2 mRNA and protein expression, and the release of prostaglandin E2 from the GRP receptor (GRPR-positive, androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cell line, PC-3. BBS-stimulated COX-2 expression is mediated, in part, by p38MAPK and PI3 kinase (PI3K/Akt pathways, and blocked by a GRPR antagonist. The PI3K/Akt pathway couples GRPR to the transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1, and enhanced COX-2 promoter activity. Although BBS stimulates nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB in PC-3, NF-κB does not regulate GRPR-mediated COX-2 expression. The p38MAPK pathway increases BBS-stimulated COX-2 expression by slowing the degradation of COX-2 mRNA. Expression of recombinant GRPR in the androgen-sensitive cell line LNCaP is sufficient to confer BBS-stimulated COX-2 expression via the p38MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways. Conclusions Our study establishes a mechanistic link between GRPR activation and enhanced COX-2 expression in prostate cancer cell lines, and suggests that inhibiting GRPR may, in the future, provide an effective therapeutic alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for inhibiting COX-2 in patients with recurrent prostate cancer.

  11. A new prospect in cancer therapy: targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Sha; Wang, An-Xin; Dong, Bing; Pu, Ke-Feng; Yuan, Li-Hua; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2012-01-01

    According to the cancer stem cell theory, cancers can be initiated by cancer stem cells. This makes cancer stem cells prime targets for therapeutic intervention. Eradicating cancer stem cells by efficient targeting agents may have the potential to cure cancer. In this review, we summarize recent breakthroughs that have improved our understanding of cancer stem cells, and we discuss the therapeutic strategy of targeting cancer stem cells, a promising future direction for cancer stem cell research. PMID:22507219

  12. Chemosensitizing effects of carbon-based nanomaterials in cancer cells: enhanced apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation as underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Kati; Ringel, Jessica; Hampel, Silke; Rieger, Christiane; Huebner, Doreen; Wirth, Manfred P; Fuessel, Susanne

    2014-10-10

    Recent studies have shown that carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanofibres (CNFs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can exert antitumor activities themselves and sensitize cancer cells to conventional chemotherapeutics such as carboplatin and cisplatin. In the present study, the chemosensitizing effect of CNFs and CNTs on cancer cells of urological origin was investigated regarding the underlying mechanisms. Prostate cancer (DU-145, PC-3) and bladder cancer (EJ28) cells were treated with carbon nanomaterials (CNFs, CNTs) and chemotherapeutics (carboplatin, cisplatin) alone as well as in combination for 24 h. Forty-eight(EJ28) or 72 h (DU-145, PC-3) after the end of treatment the effects on cellular proliferation,clonogenic survival, cell death rate and cell cycle distribution were evaluated. Depending on the cell line, simultaneous administration of chemotherapeutics and carbon nanomaterials produced an additional inhibition of cellular proliferation and clonogenic survival of up to 77% and 98%, respectively, compared to the inhibitory effects of the chemotherapeutics alone. These strongly enhanced antiproliferative effects were accompanied by an elevated cell death rate, which was predominantly mediated via apoptosis and not by necrosis. The antitumor effects of combinations with CNTs were less pronounced than those with CNFs. The enhanced effects of the combinatory treatments on cellular function were mostly of additive to partly synergistic nature. Furthermore, cell cycle analysis demonstrated an arrest at the G2/M phase mediated by a monotreatment with chemotherapeutics. Following combinatory treatments, mostly less than or nearly additive increases of cell fractions in the G2/M phase could be observed. In conclusion,the pronounced chemosensitizing effects of CNFs and CNTs were mediated by an enhanced apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation. The combination of carbon-based nanomaterials and conventional chemotherapeutics represents a novel approach

  13. Reciprocal positive regulation between TRPV6 and NUMB in PTEN-deficient prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Young; Hong, Chansik; Wie, Jinhong [Department of Physiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Euiyong [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung Joo [Division of Longevity and Biofunctional Medicine, Pusan National University School of Korean Medicine, Yangsan 626-870 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Kotdaji [Department of Physiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nam-Hyuk; Kim, In-Gyu [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Ju-Hong [Department of Physiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); So, Insuk, E-mail: insuk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • TRPV6 interacts with tumor suppressor proteins. • Numb has a selective effect on TRPV6, depending on the prostate cancer cell line. • PTEN is a novel regulator of TRPV6–Numb complex. - Abstract: Calcium acts as a second messenger and plays a crucial role in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation. Recently, calcium channels related to calcium influx into the cytosol of epithelial cells have attracted attention as a cancer therapy target. Of these calcium channels, TRPV6 is overexpressed in prostate cancer and is considered an important molecule in the process of metastasis. However, its exact role and mechanism is unclear. NUMB, well-known tumor suppressor gene, is a novel interacting partner of TRPV6. We show that NUMB and TRPV6 have a reciprocal positive regulatory relationship in PC-3 cells. We repeated this experiment in two other prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and LNCaP. Interestingly, there were no significant changes in TRPV6 expression following NUMB knockdown in DU145. We revealed that the presence or absence of PTEN was the cause of NUMB–TRPV6 function. Loss of PTEN caused a positive correlation of TRPV6–NUMB expression. Collectively, we determined that PTEN is a novel interacting partner of TRPV6 and NUMB. These results demonstrated a novel relationship of NUMB–TRPV6 in prostate cancer cells, and show that PTEN is a novel regulator of this complex.

  14. Serenoa repens extract targets mitochondria and activates the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Antonella; Mancini, Mariangela; Caldwell, Elizabeth; Cabrelle, Anna; Bernardi, Paolo; Pagano, Francesco

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the effects of Serenoa repens extract (Sr) in human PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer and MCF7 breast cancer cells, with specific emphasis on the role of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, as the molecular pathway through which Sr, a natural product of plant origin, induces death of prostate cancer cells in culture is still unknown. Cellular and mitochondrial structure and function, and the cell cycle, were analysed using light, electron and fluorescence microscopy, spectrophotometry and flow cytometry. Apoptosis was evaluated using biochemical and cytohistochemical methods. Cells treated with Sr underwent massive vacuolization and cytosolic condensation, followed by cell death only in the prostate lines. Within minutes of adding Sr to prostate cells, it caused opening of the permeability transition pore (PTP), which led to complete mitochondrial depolarization within 2 h, and to the appearance of small, pycnotic mitochondria. Release of cytochrome c and SMAC/Diablo to the cytosol was detectable after 4 h of treatment, while caspase 9 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 cleavage occurred at 16 h, followed by appearance of a sub-G1 peak and apoptosis at 24 h. Sr selectively induces apoptotic cell death of prostate cancer cells through the intrinsic pathway, and activation of the mitochondrial PTP might play a central role in this process.

  15. Reversible lysine-specific demethylase 1 antagonist HCI-2509 inhibits growth and decreases c-MYC in castration- and docetaxel-resistant prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Weston, A; Bearrs, J; Thode, T; Neiss, A; Soldi, R; Sharma, S

    2016-12-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1 or KDM1A) overexpression correlates with poor survival and castration resistance in prostate cancer. LSD1 is a coregulator of ligand-independent androgen receptor signaling promoting c-MYC expression. We examined the antitumor efficacy of LSD1 inhibition with HCI-2509 in advanced stages of prostate cancer. Cell survival, colony formation, histone methylation, c-MYC level, c-MYC expression, cell cycle changes and in vivo efficacy were studied in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells upon treatment with HCI-2509. In vitro combination studies, using HCI-2509 and docetaxel, were performed to assess the synergy. Cell survival, colony formation, histone methylation and c-myc levels were studied in docetaxel-resistant prostate cancer cells treated with HCI-2509. HCI-2509 is cytotoxic and inhibits colony formation in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells. HCI-2509 treatment causes a dose-dependent increase in H3K9me2 (histone H3lysine 9) levels, a decrease in c-MYC protein, inhibition of c-MYC expression and accumulation in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle in these cells. PC3 xenografts in mice have a significant reduction in tumor burden upon treatment with HCI-2509 with no associated myelotoxicity or weight loss. More synergy is noted at sub-IC50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) doses of docetaxel and HCI-2509 in PC3 cells than in DU145 cells. HCI-2509 has growth-inhibitory efficacy and decreases the c-myc level in docetaxel-resistant prostate cancer cells. LSD1 inhibition with HCI-2509 decreases the c-MYC level in poorly differentiated prostate cancer cell lines and has a therapeutic potential in castration- and docetaxel-resistant prostate cancer.

  16. Methylseleninic acid downregulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in invasive prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Indu; Null, Kevin; Wolter, William; Suckow, Mark A; King, Tonya; Pinto, John T; Sinha, Raghu

    2012-03-15

    Alternative strategies are needed to control growth of advanced and hormone refractory prostate cancer. In this regard, we investigated the efficacy of methylseleninic acid (MSeA), a penultimate precursor to the highly reactive selenium metabolite, methylselenol, to inhibit growth of invasive and hormone refractory rat (PAIII) and human (PC-3 and PC-3M) prostate cancer cells. Our results demonstrate that MSeA inhibits PAIII cell growth in vitro as well as reduces weights of tumors generated by PAIII cells treated ex vivo. A significant reduction in the number of metastatic lung foci by MSeA treatment was also noted in Lobund-Wistar rats. The PAIII cells along with PC-3, DU145 and PC-3M cells undergo apoptosis after MSeA treatments in both normoxia and hypoxia. Treatment of metastatic rat and human prostate cancer cell lines with MSeA decreased hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) levels in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, HIF-1α transcription activity both in normoxic and hypoxic conditions is reduced after MSeA treatment of prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, VEGF and GLUT1, downstream targets of HIF-1α, were also reduced in prostate cancer cells after MSeA treatment. Our study illustrates the efficacy of MSeA in controlling growth of hormone refractory prostate cancer by downregulating HIF-1α, which is possibly occurring through stabilization or increase in prolyl hydroxylase activity. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  17. alpha6 integrin cleavage: sensitizing human prostate cancer to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Sangita C; Dougherty, Shona; Pennington, Michael E; Demetriou, Manolis C; Stea, B Dino; Dorr, Robert T; Cress, Anne E

    2007-01-01

    The goal was to determine if prostate tumor cells containing a mutant alpha6 integrin would be defective in tumor re-population following clinically relevant fractionated ionizing radiation (IR) treatments. Human prostate cancer cells derived from PC3N cells were used which conditionally expressed a cleavable, wild type form of alpha6 integrin (PC3N-alpha6-WT) or a mutated non-cleavable form of alpha6 integrin (PC3N-alpha6-RR). The resulting tumor growth before, during and after fractionated doses of IR (3 Gyx10 days) was analyzed using the endpoints of tumor growth inhibition (T/C), tumor growth delay (T-C), tumor doubling time (Td) and tumor cell kill (Log(10) cell kill). The T/C values were 36.1% and 39.5%, the T-C values were 20.5 days and 28.5 days and the Td values were 5.5 and 10.5 days for the irradiated PC3N-alpha6-WT and PC3N-alpha6-RR cells, respectively. The Log(10) was 1.1 for the PC3N-alpha6-WT cells and 0.8 for the PC3N-alpha6-RR cells. The tumor response to IR was altered in tumors expressing the mutant alpha6 integrin as indicated by a significant increase in tumor growth inhibition, an increase in tumor growth delay, an increase in tumor doubling time and an increase in tumor cell kill. Blocking integrin cleavage in vivo may be efficacious for increasing the IR responsiveness of slow growing, pro-metastatic human prostate cancer.

  18. Wnt-11 promotes neuroendocrine-like differentiation, survival and migration of prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diez Soraya

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wnt-11 is a secreted protein that modulates cell growth, differentiation and morphogenesis during development. We previously reported that Wnt-11 expression is elevated in hormone-independent prostate cancer and that the progression of prostate cancer from androgen-dependent to androgen-independent proliferation correlates with a loss of mutual inhibition between Wnt-11- and androgen receptor-dependent signals. However, the prevalence of increased expression of Wnt-11 in patient tumours and the functions of Wnt-11 in prostate cancer cells were not known. Results Wnt-11 protein levels in prostate tumours were determined by immunohistochemical analysis of prostate tumour tissue arrays. Wnt-11 protein was elevated in 77/117 of tumours when compared with 27 benign prostatic hypertrophy specimens and was present in 4/4 bone metastases. In addition, there was a positive correlation between Wnt-11 expression and PSA levels above 10 ng/ml. Androgen-depleted LNCaP prostate cancer cells form neurites and express genes associated with neuroendocrine-like differentiation (NED, a feature of prostate tumours that have a poor prognosis. Since androgen-depletion increases expression of Wnt-11, we examined the role of Wnt-11 in NED. Ectopic expression of Wnt-11 induced expression of NSE and ASCL1, which are markers of NED, and this was prevented by inhibitors of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, consistent with the known role of this kinase in NED. In contrast, Wnt-11 did not induce NSE expression in RWPE-1 cells, which are derived from benign prostate, suggesting that the role of Wnt-11 in NED is specific to prostate cancer. In addition, silencing of Wnt-11 expression in androgen-depleted LNCaP cells prevented NED and resulted in apoptosis. Silencing of Wnt-11 gene expression in androgen-independent PC3 cells also reduced expression of NSE and increased apoptosis. Finally, silencing of Wnt-11 reduced PC3 cell migration and ectopic

  19. Epigenetics in cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Tan Boon; Lim, Jhin Jieh; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Compelling evidence have demonstrated that bulk tumors can arise from a unique subset of cells commonly termed "cancer stem cells" that has been proposed to be a strong driving force of tumorigenesis and a key mechanism of therapeutic resistance. Recent advances in epigenomics have illuminated key mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation contribute to cancer progression. In this review, we present a discussion of how deregulation of various epigenetic pathways can contribute to cancer initiation and tumorigenesis, particularly with respect to maintenance and survival of cancer stem cells. This information, together with several promising clinical and preclinical trials of epigenetic modulating drugs, offer new possibilities for targeting cancer stem cells as well as improving cancer therapy overall.

  20. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Horn L, Eisenberg R, Gius D, et al. Cancer of the lung. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan ...

  1. Phosphorylation of Both EGFR and ErbB2 Is a Reliable Predictor of Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation in Response to EGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soha Salama El Sheikh

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple reports of overexpression in prostate cancer (PC, the reliance of PC cells on activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and its downstream signaling to phosphoinositide 3'-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt/PTEN and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK pathways has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we compared the role of EGF-mediated signaling in nonmalignant (BPH-1, PNT1A, and PNT1 B and PC cell lines (DU145, PC3, LNCaP, and CWR22Rv1. EGF-induced proliferation was observed in all EGFR-expressing PC cells except PC3, indicating that EGFR expression does not unequivocally trigger proliferation following EGF stimulation. ErbB2 recruitment potentiated EGF-induced signals and was associated with the most pronounced effects of EGF despite low EGFR expression. In this way, the sum of EGFR and ErbB2 receptor phosphorylation proved to be a more sensitive indicator of EGF-induced proliferation than quantification of the expression of either receptor alone. Both Akt and ERK were rapidly phosphorylated in response to EGF, with ERK phosphorylation being weakest in PC3 cells. Extrapolation of these findings to clinical PC suggests that assessment of phosphorylated EGFR + ErbB2 together could serve as a marker for sensitivity to anti-EGFR-targeted therapies.

