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  1. Real-Time MRI Navigated Ultrasound for Preoperative Tumor Evaluation in Breast Cancer Patients: Technique and Clinical Implementation

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    Park, Ah Young; Seo, Bo Kyoung [Department of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan 15355 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) navigated ultrasound is an image fusion technique to display the results of both MRI and ultrasonography on the same monitor. This system is a promising technique to improve lesion detection and analysis, to maximize advantages of each imaging modality, and to compensate the disadvantages of both MRI and ultrasound. In evaluating breast cancer stage preoperatively, MRI and ultrasound are the most representative imaging modalities. However, sometimes difficulties arise in interpreting and correlating the radiological features between these two different modalities. This pictorial essay demonstrates the technical principles of the real-time MRI navigated ultrasound, and clinical implementation of the system in preoperative evaluation of tumor extent, multiplicity, and nodal status in breast cancer patients.

  2. Real-time MRI navigated ultrasound for preoperative tumor evaluation in breast cancer patients: Technique and clinical implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ah Young; Seo, Bo Kyoung [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) navigated ultrasound is an image fusion technique to display the results of both MRI and ultrasonography on the same monitor. This system is a promising technique to improve lesion detection and analysis, to maximize advantages of each imaging modality, and to compensate the disadvantages of both MRI and ultrasound. In evaluating breast cancer stage preoperatively, MRI and ultrasound are the most representative imaging modalities. However, sometimes difficulties arise in interpreting and correlating the radiological features between these two different modalities. This pictorial essay demonstrates the technical principles of the real-time MRI navigated ultrasound, and clinical implementation of the system in preoperative evaluation of tumor extent, multiplicity, and nodal status in breast cancer patients.

  3. Consultation on urological specimens from referred cancer patients using real-time digital microscopy: Optimizing the workflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Holten-Rossing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Centralization of cancer treatment entails a reassessment of the diagnostic tissue specimens. Packaging and shipment of glass slides from the local to the central pathology unit means that the standard procedure is time-consuming and that it is difficult to comply with governmental requirements. The aim was to evaluate whether real-time digital microscopy for urological cancer specimens during the primary diagnostic process can replace subsequent physical slide referral and reassessment without compromising diagnostic safety. Methods: From May to October 2014, tissue specimens from 130 patients with urological cancer received at Næstved Hospital′s Pathology Department, and expected to be referred for further treatment at cancer unit of a university hospital, were diagnosed using standard light microscopy. In the event of diagnostic uncertainty, the VisionTek digital microscope (Sakura Finetek was employed. The Pathology Department at Næstved Hospital was equipped with a digital microscope and three consultant pathologists were stationed at Rigshospitalet with workstations optimized for digital microscopy. Representative slides for each case were selected for consultation and live digital consultation took place over the telephone using remote access software. Time of start and finish for each case was logged. For the physically referred cases, time from arrival to sign-out was logged in the national pathology information system, and time spent on microscopy and reporting was noted manually. Diagnosis, number of involved biopsies, grade, and stage were compared between digital microscopy and conventional microscopy. Results: Complete data were available for all 130 cases. Standard procedure with referral of urological cancer specimens took a mean of 8 min 56 s for microscopy, reporting and sign-out per case. For live digital consultations, a mean of 18 min 37 s was spent on each consultation with 4 min 43 s for each case

  4. PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF MULTIPLE GENETIC TUMOR MARKER ASSAY BY QUANTITATIVE REAL-TIME PCR TO PREDICT RECURRENCE IN COLORECTAL CANCER PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe correlation between multiple genetic tumor markers,carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA),cytokeratin 20 (CK20),and Survivin,and clinicopathological features of colorectal cancer (CRC) and to assess prognostic diagnosis value in cancer recurrence and metastasis.Methods A total of 92 patients with CRC,68 patients with precancerous lesions,and 29 control volunteers were collected for the detection of CEA,CK20,and Survivin expressions by using quantitative Real-Time PCR technology.Associations am...

  5. Detection of Apoptotic Inhibitor Gene Survivin in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Esophageal Cancer by Real-time Fluorescence Quantitative PCR and its Clinical Signiifcance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical signiifcance of apoptotic inhibitor gene Survivin in peripheral blood of patients with esophageal cancer. Methods:Real-time lfuorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression of Survivin mRNA in peripheral blood of 93 patients with benign and malignant esophageal lesions. The relationship of Survivin mRNA expression and clinicopathologic feature was observed. Results:The expression of Survivin mRNA in peripheral blood which was associated with differentiated degree and clinical staging was progressively increased from benign lesion to carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma. Conclusion:The expression of Survivin mRNA in peripheral blood is significantly related to the genesis and progression of esophageal carcinoma. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR used to detect the expression of Survivin m-RNA in peripheral blood may be more convenient for diagnosing and guiding the treatment of esophageal carcinoma.

  6. Comparative evaluation of pan-fungal real-time PCR, galactomannan and (1-3)-β-D-glucan assay for invasive fungal infection in paediatric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prashant; Ahmad, Abrar; Khare, Vineeta; Kumar, Archana; Banerjee, Gopa; Verma, Nitya; Singh, Mastan

    2017-04-01

    Limited specific data and investigations are available for the diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Infection (IFI) in paediatrics cancer patients. Three non-invasive tests; Platelia Aspergillus EIA for galactomannan (GM), β-D-glucan (BDG) assay and pan-fungal real-time PCR for fungal DNA in blood were evaluated. One hundred twenty-five paediatrics cancer patients at the high risk of IFI were enrolled. Single blood and serum samples were evaluated by all the three methods. Patients were classified into 10 proven, 52 probable and 63 no IFI cases in accordance with EORTC MSG 2008 revised guidelines. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of all the three tests in proven, probable and no IFIs cases were analysed singly and in combination. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of GM, BDG and pan-fungal real-time PCR were: 87%, 61%, 81%, 69.5% for GM, 88%, 59.5%, 81%, 71.4% for BDG and 89%, 69.2%, 85%, 67.5% for PCR (95% CI). Among different combinations, best combination was found to be GM and PCR with sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of 98.2%, 89.3%, 97.1% and 90% respectively. Single samples must be evaluated by combination of tests.

  7. Real-time RT-PCR systems for CTC detection from blood samples of breast cancer and gynaecological tumour patients (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andergassen, Ulrich; Kölbl, Alexandra C; Mahner, Sven; Jeschke, Udo

    2016-04-01

    Cells, which detach from a primary epithelial tumour and migrate through lymphatic vessels and blood stream are called 'circulating tumour cells'. These cells are considered to be the main root of remote metastasis and are correlated to a worse prognosis concerning progression-free and overall survival of the patients. Therefore, the detection of the minimal residual disease is of great importance regarding therapeutic decisions. Many different detection strategies are already available, but only one method, the CellSearch® system, reached FDA approval. The present review focusses on the detection of circulating tumour cells by means of real-time PCR, a highly sensitive method based on differences in gene expression between normal and malignant cells. Strategies for an enrichment of tumour cells are mentioned, as well as a large panel of potential marker genes. Drawbacks and advantages of the technique are elucidated, whereas, the greatest advantage might be, that by selection of appropriate marker genes, also tumour cells, which have already undergone epithelial to mesenchymal transition can be detected. Finally, the application of real-time PCR in different gynaecological malignancies is described, with breast cancer being the most studied cancer entity.

  8. Microsatellite instability typing in serum and tissue of patients with colorectal cancer: comparing real time PCR with hybridization probe and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokarram, P; Rismanchi, M; Alizadeh Naeeni, M; Mirab Samiee, S; Paryan, M; Alipour, A; Honardar, Z; Kavousipour, S; Naghibalhossaini, F; Mostafavi-Pour, Z; Monabati, A; Hosseni, S V; Shamsdin, S A

    2014-05-01

    Allelic variation of BAT-25 (a 25-repeat quasimonomorphic poly T) and BAT-26 (a 26-repeat quasimonomorphic polyA) loci as two mononucleotide microsatellite markers, were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) compared with Real-Time PCR using hybridization probes. BAT-26 and BAT-25 markers were used to determine an appropriate screening technique with high sensitivity and specificity to diagnose microsatellite instability (MSI) status in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). One of the pathways in colorectal tumor genesis is microsatellite instability (MSI+). MSI is detected in about 15% of all CRCs; 3% are of these are associated with Lynch syndrome and the other 12% are caused by sporadic. Colorectal tumors with MSI have distinctive features compared with microsatellite stable tumors. Due to the high percentage of MSI+ CRC in Iran, screening of this type of CRC is imperative. Two markers were analyzed in tissues and sera of 44 normal volunteers and tumor and matched normal mucosal tissues as well as sera of 44 patients with sporadic CRC. The sensitivity and specificity of BAT-26 with real time PCR method (Hybridization probe) were 100% in comparison with sequencing method as the gold standard, while HPLC had a lower sensitivity and specificity. According to HPLC data, BAT-26 was more sensitive than BAT-25 in identifying MSI tumors. Therefore, MSI typing using the BAT-26 hybridization probe method compared to HPLC could be considered as an accurate method for diagnosing MSI in CRC tumors but not in serum circulating DNAs.

  9. Feasibility of Real-Time Near-Infrared Fluorescence Tracer Imaging in Sentinel Node Biopsy for Oral Cavity Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders; Juhl, Karina; Charabi, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is an established method in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) for staging the cN0 neck and to select patients who will benefit from a neck dissection. Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging has the potential to improve the SNB procedure by facilitating ...

  10. Development of a quantitative Real-Time PCR for micrometastasis detection using CEA in peripheral blood and bone marrow specimens of gastric cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dardaei Alghalandis L

    2009-11-01

    transcription and subjected to Quantitative Real-Time PCR (QRT-PCR."n"nResults: We developed a highly sensitive and specific quantitative PCR for CEA and GAPDH using Real-Time PCR based on TaqMan technology. CEA mRNA was detected in 23% of PB and 20% of BM specimens. There was no CEA mRNA detecting in control group."n"nConclusions: The QRT-PCR for CEA can be a useful technique for detection of micrometastases in the PB and BM specimens of gastric cancer patients."n

  11. Emergency Department Real Time Location System Patient and Equipment Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    identify key opportunities to drive operational efficiency, improve patient satisfaction , and increase asset utilization. The project will also focus on...operative setting tagging other assets as well as patients and caregivers. Body Background: The Valley Hospital proposes to implement a real time...area to identify key opportunities to drive operational efficiency, improve patient satisfaction , and increase asset utilization. The pilot project

  12. Detection of Tumor Cell-Specific mRNA in the Peripheral Blood of Patients with Breast Cancer — Evaluation of Several Markers with Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Andergassen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known that cells from epithelial tumors, e.g., breast cancer, detach from their primary tissue and enter blood circulation. We show that the presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs in samples of patients with primary and metastatic breast cancer can be detected with an array of selected tumor-marker-genes by reverse transcription real-time PCR. The focus of the presented work is on detecting differences in gene expression between healthy individuals and adjuvant and metastatic breast cancer patients, not an accurate quantification of these differences. Therefore, total RNA was isolated from blood samples of healthy donors and patients with primary or metastatic breast cancer after enrichment of mononuclear cells by density gradient centrifugation. After reverse transcription real-time PCR was carried out with a set of marker genes (BCSP, CK8, Her2, MGL, CK18, CK19. B2M and GAPDH were used as reference genes. Blood samples from patients with metastatic disease revealed increased cytokine gene levels in comparison to normal blood samples. Detection of a single gene was not sufficient to detect CTCs by reverse transcription real-time PCR. Markers used here were selected based on a recent study detecting cancer cells on different protein levels. The combination of such a marker array leads to higher and more specific discovery rates, predominantly in metastatic patients. Identification of CTCs by PCR methods may lead to better diagnosis and prognosis and could help to choose an adequate therapy.

  13. Emergency Department Real Time Location System Patient and Equipment Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    solution complies with all RF transmission guidelines to avoid interference with Hospital’s wireless communication systems and clinical...technology path that the messages will follow is, AgileTrac ESB services will capture real time updates of patient locations and push that

  14. Using real time patient feedback to introduce safety changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Debra; Peters, Hayley; Keast, John; Devon, Royal

    2011-10-01

    Holding regular safety briefings and debriefings has improved safety and the patient experience at one trust. The approach was piloted in an elective orthopaedic inpatient setting and includes obtaining real time patient feedback. The comments are themed, which enables staff to introduce service changes to rectify any problems. Staff using the tools have adopted the process as part of their working schedule. The authors discuss the advantages of using such an approach, which they believe can be introduced in any inpatient, outpatient and day-case setting to promote a safety culture in teams and obtain patient feedback that can be acted on promptly.

  15. Real-Time Motion Management of Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommer, Tobias

    of this thesis is to manage prostate motion in real-time by aligning the radiation beam to the prostate using the novel dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking method. Specifically, the delivered dose with tracking was compared to the planned dose, and the impact of treatment plan complexity and limitations...

  16. Assessing HER2 amplification by IHC, FISH, and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis (real-time PCR) following LCM in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue from 40 women with ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillig, Thore; Thode, Jørgen; Breinholt, Ellen Marie

    2012-01-01

    . Only few ovarian cancer patients were HER2 overexpressed measured by IHC or FISH and thus could be eligible for antibody-based therapy with trastuzumab (Herceptin). Interestingly, we find an increased number of HER2 positive patients by real-time PCR analysis on microdissected cancer cells, suggesting...

  17. Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo, online gastric cancer diagnosis during clinical endoscopic examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Sylvest Bergholt, Mads; Zheng, Wei; Yu Ho, Khek; Teh, Ming; Guan Yeoh, Khay; Bok Yan So, Jimmy; Shabbir, Asim; Huang, Zhiwei

    2012-08-01

    Optical spectroscopic techniques including reflectance, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy have shown promising potential for in vivo precancer and cancer diagnostics in a variety of organs. However, data-analysis has mostly been limited to post-processing and off-line algorithm development. In this work, we develop a fully automated on-line Raman spectral diagnostics framework integrated with a multimodal image-guided Raman technique for real-time in vivo cancer detection at endoscopy. A total of 2748 in vivo gastric tissue spectra (2465 normal and 283 cancer) were acquired from 305 patients recruited to construct a spectral database for diagnostic algorithms development. The novel diagnostic scheme developed implements on-line preprocessing, outlier detection based on principal component analysis statistics (i.e., Hotelling's T2 and Q-residuals) for tissue Raman spectra verification as well as for organ specific probabilistic diagnostics using different diagnostic algorithms. Free-running optical diagnosis and processing time of gastric cancer. The PLS-DA algorithms are further applied prospectively on 10 gastric patients at gastroscopy, achieving the predictive accuracy of 80.0% (60/75) [sensitivity of 90.0% (27/30) and specificity of 73.3% (33/45)] for in vivo diagnosis of gastric cancer. The receiver operating characteristics curves further confirmed the efficacy of Raman endoscopy together with PLS-DA algorithms for in vivo prospective diagnosis of gastric cancer. This work successfully moves biomedical Raman spectroscopic technique into real-time, on-line clinical cancer diagnosis, especially in routine endoscopic diagnostic applications.

  18. Assessing HER2 amplification by IHC, FISH, and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis (real-time PCR) following LCM in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue from 40 women with ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillig, Thore; Thode, Jørgen; Breinholt, Marie F; Franzmann, Maria-Benedicte; Pedersen, Carsten; Lund, Flemming; Mygind, Henrik; Sölétormos, György; Rudnicki, Martin

    2012-12-01

    We compare HER2 receptor amplification analysis by immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) DNA copy-number assay following laser capture microdissection (LCM) in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue from 40 women with verified ovarian cancer. We speculate that LCM should result in a more accurate assessment of HER2 amplification in our real-time PCR assay compared with IHC and FISH. HER2 overexpression measured by IHC, FISH, or real-time PCR was found in 5.0%, 5.0%, and 22.5%, respectively. HER2 negative results measured by IHC, FISH, or real-time PCR were found in 95%, 92.5%, and 60.0%, respectively. Analysis failed for IHC, FISH, or real-time PCR in 0%, 2.5%, or 17.5% of cases. Concordance between IHC and FISH, IHC and real-time PCR, or FISH and real-time PCR were 89.7%, 72.7%, or 78.1%, respectively. Only few ovarian cancer patients were HER2 overexpressed measured by IHC or FISH and thus could be eligible for antibody-based therapy with trastuzumab (Herceptin). Interestingly, we find an increased number of HER2 positive patients by real-time PCR analysis on microdissected cancer cells, suggesting a number of HER2 positive patients not detected by current methods. Thus, the concept of quantitative measurement of HER2 on microdissected cancer cells should be explored further.

  19. Practical Method of Adaptive Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer Using Real-Time Electromagnetic Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Jeffrey R.; Noel, Camille E.; Baker, Kenneth; Santanam, Lakshmi; Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Parikh, Parag J., E-mail: pparikh@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have created an automated process using real-time tracking data to evaluate the adequacy of planning target volume (PTV) margins in prostate cancer, allowing a process of adaptive radiotherapy with minimal physician workload. We present an analysis of PTV adequacy and a proposed adaptive process. Methods and Materials: Tracking data were analyzed for 15 patients who underwent step-and-shoot multi-leaf collimation (SMLC) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with uniform 5-mm PTV margins for prostate cancer using the Calypso Registered-Sign Localization System. Additional plans were generated with 0- and 3-mm margins. A custom software application using the planned dose distribution and structure location from computed tomography (CT) simulation was developed to evaluate the dosimetric impact to the target due to motion. The dose delivered to the prostate was calculated for the initial three, five, and 10 fractions, and for the entire treatment. Treatment was accepted as adequate if the minimum delivered prostate dose (D{sub min}) was at least 98% of the planned D{sub min}. Results: For 0-, 3-, and 5-mm PTV margins, adequate treatment was obtained in 3 of 15, 12 of 15, and 15 of 15 patients, and the delivered D{sub min} ranged from 78% to 99%, 96% to 100%, and 99% to 100% of the planned D{sub min}. Changes in D{sub min} did not correlate with magnitude of prostate motion. Treatment adequacy during the first 10 fractions predicted sufficient dose delivery for the entire treatment for all patients and margins. Conclusions: Our adaptive process successfully used real-time tracking data to predict the need for PTV modifications, without the added burden of physician contouring and image analysis. Our methods are applicable to other uses of real-time tracking, including hypofractionated treatment.

  20. Real-time determination of human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Hua Hu; Feng-Hua Chen; Yi-Rong Li; Lin Wang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To set up a real-time fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay,to detect human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)messenger RNA in gastric carcinomas, and to evaluate quantitative determination of hTERT mRNA in the diagnostic value of gastric carcinomas, and to analyze the correlation between the expression level of hTERT mRNA and dinicopathological parameters in patients with gastric cancer.METHODS: A real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RQ-PCR)based on TaqMan fluorescence methodoloogy and the LightCyder system was used to quantify the full range of hTERT mRNA copy numbers in 35 samples of gastric carcinomas and corresponding adjacent non-cancerous tissues. The normalized hTERT (NhTERT) was standardized by quantifying the number of GAPDH transcripts as internal control and expressed as 100× (hTERT/GAPDH) ratio. Variables were analyzed by the Student's t-test, χ2 test and Fisher's exact test.RESULTS: NhTERT from gastric carcinomas and corresponding adjacent non-cancerous tissues was 6.27±0.89 and 0.93±0.18,respectively (t= 12.76, P<0.001). There was no significant association between gastric cancer hTERT mRNA expression level and patient's age, gender, tumor size, location and stage (pTNM), but a significant correlation was found between hTERT mRNA expression level in gastric carcinomas and the degree of differentiation.CONCLUSION: Quantitative determination of hTERT mRNA by RQ-PCR is a rapid and sensitive method. hTERT might be a potential biomarker for the early detection of gastric cancer.

  1. Real-time Quantitative RT-PCR for CT9 Level in Human Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    CT9 is a recently cloned cancer-testis antigen, which is a member of the bromodomain and extraterminal family.Each member of this protein family contains two N-terminal bromodomain motifs. We investigated the distribution of CT9 in different tissues and the possibility for it to be used as a potential therapeutic target in cancer treament. By using the real-time RT-PCR method and 18SrRNA as an internal standard, we analyzed the CT9 expression in several normal human tissues and in the tissues of patients suffering from cancer. The result of this study shows that the highest level of mRNA is only present in testis tissue because the CT9 expression has not been detected in other normal tissues. In 6 of 10 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma, in 3 of 10 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, in 2 of 9 cases of endometrial carcinoma and only in 1 of 12 cases of brain cancer, the low level expression of CT9 was detected. In none of the 12 cases of cervical squamous cell carcinoma, the expression of CT9 was detected. Since the high level expression of CT9 is only found in the normal testis tissue, but the low expression in cancer tissues, for example tissues of cervical squamous cell carcinoma, brain cancer, endometrial adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, we conclude that CT9 cannot be used as a cancer therapeutic target molecule for cervical squamous cell carcinoma, brain cancer, endometrial adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

  2. EGFR Mutations Detection in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Tissues by Real-time PCR and DNA Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua ZHOU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs, such as gefitinib and erlotinib that target the kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR are making successful progression for advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients treatment. The growing evidences revealed that EGFR exon 19 and 21 mutation status in NSCLC patients was correlated with the outcome for EGFR-TKI treatment. In this study, two methods of Real-time PCR and DNA sequencing were compared to detected EGFR exon 19 and 21 mutations. Methods EGFR exon19 mutation del-E746-A750 and exon 21mutation L858R were detected by Real-time PCR and DNA sequencing in 103 NSCLC patients. Chi-square test was used to analyze the consistance. Results There was no significant difference between the two methods. However, Real-time PCR was more convenient and sensitive compared to DNA sequencing. Conclusion Real-time PCR was more suitable for clinical testing than DNA sequencing.

  3. Real-time PCR in detection of plasmic miRNA in patients with esophageal cancer%实时荧光定量PCR检测食管癌循环miRNA的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭学宏; 陈暖; 李克; 郑邦希

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the differential expression of miR-424,miR-373,miR-34c,miR-129,miR-130b,miR-203,miR-9,miR-15b,miR-100,miR-145,miR-21 in serum of esophageal cancer.Methods The expression levels of miR-424,miR-373,miR-34c,miR-129,miR-130b,miR-203,miR-9,miR-15b,miR-100,miR-145,miR-21 were detected by real-time PCR in serum of 20 human esophageal cancer and 20 normal person.Results Over-expression of miR-424,miR-373,miR-34c,miR-203,miR-15b and low-expression of miR-100 were observed in serum of esophageal cancer.Conclusions miRNAs in the serum maybe a new biological indicator for diagnosis of human esophageal cancer.%目的 研究miR-424、miR-373、miR-34c、miR-129、miR-130b、miR-203、miR-9、miR-15b、miR-100、miR-145、miR-21在食管癌患者外周血的差异表达.方法 采用Real-time PCR定量检测方法分析比较20例食管癌患者血液与健康对照者血液之间miR-424、miR-373、miR-34c、miR-129、miR-130b、miR-203、miR-9、miR-15b、miR-100、miR-145、miR-21表达差异情况.结果 miR-424、miR-373、miR-34c、miR-203、miR-15b表达上调,miR-100表达下调.结论 外周血miRNA可能成为食管癌患者早期诊断新的生物学指标.

  4. Relationship between EGFR and KRAS mutations and prognosis in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer:a mutation analysis with real-time polymerase chain reaction using scorpion amplification refractory mutation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高洁

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the gene mutation of EGFR and KRAS in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) ,and to analyze the relationship between the gene mutations and the clinicopathological features and EGFR-TKI efficiency. Methods EGFR mutation was detected in 120 patients and KRAS mutation in 104 patients

  5. Real-Time Management of Multimodal Streaming Data for Monitoring of Epileptic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllopoulos, Dimitrios; Korvesis, Panagiotis; Mporas, Iosif; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios

    2016-03-01

    New generation of healthcare is represented by wearable health monitoring systems, which provide real-time monitoring of patient's physiological parameters. It is expected that continuous ambulatory monitoring of vital signals will improve treatment of patients and enable proactive personal health management. In this paper, we present the implementation of a multimodal real-time system for epilepsy management. The proposed methodology is based on a data streaming architecture and efficient management of a big flow of physiological parameters. The performance of this architecture is examined for varying spatial resolution of the recorded data.

  6. Detection of bacteria and fungi in blood of patients with febrile neutropenia by real-time PCR with universal primers and probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Hideto; Ohzono, Nanae; Inamura, Norikazu; Kato, Atsushi; Wakabayashi, Tokio; Akaike, Hiroto; Terada, Kihei; Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2015-03-01

    Febrile neutropenia is the main treatment-related cause of mortality in cancer patients. During June 2012 to April 2014, 97 blood culture samples were collected from patients receiving chemotherapy for hematological malignancy and cancer with febrile neutropenia episodes (FNEs). The samples were examined for the presence of bacteria and fungi using real-time PCR amplification and sequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA genes. Bacteria were identified in 20 of 97 samples (20.6%) by the real-time PCR assay and in 10 of 97 (10.3%) samples by blood culture. In 6 blood culture-positive samples, the real-time PCR assay detected the same type of bacteria. No fungi were detected by the real-time PCR assay or blood culture. During antibiotic therapy, all samples were negative by blood culture, but the real-time PCR assay yielded a positive result in 2 cases of 2 (100%). The bacterial DNA copy number was not well correlated with the serum C-reactive protein titer of patients with FNEs. We conclude that a real-time PCR assay could provide better detection of causative microbes' in a shorter time, and with a smaller blood sample than blood culture. Using a real-time PCR assay in combination with blood culture could improve microbiological documentation of FNEs.

  7. Real-time biosensor for the assessment of nanotoxicity and cancer electrotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondroulis, Evangelia

    Knowledge of cell electronics has led to their integration to medicine either by physically interfacing electronic devices with biological systems or by using electronics for both detection and characterization of biological materials. In this dissertation, an electrical impedance sensor (EIS) was used to measure the electrode surface impedance changes from cell samples of human and environmental toxicity of nanoscale materials in 2D and 3D cell culture models. The impedimetric response of human lung fibroblasts and rainbow trout gill epithelial cells when exposed to various nanomaterials was tested to determine their kinetic effects towards the cells and to demonstrate the biosensor's ability to monitor nanotoxicity in real-time. Further, the EIS allowed rapid, real-time and multi-sample analysis creating a versatile, noninvasive tool that is able to provide quantitative information with respect to alteration in cellular function. We then extended the application of the unique capabilities of the EIS to do real-time analysis of cancer cell response to externally applied alternating electric fields at different intermediate frequencies and low-intensity. Decreases in the growth profiles of the ovarian and breast cancer cells were observed with the application of 200 and 100 kHz, respectively, indicating specific inhibitory effects on dividing cells in culture in contrast to the non-cancerous HUVECs and mammary epithelial cells. We then sought to enhance the effects of the electric field by altering the cancer cell's electronegative membrane properties with HER2 antibody functionalized nanoparticles. An Annexin V/EthD-III assay and zeta potential were performed to determine the cell death mechanism indicating apoptosis and a decrease in zeta potential with the incorporation of the nanoparticles. With more negatively charged HER2-AuNPs attached to the cancer cell membrane, the decrease in membrane potential would thus leave the cells more vulnerable to the

  8. Radiotherapy beyond cancer: Target localization in real-time MRI and treatment planning for cardiac radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipsen, S. [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia and Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, University of Luebeck, Luebeck 23562 (Germany); Blanck, O.; Rades, D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck 23562 (Germany); Oborn, B. [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre (ICCC), Wollongong, New South Wales 2500, Australia and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Bode, F. [Medical Department II, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck 23562 (Germany); Liney, G. [Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool Hospital, Liverpool, New South Wales 2170 (Australia); Hunold, P. [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Luebeck and University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck 23562 (Germany); Schweikard, A. [Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, University of Luebeck, Luebeck 23562 (Germany); Keall, P. J., E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia that affects millions of patients world-wide. AFib is usually treated with minimally invasive, time consuming catheter ablation techniques. While recently noninvasive radiosurgery to the pulmonary vein antrum (PVA) in the left atrium has been proposed for AFib treatment, precise target location during treatment is challenging due to complex respiratory and cardiac motion. A MRI linear accelerator (MRI-Linac) could solve the problems of motion tracking and compensation using real-time image guidance. In this study, the authors quantified target motion ranges on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and analyzed the dosimetric benefits of margin reduction assuming real-time motion compensation was applied. Methods: For the imaging study, six human subjects underwent real-time cardiac MRI under free breathing. The target motion was analyzed retrospectively using a template matching algorithm. The planning study was conducted on a CT of an AFib patient with a centrally located esophagus undergoing catheter ablation, representing an ideal case for cardiac radiosurgery. The target definition was similar to the ablation lesions at the PVA created during catheter treatment. Safety margins of 0 mm (perfect tracking) to 8 mm (untracked respiratory motion) were added to the target, defining the planning target volume (PTV). For each margin, a 30 Gy single fraction IMRT plan was generated. Additionally, the influence of 1 and 3 T magnetic fields on the treatment beam delivery was simulated using Monte Carlo calculations to determine the dosimetric impact of MRI guidance for two different Linac positions. Results: Real-time cardiac MRI showed mean respiratory target motion of 10.2 mm (superior–inferior), 2.4 mm (anterior–posterior), and 2 mm (left–right). The planning study showed that increasing safety margins to encompass untracked respiratory motion leads to overlapping structures even in the

  9. Micromagnetic Cancer Cell Immobilization and Release for Real-Time Single Cell Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Devina; Rad, Armin Tahmasbi; Nieh, Mu-Ping; Claffey, Kevin P.; Hoshino, Kazunori

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the interaction of live cells with macromolecules is crucial for designing efficient therapies. Considering the functional heterogeneity found in cancer cells, real-time single cell analysis is necessary to characterize responses. In this study, we have designed and fabricated a microfluidic channel with patterned micromagnets which can temporarily immobilize the cells during analysis and release them after measurements. The microchannel is composed of plain coverslip top and bottom panels to facilitate easy microscopic observation and undisturbed application of analytes to the cells. Cells labeled with functionalized magnetic beads were immobilized in the device with an efficiency of 90.8±3.6%. Since the micromagnets are made of soft magnetic material (Ni), they released cells when external magnetic field was turned off from the channel. This allows the reuse of the channel for a new sample. As a model drug analysis, the immobilized breast cancer cells (MCF7) were exposed to fluorescent lipid nanoparticles and association and dissociation were measured through fluorescence analysis. Two concentrations of nanoparticles, 0.06 μg/ml and 0.08 μg/ml were tested and time lapse images were recorded and analyzed. The microfluidic device was able to provide a microenvironment for sample analysis, making it an efficient platform for real-time analysis.

  10. Detection of Tumor Markers in Prostate Cancer and Comparison of Sensitivity between Real Time and Nested PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, Takayuki; Shigemura, Katsumi; Yamamichi, Fukashi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kawabata, Masato; Shirakawa, Toshiro

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate and compare the sensitivity in conventional PCR, quantitative real time PCR, nested PCR and western blots for detection of prostate cancer tumor markers using prostate cancer (PCa) cells. We performed conventional PCR, quantitative real time PCR, nested PCR, and western blots using 5 kinds of PCa cells. Prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), and androgen receptor (AR) were compared for their detection sensitivi...

  11. A real time PCR assay on blood for diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in immunocompromised patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ashrafi

    2015-01-01

    Results: From 2009 to 2011, 72 patients with hematologic malignancies and bone marrow transplant recipients were evaluated for IC. The female to male ratio was 27:45; the mean age was 32.1 years. The most common malignancy in this patient was acute myeloid leukemia (AML (27.8% and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL (26.4%. Out of 72 patients, 11 patients (15.3% had positive real time PCR /probe results. Based on the melting temperature (Tm analysis, 5 (45.4% C. krusei, 3 (27.2% C. tropicalis, 2 (18.1% C. parapsilosis and 1 C. albicans (9% were identified. According to the revised EORTC / MSG, 1 patient (9% and 10 patients (91% were defined as proven and possible groups of IC, respectively. The mortality rate in proven and possible IC patient was found 54.5%. Conclusion: The established Real-time PCR/FRET probe assay is an appropriate diagnostic tool for the detection of Candida species DNA and the management of patients suffering from hematologic malignancies and bone marrow recipient are at risk for IC.

  12. Evaluation of real-time PCR of patient pleural effusion for diagnosis of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaha Arnaldo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pleural tuberculosis (TB diagnosis often requires invasive procedures such as pleural biopsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the IS6110 sequence of M. tuberculosis in pleural fluid specimens as a rapid and non-invasive test for pleural TB diagnosis. Findings For this cross-sectional study, 150 consecutive patients with pleural effusion diagnosed by chest radiography, who were referred for diagnostic thoracocentesis and pleural biopsy and met eligibility criteria, had a pleural fluid specimen submitted for real-time PCR testing. Overall, 98 patients had pleural TB and 52 had pleural effusion secondary to other disease. TB diagnosis was obtained using acid-fast bacilli (AFB smear or culture for mycobacteria and/or histopathologic examination in 94 cases and by clinical findings in 4 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of PCR testing for pleural TB diagnosis were 42.8% (95% CI 38.4 - 44.8, 94.2% (95% CI 85.8 - 98.0, 93.3% (95% CI 83.6 - 97.7, and 48.5% (95% CI 44.2 - 50.4, respectively. The real-time PCR test improved TB detection from 30.6% to 42.9% when compared to AFB smear and culture methods performed on pleural fluid specimens, although the best sensitivity was achieved by combining the results of culture and histopathology of pleural tissue specimens. Conclusion The real-time PCR test of pleural fluid specimens is a useful and non-invasive additional assay for fast diagnosis of pleural TB.

  13. Managing patients' wait time in specialist out-patient clinic using real-time data from existing queue management and ADT systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, John Chen; Gan, Soon Ann; Tan Siew Wee, Justine; Huang Yuchi, Peter; Mei Mei, Chan; Wong Mei Mei, Sharon; Fong, Kam Weng

    2013-01-01

    In major cancer centers, heavy patients load and multiple registration stations could cause significant wait time, and can be result in patient complains. Real-time patient journey data and visual display are useful tools in hospital patient queue management. This paper demonstrates how we capture patient queue data without deploying any tracing devices; and how to convert data into useful patient journey information to understand where interventions are likely to be most effective. During our system development, remarkable effort has been spent on resolving data discrepancy and balancing between accuracy and system performances. A web-based dashboard to display real-time information and a framework for data analysis were also developed to facilitate our clinics' operation. Result shows our system could eliminate more than 95% of data capturing errors and has improved patient wait time data accuracy since it was deployed.

  14. Detection of intestinal protozoa in paediatric patients with gastrointestinal symptoms by multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, L; Dorigo-Zetsma, J W; de Groot, C J; Bouter, S; Plötz, F B; van Ewijk, B E

    2014-06-01

    The performance of a multiplex real-time PCR for the detection of Blastocystis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium species and Entamoeba species in faecal samples was evaluated in an observational prospective study. Paediatric patients (0-18 years) presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms and suspected of having enteroparasitic disease were included. A questionnaire on gastrointestinal symptoms and the chosen treatment was completed at the start of the study and after 6 weeks. Of 163 paediatric patients (mean age, 7.8 years), 114 (70%) had a PCR-positive faecal sample. D. fragilis was detected most frequently, in 101 patients, followed by Blastocystis in 49. In faecal samples of 47 patients, more than one protozoan was detected, mainly the combination of D. fragilis and Blastocystis. Reported gastrointestinal symptoms were abdominal pain (78%), nausea (30%), and altered bowel habits (28%). Eighty-nine of the PCR-positive patients were treated with antibiotics. A significant reduction in abdominal pain was observed both in treated and in untreated patients. This study demonstrated that multiplex real-time PCR detects a high percentage of intestinal protozoa in paediatric patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. However, interpretation and determination of the clinical relevance of a positive PCR result in this population are still difficult.

  15. Chemically unassisted phototherapy: dose effects via real-time optical monitoring of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Sylvie; Keeler, Werden

    2010-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light and short wavelength visible (VIS) light have been used to kill pathogens for many years. Although the adverse effects of UV radiation on living cells have been extensively studied using biochemical and biomolecular techniques, most of the light therapies used for medical treatment are chemically assisted (i.e., photodynamic therapy). However, the use of light alone could prove both cost and therapeutically effective as an alternative treatment modality for localized diseases. In this study, real-time oblique incidence reflection (OIR) microscopy and image analysis were used to visualize and quantify the effects of chemically unassisted light therapy on untagged live cancer cells in vitro. The incident radiation fluence (in mJ/cm^2) required to induce cell death was determined for selected quasi-monochromatic UV to VIS wavelengths ranging from 275nm to 460nm. A predictive mathematical equation quantifying the lethal fluence as a function of wavelength will be discussed.

  16. Imaging techniques used for the real-time assessment of angiogenesis in digestive cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adrian S(a)ftoiu; Peter Vilmann

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis has a critical role in primary tumor growth and the development of metastases.Several angiogenesis inhibitors were recently developed,being a very attractive target for digestive tumor therapy.However,individualized therapy should not only be based on the pre-treatment imaging evaluation,but also on sensitive monitoring of microvascular changes during treatment.State-of-theart imaging techniques have the potential to visualize and characterize angiogenesis,although the technology and methodologies employed are recent and need further validation.The aim of this series of reviews was to analyze and enhance current knowledge and future perspectives about the real-time assessment of angiogenesis in digestive cancers,used for the longitudinal monitoring of the effects of chemo-radiotherapy(including anti-angiogenic therapies),as well as for the precise targeting of drugs through molecular-based drug-delivery systems.

  17. Real-time phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of haemodynamics: from phantom to patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traber, Julius; Wurche, Lennart; Dieringer, Matthias A.; Utz, Wolfgang; Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian von; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette [Max-Delbrueck-Centrum and Charite -Medical University Berlin and HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Department of Cardiology and Nephrology, Working Group on Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Berlin (Germany); Greiser, Andreas [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany); Jin, Ning [Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Assessment of haemodynamics is crucial in many cardiac diseases. Phase contrast MRI (PC-MRI) can accurately access it. Arrhythmia is a major limitation in conventional segmented PC-MRI (SEG). A real-time PC-MRI sequence (RT) could overcome this. We validated RT by comparing to SEG. A prototype RT using shared velocity encoding was tested against SEG at 1.5 T in a flow phantom and consecutively included patients with (n = 55) or without (n = 59) aortic valve disease. In patients with atrial fibrillation (Afib, n = 15), only RT was applied. Phantom: PC images were acquired in front of and behind an interchangeable aortic-stenosis-like inlay. Mean velocity and flow were quantified. Patients: PC images were acquired in the ascending aorta, pulmonary trunk and superior caval vein. Peak velocity, stroke volume and regurgitant fraction were quantified. Phantom: Mean velocities (11 ± 1 to 207 ± 10 cm/s) and flow correlated closely between SEG and RT (r ≥ 0.99, ICC ≥ 0.98, p < 0.0005). Patients without AVD or with aortic regurgitation: Concordance of SEG and RT was excellent regarding peak velocities, stroke volumes (r ≥ 0.91, ICC ≥ 0.94, p < 0.0005) and regurgitant fractions (r = 0.95, ICC = 0.95, p < 0.0005). RT was feasible in all patients with Afib. The real-time sequence is accurate compared to conventional segmented PC-MRI. Its applicability in Afib was shown. Real-time PC-MRI might become a valuable tool in arrhythmia. (orig.)