  2. Impact of anti-PLK1 siRNA-containing F3-targeted liposomes on the viability of both cancer and endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-da-Silva, Lígia C; Ramalho, José S; Pedroso de Lima, Maria C; Simões, Sérgio; Moreira, João N

    2013-11-01

    We have previously described the development of novel sterically stabilized F3-targeted pH-sensitive liposomes, which exhibited the ability to target both cancer and endothelial cells. Herein, the therapeutic potential of those liposomes was assessed upon encapsulation of a siRNA against a well-validated molecular target, PLK1. Treatment of prostate cancer (PC3) and angiogenic endothelial (HMEC-1) cells with F3-targeted liposomes containing anti-PLK1 siRNA resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability, which was mediated by a marked PLK1 silencing, both at the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, pre-treatment of PC3 cells with F3-targeted liposomes containing anti-PLK1 siRNA enabled a 3-fold reduction of paclitaxel IC50 and a 2.5-fold augment of the percentage of cancer cells in G2/mitosis arrest, which ultimately culminated in cell death. Overall, the F3-targeted nanocarrier containing an anti-PLK1 siRNA might constitute a valuable system for prostate cancer treatment, either applied in a single schedule or combined with conventional chemotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. STI571 reduces TRAIL-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells: c-Abl activation by the death receptor leads to stress kinase-dependent cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Duen-Yi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an effort to achieve better cancer therapies, we elucidated the combination cancer therapy of STI571 (an inhibitor of Bcr-Abl and clinically used for chronic myelogenous leukemia and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, a developing antitumor agent in leukemia, colon, and prostate cancer cells. Methods Colon cancer (HCT116, SW480, prostate cancer (PC3, LNCaP and leukemia (K562 cells were treated with STI571 and TRAIL. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay and sub-G1 appearance. Protein expression and kinase phosphorylation were determined by Western blotting. c-Abl and p73 activities were inhibited by target-specific small interfering (siRNA. In vitro kinase assay of c-Abl was conducted using CRK as a substrate. Results We found that STI571 exerts opposite effects on the antitumor activity of TRAIL. It enhanced cytotoxicity in TRAIL-treated K562 leukemia cells and reduced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HCT116 and SW480 colon cancer cells, while having no effect on PC3 and LNCaP cells. In colon and prostate cancer cells, TRAIL caused c-Abl cleavage to the active form via a caspase pathway. Interestingly, JNK and p38 MAPK inhibitors effectively blocked TRAIL-induced toxicity in the colon, but not in prostate cancer cells. Next, we found that STI571 could attenuate TRAIL-induced c-Abl, JNK and p38 activation in HCT116 cells. In addition, siRNA targeting knockdown of c-Abl and p73 also reduced TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity, rendering HCT116 cells less responsive to stress kinase activation, and masking the cytoprotective effect of STI571. Conclusions All together we demonstrate a novel mediator role of p73 in activating the stress kinases p38 and JNK in the classical apoptotic pathway of TRAIL. TRAIL via caspase-dependent action can sequentially activate c-Abl, p73, and stress kinases, which contribute to apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Through the inhibition of c-Abl-mediated apoptotic p73 signaling, STI571 reduces

  4. Mechanotransduction in cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jin; Zhang, Yueling; Ye, Rui; Zheng, Yingcheng; Zhao, Zhihe; Li, Juan

    2013-09-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) concept, which arose about a decade ago, proposes that tumor growth is sustained by a subpopulation of highly malignant cells. These cells, termed CSCs, are capable of extensive self-renewal that contributes to metastasis and treatment resistance. Therefore, therapeutic strategies that target CSCs should be developed for improving outcomes of cancer patients. Recent progress has highlighted the importance of physical properties of the extracellular matrix and mechanotransduction pathway in cancer cells during cancer development. On the other hand, the significance of CXCR1, an upstream signal of FAK/PI3K/Akt has been revealed in CSCs. FAK/PI3K/Akt is a key signal mediator in mechanotransduction pathway. Therefore, mechanotransduction could be a new target for CSCs, and would be an innovative way to treat cancer by inhibiting FAK/PI3K/Akt. © 2013 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  5. A monoterpene, unique component of thyme honeys, induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells via inhibition of NF-κB activity and IL-6 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassi, Eva; Chinou, Ioanna; Spilioti, Eliana; Tsiapara, Anna; Graikou, Konstantia; Karabournioti, Sofia; Manoussakis, Menelaos; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi

    2014-09-25

    We have previously demonstrated that Greek thyme honey inhibits significantly the cell viability of human prostate cancer cells. Herein, 15 thyme honey samples from several regions of Greece were submitted to phytochemical analysis for the isolation, identification and determination (through modern spectral means) of the unique thyme honey monoterpene, the compound trihydroxy ketone E-4-(1,2,4-trihydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexyl)-but-3-en-2-one. We investigated the anti-growth and apoptotic effects of the trihydroxy ketone on PC-3 human androgen independent prostate cancer cells using MTT assay and Annexin V-FITC respectively. The molecular pathways involved to such effects were further examined by evaluating its ability to inhibit (a) the NF-κB phosphorylation (S536), (b) JNK and Akt phosphorylation (Thr183/Tyr185 and S473 respectively) and (c) IL-6 production, using ELISA method. The anti-microbial effects of the trihydroxy ketone against a panel of nine pathogenic bacteria and three fungi were also assessed. The trihydroxy ketone exerted significant apoptotic activity in PC-3 prostate cancer cells at 100 μM, while it inhibited NF-κB phosphorylation and IL-6 secretion at a concentration range 10(-6)-10(-4)M. Akt and JNK signaling were not found to participate in this process. The trihydroxy ketone exerted significant anti-microbial profile against many human pathogenic bacteria and fungi (MIC values ranged from 0.04 to 0.57 mg/ml). Conclusively, the Greek thyme honey-derived monoterpene exerted significant apoptotic activity in PC-3 cells, mediated, at least in part, through reduction of NF-κB activity and IL-6 secretion and may play a key role in the anti-growth effect of thyme honey on prostate cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. The structure of low-latitude Pc3 pulsations observed by CHAMP and on the ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Ndiitwani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of low-latitude continuous pulsations termed Pc3, which are naturally occurring MHD waves in the Earth's magnetosphere, were studied by comparing ground and satellite magnetic field measurements. Data from two induction magnetometers, located at Hermanus and Sutherland in South Africa were used in conjunction with Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP satellite observations to study a Pc3 event observed on 15 February 2003, at a time when CHAMP was passing over the ground stations. We observed a number of discrete frequency oscillations for the fast mode wave, one of which drives a field line resonance (FLR at characteristic latitude as detected by both ground and satellite measurements. Consequently, our observations confirmed the compressional wave as being the driver of the field line resonance. The toroidal mode frequency observed on CHAMP experienced a Doppler frequency shift due to the rapid motion across the resonance region. Polarization hodograms in the resonance region clearly showed the expected 90° rotation of the field line resonant magnetic field components.

  7. Nanotechniques Inactivate Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsev, Anatoliy N.; Babenko, Natalya N.; Gaevskaya, Yulia A.; Bondarovich, Nikolay A.; Dubrava, Tatiana G.; Ostankov, Maksim V.; Chelombitko, Olga V.; Malyukin, Yuriy V.; Klochkov, Vladimir K.; Kavok, Nataliya S.

    2017-06-01

    One of the tasks of current oncology is identification of cancer stem cells and search of therapeutic means capable of their specific inhibition. The paper presents the data on phenotype characteristics of Ehrlich carcinoma cells as convenient and easy-to-follow model of tumor growth. The evidence of cancer stem cells as a part of Ehrlich carcinoma and significance of CD44+ and CD44- subpopulations in maintaining the growth of this type of tumor were demonstrated. A high (tenfold) tumorigenic activity of the Ehrlich carcinoma CD44+ cells if compared to CD44- cells was proven. In this pair of comparison, the CD44+ cells had a higher potential of generating in peritoneal cavity of CD44high, CD44+CD24-, CD44+CD24+ cell subpopulations, highlighting the presence of cancer stem cells in a pool of CD44+ cells.

  8. microRNA-218 inhibits prostate cancer cell growth and promotes apoptosis by repressing TPD52 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Guangye, E-mail: guangyehan@126.com; Fan, Maochuan, E-mail: maochunfan@outlook.com; Zhang, Xinjun, E-mail: xinjunzhang11@163.com

    2015-01-16

    Highlights: • miR-218 expression is downregulated in prostate cancer. • miR-218 inhibits prostate tumor cells proliferation partially through promoting apoptosis. • miR-218 targets TPD52 by binding to its 3′-UTR. • miR-218 suppresses prostate cancer cell growth through inhibiting TPD52 expression. - Abstract: The tumor protein D52 (TPD52) is an oncogene overexpressed in prostate cancer (PC) due to gene amplification. Although the oncogenic effect of TPD52 is well recognized, how its expression is regulated is still not clear. This study tried to explore the regulative role of miR-218, a tumor suppressing miRNA on TPD52 expression and prostate cancer cell proliferation. We found the expression of miR-218 was significantly lower in PC specimens. Based on gain and loss of function analysis, we found miR-218 significantly inhibit cancer cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. These results strongly suggest that miR-218 plays a tumor suppressor role in PC cells. In addition, our data firstly demonstrated that miR-218 directly regulates oncogenic TPD52 in PC3 cells and the miR-218-TPD52 axis can regulate growth of this prostate cancer cell line. Knockdown of TPD52 resulted in significantly increased cancer cell apoptosis. Clearly understanding of oncogenic TPD52 pathways regulated by miR-218 might be helpful to reveal new therapeutic targets for PC.

  9. HPMA copolymer-aminohexylgeldanamycin conjugates targeting cell surface expressed GRP78 in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nate; Ray, Abhijit; Malugin, Alexander; Pike, Daniel B; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2010-12-01

    This study focused on the synthesis and in vitro characterization of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer conjugates for the delivery of geldanamycin to prostate cancer tumors. Conjugates were modified to incorporate WIFPWIQL peptide, which binds to cell-surface-expressed Glucose-regulated protein 78. HPMA copolymers containing aminohexylgeldanamycin with and without WIFPWIQL peptide were synthesized and characterized, and stability in pH 7.4 and pH 5.0 buffers, complete cell culture medium, and fetal bovine serum was evaluated. The comparative cell surface expression of GRP78 in DU145 and PC3 cell lines was assessed and competitive binding to cell surface expressed GRP78 evaluated. The ability of the conjugates to inhibit cell growth was also evaluated in vitro. HPMA copolymer-aminohexylgeldanamycin conjugates were stable with maximal release observed in fetal bovine serum at 37°C of approximately 10% in 72 h. HPMA copolymers bearing WIFPWIQL peptide bound to cell surface expressed GRP78 with affinities comparable to free WIFPWIQL peptide and demonstrated increased cytotoxicity as compared to untargeted conjugates. HPMA copolymer aminohexylgeldanamycin conjugates bearing WIFPWIQL peptide have the ability to bind to cell-surface-expressed GRP78 and inhibit the growth of human prostate cancer cells, suggesting that the conjugates have the potential to target solid prostate cancer tumors.

  10. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is expressed in prostate cancer tissues and cell lines and expression is differentially regulated in vitro by ghrelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid peptide hormone that is expressed in the stomach and a range of peripheral tissues, where it frequently acts as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor. Ghrelin is modified by a unique acylation required for it to activate its cognate receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), which mediates many of the actions of ghrelin. Recently, the enzyme responsible for adding the fatty acid residue (octanoyl/acyl group) to the third amino acid of ghrelin, GOAT (ghrelin O-acyltransferase), was identified. Methods We used cell culture, quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and immunohistochemistry to demonstrate the expression of GOAT in prostate cancer cell lines and tissues from patients. Real-time RT-PCR was used to demonstrate the expression of prohormone convertase (PC)1/3, PC2 and furin in prostate cancer cell lines. Prostate-derived cell lines were treated with ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin and the effect on GOAT expression was measured using quantitative RT-PCR. Results We have demonstrated that GOAT mRNA and protein are expressed in the normal prostate and human prostate cancer tissue samples. The RWPE-1 and RWPE-2 normal prostate-derived cell lines and the LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines express GOAT and at least one other enzyme that is necessary to produce mature, acylated ghrelin from proghrelin (PC1/3, PC2 or furin). Finally, ghrelin, but not desacyl ghrelin (unacylated ghrelin), can directly regulate the expression of GOAT in the RWPE-1 normal prostate derived cell line and the PC3 prostate cancer cell line. Ghrelin treatment (100nM) for 6 hours significantly decreased GOAT mRNA expression two-fold (P ghrelin did not regulate GOAT expression in the DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines. Conclusions This study demonstrates that GOAT is expressed in prostate cancer specimens and cell lines. Ghrelin regulates GOAT expression, however, this is likely to be cell-type specific

  11. Enhancing adoptive cancer immunotherapy with Vγ2Vδ2 T cells through pulse zoledronate stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Mohanad H; Wang, Hong; Workalemahu, Grefachew; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Morita, Craig T

    2017-01-01

    Human γδ T cells expressing Vγ2Vδ2 T cell receptors monitor foreign- and self-prenyl pyrophosphate metabolites in isoprenoid biosynthesis to mediate immunity to microbes and tumors. Adoptive immunotherapy with Vγ2Vδ2 T cells has been used to treat cancer patients with partial and complete remissions. Most clinical trials and preclinical studies have used continuous zoledronate exposure to expand Vγ2Vδ2 cells where zoledronate is slowly diluted over the course of the culture. Zoledronate inhibits farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS) in monocytes causing isopentenyl pyrophosphate to accumulate that then stimulates Vγ2Vδ2 cells. Because zoledronate inhibition of FDPS is also toxic for T cells, we hypothesized that a short period of exposure would reduce T cell toxicity but still be sufficient for monocytes uptake. Additionally, IL-15 increases the anti-tumor activity of murine αβ T cells in mice but its effect on the in vivo anti-tumor activity of human Vγ2Vδ2 cells has not been assessed. Human Vγ2Vδ2 T cells were expanded by pulse or continuous zoledronate stimulation with IL-2 or IL-15. Expanded Vγ2Vδ2 cells were tested for their expression of effector molecules and killing of tumor cells as well as their in vivo control of human prostate cancer tumors in immunodeficient NSG mice. Pulse zoledronate stimulation with either IL-2 or IL-15 resulted in more uniform expansion of Vγ2Vδ2 cells with higher purity and cell numbers as compared with continuous exposure. The Vγ2Vδ2 cells had higher levels of CD107a and perforin and increased tumor cytotoxicity. Adoptive immunotherapy with Vγ2Vδ2 cells derived by pulse stimulation controlled human PC-3 prostate cancer tumors in NSG mice significantly better than those derived by continuous stimulation, halting tumor growth. Although pulse zoledronate stimulation with IL-15 preserved early memory subsets, adoptive immunotherapy with IL-15-derived Vγ2Vδ2 cells equally inhibited PC-3 tumor growth as those

  12. Cancer stem cell markers in common cancers - therapeutic implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klonisch, Thomas; Wiechec, Emilia; Hombach-Klonisch, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Rapid advance in the cancer stem cell field warrants optimism for the development of more reliable cancer therapies within the next 2-3 decades. Below, we characterize and compare the specific markers that are present on stem cells, cancer cells and cancer stem cells (CSC) in selected tissues...

  13. A contribution to ULF activity in the Pc 3-4 range correlated with IMF radial orientation. [geomagnetic micropulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstadt, E. W.; Olson, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes an experiment to determine whether the radial orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is associated with ULF activity in the Pc 3-4 range. Data are obtained from base levels, undisturbed intervals, IMF and disturbance selection, and trigonometric correlation. The results obtained are discussed, noting particularly that for low Kp, the probability of enhanced amplitude noise rises as IMF orientation with respect to the nominal solar wind flow decreases in both Pc 3 and Pc 4 channels.

  14. Inhibition of ANO1/TMEM16A Chloride Channel by Idebenone and Its Cytotoxicity to Cancer Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan Seo

    Full Text Available The expression levels of anoctamin 1 (ANO1, TMEM16A, a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC, are significantly increased in several tumors, and inhibition of ANO1 is known to reduce cell proliferation and migration. Here, we performed cell-based screening of a collection of natural products and drug-like compounds to identify inhibitors of ANO1. As a result of the screening, idebenone, miconazole and plumbagin were identified as novel ANO1 inhibitors. Electrophysiological studies showed that idebenone, a synthetic analog of coenzyme Q10, completely blocked ANO1 activity in FRT cells expressing ANO1 without any effect on intracellular calcium signaling and CFTR, a cAMP-regulated chloride channel. The CaCC activities in PC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells expressing abundant endogenous ANO1 were strongly blocked by idebenone. Idebenone inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in PC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells, but not in A549 cells, which do not express ANO1. These data suggest that idebenone, a novel ANO1 inhibitor, has potential for use in cancer therapy.