  18. Cancer-targeted functional gold nanoparticles for apoptosis induction and real-time imaging based on FRET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hai; Luo, Guo-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Ding; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Lei, Qi; Han, Kai; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2014-07-01

    A versatile gold nanoparticle-based multifunctional RB-DEVD-AuNP-DTP has been developed to induce the targeted apoptosis of cancer cells and image in real time the progress of the apoptosis. The multifunctional nanoparticles were demonstrated to have the ability to initiate mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and activate caspase-3 for real-time imaging of the progression of apoptosis.A versatile gold nanoparticle-based multifunctional RB-DEVD-AuNP-DTP has been developed to induce the targeted apoptosis of cancer cells and image in real time the progress of the apoptosis. The multifunctional nanoparticles were demonstrated to have the ability to initiate mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and activate caspase-3 for real-time imaging of the progression of apoptosis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02516d

  19. Detection of bacteria, fungi, and viruses by a real-time PCR assay using universal primers and probes from blood in patients with febrile neutropenia.

    OpenAIRE

    TERANISHI, Hideto; OUCHI, Kazunobu

    2014-01-01

    Febrile neutropenia is the main treatment-related cause of mortality in cancer patients. During June 2012 to April 2013, 76 blood culture samples from patients receiving chemotherapy for hematological malignancy and cancer with febrile neutropenia episodes (FNEs) were examined for the presence of bacteria and fungi based on 16S rRNA gene and 18S rRNA combined with real-time PCR amplification and sequencing. Furthermore, we used a loopmediatedisothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detec...

  20. Feasibility of real-time satisfaction surveys through automated analysis of patients' unstructured comments and sentiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, Farrokh; Torii, Manabu; Clementz, Laura; Aron, David C

    2012-01-01

    This article shows how sentiment analysis (an artificial intelligence procedure that classifies opinions expressed within the text) can be used to design real-time satisfaction surveys. To improve participation, real-time surveys must be radically short. The shortest possible survey is a comment card. Patients' comments can be found online at sites organized for rating clinical care, within e-mails, in hospital complaint registries, or through simplified satisfaction surveys such as "Minute Survey." Sentiment analysis uses patterns among words to classify a comment into a complaint, or praise. It further classifies complaints into specific reasons for dissatisfaction, similar to broad categories found in longer surveys such as Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems. In this manner, sentiment analysis allows one to re-create responses to longer satisfaction surveys from a list of comments. To demonstrate, this article provides an analysis of sentiments expressed in 995 online comments made at the RateMDs.com Web site. We focused on pediatrician and obstetrician/gynecologist physicians in District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia. We were able to classify patients' reasons for dissatisfaction and the analysis provided information on how practices can improve their care. This article reports the accuracy of classifications of comments. Accuracy will improve as the number of comments received increases. In addition, we ranked physicians using the concept of time-to-next complaint. A time-between control chart was used to assess whether time-to-next complaint exceeded historical patterns and therefore suggested a departure from norms. These findings suggest that (1) patients' comments are easily available, (2) sentiment analysis can classify these comments into complaints/praise, and (3) time-to-next complaint can turn these classifications into numerical benchmarks that can trace impact of improvements over time. The procedures described in the

  1. Evaluation of IFN-γ polymorphism+874 T/A in patients with recurrent tonsillitis by PCR real time mismatch amplification mutation assay (MAMA real time PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergallo, Massimiliano; Gambarino, Stefano; Loiacono, Elisa; Vergano, Luca; Galliano, Ilaria; Montanari, Paola; Astegiano, Sara; Tavormina, Paolo; Tovo, Pier-Angelo

    2015-02-01

    Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is an important cytokine that plays a crucial role in the balance between normal and pathological immune response. Defect of IFN-γ can give a predisposition to infectious disease, autoimmune pathologies and tumours. Different polymorphisms in this gene have been described, in particular the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)+874∗T/A that may affect IFN-γ gene expression. Several techniques can be used for the detection of SNPs. In this work two PCR Real Time assays were developed, an Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS) and a Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assay (MAMA). Twenty-seven samples from patients (tonsillectomy) and 85 from donor's blood bank were considered. As a result, 78/85 controls (91.7%) and 25/27 patients (92.6%) were heterozygosis, considering the ARMS-PCR; 55/85 (64.7%) and 14/27 (51.9%) were heterozygosis using MAMA-PCR assay. Fourteen of 85 (16.5%) and 8/27 (29.6%) were homozygosis A, 16/85 (18.8%) and 5/27 (18.5%) presented homozygosis T, taking into account the MAMA-PCR. There are statistically difference between the two assay with p<0.0001 at Chi-square test. Our preliminary data suggest that tonsillectomy patients had a statistical trend to possess the low IFN-γ polymorphism when compared with control subject (p=0.3) but is not statistically significant. In conclusion the Real time MAMA-PCR assay has several advantages over other SNP identification techniques such as rapidity, reliability, easily to perform in one working day and applicable in clinical molecular diagnostic laboratories, although sequencing remains the gold standard.

  2. Moving Raman spectroscopy into real-time, online diagnosis and detection of precancer and cancer in vivo in the upper GI during clinical endoscopic examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhiwei; Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Zheng, Wei; Ho, Khek Yu; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Teh, Ming; So, Jimmy Bok Yan; Shabbir, Asim

    2013-03-01

    A rapid image-guided Raman endoscopy system integrated with on-line diagnostic scheme is developed for in vivo Raman tissue diagnosis (optical biopsy) in the upper GI during clinical gastrointestinal endoscopy under multimodal wide-field imaging guidance. The real-time Raman endoscopy technique was tested prospectively on new gastric patients (n=4) and could identify dysplasia in vivo with sensitivity of 81.5% (22/27) and specificity of 87.9% (29/33). This study realizes for the first time the novel image-guided Raman endoscopy as a screening tool for real-time, online diagnosis of gastric cancer and precancer in vivo at endoscopy.

  3. Real-time PCR improves Helicobacter pylori detection in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Ramírez-Lázaro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Histological and rapid urease tests to detect H. pylori in biopsy specimens obtained during peptic ulcer bleeding episodes (PUB often produce false-negative results. We aimed to examine whether immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR can improve the sensitivity of these biopsies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We selected 52 histology-negative formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens obtained during PUB episodes. Additional tests showed 10 were true negatives and 42 were false negatives. We also selected 17 histology-positive biopsy specimens obtained during PUB to use as controls. We performed immunohistochemistry staining and real-time PCR for 16S rRNA, ureA, and 23S rRNA for H. pylori genes on all specimens. RESULTS: All controls were positive for H. pylori on all PCR assays and immunohistochemical staining. Regarding the 52 initially negative biopsies, all PCR tests were significantly more sensitive than immunohistochemical staining (p<0.01. Sensitivity and specificity were 55% and 80% for 16S rRNA PCR, 43% and 90% for ureA PCR, 41% and 80% for 23S rRNA PCR, and 7% and 100% for immunohistochemical staining, respectively. Combined analysis of PCR assays for two genes were significantly more sensitive than ureA or 23S rRNA PCR tests alone (p<0.05 and marginally better than 16S rRNA PCR alone. The best combination was 16S rRNA+ureA, with a sensitivity of 64% and a specificity of 80%. CONCLUSIONS: Real-time PCR improves the detection of H. pylori infection in histology-negative formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy samples obtained during PUB episodes. The low reported prevalence of H. pylori in PUB may be due to the failure of conventional tests to detect infection.

  4. Potentials and Limitations of Real-Time Elastography for Prostate Cancer Detection: A Whole-Mount Step Section Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Junker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate prostate cancer (PCa detection rates of real-time elastography (RTE in dependence of tumor size, tumor volume, localization and histological type. Materials and Methods. Thirdy-nine patients with biopsy proven PCa underwent RTE before radical prostatectomy (RPE to assess prostate tissue elasticity, and hard lesions were considered suspicious for PCa. After RPE, the prostates were prepared as whole-mount step sections and were compared with imaging findings for analyzing PCa detection rates. Results. RTE detected 6/62 cancer lesions with a maximum diameter of 0–5 mm (9.7%, 10/37 with a maximum diameter of 6–10 mm (27%, 24/34 with a maximum diameter of 11–20 20 mm (70.6%, 14/14 with a maximum diameter of >20 mm (100% and 40/48 with a volume ≥0.2 cm3 (83.3%. Regarding cancer lesions with a volume ≥ 0.2 cm³ there was a significant difference in PCa detection rates between Gleason scores with predominant Gleason pattern 3 compared to those with predominant Gleason pattern 4 or 5 (75% versus 100%; P=0.028. Conclusions. RTE is able to detect PCa of significant tumor volume and of predominant Gleason pattern 4 or 5 with high confidence, but is of limited value in the detection of small cancer lesions.

  5. Real-time monitoring of progression towards renal failure in primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggle, Peter J; Sousa, Inês; Asar, Özgür

    2015-07-01

    Chronic renal failure is a progressive condition that, typically, is asymptomatic for many years. Early detection of incipient kidney failure enables ameliorative treatment that can slow the rate of progression to end-stage renal failure, at which point expensive and invasive renal replacement therapy (dialysis or transplantation) is required. We use routinely collected clinical data from a large sample of primary care patients to develop a system for real-time monitoring of the progression of undiagnosed incipient renal failure. Progression is characterized as the rate of change in a person's kidney function as measured by the estimated glomerular filtration rate, an adjusted version of serum creatinine level in a blood sample. Clinical guidelines in the UK suggest that a person who is losing kidney function at a relative rate of at least 5% per year should be referred to specialist secondary care. We model the time-course of a person's underlying kidney function through a combination of explanatory variables, a random intercept and a continuous-time, non-stationary stochastic process. We then use the model to calculate for each person the predictive probability that they meet the clinical guideline for referral to secondary care. We suggest that probabilistic predictive inference linked to clinical criteria can be a useful component of a real-time surveillance system to guide, but not dictate, clinical decision-making.

  6. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis DNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Eosinophilic Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Xayavong, Maniphet; da Silva, Ana Cristina Aramburu; Park, Sarah Y; Whelen, A Christian; Calimlim, Precilia S; Sciulli, Rebecca H; Honda, Stacey A A; Higa, Karen; Kitsutani, Paul; Chea, Nora; Heng, Seng; Johnson, Stuart; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; Fox, LeAnne M; da Silva, Alexandre J

    2016-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common infectious cause of eosinophilic meningitis. Timely diagnosis of these infections is difficult, partly because reliable laboratory diagnostic methods are unavailable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of A. cantonensis DNA in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens. A total of 49 CSF specimens from 33 patients with eosinophilic meningitis were included: A. cantonensis DNA was detected in 32 CSF specimens, from 22 patients. Four patients had intermittently positive and negative real-time PCR results on subsequent samples, indicating that the level of A. cantonensis DNA present in CSF may fluctuate during the course of the illness. Immunodiagnosis and/or supplemental PCR testing supported the real-time PCR findings for 30 patients. On the basis of these observations, this real-time PCR assay can be useful to detect A. cantonensis in the CSF from patients with eosinophilic meningitis.

  7. Elements of Scenario-Based Learning on Suicidal Patient Care Using Real-Time Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chuehfen; Lee, Hueying; Hsu, Shuhui; Shu, Inmei

    2016-01-01

    This study aims understanding of students' learning experiences when receiving scenario-based learning combined with real-time video. Videos that recorded student nurses intervention with a suicidal standardized patient (SP) were replayed immediately as teaching materials. Videos clips and field notes from ten classes were analysed. Investigators and method triangulation were used to boost the robustness of the study. Three key elements, emotional involvement, concretizing of the teaching material and substitute learning were identified. Emotions were evoked among the SP, the student performer and the students who were observing, thus facilitating a learning effect. Concretizing of the teaching material refers to students were able to focus on the discussions using visual and verbal information. Substitute learning occurred when the students watching the videos, both the strengths and weaknesses represented were similar to those that would be likely to occur. These key elements explicate their learning experience and suggested a strategic teaching method.

  8. Dose reconstruction for real-time patient-specific dose estimation in CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Man, Bruno, E-mail: deman@ge.com; Yin, Zhye [Image Reconstruction Laboratory, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Wu, Mingye [X-ray and CT Laboratory, GE Global Research, Shanghai 201203 (China); FitzGerald, Paul [Radiation Systems Laboratory, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Kalra, Mannudeep [Divisions of Thoracic and Cardiac Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Many recent computed tomography (CT) dose reduction approaches belong to one of three categories: statistical reconstruction algorithms, efficient x-ray detectors, and optimized CT acquisition schemes with precise control over the x-ray distribution. The latter category could greatly benefit from fast and accurate methods for dose estimation, which would enable real-time patient-specific protocol optimization. Methods: The authors present a new method for volumetrically reconstructing absorbed dose on a per-voxel basis, directly from the actual CT images. The authors’ specific implementation combines a distance-driven pencil-beam approach to model the first-order x-ray interactions with a set of Gaussian convolution kernels to model the higher-order x-ray interactions. The authors performed a number of 3D simulation experiments comparing the proposed method to a Monte Carlo based ground truth. Results: The authors’ results indicate that the proposed approach offers a good trade-off between accuracy and computational efficiency. The images show a good qualitative correspondence to Monte Carlo estimates. Preliminary quantitative results show errors below 10%, except in bone regions, where the authors see a bigger model mismatch. The computational complexity is similar to that of a low-resolution filtered-backprojection algorithm. Conclusions: The authors present a method for analytic dose reconstruction in CT, similar to the techniques used in radiation therapy planning with megavoltage energies. Future work will include refinements of the proposed method to improve the accuracy as well as a more extensive validation study. The proposed method is not intended to replace methods that track individual x-ray photons, but the authors expect that it may prove useful in applications where real-time patient-specific dose estimation is required.

  9. SU-E-J-61: Monitoring Tumor Motion in Real-Time with EPID Imaging During Cervical Cancer Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, W; Hrycushko, B; Yan, Y; Foster, R; Albuquerque, K [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Traditional external beam radiotherapy for cervical cancer requires setup by external skin marks. In order to improve treatment accuracy and reduce planning margin for more conformal therapy, it is essential to monitor tumor positions interfractionally and intrafractionally. We demonstrate feasibility of monitoring cervical tumor motion online using EPID imaging from Beam’s Eye View. Methods: Prior to treatment, 1∼2 cylindrical radio opaque markers were implanted into inferior aspect of cervix tumor. During external beam treatments on a Varian 2100C by 4-field 3D plans, treatment beam images were acquired continuously by an EPID. A Matlab program was developed to locate internal markers on MV images. Based on 2D marker positions obtained from different treatment fields, their 3D positions were estimated for every treatment fraction. Results: There were 398 images acquired during different treatment fractions of three cervical cancer patients. Markers were successfully located on every frame of image at an analysis speed of about 1 second per frame. Intrafraction motions were evaluated by comparing marker positions relative to the position on the first frame of image. The maximum intrafraction motion of the markers was 1.6 mm. Interfraction motions were evaluated by comparing 3D marker positions at different treatment fractions. The maximum interfraction motion was up to 10 mm. Careful comparison found that this is due to patient positioning since the bony structures shifted with the markers. Conclusion: This method provides a cost-free and simple solution for online tumor tracking for cervical cancer treatment since it is feasible to acquire and export EPID images with fast analysis in real time. This method does not need any extra equipment or deliver extra dose to patients. The online tumor motion information will be very useful to reduce planning margins and improve treatment accuracy, which is particularly important for SBRT treatment with long

  10. All-IP wireless sensor networks for real-time patient monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaonan; Le, Deguang; Cheng, Hongbin; Xie, Conghua

    2014-12-01

    This paper proposes the all-IP WSNs (wireless sensor networks) for real-time patient monitoring. In this paper, the all-IP WSN architecture based on gateway trees is proposed and the hierarchical address structure is presented. Based on this architecture, the all-IP WSN can perform routing without route discovery. Moreover, a mobile node is always identified by a home address and it does not need to be configured with a care-of address during the mobility process, so the communication disruption caused by the address change is avoided. Through the proposed scheme, a physician can monitor the vital signs of a patient at any time and at any places, and according to the IPv6 address he can also obtain the location information of the patient in order to perform effective and timely treatment. Finally, the proposed scheme is evaluated based on the simulation, and the simulation data indicate that the proposed scheme might effectively reduce the communication delay and control cost, and lower the packet loss rate.

  11. KERMA-based radiation dose management system for real-time patient dose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyo-Tae; Heo, Ye-Ji; Oh, Kyung-Min; Nam, Sang-Hee; Kang, Sang-Sik; Park, Ji-Koon; Song, Yong-Keun; Park, Sung-Kwang

    2016-07-01

    Because systems that reduce radiation exposure during diagnostic procedures must be developed, significant time and financial resources have been invested in constructing radiation dose management systems. In the present study, the characteristics of an existing ionization-based system were compared to those of a system based on the kinetic energy released per unit mass (KERMA). Furthermore, the feasibility of using the KERMA-based system for patient radiation dose management was verified. The ionization-based system corrected the effects resulting from radiation parameter perturbations in general radiography whereas the KERMA-based system did not. Because of this difference, the KERMA-based radiation dose management system might overestimate the patient's radiation dose due to changes in the radiation conditions. Therefore, if a correction factor describing the correlation between the systems is applied to resolve this issue, then a radiation dose management system can be developed that will enable real-time measurement of the patient's radiation exposure and acquisition of diagnostic images.

  12. Symptoms from patients as the primary information source for real-time surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Monika Alise; Johnsen, Jan-Are Kolset; Shrestha, Neema; Bellika, Johan Gustav

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify whether patients could become the primary data source for symptom based real-time surveillance. The study investigated people's attitude towards providing symptom information electronically before a consultation, and how they preferred to carry out the reporting. Data was collected by distributing questionnaires to 83 respondents. The results show that 96 percent of the respondents had a positive attitude towards providing information about their symptoms to the GP's office as soon as possible after falling ill. Over half of the respondents preferred to use e-mail or a web-interface to perform this task. Eighty four percent were willing to have their symptom data stored in their EPR and 76 percent agreed that the GP might access and present the symptoms together with the prevalence of matching diseases in order to assist the diagnostic process during the next consultation. This study indicates that patients could become the primary data source for symptom based surveillance in countries with high e-readiness.

  13. A Real-Time Kinect Signature-Based Patient Home Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrosen, Gaddi; Miron, Yael; Intrator, Nathan; Plotnik, Meir

    2016-11-23

    Assessment of body kinematics during performance of daily life activities at home plays a significant role in medical condition monitoring of elderly people and patients with neurological disorders. The affordable and non-wearable Microsoft Kinect ("Kinect") system has been recently used to estimate human subject kinematic features. However, the Kinect suffers from a limited range and angular coverage, distortion in skeleton joints' estimations, and erroneous multiplexing of different subjects' estimations to one. This study addresses these limitations by incorporating a set of features that create a unique "Kinect Signature". The Kinect Signature enables identification of different subjects in the scene, automatically assign the kinematics feature estimations only to the subject of interest, and provide information about the quality of the Kinect-based estimations. The methods were verified by a set of experiments, which utilize real-time scenarios commonly used to assess motor functions in elderly subjects and in subjects with neurological disorders. The experiment results indicate that the skeleton based Kinect Signature features can be used to identify different subjects in high accuracy. We demonstrate how these capabilities can be used to assign the Kinect estimations to the Subject of Interest, and exclude low quality tracking features. The results of this work can help in establishing reliable kinematic features, which can assist in future to obtain objective scores for medical analysis of patient condition at home while not restricted to perform daily life activities.

  14. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 amplification in non-small cell lung cancer by quantitative real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirish M Gadgeel

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Amplification of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1 gene has been described in tumors of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Prior reports showed conflicting rates of amplification frequency and clinical relevance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a reliable real-time quantitative PCR assay to assess the frequency of FGFR1 amplification and assessed the optimal cutoff level of amplification for clinical application. RESULTS: In a training cohort of 203 NSCLCs, we established that a 3.5-fold amplification optimally divided patients into groups with different survival rates with a clear threshold level. Those with FGFR1 amplification levels above 3.5-fold had an inferior survival. These data were confirmed in a validation cohort of 142 NSCLC. After adjusting for age, sex, performance status, stage, and histology, patients with FGFR1 amplification levels above 3.5 fold had a hazard ratio of 2.91 (95% CI- 1.14, 7.41; pvalue-0.025 for death in the validation cohort. The rates of FGFR1 amplification using the cutoff level of 3.5 were 5.1% in squamous cell and 4.1% in adenocarcinomas. There was a non-significant trend towards higher amplifications rates in heavy smokers (> 15 pack-years of cigarette consumption as compared to light smokers. DISCUSSION: Our data suggest that a 3.5-fold amplification of FGFR1 is of clinical importance in NSCLC. Our cutpoint analysis showed a clear threshold effect for the impact of FGFR1 amplification on patients' survival, which can be used as an initial guide for patient selection in trials assessing efficacy of novel FGFR inhibitors.

  15. A novel method to compensate for different amplification efficiencies between patient DNA samples in quantitative real-time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.P. Meijerink (Jules); C. Mandigers; L. van de Locht; E. Tonnissen; F. Goodsaid; J. Raemaekers (John)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractQuantification of residual disease by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) will become a pivotal tool in the development of patient-directed therapy. In recent years, various protocols to quantify minimal residual disease in leukemia or lymphoma patients have been

  16. Quantitative Detection of Interleukin 8 Gene Expression in Lung Cancer by Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianzhongSu; QianggangDong; JinsuHuang; GuoliangBao

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop a method for absolute quantification of interleukin 8 (IL-8) mRNA by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS The IL-8 mRNA and protein expression in 2 human lung cancer cell lines, H460 and A549, were evaluated by real-time PCR and ELISA. The IL-8 mRNA expression in 9 cases of normal lung tissue and 44 cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were examined. RESULTS The IL-8 mRNA copy number in a given sample can be measured by real-time PCR. The gene expression of IL-8 is correlated with its protein secretion. The normalized value of IL-8 expression was 4.87+1.69 (copies/104 GAPDH copies) in normal lung tissue and 17.04±23.96 in NSCLC, respectively. The difference between these two groups is statistically significant (P=0.002). Using 9.74 and 19.48 as cut-off points for positive expression and overexpression of IL-8, 52.3%(23/44cases) of NSCLC were found to express an increased level of IL-8, among which 29.5% (13/44cases) were defined as positive expression and 22.7% (10/44cases) as overexpression. Statistical analysis indicated that IL-8 overexpression was significantly increased in female cancers, squamous carcinoma, and in late stages of disease (P<0.05). CONCLUSION The IL-8 gene expression can be determined by a real-time PCR technique. IL-8 overexpression is correlated with gender, histopathology and stages of the disease.

  17. Development of a real-time clinical decision support system upon the web mvc-based architecture for prostate cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wen-Miin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A real-time clinical decision support system (RTCDSS with interactive diagrams enables clinicians to instantly and efficiently track patients' clinical records (PCRs and improve their quality of clinical care. We propose a RTCDSS to process online clinical informatics from multiple databases for clinical decision making in the treatment of prostate cancer based on Web Model-View-Controller (MVC architecture, by which the system can easily be adapted to different diseases and applications. Methods We designed a framework upon the Web MVC-based architecture in which the reusable and extractable models can be conveniently adapted to other hospital information systems and which allows for efficient database integration. Then, we determined the clinical variables of the prostate cancer treatment based on participating clinicians' opinions and developed a computational model to determine the pretreatment parameters. Furthermore, the components of the RTCDSS integrated PCRs and decision factors for real-time analysis to provide evidence-based diagrams upon the clinician-oriented interface for visualization of treatment guidance and health risk assessment. Results The resulting system can improve quality of clinical treatment by allowing clinicians to concurrently analyze and evaluate the clinical markers of prostate cancer patients with instantaneous clinical data and evidence-based diagrams which can automatically identify pretreatment parameters. Moreover, the proposed RTCDSS can aid interactions between patients and clinicians. Conclusions Our proposed framework supports online clinical informatics, evaluates treatment risks, offers interactive guidance, and provides real-time reference for decision making in the treatment of prostate cancer. The developed clinician-oriented interface can assist clinicians in conveniently presenting evidence-based information to patients and can be readily adapted to an existing hospital

  18. Real-time analysis of gut flora in Entamoeba histolytica infected patients of Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Anil Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amebic dysentery is caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica and the ingestion of quadrinucleate cyst of E. histolytica from fecally contaminated food or water initiates infection. Excystation occurs in the lumen of small intestine, where motile and potentially invasive trophozoites germinate from cysts. The ability of trophozoites to interact and digest gut bacteria is apparently important for multiplication of the parasite and its pathogenicity; however the contribution of resident bacterial flora is not well understood. We quantified the population of Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Ruminococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium leptum subgroup, Clostridium coccoides subgroup, Eubacterium, Campylobacter, Methanobrevibacter smithii and Sulphur reducing bacteria using genus specific primers in healthy (N = 22 vs amebic patients (E. histolytica positive, N = 17 stool samples by Real-time PCR. Results Absolute quantification of Bacteroides (p = .001, Closrtridium coccoides subgroup (p = 0.002, Clostridium leptum subgroup (p = 0.0001, Lactobacillus (p = 0.037, Campylobacter (p = 0.0014 and Eubacterium (p = 0.038 show significant drop in their population however, significant increase in Bifdobacterium (p = 0.009 was observed where as the population of Ruminococcus (p = 0.33 remained unaltered in healthy vs amebic patients (E. histolytica positive. We also report high prevalence of nimE gene in stool samples of both healthy volunteers and amebic patients. No significant decrease in nimE gene copy number was observed before and after the treatment with antiamebic drug. Conclusions Our results show significant alteration in predominant gut bacteria in E. histolytica infected individuals. The frequent episodes of intestinal amoebic dysentery thus result in depletion of few predominant genera in gut that may lead to poor digestion and absorption of food in intestine. It further disturbs

  19. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis DNA in Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Eosinophilic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Xayavong, Maniphet; da Silva, Ana Cristina Aramburu; Park, Sarah Y.; Whelen, A. Christian; Calimlim, Precilia S.; Sciulli, Rebecca H.; Honda, Stacey A. A.; Higa, Karen; Kitsutani, Paul; Chea, Nora; Heng, Seng; Johnson, Stuart; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; Fox, LeAnne M.; da Silva, Alexandre J.

    2016-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the most common infectious cause of eosinophilic meningitis. Timely diagnosis of these infections is difficult, partly because reliable laboratory diagnostic methods are unavailable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of A. cantonensis DNA in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens. A total of 49 CSF specimens from 33 patients with eosinophilic meningitis were included: A. cantonensis DNA was detected in 32 CSF specimens, from 22 patients. Four patients had intermittently positive and negative real-time PCR results on subsequent samples, indicating that the level of A. cantonensis DNA present in CSF may fluctuate during the course of the illness. Immunodiagnosis and/or supplemental PCR testing supported the real-time PCR findings for 30 patients. On the basis of these observations, this real-time PCR assay can be useful to detect A. cantonensis in the CSF from patients with eosinophilic meningitis. PMID:26526920

  20. PCR real time assays for the early detection of BKV-DNA in immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Katia; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Gaffi, Gianni; Trappolini, Silvia; Leoni, Pietro; Paggi, Alessandra Mataloni; Della Vittoria, Agnese; Scalise, Giorgio; Varaldo, Pietro Emanuele; Menzo, Stefano

    2007-07-01

    Testing for viral BKV-DNA in urine is a non-invasive early detection and monitoring tool in the diagnostic of BKV-related pathologies: quantitative analysis by Real-Time PCR can provide useful information in addition to cytologic analysis, although our study suggests that high BKV viruria is not necessarily associated with kidney or bladder damage.

  1. SU-E-P-35: Real-Time Patient Transit Dose Verification of Volumetric Modulated Arc Radiotherapy by a 2D Ionization Chamber Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the real-time dose verification method in volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) with a 2D array ion chamber array. Methods: The 2D ion chamber array was fixed on the panel of electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Source-detector distance (SDD)was 140cm. 8mm RW3 solid water was added to the detector panel to achieve maximum readings.The patient plans for esophageal, prostate and liver cancers were selected to deliver on the cylindrical Cheese phantom 5 times in order to validate the reproducibility of doses. Real-time patient transit dose measurements were performed at each fraction. Dose distributions wereevaluated using gamma index criteria of 3mm DTA and 3% dose difference referred to the firsttime Result. Results: The gamma index pass rate in the Cheese phantom were about 98%; The gamma index pass rate for esophageal, liver and prostate cancer patient were about 92%,94%, and 92%, respectively; Gamma pass rate for all single fraction were more than 90%. Conclusion: The 2D array is capable of monitoring the real time transit doses during VMAT delivery. It is helpful to improve the treatment accuracy.

  2. The effects of real-time continuous glucose monitoring on oxidative stress and mortality in critically ill patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱武强

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of real-time continuous glucose monitoring(RT-CGM) system on oxidative stress and mortality in critically ill patients and to explore the correlation between glucose index,oxidative stress and mortality. Methods 123 selected cases of

  3. Detection of diarrhoea-causing protozoa in general practice patients in The Netherlands by multiplex real-time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Hove, R.; Schuurman, T.; Kooistra, M.; Moeller, L.; van Lieshout, L.; Verweij, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    The diagnostic value of a multiplex real-time PCR for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum/Cryptosporidium hominis was evaluated by comparing the PCR results obtained with those of routinely performed microscopy of faecal samples from patients consulting

  4. Early detection of Toxoplasma gondii by real-time polymerase chain reaction methods in patients with recurrent spontaneous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Saleh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the causes of recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA is an infection by the toxoplasmosis Protozoa. In comparison, we present detailed results using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods of detection. In this study, it was tried to detect Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii by real-time PCR methods in patients with RSA. Methods: Amniotic fluid sampling was performed in the 16-20th weeks of gestation in 50 pregnant women with a history of RSA. The extracted deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA samples were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: In all the cases, the detection of T. gondii was negative in the peripheral blood, and amniotic fluid samples by using the molecular methods (real-time PCR. Using the serological detection methods, 6% of patients were diagnosed as positive for the immunoglobulin M (IgM antibody. In addition, the IgG antibody was positive in 46% of the patients. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the serological methods lack specificity.

  5. Real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Salah M.; Bruztman, Donald P.; Nelson, Michael L.; Byrnes, Ronald Benton

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the basic issues involved in real-time systems. Both real-time operating sys and real-time programming languages are explored. Concurrent programming and process synchronization and communication are also discussed. The real-time requirements of the Naval Postgraduate School Autonomous Under Vehicle (AUV) are then examined. Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), hard real-time system, real-time operating system, real-time programming language, real-time sy...

  6. A novel method for diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis patients by combining a random unbiased Phi29 amplification with a specific real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu; Lu, Jie; Yang, Jian; Wang, Yufeng; Cohen, Chad; Ni, Xin; Zhao, Yanlin

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we develop a novel method for diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis patients by performing a random unbiased Phi29 amplification prior to the use of a specific real-time PCR. The limit of detection (LOD) of the conventional real-time PCR was 100 colony-forming units (CFU) of MTB genome/reaction, while the REPLI real-time PCR assay could detect 0.4 CFU/reaction. In comparison with the conventional real-time PCR, REPLI real-time PCR shows better sensitivity for the detection of smear-negative tuberculosis (P = 0.015).

  7. Real-time PCR assay and rapid diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of clinically suspected malaria patients in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanum Hamida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 95% of total malaria cases in Bangladesh are reported from the 13 high endemic districts. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the two most abundant malaria parasites in the country. To improve the detection and management of malaria patients, the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP has been using rapid diagnostic test (RDT in the endemic areas. A study was conducted to establish a SYBR Green-based modified real-time PCR assay as a gold standard to evaluate the performance of four commercially-available malaria RDTs, along with the classical gold standard- microscopy. Methods Blood samples were collected from 338 febrile patients referred for the diagnosis of malaria by the attending physician at Matiranga Upazila Health Complex (UHC from May 2009 to August 2010. Paracheck RDT and microscopy were performed at the UHC. The blood samples were preserved in EDTA tubes. A SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assay was performed and evaluated. The performances of the remaining three RDTs (Falcivax, Onsite Pf and Onsite Pf/Pv were also evaluated against microscopy and real-time PCR using the stored blood samples. Result In total, 338 febrile patients were enrolled in the study. Malaria parasites were detected in 189 (55.9% and 188 (55.6% patients by microscopy and real-time PCR respectively. Among the RDTs, the highest sensitivity for the detection of P. falciparum (including mixed infection was obtained by Paracheck [98.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI 95.8-99.9] and Falcivax (97.6%, 95% CI 94.1-99.4 compared to microscopy and real-time PCR respectively. Paracheck and Onsite Pf/Pv gave the highest specificity (98.8%, 95% CI 95.7-99.9 compared to microscopy and Onsite Pf/Pv (98.8, 95% CI 95.8-99.9 compared to real-time PCR respectively for the detection of P. falciparum. On the other hand Falcivax and Onsite Pf/Pv had equal sensitivity (90.5%, 95% CI 69.6-98.8 and almost 100% specificity compared to microscopy for

  8. Diagnosis of pulmonary infection with Toxoplasma gondii in immunocompromised HIV-positive patients by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, E.; Edvinsson, B.; Lundgren, Bettina;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study presented here was to evaluate the use of PCR for improving the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in immunocompromised hosts. Three hundred thirty-two bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples were analyzed by real-time PCR targeting a 529 bp element of T. gondii...... be performed in all immunosuppressed HIV-positive patients with symptoms of a systemic infection of unknown etiology. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis does not exclude concomitant infection with T. gondii....

  9. Measuring of Gastric Emptying in Egyptian Pediatric Patients with Portal Hypertension by Using Real-time Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Mona E.; Osman, Mahmoud A.; Mahmoud, Rehab A.; Mohamed, Lamiaa K.; Seif-elnasr, Khaled I.; Eskander, Ayman E.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim: Among the various methods for evaluating gastric emptying, the real-time ultrasound is safe, does not require intubation, or rely on either radiologic or radionuclide technique. The aim of our work was to measure the gastric emptying in pediatric patients with portal hypertension by using the real-time ultrasound. Patients and Methods: Forty patients with portal hypertension with mean age 7 ± 2.8 years and 20 healthy children as a control group underwent gastric emptying study by using real-time ultrasound. The cross-sectional area of the gastric antrum was measured in the fasting state and then each subject was allowed to drink tap water then calculated by using formula area (π longitudinal × anteroposterior diameter/4). The intragastric volume was assumed to be directly proportional to the cross-sectional area of the antrum. Results: The mean gastric emptying half-time volume was significantly delayed in portal hypertension patients (40 ± 6.8 min) compared with the control subjects (27.1 ± 3.6) min (P<0.05). Patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction had significant delayed gastric emptying in comparison to patients with portal hypertension due to other etiologies (36.14 ± 4.9 vs 44.41 ± 6.04 min; P<0.01). Conclusion: Ultrasound is a noninvasive and a reliable method for measuring gastric emptying in pediatric patients. Gastric emptying was significantly delayed in patients with portal hypertension. Etiology of portal hypertension may influence gastric emptying time in patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:22249091

  10. Real-time motion analysis reveals cell directionality as an indicator of breast cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Weiger

    Full Text Available Cancer cells alter their migratory properties during tumor progression to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites. However, it remains unclear how migratory behaviors differ between tumor cells of different malignancy and whether these migratory behaviors can be utilized to assess the malignant potential of tumor cells. Here, we analyzed the migratory behaviors of cell lines representing different stages of breast cancer progression using conventional migration assays or time-lapse imaging and particle image velocimetry (PIV to capture migration dynamics. We find that the number of migrating cells in transwell assays, and the distance and speed of migration in unconstrained 2D assays, show no correlation with malignant potential. However, the directionality of cell motion during 2D migration nicely distinguishes benign and tumorigenic cell lines, with tumorigenic cell lines harboring less directed, more random motion. Furthermore, the migratory behaviors of epithelial sheets observed under basal conditions and in response to stimulation with epidermal growth factor (EGF or lysophosphatitic acid (LPA are distinct for each cell line with regard to cell speed, directionality, and spatiotemporal motion patterns. Surprisingly, treatment with LPA promotes a more cohesive, directional sheet movement in lung colony forming MCF10CA1a cells compared to basal conditions or EGF stimulation, implying that the LPA signaling pathway may alter the invasive potential of MCF10CA1a cells. Together, our findings identify cell directionality as a promising indicator for assessing the tumorigenic potential of breast cancer cell lines and show that LPA induces more cohesive motility in a subset of metastatic breast cancer cells.

  11. Feasibility of transient elastography versus real-time two-dimensional shear wave elastography in difficult-to-scan patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Benjamin; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Mössner, Belinda;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Transient elastography (TE) is hampered in some patients by failures and unreliable results. We hypothesized that real time two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE), the FibroScan XL probe, and repeated TE exams, could be used to obtain reliable liver stiffness...... skin-capsule distance (OR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.67-0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Transient elastography can be accomplished in nearly all patients by use of the FibroScan XL probe and repeated examinations. In difficult-to-scan patients, the feasibility of TE is superior to 2D-SWE....

  12. Discovery of a 29-gene panel in peripheral blood mononuclear cells for the detection of colorectal cancer and adenomas using high throughput real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarloni, Laura; Hosseinian, Sahar; Monnier-Benoit, Sylvain; Imaizumi, Natsuko; Dorta, Gian; Ruegg, Curzio

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in developed countries. Early detection of CRC leads to decreased CRC mortality. A blood-based CRC screening test is highly desirable due to limited invasiveness and high acceptance rate among patients compared to currently used fecal occult blood testing and colonoscopy. Here we describe the discovery and validation of a 29-gene panel in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for the detection of CRC and adenomatous polyps (AP). Blood samples were prospectively collected from a multicenter, case-control clinical study. First, we profiled 93 samples with 667 candidate and 3 reference genes by high throughput real-time PCR (OpenArray system). After analysis, 160 genes were retained and tested again on 51 additional samples. Low expressed and unstable genes were discarded resulting in a final dataset of 144 samples profiled with 140 genes. To define which genes, alone or in combinations had the highest potential to discriminate AP and/or CRC from controls, data were analyzed by a combination of univariate and multivariate methods. A list of 29 potentially discriminant genes was compiled and evaluated for its predictive accuracy by penalized logistic regression and bootstrap. This method discriminated AP >1cm and CRC from controls with a sensitivity of 59% and 75%, respectively, with 91% specificity. The behavior of the 29-gene panel was validated with a LightCycler 480 real-time PCR platform, commonly adopted by clinical laboratories. In this work we identified a 29-gene panel expressed in PBMC that can be used for developing a novel minimally-invasive test for accurate detection of AP and CRC using a standard real-time PCR platform.

  13. Bioinspired fluorescent dipeptide nanoparticles for targeted cancer cell imaging and real-time monitoring of drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhen; Sun, Leming; Huang, Yujian; Wang, Yongzhong; Zhang, Mingjun

    2016-04-01

    Peptide nanostructures are biodegradable and are suitable for many biomedical applications. However, to be useful imaging probes, the limited intrinsic optical properties of peptides must be overcome. Here we show the formation of tryptophan-phenylalanine dipeptide nanoparticles (DNPs) that can shift the peptide's intrinsic fluorescent signal from the ultraviolet to the visible range. The visible emission signal allows the DNPs to act as imaging and sensing probes. The peptide design is inspired by the red shift seen in the yellow fluorescent protein that results from π-π stacking and by the enhanced fluorescence intensity seen in the green fluorescent protein mutant, BFPms1, which results from the structure rigidification by Zn(II). We show that DNPs are photostable, biocompatible and have a narrow emission bandwidth and visible fluorescence properties. DNPs functionalized with the MUC1 aptamer and doxorubicin can target cancer cells and can be used to image and monitor drug release in real time.

  14. Establishment of a real-time PCR for quantifying transforming growth factor beta1 in blood of hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background: The carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multi-factorial, multistep and complex process. Its prognosis is poor and early detection is of the utmost importance. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) message RNA (mRNA) has been reported to be elevated in HCC patients using Northern blotting. However, little work has been done about the detection of TGF-β1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood of patients with HCC using the real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCR) method. Objective: To assess the prognostic value of quantitative levels of TGF-β1 mRNA in peripheral blood of patients with HCC, and to investigate the relationship between the expression of TGF-β1 mRNA in peripheral blood and many diagnostic and pathological factors. Methods: We developed an optimized Taqman real-time PCR to quantify TGF-β1 mRNA in peripheral blood of 53 patients with HCC and 44 healthy volunteers. In addition, blood was collected from patients with HCC for measuring levels of total bilirubin (TBil), prealbumin, albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), viral load and platelet counts. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software system (SPSS 10.0). Results: In real-time PCR, fluorescence was detectable in all blood specimens from patients with HCC and healthy volunteers. The levels of TGF-β1 mRNA expression in patients with HCC were significantly higher compared to that in healthy volunteers (P<0.000 1), suggesting an association of the activated TGF-β1 gene transcription with hepatocarcinogenesis. Patients with HCC were divided into 2 groups according to their TGF-β1 mRNA above (group A, n=28) or below (group B, n=25) the mean level. Statistical results demonstrated that TGF-β1 mRNA expression level was correlated with patients age, serum levels of CEA

  15. Real-time surface electromyography in Parkinson's disease patients during exercise-induced muscle fatigue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Gao; Tong Zhang; Xia Gao

    2011-01-01

    To explore the mechanisms underlying exercise-induced local muscle fatigue in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), we used surface electromyography to record myoelectric signals from the tibialis anterior muscle during isometric contraction-induced fatigue until exhaustion. The results revealed no significant differences between patients with idiopathic PD and healthy controls in maximum voluntary contraction of the tibialis anterior muscle. The basic characteristics of surface electromyography were also similar between the two groups. The duration of isometric contraction at 50% maximum voluntary contraction was shortened in PD patients. In addition, PD patients exhibited a stronger increase in mean square amplitude, but a weaker decrease in median frequency and mean power frequency compared with healthy controls during isometric contraction. The skeletal muscles of PD patients revealed specificity of surface electromyography findings, indicating increased fatigability compared with healthy controls.

  16. Comparison of lung cancer cell lines representing four histopathological subtypes with gene expression profiling using quantitative real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawaguchi Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancers are the most common type of human malignancy and are intractable. Lung cancers are generally classified into four histopathological subtypes: adenocarcinoma (AD, squamous cell carcinoma (SQ, large cell carcinoma (LC, and small cell carcinoma (SC. Molecular biological characterization of these subtypes has been performed mainly using DNA microarrays. In this study, we compared the gene expression profiles of these four subtypes using twelve human lung cancer cell lines and the more reliable quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. Results We selected 100 genes from public DNA microarray data and examined them by DNA microarray analysis in eight test cell lines (A549, ABC-1, EBC-1, LK-2, LU65, LU99, STC 1, RERF-LC-MA and a normal control lung cell line (MRC-9. From this, we extracted 19 candidate genes. We quantified the expression of the 19 genes and a housekeeping gene, GAPDH, with qPCR, using the same eight cell lines plus four additional validation lung cancer cell lines (RERF-LC-MS, LC-1/sq, 86-2, and MS-1-L. Finally, we characterized the four subtypes of lung cancer cell lines using principal component analysis (PCA of gene expression profiling for 12 of the 19 genes (AMY2A, CDH1, FOXG1, IGSF3, ISL1, MALL, PLAU, RAB25, S100P, SLCO4A1, STMN1, and TGM2. The combined PCA and gene pathway analyses suggested that these genes were related to cell adhesion, growth, and invasion. S100P in AD cells and CDH1 in AD and SQ cells were identified as candidate markers of these lung cancer subtypes based on their upregulation and the results of PCA analysis. Immunohistochemistry for S100P and RAB25 was closely correlated to gene expression. Conclusions These results show that the four subtypes, represented by 12 lung cancer cell lines, were well characterized using qPCR and PCA for the 12 genes examined. Certain genes, in particular S100P and CDH1, may be especially important for distinguishing the different subtypes. Our results

  17. Perioperative cancer cell dissemination detected with a real-time RT-PCR assay for EpCAM is not associated with worse prognosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houtmeyers François

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM has been used as surrogate marker for the quantification of circulating tumour cells (CTC. Our aim was to prospectively study the value of a real-time RT-PCR assay for EpCAM detection in the peripheral blood and peritoneal cavity of patients undergoing pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. Methods From 48 patients with PDAC (40 resectable, 8 unresectable and 10 patients with chronic pancreatitis undergoing pancreatectomy 10 ml of venous blood was drawn preoperatively (PB and postoperatively (POB, day 1 (D1B, day 7 (D7B and after 6 weeks (6WB. Of all patients undergoing pancreatectomy, 40 ml peritoneal lavage fluid was taken preoperatively and postoperatively. A real-time RT-PCR assay (TaqMan, ABI Prism 7700 was developed for the detection of EpCAM mRNA. To discriminate between EpCAM-positive and negative samples a cut-off was applied. Median postoperative follow-up was 24.0 months (range: 0.7 - 41.3. Results PB was EpCAM-positive (+ in 25% of patients versus 65% of patients in POB (p At none of the time-points, an association was found between EpCAM positivity in blood and/or peritoneal cavity and cancer-specific or disease-free survival. Also, no significant associations were found between clinicopathological variables and perioperative EpCAM positivity. Conclusions Despite a significant increase in EpCAM counts in postoperative blood and peritoneal lavage fluid this was not associated with worse prognosis after pancreatectomy for PDAC. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00495924

  18. Expression Levels of RFP in Normal and Cancer Human Tissues via Real-time RT-PCR Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Ret finger protein(RFP) is a member of the tripartite motif family, which is characterized by a conserved RING finger of motif, a B-box, and a coiled-coil domain(they are called RBCC generally). Although RFP was known to be an oncogene when its RBCC moiety was connected with a tyrosine kinase domain by DNA rearrangement, its biological function was not well defined. In this study, by using real-time RT-PCR, the RFP expressions in human and mouse normal tissues, and in the cervical squamous cell carcinoma, endometrial adenocarcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and brain cancer tissues were analyzed. The result of the study proved that the highest level of mRNA reverse transcription appeared in the normal testical tissue, whereas that in other normal tissues of human and mice were low. The mRNA reverse transcription level of RFP was higher in the endometrial adenocarcinoma tissue than in the cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissue; the mRNA reverse transcription level of RFP in the gastric adenocarcinoma tissue was significantly higher than that in the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissue. It was also found that the mRNA reverse transcription level of RFP in the brain cancer tissue was higher than that in the normal brain tissue. These results suggested that RFP could possibly be a useful molecular target for the development of new therapeutics for malignant tumors.

  19. Modulation of Craving Related Brain Responses Using Real-Time fMRI in Patients with Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Karch

    Full Text Available One prominent symptom in addiction disorders is the strong desire to consume a particular substance or to display a certain behaviour (craving. Especially the strong association between craving and the probability of relapse emphasises the importance of craving in the therapeutic process. Neuroimaging studies have shown that craving is associated with increased responses, predominantly in fronto-striatal areas.The aim of the present study is the modification of craving-related neuronal responses in patients with alcohol addiction using fMRI real-time neurofeedback. For that purpose, patients with alcohol use disorder and healthy controls participated once in neurofeedback training; during the sessions neuronal activity within an individualized cortical region of interest (ROI (anterior cingulate cortex, insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was evaluated. In addition, variations regarding the connectivity between brain regions were assessed in the resting state.The results showed a significant reduction of neuronal activity in patients at the end of the training compared to the beginning, especially in the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula, the inferior temporal gyrus and the medial frontal gyrus. Furthermore, the results show that patients were able to regulate their neuronal activities in the ROI, whereas healthy subjects achieved no significant reduction. However, there was a wide variability regarding the effects of the training within the group of patients. After the neurofeedback-sessions, individual craving was slightly reduced compared to baseline. The results demonstrate that it seems feasible for patients with alcohol dependency to reduce their neuronal activity using rtfMRI neurofeedback. In addition, there is some evidence that craving can be influenced with the help of this technique.In future, real-time fMRI might be a complementary neurophysiological-based strategy for the psychotherapy of patients with psychiatric or

  20. Assessment of Carotid Arterial Wall Elasticity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Microalbuminuria by Real-Time Ultrasound Elastography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate carotid arterial wall elasticity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM with microalbuminuria by real-time ultrasound elastography. Two hundred and ten T2DM patients were divided into two groups according to levels of urinary albumin excretion (UAE: T2DM without microalbuminuria (T2DM1 group, 120 and T2DM with microalbuminuria (T2DM2 group, 90. The right common carotid arteries were examined by real-time ultrasound elastography. The strain ratio (SR, blood to arterial wall strain ratio was calculated by dividing the strain value of the blood by that of the carotid arterial wall. The correlation between SR and general data was analyzed. The mean SR value ± SD of T2DM2 group was significantly higher than that of T2DM1 group (P<0.05. SR was positively and significantly correlated with UAE, HbA1c, and systolic blood pressure (r=0.456,0.435,0.235, P<0.05 for all. The mean value ± SD of UAE, HbA1c, 2hPG, BMI, and TC of T2DM2 group was significantly higher than that of T2DM1 group (P<0.05 for all. In conclusion, there is an association between microalbuminuria and carotid arterial wall elasticity in T2DM patients.

  1. Real-time PCR for detection of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in cerebrospinal fluid of human patients with meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Diep, To Song; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Sinh, Dinh Xuan; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Nga, Tran Thi Thu; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Campbell, James; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Hien, Tran Tinh; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an emerging zoonotic pathogen and is the main cause of acute bacterial meningitis in adult patients in Vietnam. We developed an internally controlled real-time PCR for detection of S. suis serotype 2 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples targeted at the cps2J gene. Sensitivity and specificity in culture-confirmed clinical samples were 100%. The PCR detected S. suis serotype 2 infection in 101 of 238 (42.4%) prospectively collected CSF samples, of which 55 (23%) were culture positive. Culture-negative but PCR-positive CSF samples were significantly associated with the use of antimicrobial agents before admission. S. suis serotype 2 infection was more common than infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis combined. Our results strikingly illustrate the additional diagnostic value of PCR in patients who are pretreated with antimicrobial agents and demonstrate the extremely high prevalence of S. suis infections among Vietnamese adult patients with bacterial meningitis. PMID:21767702

  2. Implementation and evaluation of Google Glass for visualizing real-time image and patient data in the primary care office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, Guillermo L.; Shemonski, Nathan D.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Nolan, Ryan M.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2014-02-01

    Primary care physicians must conduct a staggering number of comprehensive physical exams and medical record reviews, resulting in demanding daily schedules. Few commercial technologies have been marketed towards the primary care market, which has stifled improvements in disease screening and detection, work flow, and records management, taking time away from interactions with patients. In efforts to improve the quality of care in primary care medicine, we integrated our handheld primary care optical imaging system with Google Glass©, a commercial heads-up display (HUD). The integration of a HUD allows the physician to focus on the patient during the medical history review and during the patient exam, resulting in potential improvements to the quality of care and efficient access to real-time data for display and analysis.

  3. Microsatellite instability detection using BAT-25 and BAT-26 by Real Time PCR and HPLC in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Rismanchi

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The sensitivity and specificity of real time PCR in MSI detection is the same as sequencing method and more than HPLC. BAT-26 marker is more sensitive than BAT-25 and MSI detection with Real time PCR could be considered as an accu-rate method to diagnose MSI in CRC tissues not sera.

  4. Real time spatial cluster detection using interpoint distances among precise patient locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonetti Marco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health departments in the United States are beginning to gain timely access to health data, often as soon as one day after a visit to a health care facility. Consequently, new approaches to outbreak surveillance are being developed. When cases cluster geographically, an analysis of their spatial distribution can facilitate outbreak detection. Our method focuses on detecting perturbations in the distribution of pair-wise distances among all patients in a geographical region. Barring outbreaks, this distribution can be quite stable over time. We sought to exemplify the method by measuring its cluster detection performance, and to determine factors affecting sensitivity to spatial clustering among patients presenting to hospital emergency departments with respiratory syndromes. Methods The approach was to (1 define a baseline spatial distribution of home addresses for a population of patients visiting an emergency department with respiratory syndromes using historical data; (2 develop a controlled feature set simulation by inserting simulated outbreak data with varied parameters into authentic background noise, thereby creating semisynthetic data; (3 compare the observed with the expected spatial distribution; (4 establish the relative value of different alarm strategies so as to maximize sensitivity for the detection of clustering; and (5 measure factors which have an impact on sensitivity. Results Overall sensitivity to detect spatial clustering was 62%. This contrasts with an overall alarm rate of less than 5% for the same number of extra visits when the extra visits were not characterized by geographic clustering. Clusters that produced the least number of alarms were those that were small in size (10 extra visits in a week, where visits per week ranged from 120 to 472, diffusely distributed over an area with a 3 km radius, and located close to the hospital (5 km in a region most densely populated with patients to

  5. A new scheme for real-time high-contrast imaging in lung cancer radiotherapy: a proof-of-concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hao; Tian, Zhen; Shao, Yiping; Jiang, Steve B.; Jia, Xun

    2016-03-01

    Visualization of anatomy in real time is of critical importance for motion management in lung cancer radiotherapy. To achieve real-time, and high-contrast in-treatment imaging, we propose a novel scheme based on the measurement of Compton scatter photons. In our method, a slit x-ray beam along the superior-inferior direction is directed to the patient, (intersecting the lung region at a 2D plane) containing most of the tumor motion trajectory. X-ray photons are scattered off this plane primarily due to the Compton interaction. An imager with a pinhole or a slat collimator is placed at one side of the plane to capture the scattered photons. The resulting image, after correcting for incoming fluence inhomogeneity, x-ray attenuation, scatter angle variation, and outgoing beam geometry, represents the linear attenuation coefficient of Compton scattering. This allows the visualization of the anatomy on this plane. We performed Monte Carlo simulation studies both on a phantom and a patient for proof-of-principle purposes. In the phantom case, a small tumor-like structure could be clearly visualized. The contrast-resolution calculated using tumor/lung as foreground/background for kV fluoroscopy, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), and scattering image were 0.037, 0.70, and 0.54, respectively. In the patient case, tumor motion could be clearly observed in the scatter images. Imaging dose to the voxels directly exposed by the slit beam was ~0.4 times of that under a single CBCT projection. These studies demonstrated the potential feasibility of the proposed imaging scheme to capture the instantaneous anatomy of a patient on a 2D plane with a high image contrast. Clear visualization of the tumor motion may facilitate marker-less tumor tracking.

  6. Patient satisfaction and barriers to initiating real-time continuous glucose monitoring in early pregnancy in women with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, A L; Madsen, A B; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm;

    2012-01-01

    for 6 days at median 9 (range 6-14) gestational weeks and were asked to answer a semi-structured questionnaire on patient satisfaction. Results: Median HbA(1c) was 49 (range 34-86) mmol/mol) [6.6 (5.3-10.0) %] and duration of diabetes was 12 (0.5-37) years. Continuous glucose monitoring was used for 6......Aim: To evaluate self-reported satisfaction and barriers to initiating real-time continuous glucose monitoring in early pregnancy among women with pregestational diabetes. Methods: Fifty-four women with Type 1 diabetes and 14 women with Type 2 diabetes were offered continuous glucose monitoring...... monitoring during daytime and twelve (18%) during sleep. Many women reported improved diabetes understanding (52%) and would recommend continuous glucose monitoring to others (83%). Twenty-four patients (36%) had continuous glucose monitoring removed earlier than planned (before the intended 6 days...

  7. Real time Monte Carlo simulation for evaluation of patient doses involved in radiological examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulea, D. [Institute of Public Health ' Prof.Dr.Iuliu Moldovan' , Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cosma, C. [Babes-Bolyai Univ., Faculty of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    In order to apply the Monte Carlo simulation technique for usual radiological examinations we developed a Pc program, 'IradMed', written entirely in Java. The main purpose of this program is to compute the organ doses and the effective dose of patients, which are exposed at a X-ray beam having photon energies in 10 to 150 keV radiodiagnostic range. Three major radiological procedures are considered, namely mammography, radiography and CT. The fluoroscopy implies an irregular geometry and therefore it is neglected. Nevertheless, a gross estimation of patient doses can be made taking into account the fluoroscopy as being composed of several radiographic examinations applied in different anatomical regions. The interactions between radiation and matter are well-known, and the accuracy of the calculation is limited by the accuracy of the anatomical model used to describe actual patients and by characterisation of the radiation field applied. In this version of IradMed, it is assumed that the absorbed dose is equal with kerma for all tissues. No procedure has been used to take account of the finite range of the secondary electrons that are produced by photoelectric or Compton interactions. These ranges are small compared with the dimensions of the organs, and the absorbed dose will not change abruptly with distance except at boundary where composition and density change. However these boundary effects would have little effect in the determination of the average doses to almost all organs, except the active bone marrow which is treated separately. Another justification for this kerma approximation is the fact that the sum of all electron energies that exit the organ is statistically equal with the sum of all electron energies that enter in that particular organ. In this version of program, it is considered the following interactions: the Rayleigh scattering, the Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect. The Compton scattering is modeled by several

  8. An intelligent system for continuous blood pressure monitoring on remote multi-patients in real time

    CERN Document Server

    Marani, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an electronic system to perform a non-invasive measurement of the blood pressure based on the oscillometric method, which does not suffer from the limitations of the well-known auscultatory one. Moreover the proposed system is able to evaluate both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure values and makes use of a microcontroller and a Sallen-Key active filter. With reference to other similar devices, a great improvement of our measurement system is achieved since it performs the transmission of the systolic and diastolic pressure values to a remote computer. This aspect is very important when the simultaneous monitoring of multi-patients is required. The proposed system, prototyped and tested at the Electron Devices Laboratory (Electrical and Information Engineering Department) of Polytechnic University of Bari, Italy, is characterized by originality, by plainness of use and by a very high level of automation (so called intelligent system).

  9. Evaluation and validation of candidate endogenous control genes for real-time quantitative PCR studies of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Nicola

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR forms the basis of many breast cancer biomarker studies and novel prognostic assays, paving the way towards personalised cancer treatments. Normalisation of relative RQ-PCR data is required to control for non-biological variation introduced during sample preparation. Endogenous control (EC genes, used in this context, should ideally be expressed constitutively and uniformly across treatments in all test samples. Despite widespread recognition that the accuracy of the normalised data is largely dependent on the reliability of the EC, there are no reports of the systematic validation of genes commonly used for this purpose in the analysis of gene expression by RQ-PCR in primary breast cancer tissues. The aim of this study was to identify the most suitable endogenous control genes for RQ-PCR analysis of primary breast tissue from a panel of eleven candidates in current use. Oestrogen receptor alpha (ESR1 was used a target gene to compare the effect of choice of EC on the estimate of gene quantity. Results The expression and validity of candidate ECs (GAPDH, TFRC, ABL, PPIA, HPRT1, RPLP0, B2M, GUSB, MRPL19, PUM1 and PSMC4 was determined in 6 benign and 21 malignant primary breast cancer tissues. Gene expression data was analysed using two different statistical models. MRPL19 and PPIA were identified as the most stable and reliable EC genes, while GUSB, RPLP0 and ABL were least stable. There was a highly significant difference in variance between ECs. ESR1 expression was appreciably higher in malignant compared to benign tissues and there was a significant effect of EC on the magnitude of the error associated with the relative quantity of ESR1. Conclusion We have validated two endogenous control genes, MRPL19 and PPIA, for RQ-PCR analysis of gene expression in primary breast tissue. Of the genes in current use in this field, the above combination offers increased accuracy and resolution in the

  10. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR of CD24 mRNA in the detection of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph F

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling has recently shown that the mRNA for CD24 is overexpressed in prostate carcinomas (Pca compared to benign or normal prostate epithelial tissues. Immunohistochemical studies have reported the usefulness of anti-CD24 for detecting prostate cancer over the full range of prostate specimens encountered in surgical pathology, e.g. needle biopsies, transurethral resection of prostate chips, or prostatectomies. It is a small mucin-like cell surface protein and thus promises to become at least a standard adjunctive stain for atypical prostate biopsies. We tested the usefulness of real-time RT-PCR for specific and sensitive detection of CD24 transcripts as a supplementary measure for discriminating between malignant and benign lesions in prostatic tissues. Methods Total RNA was isolated from snap-frozen chips in 55 cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and from frozen sections in 59 prostatectomy cases. The latter contain at least 50% malignant epithelia. Relative quantification of CD24 transcripts was performed on the LightCycler instrument using hybridization probes for detection and porphobilinogen deaminase transcripts (PBGD for normalization. Results Normalized CD24 transcript levels showed an average 2.69-fold increase in 59 Pca-cases (mean 0.21 when compared to 55 cases of BPH (mean 0.08. This difference was highly significant (p Conclusion The present study demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative CD24 RNA transcript detection in prostatic tissues even without previous laser microdissection.

  11. Development and evaluation of a novel, real time mobile telesonography system in management of patients with abdominal trauma: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the use of e-FAST in management of patients with abdominal trauma, its utility in prehospital setting is not widely adopted. The goal of this study is to develop a novel portable telesonography (TS) system and evaluate the comparability of the quality of images obtained via this system among healthy volunteers who undergo e-FAST abdominal examination in a moving ambulance and at the ED. We hypothesize that: (1) real-time ultrasound images of acute trauma patients in the pre-hospital setting can be obtained and transmitted to the ED via the novel TS system; and (2) Ultrasound images transmitted to the hospital from the real-time TS system will be comparable in quality to those obtained in the ED. Methods Study participants are three healthy volunteers (one each with normal, overweight and obese BMI category). The ultrasound images will be obtained by two ultrasound-trained physicians The TS is a portable sonogram (by Sonosite) interfaced with a portable broadcast unit (by Live-U). Two UTPs will conduct e-FAST examinations on healthy volunteers in moving ambulances and transmit the images via cellular network to the hospital server, where they are stored. Upon arrival in the ED, the same UTPs will obtain another set of images from the volunteers, which are then compared to those obtained in the moving ambulances by another set of blinded UTPs (evaluators) using a validated image quality scale, the Questionnaire for User Interaction Satisfaction (QUIS). Discussion Findings from this study will provide needed data on the validity of the novel TS in transmitting live images from moving ambulances to images obtained in the ED thus providing opportunity to facilitate medical care of a patient located in a remote or austere setting. PMID:23249290

  12. Development and evaluation of a novel, real time mobile telesonography system in management of patients with abdominal trauma: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogedegbe Chinwe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the use of e-FAST in management of patients with abdominal trauma, its utility in prehospital setting is not widely adopted. The goal of this study is to develop a novel portable telesonography (TS system and evaluate the comparability of the quality of images obtained via this system among healthy volunteers who undergo e-FAST abdominal examination in a moving ambulance and at the ED. We hypothesize that: (1 real-time ultrasound images of acute trauma patients in the pre-hospital setting can be obtained and transmitted to the ED via the novel TS system; and (2 Ultrasound images transmitted to the hospital from the real-time TS system will be comparable in quality to those obtained in the ED. Methods Study participants are three healthy volunteers (one each with normal, overweight and obese BMI category. The ultrasound images will be obtained by two ultrasound-trained physicians The TS is a portable sonogram (by Sonosite interfaced with a portable broadcast unit (by Live-U. Two UTPs will conduct e-FAST examinations on healthy volunteers in moving ambulances and transmit the images via cellular network to the hospital server, where they are stored. Upon arrival in the ED, the same UTPs will obtain another set of images from the volunteers, which are then compared to those obtained in the moving ambulances by another set of blinded UTPs (evaluators using a validated image quality scale, the Questionnaire for User Interaction Satisfaction (QUIS. Discussion Findings from this study will provide needed data on the validity of the novel TS in transmitting live images from moving ambulances to images obtained in the ED thus providing opportunity to facilitate medical care of a patient located in a remote or austere setting.

  13. Increased detection of respiratory syncytial virus, influenza viruses, parainfluenza viruses, and adenoviruses with real-time PCR in samples from patients with respiratory symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Alma C.; van Loon, Anton M.; Wolfs, Tom F. W.; Jansen, Nicolaas J. G.; Nijhuis, Monique; Breteler, Els Klein; Schuurman, Rob; Rossen, John W. A.

    2007-01-01

    Respiratory samples (n = 267) from hospitalized patients with respiratory symptoms were tested by real-time PCR, viral culture, and direct immunofluorescence for respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza viruses, and adenoviruses. Compared with conventional diagnostic tests, real-t

  14. Molecular Analysis of Oral Bacteria in Heart Valve of Patients With Cardiovascular Disease by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Francisco Artur Forte; Forte, Clarissa Pessoa Fernandes; Silva, Paulo Goberlânio de Barros; Lopes, Camile B.; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; dos Santos, Ândrea Kely Campos Ribeiro; Sobrinho, Carlos Roberto Martins Rodrigues; Mota, Mário Rogério Lima; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Structural deficiencies and functional abnormalities of heart valves represent an important cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and a number of diseases, such as aortic stenosis, have been recently associated with infectious agents. This study aimed to analyze oral bacteria in dental plaque, saliva, and cardiac valves of patients with cardiovascular disease. Samples of supragingival plaque, subgingival plaque, saliva, and cardiac valve tissue were collected from 42 patients with heart valve disease. Molecular analysis of Streptococcus mutans, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Treponema denticola was performed through real-time PCR. The micro-organism most frequently detected in heart valve samples was the S. mutans (89.3%), followed by P. intermedia (19.1%), P. gingivalis (4.2%), and T. denticola (2.1%). The mean decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) was 26.4 ± 6.9 (mean ± SD), and according to the highest score of periodontal disease observed for each patient, periodontal pockets > 4 mm and dental calculus were detected in 43.4% and 34.7% of patients, respectively. In conclusion, oral bacteria, especially S. mutans, were found in the cardiac valve samples of patients with a high rate of caries and gingivitis/periodontitis. PMID:26632711

  15. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Real-Time Adherence Device among HIV-Positive IDU Patients in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Bachman DeSilva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We collected data on feasibility and acceptability of a real-time web-linked adherence monitoring container among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDU in China. “Wisepill” uses wireless technology to track on-time medication dosing. Ten patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART at the Guangxi CDC HIV clinic in Nanning, China, used Wisepill for one ART medication for one month. We monitored device use and adherence and explored acceptability of the device among patients. Mean adherence was 89.2% (SD 10.6%. Half of the subjects reported a positive overall experience with Wisepill. Seven said that it was inconvenient, supported by comments that it was large and conspicuous. Five worried about disclosure of HIV status due to the device; no disclosures were reported. Twelve signal lapses occurred (5.4% of prescribed doses, of which one was due to technical reasons, nine to behavioral reasons (both intentional and unintentional, and two to unclear reasons. Although the technical components must be monitored carefully, and acceptability to patients presents challenges which warrant further exploration, the Wisepill device has potential for adherence interventions that deliver rapid adherence-support behavioral feedback directly to patients, including IDU. The use of wireless technology appears uniquely promising for providing time-sensitive communication on patient behavior that can be harnessed to maximize the benefits of HIV treatment.

  16. Single-pixel hyperspectral imaging for real-time cancer detection: detecting damage in ex vivo porcine tissue samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Joseph; Farahi, Faramarz; Trammell, Susan R.

    2016-03-01

    We are developing a single-pixel hyperspectral imaging system based on compressive sensing that acquires spatial and spectral information simultaneously. Our spectral imaging system uses autofluorescencent emission from collagen (400 nm) and NAD(P)H (475 nm), as well as, differences in the optical reflectance spectra as diagnostics for differentiating between healthy and diseased tissue. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of our imaging system to discriminate between healthy and damaged porcine epidermal tissue. Healthy porcine epidermal tissue samples (n=11) were imaged ex vivo using our hyperspectral system. The amount of NAD(P)H emission and the reflectance properties were approximately constant across the surface of healthy tissue samples. The tissue samples were then thermally damaged using an 1850 nm thulium fiber laser and re-imaged after laser irradiation. The damaged regions were clearly visible in the hyperspectral images as the thermal damage altered the fluorescent emission of NAD(P)H and changed the scattering properties of the tissue. The extent of the damaged regions was determined based on the hyperspectral images and these estimates were compared to damage extents measured in white light images acquired with a traditional camera. The extent of damage determined via hyperspectral imaging was in good agreement with estimates based on white light imaging indicating that our system is capable of differentiating between healthy and damaged tissue. Possible applications of our single pixel hyperspectral imaging system range from real-time determination of tumor margins during surgery to the use of this technique in the pathology lab to aid with cancer diagnosis and staging.

  17. Adaptive Radiation Therapy for Postprostatectomy Patients Using Real-Time Electromagnetic Target Motion Tracking During External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Mingyao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Bharat, Shyam [Philips Research North America, Briarcliff Manor, New York (United States); Michalski, Jeff M.; Gay, Hiram A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Hou, Wei-Hsien [St Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Parikh, Parag J., E-mail: pparikh@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Using real-time electromagnetic (EM) transponder tracking data recorded by the Calypso 4D Localization System, we report inter- and intrafractional target motion of the prostate bed, describe a strategy to evaluate treatment adequacy in postprostatectomy patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and propose an adaptive workflow. Methods and Materials: Tracking data recorded by Calypso EM transponders was analyzed for postprostatectomy patients that underwent step-and-shoot IMRT. Rigid target motion parameters during beam delivery were calculated from recorded transponder positions in 16 patients with rigid transponder geometry. The delivered doses to the clinical target volume (CTV) were estimated from the planned dose matrix and the target motion for the first 3, 5, 10, and all fractions. Treatment adequacy was determined by comparing the delivered minimum dose (D{sub min}) with the planned D{sub min} to the CTV. Treatments were considered adequate if the delivered CTV D{sub min} is at least 95% of the planned CTV D{sub min}. Results: Translational target motion was minimal for all 16 patients (mean: 0.02 cm; range: −0.12 cm to 0.07 cm). Rotational motion was patient-specific, and maximum pitch, yaw, and roll were 12.2, 4.1, and 10.5°, respectively. We observed inadequate treatments in 5 patients. In these treatments, we observed greater target rotations along with large distances between the CTV centroid and transponder centroid. The treatment adequacy from the initial 10 fractions successfully predicted the overall adequacy in 4 of 5 inadequate treatments and 10 of 11 adequate treatments. Conclusion: Target rotational motion could cause underdosage to partial volume of the postprostatectomy targets. Our adaptive treatment strategy is applicable to post-prostatectomy patients receiving IMRT to evaluate and improve radiation therapy delivery.

  18. SeptiFast real-time PCR for detection of bloodborne pathogens in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markota, Andrej; Seme, Katja; Golle, Andrej; Poljak, Mario; Sinkovič, Andreja

    2014-09-01

    Several studies have been performed investigating the role of a real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay LightCycler SeptiFast with inconsistent results. In prospective evaluation of adult patients with severe sepsis or septic shock SeptiFast assay and blood culture results were compared regarding concordance, the impact of SeptiFast assay on antimicrobial therapy adjustment, time to results and the role of SeptiFast assay as a marker of disease severity. 63 blood sample sets were collected from 57 patients. 51 (80.9%) results were concordant negative and 7 (11.1%) concordant posi- tive. In one (1.6%) sample set blood culture was positive and SeptiFast assay negative, in three (4.8%) sample sets with negative blood cultures pathogens were detected by SeptiFast assay and in one (1.6%)patient an additional pathogen was detected by SeptiFast assay. If blood culture is considered as "gold standard", 1 (1.6%) SeptiFast false negative and 4 (6.3%) false positive results were identified (sensitivity 87.5%, specificity 92.6%, negative predictive value 97.8%). Antibiotic treatment was adjusted according to SeptiFast assay in 4 (6.3%) cases. Time to final results was significantly shorter with SeptiFast assay (32 +/- 23 h vs. 97 +/- 28 h, p sepsis and septic shock but it cannot replace the blood culture.

  19. Real-time tissue elastography in the evaluation of liver cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan-Fang Wei; Yong-Ping Wu; Li-Sha Ma; Ling-Mei Duan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the feasibility of real-time tissue elastography (RTE) in the evaluation of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B.Methods:A total of 60 patients with chronic hepatitis B who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2015 to March, 2016 were included in the study and served as the study group, while 30 healthy individuals were served as the control group. RTE was used to detect MEAN, %AREA, SD, COMP, CONT, KURT, SKEW, ENT, IDM, ASM, and CORR. The elastic imaging characteristic quantitative value difference in the two groups and the change of elastic imaging characteristic quantitative values at different fibrosis stages were observed.Results:Except for ENT, ASM, and CORR, the comparison of the rest quantitative values between the two groups was statistically significant. With the change of liver fibrosis staging, the various elastic imaging characteristic quantitative values were correspondingly changed, and the comparison among the various stages was statistically significant by one-way ANOVA.Conclusions: RTE, characterized by simplicity, strong practicability, repeatability, and noninvasiveness, and can provide an accurate evidence for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and the evaluation of fibrosis degree in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

  20. Comparison of amplicon-sequencing, pyrosequencing and real-time PCR for detection of YMDD mutants in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Jun Yang; Mei-Zeng Tu; Jian Liu; Xiao-Ling Wang; Hong-Zhi Jin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare the sequencing of PCR products, pyrosequencing, and real-time PCR for detection of Tyrosinemethionine-aspartate-aspartate (YMDD) mutants in patients with chronic hepatitis B.METHODS: Mixtures of plasmids and serum samples from 69 chronic hepatitis B patients treated with lamivudine were tested for YMDD mutations by sequencing of PCR products, pyrosequencing, and real-time PCR, respectively. Time required and reagent costs of the three assays were evaluated.RESULTS: Real-time PCR detected 100%, 50%, 10%,1% and 0.1% of YVDD plasmid in mixtures with 106 copies/mL of YMDD plasmid, whereas sequencing and pyrosequencing only detected 100% and 50% of YVDD plasmid in aliquots of the corresponding mixtures. Completely concordant results were obtained from 60 (87%)out of the 69 clinical serum samples by the three assays.Mutants were detected by real-time PCR in less than 20% of the total virus population, but no mutant was detected by sequencing and pyrosequencing. In addition,real-time PCR required less time and was more cost-effective than the other two assays. However, throughput of pyrosequencing was the highest.CONCLUSION: Among the three assays compared,real-time PCR is the most sensitive, cost-effective, and time saving for monitoring YMDD mutants in patients with chronic hepatitis B on lamivudine therapy.

  1. Comparison of ligase detection reaction and real-time PCR for detection of low abundant YMDD mutants in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ling Wang; Song-Gang Xie; Ling Zhang; Wei-Xia Yang; Xing Wang; Hong-Zhi Jin

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To compare the ligase detection reaction (LDR) and real-time PCR for detection of low abundant YMDD mutants in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. METHODS: Mixtures of plasmids and serum samples from 52 chronic hepatitis B patients with low abundant lamivudine-resistant mutations were tested with LDR and real-time PCR. Time required and reagent cost for both assays were evaluated. RESULTS: Real-time PCR detected 100, 50, 10, 1 and 0.1% of YIDD plasmid, whereas LDR detected 100, 50, 10, 1, 0.1, and 0.01% of YIDD plasmid, in mixtures with YMDD plasmid of 106 copies/mL. Among the 52 clinical serum samples, completely concordant results were obtained for all samples by both assays, and 39 YIDD, 9 YVDD, and 4 YIDD/YVDD were detected. Cost and time required for LDR and real-time PCR are 60/80 CNY (8/10.7 US dollars) and 4.5/2.5 h, respectively.CONCLUSION: LDR and real-time PCR are both sensitive and inexpensive methods for monitoring low abundant YMDD mutants during lamivudine therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B. LDR is more sensitive and less expensive, while real-time PCR is more rapid.

  2. Assessment of EGFR mutations in circulating tumor cell preparations from NSCLC patients by next generation sequencing: toward a real-time liquid biopsy for treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marchetti

    Full Text Available Assessment of EGFR mutation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients is mandatory for optimization of pharmacologic treatment. In this respect, mutation analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs may be desirable since they may provide real-time information on patient's disease status.Blood samples were collected from 37 patients enrolled in the TRIGGER study, a prospective phase II multi-center trial of erlotinib treatment in advanced NSCLC patients with activating EGFR mutations in tumor tissue. 10 CTC preparations from breast cancer patients without EGFR mutations in their primary tumors and 12 blood samples from healthy subjects were analyzed as negative controls. CTC preparations, obtained by the Veridex CellSearch System, were subjected to ultra-deep next generation sequencing (NGS on the Roche 454 GS junior platform.CTCs fulfilling all Veridex criteria were present in 41% of the patients examined, ranging in number between 1 and 29. In addition to validated CTCs, potential neoplastic elements were seen in 33 cases. These included cells not fulfilling all Veridex criteria (also known as "suspicious objects" found in 5 (13% of 37 cases, and isolated or clustered large naked nuclei with irregular shape observed in 33 (89% cases. EGFR mutations were identified by NGS in CTC preparations of 31 (84% patients, corresponding to those present in matching tumor tissue. Twenty-five (96% of 26 deletions at exon 19 and 6 (55% of 11 mutations at exon 21 were detectable (P = 0.005. In 4 (13% cases, multiple EGFR mutations, suggesting CTC heterogeneity, were documented. No mutations were found in control samples.We report for the first time that the CellSearch System coupled with NGS is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for EGFR mutation analysis in CTC preparations with potential clinical impact.