  15. p38 MAPK regulates the Wnt inhibitor Dickkopf-1 in osteotropic prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, A J; Göbel, A; Thiele, S; Hofbauer, L C; Rauner, M; Rachner, T D

    2016-02-25

    The Wnt inhibitor Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) has been associated with the occurrence of bone metastases in osteotropic prostate cancer by inhibiting osteoblastogenesis. P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity is also dysregulated in advanced prostate cancer. However, the impact of p38 MAPK signaling on DKK-1 remains unknown. Inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling in osteolytic PC3 cells by small molecule inhibitors (doramapimod, LY2228820 and SB202190) suppressed DKK-1 expression, whereas activation of p38 MAPK by anisomycin increased DKK-1. Further dissection by targeting individual p38 MAPK isoforms with siRNA revealed a stronger role for MAPK11 than MAPK14 and MAPK12 in the regulation of DKK-1. Moreover, prostate cancer cells with a predominantly osteolytic phenotype produced sufficient amounts of DKK-1 to inhibit Wnt3a-induced osteoblastic differentiation in C2C12 cells. This inhibition was blocked directly by neutralizing DKK-1 using a specific antibody and also indirectly by blocking p38 MAPK. Furthermore, tissue expression in human prostate cancer revealed a correlation between p38 MAPK and DKK-1 expression with higher expression in tumor compared with normal tissues. These results reveal that p38 MAPK regulates DKK-1 in prostate cancer and may present a potential target in osteolytic prostate cancers.

  16. An effective strategy for the synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles using cinnamon phytochemicals for phantom CT imaging and photoacoustic detection of cancerous cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Nripen; Shukla, Ravi; Zambre, Ajit; Mekapothula, Swapna; Kulkarni, Rajesh R; Katti, Kavita; Bhattacharyya, Kiran; Fent, Genevieve M; Casteel, Stan W; Boote, Evan J; Viator, John A; Upendran, Anandhi; Kannan, Raghuraman; Katti, Kattesh V

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the utilization of cinnamon-coated gold nanoparticles (Cin-AuNPs) as CT/optical contrast-enhancement agents for detection of cancer cells. Cin-AuNPs were synthesized by a "green" procedure, and the detailed characterization was performed by physico-chemical analysis. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake studies were carried out in normal human fibroblast and cancerous (PC-3 and MCF-7) cells, respectively. The efficacy of detecting cancerous cells was monitored using a photoacoustic technique. In vivo biodistribution was studied after IV injection of Cin-AuNPs in mice, and also a CT phantom model was generated. Biocompatible Cin-AuNPs were synthesized with high purity. Significant uptake of these gold nanoparticles was observed in PC-3 and MCF-7 cells. Cin-AuNPs internalized in cancerous cells facilitated detectable photoacoustic signals. In vivo biodistribution in normal mice showed steady accumulation of gold nanoparticles in lungs and rapid clearance from blood. Quantitative analysis of CT values in phantom model revealed that the cinnamon-phytochemical-coated AuNPs have reasonable attenuation efficiency. The results indicate that these non-toxic Cin-AuNPs can serve as excellent CT/ photoacoustic contrast-enhancement agents and may provide a novel approach toward tumor detection through nanopharmaceuticals.

  17. Controlled Release of Nor-β-lapachone by PLGA Microparticles: A Strategy for Improving Cytotoxicity against Prostate Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcilia P. Costa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in males and it has become a major worldwide public health problem. This study characterizes the encapsulation of Nor-β-lapachone (NβL in poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA microcapsules and evaluates the cytotoxicity of the resulting drug-loaded system against metastatic prostate cancer cells. The microcapsules presented appropriate morphological features and the presence of drug molecules in the microcapsules was confirmed by different methods. Spherical microcapsules with a size range of 1.03 ± 0.46 μm were produced with an encapsulation efficiency of approximately 19%. Classical molecular dynamics calculations provided an estimate of the typical adsorption energies of NβL on PLGA. Finally, the cytotoxic activity of NβL against PC3M human prostate cancer cells was demonstrated to be significantly enhanced when delivered by PLGA microcapsules in comparison with the free drug.

  18. Multifaceted Interpretation of Colon Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hatano, Yuichiro; Fukuda, Shinya; Hisamatsu, Kenji; Hirata, Akihiro; Hara, Akira; Tomita, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, despite recent advances in clinical oncology. Accumulating evidence sheds light on the existence of cancer stem cells and their role in conferring therapeutic resistance. Cancer stem cells are a minor fraction of cancer cells, which enable tumor heterogeneity and initiate tumor formation. In addition, these cells are resistant to various cytotoxic factors. Therefore, elimination of cancer stem cells is difficult but...

  19. Berberis libanotica Ehrenb extract shows anti-neoplastic effects on prostate cancer stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Merahbi, Rabih; Liu, Yen-Nien; Eid, Assaad; Daoud, Georges; Hosry, Leina; Monzer, Alissar; Mouhieddine, Tarek H; Hamade, Aline; Najjar, Fadia; Abou-Kheir, Wassim

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), including those of advanced prostate cancer, are a suggested reason for tumor resistance toward conventional tumor therapy. Therefore, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed for targeting CSCs. Despite the minimal understanding of their modes of action, natural products and herbal therapies have been commonly used in the prevention and treatment of many cancers. Berberis libanotica Ehrenb (BLE) is a plant rich in alkaloids which may possess anti-cancer activity and a high potential for eliminating CSCs. We tested the effect of BLE on prostate cancer cells and our data indicated that this extract induced significant reduction in cell viability and inhibited the proliferation of human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, PC3 and 22Rv1) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. BLE extract induced a perturbation of the cell cycle, leading to a G0-G1 arrest. Furthermore, we noted 50% cell death, characterized by the production of high levels of reactive oxidative species (ROS). Inhibition of cellular migration and invasion was also achieved upon treatment with BLE extract, suggesting a role in inhibiting metastasis. Interestingly, BLE extract had a major effect on CSCs. Cells were grown in a 3D sphere-formation assay to enrich for a population of cancer stem/progenitor cells. Our results showed a significant reduction in sphere formation ability. Three rounds of treatment with BLE extract were sufficient to eradicate the self-renewal ability of highly resistant CSCs. In conclusion, our results suggest a high therapeutic potential of BLE extract in targeting prostate cancer and its CSCs.

  20. Berberis libanotica Ehrenb extract shows anti-neoplastic effects on prostate cancer stem/progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabih El-Merahbi

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs, including those of advanced prostate cancer, are a suggested reason for tumor resistance toward conventional tumor therapy. Therefore, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed for targeting CSCs. Despite the minimal understanding of their modes of action, natural products and herbal therapies have been commonly used in the prevention and treatment of many cancers. Berberis libanotica Ehrenb (BLE is a plant rich in alkaloids which may possess anti-cancer activity and a high potential for eliminating CSCs. We tested the effect of BLE on prostate cancer cells and our data indicated that this extract induced significant reduction in cell viability and inhibited the proliferation of human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145, PC3 and 22Rv1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. BLE extract induced a perturbation of the cell cycle, leading to a G0-G1 arrest. Furthermore, we noted 50% cell death, characterized by the production of high levels of reactive oxidative species (ROS. Inhibition of cellular migration and invasion was also achieved upon treatment with BLE extract, suggesting a role in inhibiting metastasis. Interestingly, BLE extract had a major effect on CSCs. Cells were grown in a 3D sphere-formation assay to enrich for a population of cancer stem/progenitor cells. Our results showed a significant reduction in sphere formation ability. Three rounds of treatment with BLE extract were sufficient to eradicate the self-renewal ability of highly resistant CSCs. In conclusion, our results suggest a high therapeutic potential of BLE extract in targeting prostate cancer and its CSCs.

  1. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L3 regulates EMT process and cancer metastasis in prostate cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun Min; Lee, Jae Eun; Kim, Jung Hwa

    2014-09-26

    Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L3 (UCH-L3) is among the deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) that cleave ubiquitin (Ub) from Ub precursors or protein substrates. Many DUBs have been shown to participate in cancer progression in various tissues. However, the mechanism and role of UCH-L3 in carcinogenesis has largely been unknown until recently. Here we investigated the implication of UCH-L3 in prostate cancer progression. Interestingly, UCH-L3 is upregulated in normal or non-metastatic prostate cancer cells and is downregulated in metastatic prostate cancer cell lines. Notably, knockdown of UCH-L3 in normal prostate cell line RWPE1 promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an important process for cancer cell invasion and metastasis. The induction of EMT by UCH-L3 knockdown results in an increase of cell migration and invasion. Yet, to the contrary, overexpression of UCH-L3 in highly metastatic prostate cancer cell line PC3 reverses EMT but the active site mutant UCH-L3 did not. Collectively, our findings identify UCH-L3 as a novel EMT regulator in prostate cells and highlight UCH-L3 as a potential therapeutic target for preventing metastatic prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Adipocyte-Derived Hormone Leptin Has Proliferative Actions on Androgen-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells Linking Obesity to Advanced Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Raschid Hoda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Because obesity may be a risk factor for prostate cancer, we investigated proliferative effects of adipocytes-derived hormone leptin on human prostate cancer cells and assessed the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway in mediating these actions. Material and Methods. Three human prostate cancer cell lines were treated with increasing doses of recombinant leptin. Cell growth was measured under serum-free conditions using a spectrophotometric assay. Further, Western blotting was applied to detect the phosphorylation of an ERK1/2, and a specific inhibitor of MAPK (PD98059; 40 μM was used. Results. In both androgen-resistant cell lines DU145 and PC-3, cell growth was dose-dependently increased by leptin after 24 hrs and 48 hrs of incubation, whereas leptin’s proliferative effects on androgen-sensitive cell line LNCaP was less pronounced. Further, leptin caused dose-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation in both androgen-resistant cell lines, and pretreatment of these cells with PD98059 inhibited these responses. Conclusions. Leptin may be a potential link between obesity and risk of progression of prostate cancer. Thus, studies on leptin and obesity association to prostate cancer should differentiate patients according to androgen sensitivity.

  3. Characterising Castrate Tolerant Prostate Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    ASHLEE KATE CLARK

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a prevalent disease in aging males. This thesis explores prostate cancer cells that escape current therapy and give rise to end-stage disease. Using sophisticated experimental approaches, this important cancer cell population was identified and characterised in human prostate cancer tissues.  Our discoveries will eventually lead to improved cancer treatments for men with prostate cancer.

  4. Enhanced solubility and functionality of valrubicin (AD-32) against cancer cells upon encapsulation into biocompatible nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabnis, Nirupama; Nair, Maya; Israel, Mervyn; McConathy, Walter J; Lacko, Andras G

    2012-01-01

    Among numerous drug-delivery approaches, reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) nanocarriers have proven particularly applicable for delivering highly hydrophobic drugs. In this study, we have investigated the enhancement of the therapeutic impact of valrubicin (AD-32), an antineoplastic agent that has been limited to intravesicular application against bladder cancer, despite the encouraging original preclinical data. Earlier studies validated the superior therapeutic efficacy of AD-32 over doxorubicin. In the present study, rHDL/AD-32 nanoparticles were formulated and characterized with regard to encapsulation efficiency, physicochemical properties, selective toxicity, and receptor-mediated uptake. The half maximal inhibitory concentration values (IC(50)) for rHDL/AD-32 nanoparticles were 1.8 and 2.6 times lower than the free AD-32 for prostate (PC-3) and ovarian (SKOV-3) cancer cell lines, respectively, whereas nonmalignant cell lines demonstrated 5 and 1.48 times higher IC(50) doses with rHDL/AD-32 formulations. The data obtained demonstrated effective receptor- mediated uptake of AD-32 from the rHDL nanocarriers by PC-3 and SKOV-3 cancer cells via a targeted drug-delivery process. The rHDL/AD-32 formulation was stable for 6 months when stored at 4°C or at -20°C, as 92% of the AD-32 was retained in the nanoparticles. The findings from this study show that the rHDL/AD-32 formulation can overcome the solubility barriers of AD-32 and thus serve as an effective systemically administered chemotherapeutic agent.

  5. Evaluating Metformin as a Potential Chemosensitizing Agent when Combined with Docetaxel Chemotherapy in Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Michelle J; Klotz, Laurence H; Venkateswaran, Vasundara

    2017-12-01

    Docetaxel, the first-line chemotherapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), provides certain survival benefits, but is associated with significant toxicity. A novel therapeutic approach for mCRPC is combining docetaxel with a chemosensitizing agent. We hypothesized that metformin, a potential chemosensitizer, would improve docetaxel efficacy in CRPC cells. MTS assays were used to determine the effect of metformin-docetaxel treatment on PC3 and DU145 cell viability. Wound-healing and ATP concentration assays were used to evaluate cell migration and intracellular ATP levels following metformin-docetaxel treatment. Western blotting was used for mechanistic evaluation. Metformin-docetaxel treatment significantly reduced PC3 cell viability. Metformin-docetaxel treatment did not significantly affect cell migration or intracellular ATP levels. Western blotting revealed metformin-docetaxel treatment did not significantly change AMPK or P-AMPK expression patterns. Metformin may be an effective chemosensitizer for certain types of CRPC cells, but further investigation is needed. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  6. Glycogen synthesis correlates with androgen-dependent growth arrest in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorin Frederic A

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen withdrawal in normal prostate or androgen-dependent prostate cancer is associated with the downregulation of several glycolytic enzymes and with reduced glucose uptake. Although glycogen metabolism is known to regulate the intracellular glucose level its involvement in androgen response has not been studied. Methods We investigated the effects of androgen on glycogen phosphorylase (GP, glycogen synthase (GS and on glycogen accumulation in the androgen-receptor (AR reconstituted PC3 cell line containing either an empty vector (PC3-AR-V or vector with HPV-E7 (PC3-AR-E7 and the LNCaP cell line. Results Androgen addition in PC3 cells expressing the AR mimics androgen ablation in androgen-dependent prostate cells. Incubation of PC3-AR-V or PC3-AR-E7 cells with the androgen R1881 induced G1 cell cycle arrest within 24 hours and resulted in a gradual cell number reduction over 5 days thereafter, which was accompanied by a 2 to 5 fold increase in glycogen content. 24 hours after androgen-treatment the level of Glucose-6-P (G-6-P had increased threefold and after 48 hours the GS and GP activities increased twofold. Under this condition inhibition of glycogenolysis with the selective GP inhibitor CP-91149 enhanced the increase in glycogen content and further reduced the cell number. The androgen-dependent LNCaP cells that endogenously express AR responded to androgen withdrawal with growth arrest and increased glycogen content. CP-91149 further increased glycogen content and caused a reduction of cell number. Conclusion Increased glycogenesis is part of the androgen receptor-mediated cellular response and blockage of glycogenolysis by the GP inhibitor CP-91149 further increased glycogenesis. The combined use of a GP inhibitor with hormone therapy may increase the efficacy of hormone treatment by decreasing the survival of prostate cancer cells and thereby reducing the chance of cancer recurrence.

  7. The pepper's natural ingredient capsaicin induces autophagy blockage in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Torres, Ágata; Bort, Alicia; Morell, Cecilia; Rodríguez-Henche, Nieves; Díaz-Laviada, Inés

    2016-01-12

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of red hot chili peepers, has been shown to have anti-cancer activities in several cancer cells, including prostate cancer. Several molecular mechanisms have been proposed on its chemopreventive action, including ceramide accumulation, endoplasmic reticulum stress induction and NFκB inhibition. However, the precise mechanisms by which capsaicin exerts its anti-proliferative effect in prostate cancer cells remain questionable. Herein, we have tested the involvement of autophagy on the capsaicin mechanism of action on prostate cancer LNCaP and PC-3 cells.The results showed that capsaicin induced prostate cancer cell death in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, increased the levels of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3-II, a marker of autophagy) and the accumulation of the cargo protein p62 suggesting an autophagy blockage. Moreover, confocal microscopy revealed that capsaicin treatment increased lysosomes which co-localized with LC3 positive vesicles in a similar extent to that produced by the lysosomal protease inhibitors E64 and pepstatin pointing to an autophagolysosomes breakdown inhibition. Furthermore, we found that capsaicin triggered ROS generation in cells, while the levels of ROS decreased with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger. Co-treatment of cells with NAC and capsaicin abrogated the effects of capsaicin on autophagy and cell death. Normal prostate PNT2 and RWPE-1 cells were more resistant to capsaicin-induced cytotoxicity and did not accumulate p62 protein.Taken together, these results suggest that ROS-mediated capsaicin-induced autophagy blockage contributes to antiproliferation in prostate cancer cells, which provides new insights into the anticancer molecular mechanism of capsaicin.