  3. Real-time surgery simulation of intracranial aneurysm clipping with patient-specific geometries and haptic feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenz, Wolfgang; Dirnberger, Johannes

    2015-03-01

    Providing suitable training for aspiring neurosurgeons is becoming more and more problematic. The increasing popularity of the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms leads to a lack of simple surgical situations for clipping operations, leaving mainly the complex cases, which present even experienced surgeons with a challenge. To alleviate this situation, we have developed a training simulator with haptic interaction allowing trainees to practice virtual clipping surgeries on real patient-specific vessel geometries. By using specialized finite element (FEM) algorithms (fast finite element method, matrix condensation) combined with GPU acceleration, we can achieve the necessary frame rate for smooth real-time interaction with the detailed models needed for a realistic simulation of the vessel wall deformation caused by the clamping with surgical clips. Vessel wall geometries for typical training scenarios were obtained from 3D-reconstructed medical image data, while for the instruments (clipping forceps, various types of clips, suction tubes) we use models provided by manufacturer Aesculap AG. Collisions between vessel and instruments have to be continuously detected and transformed into corresponding boundary conditions and feedback forces, calculated using a contact plane method. After a training, the achieved result can be assessed based on various criteria, including a simulation of the residual blood flow into the aneurysm. Rigid models of the surgical access and surrounding brain tissue, plus coupling a real forceps to the haptic input device further increase the realism of the simulation.

  4. Chlamydia infection in patients with and without cervical intra-epithelial lesions tested by real-time PCR vs. direct immunofluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Micheline de Lucena; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos de; Souza, Paulo Roberto Eleutério de; Albuquerque, Lúcia Cristina Bezerra de; Brandão, Lucas André Cavalcanti; Guimarães, Rafael Lima

    2008-08-01

    This study compares the detection rates of Chlamydia trachomatis by two techniques, direct immunofluorescence (IMF) and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in patients with and without intra-epithelial cervical lesions (SIL) in Recife. We conducted a transversal study involving 35 women with SIL and 35 without SIL attended at Ambulatório Especializado da Mulher, Recife, Brazil. They were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis using two techniques, direct IMF or real time PCR. The rates of Chlamydia trachomatis detection were compared and the association with intra-epithelial cervical lesions was determined using the chi-square test at a 5% level of significance. Concordance between the tests was evaluated using kappa. The global prevalence of Chlamydia infection was 47.1% by direct IMF and 58.6% by real time PCR. A significant association was observed between Chlamydia diagnosis and presence of intra-epithelial cervical lesions, with about 80% positive results by direct IMF and 77.1% by real time PCR. However, the detected rate of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis was significantly greater in patients without intra-epithelial cervical lesions tested by real time PCR (40%) when compared to direct IMF (14.3%). The concordance between the tests was weak, with a kappa coefficient of 0.4. Both real time PCR and direct IMF detected elevated rates of Chlamydia infection in patients with intra-epithelial cervical lesions (80%) but the tests were discordant when patients without cervical lesions were tested, possibly because sensitivity of real time PCR is greater.

  5. UK-based real-time lymphoproliferative disorder diagnostic service to improve the management of patients in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, Elizabeth; Owen, Roger G; Bedu-Addo, George; Sem, Ohene Opare; Ekem, Ivy; Adomakoh, Yvonne; Bates, Imelda

    2009-07-09

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of a UK-based real-time service to improve the diagnosis and management of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) in Ghana. Adult patients reporting to hospital with a suspected LPD, during a 1 year period, were prospectively enrolled. Bone marrow and/or lymph node biopsies were posted to the Haematology Malignancy Diagnostic Service (HMDS), Leeds, UK and underwent morphological analysis and immunophenotyping. Results were returned by e-mail. The initial diagnoses made in Ghana were compared with the final HMDS diagnoses to assess the contribution of the HMDS diagnosis to management decisions. The study was conducted at the two teaching hospitals in Ghana-Komfo Anokye, Kumasi and Korle Bu, Accra. Participants comprised 150 adult patients (>/=12 years old), 79 women, median age 46 years. Bone marrow and lymph node biopsy samples from all adults presenting with features suggestive of a LPD, at the two teaching hospitals in Ghana, over 1 year were posted to a UK LPD diagnostic centre, where immunophenotyping was performed by immunohistochemistry. Molecular analysis was performed where indicated. Diagnostic classifications were made according to international criteria. Final diagnosis was compared to the initial Ghanaian diagnosis to evaluate discrepancies; implications for alterations in treatment decisions were evaluated. Median time between taking samples and receiving e-mail results in Ghana was 15 days. Concordance between initial and final diagnoses was 32% (48 of 150). The HMDS diagnosis would have changed management in 31% (46 of 150) of patients. It is feasible to provide a UK-based service for LPD diagnosis in Africa using postal services and e-mail. This study confirmed findings from wealthy countries that a specialised haematopathology service can improve LPD diagnosis. This model of Ghana-UK collaboration provides a platform on which to build local capacity to operate an international quality

  6. Real-time PCR analysis of genes encoding tumor antigens in esophageal tumors and a cancer vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian T; Krishnadath, Kausilia K; Milano, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    Tumor antigens are the primary target of therapeutic cancer vaccines. We set out to define and compare the expression pattern of tumor antigen genes in esophagus carcinoma biopsies and in an allogeneic tumor lysate-based cancer vaccine, MelCancerVac. Cells used for vaccine production were treated...... in the production of the vaccine. Quantitative PCR was used to assay 74 tumor antigen genes in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. 81% (13/16) of tumors expressed more than five cancer/testis (CT) antigens. A total of 96 genes were assayed in the tumor cell clone (DDM1.7) used to make tumor cell...... lysate for vaccine preparation. Gene expression in DDM1.7 cells was compared with three normal tissues; 16 tumor antigen genes were induced more than ten-fold relative to normal tissues. Treatment with 5-aza-CdR induced expression of an additional 15 tumor antigens to a total of 31. MAGE-A protein...

  7. Real Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Knud Smed

    2000-01-01

    Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems.......Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems....

  8. Real-time monitoring of radiofrequency ablation of liver tumors using thermal-dose calculation by MR temperature imaging: initial results in nine patients, including follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit-Coiffe, Matthieu; Quesson, Bruno; Moonen, Chrit T.W. [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Laumonier, Herve; Trillaud, Herve [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Service de Radiologie, Hopital Saint-Andre, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Seror, Olivier [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Service de Radiologie, Hopital Jean Verdier, Bondy (France); Sesay, Musa-Bahazid [Service d' Anesthesie Reanimation III, Hopital Pellegrin, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France); Grenier, Nicolas [Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Laboratoire Imagerie Moleculaire et Fonctionnelle: de la physiologie a la therapie CNRS UMR 5231, Bordeaux Cedex (France); Service d' Imagerie Diagnostique et Therapeutique de l' Adulte, Hopital Pellegrin, CHU Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France)

    2010-01-15

    To assess the practical feasibility and effectiveness of real-time magnetic resonance (MR) temperature monitoring for the radiofrequency (RF) ablation of liver tumours in a clinical setting, nine patients (aged 49-87 years, five men and four women) with one malignant tumour (14-50 mm, eight hepatocellular carcinomas and one colorectal metastasis), were treated by 12-min RF ablation using a 1.5-T closed magnet for real-time temperature monitoring. The clinical monopolar RF device was filtered at 64 MHz to avoid electromagnetic interference. Real-time computation of thermal-dose (TD) maps, based on Sapareto and Dewey's equation, was studied to determine its ability to provide a clear end-point of the RF procedure. Absence of local recurrence on follow-up MR images obtained 45 days after the RF ablation was used to assess the apoptotic and necrotic prediction obtained by real-time TD maps. Seven out of nine tumours were completely ablated according to the real-time TD maps. Compared with 45-day follow-up MR images, TD maps accurately predicted two primary treatment failures, but were not relevant in the later progression of one case of secondary local tumour. The real-time TD concept is a feasible and promising monitoring method for the RF ablation of liver tumours. (orig.)

  9. SU-E-J-62: Breath Hold for Left-Sided Breast Cancer: Visually Monitored Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Amplitude Evaluated Using Real-Time Position Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, L; Quirk, S; Smith, WL [The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Yeung, R; Phan, T [The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hudson, A [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We used Real-Time Position Management (RPM) to evaluate breath hold amplitude and variability when gating with a visually monitored deep inspiration breath hold technique (VM-DIBH) with retrospective cine image chest wall position verification. Methods: Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer were treated using VM-DIBH. Respiratory motion was passively collected once weekly using RPM with the marker block positioned at the xiphoid process. Cine images on the tangent medial field were acquired on fractions with RPM monitoring for retrospective verification of chest wall position during breath hold. The amplitude and duration of all breath holds on which treatment beams were delivered were extracted from the RPM traces. Breath hold position coverage was evaluated for symmetric RPM gating windows from ± 1 to 5 mm centered on the average breath hold amplitude of the first measured fraction as a baseline. Results: The average (range) breath hold amplitude and duration was 18 mm (3–36 mm) and 19 s (7–34 s). The average (range) of amplitude standard deviation per patient over all breath holds was 2.7 mm (1.2–5.7 mm). With the largest allowable RPM gating window (± 5 mm), 4 of 10 VM-DIBH patients would have had ≥ 10% of their breath hold positions excluded by RPM. Cine verification of the chest wall position during the medial tangent field showed that the chest wall was greater than 5 mm from the baseline in only 1 out of 4 excluded patients. Cine images verify the chest wall/breast position only, whether this variation is acceptable in terms of heart sparing is a subject of future investigation. Conclusion: VM-DIBH allows for greater breath hold amplitude variability than using a 5 mm gating window with RPM, while maintaining chest wall positioning accuracy within 5 mm for the majority of patients.

  10. Diagnostic value of real-time elastography in the assessment of hepatic fibrosis in patients with liver iron overload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paparo, Francesco [Department of Radiology, E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Mura della Cappuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy); Cevasco, Luca [School of Radiology, University of Genoa, Via Leon Battista Alberti 4, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Zefiro, Daniele [Medical Physics Department, E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Mura della Cappuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy); Biscaldi, Ennio; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo [Department of Radiology, E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Mura della Cappuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy); Balocco, Manuela [Unit of Microcitemia and Hereditary Anaemias, E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Mura della Cappuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy); Pongiglione, Marta; Banderali, Simone [Department of Radiology, E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Mura della Cappuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy); Forni, Gian Luca [Unit of Microcitemia and Hereditary Anaemias, E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Mura della Cappuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy); Rollandi, Gian Andrea, E-mail: gian.andrea.rollandi@galliera.it [Department of Radiology, E.O. Ospedali Galliera, Mura della Cappuccine 14, 16128 Genoa (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    Objective: The objective of our prospective monocentric work was to determine the diagnostic value of real-time elastography (RTE) in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with iron overload, using transient elastography (TE) as reference standard. Methods: Sixty-seven consecutive patients with MRI detectable iron overload (T2* < 6.3 ms) were enrolled. TE and RTE were performed on the same day as MRI. Elastograms were acquired by an experienced operator and analyzed by calculating the elastic ratio between perihepatic soft tissues and liver parenchyma. An elliptical ROI of 1 cm{sup 2} (Z{sub 1}) was positioned in the liver parenchyma and a smaller elliptical ROI of 2 mm{sup 2} (Z{sub 2}) was positioned in a homogeneously soft (red) region of the diaphragm, which was considered as internal control to calculate the elastic ratio Z{sub 2}/Z{sub 1}. Results: Seven patients were excluded because of invalid TE or RTE examinations. The remaining 60 patients were 57% males and 43% females (mean age: 42 [21–76] years), including 37 homozygous-β-thalassemics, 13 patients with β-thalassemia intermedia, 6 with primary hemochromatosis, and 4 with myelodysplastic syndrome. Increasing elastic ratios were significantly correlated with increasing TE values (r = 0.645, 95% CI 0.468–0.772, P < 0.0001). The mean elastic ratios for each METAVIR group were as follows: F0/1 = 1.9 ± 0.4; F2 = 2.2 ± 0.4; F3 = 2.9 ± 0.5; F4 = 3.2 ± 0.4. The diagnostic accuracy of RTE for F ≥ 2 evaluated by AUC-ROC analysis was 0.798 (95% CI 0.674–0.890). The diagnostic accuracy of RTE for F ≥ 3 was 0.909 (95% CI 0.806–0.968). At a cut-off ≥ 2.75, RTE showed a sensitivity of 70% (95% CI 45.7–88.1) and a specificity of 97.5% (95% CI 86.8–99.9). Conclusions: In patients with MRI-detectable liver iron-overload RTE allows to discriminate between F0/1–F2 and F3–F4 with a reasonable diagnostic accuracy.

  11. Real-time volumetric image reconstruction and 3D tumor localization based on a single x-ray projection image for lung cancer radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ruijiang; Lewis, John H; Gu, Xuejun; Folkerts, Michael; Men, Chunhua; Jiang, Steve B

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an algorithm for real-time volumetric image reconstruction and 3D tumor localization based on a single x-ray projection image for lung cancer radiotherapy. Methods: Given a set of volumetric images of a patient at N breathing phases as the training data, we perform deformable image registration between a reference phase and the other N-1 phases, resulting in N-1 deformation vector fields (DVFs). These DVFs can be represented efficiently by a few eigenvectors and coefficients obtained from principal component analysis (PCA). By varying the PCA coefficients, we can generate new DVFs, which, when applied on the reference image, lead to new volumetric images. We then can reconstruct a volumetric image from a single projection image by optimizing the PCA coefficients such that its computed projection matches the measured one. The 3D location of the tumor can be derived by applying the inverted DVF on its position in the reference image. Our algorithm was implemented on graphics processing units...

  12. The study on quantitative expression of CD44v6mRNA by real-time RT-PCR with the micro-metastases of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daorong Wang; Xunliang Liu; Guoyu Chen; Yi Miao; Jianguo Xia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the expression of CD44 correlation and the ability of metastasis of tumor cells in gastric carcinoma, and to find the correlation of the quantitative of CD44V6mRNA and the histology expression of CD44v6 in tumors with the clinic-pathologic features, and to make the quantitative expression of CD44v6mRNA. Methods: Twenty patients with gastric carcinoma, 4patients with gastritis, and 10 apparently healthy controls were recruited. Blood samples were obtained before surgery. 10 days after surgery, the blood samples were obtained again. Serum CD44v6mRNA in all cases was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Results:Serum CD44V6mRNA was detectable in 20 of 20( 100% ) gastric carcinoma cases, The expression level ranged from 4.9 × 102 copies/μg RNA to 3.2 × 10s copies/μg RNA, the average levels of peripheral blood was 3.9 × 104 copies/μg RNA, The expression level of peripheral blood of gastric cancer after curative operation ranged from 5.5 × 100 copies/μg RNA to 7.6 × 103 copies/μg RNA. After curative operation the expression level was decreased markedly. Conclusion: Serum CD44v6mRNA is expressed in the peripheral blood of gastric carcinoma patients. The expression level of CD44V6mRNA is obviously decreased after curative operation. An elevated level of CD44v6mRNA may serve as an indicator of lymph node metastasis (especially early metastasis) and bad prognosis in patients with gastric carcinoma.

  13. Use of real-time polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia in immunocompromised patients: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanssa Summah; ZHU Ying-gang; Matthew E Falagas; Evridiki K Vouloumanou; QU Jie-ming

    2013-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised patients is still challenging today due to the absence of an in vitro culture system and the low diagnostic accuracy of microscopic examinations.Herein,weperformed a meta-analysis to evaluate the accuracy of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the diagnosis of PCP.Methods We searched Web of Knowledge and Medline from 1990 to May 2010 for studies reporting diagnostic accuracy data regarding the use of real-time PCR in the diagnosis of PCP in immunocompromised patients.Results Ten individual studies were included.Overall,the sensitivity of real-time PCR was 97% (95% CI:93%-99%);the specificity was 94% (95% CI:90%-96%).The area under the HSROC curve (95% CI) for real-time PCR was 0.99(0.97-0.99).In a subgroup analysis regarding studies involving HIV patients among the study population,the sensitivity and specificity were 97% (95% CI:93%-99%) and 93% (95% CI:89%-96%),respectively.Regarding studies using Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples only:sensitivity =98% (95% CI:94%-99%); specificity =93% (95% CI:89%-96%),respectively.Regarding studies using microscopy as a reference standard:sensitivity =97% (95% CI:92%-99%);specificity =93% (95% CI:88%-96%).However,high between-study statistical heterogeneity was observed in all analyses.Conclusions Real-time PCR has a good diagnostic accuracy and may provide a useful adjunctive tool for the diagnosis of PCP in immunocompromised patients.Further studies are needed in order to identify any differences in the diagnostic performance of real-time PCR in HIV and non-HIV immunocompromised patients.

  14. Real-time shadows

    CERN Document Server

    Eisemann, Elmar; Assarsson, Ulf; Wimmer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Important elements of games, movies, and other computer-generated content, shadows are crucial for enhancing realism and providing important visual cues. In recent years, there have been notable improvements in visual quality and speed, making high-quality realistic real-time shadows a reachable goal. Real-Time Shadows is a comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of real-time shadow techniques. It covers a large variety of different effects, including hard, soft, volumetric, and semi-transparent shadows.The book explains the basics as well as many advanced aspects related to the domain

  15. Detection of human bocavirus and human metapneumovirus by real-time PCR from patients with respiratory symptoms in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo André Pilger

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of newer molecular methods has led to the discovery of new respiratory viruses, such as human metapneumovirus (hMPV and human bocavirus (hBoV, in respiratory tract specimens. We have studied the occurrence of hMPV and hBoV in the Porto Alegre (PA metropolitan area, one of the southernmost cities of Brazil, evaluating children with suspected lower respiratory tract infection from May 2007-June 2008. A real-time polymerase chain reaction method was used for amplification and detection of hMPV and hBoV and to evaluate coinfections with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, influenza A and B, parainfluenza 1, 2 and 3, human rhinovirus and human adenovirus. Of the 455 nasopharyngeal aspirates tested, hMPV was detected in 14.5% of samples and hBoV in 13.2%. A unique causative viral agent was identified in 46.2% samples and the coinfection rate was 43.7%. For hBoV, 98.3% of all positive samples were from patients with mixed infections. Similarly, 84.8% of all hMPV-positive results were also observed in mixed infections. Both hBoV and hMPV usually appeared with RSV. In summary, this is the first confirmation that hMPV and hBoV circulate in PA; this provides evidence of frequent involvement of both viruses in children with clinical signs of acute viral respiratory tract infection, although they mainly appeared as coinfection agents.

  16. Improving medication adherence in diabetes type 2 patients through Real Time Medication Monitoring: a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effect of monitoring patients' medication use combined with short message service (SMS) reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloet, M.; Dijk, L. van; Santen-Reestman, J.; Vlijmen, B. van; Bouvy, M.L.; Bakker, D.H. de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Innovative approaches are needed to support patients' adherence to drug therapy. The Real Time Medication Monitoring (RTMM) system offers real time monitoring of patients' medication use combined with short message service (SMS) reminders if patients forget to take their medication. This

  17. Improving medication adherence in diabetes type 2 patients through Real Time Medication Monitoring: a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effect of monitoring patients' medication use combined with short message service (SMS) reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloet, M.; Dijk, L. van; Santen-Reestman, J.; Vlijmen, B. van; Bouvy, M.L.; Bakker, D.H. de

    2011-01-01

    Background: Innovative approaches are needed to support patients' adherence to drug therapy. The Real Time Medication Monitoring (RTMM) system offers real time monitoring of patients' medication use combined with short message service (SMS) reminders if patients forget to take their medication. This

  18. SU-E-T-248: Near Real-Time Analysis of Radiation Delivery and Imaging, Accuracy to Ensure Patient Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijesooriya, K; Seitter, K; Desai, V; Read, P; Larner, J [University of Virginia Health Systems, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop and optimize an effective software method for comparing planned to delivered control point machine parameters for all VARIAN TrueBeam treatments so as to permit (1) assessment of a large patient pool throughout their treatment course to quantify treatment technique specific systematic and random uncertainty of observables, (2) quantify the site specific daily imaging shifts required for target alignment, and (3) define tolerance levels for mechanical parameters and imaging parameters based on statistical analysis data gathered, and the dosimetric impact of variations. Methods: Treatment and imaging log files were directly compared to plan parameters for Eclipse and Pinnacle planned treatments via 3D, IMRT, control point, RapidArc, and electrons. Each control point from all beams/arcs (7984) for all fractions (1940) of all patients treated over six months were analyzed. At each control point gantry angle, collimator angle, couch angle, jaw positions, MLC positions, MU were compared. Additionally per-treatment isocenter shifts were calculated. Results were analyzed as a whole in treatment type subsets: IMRT, 3D, RapidArc; and in treatment site subsets: brain, chest/mediastinum, esophagus, H and N, lung, pelvis, prostate. Results: Daily imaging isocenter shifts from initial external tattoo alignment were dependent on the treatment site with < 0.5 cm translational shifts for H and N, Brain, and lung SBRT, while pelvis, esophagus shifts were ∼1 cm. Mechanical delivery parameters were within tolerance levels for all sub-beams. The largest variations were for RapidArc plans: gantry angle 0.11±0.12,collimator angle 0.00±0.00, jaw positions 0.48±0.26, MLC leaf positions 0.66±0.08, MU 0.14±0.34. Conclusion: Per-control point validation reveals deviations between planned and delivered parameters. If used in a near real-time error checking system, patient safety can be improved by equipping the treatment delivery system with additional forcing

  19. Diagnosis of pulmonary infection with Toxoplasma gondii in immunocompromised HIV-positive patients by real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, E; Edvinsson, B; Lundgren, B

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study presented here was to evaluate the use of PCR for improving the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in immunocompromised hosts. Three hundred thirty-two bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples were analyzed by real-time PCR targeting a 529 bp element of T. gondii...

  20. Real-time kinetic analysis applied to the production of bispecific monoclonal antibodies for radioimmunodetection of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horenstein, A L; Poiesi, C; DeMonte, L; Camagna, M; Mariani, M; Albertini, A; Malavasi, F

    1993-01-01

    An automated biosensor system designed for measuring molecular interactions in real-time and without labelling of the reactants has been used to evaluate the association/dissociation rate and affinity constants of bivalent monoclonal antibodies and a monovalent bispecific monoclonal antibody. Observed differences in affinity between parental and bispecific antibody produced were related to the association rate constants, since the dissociation rate constants were in the same range. Values were also closely related to radioimmunochemical data. These results indicate that the biosensor system, besides presenting several advantages for characterizing antigen-antibody interaction, is valuable for selecting monoclonal antibodies with properties which might be useful in the development of bispecific monoclonal antibodies.

  1. 3D tumor localization through real-time volumetric x-ray imaging for lung cancer radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ruijiang; Jia, Xun; Gu, Xuejun; Folkerts, Michael; Men, Chunhua; Song, William Y; Jiang, Steve B

    2011-01-01

    Recently we have developed an algorithm for reconstructing volumetric images and extracting 3D tumor motion information from a single x-ray projection. We have demonstrated its feasibility using a digital respiratory phantom with regular breathing patterns. In this work, we present a detailed description and a comprehensive evaluation of the improved algorithm. The algorithm was improved by incorporating respiratory motion prediction. The accuracy and efficiency were then evaluated on 1) a digital respiratory phantom, 2) a physical respiratory phantom, and 3) five lung cancer patients. These evaluation cases include both regular and irregular breathing patterns that are different from the training dataset. For the digital respiratory phantom with regular and irregular breathing, the average 3D tumor localization error is less than 1 mm. On an NVIDIA Tesla C1060 GPU card, the average computation time for 3D tumor localization from each projection ranges between 0.19 and 0.26 seconds, for both regular and irreg...

  2. Impact of rapid detection of viral and atypical bacterial pathogens by real-time polymerase chain reaction for patients with lower respiratory tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik; van Loon, Anton M; Schuurman, Rob; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Hak, Eelko; Thijsen, Steven; Nossent, George; Schneider, Margriet M E; Hustinx, Willem M N; Bonten, Marc J M

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic tests with a high sensitivity for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) could lead to improved patient care and reduce unnecessary antibiotic use and associated costs. Diagnostic yields, feasibility, and costs of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of nasopharyn

  3. Bayesian Algorithm Implementation in a Real Time Exposure Assessment Model on Benzene with Calculation of Associated Cancer Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos A. Kassomenos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current study was the development of a reliable modeling platform to calculate in real time the personal exposure and the associated health risk for filling station employees evaluating current environmental parameters (traffic, meteorological and amount of fuel traded determined by the appropriate sensor network. A set of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs was developed to predict benzene exposure pattern for the filling station employees. Furthermore, a Physiology Based Pharmaco-Kinetic (PBPK risk assessment model was developed in order to calculate the lifetime probability distribution of leukemia to the employees, fed by data obtained by the ANN model. Bayesian algorithm was involved in crucial points of both model sub compartments. The application was evaluated in two filling stations (one urban and one rural. Among several algorithms available for the development of the ANN exposure model, Bayesian regularization provided the best results and seemed to be a promising technique for prediction of the exposure pattern of that occupational population group. On assessing the estimated leukemia risk under the scope of providing a distribution curve based on the exposure levels and the different susceptibility of the population, the Bayesian algorithm was a prerequisite of the Monte Carlo approach, which is integrated in the PBPK-based risk model. In conclusion, the modeling system described herein is capable of exploiting the information collected by the environmental sensors in order to estimate in real time the personal exposure and the resulting health risk for employees of gasoline filling stations.

  4. Evaluation of chemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of Aloysia citrodora extract on colon cancer cell line using Real Time PCR and Flow-cytometry methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mirzaie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Aloysia citrodora belongs to the Verbenaceae family of plants, a well-known herbal medicine in Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial, cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of A. citrodora extract against human colon cancer using real time PCR and flow cytometry methods. Materials and Methods: this experimental study was carried out in Islamic Azad University, East Tehran Branch, from March to September of 2014. At first, the A. citrodora chemical constituents were analyzed by GC/MS technique. In addition, antioxidant assay, antibacterial and anti-cancer effect was performed using DPPH, disk diffusion and MTT methods, respectively. Finally, the apoptosis gene (Bax and Bcl2 expression was performed by real time PCR and apoptotic effects was analyzed using Flow-cytometry technique. Results:  GC/MS analysis of A. citrodora extract was shown 37 major components and the most frequent component was belonged to Spathulenol (17.57% and Caryophyllene oxide (15.15%. The antioxidant activity of the extract was IC50=0.6 ±0.03. The maximum and minimum antibacterial effects of extract were belonged to Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria, respectively. Cytotoxic results revealed that the extract have IC50= 20.1± 0.78 mg/ml against colon cell line and Real Time PCR results showed the expression level of Bax and Bcl2 was increased and decreased respectively in colon cancer cell line (3.470 ± 0.72 (P<0.05, 0.43 ± 0.35 (P< 0.05. In addition, the flow-cytometry results indicated the 38.66 % apoptosis in colon cancer cell line. Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that A. citrodora extract has potential uses for pharmaceutical industries and it suggested that further studies were performed for A. citrodora pharmaceutical importance.

  5. Real-time Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Quercellini, Claudia; Balbi, Amedeo; Cabella, Paolo; Quartin, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the possibility of measuring the temporal change of radial and transverse position of sources in the sky in real time have become conceivable thanks to the thoroughly improved technique applied to new astrometric and spectroscopic experiments, leading to the research domain we call Real-time cosmology. We review for the first time great part of the work done in this field, analysing both the theoretical framework and some endeavor to foresee the observational strategies and their capability to constrain models. We firstly focus on real time measurements of the overall redshift drift and angular separation shift in distant source, able to trace background cosmic expansion and large scale anisotropy, respectively. We then examine the possibility of employing the same kind of observations to probe peculiar and proper acceleration in clustered systems and therefore the gravitational potential. The last two sections are devoted to the short time future change of the cosmic microwave background, as ...

  6. Real-time radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-02-26

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components.

  7. Observation of development of breast cancer cell lines in real time by fluorescence microscopy under simulated microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavan, David; Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Sanabria, Gabriela; Orihuela, Diego; Suarez, Juan; Quispe, Marco; Chuchon, Mariano; Martin, David; Maroto, Marcos; Egea, Javier

    2016-07-01

    This project consist in the implementation of a fluorescence microscope for the in real time monitoring of biological labeled samples by several fluorophores in microgravity conditions keeping the temperature, humidity, and (CO)2 controlled by an electronic platform. The system (fluorescence microscope and incubator) is integrated to a microgravity simulator machine which was presented on the "30th Annual American Society for Gravitation and Space Research Meeting" October 2014 in Pasadena, CA, USA. Currently, we have the microgravity machine biologically validated by genetic expression studies in pupal stage of Drosophila melanogaster. The fluorescence microscope has a platform designed to hold a culture flask, and a fluorescence camera (Leica DFC3000 G) connected to an optical system (Fluorescence Light source Leica EL6000, optic fiber, fiber adapter, and fluorescence filter) in order to take images in real time. The mechanical system of the fluorescence microsc ope is designed to allow the displacement of the fluorescence camera through a parallel plane to the culture flask's plane and also the movement of the platform through a perpendicular axis to the culture flask in order to focus the samples to the optical system. The mechanical system is propelled by four DC moto-reductors with encoder (A-max 26 Maxon motor, GP 32S screw and MR encoder) that generate displacements in the order of micrometers. The angular position control of the DC motoreductor's shaft of all the DC moto-reductors is done by PWM signals based on the interpretation of the signals provided by the encoders during the movement. The system is remotely operated by a graphic interface installed on a personal computer or any mobile device (smartphone, laptop or tablet) by using the internet. Acknowledgments: Grant of INNOVATE PERU (Formerly FINCYT)

  8. Real-Time Shading

    CERN Document Server

    Olano, Marc

    2002-01-01

    This book covers real-time shading systems, their design and how they work. Procedural shading, long valued for off-line rendering and production animation is now possible on interactive graphics hardware. These developments are important for areas such as game development, product design, and scientific visualization, among others. The authors include examples of techniques for achieving common effects efficiently in a real-time shading language ranging from full procedural shading on advanced specialized hardware to limited, yet surprisingly flexible shading on unextended OpenGL, to modern P

  9. Measuring tongue volumes and visualizing the chewing and swallowing process using real-time TrueFISP imaging - initial clinical experience in healthy volunteers and patients with acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajaj, W.; Goyen, M.; Herrmann, B.; Massing, S.; Goehde, S.; Lauenstein, T.; Ruehm, S.G. [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Essen (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    This study assessed both two-dimensional (2D) TrueFISP imaging for quantifying tongue volume and real-time TrueFISP imaging for evaluating chewing and swallowing in healthy volunteers and patients with acromegaly. In 50 healthy volunteers, tongue volumes were measured using a 2D TrueFISP sequence. Chewing and swallowing were visualized using a real-time TrueFISP sequence. Ten patients with acromegaly were examined twice with the same magnetic resonance imaging protocol: once prior to therapy and a second time 6 months after therapy. Prior to therapy, healthy volunteers had an average tongue volume of 140 ml for men and 90 ml for women, and patients with acromegaly had an average tongue volume of 180 ml for men and 145 ml for women. However, 6 months after therapy the mean tongue volumes in patients with acromegaly had decreased to 154 ml in the men and to 125 ml in the women. The chewing and swallowing process was normal in all volunteers. Prior to therapy, just two patients showed a chewing and swallowing pathology, which disappeared after therapy. Patients with acromegaly had larger tongue volumes than healthy volunteers, and TrueFISP imaging proved feasible for visualizing chewing and swallowing in real time and is capable of detecting possible pathologies. Furthermore, TrueFISP imaging can be used to monitor therapeutic approaches in patients with acromegaly. (orig.)

  10. Real-Time Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UNHCR

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A real-time evaluation (RTE is a timely, rapid andinteractive review of a fast evolving humanitarianoperation undertaken at an early phase. Its broadobjectives are to gauge the effectiveness and impactof a given UNHCR response and to ensure that itsfindings are used as an immediate catalyst fororganisational and operational change.

  11. Single-fraction high-dose-rate brachytherapy using real-time transrectal ultrasound based planning in combination with external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: dosimetrics and early clinical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Olivier; Delouya, Guila; Taussky, Daniel; Menard, Cynthia; Béliveau-Nadeau, Dominic; Hervieux, Yannick; Larouche, Renée

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To validate the feasibility of a single-fraction high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) boost for prostate cancer using real-time transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) based planning. Material and methods From August 2012 to September 2015, 126 patients underwent a single-fraction HDRBT boost of 15 Gy using real-time TRUS based planning. External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) (37.5 Gy/15 fractions, 44 Gy/22 fractions, or 45 Gy/25 fractions) was performed before (31%) or after (69%) HDRBT boost. Genito-urinary (GU) and gastro-intestinal (GI) toxicity were assessed 4 and 12 months after the end of combined treatment using the international prostate symptom score scale (IPSS) and the common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) v3.0. Results All dose-planning objectives were achieved in 90% of patients. Prostate D90 ≥ 105% and ≤ 115% was achieved in 99% of patients, prostate V150 ≤ 40% in 99%, prostate V200 < 11% in 96%, urethra D10 < 120% for 99%, urethra V125 = 0% in 100%, and rectal V75 < 1 cc in 93% of patients. Median IPSS score was 4 at baseline and did not change at 4 and 12 months after combined treatment. No patients developed ≥ grade 2 GI toxicity. With a median follow-up of 10 months, only two patients experienced biochemical failure. Among patients who didn't receive ADT, cumulative percentage of patients with PSA ≤ 1 ng/ml at 4 and 18 months was respectively 23% and 66%. Conclusions Single-fraction HDRBT boost of 15 Gy using real-time TRUS based planning achieves consistently high dosimetry quality. In combination with EBRT, toxicity outcomes appear promising. A longer follow-up is needed to assess long-term outcome and toxicities. PMID:27257413

  12. Use of a graphics processing unit (GPU) to facilitate real-time 3D graphic presentation of the patient skin-dose distribution during fluoroscopic interventional procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Vijay; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R

    2012-02-23

    We have developed a dose-tracking system (DTS) that calculates the radiation dose to the patient's skin in real-time by acquiring exposure parameters and imaging-system-geometry from the digital bus on a Toshiba Infinix C-arm unit. The cumulative dose values are then displayed as a color map on an OpenGL-based 3D graphic of the patient for immediate feedback to the interventionalist. Determination of those elements on the surface of the patient 3D-graphic that intersect the beam and calculation of the dose for these elements in real time demands fast computation. Reducing the size of the elements results in more computation load on the computer processor and therefore a tradeoff occurs between the resolution of the patient graphic and the real-time performance of the DTS. The speed of the DTS for calculating dose to the skin is limited by the central processing unit (CPU) and can be improved by using the parallel processing power of a graphics processing unit (GPU). Here, we compare the performance speed of GPU-based DTS software to that of the current CPU-based software as a function of the resolution of the patient graphics. Results show a tremendous improvement in speed using the GPU. While an increase in the spatial resolution of the patient graphics resulted in slowing down the computational speed of the DTS on the CPU, the speed of the GPU-based DTS was hardly affected. This GPU-based DTS can be a powerful tool for providing accurate, real-time feedback about patient skin-dose to physicians while performing interventional procedures.

  13. Analysis of Enterococcus faecalis in samples from Turkish patients with primary endodontic infections and failed endodontic treatment by real-time PCR SYBR green method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk M. Ozbek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of Enterococcus faecalis in primary endodontic infections and failed endodontic treatments using real-time PCR and to determine the statistical importance of the presence of E. faecalis in a Turkish population with endodontic infections. MATERIAL AND METHODS: E. faecalis was investigated from 79 microbial samples collected from patients who were treated at the Endodontic Clinic of the Dental School of Atatürk University (Erzurum, Turkey. Microbial samples were taken from 43 patients (Group 1 with failed endodontic treatments and 36 patients (Group 2 with chronic apical periodontitis (primary endodontic infections. DNA was extracted from the samples by using a QIAamp® DNA mini-kit and analyzed with real-time PCR SYBR Green. RESULTS: E. faecalis was detected in 41 out of 79 patients, suggesting that it exists in not less than 61% of all endodontic infections when the proportion test (z= -1.645, Real-time PCR SYBR Green allowed for the detection of E. faecalis in 32 out of 43 (74.4% in Group 1, and in 9 out of 36 (25% in Group 2. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that E. faecalis is a frequent isolate for endodontic infections in Turkish patients, and is more often associated with failed endodontic treatments than primary endodontic infections.

  14. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to detect propionibacterial ribosomal RNA in the lymph nodes of Chinese patients with sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Wei, Y-R; Zhang, Y; Du, S-S; Baughman, R P; Li, H-P

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of using the copy number of propionibacterial rRNA as a biomarker for sarcoidosis. Ribosomal RNA of Propionibacterium acnes and P. granulosum was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue of lymph node biopsy from 65 Chinese patients with sarcoidosis, 45 with tuberculosis and 50 controls with other diseases (23 with non-specific lymphadenitis and 27 with mediastinal lymph node metastasis from lung cancer). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was analysed to determine an optimal cut-off value for diagnosis, and the diagnostic accuracy of the cut-off value was evaluated in additional tissue samples [24 patients with sarcoidosis and 22 with tuberculosis (TB)]. P. acnes or P. granulosum rRNA was detected in 48 of the 65 sarcoidosis samples but only in four of the 45 TB samples and three of the 50 control samples. Analysis of the ROC curve revealed that an optimal cut-off value of the copy number of propionibacterial rRNA for diagnosis of sarcoidosis was 50·5 copies/ml with a sensitivity and specificity of 73·8 and 92·6%, respectively. Based on the cut-off value, 19 of the 24 additional sarcoidosis samples exhibited positive P. acnes or P. granulosum, whereas only one of the 22 additional TB samples was positive, resulting in a sensitivity and specificity of 79·2 and 95·5%, respectively. These findings suggest that propionibacteria might be associated with sarcoidosis granulomatous inflammation. Detection of propionibacterial rRNA by RT-PCR might possibly distinguish sarcoidosis from TB.

  15. REAL-TIME DETECTION OF SURVIVIN mRNA EXPRESSION IN CERVICAL CANCER CELL LINES USING MOLECULAR BEACON IMAGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The initiated growth of human cancer cells of-ten mostly come fromthe abnor mal expression ofgenes.Survivinis anapotosis inhibitor of IAPfami-ly,cloned by Ambrosini in1997usingthe cDNAofeffector cell protease receptor-1(EPR-1),and is thekey gene for the development and advancement oftumor.Inthe present study,the feasibility of detec-ting the expression of survivin mRNA was exam-inedincervical cancer cell lines using molecular bea-coni maging technology.MATERIALS AND METHODS1Cervical cancer cell lines and ce...