  8. Statin and Bisphosphonate Induce Starvation in Fast-Growing Cancer Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Florian; Thaler, Roman; Spitzer, Silvia; Klaushofer, Klaus; Varga, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Statins and bisphosphonates are increasingly recognized as anti-cancer drugs, especially because of their cholesterol-lowering properties. However, these drugs act differently on various types of cancers. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of statins and bisphosphonates on the metabolism (NADP+/NADPH-relation) of highly proliferative tumor cell lines from different origins (PC-3 prostate carcinoma, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer, U-2 OS osteosarcoma) versus cells with a slower proliferation rate like MG-63 osteosarcoma cells. Global gene expression analysis revealed that after 6 days of treatment with pharmacologic doses of the statin simvastatin and of the bisphosphonate ibandronate, simvastatin regulated more than twice as many genes as ibandronate, including many genes associated with cell cycle progression. Upregulation of starvation-markers and a reduction of metabolism and associated NADPH production, an increase in autophagy, and a concomitant downregulation of H3K27 methylation was most significant in the fast-growing cancer cell lines. This study provides possible explanations for clinical observations indicating a higher sensitivity of rapidly proliferating tumors to statins and bisphosphonates. PMID:28914765

  9. Novel seleno- and thio-urea derivatives with potent in vitro activities against several cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcolea, Verónica; Plano, Daniel; Karelia, Deepkamal N; Palop, Juan Antonio; Amin, Shantu; Sanmartín, Carmen; Sharma, Arun K

    2016-05-04

    A series of novel selenourea derivatives and corresponding thiourea analogs were synthesized and tested against a panel of six human cancer cell lines: melanoma (1205Lu), lung carcinoma (A549), prostatic carcinoma (DU145), colorectal carcinoma (HCT116), pancreatic epithelioid carcinoma (PANC-1) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (BxPC3). In general, we found that the selenium-containing derivatives were more potent than their isosteric sulfur analogs. Four selenourea derivatives (1e, 1f, 1g and 1i) showed IC50 values below 10 μM in all of tested cell lines at 72 h. On the basis of its potent activity, compound 1g was selected for further biological evaluation in different colon cancer cell lines. Our results indicated that compound 1g induced apoptosis by caspase activation, along with inhibition of anti-apoptotic proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Single cancer cell analysis on a chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Yoon Sun

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells in blood may represent “a real time liquid biopsy” through the interrogation of single cancer cells thereby determining the outspread of their heterogeneity and guiding therapy. In this thesis, we focused on single cancer cell analysis downstream of the isolation of cancer cells from

  11. Constitutive and inducible expression of cytochromes P4501A (CYP1A1 and CYP1A2) in normal prostate and prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Kenneth M; Cutroneo, Kenneth R

    2004-02-01

    Constitutive and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) inducible expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in prostate cancer and normal prostate epithelial cells were examined by immunoblotting. Androgen independent prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and PC3 have constitutive expression of CYP1A and CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, respectively. Four micromolar B[a]P did not appear to induce CYP1A1 or CYP1A2 expression in DU145 or PC3 cells. The androgen dependent prostate cancer cell line, LnCap, also has constitutive expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. However, both CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 are induced by treatment of LnCap cells with 4 microM B[a]P. Untreated normal prostate and primary prostate tumor cells have no detectable CYP1A1 expression. Treatment with 4 microM B[a]P induced CYP1A1 expression in both normal and primary tumor prostate cells. Constitutive CYP1A2 expression was detected in normal prostate cells with little or no induction by exposure to 4 microM B[a]P. Primary prostate tumor cells did not show constitutive expression of CYP1A2. However, CYP1A2 was induced by 4 microM B[a]P in primary prostate tumor cells. These observations indicate that hormonal and cancer specific factors affect the expression and induction of the phase I metabolic enzymes, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in prostate cells. These observations may be related to the potential smoking-linked higher risk of prostate cancer development and morbidity of prostate cancer patients who smoke. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Targeting Taxanes to Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells by Nanobubbles and Extracorporeal Shock Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Francesca; Rinella, Letizia; Argenziano, Monica; Cavalli, Roberta; Sassi, Francesca; D'Amelio, Patrizia; Battaglia, Antonino; Gontero, Paolo; Bosco, Ornella; Peluso, Rossella; Fortunati, Nicoletta; Frairia, Roberto; Catalano, Maria Graziella

    2016-01-01

    To target taxanes to castration-resistant prostate cancer cells, glycol-chitosan nanobubbles loaded with paclitaxel and docetaxel were constructed. The loaded nanobubbles were then combined with Extracorporeal Shock Waves, acoustic waves widely used in urology and orthopedics, with no side effects. Nanobubbles, with an average diameter of 353.3 ± 15.5 nm, entered two different castration-resistant prostate cancer cells (PC3 and DU145) as demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. The shock waves applied increased the amount of intracellular nanobubbles. Loading nanobubbles with paclitaxel and docetaxel and combining them with shock waves generated the highest cytotoxic effects, resulting in a paclitaxel GI50 reduction of about 55% and in a docetaxel GI50 reduction of about 45% respectively. Combined treatment also affected cell migration. Paclitaxel-loaded nanobubbles and shock waves reduced cell migration by more than 85% with respect to paclitaxel alone; whereas docetaxel-loaded nanobubbles and shock waves reduced cell migration by more than 82% with respect to docetaxel alone. The present data suggest that nanobubbles can act as a stable taxane reservoir in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells and shock waves can further increase drug release from nanobubbles leading to higher cytotoxic and anti-migration effect.

  13. Green tea polyphenols induce cell death in breast cancer MCF-7 cells through induction of cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Min; Ou, Shi-Yi; Huang, Hui-Hua

    In order to study the molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) in treatment or prevention of breast cancer, the cytotoxic effects of GTPs on five human cell lines (MCF-7, A549, Hela, PC3, and HepG2 cells) were determined and the antitumor mechanisms of GTPs in MCF-7 cells were analyzed. The results showed that GTPs exhibited a broad spectrum of inhibition against the detected cancer cell lines, particularly the MCF-7 cells. Studies on the mechanisms revealed that the main modes of cell death induced by GTPs were cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis showed that GTPs mediated cell cycle arrest at both G1/M and G2/M transitions. GTP dose dependently led to apoptosis of MCF-7 cells via the mitochondrial pathways, as evidenced by induction of chromatin condensation, reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), improvement in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), induction of DNA fragmentation, and activations of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in the present paper.

  14. Syndecan-1 (CD138) contributes to prostate cancer progression by stabilizing tumour-initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Keiji; Anai, Satoshi; Fujii, Tomomi; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Konishi, Noboru

    2013-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that tumour-initiating cells (TICs) contribute to the development of prostate cancer. Here, we identified syndecan-1 as a key molecule maintaining the stability of prostate cancer TICs. Holoclones harbouring the biological properties of stemness were derived from single-cell cultures of the PC3 human prostate cancer cell line. These holoclones over-expressed syndecan-1, but showed reduced expression of NADPH oxidase (NOX) and synthesis of hydrogen peroxide and oxygen radicals. Stable RNA-mediated silencing of syndecan-1 gene expression up-regulated NOX-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species and reduced the survival of holoclones in vitro. Syndecan-1 down-regulation also strongly reduced the number of CD133(+)/CD44(+) primitive cancer cells and tumour growth in vivo. Interestingly, syndecan-1 gene knockdown significantly enhanced the tumour-suppressive effects of docetaxel by inhibiting the docetaxel-induced increase in CD133(+)/CD44(+) cells in vivo. In the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mouse model of prostate cancer, early intervention with a syndecan-1 inhibitor (OGT2115) or syndecan-1 RNAi reduced the incidence of adenocarcinoma and the number of c-kit(+)/CD44(+) cells in cancer foci. Finally, we found that syndecan-1 immunopositivity in prostate cancer cells was significantly associated with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Taken together, our results show that syndecan-1 contributes to prostatic carcinogenesis by maintaining TICs and may be a target molecule for therapy. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Ca2+ Receptor, Prostate Cancer, and Bone Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    the skeletal complications of metastatic niurie hyperealcemia andother syndromes ofaltered respansive- breast cancer and on the incidence of new... dhat an hicrease in extra.ehlinlar Ca42 resulted :in delayed activation of exlracellular signal-regulated kinwse (ERK) in PC-3 cells. Pre-intcubation

  16. Diverse functions of IGF/insulin signaling in malignant and noncancerous prostate cells: proliferation in cancer cells and differentiation in noncancerous cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Isabel; Ofer, Philipp; Doppler, Wolfgang; Rotter, Varda; Klocker, Helmut; Massoner, Petra

    2012-10-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway represents one of the most studied molecular regulatory networks in oncology. Clinical trials investigating the therapeutic value of anti-IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) therapies in cancer, including prostate cancer, are ongoing. However, the multiple functions of the IGF network in the prostate are not entirely known. To elucidate the effects of IGF and insulin (INS) on prostate cells, we stimulated prostate cancer (PC3, DU145, LNCaP, DUCaP) and noncancerous prostate cells (EP156T, RWPE-1) and observed differing responses: whereas cancer cells responded to IGF and INS exposure by way of enhanced cell proliferation and glucose consumption, basal to luminal differentiation was induced in noncancerous cells. The same diverse responses were observed when the growth factor receptors IGF1R or INSR were overexpressed. Down-regulation of IGF1R or INSR isoform A (INSRA) also inhibited only proliferation of cancer cells. The proliferative response induced by the INSR in cancer cells was mediated solely by the INSRA. Moreover we observed that the receptors of the IGF network mutually influence their expression and exert redundant functions, thus underscoring the functional molecular network formed by IGF, INS, IGF1R, and INSR. Collectively we found that both IGF1R and INSRA have oncogenic effects in prostate cancer, but the IGF network also has important physiological functions in the noncancerous prostate. These data provide new insights into the biology of the IGF network in the prostate, thereby facilitating the design and interpretation of clinical studies investigating IGF1R targeting agents.

  17. Inhibition of Decay-Accelerating Factor (CD55 Attenuates Prostate Cancer Growth and Survival In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Loberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Decay-accelerating factor (CD55 is a member of membrane-bound complement-regulatory proteins. CD55 expression correlates with poor survival in patients with colorectal cancer and has been implicated in the survival and tumorigenesis of blood-borne malignancies. Histologic analysis of clinical specimens from patients with advanced prostate cancer revealed an increase in CD55 expression in prostate tumor epithelial cells. CD55 was shown to be functionally active and to inhibit complement-mediated lysis in PC-3 and DU145 cells. The percentage of lysis was correlative with the CD55 expression profile observed in these prostate cancer cell lines. These data suggest that CD55 is an important regulator of prostate cancer cell survival. As a result, we have hypothesized that CD55 expression on prostate cancer cells promotes cell survival and contributes to the metastatic potential of prostate cancer cells. To determine the role of CD55 in prostate cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis, we generated PC-3Luc prostate cancer cells with CD55 siRNA-targeted disruption. We found that PC-3Luc/CD55 siRNA constructs in SCID mice resulted in a significant attenuation of overall tumor burden. Further investigation into the mechanisms of CD55-mediated tumor cell/microenvironment interaction is necessary to understand the role of CD55 in tumor cell survival and metastatic lesion formation.

  18. Dose- and time-dependent gene expression alterations in prostate and colon cancer cells after in vitro exposure to carbon ion and X-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetens, Annelies; Moreels, Marjan; Quintens, Roel; Soors, Els; Buset, Jasmine; Chiriotti, Sabina; Tabury, Kevin; Gregoire, Vincent; Baatout, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Hadrontherapy is an advanced form of radiotherapy that uses beams of charged particles (such as protons and carbon ions). Compared with conventional radiotherapy, the main advantages of carbon ion therapy are the precise absorbed dose localization, along with an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE). This high ballistic accuracy of particle beams deposits the maximal dose to the tumor, while damage to the surrounding healthy tissue is limited. Currently, hadrontherapy is being used for the treatment of specific types of cancer. Previous in vitro studies have shown that, under certain circumstances, exposure to charged particles may inhibit cell motility and migration. In the present study, we investigated the expression of four motility-related genes in prostate (PC3) and colon (Caco-2) cancer cell lines after exposure to different radiation types. Cells were irradiated with various absorbed doses (0, 0.5 and 2 Gy) of accelerated 13C-ions at the GANIL facility (Caen, France) or with X-rays. Clonogenic assays were performed to determine the RBE. RT-qPCR analysis showed dose- and time-dependent changes in the expression of CCDC88A, FN1, MYH9 and ROCK1 in both cell lines. However, whereas in PC3 cells the response to carbon ion irradiation was enhanced compared with X-irradiation, the effect was the opposite in Caco-2 cells, indicating cell-type–specific responses to the different radiation types. PMID:25190155

  19. Optimization of Invasion-Specific Effects of Betulin Derivatives on Prostate Cancer Cells through Lead Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Härmä

    Full Text Available The anti-invasive and anti-proliferative effects of betulins and abietane derivatives was systematically tested using an organotypic model system of advanced, castration-resistant prostate cancers. A preliminary screen of the initial set of 93 compounds was performed in two-dimensional (2D growth conditions using non-transformed prostate epithelial cells (EP156T, an androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP, and the castration-resistant, highly invasive cell line PC-3. The 25 most promising compounds were all betulin derivatives. These were selected for a focused secondary screen in three-dimensional (3D growth conditions, with the goal to identify the most effective and specific anti-invasive compounds. Additional sensitivity and cytotoxicity tests were then performed using an extended cell line panel. The effects of these compounds on cell cycle progression, mitosis, proliferation and unspecific cytotoxicity, versus their ability to specifically interfere with cell motility and tumor cell invasion was addressed. To identify potential mechanisms of action and likely compound targets, multiplex profiling of compound effects on a panel of 43 human protein kinases was performed. These target de-convolution studies, combined with the phenotypic analyses of multicellular organoids in 3D models, revealed specific inhibition of AKT signaling linked to effects on the organization of the actin cytoskeleton as the most likely driver of altered cell morphology and motility.

  20. Rac1 activation driven by 14-3-3ζ dimerization promotes prostate cancer cell-matrix interactions, motility and transendothelial migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Goc

    Full Text Available 14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitously expressed dimeric adaptor proteins that have emerged as key mediators of many cell signaling pathways in multiple cell types. Its effects are mainly mediated by binding to selective phosphoserine/threonine proteins. The importance of 14-3-3 proteins in cancer have only started to become apparent and its exact role in cancer progression as well as the mechanisms by which 14-3-3 proteins mediate cancer cell function remain unknown. While protein 14-3-3σ is widely accepted as a tumor suppressor, 14-3-3ζ, β and γ isoforms have been shown to have tumor promoting effects. Despite the importance of 14-3-3 family in mediating various cell processes, the exact role and mechanism of 14-3-3ζ remain unexplored. In the current study, we investigated the role of protein 14-3-3ζ in prostate cancer cell motility and transendothelial migration using biochemical, molecular biology and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing approaches as well as cell based functional assays. Our study indicated that expression with wild-type protein 14-3-3ζ significantly enhanced Rac activity in PC3 cells. In contrast, expression of dimer-resistant mutant of protein 14-3-3ζ (DM-14-3-3 inhibited Rac activity and associated phosphorylation of p21 activated kinase-1 and 2. Expression with wild-type 14-3-3ζ or constitutively active Rac1 enhanced extracellular matrix recognition, lamellipodia formation, cell migration and trans-endothelial migration by PC3 cells. In contrast, expression with DM 14-3-3ζ or DN-Rac1 in PC3 cells significantly inhibited these cell functions. Our results demonstrate for the first time that 14-3-3ζ enhances prostate cancer cell-matrix interactions, motility and transendothelial migration in vitro via activation of Rac1-GTPase and is an important target for therapeutic interventions for prostate cancer.

  1. Targeting multiple pro-apoptotic signaling pathways with curcumin in prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Rivera

    Full Text Available Curcumin, an extract from the turmeric rhizome (Curcuma longa, is known to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and antitumoral activities against aggressive and recurrent cancers. Accumulative data indicate that curcumin may induce cancer cell death. However, the detailed mechanism underlying its pro-apoptotic and anti-cancer effects remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we examined the signaling pathways triggered by curcumin, specifically, the exact molecular mechanisms of curcumin-induced apoptosis in highly metastatic human prostate cancer cells. The effect of curcumin was evaluated using for the first time in prostate cancer, a gel-free shotgun quantitative proteomic analysis coupled with Tandem Mass Tag isobaric labeling-based-signaling networks. Results were confirmed at the gene expression level by qRT-PCR and at the protein expression level by western blot and flow cytometry. Our findings revealed that curcumin induced an Endoplasmic Reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in PC3. The mechanisms by which curcumin promoted cell death in these cells were associated with cell cycle arrest, increased reactive oxygen species, autophagy and the Unfolded Protein Response. Furthermore, the upregulation of ER stress was measured using key indicators of ER stress: Glucose-Regulated Protein 78, Inositol-Requiring Enzyme 1 alpha, Protein Disulfide isomerase and Calreticulin. Chronic ER stress induction was concomitant with the upregulation of pro-apoptotic markers (caspases 3,9,12 and Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase. The downregulated proteins include anti-apoptotic and anti-tumor markers, supporting their curcumin-induced pro-apoptotic role in prostate cancer cells. Taken together, these data suggest that curcumin may serve as a promising anticancer agent by inducing a chronic ER stress mediated cell death and activation of cell cycle arrest, UPR, autophagy and oxidative stress responses.