  16. REAL-TIME DETECTION OF SURVIVIN mRNA EXPRESSION IN CERVICAL CANCER CELL LINES USING MOLECULAR BEACON IMAGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Ruifang; He Dalin; Xue Yan; Wang Shu; Xie Li; Zhao Jun; Wang Xinyang; Yang Lili

    2006-01-01

    Objective To detect the expression of survivin mRNA in cervical cancer cell lines using molecular beacon imaging technology. Methods Human cervical cancer cells (HeLa and SiHa) and human fetal lung fibroblast HFL-I were cultured in vitro. After adding 100 nmol/L survivin mRNA molecular beacon, the fluorescent signals were observed under fluorescent microscope. The expressions of survivin in cervical cancer cells and HFL-I cell were examined by immunocytochemical streptravidin-biothin peroxidase (SP) assay at the same time. Results Two kinds of survivin mRNA molecular beacon, with different color fluorescence, had strong fluorescent signal in cervical cancer cell lines, and the signal in SiHa cell line was stronger, but these signals were not found in HFL-I ; Immunocytochemical staining of positive survivin was located in the cytoplasm of cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and SiHa, whereas, no expression of survivin was detected in HFL-I cell line. Conclusion The technology of molecular beacon imaging can be used to detect the expression of survivin mRNA in viable cells successfully, and may provide a new approach to the diagnosis of early stage cervical cancer and the following-up in the clinic.

  17. Real Time Econometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Pesaran, M. Hashem; Timmermann, Allan

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the problems facing decision makers using econometric models in real time. It identifies the key stages involved and highlights the role of automated systems in reducing the effect of data snooping. It sets out many choices that researchers face in construction of automated systems and discusses some of the possible ways advanced in the literature for dealing with them. The role of feedbacks from the decision maker?s actions to the data generating process is also discusse...

  18. Real Time Processing

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; ANDERSON, Dustin James; DOGLIONI, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The LHC provides experiments with an unprecedented amount of data. Experimental collaborations need to meet storage and computing requirements for the analysis of this data: this is often a limiting factor in the physics program that would be achievable if the whole dataset could be analysed. In this talk, I will describe the strategies adopted by the LHCb, CMS and ATLAS collaborations to overcome these limitations and make the most of LHC data: data parking, data scouting, and real-time analysis.

  19. Development of real-time immuno-PCR for the quantitative detection of mycobacterial PstS1 in tuberculosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suman; Raj, Ankush; Singh, Netrapal; Dahiya, Bhawna; Sheoran, Abhishek; Gupta, Krishna B; Mehta, Promod K

    2017-01-01

    A novel indirect real-time immuno-polymerase chain reaction (RT-I-PCR) assay, an evolution of I-PCR, was developed for the quantitative detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis PstS1 (Rv0934) with a wide dynamic range of 10ng/mL to 1pg/mL in body fluids of tuberculosis (TB) patients, which may monitor the dynamics of disease.

  20. Quantitative Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay for the Expression of Tob mRNA in Human Colorectal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dian-chao WU

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Tob is a member of Tob/BTG antiproliferative family. To date, Tob expression in human carcinoma using clinical specimens has not been studied in depth except for lung carcinoma and thyroid carcinoma. This study is the first to investigate the expression levels of Tob gene in human colorectal cancer tissues,and their corresponding para-cancerous tissues. The correlation of expression of the Tob gene with clinicopathological characteristics of colorectal cancer was also analyzed.METHODS Quantitative real time RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of Tob mRNA in 31 colorectal cancers.RESULTS Compared with normal tissues, up-regulation of Tob mRNA was observed in 31 colorectal cancer tissues (P = 0.020).The expression level of Tob at Dukes C + D phase was higher than Dukes A + B phase, and the difference was signifi cant (P < 0.05).However, in this study, it was found that the expression of Tob mRNA was not related with age, gender, and pathological type of colorectal cancer.CONCLUSION The up-regulation of Tob may be closely associated with tumorigenesis of colorectal carcinoma.

  1. Quantitative real-time PCR identifies a critical region of deletion on 22q13 related to prognosis in oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, Patricia P; Rogatto, Silvia R; Kowalski, Luiz P;

    2002-01-01

    of disease (P=0.025), family history of cancer (P=0.001), and death (P=0.021). Relative copy number loss involving the DIA1 gene was correlated to family history of cancer (Palcohol (P=0.026). Log-rank test revealed a significant decrease in survival (P=0......Quantitative real time PCR was performed on genomic DNA from 40 primary oral carcinomas and the normal adjacent tissues. The target genes ECGFB, DIA1, BIK, and PDGFB and the microsatellite markers D22S274 and D22S277, mapped on 22q13, were selected according to our previous loss of heterozygosity...... findings in head and neck tumors. Quantitative PCR relies on the comparison of the amount of product generated from a target gene and that generated from a disomic reference gene (GAPDH-housekeeping gene). Reactions have been performed with normal control in triplicates, using the 7700 Sequence Detection...

  2. MGB probe assay for rapid detection of mtDNA11778 mutation in the Chinese LHON patients by real-time PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-yong WANG; Yang-shun GU; Jing WANG; Yi TONG; Ying WANG; Jun-bing SHAO; Ming QI

    2008-01-01

    Objective:Leber's hereditary optic neuropathY (LHON)is a maternally inherited degeneration of the optic nerve caused by point mutations of mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA).Many unsolved questions regarding the penetrance and pathophysiological mechanism of LHON demand efficient and reliable mutation testing.This study aims to develop a minor groove binder(MGB) probe assay for rapid detection of mtDNA11778 mutation and heteroplasmy in Chinese LHON patients by real-time polymerase chain reaction(PCR).Methods:Forty-eight patients suspected of having LHON and their maternal relatives underwent a molecular genetic evaluation,with 20 normal individuals as a control group at the same time.A real-time PCR involving two MGB probes was used to detect the mtDNA 11778 mutation and heteroplasmy.A linear standard curve was obtained by pUCmLHONG and pUCmLHONA clones.Results:All 48 LHON patients and their matemal relatives were positive for mtDNA 11778 mutation in our assay,27 heteroplasmic and 21 homoplasmic.Eighteen cases did not show an occurrence of the disease,while 9 developed the disease among the 27 heteroplasmic mutation cases.Eleven did not show an occurrence of the disease,while 10 cases developed the disease among 21 homoplasmic mutation cases.There was a significant difierence in the incidence between the heteroplasmic and the homoplasmic mutation types.The time needed for running a real-time PCR assay was only 80 min.Conclusion:This real-time PCR assay is a rapid,reliable method for mtDNA mutation detection as well as heteroplasmy quantification.Detecting this ratio is very important for predicting phenotypic expression of unaffected carriers.

  3. Comparison of real time IS6110-PCR, microscopy, and culture for diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis in a cohort of adult patients in Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidya Chaidir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacteriological confirmation of tuberculous (TB meningitis is difficult. Culture is slow and microscopy has insufficient sensitivity. We evaluated real time PCR targeting insertion sequence IS6110 among 230 consecutive adult patients with subacute meningitis in a referral hospital in Indonesia. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples were examined using microscopy, solid and liquid culture, and real time IS6110-PCR with a fluorescence-labeled probe using DNA extracted from CSF. CSF samples from 40 non-infectious neurology patients were used as negative controls. IS6110-PCR results were linked with clinical and CSF characteristics. RESULTS: Most patients presented with subacute meningitis, after a median of 14 days of symptoms (range 7-30. After exclusion of cryptococcal and bacterial meningitis, 207 patients were classified as definite or probable TB meningitis; 17.9% with HIV infection. Among this group IS6110-PCR gave the highest positivity rate (68%, 95% CI 62-74% compared with microscopy of ZN-stained slides (11%, 95% CI 7-15%, and mycobacterial culture using solid (36%, 95% CI 29-42% and liquid (44%, 95% CI 37-51% media. IS6110-PCR was positive in 92% of patients with culture-positive and 42% of patients with culture-negative probable TB meningitis. Among culture-negative patients, a positive PCR was associated with a history of TB treatment, a longer duration of illness, a higher CSF cell count and protein, and a lower CSF glucose. IS6110-PCR was negative in all CSF samples from non-meningitis control patients. CONCLUSIONS: Real time IS6110-PCR is a quick, sensitive, and specific test for diagnosing of TB meningitis in this setting. Its performance in other (less-developed settings needs further study.

  4. Identification of endogenous control genes for normalisation of real-time quantitative PCR data in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kheirelseid, Elrasheid A H

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gene expression analysis has many applications in cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic care. Relative quantification is the most widely adopted approach whereby quantification of gene expression is normalised relative to an endogenously expressed control (EC) gene. Central to the reliable determination of gene expression is the choice of control gene. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a panel of candidate EC genes from which to identify the most stably expressed gene(s) to normalise RQ-PCR data derived from primary colorectal cancer tissue. RESULTS: The expression of thirteen candidate EC genes: B2M, HPRT, GAPDH, ACTB, PPIA, HCRT, SLC25A23, DTX3, APOC4, RTDR1, KRTAP12-3, CHRNB4 and MRPL19 were analysed in a cohort of 64 colorectal tumours and tumour associated normal specimens. CXCL12, FABP1, MUC2 and PDCD4 genes were chosen as target genes against which a comparison of the effect of each EC gene on gene expression could be determined. Data analysis using descriptive statistics, geNorm, NormFinder and qBasePlus indicated significant difference in variances between candidate EC genes. We determined that two genes were required for optimal normalisation and identified B2M and PPIA as the most stably expressed and reliable EC genes. CONCLUSION: This study identified that the combination of two EC genes (B2M and PPIA) more accurately normalised RQ-PCR data in colorectal tissue. Although these control genes might not be optimal for use in other cancer studies, the approach described herein could serve as a template for the identification of valid ECs in other cancer types.

  5. Use of a graphics processing unit (GPU) to facilitate real-time 3D graphic presentation of the patient skin-dose distribution during fluoroscopic interventional procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Vijay; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a dose-tracking system (DTS) that calculates the radiation dose to the patient's skin in realtime by acquiring exposure parameters and imaging-system-geometry from the digital bus on a Toshiba Infinix C-arm unit. The cumulative dose values are then displayed as a color map on an OpenGL-based 3D graphic of the patient for immediate feedback to the interventionalist. Determination of those elements on the surface of the patient 3D-graphic that intersect the beam and calculation of the dose for these elements in real time demands fast computation. Reducing the size of the elements results in more computation load on the computer processor and therefore a tradeoff occurs between the resolution of the patient graphic and the real-time performance of the DTS. The speed of the DTS for calculating dose to the skin is limited by the central processing unit (CPU) and can be improved by using the parallel processing power of a graphics processing unit (GPU). Here, we compare the performance speed of GPU-based DTS software to that of the current CPU-based software as a function of the resolution of the patient graphics. Results show a tremendous improvement in speed using the GPU. While an increase in the spatial resolution of the patient graphics resulted in slowing down the computational speed of the DTS on the CPU, the speed of the GPU-based DTS was hardly affected. This GPU-based DTS can be a powerful tool for providing accurate, real-time feedback about patient skin-dose to physicians while performing interventional procedures.

  6. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Tommy E.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Colella, Nicholas J.

    1991-01-01

    This invention uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements.

  7. TU-PIS-Exhibit Hall-3: Simultaneous tracking of patient and real time staff dose to optimize interventional workflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boon, S.

    2015-06-15

    The current clinical standard of organ respiratory imaging, 4D-CT, is fundamentally limited by poor soft-tissue contrast and imaging dose. These limitations are potential barriers to beneficial “4D” radiotherapy methods which optimize the target and OAR dose-volume considering breathing motion but rely on a robust motion characterization. Conversely, MRI imparts no known radiation risk and has excellent soft-tissue contrast. MRI-based motion management is therefore highly desirable and holds great promise to improve radiotherapy of moving cancers, particularly in the abdomen. Over the past decade, MRI techniques have improved significantly, making MR-based motion management clinically feasible. For example, cine MRI has high temporal resolution up to 10 f/s and has been used to track and/or characterize tumor motion, study correlation between external and internal motions. New MR technologies, such as 4D-MRI and MRI hybrid treatment machines (i.e. MR-linac or MR-Co60), have been recently developed. These technologies can lead to more accurate target volume determination and more precise radiation dose delivery via direct tumor gating or tracking. Despite all these promises, great challenges exist and the achievable clinical benefit of MRI-based tumor motion management has yet to be fully explored, much less realized. In this proposal, we will review novel MR-based motion management methods and technologies, the state-of-the-art concerning MRI development and clinical application and the barriers to more widespread adoption. Learning Objectives: Discuss the need of MR-based motion management for improving patient care in radiotherapy. Understand MR techniques for motion imaging and tumor motion characterization. Understand the current state of the art and future steps for clinical integration. Henry Ford Health System holds research agreements with Philips Healthcare. Research sponsored in part by a Henry Ford Health System Internal Mentored Grant.

  8. Microelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy for the Differentiation between Normal and Cancerous Human Urothelial Cell Lines: Real-Time Electrical Impedance Measurement at an Optimal Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangkyu Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To distinguish between normal (SV-HUC-1 and cancerous (TCCSUP human urothelial cell lines using microelectrical impedance spectroscopy (μEIS. Materials and Methods. Two types of μEIS devices were designed and used in combination to measure the impedance of SV-HUC-1 and TCCSUP cells flowing through the channels of the devices. The first device (μEIS-OF was designed to determine the optimal frequency at which the impedance of two cell lines is most distinguishable. The μEIS-OF trapped the flowing cells and measured their impedance at a frequency ranging from 5 kHz to 1 MHz. The second device (μEIS-RT was designed for real-time impedance measurement of the cells at the optimal frequency. The impedance was measured instantaneously as the cells passed the sensing electrodes of μEIS-RT. Results. The optimal frequency, which maximized the average difference of the amplitude and phase angle between the two cell lines (p<0.001, was determined to be 119 kHz. The real-time impedance of the cell lines was measured at 119 kHz; the two cell lines differed significantly in terms of amplitude and phase angle (p<0.001. Conclusion. The μEIS-RT can discriminate SV-HUC-1 and TCCSUP cells by measuring the impedance at the optimal frequency determined by the μEIS-OF.

  9. Evaluation of Subgingival Dental Plaque Microbiota Changes In Fixed Orthodontic Patients with Syber Green Real Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Sargolzaie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most common problems we confront in orthodontic therapy is periodontal diseases. Initial factor which causes these diseases is colonization of anaerobic microorganisms in subgingival plaque. Technically, local environmental changes related to orthodontic band and brackets may influence the bacterial species in periodontal plaque. However, it seems necessary to assess variations in subgingival plaque caused by orthodontic appliances. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in subgingival microbiota and clinical parameters before and after bracket placement. Methods: Clinical parameters including probing depth (PD, plaque index (PI, clinical attachment level (CAL, bleeding on probing (BOP and gingival index (GI were recorded and subgingival microbial samples were collected in 30 people aged between 13 and 25. As a control group, 15 persons getting matched as to their age and sex with no need to orthodontic treatment were opted using specific primers, SYBER Green Real-Time PCR was carried out in order to determine bacterial flora in stored samples. All mentioned procedures were reassessed in experimental group and in control group three months after band and bracket bonding. A descriptive analysis was conducted, and paired t test and Wilcoxon test were used for differences between groups (P

  10. Evaluation of imatinib mesylate(Gleevec) on KAI1/CD82 gene expression in breast cancer MCF-7 cells using quantitative real-time PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Ataollah Sadat Shandiz; Marjan Khosravani; Sepideh Mohammadi; Hassan Noorbazargan; Amir Mirzaie; Davoud Nouri Inanlou; Mojgan Dalirsaber Jalali; Hamidreza Jouzaghkar; Fahimeh Baghbani-Arani; Behta Keshavarz-Pakseresht

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of imatinib mesylate on cell viability, anti cancer effect through modulation of KAI1/CD82 gene expression in breast cancer MCF-7 cell line.Methods: The effects of imatinib mesylate on cell viability in MCF-7 cell line were assessed using MTT assay and IC50 value was determined. GAPDH and KAI1/CD82 were selected as reference and target genes, respectively. Quantitative real time PCR technique was applied for investigation of KAI1/CD82 gene expression in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Subsequently, the quantity of KAI1 compared to GAPDH gene expressions were analyzed using the formula; 2-DDCt.Results: Imatinib was showed to have a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the viability of MCF-7 cells. CD82/GAPDH gene expression ratios were 1.322 ± 0.030(P > 0.05),2.052 ± 0.200(P < 0.05), 2.151 ± 0.270(P < 0.05) for 10, 20 and 40 mmol/L of imatinib concentrations.Conclusions: Based on the present data, imatinib mesylate might modulate metastasis by up-regulating KAI1/CD82 gene expression in human breast MCF-7 cancer cell line.

  11. Construct validity and reliability of a real-time multidimensional smartphone app to assess pain in children and adolescents with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Jennifer N; Jibb, Lindsay A; Nguyen, Cynthia; Nathan, Paul C; Maloney, Anne Marie; Dupuis, L Lee; Gerstle, J Ted; Hopyan, Sevan; Alman, Benjamin A; Strahlendorf, Caron; Portwine, Carol; Johnston, Donna L

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the construct validity (including responsiveness), reliability, and feasibility of the Pain Squad multidimensional smartphone-based pain assessment application (app) in children and adolescents with cancer, using 2 descriptive studies with repeated measures. Participants (8-18 years) undergoing cancer treatment were drawn from 4 pediatric cancer centers. In study 1, 92 participants self-reported their level of pain twice daily for 2 weeks using the Pain Squad app to assess app construct validity and reliability. In study 2, 14 participants recorded their level of pain twice a day for 1 week before and 2 weeks after cancer-related surgery to determine app responsiveness. Participants in both studies completed multiple measures to determine the construct validity and feasibility of the Pain Squad app. Correlations between average weekly pain ratings on the Pain Squad app and recalled least, average, and worst weekly pain were moderate to high (0.43-0.68). Correlations with health-related quality of life and pain coping (measured with PedsQL Inventory 4.0, PedsQL Cancer Module, and Pain Coping Questionnaire) were -0.46 to 0.29. The app showed excellent internal consistency (α = 0.96). Pain ratings changed because of surgery with large effect sizes between baseline and the first week postsurgery (>0.85) and small effect sizes between baseline and the second week postsurgery (0.13-0.32). These findings provide evidence of the construct validity, reliability, and feasibility of the Pain Squad app in children and adolescents with cancer. Use of real-time data capture approaches should be considered in future studies of childhood cancer pain. A video accompanying this abstract is available online as Supplemental Digital Content at http://links.lww.com/PAIN/A169.

  12. High sensitive reflection type long period fiber grating biosensor for real time detection of thyroglobulin, a differentiated thyroid cancer biomarker: the Smart Health project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, G.; Severino, R.; Vaiano, P.; Consales, M.; Ruvo, M.; Sandomenico, A.; Borriello, A.; Giordano, M.; Zuppolini, S.; Diodato, L.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.

    2015-09-01

    We report the development of a reflection-type long period fiber grating (LPG) biosensor able to perform the real time detection of thyroid cancer markers in the needle washout of fine-needle aspiration biopsy. A standard LPG is first transformed in a practical probe working in reflection mode, then it is coated by an atactic-polystyrene overlay in order to increase its surrounding refractive index sensitivity and to provide, at the same time, the desired interfacial properties for a stable bioreceptor immobilization. The results provide a clear demonstration of the effectiveness and sensitivity of the developed biosensing platform, allowing the in vitro detection of human Thyroglobulin at sub-nanomolar concentrations.

  13. Real-time and label free determination of ligand binding-kinetics to primary cancer tissue specimens; a novel tool for the assessment of biomarker targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas Mandel; Ayres Pereira, Marina; Oo, Htoo Zarni;

    2016-01-01

    In clinical oncology, diagnosis and evaluation of optimal treatment strategies are mostly based on histopathological examination combined with immunohistochemical (IHC) expression analysis of cancer-associated antigens in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue biopsies. However, informative...... of epitopes available, this readout offers a quantitative and unbiased readout for in situ binding-avidity and amount of binding epitopes. In summary, this method adds a new and important dimension to classical IHC-based molecular pathology by adding information about the binding characteristics...... IHC analysis depends on both the specificity and affinity of the binding reagent, which are inherently difficult to quantify in situ. Here we describe a label-free method that allows for the direct and real-time assessment of molecular binding kinetics in situ on FFPE tissue specimens using quartz...

  14. Real time production optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputelli, Luigi; Otavio, Joao; Araujo, Turiassu; Escorcia, Alvaro [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States). Landmark Division

    2004-07-01

    Production optimization encompasses various activities of measuring, analyzing, modeling, prioritizing and implementing actions to enhance productivity of a field. We present a state-of-the-art framework for optimizing production on a continuous basis as new sensor data is acquired in real time. Permanently acquired data is modeled and analyzed in order to create predictive models. A model based control strategy is used to regulate well and field instrumentation. The optimum field operating point, which changes with time, satisfies the maximum economic return. This work is a starting point for further development in automatic, intelligent reservoir technologies which get the most out of the abilities of permanent, instrumented wells and remotely activated downhole completions. The strategy, tested with history-matched data from a compartmentalised giant field, proved to reduce operating costs while increasing oil recovery by 27% in this field. (author)

  15. MO-A-BRD-08: Radiosurgery Beyond Cancer: Real-Time Target Localization and Treatment Planning for Cardiac Radiosurgery Under MRI Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipsen, S [University of Luebeck, Luebeck, SH (Germany); University of Sydney, Camperdown (Australia); Blanck, O [CyberKnife Zentrum Norddeutschland, Guestrow, MV (Germany); Oborn, B [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Bode, F [Medical Clinic II, Section for Electrophysiology, UKSH, Luebeck, SH (Germany); Liney, G [Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, Liverpool, NSW (United Kingdom); Keall, P [University of Sydney, Camperdown (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, affecting >2.5M Americans and >4.5M Europeans. AF is usually treated with minimally-invasive, time consuming catheter ablation techniques. Radiosurgery of the pulmonary veins (PV) has been proposed for AF treatment, however is challenging due to the complex respiratory and cardiac motion patterns. We hypothesize that an MRI-linac could solve the difficult real-time targeting and adaptation problem. In this study we quantified target motion ranges on cardiac MRI and analyzed the dosimetric benefits of margin reduction assuming real-time MRI tracking was applied. Methods: For the motion study, four human subjects underwent real-time cardiac MRI under free breathing. The target motion on coronal and axial cine planes was analyzed using a template matching algorithm. For the planning study, an ablation line at each PV antrum was defined as target on an AF patient scheduled for catheter ablation. Various safety margins ranging from 0mm (perfect tracking) to 8mm (untracked motion) were added to the target defining the PTV. 30Gy single fraction IMRT plans were then generated. Finally, the influence of a 1T magnetic field on treatment beam delivery was calculated using the Geant4 Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate the dosimetric impact of MRI guidance. Results: The motion study showed the mean respiratory motion of the target area on MRI was 8.4mm (SI), 1.7mm (AP) and 0.3mm (LR). Cardiac motion was small (<2mm). The planning study showed that with increasing safety margins to encompass untracked motion, dose tolerances for OARs such as the esophagus and airways were exceeded by >100%. The magnetic field had little impact on the dose distribution. Conclusion: Our results indicate that real-time MRI tracking of the PVs seems feasible. Accurate image guidance for high-dose AF radiosurgery is essential since safety margins covering untracked target motion will result in unacceptable treatment plans.

  16. Evaluation value of real-time three-dimensional adenosine stress echocardiography and coronary angiography for patients with stable angina pectoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Li Wu; Nan-Jue Jiang; Yan Cai

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the evaluation value of real-time three-dimensional adenosine stress echocardiography and coronary angiography for patients with stable angina pectoris. Methods:A total of 45 patients diagnosed with stable angina pectoris in our hospital between May 2014 and December 2015 were selected as the stable angina pectoris group (SAP group) of the study and 50 healthy subjects receiving physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as control group. Real-time three-dimensional adenosine stress echocardiography was performed to measure coronary flow reserve (CFR), serum was collected to determine lipid metabolism indexes and inflammation indexes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected to determine the expression levels of inflammatory regulatory molecules.Results:CFR of SAP group was significantly lower than that of control group and the more the number of coronary lesions, the lower the CFR of SAP group; serum Lp(a), LDL-C, ApoB, MIF-1α, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, CD40 and CD40L content as well as the fluorescence intensity of peripheral blood mononuclear cell surface TLR4 and NF-κB of SAP group were significantly higher than those of control group and negatively correlated with CFR level while serum HDL-C and ApoA1 content as well as the fluorescence intensity of peripheral blood mononuclear cell surface TIPE2 and BACH2 were significantly lower than those of control group and positively correlated with CFR level.Conclusion:CFR measured by real-time three-dimensional adenosine stress echocardiography significantly reduces in patients with stable angina pectoris and is correlated with lipid metabolism state and the degree of inflammation.

  17. Comparison of the sensitivity of culture, PCR and quantitative real-time PCR for the detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in sputum of cystic fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Vos Daniel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major pathogen involved in the decline of lung function in cystic fibrosis (CF patients. Early aggressive antibiotic therapy has been shown to be effective in preventing chronic colonization. Therefore, early detection is important and sensitive detection methods are warranted. In this study, we used a dilution series of P. aeruginosa positive sputa, diluted in a pool of P. aeruginosa negative sputa, all from CF patients - to mimick as closely as possible the sputa sent to routine laboratories - to compare the sensitivity of three culture techniques versus that of two conventional PCR formats and four real-time PCR formats, each targeting the P. aeruginosa oprL gene. In addition, we compared five DNA-extraction protocols. Results In our hands, all three culture methods and the bioMérieux easyMAG Nuclisens protocol Generic 2.0.1, preceded by proteinase K pretreatment and followed by any of the 3 real-time PCR formats with probes were most sensitive and able to detect P. aeruginosa up to 50 cfu/ml, i.e. the theoretical minimum of one cell per PCR mixture, when taking into account the volumes used in this study of sample for DNA-extraction, of DNA-elution and of DNA-extract in the PCR mixture. Conclusion In this study, no difference in sensitivity could be found for the detection of P. aeruginosa from sputum between microbiological culture and optimized DNA-extraction and real-time PCR. The results also indicate the importance of the optimization of the DNA-extraction protocol and the PCR format.

  18. Ovation Prime Real-Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ovation Prime Real-Time (OPRT) product is a real-time forecast and nowcast model of auroral power and is an operational implementation of the work by Newell et...

  19. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is an alternative method for the detection of HER-2 amplification in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast cancer samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Tianjie; Guo, Peng; Qiu, Yan; Chen, Shinan; Yang, Libo; Sun, Linyong; Ye, Feng; Bu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) are the most common methods that are used to quantify HER-2 gene and protein levels, respectively, in human breast cancer. However, due to bad sample quality, some samples are unable to be subjected to a FISH assay. We evaluated 71 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast carcinoma specimens by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), IHC, and FISH. We also performed qPCR and FISH assays on delayed formalin-fixed (DDF) samples. The qPCR results were in complete concordance with the results of IHC and FISH. In regards to the DDF samples, the HER-2 fluorescent signal seemed decayed compared with that of the DDF samples after 1 h. However, the qPCR method still works well up to 12 hours. Our results indicated that qPCR was obviously superior to FISH in cases that were not fixed in a reasonable amount of time. However, qPCR can be an alternative method by which to perform HER2 amplification assays in breast cancer.

  20. Quantification of Porphyromonas gingivalis in chronic periodontitis patients associated with diabetes mellitus using real-time polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmalatha, GV; Bavle, Radhika M; Satyakiran, Gadavalli Vera Venkata; Paremala, K; Sudhakara, M; Makarla, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Periodontal diseases, if left untreated, can lead to tooth loss and affect at least one tooth in 80% of adults worldwide, with the main cause being a bacterial plaque. Among subgingival plaque bacterial species, Porphyromonas gingivalis has been implicated as a major etiological agent causing tooth loss. Diabetics and smokers are two patient groups at high risk for periodontal disease. The increase in the number of this organism with the coexistence of other pathogenic microbes leads to rapid destruction of the periodontium, premature loss of teeth and also because of its virulence has implications in systemic pathology. Our aim was to observe the involvement of P. gingivalis in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients associated with periodontitis with and without tobacco-associated habits and to compare them with periodontitis patients having no other systemic pathologies. Materials and Methods: Subgingival plaque samples from a total of seventy subjects were included in the study. DNA was isolated from the collected sample and was quantified using spectrophotometer for standardizing the polymerase chain reaction. The quantity of the isolated DNA was checked in a ultraviolet-visible spectrophotomer. Statistics: One-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple post hoc procedures were carried out. Results: The maximum score of P. gingivalis was seen in periodontitis patients having DM, whereas the least score was seen in periodontitis patients having DM with tobacco smoking habit compared to the other groups. Conclusion: P. gingivalis count is significantly reduced in periodontitis patients having DM with smoking habit; it is concluded that P. gingivalis might not be a key causative organism responsible for the periodontal destruction in case of smokers despite the DM condition. The decrease in counts may be attributed to change in the local environment like chemical (tobacco nitrosamines) and physical changes preventing the growth of P. gingivalis. PMID:27721606

  1. Multiplex real-time PCR and blood culture for identification of bloodstream pathogens in patients with suspected sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, H; Lisby, G; Breysse, F

    2009-01-01

    Severe sepsis is increasingly a cause of death. Rapid and correct initial antimicrobial treatment reduces mortality. The aetiological agent(s) cannot always be found in blood cultures (BCs). A novel multiplex PCR test (SeptiFast (alpha version)) that allows identification of 20 bacterial and fungal...... species directly from blood was used, comparatively with BC, in a multicentre trial of patients with suspected bacterial or fungal sepsis. Five hundred and fifty-eight paired samples from 359 patients were evaluated. The rate of positivity was 17% for BC and 26% for SeptiFast. Ninety-six microorganisms...

  2. Detection of A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis in patient and mouse blood and ticks by a duplex real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tuo; Qu, Zhangyi; Zhang, Lijuan

    2013-01-01

    Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) and human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) are emerging, tick-borne, zoonotic infectious diseases caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, respectively. Early diagnosis is essential for rapid clinical treatment to avoid misdiagnosis and severe patient outcomes. Simple, sensitive and reliable diagnostic methods are urgently needed. In this study, we developed a duplex real-time PCR assay targeting the A. phagocytophilum ankA gene and the E. chaffeensis TRP120 gene, respectively. The lowest limit of detection of the duplex real-time PCR assay was 100 copies of the targeted A. phagocytophilum ankA gene and the E. chaffeensis TRP120 gene per reaction, and the specificity was 100%. Detection in blood DNA samples from the acute stage of illness for 22 HGA cases and 8 HME cases indicated that the duplex real-time PCR assay was more sensitive than the nested PCR assay. The infection of Citellusundulatus Pallas with A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis was first confirmed in Xinjiang Province and the positive rate was 3.1% for A. phagocytophilum, 6.3% for E. chaffeensis and 3.1% for co-infection with both pathogens. The rates of A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis infection of D. silvarum ticks collected from Shanxi Province were 8.2% and 14.8%, respectively, and the co-infection rate was 3.3%. The rates of A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis infection in H. longicornis ticks collected from Shandong Province were 1.6% and 6.3%, respectively, and the co-infection rate was 1.6%.

  3. Validation of a real-time wireless telemedicine system, using bluetooth protocol and a mobile phone, for remote monitoring patient in medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Jasemian; Lars, A N

    2005-06-22

    This paper validates the integration of a generic real-time wireless telemedicine system utilising Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), BLUETOOTH protocol and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) for cellular network in clinical practice. In the first experiment, the system was tested on 24 pacemaker patients at Aalborg Hospital (Denmark), in order to see if the pacemaker implant would be affected by the system. I the second experiment, the system was tested on 15 non risky arrhythmia heart patients, in order to evaluate and validate the system application in clinical practice, for patient monitoring. Electrocardiograms were selected as the continuously monitored parameter in the present study. The results showed that the system had no negative effects on the pacemaker implants. The experiment results showed, that in a realistic environment for the patients, the system had 96.1 % up-time, 3.2 (kbps) throughput, 10(-3) (packet/s) Packet Error Rate and 10(-3) (packet/s) Packet Lost Rate. During 24 hours test the network did not respond for 57 minutes, from which 83.1 % was in the range of 0-3 minutes, 15.4 % was in the range of 3-5 minutes, and only 0.7 % of the down-time was > or = 5 and < or = 6 minutes. By a subjective evaluation, it was demonstrated that the system is applicable and the patients as well as the healthcare personals were highly confident with the system. Moreover, the patients had high degree of mobility and freedom, employing the system. In conclusion, this generic telemedicine system showed a high reliability, quality and performance, and the design can provide a basic principle for real-time wireless remote monitoring systems used in clinical practice.

  4. Real-time polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing infectious mononucleosis in pediatric patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sha-Yi; Yang, Jing-Wei; Shao, Jing-Bo; Liao, Xue-Lian; Lu, Zheng-Hua; Jiang, Hui

    2016-05-01

    In this meta-analysis, we evaluated the diagnostic role of Epstein-Barr virus deoxyribonucleic acid detection and quantitation in the serum of pediatric and young adult patients with infectious mononucleosis. The primary outcome of this meta-analysis was the sensitivity and specificity of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection and quantitation using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed by searching for articles that were published through September 24, 2014 in the following databases: Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. The following keywords were used for the search: "Epstein-Barr virus," "infectious mononucleosis," "children/young adults/infant/pediatric," and "polymerase chain reaction or PCR." Three were included in this analysis. We found that for detection by PCR, the pooled sensitivity for detecting EBV DNA was 77% (95%CI, 66-86%) and the pooled specificity for was 98% (95%CI, 93-100%). Our findings indicate that this PCR-based assay has high specificity and good sensitivity for detecting of EBV DNA, indicating it may useful for identifying patients with infectious mononucleosis. This assay may also be helpful to identify young athletic patients or highly physically active pediatric patients who are at risk for a splenic rupture due to acute infectious mononucleosis.

  5. Reliable Real-time Calculation of Heart-rate Complexity in Critically Ill Patients Using Multiple Noisy Waveform Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    related metrics for detecting sepsis and multior- gan failure, improvement of HRC calculations may help detect significant changes from baseline values...calculations. Equiva- lence tests between mean HRC values derived from man- ually verified sequences and those derived from automatically detected peaks...assessment of HRC in critically ill patients. Keywords Signal detection analysis Electrocardiography Heart rate Clinical decision support

  6. Seroprevalence and real-time PCR study of Epstein-Barr virus and the value of screening in pretransplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervat Elansary

    2016-01-01

    Routine screening for Epstein-Barr virus in blood bags is not economical. Screening is highly recommended only for immunocompromised and pretransplant patients. Viremia is not the role in individuals with EBV IgM positive sera, which in turn changes some concepts in organ transplantation.

  7. Integration of a real-time tumor monitoring system into gated proton spot-scanning beam therapy: An initial phantom study using patient tumor trajectory data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Taeko; Miyamoto, Naoki; Takao, Seishin; Nihongi, Hideaki; Toramatsu, Chie; Sutherland, Kenneth; Suzuki, Ryusuke; Ishikawa, Masayori; Maeda, Kenichiro [Department of Medical Physics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8638 (Japan); Shimizu, Shinichi; Kinoshita, Rumiko; Umegaki, Kikuo; Shirato, Hiroki [Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8648 (Japan); Fujii, Yusuke; Umezawa, Masumi [Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi Research Laboratory, 7-2-1 Omika-cho, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki 319-1221 (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: In spot-scanning proton therapy, the interplay effect between tumor motion and beam delivery leads to deterioration of the dose distribution. To mitigate the impact of tumor motion, gating in combination with repainting is one of the most promising methods that have been proposed. This study focused on a synchrotron-based spot-scanning proton therapy system integrated with real-time tumor monitoring. The authors investigated the effectiveness of gating in terms of both the delivered dose distribution and irradiation time by conducting simulations with patients' motion data. The clinically acceptable range of adjustable irradiation control parameters was explored. Also, the relation between the dose error and the characteristics of tumor motion was investigated.Methods: A simulation study was performed using a water phantom. A gated proton beam was irradiated to a clinical target volume (CTV) of 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 3}, in synchronization with lung cancer patients' tumor trajectory data. With varying parameters of gate width, spot spacing, and delivered dose per spot at one time, both dose uniformity and irradiation time were calculated for 397 tumor trajectory data from 78 patients. In addition, the authors placed an energy absorber upstream of the phantom and varied the thickness to examine the effect of changing the size of the Bragg peak and the number of required energy layers. The parameters with which 95% of the tumor trajectory data fulfill our defined criteria were accepted. Next, correlation coefficients were calculated between the maximum dose error and the tumor motion characteristics that were extracted from the tumor trajectory data.Results: With the assumed CTV, the largest percentage of the data fulfilled the criteria when the gate width was {+-}2 mm. Larger spot spacing was preferred because it increased the number of paintings. With a prescribed dose of 2 Gy, it was difficult to fulfill the

  8. Molecular staging of pathologically negative sentinel lymph nodes from melanoma patients using multimarker, quantitative real-time rt-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilari, Josep M; Mangas, Cristina; Xi, Liqiang; Paradelo, Cristina; Ferrándiz, Carlos; Hughes, Steven J; Yueh, Cindy; Altomare, Ivy; Gooding, William E; Godfrey, Tony E

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic potential of quantitative reverse-transcription, polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in melanoma patients with pathologically negative sentinel lymph nodes (SLN). Our study included 195 node-negative melanoma patients with a Breslow thickness greater than 0.76 mm (n = 158), or less than 0.76 mm but who had Clark level IV-V, microscopic ulceration, or pathological signs of regression (n = 32), and five patients with melanoma of unknown thickness. SLNs were examined by serial-section histopathology. A portion of each SLN was frozen for qRT-PCR analysis using markers Tyrosinase, MART1, SSX2, MAGEA3, PAX3, and GalNAc-T. In addition, two other markers (PLAB and L1CAM) were evaluated for melanoma specificity but not for SLN analysis. Median follow-up was 64 months, during which time there were 15 (7.7%) recurrences. A total of 370 lymph nodes were analyzed by qRT-PCR. No association was found between quantitative expression level of any marker and disease recurrence. Previously published primer designs were tested for PAX3 and GalNAc-T and revealed that alternative PAX3 transcripts are differentially expressed in melanoma and benign lymph nodes. No associations with recurrence were found regardless of the transcripts amplified by different primer sets. PLAB and L1CAM did not appear to differentiate between malignant melanoma and benign melanocytes or lymph nodes in our analysis. We conclude that, in this large cohort of patients, multimarker qRT-PCR analysis of SLNs did not correlate with disease recurrence. Our data support specific PAX3 splice variants but not GalNAc-T, PLAB or L1CAM as possible markers for melanoma metastasis to SLNs.

  9. Quantification of Porphyromonas gingivalis in chronic periodontitis patients associated with diabetes mellitus using real-time polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Padmalatha

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: P. gingivalis count is significantly reduced in periodontitis patients having DM with smoking habit; it is concluded that P. gingivalis might not be a key causative organism responsible for the periodontal destruction in case of smokers despite the DM condition. The decrease in counts may be attributed to change in the local environment like chemical (tobacco nitrosamines and physical changes preventing the growth of P. gingivalis.