  2. Cancer Stem Cells, Epithelial to Mesenchymal Markers, and Circulating Tumor Cells in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pore, Milind; Meijer, Coby; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Boersma-van Ek, Wytske; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Timens, Wim; Kruyt, Frank A. E.; Hiltermann, T. Jeroen N.

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic value of markers of cancer stem cells and epithelial to mesenchymal transition in small cell lung cancer is not known. We retrospectively studied these markers in the biopsy tissue of patients with small cell lung cancer and correlated them with overall survival and the strongest

  3. Probing hypoxia-induced staurosporine resistance in prostate cancer cells with a microfluidic culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Grishma; Hiemstra, Scott; Pappas, Dimitri

    2014-07-07

    A microfluidic system for cell culture and drug response studies was developed to elucidate the effects of hypoxia on drug susceptibility. Drug response studies were performed in prostate cancer cells and Ramos B cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. A vacuum actuated microfluidic culture device was used for cell culture and PC3 cells were cultured in the chip up to 16 hours. Cells were treated with several concentrations of staurosporine and apoptosis was assayed using the fluorescent probes MitoTracker Deep Red and Annexin-V. For hypoxic samples, the chip was placed in a hypoxia chamber and pre-conditioned at <1% oxygen before inducing the cells with staurosporine. Cells exposed to 2 μM staurosporine were 32% ± 10% apoptotic under normoxic conditions but only 1.5% ± 12% apoptotic under hypoxic conditions. As little as 1 hour of hypoxic preconditioning increased drug resistance. Cell apoptosis correlated with drug dose, although in each case hypoxia reduced the apoptotic fraction significantly. Given the rapid nature of cell adaptation to hypoxia, this chip and analysis approach can be used to identify compounds that can induce cell death in hypoxic tumor cells rapidly.

  4. Synthesis and Cytotoxic Evaluation of a Series of 2-Amino-Naphthoquinones against Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago A. P. de Moraes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxicity of a series of aminonaphthoquinones resulting from the reaction of suitable aminoacids with 1,4-naphthoquinone was assayed against SF-295 (glioblastoma, MDAMB-435 (breast, HCT-8 (colon, HCT-116 (colon, HL-60 (leukemia, OVCAR-8 (ovarian, NCI-H358M (bronchoalveolar lung carcinoma and PC3-M (prostate cancer cells and also against PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results demonstrated that all the synthetic aminonaphthoquinones had relevant cytotoxic activity against all human cancer lines used in this experiment. Five of the compounds showed high cytotoxicity and selectivity against all cancer cell lines tested (IC50 = 0.49 to 3.89 µg·mL−1. The title compounds were less toxic to PBMC, since IC50 was 1.5 to eighteen times higher (IC50 = 5.51 to 17.61 µg·mL−1 than values shown by tumour cell lines. The mechanism of cell growth inhibition and structure–activity relationships remains as a target for future investigations.

  5. Cusp-latitude Pc3 spectra: band-limited and power-law components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Ponomarenko

    Full Text Available This work attempts to fill a gap in comparative studies of upstream-generated Pc3–4 waves and broad band ULF noise observed at cusp latitudes. We performed a statistical analysis of the spectral properties of three years of cusp-latitude ground magnetometer data, finding that the average daytime Pc3–4 spectra are characterized by two principal components: an upstream-related band-limited enhancement (‘signal’ and a power-law background (‘noise’ with S(f a  f -4 . Based on this information we developed an algorithm allowing for the deconvolution of these two components in the spectral domain. The frequency of the signal enhancement increases linearly with IMF magnitude as f [mHz] ~ 4.4 | BIMF | [nT], and its power maximizes around IMF cone angles qxB ~ 20 and 160° and at 10:30–11:00 MLT. Both spectral components exhibit similar semiannual variations with equinoctial maxima. The back-ground noise power grows with increasing southward Bz and remains nearly constant for northward Bz . Its diurnal variation resembles that of Pc5 field-line resonance power, with a maximum near 09:00 MLT. Both the band-limited signal and broad band noise components show power-law growth with solar wind velocity a V 5.71sw and a V 4.12sw, respectively. Thus, the effective signal-to-noise ratio increases with in-creasing Vsw. The observations suggest that the noise generation is associated with reconnection processes.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers; MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind magnetosphere interactions

  6. Therapeutic Mechanisms of Vernonia amygdalina Delile in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Johnson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer patients have been suffering from limited treatment options due to late diagnosis, poor drug tolerance, and multi-drug resistance to almost all the current drug treatments. Therefore, it is important to seek a new alternative therapeutic medicine that can effectively prevent the disease and even eradicate the progression and metastasis of prostate cancer. Vernonia amygdalina Delile (VAD is a common edible vegetable in Cameroon that has been used as a traditional medicine for some human diseases. However, to the best of our knowledge, no previous reports have explored its therapeutic efficacy against human prostate cancer. The objective of the present study was to assess the anticancer activities of VAD methanolic extracts in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer using human androgen-independent prostate cancer (PC-3 cells as a test model. To achieve our objective, PC-3 cells were treated with various doses of VAD for 48 h. Data generated from the trypan blue test and MTT assay demonstrated that VAD extracts exhibited significant growth-inhibitory effects on PC-3 cells. Collectively, we established for the first time the antiproliferative effects of VAD on PC-3 cells, with an IC50 value of about 196.6 µg/mL. Further experiments, including cell morphology, lipid peroxidation and comet assays, and apoptosis analysis showed that VAD caused growth-inhibitory effects on PC-3 cells through the induction of cell growth arrest, DNA damage, apoptosis, and necrosis in vitro and may provide protection from oxidative stress diseases as a result of its high antioxidant content. These results provide useful data on the anticancer activities of VAD for prostate cancer and demonstrate the novel possibilities of this medicinal plant for developing prostate cancer therapies.

  7. Therapeutic Mechanisms of Vernonia amygdalina Delile in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William; Tchounwou, Paul B; Yedjou, Clement G

    2017-09-22

    Prostate cancer patients have been suffering from limited treatment options due to late diagnosis, poor drug tolerance, and multi-drug resistance to almost all the current drug treatments. Therefore, it is important to seek a new alternative therapeutic medicine that can effectively prevent the disease and even eradicate the progression and metastasis of prostate cancer. Vernonia amygdalina Delile (VAD) is a common edible vegetable in Cameroon that has been used as a traditional medicine for some human diseases. However, to the best of our knowledge, no previous reports have explored its therapeutic efficacy against human prostate cancer. The objective of the present study was to assess the anticancer activities of VAD methanolic extracts in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer using human androgen-independent prostate cancer (PC-3) cells as a test model. To achieve our objective, PC-3 cells were treated with various doses of VAD for 48 h. Data generated from the trypan blue test and MTT assay demonstrated that VAD extracts exhibited significant growth-inhibitory effects on PC-3 cells. Collectively, we established for the first time the antiproliferative effects of VAD on PC-3 cells, with an IC50 value of about 196.6 µg/mL. Further experiments, including cell morphology, lipid peroxidation and comet assays, and apoptosis analysis showed that VAD caused growth-inhibitory effects on PC-3 cells through the induction of cell growth arrest, DNA damage, apoptosis, and necrosis in vitro and may provide protection from oxidative stress diseases as a result of its high antioxidant content. These results provide useful data on the anticancer activities of VAD for prostate cancer and demonstrate the novel possibilities of this medicinal plant for developing prostate cancer therapies.

  8. Low doses of CPS49 and flavopiridol combination as potential treatment for advanced prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalazar, Florencia; De Luca, Paola; Gardner, Kevin; Figg, William D; Meiss, Roberto; Spallanzani, Raul G; Vallecorsa, Pablo; Elguero, Belen; Cotignola, Javier; Vazquez, Elba; De Siervi, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) still ranks as the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a foremost cause of men cancer death around the world. The aim of this work was to investigate the selectivity and efficacy of new drug combinations for CRPC. We combined three compounds: paclitaxel (PTX: taxane that inhibits microtubule polymerization); 2-(2,4-Difluoro-phenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrafluoro-1H-isoindole- 1,3(2H)-dione (CPS49; redox-reactive thalidomide analog with anti-angiogenic properties) and flavopiridol (flavo: semisynthetic flavonoid that inhibits cyclin dependent kinases). We assessed CPS49-flavo or -PTX combinations cytotoxicity in a panel of PCa cell lines and PC3 xenografts. We found that CPS49 enhanced flavo or PTX cytotoxicity in human PCa cell lines while showed resistance in a non-tumor cell line. Furthermore, xenografts generated by inoculation of human prostate carcinoma PC3 cells in nu/nu mice showed that CPS49/flavo administration reduced tumor growth both after 2 weeks of co-treatment and after 1 week of pretreatment with a low dose of flavo followed by 2 weeks of co-treatment. PTX and CPS49 combination did not significantly reduce tumor growth in PC3 xenografts. Histological analysis of xenograft PC3 tumor samples from CPS49/flavo combination showed extensive areas of necrosis induced by the treatment. RT-qPCR array containing 23 genes from PC3 cells or PC3 xenografts exposed to CPS49/flavo combination showed that this treatment shut down the expression of several genes involved in adhesion, migration or invasion. In summary, the antitumor activity of CPS49 or flavopiridol was improved by the combination of these compounds and using half dose of that previously reported. Hence, CPS49-flavo combination is a promising new alternative for PCa therapy.

  9. Development of a new rutin nanoemulsion and its application on prostate carcinoma PC3 cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Mohammad; Sahabjada, -; Akhtar, Juber; Hussain, Arshad; Badaruddeen, -; Arshad, Md; Mishra, Anuradha

    2017-01-01

    Biological effects of rutin bioactive are limited due to its poor oral bioavailability and its degradation in aqueous environments. For the purpose of bioenhancement, different nanoemulsion systems of rutin were developed by aqueous titration method using water as dispersion media. The nanoemulsion systems were characterized for sur- face morphology, droplet size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, in vitro release profile and the formulations were optimized. The anticancer potential of op...

  10. Growth inhibition mediated by PSP94 or CRISP-3 is prostate cancer cell line specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Bhakti R; Breed, Ananya A; Nakhawa, Vaishali H; Jagtap, Dhanashree D; Mahale, Smita D

    2010-09-01

    The prostate secretory protein of 94 amino acids (PSP94) has been shown to interact with cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP-3) in human seminal plasma. Interestingly, PSP94 expression is reduced or lost in the majority of the prostate tumours, whereas CRISP-3 expression is upregulated in prostate cancer compared with normal prostate tissue. To obtain a better understanding of the individual roles these proteins have in prostate tumourigenesis and the functional relevance of their interaction, we ectopically expressed either PSP94 or CRISP-3 alone or PSP94 along with CRISP-3 in three prostate cell lines (PC3, WPE1-NB26 and LNCaP) and performed growth inhibition assays. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were used to screen prostate cell lines for PSP94 and CRISP-3 expression. Mammalian expression constructs for human PSP94 and CRISP-3 were also generated and the expression, localization and secretion of recombinant protein were assayed by transfection followed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay. The effect that ectopic expression of PSP94 or CRISP-3 had on cell growth was studied by clonogenic survival assay following transfection. To evaluate the effects of co-expression of the two proteins, stable clones of PC3 that expressed PSP94 were generated. They were subsequently transfected with a CRISP-3 expression construct and subjected to clonogenic survival assay. Our results showed that PSP94 and CRISP-3 could each induce growth inhibition in a cell line specific manner. Although the growth of CRISP-3-positive cell lines was inhibited by PSP94, growth inhibition mediated by CRISP-3 was not affected by the presence or absence of PSP94. This suggests that CRISP-3 may participate in PSP94-independent activities during prostate tumourigenesis.

  11. Melatonin Decreases Glucose Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Cells: A 13C Stable Isotope-Resolved Metabolomic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevia, David; Gonzalez-Menendez, Pedro; Fernandez-Fernandez, Mario; Cueto, Sergio; Mayo, Juan C.

    2017-01-01

    The pineal neuroindole melatonin exerts an exceptional variety of systemic functions. Some of them are exerted through its specific membrane receptors type 1 and type 2 (MT1 and MT2) while others are mediated by receptor-independent mechanisms. A potential transport of melatonin through facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT/SLC2A) was proposed in prostate cancer cells. The prostate cells have a particular metabolism that changes during tumor progression. During the first steps of carcinogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation is reactivated while the switch to the “Warburg effect” only occurs in advanced tumors and in the metastatic stage. Here, we investigated whether melatonin might change prostate cancer cell metabolism. To do so, 13C stable isotope-resolved metabolomics in androgen sensitive LNCaP and insensitive PC-3 prostate cancer cells were employed. In addition to metabolite 13C-labeling, ATP/AMP levels, and lactate dehydrogenase or pentose phosphate pathway activity were measured. Melatonin reduces lactate labeling in androgen-sensitive cells and it also lowers 13C-labeling of tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites and ATP production. In addition, melatonin reduces lactate 13C-labeling in androgen insensitive prostate cancer cells. Results demonstrated that melatonin limits glycolysis as well as the tricarboxylic acid cycle and pentose phosphate pathway in prostate cancer cells, suggesting that the reduction of glucose uptake is a major target of the indole in this tumor type. PMID:28933733

  12. Prostate cancer stem cell-targeted efficacy of a new-generation taxoid, SBT-1214 and novel polyenolic zinc-binding curcuminoid, CMC2.24.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina I Botchkina

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among men. Multiple evidence suggests that a population of tumor-initiating, or cancer stem cells (CSCs is responsible for cancer development and exceptional drug resistance, representing a highly important therapeutic target. The present study evaluated CSC-specific alterations induced by new-generation taxoid SBT-1214 and a novel polyenolic zinc-binding curcuminoid, CMC2.24, in prostate CSCs.The CD133(high/CD44(high phenotype was isolated from spontaneously immortalized patient-derived PPT2 cells and highly metastatic PC3MM2 cells. Weekly treatment of the NOD/SCID mice bearing PPT2- and PC3MM3-induced tumors with the SBT-1214 led to dramatic suppression of tumor growth. Four of six PPT2 and 3 of 6 PC3MM2 tumors have shown the absence of viable cells in residual tumors. In vitro, SBT-1214 (100 nM-1 µM; for 72 hr induced about 60% cell death in CD133(high/CD44(+/high cells cultured on collagen I in stem cell medium (in contrast, the same doses of paclitaxel increased proliferation of these cells. The cytotoxic effects were increased when SBT-1214 was combined with the CMC2.24. A stem cell-specific PCR array assay revealed that this drug combination mediated massive inhibition of multiple constitutively up-regulated stem cell-related genes, including key pluripotency transcription factors. Importantly, this drug combination induced expression of p21 and p53, which were absent in CD133(high/CD44(high cells. Viable cells that survived this treatment regimen were no longer able to induce secondary spheroids, exhibited significant morphological abnormalities and died in 2-5 days.We report here that the SBT-1214 alone, or in combination with CMC2.24, possesses significant activity against prostate CD133(high/CD44(+/high tumor-initiating cells. This drug combination efficiently inhibits expression of the majority of stem cell-related genes and pluripotency transcription factors. In addition

  13. Formation of AR-SMRT binding in prostate cancer cells treated with natural histone deacetylase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtková, Kateřina; Pašková, Lenka; Matiješčuková, Natálie; Kolář, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Signaling through the androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression. The AR is a classical nuclear receptor (NR) providing a link between signaling molecule and transcription response. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) have antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on prostate cancer cells and their implication in silence AR signaling may have potential therapeutic use. We aimed to study the inhibitory effects of the corepressor SMRT (Silencing Mediator for Retinoid and Thyroid hormone receptors) which forms a complex together with nuclear receptor corepressor (N-CoR) and with histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) on AR activity. The androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cell line C4-2 both AR-positive, and androgen-insensitive DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cell lines were treated with two HDACIs, sodium butyrate (NaB) and/or trichostatin A (TSA). We amplified immunoprecipitated DNA by conventional PCR and in the following step we used the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis coupled with quantitative PCR for monitoring NaB induced formation of AR-SMRT/N-CoR complex binding on the PSA promoter. The co-immunoprecipitation assay revealed increase in AR-SMRT formation in NaB treated cells. Simultaneously, the Western blot analysis showed a significant decrease in AR protein expression. Furthermore, we estimated the reduced presence of HDAC2 and HDAC3 proteins by NaB and TSA treatment in AR-negative DU145 cell line. In conclusion, the inhibitory effect of NaB on AR gene expression seems to be specific and unique for prostate cancer AR-positive cell lines and corresponds with its ability to stimulate AR-SMRT complex formation. We suggest that AR and SMRT/N-CoR corepressors may form a stable complex in vitro and NaB may facilitate the interaction between AR nuclear steroid receptor and SMRT corepressor protein.

  14. Fisetin Enhances Chemotherapeutic Effect of Cabazitaxel against Human Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Eiman; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Siddiqui, Imtiaz Ahmad; Verma, Ajit Kumar; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2016-12-01

    Although treatment of prostate cancer has improved over the past several years, taxanes, such as cabazitaxel, remain the only form of effective chemotherapy that improves survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. However, the effectiveness of this class of drugs has been associated with various side effects and drug resistance. We previously reported that fisetin, a hydroxyflavone, is a microtubule-stabilizing agent and inhibits prostate cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and suggested its use as an adjuvant for treatment of prostate and other cancer types. In this study, we investigated the effect of fisetin in combination with cabazitaxel with the objective to achieve maximum therapeutic benefit, reduce dose and toxicity, and minimize or delay the induction of drug resistance and metastasis. Our data show for the first time that a combination of fisetin (20 μmol/L) enhances cabazitaxel (5 nmol/L) and synergistically reduces 22Rν1, PC-3M-luc-6, and C4-2 cell viability and metastatic properties with minimal adverse effects on normal prostate epithelial cells. In addition, the combination of fisetin with cabazitaxel was associated with inhibition of proliferation and enhancement of apoptosis. Furthermore, combination treatment resulted in the inhibition of tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis when assessed in two in vivo xenograft mouse models. These results provide evidence that fisetin may have therapeutic benefit for patients with advanced prostate cancer through enhancing the efficacy of cabazitaxel under both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent conditions. This study underscores the benefit of the combination of fisetin with cabazitaxel for the treatment of advanced and resistant prostate cancer and possibly other cancer types. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(12); 2863-74. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Thermally responsive nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin and its combination with mild hyperthermia for enhanced cancer cell destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Wei; Zhang, Wujie; Poventud-Fuentes, Izmarie; Wang, Yongchen; Lei, Yifeng; Agarwal, Pranay; Weekes, Benjamin; Li, Chenglong; Lu, Xiongbin; Yu, Jianhua; He, Xiaoming

    2014-02-01

    In this study, thermally responsive polymeric nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin (nCCM) was prepared and characterized. The nCCM is ≈ 22 and 300 nm in diameter at 37 and 22 °C, respectively. The smaller size of the nCCM at 37 °C was found to significantly facilitate its uptake in vitro by human prostate adenocarcinoma PC-3 cancer cells. However, the intracellular nCCM decreases rapidly (rather than plateaus) after reaching its peak at ≈ 1.5 h during a 3-day incubation of the PC-3 cells with nCCM. Moreover, a mild hyperthermia (with negligible cytotoxicity alone) at 43 °C applied between 1 and 1.5 h during the 3-day incubation not only increases the peak uptake but also alters intracellular distribution of nCCM (facilitating its delivery into cell nuclei), which helps to retain a significantly much higher level of intracellular curcumin. These effects of mild hyperthermia could be due in part to the thermal responsiveness of the nCCM: they are more positively charged at 43 °C and can be more easily attracted to the negatively charged nuclear membrane to enter nuclei as a result of electrostatic interaction. Ultimately, a combination of the thermally responsive nCCM and mild hyperthermia significantly enhances the anticancer capability of nCCM, resulting in a more than 7-fold decrease in its inhibitory concentration to reduce cell viability to 50% (IC50). Further mechanistic studies suggest injury pathways associated with heat shock proteins 27 and 70 should contribute to the enhanced cancer cell destruction by inducing cell apoptosis and necrosis. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of combining mild hyperthermia and thermally responsive nanodrugs such as nCCM for augmented cancer therapy.

  16. Human transporters, PEPT1/2, facilitate melatonin transportation into mitochondria of cancer cells: An implication of the therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xiaokui; Wang, Chao; Yu, Zhenlong; Peng, Yulin; Wang, Shumei; Feng, Shengnan; Zhang, Shouji; Tian, Xiangge; Sun, Chengpeng; Liu, Kexin; Deng, Sa; Ma, Xiaochi

    2017-05-01

    Melatonin is present in virtually all organisms from bacteria to mammals, and it exhibits a broad spectrum of biological functions, including synchronization of circadian rhythms and oncostatic activity. Several functions of melatonin are mediated by its membrane receptors, but others are receptor-independent. For the latter, melatonin is required to penetrate membrane and enters intracellular compartments. However, the mechanism by which melatonin enters cells remains debatable. In this study, it was identified that melatonin and its sulfation metabolites were the substrates of oligopeptide transporter (PEPT) 1/2 and organic anion transporter (OAT) 3, respectively. The docking analysis showed that the binding of melatonin to PEPT1/2 was attributed to their low binding energy and suitable binding conformation in which melatonin was embedded in the active site of PEPT1/2 and fitted well with the cavity in three-dimensional space. PEPT1/2 transporters play a pivotal role in melatonin uptake in cells. Melatonin's membrane transportation via PEPT1/2 renders its oncostatic effect in malignant cells. For the first time, PEPT1/2 were identified to localize in the mitochondrial membrane of human cancer cell lines of PC3 and U118. PEPT1/2 facilitated the transportation of melatonin into mitochondria. Melatonin accumulation in mitochondria induced apoptosis of PC3 and U118 cells. Thus, PEPT1/2 can potentially be used as a cancer cell-targeted melatonin delivery system to improve the therapeutic effects of melatonin in cancer treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Hydromagnetic spectroscopy of the magnetosphere with Pc3 geomagnetic pulsations along the 210° meridian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pilipenko

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Pc3 observational data along the 210° magnetic meridian showed a complicated frequency-latitude structure at middle latitudes. The observed period-latitude distributions vary between events with a "noisy source": the D component has a colored-noise spectrum, while the spectrum of H component exhibits regular peaks that vary with latitude, and events with a "band-limited source": the spectral power density of the D component is enhanced at certain frequencies throughout the network. For most ULF events a local gap of the H component amplitude has been exhibited at both conjugate stations at L ~ 2.1. A quantitative interpretation has been given assuming that band-limited MHD emission from an extra-magnetospheric source is distorted by local field line resonances. Resonant frequencies had been singled out with the use of the asymmetry between spectra of H and D components. Additionally, a local resonant frequency at L ~ 1.6 was determined by the quasi-gradient method using the data from nearly conjugate stations. The experimentally determined local resonance frequencies agree satisfactorily with those obtained from a numerical model of the Alfven resonator with the equatorial plasma density taken by extrapolation of Carpenter-Anderson model. We demonstrate how simple methods of hydromagnetic spectroscopy enable us to monitor simultaneously both the magnitude of the IMF and the magnetospheric plasma density from ULF data.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions; MHD waves and instabilities; plasmasphere

  18. Novel analogue of colchicine induces selective pro-death autophagy and necrosis in human cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Larocque

    Full Text Available Colchicine, a natural product of Colchicum autumnae currently used for gout treatment, is a tubulin targeting compound which inhibits microtubule formation by targeting fast dividing cells. This tubulin-targeting property has lead researchers to investigate the potential of colchicine and analogs as possible cancer therapies. One major study conducted on an analogue of allocolchicine, ZD 6126, was halted in phase 2 clinical trials due to severe cardio-toxicity associated with treatment. This study involves the development and testing of novel allocolchicine analogues that hold non-toxic anti-cancer properties. Currently we have synthesized and evaluated the anti-cancer activities of two analogues; N-acetyl-O-methylcolchinol (NSC 51046 or NCME, which is structurally similar to ZD 6126, and (S-3,8,9,10-tetramethoxyallocolchicine (Green 1, which is a novel derivative of allocolchicine that is isomeric in the A ring. NSC 51046 was found to be non-selective as it induced apoptosis in both BxPC-3 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells and in normal human fibroblasts. Interestingly, we found that Green 1 was able to modestly induce pro-death autophagy in these pancreatic cancer cells and E6-1 leukemia cells but not in normal human fibroblasts. Unlike colchicine and NSC 51046, Green 1 does not appear to affect tubulin polymerization indicating that it has a different molecular target. Green 1 also caused increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production in mitochondria isolated from pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, in vivo studies revealed that Green 1 was well tolerated in mice. Our findings suggest that a small change in the structure of colchicine has apparently changed the mechanism of action and lead to improved selectivity. This may lead to better selective treatments in cancer therapy.

  19. Metformin-induced energy deficiency leads to the inhibition of lipogenesis in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubière, Camille; Goiran, Thomas; Laurent, Kathiane; Djabari, Zied; Tanti, Jean-François; Bost, Frédéric

    2015-06-20

    The deregulation of lipid metabolism is a hallmark of tumor cells, and elevated lipogenesis has been reported in prostate cancer. Metformin, a drug commonly prescribed for type II diabetes, displays antitumor properties. Here, we show that metformin inhibits lipogenesis in several prostate cancer cell lines. In LNCaP cells, this effect parallels the decrease of key lipogenic proteins: ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase), FASN (fatty acid synthase) and SREBP1c (sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c), whereas there is no modification in DU145 and PC3 cells. Despite the relatively high level of lipogenic proteins induced by the overexpression of a constitutively active form of SREBP1c or treatment with androgens, metformin is still able to inhibit lipogenesis. Metformin does not alter the concentration of malonyl-CoA (the fatty acid precursor), and it only slightly decreases the NADPH levels, which is a co-factor required for lipogenesis, in LNCaP. Finally, we show that the inhibitory effect of metformin on lipogenesis is primarily due to a cellular energy deficit. Metformin decreases ATP in a dose-dependent manner, and this diminution is significantly correlated with the inhibition of lipogenesis in LNCaP and DU145. Indeed, the effect of metformin is linked to changes in the ATP content rather than the regulation of protein expression. Our results describe a new mechanism of action for metformin on prostate cancer metabolism.

  20. An RNA Molecule Derived From Sendai Virus DI Particles Induces Antitumor Immunity and Cancer Cell-selective Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Wen; Nishikawa, Tomoyuki; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2016-01-01

    Inactivated Sendai virus (hemagglutinating virus of Japan; HVJ) envelope (HVJ-E) induces anticancer immunity and cancer cell-selective apoptosis through the recognition of viral RNA genome fragments by retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I). Here, we discovered that the “copy-back” type of defective-interfering (DI) particles that exist in the Cantell strain of HVJ induced the human PC3 prostate cancer cell death more effectively than the Sendai/52 strain or Cantell strain, which contain fewer DI particles. DI particle genomic RNA (~550 bases) activated proapoptotic genes such as Noxa and/or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in human prostate cancer cells to induce cancer cell-selective apoptosis. DI particle-derived RNA was synthesized by in vitro transcription (in vitro transcribed (IVT)-B2). IVT-B2 RNA, which has a double-stranded region in its secondary structure, promoted a stronger anticancer effect than IVT-HN RNA, which does not have a double-stranded region in its secondary structure. The intratumoral transfection of IVT-B2 significantly reduced the volume of a human prostate tumor and induced tumor cell apoptosis in the xenograft mouse model. Moreover, the involvement of natural killer (NK) cells in IVT-B2-RNA-induced anticancer effects was also suggested. These findings provide a novel nucleic acid medicine for the treatment of cancer. PMID:26548591

  1. A novel rabbit anti-hepatocyte growth factor monoclonal neutralizing antibody inhibits tumor growth in prostate cancer cells and mouse xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yanlan; Chen, Yicheng; Ding, Guoqing; Wang, Mingchao; Wu, Haiyang; Xu, Liwei; Rui, Xuefang; Zhang, Zhigen, E-mail: srrshurology@163.com

    2015-08-14

    The hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor c-Met are correlated with castration-resistance in prostate cancer. Although HGF has been considered as an attractive target for therapeutic antibodies, the lack of cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with human/mouse HGFs is a major obstacle in preclinical developments. We generated a panel of anti-HGF RabMAbs either blocking HGF/c-Met interaction or inhibiting c-Met phosphorylation. We selected one RabMAb with mouse cross-reactivity and demonstrated that it blocked HGF-stimulated downstream activation in PC-3 and DU145 cells. Anti-HGF RabMAb inhibited not only the growth of PC-3 cells but also HGF-dependent proliferation in HUVECs. We further demonstrated the efficacy and potency of the anti-HGF RabMAb in tumor xenograft mice models. Through these in vitro and in vivo experiments, we explored a novel therapeutic antibody for advanced prostate cancer. - Highlights: • HGF is an attractive target for castration-refractory prostate cancer. • We generated and characterized a panel of anti-HGF rabbit monoclonal antibodies. • More than half of these anti-HGF RabMAbs was cross-reactive with mouse HGF. • Anti-HGF RabMAb blocks HGF-stimulated phosphorylation and cell growth in vitro. • Anti-HGF RabMAb inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in xenograft mice.

  2. Targeting Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    achieve this goal, we cultured high-invasive prostate cancer PC3 cells and treated them with the drugs/inhibitors that were proposed to target WASF3...groups (treated by DMSO), either treated by 100 μM CYT997 or 10 μM Dasatinib suppressed the cells to spread throughout the fish body (Fig. 4). As...have scr eened t he e f fect s o f mor e t han 40 drugs on invasion using cul tur ed prost ate cancer cells and f ound t hat tar geting multiple

  3. Anti-Proliferative Effect and Induction of Apoptosis in Androgen-Independent Human Prostate Cancer Cells by 1,5-Bis(2-hydroxyphenyl-1,4-pentadiene-3-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Citalingam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin has poor in vivo absorption and bioavailability, highlighting a need for new curcumin analogues with better characteristics in these aspects. The aim of this study is to determine the anti-cancer properties of four selected curcumin analogues, on the cytotoxicity, proliferative and apoptotic effects on androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and DU 145. Initial cytotoxicity screening showed MS17 has the highest cell inhibitory effect, with EC50 values of 4.4 ± 0.3 and 4.1 ± 0.8 µM, followed by MS13 (7.5 ± 0.1 and 7.4 ± 2.6 µM, MS49 (14.5 ± 1.2 and 12.3 ± 2.3 µM and MS40E (28.0 ± 7.8 and 30.3 ± 1.9 µM for PC-3 and DU 145 cells, respectively. Time-dependent analysis also revealed that MS13 and MS17 displayed a greater anti-proliferative effect than the other compounds. MS17 was chosen based on the high selectivity index value for further analysis on the morphological and biochemical hallmarks of apoptosis. Fluorescence microscopy analysis revealed apoptotic changes in both treated prostate cancer cells. Relative caspase-3 activity increased significantly at 48 h in PC-3 and 12 h in DU 145 cells. Highest enrichment of free nucleosomes was noted at 48 h after treatment with MS17. In conclusion, MS17 demonstrated anti-proliferative effect and induces apoptosis in a time and dose-dependent manner suggesting its potential for development as an anti-cancer agent for androgen-independent prostate cancer.