  10. Clinical significance of quantifying Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA by using real-time PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botterel, Françoise; Cabaret, Odile; Foulet, Françoise; Cordonnier, Catherine; Costa, Jean-Marc; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2012-02-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is more sensitive than microscopy for detecting Pneumocystis jirovecii in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. We therefore developed a qPCR assay and compared the results with those of a routine immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and clinical data. The assay included automated DNA extraction, amplification of the mitochondrial large-subunit rRNA gene and an internal control, and quantification of copy numbers with the help of a plasmid clone. We studied 353 consecutive BAL fluids obtained for investigation of unexplained fever and/or pneumonia in 287 immunocompromised patients. No qPCR inhibition was observed. Seventeen (5%) samples were both IFA and qPCR positive, 63 (18%) were IFA negative and qPCR positive, and 273 (77%) were both IFA and qPCR negative. The copy number was significantly higher for IFA-positive/qPCR-positive samples than for IFA-negative/qPCR-positive samples (4.2 ± 1.2 versus 1.1 ± 1.1 log(10) copies/μl; P < 10(-4)). With IFA as the standard, the qPCR assay sensitivity was 100% for ≥2.6 log(10) copies/μl and the specificity was 100% for ≥4 log(10) copies/μl. Since qPCR results were not available at the time of decision-making, these findings did not trigger cotrimoxazole therapy. Patients with systemic inflammatory diseases and IFA-negative/qPCR-positive BAL fluid had a worse 1-year survival rate than those with IFA-negative/qPCR-negative results (P < 10(-3)), in contrast with solid-organ transplant recipients (P = 0.88) and patients with hematological malignancy (P = 0.26). Quantifying P. jirovecii DNA in BAL fluids independently of IFA positivity should be incorporated into the investigation of pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. The relevant threshold remains to be determined and may vary according to the underlying disease.

  11. Real-Time Classification of Patients with Balance Disorders vs. Normal Subjects Using a Low-Cost Small Wireless Wearable Gait Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava Teja Nukala

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Gait analysis using wearable wireless sensors can be an economical, convenient and effective way to provide diagnostic and clinical information for various health-related issues. In this work, our custom designed low-cost wireless gait analysis sensor that contains a basic inertial measurement unit (IMU was used to collect the gait data for four patients diagnosed with balance disorders and additionally three normal subjects, each performing the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI tests while wearing the custom wireless gait analysis sensor (WGAS. The small WGAS includes a tri-axial accelerometer integrated circuit (IC, two gyroscopes ICs and a Texas Instruments (TI MSP430 microcontroller and is worn by each subject at the T4 position during the DGI tests. The raw gait data are wirelessly transmitted from the WGAS to a near-by PC for real-time gait data collection and analysis. In order to perform successful classification of patients vs. normal subjects, we used several different classification algorithms, such as the back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN, support vector machine (SVM, k-nearest neighbors (KNN and binary decision trees (BDT, based on features extracted from the raw gait data of the gyroscopes and accelerometers. When the range was used as the input feature, the overall classification accuracy obtained is 100% with BP-ANN, 98% with SVM, 96% with KNN and 94% using BDT. Similar high classification accuracy results were also achieved when the standard deviation or other values were used as input features to these classifiers. These results show that gait data collected from our very low-cost wearable wireless gait sensor can effectively differentiate patients with balance disorders from normal subjects in real time using various classifiers, the success of which may eventually lead to accurate and objective diagnosis of abnormal human gaits and their underlying etiologies in the future, as more patient data are being collected.

  12. Real-Time Classification of Patients with Balance Disorders vs. Normal Subjects Using a Low-Cost Small Wireless Wearable Gait Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukala, Bhargava Teja; Nakano, Taro; Rodriguez, Amanda; Tsay, Jerry; Lopez, Jerry; Nguyen, Tam Q; Zupancic, Steven; Lie, Donald Y C

    2016-11-29

    Gait analysis using wearable wireless sensors can be an economical, convenient and effective way to provide diagnostic and clinical information for various health-related issues. In this work, our custom designed low-cost wireless gait analysis sensor that contains a basic inertial measurement unit (IMU) was used to collect the gait data for four patients diagnosed with balance disorders and additionally three normal subjects, each performing the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) tests while wearing the custom wireless gait analysis sensor (WGAS). The small WGAS includes a tri-axial accelerometer integrated circuit (IC), two gyroscopes ICs and a Texas Instruments (TI) MSP430 microcontroller and is worn by each subject at the T4 position during the DGI tests. The raw gait data are wirelessly transmitted from the WGAS to a near-by PC for real-time gait data collection and analysis. In order to perform successful classification of patients vs. normal subjects, we used several different classification algorithms, such as the back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN), support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbors (KNN) and binary decision trees (BDT), based on features extracted from the raw gait data of the gyroscopes and accelerometers. When the range was used as the input feature, the overall classification accuracy obtained is 100% with BP-ANN, 98% with SVM, 96% with KNN and 94% using BDT. Similar high classification accuracy results were also achieved when the standard deviation or other values were used as input features to these classifiers. These results show that gait data collected from our very low-cost wearable wireless gait sensor can effectively differentiate patients with balance disorders from normal subjects in real time using various classifiers, the success of which may eventually lead to accurate and objective diagnosis of abnormal human gaits and their underlying etiologies in the future, as more patient data are being collected.

  13. HELICoiD project: a new use of hyperspectral imaging for brain cancer detection in real-time during neurosurgical operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabelo, Himar; Ortega, Samuel; Kabwama, Silvester; Callico, Gustavo M.; Bulters, Diederik; Szolna, Adam; Pineiro, Juan F.; Sarmiento, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral images allow obtaining large amounts of information about the surface of the scene that is captured by the sensor. Using this information and a set of complex classification algorithms is possible to determine which material or substance is located in each pixel. The HELICoiD (HypErspectraL Imaging Cancer Detection) project is a European FET project that has the goal to develop a demonstrator capable to discriminate, with high precision, between normal and tumour tissues, operating in real-time, during neurosurgical operations. This demonstrator could help the neurosurgeons in the process of brain tumour resection, avoiding the excessive extraction of normal tissue and unintentionally leaving small remnants of tumour. Such precise delimitation of the tumour boundaries will improve the results of the surgery. The HELICoiD demonstrator is composed of two hyperspectral cameras obtained from Headwall. The first one in the spectral range from 400 to 1000 nm (visible and near infrared) and the second one in the spectral range from 900 to 1700 nm (near infrared). The demonstrator also includes an illumination system that covers the spectral range from 400 nm to 2200 nm. A data processing unit is in charge of managing all the parts of the demonstrator, and a high performance platform aims to accelerate the hyperspectral image classification process. Each one of these elements is installed in a customized structure specially designed for surgical environments. Preliminary results of the classification algorithms offer high accuracy (over 95%) in the discrimination between normal and tumour tissues.

  14. A novel multiplex real-time PCR assay for the concurrent detection of hepatitis A, B and C viruses in patients with acute hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongjung; Kim, Beom Seok; Choi, Kyu Hun; Shin, Dong Ho; Lee, Mi Jung; Cho, Yonggeun; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2012-01-01

    A novel multiplex real-time PCR assay for concurrent detection of hepatitis viruses was evaluated for its clinical performance in screening patients with acute hepatitis. A total of 648 serum samples were collected from patients with acute symptoms of hepatitis. Concurrent detection of nucleic acids of HAV, HBV and HCV was performed using the Magicplex™ HepaTrio Real-time Detection test. Serum nucleic acid levels of HBV and HCV were also quantified by the Cobas® AmpliPrep/Cobas® TaqMan® (CAP/CTM) HBV and HCV tests. Patients' medical records were also reviewed. Concordance rates between the results from the HepaTrio and the CAP/CTM tests for the detection of HBV and HCV were 94.9% (k = 0.88) and 99.2% (k = 0.98), respectively. The cycle threshold values with the HepaTrio test were also correlated well with the levels of HBV DNA (r = -0.9230) and HCV RNA (r = -0.8458). The sensitivity and specificity of the HepaTrio test were 93.8% and 98.2%, respectively, for detecting HBV infection, and 99.1% and 100.0%, respectively, for HCV infection. For the HepaTrio test, 21 (3.2%) cases were positive for both HBV and HCV. Among the positive cases, 6 (0.9%) were true coinfections. This test also detected 18 (2.8%) HAV positives. The HepaTrio test demonstrated good clinical performance and produced results that agreed well with those of the CAP/CTM assays, especially for the detection of HCV. This assay was also able to detect HAV RNA from anti-HAV IgM-positive individuals. Therefore, this new multiplex PCR assay could be useful for the concurrent detection of the three hepatitis viruses.

  15. Real-time and label free determination of ligand binding-kinetics to primary cancer tissue specimens; a novel tool for the assessment of biomarker targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mandel Clausen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In clinical oncology, diagnosis and evaluation of optimal treatment strategies are mostly based on histopathological examination combined with immunohistochemical (IHC expression analysis of cancer-associated antigens in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue biopsies. However, informative IHC analysis depends on both the specificity and affinity of the binding reagent, which are inherently difficult to quantify in situ. Here we describe a label-free method that allows for the direct and real-time assessment of molecular binding kinetics in situ on FFPE tissue specimens using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM enabled biosensor technology. We analysed the interaction between the rVAR2 protein and its placental-like chondroitin sulfate (pl-CS receptor in primary human placenta tissue and in breast and prostate tumour specimens in situ. rVAR2 interacted with FFPE human placenta and cancer tissue with an affinity in the nanomolar range, and showed no detectable interaction with pl-CS negative normal tissue. We further validated the method by including analysis with the androgen receptor N-20 antibody (anti-AR. As the KD value produced by this method is independent of the number of epitopes available, this readout offers a quantitative and unbiased readout for in situ binding-avidity and amount of binding epitopes. In summary, this method adds a new and important dimension to classical IHC-based molecular pathology by adding information about the binding characteristics in biologically relevant conditions. This can potentially be used to select optimal biologics for diagnostic and for therapeutic applications as well as guide the development of novel high affinity binding drugs.

  16. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in peripheral blood and aqueous humor of patients with Toxoplasmic active focal necrotizing retinochoroiditis using real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Felipe dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the ability of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR for detectingToxoplasma gondii DNA in the peripheral blood and aqueous humor of patients with toxoplasmic active focal necrotizing retinochoroiditis. Methods: Fifty-five patients with infectious uveitis seen from 2009 to 2013 at the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences of the Federal University of São Paulo were enrolled in this study. Forty-three patients had toxoplasmic active focal necrotizing retinochoroiditis, and the remaining 12 had non-toxoplasmic infectious uveitis and served as controls. qPCR analysis forT. gondii DNA was performed on the patients' peripheral blood and aqueous humor samples. Results: The qPCR was positive for T. gondii DNA in 37.21% (16/43 of the aqueous humor samples and 2.33% (1/43 of the peripheral blood samples; further, 16.27% (7/43 of the patients had positive results in both their blood and aqueous humor samples. Conclusion: qPCR was able to detect T. gondii DNA in patients with toxoplasmic active focal necrotizing retinochoroiditis in the blood as well as the aqueous humor and can help with the diagnosis of the disease.

  17. MALDI-TOF alone versus MALDI-TOF combined with real-time antimicrobial stewardship interventions on time to optimal antimicrobial therapy in patients with positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganovic, Maya; Costello, Michael; Wieczorkiewicz, Sarah M

    2017-02-22

    Introduction: Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) decreases time to organism identification and improves clinical and financial outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of MALDI-TOF alone vs MALDI-TOF combined with real-time, pharmacist-driven, antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) intervention on patient outcomes.Methods: This single-center, pre-post quasi-experimental study evaluated hospitalized patients with positive blood cultures identified via MALDI-TOF combined with prospective AMS intervention, compared to a control cohort with MALDI-TOF identification without AMS intervention. AMS intervention included: real-time MALDI-TOF pharmacist notification, and prospective AMS provider feedback. The primary outcome was time to optimal antimicrobial therapy (TTOT).Results: A total of 252 blood cultures were included for final analysis: 126 in each group. MALDI-TOF + AMS intervention significantly reduced overall TTOT (75.17 vs 43.06 h, p <0.001), Gram + contaminant TTOT (48.21 vs 11.75 h, p <0.001), Gram - infection (GNI) TTOT (71.83 vs 35.98 h, p <0.001), and reduced overall hospital LOS (15.03 vs 9.02 days, p 0.021). TTOT for Gram + infection (GPI) was improved (64.04 vs 41.61 h, p 0.082). For GPI: reduced hospital LOS (14.64 vs 10.31 days, p 0.002) and length of antimicrobial therapy 24.30 vs 18.97 days, p 0.018). For GNI: reduced time to microbiologic clearance (51.13 vs 34.51 h, p <0.001), hospital LOS (15.40 vs 7.90 days, p 0.027), and ICU LOS (5.55 vs 1.19 days, p 0.035).Conclusion: In order to achieve optimal outcomes, rapid identification with MALDI-TOF combined with real-time AMS interventions is more impactful than MALDI-TOF alone.

  18. Detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin production genes from patient samples using an automated extraction platform and multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiefari, Amy K; Perry, Michael J; Kelly-Cirino, Cassandra; Egan, Christina T

    2015-12-01

    To minimize specimen volume, handling and testing time, we have developed two TaqMan(®) multiplex real-time PCR (rtPCR) assays to detect staphylococcal enterotoxins A-E and Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin production genes directly from clinical patient stool specimens utilizing a novel lysis extraction process in parallel with the Roche MagNA Pure Compact. These assays are specific, sensitive and reliable for the detection of the staphylococcal enterotoxin encoding genes and the tst1 gene from known toxin producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Specificity was determined by testing a total of 47 microorganism strains, including 8 previously characterized staphylococcal enterotoxin producing strains against each rtPCR target. Sensitivity for these assays range from 1 to 25 cfu per rtPCR reaction for cultured isolates and 8-20 cfu per rtPCR for the clinical stool matrix.

  19. Feasibility of free-breathing, GRAPPA-based, real-time cardiac cine assessment of left-ventricular function in cardiovascular patients at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaomei, E-mail: xiaomeizhunanjing@163.com [Institute of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 300, Guangzhou Road, 210029 Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Schwab, Felix, E-mail: flixschwab@googlemail.com [Institute of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Marcus, Roy, E-mail: Roy.Marcus@med.uni-muenchen.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Hetterich, Holger, E-mail: Holger.Hetterich@med.uni-muenchen.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Theisen, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.theisen@me.com [Institute of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Kramer, Harald, E-mail: Harald.Kramer@med.uni-muenchen.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Notohamiprodjo, Mike, E-mail: Mike.Notohamiprodjo@med.lmu.de [Department of Radiology, University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Schlett, Christopher L., E-mail: Christopher.Schlett@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Radiology, University of Heidelberg, Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Nikolaou, Konstantin, E-mail: Konstantin.Nikolaou@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Radiology, University of Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F., E-mail: Maximilian.Reiser@med.uni-muenchen.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); and others

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Grappa-based real time cine cardiac MRI is feasible for assessment of left ventricular function. • Significant underestimation of systolic function, peak ejection and filling rates needs to be considered. • Heart rate is the only positive predictor of the deviation of obtained parameters. - Abstract: Objectives: To determine the feasibility of free-breathing, GRAPPA-based, real-time (RT) cine 3 T cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with high acceleration factors for the assessment of left-ventricular function in a cohort of patients as compared to conventional segmented cine imaging. Materials and methods: In this prospective cohort study, subjects with various cardiac conditions underwent MRI involving two RT cine sequences (high resolution and low resolution) and standard segmented cine imaging. Standard qualitative and quantitative parameters of left-ventricular function were quantified. Results: Among 25 subjects, 24 were included in the analysis (mean age: 50.5 ± 21 years, 67% male, 25% with cardiomyopathy). RT cine derived quantitative parameters of volumes and left ventricular mass were strongly correlated with segmented cine imaging (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]: >0.72 for both RT cines) but correlation for peak ejection and filling rates were moderate to poor for both RT cines (ICC < 0.40). Similarly, RT cines significantly underestimated peak ejection and filling rates (>103.2 ± 178 ml/s). Among patient-related factors, heart rate was strongly predictive for deviation of measurements (p < 0.05). Conclusions: RT cine MRI at 3 T is feasible for qualitative and quantitative assessment of left ventricular function for low and high-resolution sequences but results in significant underestimation of systolic function, peak ejection and filling rates.

  20. Assessment value of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography on right ventricular systolic function in patients with tetralogy of Fallot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Hua Su; Hai-Yan Kou; Li Liang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the assessment value of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography on right ventricular systolic function in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF).Methods:63 cases of children with tetralogy of Fallot undergoing surgical treatment in our hospital from September 2011 to September 2014 were chosen as observation group, 72 cases of normal children receiving health examination in our hospital during the same period were chosen as normal control group, all of them received two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound examination, and right ventricular systolic function of TOF children was compared and observed.Results:1) TOF patients’ preoperative left pulmonary artery inner diameter was 5.38–9.65 mm, right pulmonary artery inner diameter was 5.34–9.15 mm, average pulmonary artery index (Nakata index) was (160.92±21.58) mm2/m2; 2) TOF patients’ preoperative RVEDV and RVESV values were greater than those of normal control group and RVEF value was less than that of normal control group (P<0.05); RVEDV and RVESV 6 months after surgery increased, RVEF decreased, and compared with before surgery, there was significant difference (P<0.05); 3) TOF patients’ preoperative three-dimensional ultrasound RVESV and RVEDV values were higher than results of two-dimensional ultrasound examination (P<0.05); 4) TOF patients’ preoperative RVEF had significant positive correlation with Nakata index, r=0.653 (P<0.05).Conclusions: Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography can accurately and objectively assess right ventricular systolic function in patients with Tetralogy of Fallot, and contributes to the assessment of treatment effect and long-term prognosis.

  1. Designing Real Time Assistive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Obel, Carsten; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    design criteria in relation to three core components (sensing, recognizing, and assisting) for designing real time assistive technologies for children with ADHD. Based on these design criteria, we designed the Child Activity Sensing and Training Tool (CASTT), a real time assistive prototype that captures...... activities and assists the child in maintaining attention. From a preliminary evaluation of CASTT with 20 children in several schools, we and found that: 1) it is possible to create a wearable sensor system for children with ADHD that monitors physical and physiological activities in real time; and that 2......) real time assistive technologies have potential to assist children with ADHD in regaining attention in critical school situations....

  2. Designing Real Time Assistive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Obel, Carsten; Grønbæk, Kaj

    design criteria in relation to three core components (sensing, recognizing, and assisting) for designing real time assistive technologies for children with ADHD. Based on these design criteria, we designed the Child Activity Sensing and Training Tool (CASTT), a real time assistive prototype that captures...... activities and assists the child in maintaining attention. From a preliminary evaluation of CASTT with 20 children in several schools, we and found that: 1) it is possible to create a wearable sensor system for children with ADHD that monitors physical and physiological activities in real time; and that 2......) real time assistive technologies have potential to assist children with ADHD in regaining attention in critical school situations....

  3. Consultation on urological specimens from referred cancer patients using real-time digital microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Rossing, Henrik; Larsen, Lise Grupe; Toft, Birgitte Grønkær

    2016-01-01

    digital consultation took place over the telephone using remote access software. Time of start and finish for each case was logged. For the physically referred cases, time from arrival to sign-out was logged in the national pathology information system, and time spent on microscopy and reporting was noted...... Finetek) was employed. The Pathology Department at Næstved Hospital was equipped with a digital microscope and three consultant pathologists were stationed at Rigshospitalet with workstations optimized for digital microscopy. Representative slides for each case were selected for consultation and live......, reporting and sign-out per case. For live digital consultations, a mean of 18 min 37 s was spent on each consultation with 4 min 43 s for each case, depending on the number of digital slides included. Only in two cases could a consensus regarding the diagnosis not be reached during live consultation...

  4. Relationship between HgbA1c and Myocardial Blood Flow Reserve in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Noninvasive Assessment Using Real-Time Myocardial Perfusion Echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runqing Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the relationship between glycosylated hemoglobin (HgbA1c and myocardial perfusion in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients, we prospectively enrolled 24 patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD who underwent adenosine stress by real-time myocardial perfusion echocardiography (RTMPE. HgbA1c was measured at time of RTMPE. Microbubble velocity (β min−1, myocardial blood flow (MBF, mL/min/g, and myocardial blood flow reserve (MBFR were quantified. Quantitative MCE analysis was feasible in all patients (272/384 segments, 71%. Those with HgbA1c > 7.1% had significantly lower βreserve and MBFR than those with HgbA1c ≤ 7.1% (P 2 as normal, HgbA1c > 7.1% significantly increased the risk for abnormal MBFR, (adjusted odds ratio: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.12–3.35, P=0.02. Optimal glycemic control is associated with preservation of MBFR as determined by RTMPE, in T2DM patients at risk for CAD.

  5. Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay Targeting Eight Parasites Customized to the Korean Population: Potential Use for Detection in Diarrheal Stool Samples from Gastroenteritis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Eun Jeong; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kee, Seung Jung; Shin, Jong Hee; Suh, Soon Pal; Chai, Jong Yil; Ryang, Dong Wook; Shin, Myung Geun

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic diseases occur worldwide and can cause diarrhea or gastroenteritis; however, their diagnosis is quite difficult, especially in low-endemism countries. We developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of eight intestinal parasites and prospectively evaluated it for patients with gastroenteritis. The assay targeted Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Blastocystis hominis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Clonorchis sinensis, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Gymnophalloides seoi. Performance characteristics were evaluated based on recovery after DNA extraction, analytical sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, cross-reactivity, and interference characteristics. Clinical performance was validated against microscopy on 123 diarrheal samples. The assay demonstrated strong correlations between DNA concentrations and Ct values (R2, 0.9924–0.9998), and had a high PCR efficiency (83.3%–109.5%). Polymerase chain reactions detected as few as 10–30 copies of genomic DNA, and coefficient of variance was 0–7%. There was no cross-reactivity to the other 54 microorganisms tested. Interference occurred only in presence of high concentrations of erythrocytes or leukocytes. This assay had a higher correct identification rate (100.0% vs. 90.2%) and lower incorrect ID rate (0.0% vs. 9.8%) when compared to microscopy. Overall, this assay showed a higher sensitivity (100.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI] of 80.5–100.0) than microscopy (29.4%; 95% CI 10.31–55.96), and the specificity levels were comparable for both methods (100.0%; 95% CI 96.58–100.0). This newly developed multiplex real-time PCR assay offers a potential use for detecting intestinal parasitic pathogens customized to the Korean population. PMID:27861635

  6. Real-time volume graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, Klaus; Kniss, Joe; Rezk-Salama, Christof; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Based on course notes of SIGGRAPH course teaching techniques for real-time rendering of volumetric data and effects; covers both applications in scientific visualization and real-time rendering. Starts with the basics (texture-based ray casting) and then improves and expands the algorithms incrementally. Book includes source code, algorithms, diagrams, and rendered graphics.

  7. The importance of selecting the appropriate reference genes for quantitative real time PCR as illustrated using colon cancer cells and tissue [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catríona M. Dowling

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR remains the most sensitive technique for nucleic acid quantification. Its popularity is reflected in the remarkable number of publications reporting RT-qPCR data. Careful normalisation within RT-qPCR studies is imperative to ensure accurate quantification of mRNA levels. This is commonly achieved through the use of reference genes as an internal control to normalise the mRNA levels between different samples. The selection of appropriate reference genes can be a challenge as transcript levels vary with physiology, pathology and development, making the information within the transcriptome flexible and variable. In this study, we examined the variation in expression of a panel of nine candidate reference genes in HCT116 and HT29 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional cultures, as well as in normal and cancerous colon tissue. Using normfinder we identified the top three most stable genes for all conditions. Further to this we compared the change in expression of a selection of PKC coding genes when the data was normalised to one reference gene and three reference genes. Here we demonstrated that there is a variation in the fold changes obtained dependent on the number of reference genes used. As well as this, we highlight important considerations namely; assay efficiency tests, inhibition tests and RNA assessment which should also be implemented into all RT-qPCR studies. All this data combined demonstrates the need for careful experimental design in RT-qPCR studies to help eliminate false interpretation and reporting of results.

  8. The importance of selecting the appropriate reference genes for quantitative real time PCR as illustrated using colon cancer cells and tissue [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catríona M Dowling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR remains the most sensitive technique for nucleic acid quantification. Its popularity is reflected in the remarkable number of publications reporting RT-qPCR data. Careful normalisation within RT-qPCR studies is imperative to ensure accurate quantification of mRNA levels. This is commonly achieved through the use of reference genes as an internal control to normalise the mRNA levels between different samples. The selection of appropriate reference genes can be a challenge as transcript levels vary with physiology, pathology and development, making the information within the transcriptome flexible and variable. In this study, we examined the variation in expression of a panel of nine candidate reference genes in HCT116 and HT29 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional cultures, as well as in normal and cancerous colon tissue. Using normfinder we identified the top three most stable genes for all conditions. Further to this we compared the change in expression of a selection of PKC coding genes when the data was normalised to one reference gene and three reference genes. Here we demonstrated that there is a variation in the fold changes obtained dependent on the number of reference genes used. As well as this, we highlight important considerations namely; assay efficiency tests, inhibition tests and RNA assessment which should also be implemented into all RT-qPCR studies. All this data combined demonstrates the need for careful experimental design in RT-qPCR studies to help eliminate false interpretation and reporting of results.

  9. Cancer cells mimic in vivo spatial-temporal cell-cycle phase distribution and chemosensitivity in 3-dimensional Gelfoam® histoculture but not 2-dimensional culture as visualized with real-time FUCCI imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shuya; Miwa, Shinji; Mii, Sumiyuki; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Uehara, Fuminaru; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Zhao, Ming; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    The phase of the cell cycle can determine whether a cancer cell can respond to a given drug. We previously reported monitoring of real-time cell cycle dynamics of cancer cells throughout a live tumor, intravitally in live mice, using a fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator (FUCCI). Approximately 90% of cancer cells in the center and 80% of total cells of an established tumor are in G0/G1 phase. Longitudinal real-time imaging demonstrated that cytotoxic agents killed only proliferating cancer cells at the surface and, in contrast, had little effect on quiescent cancer cells, which are the vast majority of an established tumor. Moreover, resistant quiescent cancer cells restarted cycling after cessation of chemotherapy. These results suggested why most drugs currently in clinical use, which target cancer cells in S/G2/M, are mostly ineffective on solid tumors. In the present report, we used FUCCI imaging and Gelfoam® collagen-sponge-gel histoculture, to demonstrate in real time, that the cell-cycle phase distribution of cancer cells in Gelfoam® and in vivo tumors is highly similar, whereby only the surface cells proliferate and interior cells are quiescent in G0/G1. This is in contrast to 2D culture where most cancer cells cycle. Similarly, the cancer cells responded similarly to toxic chemotherapy in Gelfoam® culture as in vivo, and very differently than cancer cells in 2D culture which were much more chemosensitive. Gelfoam® culture of FUCCI-expressing cancer cells offers the opportunity to image the cell cycle of cancer cells continuously and to screen for novel effective therapies to target quiescent cells, which are the majority in a tumor and which would have a strong probability to be effective in vivo.

  10. Measurement of real-time tissue elastography in a phantom model and comparison with transient elastography in pediatric patients with liver diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Jens-Peter; Alzen, Gerhard; Klingmüller, Volker; Teufel, Ulrike; Sakka, Saroa El; Engelmann, Guido; Selmi, Buket

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to determine the comparability of real-time tissue elastography (RTE) and transient elastography (TE) in pediatric patients with liver diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS RTE was performed on the Elasticity QA Phantom Model 049 (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems Company Inc., Norfolk, Virginia, USA), which has five areas with different levels of stiffness. RTE measurements of relative stiffness (MEAN [mean value of tissue elasticity], AREA [% of blue color-coded stiffer tissue]) in the phantom were compared with the phantom stiffness specified in kPa (measurement unit of TE). RTE and TE were performed on 147 pediatric patients with various liver diseases. A total of 109 measurements were valid. The participants had following diseases: metabolic liver disease (n=25), cystic fibrosis (n=20), hepatopathy of unknown origin (n=11), autoimmune hepatitis (n=12), Wilson’s disease (n=11), and various liver parenchyma alterations (n=30). Correlations between RTE and TE measurements in the patients were calculated. In addition, RTE was performed on a control group (n=30), and the RTE values between the patient and control groups were compared. RESULTS The RTE parameters showed good correlation in the phantom model with phantom stiffness (MEAN/kPa, r=−0.97; AREA/kPa, r=0.98). However, the correlation of RTE and TE was weak in the patient group (MEAN/kPa, r=−0.23; AREA/kPa, r=0.24). A significant difference was observed between the patient and control groups (MEAN, P = 5.32 e-7; AREA, P = 1.62 e-6). CONCLUSION In the phantom model, RTE was correlated with kPa, confirming the presumed comparability of the methods. However, there was no direct correlation between RTE and TE in patients with defined liver diseases under real clinical conditions. PMID:24317333

  11. Electrochemical device based on a Pt nanosphere-paper working electrode for in situ and real-time determination of the flux of H2O2 releasing from SK-BR-3 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Ge, Shenguang; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2014-09-14

    A novel paper working electrode with Pt nanospheres grown in it (Pt-PWE) was first used as a sensor platform and then cancer cells were immobilized on the Pt-PWE (high affinity binding with aptamers). This electrode was first designed to achieve the in situ and real-time determination of H2O2 released from cancer cells to obtain an accurate determination.

  12. Correlation between amygdala BOLD activity and frontal EEG asymmetry during real-time fMRI neurofeedback training in patients with depression

    CERN Document Server

    Zotev, Vadim; Misaki, Masaya; Phillips, Raquel; Young, Kymberly D; Feldner, Matthew T; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) is a promising approach for studies and treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). EEG performed simultaneously with rtfMRI-nf procedure allows independent evaluation of rtfMRI-nf effects. Frontal EEG asymmetry in the alpha band is a widely used measure of emotion and motivation that shows profound changes in depression. However, it has never been related to simultaneously acquired fMRI data. Methods: We performed the first study combining rtfMRI-nf with simultaneous (passive) EEG recordings. MDD patients in the experimental group (n=13) learned to upregulate BOLD activity of the left amygdala using rtfMRI-nf during a positive emotion induction task. MDD patients in the control group (n=11) were provided with sham rtfMRI-nf. Correlations between frontal EEG asymmetry in the upper-alpha band and BOLD activity across the brain were examined. Results: Participants in the experimental group showed positive average changes in frontal EEG asymmetry during the ...

  13. A novel comprehensive set of fungal Real time PCR assays (fuPCR) for the detection of fungi in immunocompromised haematological patients-A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, Sebastian; Schuck, Anna; Kondakci, Mustafa; Haas, Rainer; Neuhausen, Nicole; Pfeffer, Klaus; Henrich, Birgit

    2016-12-01

    Fungal infections are recognized in an increasing number of patients with immunological deficits and are associated with high rates of mortality (Brown et al., 2012a). In this pilot-study, a rapid Real time PCR (fuPCR) was designed for the detection and differentiation of fungal pathogens in clinical specimens of haematological patients. The fuPCR, targeting the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) of rDNA region, is comprised of seven multiplex reactions, which were shown to be specific and sensitive for a comprehensive spectrum of clinically relevant fungal species. This was validated by testing respective fungal DNAs in each fuPCR reaction and 28 respiratory samples of fungal pneumonia-proven patients. Clinical sample sets of throat swab, EDTA-blood and blood sera from 50 patients with severe haematological malignancies, including haematopoietic stem cell transfer (HSCT), and samples from 30 healthy individuals were then analysed. In a first step, 198 samples of immunosuppressed patients were solely examined by fuPCR; and 50.8% (33/65) respiratory swabs, 4.8% (3/63) EDTA blood samples and 1.4% (1/70) blood serum samples were tested positive. In a second step, 56 respiratory samples of immunosuppressed patients and 30 of healthy individuals were simultaneously analysed by fuPCR and standard cultivation techniques. By both methods 30.4% (17/56) swabs of the immunocompromised patients were tested positive, 37.5% (21/56) were tested negative and 32.1% (18/56) were tested fuPCR positive and culture negative. In analysing the blood samples of the immunocompromised patients 5.4% (3/56) EDTA blood samples and 16.1% (9/56) sera samples were tested fuPCR-positive, whereas all samples of 30 healthy individuals with no signs of immunological deficits were tested negative by fuPCR. 38.9% (14/36) of the fungi detected in respiratory samples of the immunosuppressed patients, belonged to Candida spp., 47.2% (17/36) to Saccharomyces spp., 5.6% (2/36) to Cladosporium spp

  14. Clinical virology in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesters, Hubert G M

    2002-12-01

    The ability to detect nucleic acids has had and still has a major impact on diagnostics in clinical virology. Both quantitative and qualitative techniques, whether signal or target amplification based systems, are currently used routinely in most if not all virology laboratories. Technological improvements, from automated sample isolation to real time amplification technology, have given the ability to develop and introduce systems for most viruses of clinical interest, and to obtain clinical relevant information needed for optimal antiviral treatment options. Both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) can currently be used together with real time detection to generate results in a short turn-around time and to determine whether variants relevant for antiviral resistance are present. These new technologies enable the introduction of an individual patient disease management concept. Within our clinical setting, we have introduced this e.g. for quantitative detection of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) in T-dell depleted allogeneic stem cell transplant patients. This enabled us to develop models for pre-emptive anti B-cell immunotherapy for EBV reactivation, thereby effectively reducing not the incidence of EBV-lymphoproliferative disease but the virus related mortality. Furthermore, additional clinically relevant viruses can now easily be detected simultaneously. It also becomes more feasible to introduce molecular testing for those viruses that can easily be detected using classical virological methods, like culture techniques or antigen detection. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the clinical importance of the additional positive samples detected. It should however be made clear that a complete exchange of technologies is unlikely to occur, and that some complementary technologies should stay operational enabling the discovery of new viruses. The implementation of these molecular diagnostic technologies furthermore

  15. Real-time vision systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  16. WE-G-BRF-03: A Quasi-Cine CBCT Reconstruction Technique for Real-Time On- Board Target Tracking of Lung Cancer Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y; Yin, F; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a quasi-cine CBCT reconstruction technique that uses extremely-small angle (∼3°) projections to generate real-time high-quality lung CBCT images. Method: 4D-CBCT is obtained at the beginning and used as prior images. This study uses extremely-small angle (∼3°) on-board projections acquired at a single respiratory phase to reconstruct the CBCT image at this phase. An adaptive constrained free-form deformation (ACFD) method is developed to deform the prior 4D-CBCT volume at the same phase to reconstruct the new CBCT. Quasi-cine CBCT images are obtained by continuously reconstructing CBCT images at subsequent phases every 3° angle (∼0.5s). Note that the prior 4D-CBCT images are dynamically updated using the latest CBCT images. The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom was used to evaluate the efficacy of ACFD. A lung patient was simulated with a tumor baseline shift of 2mm along superior-inferior (SI) direction after every respiratory cycle for 5 cycles. Limited-angle projections were simulated for each cycle. The 4D-CBCT reconstructed by these projections were compared with the ground-truth generated in XCAT.Volume-percentage-difference (VPD) and center-of-mass-shift (COMS) were calculated between the reconstructed and the ground-truth tumors to evaluate their geometric differences.The ACFD was also compared to a principal-component-analysis based motion-modeling (MM) method. Results: Using orthogonal-view 3° projections, the VPD/COMS values for tumor baseline shifts of 2mm, 4mm, 6mm, 8mm, 10mm were 11.0%/0.3mm, 25.3%/2.7mm, 22.4%/2.9mm, 49.5%/5.4mm, 77.2%/8.1mm for the MM method, and 2.9%/0.7mm, 3.9%/0.8mm, 6.2%/1mm, 7.9%/1.2mm, 10.1%/1.1mm for the ACFD method. Using orthogonal-view 0° projections (1 projection only), the ACFD method yielded VPD/COMS results of 5.0%/0.9mm, 10.5%/1.2mm, 15.1%/1.4mm, 20.9%/1.6mm and 24.8%/1.6mm. Using single-view instead of orthogonal-view projections yielded less accurate results for ACFD

  17. Detection and differentiation of Cryptosporidium by real-time polymerase chain reaction in stool samples from patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Flávia Ribeiro Rolando

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the first genetic characterisation of Cryptosporidium isolates in Brazil using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. A total of 1,197 faecal specimens from children and 10 specimens from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients were collected between 1999-2010 and screened using microscopy. Forty-eight Cryptosporidium oocyst-positive isolates were identified and analysed using a generic TaqMan assay targeting the 18S rRNA to detect Cryptosporidium species and two other TaqMan assays to identify Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. The 18S rRNA assay detected Cryptosporidium species in all 48 of the stool specimens. The C. parvum TaqMan assay correctly identified five/48 stool samples, while 37/48 stool specimens were correctly amplified in the C. hominis TaqMan assay. The results obtained in this study support previous findings showing that C. hominis infections are more prevalent than C. parvum infections in Brazil and they demonstrate that the TaqMan RT-PCR procedure is a simple, fast and valuable tool for the detection and differentiation of Cryptosporidium species.

  18. Real-time and offline performance of pattern recognition myoelectric control using a generic electrode grid with targeted muscle reinnervation patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkach, Dennis C; Young, Aaron J; Smith, Lauren H; Rouse, Elliott J; Hargrove, Levi J

    2014-07-01

    Targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) is a surgical technique that creates myoelectric prosthesis control sites for high-level amputees. The electromyographic (EMG) signal patterns provided by the reinnervated muscles are well-suited for pattern recognition control. Pattern recognition allows for control of a greater number of degrees of freedom (DOF) than the conventional, EMG amplitude-based approach. Previous pattern recognition studies have shown benefit in placing electrodes directly over the reinnervated muscles. Localizing the optimal TMR locations is inconvenient and time consuming. In this contribution, we demonstrate that a clinically practical grid arrangement of electrodes yields real-time control performance that is equivalent to, or better than, the site-specific electrode placement for simultaneous control of multiple DOFs using pattern recognition. Additional findings indicate that grid-like electrode arrangement yields significantly lower classification errors for classifiers with a large number of movement classes ( > 9). These findings suggest that a grid electrode arrangement can be effectively used to control a multi-DOF upper limb prosthesis while reducing the time and effort associated with fitting the prosthesis due to clinical localization of control sites on amputee patients.