  4. Gastrin regulates ABCG2 to promote the migration, invasion and side populations in pancreatic cancer cells via activation of NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Xin, Beibei; Wang, Hui; He, Xiaodan; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Ti; Shen, Xiaohong

    2016-08-01

    Gastrin is absent in most normal adult pancreatic tissues but is highly expressed in pancreatic cancer tissues. Although Gastrin expression was reported to be associated with tumor proliferation in human pancreatic cancer, studies on the relationship between Gastrin and tumor metastasis in pancreatic cancer are rare. In this study, we performed an analysis to determine the effects of Gastrin on modulating the side populations, cell proportion and tumor cell metastatic potential and invasion activity and explored its mechanisms in pancreatic cancer. We indicated that Gastrin and ABCG2 were widely expressed in pancreatic cancer cell lines and overexpressed in cancer tissues. Gastrin induced ABCG2 expression, and this effect was mediated by NF-κB activation. Gastrin regulated the SP proportion of BxPC-3 cells via modulating ABCG2 expression. Through the regulation of the functions of NF-κB/ABCG2, Gastrin functionally promoted the migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer cell. The present study indicated that Gastrin induced ABCG2 expression by activating NF-κB and thereby modulated the SP proportion, tumor cell metastatic potential and invasion activity in pancreatic cancer. Gastrin could serve as an effective therapeutic target for the metastasis of pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 promotes prostate cancer cell growth via IGF-dependent or -independent mechanisms and reduces the efficacy of docetaxel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzoh, C C; Holly, J M P; Biernacka, K M; Persad, R A; Bahl, A; Gillatt, D; Perks, C M

    2011-01-01

    Background: The development of androgen independence, chemo-, and radioresistance are critical markers of prostate cancer progression and the predominant reasons for its high mortality. Understanding the resistance to therapy could aid the development of more effective treatments. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) on prostate cancer cell proliferation and its effects on the response to docetaxel. Methods: DU145 and PC3 cells were treated with IGFBP-2, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) alone or in combination with blockade of the IGF-I receptor or integrin receptors. Cells were also treated with IGFBP-2 short interfering ribonucleic acid with or without a PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) inhibitor or docetaxel. Tritiated thymidine incorporation was used to measure cell proliferation and Trypan blue cell counting for cell death. Levels of IGFBP-2 mRNA were measured using RT–PCR. Abundance and phosphorylation of proteins were assessed using western immunoblotting. Results: The IGFBP-2 promoted cell growth in both cell lines but with PC3 cells this was in an IGF-dependent manner, whereas with DU145 cells the effect was independent of IGF receptor activation. This IGF-independent effect of IGFBP-2 was mediated by interaction with β-1-containing integrins and a consequent increase in PTEN phosphorylation. We also determined that silencing IGFBP-2 in both cell lines increased the sensitivity of the cells to docetaxel. Conclusion: The IGFBP-2 has a key role in the growth of prostate cancer cells, and silencing IGFBP-2 expression reduced the resistance of these cells to docetaxel. Targeting IGFBP-2 may increase the efficacy of docetaxel. PMID:21487405

  6. Do Cell Phones Cause Cancer?

    CERN Document Server

    Leikind, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Do cell phones, household electrical power wiring or appliance, or high voltage power lines cause cancer? Fuggedaboudit! No way! When pigs fly! When I'm the Pope! Don't text while you're driving, however, or eat your cell phone. All organisms absorb microwave radiation directly as thermal energy. In living organisms, the organisms' thermal control systems, including the blood flow, and various cooling mechanisms, such as sweating in humans, that work to maintain a stable body temperature rapidly transfer the absorbed energy to the environment. Any temperature rise is small or even unobserved. Any proposed mechanism by which cell phone radiation might cause cancer must begin with this fact. But the amount of radiation absorbed from a cell phone is less than that produced by normal metabolic processes, and much less than that produced by, for example, exercise. None of these normal metabolic processes cause cancer. Therefore, the much smaller amounts of energy from cell phones doesn't cause cancer either. All f...

  7. In vitro comparative cytotoxic effect of Nimbolide: A limonoid from Azadirachta indica (Neem tree) on cancer cell lines and normal cell lines through MTT assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Hwang, Yawon; Hong, Gyeongmi; Kim, Gonhyung

    2017-05-01

    The present study was conducted to find the cytotoxicity in vitro of nimbolide, limonoids derivative of flowers and leaves from Azadirachta indica (neem tree) on the selected cell lines of cancer (Du-145, PC-3, A-549) and normal fibroblast cell lines (NIH3T3, CCD-18Co) using MTT assay. The cells were seeded in 96 multi-well tissue plate using different concentrations of nimbolide for 24hrs and 48hrs. The percentage of viability of cell lines was calculated by optical density obtained by micro plate reader and cytotoxic effect in term of IC50 value was determined by using linear regression analysis. The percentages of viability of cells treated with different concentrations of nimbolide were significantly lower (P0.05) between treated and the non-treated cells was observed. Nimbolide exerted time and dose dependent cytotoxic effect on the cancer lines and mild effect on the normal cell lines. It was further confirmed through PKH 26. Results of the present study suggested nimbolide as a potent chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agent as it exerted a more cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines as compared with the normal cell lines. Nimbolide may be a new hope as an anticancer drug in future.

  8. Effects of Biebersteinia multifida hydro-ethanol extract on proliferation and apoptosis of human prostate cancer and human embryonic kidney cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Golshan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Biebersteinia (Geraniaceae has a history of use in traditional medicine in some countries including Iran. In the present study, cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of hydro-ethanol extract of B. multifidi was investigated on human prostate cancer cell lines (PC3 and DU 145 and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293 cells. Materials and Methods: Cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 10% FBS at 37ºC in a humidified atmosphere of 95% air and 5% CO2. The root of the plant was macerated with EtOH 70%. Cytotoxic activity of ethanol extract of B. multifida was assessed using alamarBlue® assay after 48 hr of treatment. Apoptotic cells were stained with propidium iodide (PI and detected by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak. Results: B. multifidi had cytotoxic effect on malignant cells and normal HEK293 cells in a dose-dependent manner and significantly decreased the cell viability (IC50 values were between 199.2 and 302.9 µg/ml. B. multifida increased the sub-G1 peak in flow cytometry histogram of treated PC3 cells compared to control showing the induction of apoptosis and DNA fragmentation. Conclusion: Due to cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of B. multifida, the plant is suggested for further phytochemical analysis and mechanistic evaluation.

  9. Silencing VDAC1 Expression by siRNA Inhibits Cancer Cell Proliferation and Tumor Growth In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasleem Arif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in cellular metabolism and bioenergetics are vital for cancer cell growth and motility. Here, the role of the mitochondrial protein voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1, a master gatekeeper regulating the flux of metabolites and ions between mitochondria and the cytoplasm, in regulating the growth of several cancer cell lines was investigated by silencing VDAC1 expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA. A single siRNA specific to the human VDAC1 sequence at nanomolar concentrations led to some 90% decrease in VDAC1 levels in the lung A549 and H358, prostate PC-3, colon HCT116, glioblastoma U87, liver HepG2, and pancreas Panc-1 cancer cell lines. VDAC1 silencing persisted 144 hours post-transfection and resulted in profound inhibition of cell growth in cancer but not in noncancerous cells, with up to 90% inhibition being observed over 5 days that was prolonged by a second transfection. Cells expressing low VDAC1 levels showed decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and adenoside triphosphate (ATP levels, suggesting limited metabolite exchange between mitochondria and cytosol. Moreover, cells silenced for VDAC1 expression showed decreased migration, even in the presence of the wound healing accelerator basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF. VDAC1-siRNA inhibited cancer cell growth in a Matrigel-based assay in host nude mice. Finally, in a xenograft lung cancer mouse model, chemically modified VDAC1-siRNA not only inhibited tumor growth but also resulted in tumor regression. This study thus shows that VDAC1 silencing by means of RNA interference (RNAi dramatically inhibits cancer cell growth and tumor development by disabling the abnormal metabolic behavior of cancer cells, potentially paving the way for a more effective pipeline of anticancer drugs.

  10. β-Elemene and taxanes synergistically induce cytotoxicity and inhibit proliferation in ovarian cancer and other tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Baobo; Li, Q Quentin; Zhao, Jinshun; Li, Jueli M; Cuff, Christopher F; Reed, Eddie

    2013-03-01

    β-Elemene, originally derived from plants, has been recently investigated as a new anticancer agent. The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy and mechanisms of action of the combined use of β-elemene plus a taxane as an antitumor therapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer and other carcinomas. The interaction of β-elemene with paclitaxel or docetaxel produced additive to moderately synergistic effects against the platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cell line A2780/CP70 and its parental cell line A2780, and showed moderately synergistic activity against PC-3 prostate cancer cells. In addition, the co-administration of β-elemene and a taxane at low-micromolar concentrations dramatically increased the rate of micronucleus formation and the percentage of mitotic arrest in both ovarian cancer cell lines, as compared with treatment with either agent alone. The highest synergy towards the ovarian cancer cells was observed with β-elemene plus docetaxel. Consistent with these data, treatment of A2780/CP70 cells with β-elemene plus a taxane strikingly reduced cell viability and increased cell apoptosis, as assessed by annexin V binding. Moreover, β-elemene plus docetaxel induced elevated levels of caspase-9 and p53 proteins in A2780/CP70 cells, and the combination of β-elemene plus a taxane caused marked cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in these cells. One possible mechanism to account for the enhanced cytotoxic efficacy of this combination treatment is a β-elemene-induced increase in taxane influx into cancer cells. These observations indicate that combination therapy with β-elemene and taxanes has synergistic antitumor activity against ovarian and prostate carcinomas in vitro. This promising new therapeutic combination warrants further pre-clinical exploration for the treatment of chemoresistant ovarian cancer and other types of tumors.

  11. Lipido-sterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr, Permixon) treatment affects human prostate cancer cell membrane organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrangeli, E; Lenti, L; Buchetti, B; Chinzari, P; Sale, P; Salvatori, L; Ravenna, L; Lococo, E; Morgante, E; Russo, A; Frati, L; Di Silverio, F; Russo, M A

    2009-04-01

    The molecular mechanism by which the lipido-sterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESr, Permixon) affects prostate cells remains to be fully elucidated. In androgen-independent PC3 prostate cancer cells, the LSESr-induced effects on proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by counting cells and using a FACScan cytofluorimeter. PC3 cells were stained with JC-1 dye to detect mitochondrial membrane potential. Cell membrane lipid composition was evaluated by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatographic analysis. Akt phosphorylation was analyzed by Western blotting and cellular ultrastructure through electron microscopy. LSESr (12.5 and 25 microg/ml) administration exerted a biphasic action by both inhibiting proliferation and stimulating apoptosis. After 1 h, it caused a marked reduction in the mitochondrial potential, decreased cholesterol content and modified phospholipid composition. A decrease in phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) level was coupled with reduced Akt phosphorylation. After 24 h, all of these effects were restored to pre-treatment conditions; however, the saturated (SFA)/unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) ratio increased, mainly due to a significant decrease in omega 6 content. The reduction in cholesterol content could be responsible for both membrane raft disruption and redistribution of signaling complexes, allowing for a decrease of PIP2 levels, reduction of Akt phosphorylation and apoptosis induction. The decrease in omega 6 content appears to be responsible for the prolonged and more consistent increase in the apoptosis rate and inhibition of proliferation observed after 2-3 days of LSESr treatment. In conclusion, LSESr administration results in complex changes in cell membrane organization and fluidity of prostate cancer cells that have progressed to hormone-independent status. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by

  13. Small-Molecule Inhibition of Rho/MKL/SRF Transcription in Prostate Cancer Cells: Modulation of Cell Cycle, ER Stress, and Metastasis Gene Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris R. Evelyn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is the major cause of cancer deaths and control of gene transcription has emerged as a critical contributing factor. RhoA- and RhoC-induced gene transcription via the actin-regulated transcriptional co-activator megakaryocytic leukemia (MKL and serum response factor (SRF drive metastasis in breast cancer and melanoma. We recently identified a compound, CCG-1423, which blocks Rho/MKL/SRF-mediated transcription and inhibits PC-3 prostate cancer cell invasion. Here, we undertook a genome-wide expression study in PC-3 cells to explore the mechanism and function of this compound. There was significant overlap in the genes modulated by CCG-1423 and Latrunculin B (Lat B, which blocks the Rho/MKL/SRF pathway by preventing actin polymerization. In contrast, the general transcription inhibitor 5,6-dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-1H-benzimidazole (DRB showed a markedly different pattern. Effects of CCG-1423 and Lat B on gene expression correlated with literature studies of MKL knock-down. Gene sets involved in DNA synthesis and repair, G1/S transition, and apoptosis were modulated by CCG-1423. It also upregulated genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress. Targets of the known Rho target transcription factor family E2F and genes related to melanoma progression and metastasis were strongly suppressed by CCG-1423. These results confirm the ability of our compound to inhibit expression of numerous Rho/MKL-dependent genes and show effects on stress pathways as well. This suggests a novel approach to targeting aggressive cancers and metastasis.

  14. Fibulin-3 negatively regulates ALDH1 via c-MET suppression and increases γ-radiation-induced sensitivity in some pancreatic cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-Gyu, E-mail: igkim@kaeri.re.kr [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Biotechnology and Applied Radioisotope, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yusong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Ha [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Biotechnology and Applied Radioisotope, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yusong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seo-Yoen; Kim, Jeong-Yul [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun-Wie [Epigenomics Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-21

    Highlights: • FBLN-3 gene was poorly expressed in some pancreatic cancer lines. • FBLN-3 promoter region was highly methylated in some pancreatic cancer cell lines. • FBLN-3 inhibited c-MET activation and expression and reduced cellular level of ALDH1. • FBLN-3/c-Met/ALDH1 axis modulates stemness and EMT in pancreatic cancer cells. - Abstract: Fibulin-3 (FBLN-3) has been postulated to be either a tumor suppressor or promoter depending on the cell type, and hypermethylation of the FBLN-3 promoter is often associated with human disease, especially cancer. We report that the promoter region of the FBLN-3 was significantly methylated (>95%) in some pancreatic cancer cell lines and thus FBLN-3 was poorly expressed in pancreatic cancer cell lines such as AsPC-1 and MiaPaCa-2. FBLN-3 overexpression significantly down-regulated the cellular level of c-MET and inhibited hepatocyte growth factor-induced c-MET activation, which were closely associated with γ-radiation resistance of cancer cells. Moreover, we also showed that c-MET suppression or inactivation decreased the cellular level of ALDH1 isozymes (ALDH1A1 or ALDH1A3), which serve as cancer stem cell markers, and subsequently induced inhibition of cell growth in pancreatic cancer cells. Therefore, forced overexpression of FBLN-3 sensitized cells to cytotoxic agents such as γ-radiation and strongly inhibited the stemness and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) property of pancreatic cancer cells. On the other hand, if FBLN3 was suppressed in FBLN-3-expressing BxPC3 cells, the results were opposite. This study provides the first demonstration that the FBLN-3/c-MET/ALDH1 axis in pancreatic cancer cells partially modulates stemness and EMT as well as sensitization of cells to the detrimental effects of γ-radiation.

  15. Breast cancer circulating tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Joao Carvalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastasization of breast cancer involves various mechanisms responsible for progression from invasive lesion to dissemination in distant organs. Regional lymph node metastasization was considered an initial step in this process, but it is now recognized that hematogenous dissemination is a deviation from lymphatic circulation. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC is an aim in several oncology areas. For this purpose, several techniques have been used to detect CTC, including the use of antibodies and techniques with nucleic acids. This study reviews the published studies considering the detection of breast cancer CTC. There are focused the difficulties in identifying a CTC in a heterogeneous population, the handling of the sample, criteria of positivity, analytical techniques, and specific markers. There are systematized various specific markers of breast cancer cells also the problems with false positive results. Finally, we hypothesize clinical applications either as a prognostic marker or as a therapeutic response monitor.

  16. DNA aptamer evolved by cell-SELEX for recognition of prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Wang

    Full Text Available Morbidity and mortality of prostate cancer (PCa have increased in recent years worldwide. Currently existing methods for diagnosis and treatment do not make the situation improve, especially for hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC. The lack of molecular probes for PCa hindered the early diagnosis of metastasis and accurate staging for PCa. In this work, we have developed a new aptamer probe Wy-5a against PCa cell line PC-3 by cell-SELEX technique. Wy-5a shows high specificity to the target cells with dissociation constants in the nanomolar range, and does not recognize other tested PCa cell lines and other tested tumor cell lines. The staining of clinical tissue sections with fluorescent dye labeled Wy-5a shows that sections from high risk group with metastasis exhibited stronger fluorescence and sections from Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH did not exhibit notable fluorescence, which suggests that aptamer Wy-5a may bind to protein related to the progression of PCa. The high affinity and specificity of Wy-5a makes this aptamer hold potential for application in diagnosis and target therapy of PCa.