  19. Gray-scale ultrasound combined with real-time tissue elastography in diagnosis of uterine cervical cancer%灰阶超声联合实时组织弹性成像诊断宫颈癌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦英; 赵晓虹; 丛淑珍; 周瑞莉; 郭玉萍; 王煜

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨经阴道实时组织弹性成像对宫颈癌的诊断价值.方法 对78例宫颈癌患者术前行经阴道灰阶超声及弹性成像检查,以病理诊断为金标准,分别计算各方法的敏感度、特异度和准确率.结果 经阴道灰阶超声诊断宫颈癌的敏感度、特异度、准确率分别为66.67%(40/60)、55.56%(10/18)、64.10%(50/78);经阴道弹性成像诊断宫颈癌的敏感度、特异度和准确率分别为58.33%(35/60)、44.44%(8/18)、55.13%(43/78);两者联合诊断宫颈癌的敏感度、特异度、准确率分别为91.67%(55/60)、83.33%(15/18)、89.74%(70/78).结论 经阴道弹性成像是灰阶超声的良好补充,两者联合可大幅提高宫颈癌诊断准确率.%Objective To explore the value of real-time tissue elastography in the diagnosis of uterine cervical cancer. Methods Totally 78 patients with uterine cervical cancer underwent transvaginal gray-scale ultrasound and tissue elastography before operation. Taking pathologic results as gold standards, the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate of each method were analyzed. Results In the diagnosis of uterine cervical cancer, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate of transvaginal gray-scale ultrasound was 66. 67% (40/60), 55.56% (10/18) and 64. 10% (50/78), respectively, while of transvaginal elastography was 58. 33% (35/60) , 44. 44% (8/18) and 55. 13% (43/78) , respectively. When both methods were combined, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy rate was 91. 67% (55/60) , 83. 33% (15/18) and 89. 74% (70/78), respectively. Conclusion Real-time tissue elastography is a good supplement to transvaginal gray-scale ultrasound. Combined with transvaginal gray-scale ultrasound can increase the diagnostic accuracy of real-time tissue elastography for uterine cervical cancer.

  20. Real Time 3D echocardiography (RT3D for assessment of ventricular and vascular function in hypertensive and heart failure patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scali Maria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac and systemic hemodynamics have been historically in the domain of invasive cardiology, but recent advances in real-time 3-Dimensional echocardiography (RT3D echo provide a reliable measurement of ventricular volumes, allowing to measure a set of hemodynamic parameters previously difficult or impossible to obtain with standard 2D echo. Aim To assess the feasibility of a comprehensive hemodynamic study with RT-3D echo. Methods We enrolled 136 patients referred for routine echocardiography: 44 normal (N, 57 hypertensive (HYP, and 35 systolic heart failure patients (HF. All patients underwent standard 2D echo examination followed by RT3D echo examination, including measurement of left ventricular (LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes and derived assessment of LV elastance (an index of LV contractility, arterial elastance (characterizing the distal impedance of the arterial system downstream of the aortic valve; ventricular-arterial coupling (a central determinant of net cardiovascular performance; systemic vascular resistances. Blood pressure was derived from cuff sphygmomanometer and heart rate from ECG. Results A complete 2D echo was performed in all 136 patients. 3D echo examination was obtained in 130 patients (feasibility = 95 %. Standard 2D echo examination was completed in 14.8 ± 2.2 min. Acquisition of 3D images required an average time of 5 ± 0.9 min (range 3.5-7.5 min and image analysis was completed in 10.1 ± 2.8 min (range 6–12 min per patient. Compared to N and HYP, HF patients showed reduced LV elastance (1.7 ± 1.5 mmHg mL-1 m-2, p 5. The LV elastance was related to EF (r = 0.73, p  Conclusion RT-3D echo allows a non invasive, comprehensive assessment of cardiac and systemic hemodynamics, offering insight access to key variables – such as increased systemic vascular resistances in hypertensives and reduced ventricular-arterial coupling in heart failure

  1. Reference genes for real-time qPCR in leukocytes from asthmatic patients before and after anti-asthma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozmus, Carina E P; Potočnik, Uroš

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a set of reference genes whose expression is stable and suitable for normalization of target gene expression measured in asthma patients during anti-asthmatic treatment. Real-time qPCR was used to determine expression of 7 candidate reference genes (18S rRNA, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, POLR2A, RPL13A and RPL32) and 7 target genes in leukocytes from asthma patients before and after treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene receptor antagonist. Variance of Cq values was analyzed and stability ranking was determined with geNorm. We further investigated how the different normalization strategies affected the consistency of conclusions if the specific investigated target gene is down-regulated or up-regulated after anti-asthmatic therapy. The top-ranking reference genes determined by geNorm, when samples before and after therapy were analyzed (ACTB, B2M and GAPDH) were different from those (POLR2A and B2M) when only samples before treatment were analyzed. Using only a single reference gene for normalization of 7 target gene expression compared to our strategy, there would be as low as 19% of consistency in conclusions. We suggest the use of the geometric mean of ACTB, B2M and GAPDH for normalization of qPCR data of target genes in pharmacogenomics studies in asthma patients before and after anti-asthmatic therapy, however if gene expression is measured only before anti-asthmatic treatment, we recommend the use of the geometric mean of POLR2A and B2M.

  2. Clinical application of real-time PCR to screening critically ill and emergency-care surgical patients for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a quantitative analytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, M Trent; Wyncoll, Duncan; Halligan, Eugene; Cliff, Penelope R; French, Gary; Edgeworth, Jonathan D

    2009-12-01

    The clinical utility of real-time PCR screening assays for methicillin (methicillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization is constrained by the predictive values of their results: as MRSA prevalence falls, the assay's positive predictive value (PPV) drops, and a rising proportion of positive PCR assays will not be confirmed by culture. We provide a quantitative analysis of universal PCR screening of critical care and emergency surgical patients using the BD GeneOhm MRSA PCR system, involving 3,294 assays over six months. A total of 248 PCR assays (7.7%) were positive; however, 88 failed to be confirmed by culture, giving a PPV of 65%. Multivariate analysis was performed to compare PCR-positive culture-positive (P+C+) and PCR-positive culture-negative (P+C-) assays. P+C- results were positively associated with a history of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus infection or colonization (odds ratio [OR], 3.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32 to 7.54) and high PCR thresholds of signal intensity, indicative of a low concentration of target DNA (OR, 1.19 per cycle; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.26). P+C- results were negatively associated with a history of MRSA infection or colonization (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.42) and male sex (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.81). P+C+ patients were significantly more likely to have subsequent positive MRSA culture assays and microbiological evidence of clinical MRSA infection. The risk of subsequent MRSA infection in P+C- patients was not significantly different from that in case-matched PCR-negative controls. We conclude that, given the low PPV and poor correlation between a PCR-positive assay and the clinical outcome, it would be prudent to await culture confirmation before altering infection control measures on the basis of a positive PCR result.

  3. Real Time PCR: Principles and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safie Amini

    2005-09-01

    minor species and detection of sequences from patients with low viral load number. Real-time sequence-based diagnostics remains a realistic target within the next 5 years(22, 23. Real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA is an isothermal method specifically designed for amplification of RNA. Fluorescent molecular beacon probes enable real-time monitoring of the amplification process. Successful identification, utilizing the real-time NASBA technology, was performed on a microchip with oligonucleotides at a concentration of 1.0 and 0.1 microM, in 10- and 50-nL reaction chambers, respectively. The microchip was developed in a silicon-glass structure. An instrument providing thermal control and an optical detection system was built for amplification readout. Experimental results demonstrate distinct amplification processes. Miniaturized real-time NASBA in microchips makes high-throughput diagnostics of bacteria, viruses, and cancer markers possible, at reduced cost and without contamination(24, 25.InstrumentationSeveral instruments are available for detection of the real time PCR fluorescence. The first available, and currently the most popular, machines are the ABI 7700 (Applied biosystem and the Roche Light® cycler. However, other systems have since become (and will become available. Presented here, is a comparison of the above mentioned system with the Bio-Rad IQ® detection system and the Cephid Smart Cycler®.Comparison of the Different SystemsEssentially, each real time PCR instrument consists of a computer-controlled thermocycler integrated with fluorescent detection system and dedicated software to analyze the result. Some systems can detect four different wave lengths (I-cycler,Mx4000 [stratagene] and Smart Cycler®, Version 2.0 Light Cycler® whereas others can detect two different wavelengths(Light Cycler®. The Light Cycler® and Smart Cycler® are capable of performing rapid-cycle real time PCR because the reaction is set-up in capillaries or

  4. Real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography can predict functional recovery and left ventricular remodeling after revascularization in patients with ischemic heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xin; SHU Xian-hong; PAN Cui-zhen; LI Qing; GUO Shi-zun; LIU Shi-zhen; CHEN Hao-zhu

    2007-01-01

    Background Previous studies showed that preservation of microvascular integrity after myocardial ischemia was associated with myocardial viability. Real-time myocardial contrast echocardiography (RT-MCE) is a promising modality for non-invasive evaluation of microcirculation perfusion. Thus, it provides a unique tool to detect myocardial viability. We sought in this study to investigate the role of RT-MCE in predicting left ventricular (LV) functional recovery and remodeling after revascularization in patients with ischemic heart disease.Methods Thirty-one patients with ischemic heart disease and resting regional LV dysfunction were included. LV volume,global and regional function were evaluated by echocardiography before and 6-9 months after revascularization.RT-MCE was performed before revascularization using low mechanical index power modulation imaging. Myocardial contrast opacification of dysfunctional segments was scored on a 3-point scale and mean contrast score in dysfunctional segments was calculated. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to mean contrast score in dysfunctional segments: group A, patients with mean contrast score ≥0.5 (n=19); group B, patients with mean contrast score < 0.5(n=12).Results Wall motion improvement was found to be 94.5%, 45.5% and 16.1% respectively (P<0.01) in homogenous,patchy and absent contrast opacification segments. At baseline, there was no significant difference in LV volume and global function between the two groups. After revascularization, group B had significantly larger LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and LV end-systolic volume (LVESV), lower LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and higher wall motion score index(WMSI) than those of group A (all P<0.05). Revascularization was followed by significant improvement of LV volume and recovery of global LV function in group A (all P<0.01); however, in group B, after revascularization, deterioration of LVEDV (P<0.05) was observed, moreover LVESV, WMSI and LVEF

  5. [DNA extraction and identification of Trichophyton rubrum by real-time polymerase chain reaction from direct nail scraping specimens of patients with onycomycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Elife; Kuştimur, Semra; Kalkancı, Ayşe; Oztaş, O Murat

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most frequently encountered dermatophyte species causing onichomycosis. The routine diagnosis of dermatophytes depends on the direct microscopic examination (DME) and culture methods, however due to the phenotypic identification problems related to those agents, the molecular methods come into question. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the identification of T.rubrum by comparing to DME and culture methods, from nail samples of patients with the complaints of onychomycosis. A total of 90 patients of whom 58 were male who were admitted to the dermatology outpatients clinics of our hospital with the complaints of color/shape changes in the nails and thickening of the nail, were included in the study, together with the 20 healthy volunteer subjects as controls. The nail scraping samples obtained from the patients and controls were examined with direct microscopy using 15% potassium hydroxide, dimethyl sulphoxide and chlorazole black mixture and cultivated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar with and without cycloheximide. For DNA isolation, after the disruption of nail samples with a steel tool, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol purification method were used. The amplification and demonstration of the T.rubrum DNA have been performed by using specific primers and probes following TaqMan protocol of RT-PCR (LightCycler-Roche, USA) method. Seventy-two of the patients yielded positive and 18 yielded negative results with DME. Growth of molds was detected in the cultures of 20 (27.8%) of the 72 DME positive patients and all of the isolates were identified as T.rubrum. No fungal growth was seen in the samples of 18 patients who were DME negative. In DME positive group, 67 (93%) patients were found to be positive in RT-PCR, while 8 (44.4%) patients were RT-PCR positive in DME negative group. All of the culture positive samples (n= 20) were also found positive in RT

  6. Real time medication monitoring with customized SMS reminders for people with refractory epilepsy : will medication adherence levels improve when patients receive customized SMS reminders?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, Marike; Gussinklo, Jan Taco te; Gutter, Thea

    2013-01-01

    A high level of medication adherence is important for people with refractory epilepsy. For most people, however, it is difficult to have their medication intakes as prescribed every day. In this study we investigated if Real Time Medication Monitoring (RTMM) with customized SMS-reminding had an effe

  7. Improved detection of the KIT D816V mutation in patients with systemic mastocytosis using a quantitative and highly sensitive real-time qPCR assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Vestergaard, Hanne; Møller, Michael Boe

    2011-01-01

    study, we present a real-time qPCR assay that allows quantification of as little as 0.003% KIT D816V mutation-positive cells. A total of 61 samples from 31 cases of SM were included in the study. We detected the mutation in skin or bone marrow in 95% of the cases of SM. We demonstrate the clinical...

  8. Real Time Sonic Boom Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, Ed

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will provide general information about sonic boom mitigation technology to the public in order to supply information to potential partners and licensees. The technology is a combination of flight data, atmospheric data and terrain information implemented into a control room real time display for flight planning. This research is currently being performed and as such, any results and conclusions are ongoing.

  9. Real time automatic scene classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Israël, Menno; Broek, van den Egon L.; Putten, van der Peter; Uyl, den Marten J.; Verbrugge, R.; Taatgen, N.; Schomaker, L.

    2004-01-01

    This work has been done as part of the EU VICAR (IST) project and the EU SCOFI project (IAP). The aim of the first project was to develop a real time video indexing classification annotation and retrieval system. For our systems, we have adapted the approach of Picard and Minka [3], who categorized

  10. 二维电离室矩阵实时验证 VMAT 剂量价值研究%Real-time patient transit dose verification of volumetric modulated arc therapy by a 2D ionization chamber array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘潇; 王运来; 鞠忠建; 徐伟; 金丽媛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the real?time dose verification with 2D array ion chamber array in volumetric modulated arc therapy ( VMAT) with a 2D array ion chamber array. Methods The 2D ion chamber array was fixed on the panel of electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Source?detector distance (SDD) was 140 cm. 8 mm RW3 solid water was added to the 2D array to improve the signal noise ratio. Patient plans for esophageal, prostate and liver cancers were selected to be delivered on the cylindrical Cheese phantom 5 times in order to validate the reproducibility of doses. Real?time patient transit dose measurements were performed at each fraction. Dose distributions were evaluated using gamma index criteria of 3 mm DTA and 3% dose difference referred to the first time result. Results The gamma index pass rate in the Cheese phantom were about 98%;the gamma index pass rate for esophageal, prostate and liver cancer patient were about 92%, 92% and 94%, respectively. Gamma pass rate for all single fraction were more than 90%. Conclusions The 2D array is capable of monitoring the real time transit doses during VMAT delivery. It is helpful to improve the treatment accuracy.%目的:探讨利用二维电离室矩阵进行 VMAT 患者透射剂量实时验证的临床价值。方法将二维电离室矩阵面板粘贴固定在加速器 EPID 探测面板上,源到 EPID 探测面板距离为140 cm。电离室矩阵面板上加8 mm 的 RW3固体水以提高信躁比。选取食管癌、前列腺癌、肝癌患者计划,在圆柱形 Cheese 模体上照射测量5次,研究患者计划在模体中剂量验证的可行性与准确性。患者每次治疗时进行实时测量,第1次测量结果作为参考剂量,利用γ分析比较分次间剂量误差。结果采用3%3 mm 标准,Cheese 模体 VMAT 计划的γ通过率为98%左右,食管癌、前列腺癌和肝癌患者实时照射γ通过率分别约为92%、92%和94%。整个治疗过程中

  11. ISTTOK real-time architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Hekkert, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • All real-time diagnostics and actuators were integrated in the same control platform. • A 100 μs control cycle was achieved under the MARTe framework. • Time-windows based control with several event-driven control strategies implemented. • AC discharges with exception handling on iron core flux saturation. • An HTML discharge configuration was developed for configuring the MARTe system. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak was upgraded with a plasma control system based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard. This control system was designed to improve the discharge stability and to extend the operational space to the alternate plasma current (AC) discharges as part of the ISTTOK scientific program. In order to accomplish these objectives all ISTTOK diagnostics and actuators relevant for real-time operation were integrated in the control system. The control system was programmed in C++ over the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) which provides, among other features, a real-time scheduler, an interrupt handler, an intercommunications interface between code blocks and a clearly bounded interface with the external devices. As a complement to the MARTe framework, the BaseLib2 library provides the foundations for the data, code introspection and also a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server service. Taking advantage of the modular nature of MARTe, the algorithms of each diagnostic data processing, discharge timing, context switch, control and actuators output reference generation, run on well-defined blocks of code named Generic Application Module (GAM). This approach allows reusability of the code, simplified simulation, replacement or editing without changing the remaining GAMs. The ISTTOK control system GAMs run sequentially each 100 μs cycle on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 4-core processor running at 2.33 GHz located in the ATCA crate. Two boards (inside the ATCA crate) with 32 analog

  12. Phase-Transition Nanodroplets for Real-Time Photoacoustic/Ultrasound Dual-Modality Imaging and Photothermal Therapy of Sentinel Lymph Node in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu; Cheng, Juan; Chen, Yuli; Yu, Shengjie; Liu, Fengqiu; Sun, Yang; Chen, Yu; Ran, Haitao

    2017-01-01

    Pathological status of lymph nodes (LNs) plays a critical role in staging and treatment for the patients with breast cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become the standard method in determining pathological status of axillary LNs. Therefore, the determination of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) and therapy of metastatic LNs are highly desirable in clinic. Herein, an unprecedented carbon nanoparticles (CNs)-incorporated liquid-gas phase-transition nanodroplets (CNPs) with strong near-infrared (NIR) absorption, good biocompatibility, excellent photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasound (US) contrast, and high photothermal-conversion efficiency are reported in this study. Upon laser irradiation, liquid-gas phase transition of the CNPs has been demonstrated to provide excellent contrasts for PA/US dual-modality imaging both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, the CNPs are capable of staining lymph nodes, which can contribute significantly to the identification of LNs with naked eyes. With increased laser energy, the CNPs exhibit the high performance in killing the breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, due to the photothermal effect induced from the CNs within CNPs. These results suggest that the developed multifunctional phase-transition nanodroplets have high potential to act as the theranostic agents in both SLNs detection and therapy of metastatic LNs. PMID:28338071

  13. Relative quantification of PIK3CA gene expression level in fine-needle aspiration biopsy thyroid specimens collected from patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and non-toxic goitre by real-time RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowska-Durczyńska Katarzyna

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K signaling pathway is important regulator of many cellular events, including apoptosis, proliferation and motility. PI3K pathway alterations (PIK3CA gene mutations and/or amplification have been observed in various human tumours. In the majority of diagnosed cases, mutations are localized in one of the three "hot spots" in the gene, responsible for coding catalytic subunit α of class I PI3K (PIK3CA. Mutations and amplification of PIK3CA gene are characteristic for thyroid cancer, as well. Methods The aim of our study was to examine a gene expression level of PIK3CA in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB thyroid specimens in two types of thyroid lesions, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC and non-toxic goitre (NTG. Following conventional cytological examination, 42 thyroid FNAB specimens, received from patients with PTC (n = 20 and NTG (n = 22, were quantitatively evaluated regarding PIK3CA expression level by real-time PCR in the ABI PRISM® 7500 Sequence Detection System. Results Significantly higher expression level (RQ of PIK3CA in PTC group has been noted in comparison with NTG group (p Conclusion These observations may suggest role of PIK3CA alterations in PTC carcinogenesis.

  14. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR in sentinel lymph nodes from melanoma patients. Detection of melanocytic mRNA predicts disease-free survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Abrahamsen, Helene Nortvig; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for specific melanoma markers is more sensitive than histology for detecting cells of melanocytic origin in sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in cutaneous melanoma. The clinical significance of a positive qRT-PCR analysis...... that the presence of submicroscopic metastases may influence prognosis, indicating that RT-PCR detection of melanocytic cells in SLNs may be an important diagnostic marker....

  15. Radiation damping in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, A C; Takakura, F I

    2001-11-01

    We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of a charge interacting with its own radiation, which originates the radiation damping. The real-time equation of motion for the charge and the associated Langevin equation is found in classical limit. The equation of motion for the charge allows one to obtain the frequency-dependent coefficient of friction. In the lowest order we find that although the coefficient of static friction vanishes, there is dynamical dissipation represented by a non-Markovian dissipative kernel.

  16. Improving medication adherence in diabetes type 2 patients through Real Time Medication Monitoring: a Randomised Controlled Trial to evaluate the effect of monitoring patients' medication use combined with short message service (SMS reminders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouvy Marcel L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Innovative approaches are needed to support patients' adherence to drug therapy. The Real Time Medication Monitoring (RTMM system offers real time monitoring of patients' medication use combined with short message service (SMS reminders if patients forget to take their medication. This combination of monitoring and tailored reminders provides opportunities to improve adherence. This article describes the design of an intervention study aimed at evaluating the effect of RTMM on adherence to oral antidiabetics. Methods/Design Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT with two intervention arms and one control arm involving diabetes type 2 patients with suboptimal levels of adherence to oral antidiabetics (less than 80% based on pharmacy refill data. Patients in the first intervention arm use RTMM including SMS reminders and a personal webpage where they can monitor their medication use. Patients in the second intervention arm use RTMM without SMS reminders or webpage access. Patients in the control arm are not exposed to any intervention. Patients are randomly assigned to one of the three arms. The intervention lasts for six months. Pharmacy refill data of all patients are available from 11 months before, until 11 months after the start of the intervention. Primary outcome measure is adherence to oral antidiabetics calculated from: 1 data collected with RTMM, as a percentage of medication taken as prescribed, and as percentage of medication taken within the correct time interval, 2 refill data, taking the number of days for which oral antidiabetics are dispensed during the study period divided by the total number of days of the study period. Differences in adherence between the intervention groups and control group are studied using refill data. Differences in adherence between the two intervention groups are studied using RTMM data. Discussion The intervention described in this article consists of providing RTMM to patients with

  17. Real-time flutter analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.; Gupta, N.

    1984-01-01

    The important algorithm issues necessary to achieve a real time flutter monitoring system; namely, the guidelines for choosing appropriate model forms, reduction of the parameter convergence transient, handling multiple modes, the effect of over parameterization, and estimate accuracy predictions, both online and for experiment design are addressed. An approach for efficiently computing continuous-time flutter parameter Cramer-Rao estimate error bounds were developed. This enables a convincing comparison of theoretical and simulation results, as well as offline studies in preparation for a flight test. Theoretical predictions, simulation and flight test results from the NASA Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Test (DAST) Program are compared.

  18. Comparison of DNA Microarray, Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) and Real-Time PCR with DNA Sequencing for Identification of Fusarium spp. Obtained from Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Marcela; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Sakai, Kanae; Muraosa, Yasunori; Lyra, Luzia; Busso-Lopes, Ariane Fidelis; Levin, Anna Sara Shafferman; Schreiber, Angélica Zaninelli; Mikami, Yuzuru; Gonoi, Tohoru; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Trabasso, Plínio

    2017-03-21

    The performance of three molecular biology techniques, i.e., DNA microarray, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and real-time PCR were compared with DNA sequencing for properly identification of 20 isolates of Fusarium spp. obtained from blood stream as etiologic agent of invasive infections in patients with hematologic malignancies. DNA microarray, LAMP and real-time PCR identified 16 (80%) out of 20 samples as Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) and four (20%) as Fusarium spp. The agreement among the techniques was 100%. LAMP exhibited 100% specificity, while DNA microarray, LAMP and real-time PCR showed 100% sensitivity. The three techniques had 100% agreement with DNA sequencing. Sixteen isolates were identified as FSSC by sequencing, being five Fusarium keratoplasticum, nine Fusarium petroliphilum and two Fusarium solani. On the other hand, sequencing identified four isolates as Fusarium non-solani species complex (FNSSC), being three isolates as Fusarium napiforme and one isolate as Fusarium oxysporum. Finally, LAMP proved to be faster and more accessible than DNA microarray and real-time PCR, since it does not require a thermocycler. Therefore, LAMP signalizes as emerging and promising methodology to be used in routine identification of Fusarium spp. among cases of invasive fungal infections.

  19. Real time analysis under EDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneberk, D.

    1985-07-01

    This paper describes the analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis. Each of these components are described with an emphasis upon how each contributes to overall system capability. 3 figs.

  20. Real-time analysis keratometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Iwao P. (Inventor); Adachi, Yoshifumi (Inventor); Frazer, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A computer assisted keratometer in which a fiducial line pattern reticle illuminated by CW or pulsed laser light is projected on a corneal surface through lenses, a prismoidal beamsplitter quarterwave plate, and objective optics. The reticle surface is curved as a conjugate of an ideal corneal curvature. The fiducial image reflected from the cornea undergoes a polarization shift through the quarterwave plate and beamsplitter whereby the projected and reflected beams are separated and directed orthogonally. The reflected beam fiducial pattern forms a moire pattern with a replica of the first recticle. This moire pattern contains transverse aberration due to differences in curvature between the cornea and the ideal corneal curvature. The moire pattern is analyzed in real time by computer which displays either the CW moire pattern or a pulsed mode analysis of the transverse aberration of the cornea under observation, in real time. With the eye focused on a plurality of fixation points in succession, a survey of the entire corneal topography is made and a contour map or three dimensional plot of the cornea can be made as a computer readout in addition to corneal radius and refractive power analysis.

  1. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  2. Hierarchical nanostructured noble metal/metal oxide/graphene-coated carbon fiber: in situ electrochemical synthesis and use as microelectrode for real-time molecular detection of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurhman, Abduraouf Alamer Mohamed; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Guoan; Wang, Shuai

    2015-10-01

    We report the design and fabrication of a new type of nanohybrid microelectrode based on a hierarchical nanostructured Au/MnO2/graphene-modified carbon fiber (CF) via in situ electrochemical synthesis, which leads to better structural integration of different building blocks into the CF microelectrode. Our finding demonstrates that wrapping CF with graphene nanosheets has dramatically increased the surface area and electrical conductivity of the CF microelectrode. The subsequent template-free electrodeposition of MnO2 on graphene-wrapped CF gives rise to a porous nanonest architecture built up from twisted and intersectant MnO2 nanowires, which serves as an ideal substrate for the direct growth of Au nanoparticles. Owing to the structural merit and synergy effect between different components, the hierarchical nanostructured noble metal/metal oxide/graphene-coated CF demonstrates dramatically enhanced electrocatalytic activity. When used for nonenzymatic H2O2 sensing, the resultant modified microelectrode exhibits acceptable sensitivity, reproducibility, stability, and selectivity, which enable it to be used for real-time tracking H2O2 secretion in human cervical cancer cells. Graphical abstract A schematic illustration of preparation of hierarchical Au/MnO2/ERGO/CF nanohybrid electrode for real-time molecular detection of cancer cells.

  3. Design and implementation of a telemedicine system using Bluetooth protocol and GSM/GPRS network, for real time remote patient monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasemian, Yousef; Nielsen, Lars Arendt

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the design and implementation of a generic wireless and Real-time Multi-purpose Health Care Telemedicine system applying Bluetooth protocol, Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). The paper explores the factors that should be considered when evaluating different technologies for application in telemedicine system. The design and implementation of an embedded wireless communication platform utilising Bluetooth protocol is described, and the implementation problems and limitations are investigated. The system is tested and its telecommunication general aspects are verified. The results showed that the system has (97.9 +/- 1.3)% Up-time, 2.5 x 10(-5) Bit Error Rate, 1% Dropped Call Rate, 97.4% Call Success Rate, 5 second transmission delay in average, (3.42 +/- 0.11) kbps throughput, and the system may have application in electrocardiography.

  4. Real-time flood forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C.; Tsay, T.-K.; Chien, C.-H.; Wu, I.-L.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at the Hydroinformatic Research and Development Team (HIRDT) of the National Taiwan University undertook a project to create a real time flood forecasting model, with an aim to predict the current in the Tamsui River Basin. The model was designed based on deterministic approach with mathematic modeling of complex phenomenon, and specific parameter values operated to produce a discrete result. The project also devised a rainfall-stage model that relates the rate of rainfall upland directly to the change of the state of river, and is further related to another typhoon-rainfall model. The geographic information system (GIS) data, based on precise contour model of the terrain, estimate the regions that were perilous to flooding. The HIRDT, in response to the project's progress, also devoted their application of a deterministic model to unsteady flow of thermodynamics to help predict river authorities issue timely warnings and take other emergency measures.

  5. REAL TIME DATA PROCESSING FRAMEWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Sakaria

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On a business level, everyone wants to get hold of the business value and other organizational advantages that big data has to offer. Analytics has arisen as the primitive path to business value from big data. Hadoop is not just a storage platform for big data; it’s also a computational and processing platform for business analytics. Hadoop is, however, unsuccessful in fulfilling business requirements when it comes to live data streaming. The initial architecture of Apache Hadoop did not solve the problem of live stream data mining. In summary, the traditional approach of big data being co-relational to Hadoop is false; focus needs to be given on business value as well. Data Warehousing, Hadoop and stream processing complement each other very well. In this paper, we have tried reviewing a few frameworks and products which use real time data streaming by providing modifications to Hadoop.

  6. Real-time and label free determination of ligand binding-kinetics to primary cancer tissue specimens; a novel tool for the assessment of biomarker targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas Mandel; Ayres Pereira, Marina; Oo, Htoo Zarni;

    2016-01-01

    In clinical oncology, diagnosis and evaluation of optimal treatment strategies are mostly based on histopathological examination combined with immunohistochemical (IHC) expression analysis of cancer-associated antigens in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue biopsies. However, informative...... crystal microbalance (QCM) enabled biosensor technology. We analysed the interaction between the rVAR2 protein and its placental-like chondroitin sulfate (pl-CS) receptor in primary human placenta tissue and in breast and prostate tumour specimens in situ. rVAR2 interacted with FFPE human placenta...... and cancer tissue with an affinity in the nanomolar range, and showed no detectable interaction with pl-CS negative normal tissue. We further validated the method by including analysis with the androgen receptor N-20 antibody (anti-AR). As the KD value produced by this method is independent of the number...

  7. Cell-cycle fate-monitoring distinguishes individual chemosensitive and chemoresistant cancer cells in drug-treated heterogeneous populations demonstrated by real-time FUCCI imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Shinji; Yano, Shuya; Kimura, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Mako; Toneri, Makoto; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Uehara, Fuminari; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Murakami, Takashi; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Norio; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Essentially every population of cancer cells within a tumor is heterogeneous, especially with regard to chemosensitivity and resistance. In the present study, we utilized the fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) imaging system to investigate the correlation between cell-cycle behavior and apoptosis after treatment of cancer cells with chemotherapeutic drugs. HeLa cells expressing FUCCI were treated with doxorubicin (DOX) (5 μM) or cisplatinum (CDDP) (5 μM) for 3 h. Cell-cycle progression and apoptosis were monitored by time-lapse FUCCI imaging for 72 h. Time-lapse FUCCI imaging demonstrated that both DOX and CDDP could induce cell cycle arrest in S/G2/M in almost all the cells, but a subpopulation of the cells could escape the block and undergo mitosis. The subpopulation which went through mitosis subsequently underwent apoptosis, while the cells arrested in S/G2/M survived. The present results demonstrate that chemoresistant cells can be readily identified in a heterogeneous population of cancer cells by S/G2/M arrest, which can serve in future studies as a visible target for novel agents that kill cell-cycle-arrested cells.

  8. 慢性牙周炎患者EB病毒Real-Time PCR检测%Determination of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in patients with chronic periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴国; 耿建华; 管泽民

    2007-01-01

    目的:探讨EB病毒(EBV)感染水平与慢性牙周炎(CP)的关系.方法:采集30例CP患者深牙周袋标本及牙龈组织,记录牙周袋探诊深度、附着丧失水平、牙龈指数,real-time PCR法检测EBV DNA.12例正畸、8例腭裂修补术患者作正常对照.结果:CP组EBV DNA检出率高于正常对照组(P<0.05).CP组深牙周袋EBV DNA检出率高于牙龈组织(P<0.05),但2者EBV DNA水平差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).CP患者深牙周袋EBV DNA水平与牙龈指数、牙周袋深度和附着丧失水平均不相关(rs分别为0.34、0.64、0.71,P均>0.05).结论:EBV可能与CP有关,深牙周袋是EBV主要存在部位.

  9. Mobile real time radiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights {approximately}38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  10. Real-time and label free determination of ligand binding-kinetics to primary cancer tissue specimens; a novel tool for the assessment of biomarker targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas Mandel; Pereira, Marina Ayres; Oo, Htoo Zarni;

    2016-01-01

    crystal microbalance (QCM) enabled biosensor technology. We analysed the interaction between the rVAR2 protein and its placental-like chondroitin sulfate (pl-CS) receptor in primary human placenta tissue and in breast and prostate tumour specimens in situ. rVAR2 interacted with FFPE human placenta...... and cancer tissue with an affinity in the nanomolar range, and showed no detectable interaction with pl-CS negative normal tissue. We further validated the method by including analysis with the androgen receptor N-20 antibody (anti-AR). As the KD value produced by this method is independent of the number...

  11. Real-time sonoelastography compared to magnetic resonance imaging using four different modalities at 3.0 T in the detection of prostate cancer: Strength and weaknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelzer, Alexandre E., E-mail: alexandre.pelzer@gmail.com [Department of Urology, Klinikum Ingolstadt, Krumenauerstr. 25, 85049 Ingolstadt (Germany); Heinzelbecker, Julia, E-mail: julia.heinzelbecker@umm.de [Department of Urology, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Weiß, Christel, E-mail: christel.weiss@urz.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute of Medical Statistics and Biometry, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Ludolf-Krehl-Straße 13-17, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Frühbauer, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.j.fruehbauer@googlemail.com [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Weidner, Anja M., E-mail: anja.weidner@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Kirchner, Matthias, E-mail: kirchner@patho-nordhessen.de [Institute of Pathology Nordhessen, Germaniastr. 7, 34119 Kassel (Germany); Stroebel, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.stroebel@umm.de [Institute of Pathology, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Schoenberg, Stephan O., E-mail: stefan.schoenberg@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany); Dinter, Dietmar J., E-mail: dietmar.dinter@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, 68167 Mannheim (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Objective: To compare the results of RTE with four different modalities at 3.0 T using endorectal and body phased array coil in the detection of PC. Patients and methods: Between May 2009 and July 2010, 50 patients with biopsy proven PC scheduled for radical prostatectomy (RP) were examined. All patients underwent RTE of the prostate and 3.0 T endorectal MRI. The investigators were unaware of the clinical data and of each others results. Results: RTE detected PC in 46 (92%) and MRI in 42 (84%) of the patients. Depending on the analysis sensitivity was 44.1–58.9% for RTE and 36.7–43.1% for MRI. Specificity was 83.0–74.8% for RTE and 85.9–79.8% for MRI. Sensitivity was significantly higher for RTE (16-sectors: p = 0.0348; 8-sectors: p = 0.0002) and showed better results in the dorsal (RTE: 51.9%; MRT: 37.7%) and apical to middle (RTE: 66.7%-80.0%; MRI: 41.7%-60.0%) parts of the prostate. MRI showed better results in the base (MRI: 19.4%; RTE: 14.9%) and transitional zone (TZ) (MRI: 34.7%; RTE: 29.6%). Concerning capsular involvement the results were comparable with sensitivity and specificity of RTE being 79.2% and 80.0% compared to 80.8% and 70.0% of MRI. Conclusions: Concerning sensitivity RTE showed advantages in apical and middle parts whereas MRI may provide advantages in the glands’ base and TZ. Both RTE and MRI have limitations particularly in basal and ventral parts. Most of the undetected tumours were of low tumour volume and Gleason Score. Considering capsular involvement both techniques showed comparable results.

  12. Use of a Time-of-Flight Camera With an Omek Beckon™ Framework to Analyze, Evaluate and Correct in Real Time the Verticality of Multiple Sclerosis Patients during Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Eguíluz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Any person with Multiple Sclerosis (MS, regardless of the severity of their disability, needs regular physical activity. Poorly performed exercises could aggravate muscle imbalances and worsen the patient’s health. In this paper, we propose a human body verticality detection system using a time-of-flight camera as a tool to detect incorrect postures and improve them in real time. The prototype uses Omek’s Beckon™ Framework to analyze and evaluate the position of patients during exercise. Preliminary results, based on objective questionnaires, indicate an improvement in patients’ evolution through better positions and performance of the exercises.

  13. Space Weather and Real-Time Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Recent advance of information and communications technology enables to collect a large amount of ground-based and space-based observation data in real-time. The real-time data realize nowcast of space weather. This paper reports a history of space weather by the International Space Environment Service (ISES) in association with the International Geophysical Year (IGY) and importance of real-time monitoring in space weather.

  14. The Effects of Real-Time Interactive Multimedia Teleradiology System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Safadi, Lilac

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the design of a real-time interactive multimedia teleradiology system and assesses how the system is used by referring physicians in point-of-care situations and supports or hinders aspects of physician-radiologist interaction. We developed a real-time multimedia teleradiology management system that automates the transfer of images and radiologists' reports and surveyed physicians to triangulate the findings and to verify the realism and results of the experiment. The web-based survey was delivered to 150 physicians from a range of specialties. The survey was completed by 72% of physicians. Data showed a correlation between rich interactivity, satisfaction, and effectiveness. The results of our experiments suggest that real-time multimedia teleradiology systems are valued by referring physicians and may have the potential for enhancing their practice and improving patient care and highlight the critical role of multimedia technologies to provide real-time multimode interactivity in current medical care.

  15. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    We examine welfare eects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...... to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power...

  16. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    We examine welfare e ects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...... to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power...

  17. Real-time graphics rendering engine

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Hujun

    2011-01-01

    ""Real-Time Graphics Rendering Engine"" reveals the software architecture of the modern real-time 3D graphics rendering engine and the relevant technologies based on the authors' experience developing this high-performance, real-time system. The relevant knowledge about real-time graphics rendering such as the rendering pipeline, the visual appearance and shading and lighting models are also introduced. This book is intended to offer well-founded guidance for researchers and developers who are interested in building their own rendering engines. Hujun Bao is a professor at the State Key Lab of

  18. Research in Distributed Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, R.

    1997-01-01

    This document summarizes the progress we have made on our study of issues concerning the schedulability of real-time systems. Our study has produced several results in the scalability issues of distributed real-time systems. In particular, we have used our techniques to resolve schedulability issues in distributed systems with end-to-end requirements. During the next year (1997-98), we propose to extend the current work to address the modeling and workload characterization issues in distributed real-time systems. In particular, we propose to investigate the effect of different workload models and component models on the design and the subsequent performance of distributed real-time systems.

  19. Effects of Real-time Telemedicine Consultations between Hospital-based Nurses and Patients with Severe COPD discharged after Exacerbation Admissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorknæs, Anne Dichmann; Jest, Peder; Bech, Mickael

    Introduction: Hospitalisation with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) causes a major burden for the COPD patients and is a common cause for admissions and readmissions to medical wards. Objectives: To investigate the effect of one week of daily real...