  17. Formulation of Acid-Sensitive Micelles for Delivery of Cabazitaxel into Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Omer; Youssef, Ibrahim; Yuksel Durmaz, Yasemin; Tiruchinapally, Gopinath; ElSayed, Mohamed E H

    2016-04-04

    We report the synthesis of an amphiphilic triblock copolymer composed of a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) block, a central poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) block, and a hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) block using atom transfer radical polymerization technique. We examined the self-assembly of PEG-b-PAA-b-PMMA copolymers in aqueous solutions forming nanosized micelles and their ability to encapsulate hydrophobic guest molecules such as Nile Red (NR) dye and cabazitaxel (CTX, an anticancer drug). We used 2,2β'-(propane-2,2-diylbis(oxy))-diethanamine to react with the carboxylic acid groups of the central PAA block forming acid-labile, shell cross-linked micelles (SCLM). We investigated the loading efficiency and release of different guest molecules from non-cross-linked micelles (NSCLM) and shell cross-linked micelles (SCLM) prepared by reacting 50% (SCLM-50) and 100% (SCLM-100) of the carboxylic acid groups in the PAA in physiologic (pH 7.4) and acidic (pH 5.0) buffer solutions as a function of time. We examined the uptake of NR-loaded NSCLM, SCLM-50, and SCLM-100 micelles into PC-3 and C4-2B prostate cancer cells and the effect of different micelle compositions on membrane fluidity of both cell lines. We also investigated the effect of CTX-loaded NSCLM, SCLM-50, and SCLM-100 micelles on the viability of PC-3 and C4-2B cancer cells compared to free CTX as a function of drug concentration. Results show that PEG-b-PAA-b-PMMA polymers form micelles at concentrations ≥11 μg/mL with an average size of 40-50 nm. CTX was encapsulated in PEG-b-PAA-b-PMMA micelles with 55% loading efficiency in NSCLM. In vitro release studies showed that 30% and 85% of the loaded CTX was released from SCLM-50 micelles in physiologic (pH 7.4) and acidic (pH 5.0) buffer solutions over 30 h, confirming micelles' sensitivity to solution pH. Results show uptake of NSCLM and SCLM into prostate cancer cells delivering their chemotherapeutic cargo, which triggered efficient cancer

  18. Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells and Cell Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, Veronica [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Gaggianesi, Miriam [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Department of Cellular and Molecular Oncology, IRCCS Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Via Salvatore Maugeri, 27100 Pavia, PV (Italy); Spina, Valentina; Iovino, Flora [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Dieli, Francesco [Departement of Biopathology and Medicine Biotechnologies, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Stassi, Giorgio, E-mail: giorgio.stassi@unipa.it [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy); Department of Cellular and Molecular Oncology, IRCCS Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, Via Salvatore Maugeri, 27100 Pavia, PV (Italy); Todaro, Matilde [Department of Surgical and Oncological Sciences, University of Palermo, Via Liborio Giuffrè 5, 90127 Palermo, PA (Italy)

    2011-04-11

    Nowadays it is reported that, similarly to other solid tumors, colorectal cancer is sustained by a rare subset of cancer stem–like cells (CSCs), which survive conventional anticancer treatments, thanks to efficient mechanisms allowing escape from apoptosis, triggering tumor recurrence. To improve patient outcomes, conventional anticancer therapies have to be replaced with specific approaches targeting CSCs. In this review we provide strong support that BMP4 is an innovative therapeutic approach to prevent colon cancer growth increasing differentiation markers expression and apoptosis. Recent data suggest that in colorectal CSCs, protection from apoptosis is achieved by interleukin-4 (IL-4) autocrine production through upregulation of antiapoptotic mediators, including survivin. Consequently, IL-4 neutralization could deregulate survivin expression and localization inducing chemosensitivity of the colon CSCs pool.

  19. 5-Bromo-3-(3-hydroxyprop-1-ynyl-2H-pyran-2-one targets prostate cancer cells by down-regulating inflammation-related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Yang Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to examine the effect of 5-bromo-3-(3-hydroxyprop-1-ynyl-2H-pyran-2-one (BHP on the rate of cell proliferation and apoptosis induction in the PC3, human prostate carcinoma cell line. The cell viability was assayed by using sulphorhodamine B staining and apoptosis by annexin V and flow cytometry analyses. The results revealed that BHP treatment in PC3 cells caused a significant reduction in the rate of cell proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manner. Compared to the un-treated cells, the formation of HUVEC tubes was markedly inhibited on treatment with BHP at a concentration of 30 µM. Further investigation revealed the expression of HMGB1, IL-6 and IL-8, pro-inflammatory cytokines was also inhibited on treatment with BHP. Therefore, BHP treatment plays an important role in inducing apoptosis in the prostrate cells and can be of therapeutic value for the prostate cancer treatment.

  20. Efavirenz Has the Highest Anti-Proliferative Effect of Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors against Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hecht

    Full Text Available Cancer prevention and therapy in HIV-1-infected patients will play an important role in future. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI Efavirenz and Nevirapine are cytotoxic against cancer cells in vitro. As other NNRTIs have not been studied so far, all clinically used NNRTIs were tested and the in vitro toxic concentrations were compared to drug levels in patients to predict possible anti-cancer effects in vivo.Cytotoxicity was studied by Annexin-V-APC/7AAD staining and flow cytometry in the pancreatic cancer cell lines BxPC-3 and Panc-1 and confirmed by colony formation assays. The 50% effective cytotoxic concentrations (EC50 were calculated and compared to the blood levels in our patients and published data.The in vitro EC50 of the different drugs in the BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells were: Efavirenz 31.5 μmol/l (= 9944 ng/ml, Nevirapine 239 μmol/l (= 63,786 ng/ml, Etravirine 89.0 μmol/l (= 38,740 ng/ml, Lersivirine 543 μmol/l (= 168,523 ng/ml, Delavirdine 171 μmol/l (= 78,072 ng/ml, Rilpivirine 24.4 μmol/l (= 8941 ng/ml. As Efavirenz and Rilpivirine had the highest cytotoxic potential and Nevirapine is frequently used in HIV-1 positive patients, the results of these three drugs were further studied in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells and confirmed with colony formation assays. 205 patient blood levels of Efavirenz, 127 of Rilpivirine and 31 of Nevirapine were analyzed. The mean blood level of Efavirenz was 3587 ng/ml (range 162-15,363 ng/ml, of Rilpivirine 144 ng/ml (range 0-572 ng/ml and of Nevirapine 4955 ng/ml (range 1856-8697 ng/ml. Blood levels from our patients and from published data had comparable Efavirenz levels to the in vitro toxic EC50 in about 1 to 5% of all patients.All studied NNRTIs were toxic against cancer cells. A low percentage of patients taking Efavirenz reached in vitro cytotoxic blood levels. It can be speculated that in HIV-1 positive patients having high Efavirenz blood levels pancreatic

  1. Gene Delivery for Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pang, Shen

    2001-01-01

    .... Enhanced by the bystander effect, the specific expression of the DTA gene causes significant cell death in prostate cancer cell cultures, with very low background cell eradication in control cell lines...

  2. Stem cells in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Francesca; Fernandez, Pedro L; Thomson, Timothy M

    2013-06-01

    Tumors constitute complex ecosystems with multiple interactions among neoplastic cells displaying various phenotypes and functions and where the tumoral niche is built with an active participation of the host environment that also impacts the malignant progression of the tumor cells. Irrespective of the cell of origin of prostate adenocarcinoma, mounting evidences support the existence of a hierarchy within neoplastic prostate cells that contributes to the heterogeneity of these tumors. At the origin of this hierarchy are small populations of tumor cells with high self-renewal potential and also capable of generating progeny tumor cells that lose self-renewal properties as they acquire more differentiated phenotypes. These cancer stem cells (CSC) depend on active gene networks that confer them with their self-renewal capacity through symmetrical divisions whereas they can also undergo asymmetrical division and differentiation either as stochastic events or in response to environmental cues. Although new experimental evidences indicate that this is can be a reversible process, thus blurring the distinction between CSCs and non-CSCs, the former are considered as the drivers of tumor growth and evolution, and thus a prime target for therapeutic intervention. Of particular importance in prostate cancer, CSCs may constitute the repository population of androgen-insensitive and chemotherapy-resistant tumor cells responsible for castration-resistant and chemotherapy-insensitive tumors, thus their identification and quantification in primary and metastatic neoplasms could play important roles in the management of this disease.

  3. Cancer Stem Cells, Epithelial to Mesenchymal Markers, and Circulating Tumor Cells in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pore, M.M.; Meijer, C.; de Bock, G.H.; Boersma-van Ek, W.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; Groen, H.J.M.; Timens, W.; Kruyt, F.A.E.; Hiltermann, T.N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has a poor prognosis, and even with localized (limited) disease, the 5-year survival has only been around 20%. Elevated levels of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been associated with a worse prognosis, and markers of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and

  4. Glutathione in Cancer Cell Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Angel L. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, 17 Av. Blasco Ibanez, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Mena, Salvador [Green Molecular SL, Pol. Ind. La Coma-Parc Cientific, 46190 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Estrela, Jose M., E-mail: jose.m.estrela@uv.es [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, 17 Av. Blasco Ibanez, 46010 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-03-11

    Glutathione (L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) in cancer cells is particularly relevant in the regulation of carcinogenic mechanisms; sensitivity against cytotoxic drugs, ionizing radiations, and some cytokines; DNA synthesis; and cell proliferation and death. The intracellular thiol redox state (controlled by GSH) is one of the endogenous effectors involved in regulating the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex and, in consequence, thiol oxidation can be a causal factor in the mitochondrion-based mechanism that leads to cell death. Nevertheless GSH depletion is a common feature not only of apoptosis but also of other types of cell death. Indeed rates of GSH synthesis and fluxes regulate its levels in cellular compartments, and potentially influence switches among different mechanisms of death. How changes in gene expression, post-translational modifications of proteins, and signaling cascades are implicated will be discussed. Furthermore, this review will finally analyze whether GSH depletion may facilitate cancer cell death under in vivo conditions, and how this can be applied to cancer therapy.

  5. Experimental therapy of prostate cancer with novel natural product anti-cancer ginsenosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Rayburn, Elizabeth R; Hao, Miao; Zhao, Yuqing; Hill, Donald L; Zhang, Ruiwen; Wang, Hui

    2008-06-01

    Ginseng and its components exert various biological effects, including antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, and anti-tumor activity, and recent research has focused on their value in human cancer prevention and treatment. We recently isolated 25-hydroxyprotopanaxadiol (25-OH-PPD) and 25-hydroxyprotopanaxatriol (25-OH-PPT) from Panax ginseng and evaluated their anti-cancer activity in vitro. We compared the effects of the two compounds on human prostate cancer LNCaP and PC3 cells in vitro and in a mouse PC3 xenograft tumor model. We also accomplished a preliminary determination of the mechanisms of action of the compounds. 25-OH-PPD, but not 25-OH-PPT, inhibited prostate cancer cell growth and proliferation, induced apoptosis, and led to arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. In nude mice bearing PC3 xenograft tumors, 25-OH-PPD inhibited tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner and could be safely combined with chemotherapeutic agents (taxotere and gemcitabine) and radiation therapy to improve the anti-tumor effects. Further, in both PC3 and LNCaP cell lines, 25-OH-PPD increased expression of p21, p27, and Bax, induced PARP cleavage and activated caspases. The compound also reduced expression of MDM2, E2F1, Bcl2, cdk2/4/6, and cyclin D1, which correlated with the cell cycle arrest in G1 and the decrease in proliferation. Moreover, 25-OH-PPD demonstrated low toxicity to non-cancer cells and no observable host toxicity in animals either alone or in combination with conventional therapies. The newly identified ginsenoside 25-OH-PPD may have potential as a novel prostate cancer therapeutic agent. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Single-walled carbon nanotube and graphene: Nano-delivery of Gambogic acid increases its cytotoxicty in various cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Lamya M.

    Nanomedicine is a new branch of medicine that has been developed due to the critical need to treat challenging diseases, especially cancer since it remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and the second most common cause of death after heart disease in the USA. One of the most important health care applications of nanomedicine concerns the development of drug delivery systems. Graphene (Gn), an atom-thick carbon monolayer of sp2- bonded carbon atoms arranged in a two dimensional (2D) honeycomb crystal lattice, and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) (1D, tubular) are among the most promising nanomaterials with the capability of delivering drugs or small therapeutic molecules to cancerous cells. For example, they have been used as vehicles for the anti-cancer, low-toxicity drug Gambogic acid (GA). Here, the cytotoxicity of GA in breast (MCF-7), pancreatic (PANC-1), cervical (HELA), ovarian (NCI/ADR), and prostate (PC3) cancer cells was assessed to determine what effect nanodelivery by either Gn or SWCNTs had on the efficacy of this promising drug. The nanomaterials showed no toxicity at the concentrations used. The inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis of the cells was due to the effects of GA which was significantly enhanced by nanodelivery. Such delivery of GA by either Gn or SWCNTs represents a first step toward assessing their effectiveness in more complex, targeted nano-delivery in vivo settings and signals their potential application in the treatment of cancer.

  7. Heteroleptic oxidovanadium(IV) complexes of 2-hydroxynaphtylaldimine and polypyridyl ligands against Trypanosoma cruzi and prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalese, Gonzalo; Mosquillo, M Florencia; Rostán, Santiago; Castiglioni, Jorge; Alho, Irina; Pérez, Leticia; Correia, Isabel; Marques, Fernanda; Costa Pessoa, João; Gambino, Dinorah

    2017-10-01

    In Latin America Chagas disease is an endemic illness caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), killing more people than any other parasitic disease. Current chemotherapies are old and inadequate, thus the development of efficient ones is urgently needed. Vanadium-based complexes have been shown to be a promising approach both against parasitic diseases and cancer and this study aims to achieve significant advances in the pursue of effective compounds. Heteroleptic vanadium complexes of Schiff bases and polypyridine compounds were prepared and their stability in solution evaluated by EPR (Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance) and NMR spectroscopy. Their in vitro activities were evaluated against T. cruzi and a set of cells lines representative of human cancer conditions, namely ovarian, breast and prostate cancer. In T. cruzi, most of the complexes depicted IC 50 values in the low μM range, induced changes of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis. In cancer cells, complexes showed good to moderate activity and in metastatic cells (prostate PC3), some complexes inhibited the migratory ability, this suggesting that they display antimetastatic potential. Interestingly, complex 5 seemed to have a dual effect being the most cytotoxic complex on all cancer cells and also the most active anti-T-cruzi compound of the series. Globally the complexes showed promising anticancer and anti T. cruzi activities and also displayed some characteristics indicating they are worth to be further explored as antimetastatic drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Dendritic cells in cancer immunotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gato, M; Liechtenstein, T; Blanco-Luquín, I; Zudaire, M I; Kochan, G; Escors, D

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, biomedical scientists have tried to take advantage of the natural anti-cancer activities of the immune system. However, all the scientific and medical efforts dedicated to this have not resulted in the expected success. In fact, classical antineoplastic treatments such as surgery, radio and chemotherapy are still first line treatments. Even so, there is a quantity of experimental evidence demonstrating that cancer cells are immunogenic. However, the effective activation of anti-cancer T cell responses closely depends on an efficient antigen presentation carried out by professional antigen presenting cells such as DC. Although there are a number of strategies to strengthen antigen presentation by DC, anti-cancer immunotherapy is not as effective as we would expect according to preclinical data accumulated in recent decades. We do not aim to make an exhaustive review of DC immunotherapy here, which is an extensive research subject already dealt with in many specialised reviews. Instead, we present the experimental approaches undertaken by our group over the last decade, by modifying DC to improve their anti-tumour capacities.

  9. Proteasome expression and activity in cancer and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A

    2017-03-01

    Proteasome is a multi-protein organelle that participates in cellular proteostasis by destroying damaged or short-lived proteins in an organized manner guided by the ubiquitination signal. By being in a central place in the cellular protein complement homeostasis, proteasome is involved in virtually all cell processes including decisions on cell survival or death, cell cycle, and differentiation. These processes are important also in cancer, and thus, the proteasome is an important regulator of carcinogenesis. Cancers include a variety of cells which, according to the cancer stem cell theory, descend from a small percentage of cancer stem cells, alternatively termed tumor-initiating cells. These cells constitute the subsets that have the ability to propagate the whole variety of cancer and repopulate tumors after cytostatic therapies. Proteasome plays a role in cellular processes in cancer stem cells, but it has been found to have a decreased function in them compared to the rest of cancer cells. This article will discuss the transcriptional regulation of proteasome sub-unit proteins in cancer and in particular cancer stem cells and the relationship of the proteasome with the pluripotency that is the defining characteristic of stem cells. Therapeutic opportunities that present from the understanding of the proteasome role will also be discussed.

  10. Cytotoxic effect of novel dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives on different cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Mariana; Cabeza, Marisa; Cortés, Francisco; Gutiérrez