  20. Noninvasive and real-time monitoring of molecular targeting therapy for lymph node and peritoneal metastasis in nude mice bearing xenografts of human colorectal cancer cells tagged with GFP and DsRed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Hayao; Hara, Masayasu; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Tatematsu, Masae

    2007-02-01

    We have developed an in vivo imaging system consisting of GFP- and DsRed-tagged human colonic cancer cell line, which has peritoneal and lymph node metastatic potential and show high sensitivity to EGFR targeting drugs, and convenient detection devices for GFP and DsRed. The latter includes a small handy fluorescence detection device for external monitoring of the therapeutic effect of the drug and a convenient stereo fluorescent microscope for internal visualization of micrometastases. We applied this imaging system to investigate anti-metastatic effects of EGFR targeting drugs such as gefitinib (Iressa). This system allowed sensitive detection of the development of peritoneal and lymph node metastases from the micrometastasis stage at the cellular level and also permited noninvasive, non-anesthetic monitoring of anti-metastatic effect of the drug in an animal facility without any pretreatment. Significant decreases in the intraabdominal metastatic tumor growth and prevention of inguinal lymph node metastasis by gefitinib treatment could be clearly monitored. These results suggest that convenient, low-cost, true real-time monitoring of therapeutic effect using such a fluorescence-mediated whole body imaging system seems to enhance the speed of preclinical study for novel anti-cancer agents and will allow us to understand the action mechanism of molecular targeting drugs.

  1. Minority drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in treatment naive East-African and Caucasian patients detected by allele-specific real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halime Ekici

    Full Text Available To assess the presence of two major non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI drug resistance mutations (DRMs, Y181C and K103N, in minor viral quasispecies of treatment naïve HIV-1 infected East-African and Swedish patients by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR.Treatment naïve adults (n=191 with three epidemiological backgrounds were included: 92 Ethiopians living in Ethiopia; 55 East-Africans who had migrated to Sweden; and 44 Caucasians living in Sweden. The pol gene was analysed by standard population sequencing and by AS-PCR for the detection of Y181C and K103N.The Y181C was detected in the minority quasispecies of six Ethiopians (6.5%, in two Caucasians (4.5%, and in one East-African (1.8%. The K103N was detected in one East- African (1.8%, by both methods. The proportion of mutants ranged from 0.25% to 17.5%. Additional DRMs were found in all three treatment naïve patient groups by population sequencing.Major NNRTI mutations can be found by AS-PCR in minor quasispecies of treatment naïve HIV-1 infected Ethiopians living in Ethiopia, in East-African and Caucasian patients living in Sweden in whom population sequencing reveal wild-type virus only. Surveys with standard sequencing are likely to underestimate transmitted drug resistance and the presence of resistant minor quasispecies in treatment naïve patients should be topic for future large scale studies.

  2. Comparison between target margins derived from 4DCT scans and real-time tumor motion tracking: Insights from lung tumor patients treated with robotic radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descovich, Martina, E-mail: mdescovich@radonc.ucsf.edu; McGuinness, Christopher; Kannarunimit, Danita; Chen, Josephine; Pinnaduwage, Dilini; Pouliot, Jean; Kased, Norbert; Gottschalk, Alexander R.; Yom, Sue S. [UCSF Department of Radiation Oncology, San Francisco, California 94115 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: A unique capability of the CyberKnife system is dynamic target tracking. However, not all patients are eligible for this approach. Rather, their tumors are tracked statically using the vertebral column for alignment. When using static tracking, the internal target volume (ITV) is delineated on the four-dimensional (4D) CT scan and an additional margin is added to account for setup uncertainty [planning target volume (PTV)]. Treatment margins are difficult to estimate due to unpredictable variations in tumor motion and respiratory pattern during the course of treatment. The inability to track the target and detect changes in respiratory characteristics might result in geographic misses and local tumor recurrences. The purpose of this study is to develop a method to evaluate the adequacy of ITV-to-PTV margins for patients treated in this manner. Methods: Data from 24 patients with lesions in the upper lobe (n = 12), middle lobe (n = 3), and lower lobe (n = 9) were included in this study. Each patient was treated with dynamic tracking and underwent 4DCT scanning at the time of simulation. Data including the 3D coordinates of the target over the course of treatment were extracted from the treatment log files and used to determine actual target motion in the superior–inferior (S–I), anterior–posterior (A–P), and left–right (L–R) directions. Different approaches were used to calculate anisotropic and isotropic margins, assuming that the tumor moves as a rigid body. Anisotropic margins were calculated by separating target motion in the three anatomical directions, and a uniform margin was calculated by shifting the gross tumor volume contours in the 3D space and by computing the percentage of overlap with the PTV. The analysis was validated by means of a theoretical formulation. Results: The three methods provided consistent results. A uniform margin of 4.5 mm around the ITV was necessary to assure 95% target coverage for 95% of the fractions included

  3. Detection of CAPN10 copy number variation in Thai patients with type 2 diabetes by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plengvidhya, Nattachet; Chanprasert, Kanjana; Tangjittipokin, Watip; Thongnoppakhun, Wanna; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction A combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Copy number variations (CNVs) are associated with complex human diseases. However, CNVs can cause genotype deviation from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). A genetic case–control association study in 216 Thai diabetic patients and 192 non-diabetic controls found that, after excluding genotyping errors, genotype distribution of calpain 10 (CAPN10) SNP44 (rs2975760) deviated from HWE. Here, we aimed to detect CNV within the CAPN10 SNP44 region. Materials and Methods CNV within the CAPN10 SNP44 region was detected using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography, and the results confirmed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction with SYBR Green I. Results Both methods successfully identified CNV in the CAPN10 SNP44 region, obtaining concordant results. Correction of genotype calling based on the status of identified CNVs showed that the CAPN10 SNP44 genotype is in good agreement with HWE (P > 0.05). However, no association between CNV genotypes and risk of type 2 diabetes was observed. Conclusions Identified CNVs for CAPN10 SNP44 genotypes lead to deviation from HWE. Furthermore, both denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction are useful for detecting CNVs. PMID:26543536

  4. Real-time communication protocols: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, Ferdy; Jansen, Pierre G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes several existing data link layer protocols that provide real-time capabilities on wired networks, focusing on token-ring and Carrier Sense Multiple Access based networks. Existing modifications to provide better real-time capabilities and performance are also described. Finally

  5. Real-time communication protocols: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Hanssen, Ferdy; Jansen, Pierre G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes several existing data link layer protocols that provide real-time capabilities on wired networks, focusing on token-ring and Carrier Sense Multiple Access based networks. Existing modifications to provide better real-time capabilities and performance are also described. Finally the pros and cons regarding the At-Home Anywhere project are discussed.

  6. Validation of RNAi by real time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Lee, Ying Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Real time PCR is the analytic tool of choice for quantification of gene expression, while RNAi is concerned with downregulation of gene expression. Together, they constitute a powerful approach in any loss of function studies of selective genes. We illustrate here the use of real time PCR to veri...

  7. Storm real-time processing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Quinton

    2013-01-01

    A Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes for different uses of Storm.If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of real-time processing and would like to learn Storm to process unbounded streams of data in real time, then this book is for you.

  8. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power...

  9. Interactive Real-time Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Lau

    Real-time acquisition, reconstruction and interactively changing the slice position using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been possible for years. However, the current clinical use of interactive real-time MRI is limited due to an inherent low spatial and temporal resolution. This PhD proje...

  10. Cost-effectiveness of blood culture and a multiplex real-time PCR in hematological patients with suspected sepsis: an observational propensity score-matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Nicasio; Sambri, Vittorio; Corti, Consuelo; Ghidoli, Nadia; Tolomelli, Giulia; Paolucci, Michela; Clerici, Daniela; Carletti, Silvia; Greco, Raffaella; Tassara, Michela; Pizzorno, Beatrice; Zaniolo, Orietta; Povero, Massimiliano; Pradelli, Lorenzo; Burioni, Roberto; Stanzani, Marta; Landini, Maria Paola; Ciceri, Fabio; Clementi, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated the costs and clinical outcomes of episodes of suspected sepsis in hematological patients. A propensity score-matched study was planned, comparing a retrospective cohort managed with standard assays and a prospective cohort managed with the addition of a molecular assay. Diagnostic procedures and therapy were considered as costs variables. The primary clinical endpoint was sepsis-related mortality, whereas the length of each suspected sepsis episode was investigated as a secondary endpoint. A total of 137 and 138 episodes in the prospective and the retrospective cohorts were studied, respectively; 101 pairs of highly matched episodes were analyzed, evidencing a trend of higher mortality in the retrospective cohort. No difference in length of suspected sepsis episode was observed. Significant savings were observed in the prospective cohort, especially due to reduced costs in antifungal therapy. The apparently more expensive molecular assay favored a more rational use of economic resources without influencing, and probably improving, the clinical outcome.

  11. Comparison of the sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR and in situ hybridization in HPV16 and 18 detection in archival cervical cancer specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Biesaga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between real-time PCR (RT-PCR treated as a reference method and in situ hybridization with tyramide amplification system (ISH-TSA in the detection of HPV16 and 18 infection and the assessment of viral genome status. The study was performed on cervical cancer biopsies fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin obtained from 85 women. TaqMan-based 5’exonuclease RT-PCR with type-specific primers was used to assess HPV16 and 18 infections and genome status. Viral infection and genome status was also assessed by ISH-TSA. RT-PCR revealed 76 (89.4%, and ISH-TSA 81 (95.3% cancers with HPV16 and 18 infections. The ISH-TSA sensitivity and specificity were: 96.1% and 11.1% compared to RT-PCR. The difference between these techniques in HPV detection was significant (p = 0.000. Among 76 HPV16/18 positive cancers in RT-PCR, there were 30 (39.5% with integrated and 46 (60.5% with mixed viral genome form. According to ISH-TSA, there were 39 (51.3% samples with integrated and 37 with mixed form (48.7%. The sensitivity and specificity of ISH-TSA in genome status assessment were 70.0% and 60.9%, respectively. The difference between RT-PCR and ISH-TSA in genome state detection was not statistically significant (p = 0.391. These results suggest that ISH-TSA shows insufficient specificity in HPV detection for use in clinical practice. However, this assay could be applied for viral genome status assessment.

  12. Real-time visualization of nanoparticles interacting with glioblastoma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Elliot S; Patel, Kaya; Guo, Sujuan; Dukes, Madeline J; Sheng, Zhi; Kelly, Deborah F

    2015-04-08

    Nanoparticle-based therapy represents a novel and promising approach to treat glioblastoma, the most common and lethal malignant brain cancer. Although similar therapies have achieved significant cytotoxicity in cultured glioblastoma or glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs), the lack of an appropriate approach to monitor interactions between cells and nanoparticle-based therapies impedes their further clinical application in human patients. To address this critical issue, we first obtained NOTCH1 positive GSCs from patient-derived primary cultures. We then developed a new imaging approach to directly observe the dynamic nature of nanoparticles at the molecular level using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Utilizing these tools we were able to visualize real-time movements of nanoparticles interacting with GSCs for the first time. Overall, we show strong proof-of-concept results that real-time visualization of nanoparticles in single cells can be achieved at the nanoscale using TEM, thereby providing a powerful platform for the development of nanotherapeutics.

  13. Is Real-Time Feedback of Burn-Specific Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Clinical Settings Practical and Useful? A Pilot Study Implementing the Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Colleen M; Lee, Austin F; Kazis, Lewis E; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Goverman, Jeremy; Fagan, Shawn P; Wang, Chao; Kim, Julia; Sheridan, Robert L; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2016-01-01

    Long-term follow-up care of survivors after burn injuries can potentially be improved by the application of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). PROMs can inform clinical decision-making and foster communication between the patient and provider. There are no previous reports using real-time, burn-specific PROMs in clinical practice to track and benchmark burn recovery over time. This study examines the feasibility of a computerized, burn-specific PROM, the Young Adult Burn Outcome Questionnaire (YABOQ), with real-time benchmarking feedback in a burn outpatient practice. The YABOQ was redesigned for formatting and presentation purposes using images and transcribed to a computerized format. The redesigned questionnaire was administered to young adult burn survivors (ages 19-30 years, 1-24 months from injury) via an ipad platform in the office before outpatient visits. A report including recovery curves benchmarked to a nonburned relatively healthy age-matched population and to patients with similar injuries was produced for the domains of physical function and social function limited by appearance. A copy of the domain reports as well as a complete copy of the patient's responses to all domain questions was provided for use during the clinical visit. Patients and clinicians completed satisfaction surveys at the conclusion of the visit. Free-text responses, included in the satisfaction surveys, were treated as qualitative data adding contextual information about the assessment of feasibility. Eleven patients and their providers completed the study for 12 clinical visits. All patients found the ipad survey and report "easy" or "very easy" to use. In nine instances, patients "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that it helped them communicate their situation to their doctor/nurse practitioner. Patients "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that the report helped them understand their course of recovery in 10 visits. In 11 visits, the patients "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that

  14. In vivo Real-Time Mass Spectrometry for Guided Surgery Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatou, Benoit; Saudemont, Philippe; Leblanc, Eric; Vinatier, Denis; Mesdag, Violette; Wisztorski, Maxence; Focsa, Cristian; Salzet, Michel; Ziskind, Michael; Fournier, Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    Here we describe a new instrument (SpiderMass) designed for in vivo and real-time analysis. In this instrument ion production is performed remotely from the MS instrument and the generated ions are transported in real-time to the MS analyzer. Ion production is promoted by Resonant Infrared Laser Ablation (RIR-LA) based on the highly effective excitation of O-H bonds in water molecules naturally present in most biological samples. The retrieved molecular patterns are specific to the cell phenotypes and benign versus cancer regions of patient biopsies can be easily differentiated. We also demonstrate by analysis of human skin that SpiderMass can be used under in vivo conditions with minimal damage and pain. Furthermore SpiderMass can also be used for real-time drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) analysis or food safety topics. SpiderMass is thus the first MS based system designed for in vivo real-time analysis under minimally invasive conditions.

  15. Real-time PCR for Strongyloides stercoralis-associated meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir, Eyal; Grossman, Tamar; Ciobotaro, Pnina; Attali, Malka; Barkan, Daniel; Bardenstein, Rita; Zimhony, Oren

    2016-03-01

    Four immunocompromised patients, immigrants from Ethiopia, presented with diverse clinical manifestations of meningitis associated with Strongyloides stercoralis dissemination as determined by identification of intestinal larvae. The cerebrospinal fluid of 3 patients was tested by a validated (for stool) real-time PCR for S. stercoralis and was found positive, establishing this association.

  16. Depression in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyhan Bag

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is not enough to consider treatment and care depression in the oncology that is the most common psychiatric illness in cancer patient affects of cancer treatment and the patient`s quality of life negatively, which is determined through researches in the field. With development of psycho-oncology it has been demonstrated to establish an important link between the cancer patient`s treatment as well as psycho-social support for the patient and psychiatric treatment and care for the if it is needed. With this connection between them it has been proposed to use of bio-psycho-social-model in cancer patient to improve their care. To achieve this goal, it is expected from medical personnel to realize patients psychosocial need und if he/she has a psychiatric disorders or syndromes. For the medical personnel that work in oncology services, it is inevitable to organize in order to raise the awareness of depression in the cancer patients. In the present study, it is focused on raising the awareness of depression in cancer patient for the medical personnel. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 186-198

  17. The ALMA Real Time Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jeffrey S.; Juerges, Thomas A.; Marson, Ralph G.

    2009-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a revolutionary millimeter and submillimeter array being developed on the Atacama plateau of northern Chile. An international partnership lead by NRAO, ESO, and NAOJ this powerful and flexible telescope will provide unprecedented observations of this relatively unexplored frequency range. The control subsystem for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array must coordinate the monitor and control of at least sixty six antennas (in four different styles), two correlators, and all of the ancillary equipment (samplers, local oscillators, front ends, etc.). This equipment will be spread over tens of kilometers and operated remotely. Operation of the array requires a robust, scalable, and maintainable real time control system. The real time control system is responsible for monitoring and control of any devices where there are fixed deadlines. Examples in the ALMA context are antenna pointing and fringe tracking. Traditionally the real time portion of a large software system is an intricate and error prone portion of the software. As a result the real time portion is very expensive in terms of effort expended both during construction and during maintenance phases of a project. The ALMA real time control system uses a Linux based real time operating system to interact with the hardware and the CORBA based ALMA Common Software to communicate in the distributed computing environment. Mixing the requirements of real time computing and the non-deterministic CORBA middleware has produced an interesting design. We discuss the architecture, design, and implementation of the ALMA real time control system. Highlight some lessons learned along the way, and justify our assertion that this should be the last large scale real time control system in radio astronomy.

  18. Real time detecting system for turning force

    CERN Document Server

    Yue Xiao Bin

    2001-01-01

    How to get the real-time value of forces dropped on the tool in the course of processing by piezoelectric sensors is introduced. First, the analog signals of the cutting force were achieved by these sensors, amplified and transferred into digital signals by A/D transferring card. Then real-time software reads the information, put it into its own coordinate, drew the curve of forces, displayed it on the screen by the real time and saved it for the technicians to analyze the situation of the tool. So the cutting parameter can be optimized to improve surface quality of the pieces

  19. Real-time medical applications and telecommunications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stravs, M

    1999-01-01

    Telecommunications play an important role in telemedicine. Many forms of telecommunication services based on different telecommunication technologies are developed for various needs. The paper deals with complex real-time applications which demand high telecommunication requirements. At the beginning, medical applications are categorised and real-time applications qualified as multimedia applications. Requirements for multimedia elements are listed separately. Later on, short introduction of related telecommunication protocols is given. Real-time medical applications can show their ability in case of guaranteed quality of services delivered by telecommunication network as it is explained in the end.

  20. Real-time structured light intraoral 3D measurement pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Radu; Tchouprakov, Andrei; Sokolov, Roman

    2013-02-01

    Computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is increasingly becoming a standard feature and service provided to patients in dentist offices and denture manufacturing laboratories. Although the quality of the tools and data has slowly improved in the last years, due to various surface measurement challenges, practical, accurate, invivo, real-time 3D high quality data acquisition and processing still needs improving. Advances in GPU computational power have allowed for achieving near real-time 3D intraoral in-vivo scanning of patient's teeth. We explore in this paper, from a real-time perspective, a hardware-software-GPU solution that addresses all the requirements mentioned before. Moreover we exemplify and quantify the hard and soft deadlines required by such a system and illustrate how they are supported in our implementation.

  1. Real Time Study and Related Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-qing

    2016-01-01

    This paper first, illustrates the advantages of applying real time study to linguistic researches. Second, this paper also compares linguistic variables with linguistic variant; nasality, stronger constraint and weaker constraint have been clearly de-fined as well.

  2. Multiprocessor scheduling for real-time systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baruah, Sanjoy; Buttazzo, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of both theoretical and pragmatic aspects of resource-allocation and scheduling in multiprocessor and multicore hard-real-time systems.  The authors derive new, abstract models of real-time tasks that capture accurately the salient features of real application systems that are to be implemented on multiprocessor platforms, and identify rules for mapping application systems onto the most appropriate models.  New run-time multiprocessor scheduling algorithms are presented, which are demonstrably better than those currently used, both in terms of run-time efficiency and tractability of off-line analysis.  Readers will benefit from a new design and analysis framework for multiprocessor real-time systems, which will translate into a significantly enhanced ability to provide formally verified, safety-critical real-time systems at a significantly lower cost.

  3. Visualization in Real-Time Experiment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project will be to migrate some of the outputs from the WFF Mission Planning Lab (MPL) into a real-time visualization system.  The MPL is...

  4. Scala for Real-Time Systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Java served well as a general-purpose language. However, during its two decades of constant change it has gotten some weight and legacy in the language syntax and the libraries. Furthermore, Java's success for real-time systems is mediocre. Scala is a modern object-oriented and functional language...... with interesting new features. Although a new language, it executes on a Java virtual machine, reusing that technology. This paper explores Scala as language for future real-time systems....

  5. Real-Time Sensor-Actuator Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sastry, Shivakumar; S. S. Iyengar

    2005-01-01

    Emerging technologies offer new paradigms for computation, control, collaboration, and communication. To realize the full potential of these technologies in industry, defense, and homeland security applications, it is necessary to exploit the real-time distributed computing capabilities of sensor-actuator networks. To reliably design and develop such networks, it is necessary to develop deeper insight into the underlying model for real-time computation and the infrastructure at the node level...

  6. Real Time Information Fusion in Military Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bhagiratharao

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of sensors on platforms like battle ships and aircraft, the information to be handled by the battlefield commanders has significantly increased in the recent time. From a deluge of information flowing from sensors, the battlefield commander is required to make situation assessment in real-time and take appropriate action. Recent studies by cognitive scientists have indicated that decision making by individuals as well as a team suffer from several biases. For these two reasons, the battlefield commanders need assistance of real-time information fusion systems to take objective assessment of highly dynamic battle situation in real-time information fusion systems to take objective assessment of a highly dynamic battle situation in real-time. The real-time information fusion systems at a single platform level as well as that applicable for geographically distributed platforms is discussed in detail in this paper. It was concluded that by carrying out these activities at the platform level as well as at 'global' level involving several platforms, the limitations in performance of any sensor due to propagation effects or due to enemy counter measures can be significantly minimised or totally eliminated. At the same time the functional effectiveness of each sensor onboard different platforms, becomes better than when it had to operate autonomously within the real-time information fusion facility. By carrying out global real-time information fusion activity in a theatre of war, all the platforms operating in the area will have the benefit of the best sensor in that area on each aspect of the capability. A few examples of real-time information fusion system are also discussed.

  7. The LAA real-time benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, R.K.; Krischer, W.; Lone, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1989-04-01

    In the context of the LAA detector development program a subgroup Real Time Data Processing has tackled the problem of intelligent triggering. The main goal of this group is to show how fast digital devices, implemented as custom-made or commercial processors, can execute some basic algorithms, and how they can be embedded in the data flow between detector readout components and fully programmable commercial processors, which are expected to be the final data processing filter in real time.

  8. [Nutrition and cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuramaki, T; Hirata, K; Isobe, M

    1998-03-01

    Nutritional therapy for cancer patients includes various objectives such as improvement of cachexia, elucidation of the mechanism of malnutrition, development of therapy for anorexia, nutrition support during chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and inhibition of tumor growth under controlled caloric intake. This review describes recent remarkable developments in nutritional therapy for cancer patients. Cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor which induce proteolysis and lipolysis are involved in the cause of malnutrition and cachexia in cancer patients. IL-1 also plays a significant role in the development of cancer anorexia via direct action in the brain. For anorexia therapy, progestogens have been shown to improve appetite and food intake in cancer patients. Moreover, glutamine supplementation improves the host protein metabolism without enhancement of tumor growth during chemotherapy. Among the effects of caloric intake on anticancer therapy, AO-90, a methionine-free intravenous amino acid solution, has been shown to increase the antitumor effect of 5-fluorouracil in clinical studies. From these observations, recent progress in nutritional therapy for cancer patients has been remarkable. Further study of nutritional therapy is required in order to maintain or improve the quality of life of cancer patients in the future.

  9. Expression patterns of WT-1 and Bcr-Abl measured by TaqMan quantitative real-time RT-PCR during follow-up of leukemia patients with the Ph chromosome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zi-xing陈子兴; Jaspal Kaeda; Sue Saunders; John M Goldman

    2004-01-01

    Background This study was designed to quantitatively measure WT-1 expression levels in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during follow-up and to clarify the value of WT-1 as a molecular marker in minimal residual disease monitoring.Methods The TaqMan quantitative real-time RT-PCR method was established by using cloned WT-1 cDNA or synthesized oligonucleotides resembling WT-1 cDNA fragments in limit dilution as template until a stable and reliable standard curve was obtained. In a 25-month follow-up, the transcriptional levels of WT-1, Bcr-Abl, and Abl gene, were quantitatively measured in bone marrow cells from 25 CML or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients with the Ph chromosome. In addition, the expression of these genes in 40 samples of normal peripheral blood was also examined using the same method. The ratios of WT-1/Abl and Bcr-Abl/Abl were both plotted, and the two expression patterns were compared as well as their clinical significance.Results The levels of WT-1 expression in normal peripheral blood were detectable. In CML and Ph positive ALL patients, WT-1 expression levels changed in parallel with the Bcr-Abl expression pattern as the disease progressed or responded to effective treatment.Conclusion WT-1 expression provides a novel molecular marker in addition to Bcr-Abl for monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD) and targeting therapy in Ph chromosome-positive leukemia patients.

  10. Analysis of real-time vibration data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, E.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, a few structures have been instrumented to provide continuous vibration data in real time, recording not only large-amplitude motions generated by extreme loads, but also small-amplitude motions generated by ambient loads. The main objective in continuous recording is to track any changes in structural characteristics, and to detect damage after an extreme event, such as an earthquake or explosion. The Fourier-based spectral analysis methods have been the primary tool to analyze vibration data from structures. In general, such methods do not work well for real-time data, because real-time data are mainly composed of ambient vibrations with very low amplitudes and signal-to-noise ratios. The long duration, linearity, and the stationarity of ambient data, however, allow us to utilize statistical signal processing tools, which can compensate for the adverse effects of low amplitudes and high noise. The analysis of real-time data requires tools and techniques that can be applied in real-time; i.e., data are processed and analyzed while being acquired. This paper presents some of the basic tools and techniques for processing and analyzing real-time vibration data. The topics discussed include utilization of running time windows, tracking mean and mean-square values, filtering, system identification, and damage detection.

  11. 实时荧光PCR在艾滋病合并肺孢子菌肺炎诊断中的应用%Application of real-time fluorescence PCR in the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia in AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田敬华; 周淳; 张伟; 华文浩; 万钢; 张亮; 陈志海

    2012-01-01

    目的 应用实时荧光PCR 技术与六甲基四胺银(GMS)染色法对艾滋病合并肺孢子菌肺炎(PCP)患者支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF)中的肺孢子菌进行检测,比较两种检测方法的性能.方法 应用实时荧光PCR 技术与GMS染色对57例艾滋病合并肺部感染患者的BALF标本进行肺孢子菌检测,比较两种方法的检测效果.结果 收集本院18例艾滋病合并肺部感染患者的支气管灌洗液标本,采用实时荧光PCR技术检测肺孢子菌DNA,结果显示13例为阳性,阳性率为72.3%(13/18).阳性标本肺孢子菌 DNA定量为1.35 × 103~8.24 × 105 拷贝/ml,平均(1.2 ± 2.13)× 105 拷贝/ml;而GMS染色镜下检测,阳性率为72.3%(13/18),二者具有极高的一致性.收集广州市第八人民医院39例艾滋病合并肺部感染患者的支气管灌洗液标本,实时荧光PCR检测肺孢子菌DNA结果显示21例为阳性,阳性率为53.8%(21/39);而用GMS染色镜下检测,阳性率仅为2.5%(1/18).在标本量少的情况下,实时荧光肺孢子菌方法检测肺孢子菌的敏感性远高于GMS染色法.结论 对艾滋病合并肺孢子菌感染患者支气管灌洗液的肺孢子菌检测中,荧光肺孢子菌与GMS染色有极高的一致性,且敏感性明显高于后者.实时荧光肺孢子菌方法可快速、灵敏、特异性、定量地检测肺孢子菌 DNA,在PCP的诊断、治疗方案选择和疗效观察方面有重要的临床意义.%Objective To evaluate and compare real-time fluorescence PCR and Gomori ' s methenamine-silver ( GMS ) staining technique in detecting pneumocystis pneumonia ( PCP ) from bronchoaveolar lavage ( BALF ) specimens. Methods Total of 57 BALF specimens of AIDS patients with pulmonary infection were detected with Pneumocystis DNA by real-time fluorescence PCR and GMS staining. And test results of two kinds of methods were compared. Results Among 18 BALF specimens from our hospital, Pneumocystis DNA of 13 specimens were positively identified by

  12. RealTimeFrame – A Real Time Processing Framework for Medical Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gross

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging technology is highly important in today’s medical environments. It provides information upon which the accuracy of the diagnosis and consequently the wellbeing of the patient rely. Increasing the quality and significance of medical image data is therefore one the aims of scientific research and development. We introduce an integrated hardware and software framework for real time image processing in medical environments, which we call RealTimeFrame. Our project is designed to offer flexibility, easy expandability and high performance. We use standard personal computer hardware to run our multithreaded software. A frame grabber card is used to capture video signals from medical imaging systems. A modular, user-defined process chain performs arbitrary manipulations on the image data. The graphical user interface offers configuration options and displays the processed image in either window or full screen mode. Image source and processing routines are encapsulated in dynamic library modules for easy functionality extension without recompilation of the entire software framework. Documented template modules for sources and processing steps are part of the software’s source code.

  13. Real-Time Statistical Modeling of Blood Sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoom, Mwaffaq; Alshraideh, Hussam; Almasaeid, Hisham M; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Bravo, José

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes is considered a chronic disease that incurs various types of cost to the world. One major challenge in the control of Diabetes is the real time determination of the proper insulin dose. In this paper, we develop a prototype for real time blood sugar control, integrated with the cloud. Our system controls blood sugar by observing the blood sugar level and accordingly determining the appropriate insulin dose based on patient's historical data, all in real time and automatically. To determine the appropriate insulin dose, we propose two statistical models for modeling blood sugar profiles, namely ARIMA and Markov-based model. Our experiment used to evaluate the performance of the two models shows that the ARIMA model outperforms the Markov-based model in terms of prediction accuracy.

  14. Real Time Surface Registration for PET Motion Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilm, Jakob; Olesen, Oline Vinter; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2011-01-01

    to create point clouds representing parts of the patient's face. The movement is estimated by a rigid registration of the point clouds. The registration should be done using a robust algorithm that can handle partial overlap and ideally operate in real time. We present an optimized Iterative Closest Point...

  15. Real-Time PCR Quantification of Methanobrevibacter oralis in Periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bringuier, Amélie; Khelaifia, Saber; Richet, Hervé; Aboudharam, Gérard; Drancourt, Michel

    2013-01-01

    A real-time PCR assay developed to quantify Methanobrevibacter oralis indicated that its inoculum significantly correlated with periodontitis severity (P = 0.003), despite a nonsignificant difference in prevalence between controls (3/10) and patients (12/22) (P = 0.2, Fisher test). The M. oralis load can be used as a biomarker for periodontitis.

  16. Detection of Echinoderm Microtubule Associated Protein Like 4-Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Fusion Genes in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Clinical Samples by a Real-time Quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Jin-Yin; Chen, Zhi-Xia; Zhong, Wei; Li, Long-Yun; Liu, Li-Cheng; Hu, Xiao-Xu; Chen, Wei-Jun; Wang, Meng-Zhao

    2016-12-20

    Objective To establish a real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (qRT-PCR) for the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion genes in non-small cell lung cancer. Methods The specific primers for the four variants of EML4-ALK fusion genes (V1, V2, V3a, and V3b) and Taqman fluorescence probes for the detection of the target sequences were carefully designed by the Primer Premier 5.0 software. Then, using pseudovirus containing EML4-ALK fusion genes variants (V1, V2, V3a, and V3b) as the study objects, we further analyzed the lower limit, sensitivity, and specificity of this method. Finally, 50 clinical samples, including 3 ALK-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) positive specimens, were collected and used to detect EML4-ALK fusion genes using this method. Results The lower limit of this method for the detection of EML4-ALK fusion genes was 10 copies/μl if no interference of background RNA existed. Regarding the method's sensitivity, the detection resolution was as high as 1% and 0.5% in the background of 500 and 5000 copies/μl wild-type ALK gene, respectively. Regarding the method's specificity, no non-specific amplification was found when it was used to detect EML4-ALK fusion genes in leukocyte and plasma RNA samples from healthy volunteers. Among the 50 clinical samples, 47 ALK-FISH negative samples were also negative. Among 3 ALK-FISH positive samples, 2 cases were detected positive using this method, but another was not detected because of the failure of RNA extraction. Conclusion The proposed qRT-PCR assay for the detection of EML4-ALK fusion genes is rapid, simple, sensitive, and specific, which is deserved to be validated and widely used in clinical settings.

  17. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

    2008-08-15

    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  18. New real time needle segmentation technique using grayscale Hough transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wu; Zhou, Hua; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Songgeng

    2007-12-01

    Real-time needle segmentation and tracking is very important in image-guided surgery, biopsy, and therapy. In this paper, we described an automated technique to provide real-time needle segmentation from a sequence of 2-D ultrasound images for the use of guidance of a needle to the target in soft tissues. The Hough transform is used to find straight lines or analytic curves in binary image. Hough transform is applied usually to binary images. Hence one needs to convert, initially, the gray level image to a binary one (through thresholding, edge detection, or thinning) in order to apply the HT. While in the process of binarization, some information about line segments in the image may be lost when an inappropriate threshold is used. Gray-Scale Hough Transform can detect the line without binarization. Unfortunately, its high computational cost often prevents it from being applied in real-time applications without the help of specially designed hardware. In this paper, we proposed a needle segmentation technique based on a real-time gray-scale Hough transform. It is composed of an improved Gray Hough Transformation and a coarse-fine search strategy. Furthermore, the RTGHT (Real-Time Gray-Scale Hough Transform) technique is evaluated by patient breast biopsy images. Experiments with patient breast biopsy ultrasound (US) image sequences showed that our approach can segment the biopsy needle in real time (i.e., less than 60 ms) with the angular rms error of about 1° and the position rms error of about 0.5 mm an affordable PC computer without the help of specially designed hardware.

  19. Sarcopenia in Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindapasirt, Jarin

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia, characterized by a decline of skeletal muscle plus low muscle strength and/or physical performance, has emerged to be an important prognostic factor for advanced cancer patients. It is associated with poor performance status, toxicity from chemotherapy, and shorter time of tumor control. There is limited data about sarcopenia in cancer patients and associated factors. Moreover, the knowledge about the changes of muscle mass during chemotherapy and its impact to response and toxicity to chemotherapy is still lacking. This review aimed to provide understanding about sarcopenia and to emphasize its importance to cancer treatment.

  20. Accuracy of marker analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification to determine SMN2 copy number in patients with spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alías, Laura; Bernal, Sara; Barceló, Maria J; Also-Rallo, Eva; Martínez-Hernández, Rebeca; Rodríguez-Alvarez, Francisco J; Hernández-Chico, Concepción; Baiget, Montserrat; Tizzano, Eduardo F

    2011-09-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder caused by absence of or mutations in the survival motor neuron1 gene (SMN1). All SMA patients have a highly homologous copy of SMN1, the SMN2 gene. Severe (type I) SMA patients present one or two SMN2 copies, whereas milder chronic forms (type II-III) usually have three or four SMN2 copies. SMN2 dosage is important to stratify patients for motor function tests and clinical trials. Our aim was to compare three methods, marker analysis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction using the LightCycler instrument, and multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), to characterize their accuracy in quantifying SMN2 genes. We studied a group of 62 genetically confirmed SMA patients, 54 with homozygous absence of exons 7 and 8 of SMN1 and 8 with SMN2-SMN1 hybrid genes. A complete correlation using the three methods was observed in 32 patients (51.6%). In the remaining 30 patients, discordances between the three methods were found, including under or overestimation of SMN2 copies by marker analysis with respect to the quantitative methods (LightCycler and MLPA) because of lack of informativeness of markers, 3' deletions of SMN genes, and breakpoints in SMN2-SMN1 hybrid genes. The technical limitations and advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed. We conclude that the three methods complement each other in estimating the SMN2 copy number in most cases. However, MLPA offers additional information to characterize SMA cases with particular rearrangements such as partial deletions and hybrid genes.

  1. Evaluation of a standardised real-time PCR based DNA-detection method (Realstar®) in whole blood for the diagnosis of primary human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in immunocompetent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berth, M; Benoy, I; Christensen, N

    2016-02-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA detection in blood could, as a supplementary test to serology, improve the accuracy and speed of diagnosis of an acute CMV infection. In this study we evaluated the performance of a commercially available and standardised CMV PCR assay in whole blood for the diagnosis of a primary infection in immunocompetent adults. Moreover, the kinetics of viral DNA was evaluated in order to provide a time frame in which viral DNA could be detected during an acute primary infection. Whole blood samples were collected from 66 patients with an acute CMV infection, 65 patients with an acute Epstein-Barr virus infection, 27 patients with various other acute infections (parvovirus B19, HIV, Toxoplasma gondii), 20 patients with past CMV infections (>1 year) and 20 apparently healthy persons. For CMV DNA detection and quantification a commercially available real-time PCR was applied (RealStar®, altona Diagnostics). The clinical sensitivity of CMV PCR in whole blood for the diagnosis of a recent primary CMV infection was 93.9 % and the diagnostic specificity 99.2 %. In the majority of the patients CMV DNA was not detectable anymore approximately within 4 weeks after the first blood sample was taken. From these data we concluded that, together with a suggestive serological profile, a positive CMV PCR result in whole blood can be regarded as a diagnostic confirmation of a recent CMV infection on a single blood sample in an immunocompetent patient. However, a negative CMV PCR result does not exclude a recent CMV infection.

  2. Visualization of Real-Time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansifer, Ryan; Engrand, Peter

    1996-01-01

    In this project we explored various approaches to presenting real-time data from the numerous systems monitored on the space shuttle to computer users. We examined the approach that several projects at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) used to accomplish this. We undertook to build a prototype system to demonstrate that the Internet and the Java programming language could be used to present the real-time data conveniently. Several Java programs were developed that presented real-time data in different forms including one form that emulated the display screens of the PC GOAL system which is familiar to many at KSC. Also, we developed several communications programs to supply the data continuously. Furthermore, a framework was created using the World Wide Web (WWW) to organize the collection and presentation of the real-time data. We believe our demonstration project shows the great flexibility of the approach. We had no particular use of the data in mind, instead we wanted the most general and the least complex framework possible. People who wish to view data need only know how to use a WWW browser and the address (the URL). People wanting to build WWW documents containing real-time data need only know the values of a few parameters, they do not need to program in Java or any other language. These are stunning advantages over more monolithic systems.

  3. Deterministic Real-time Thread Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Heechul; Sha, Lui

    2011-01-01

    Race condition is a timing sensitive problem. A significant source of timing variation comes from nondeterministic hardware interactions such as cache misses. While data race detectors and model checkers can check races, the enormous state space of complex software makes it difficult to identify all of the races and those residual implementation errors still remain a big challenge. In this paper, we propose deterministic real-time scheduling methods to address scheduling nondeterminism in uniprocessor systems. The main idea is to use timing insensitive deterministic events, e.g, an instruction counter, in conjunction with a real-time clock to schedule threads. By introducing the concept of Worst Case Executable Instructions (WCEI), we guarantee both determinism and real-time performance.

  4. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woskov, Paul P.; Smatlak, Donna L.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Wittle, J. Kenneth; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury.

  5. Durham adaptive optics real-time controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basden, Alastair; Geng, Deli; Myers, Richard; Younger, Eddy

    2010-11-10

    The Durham adaptive optics (AO) real-time controller was initially a proof of concept design for a generic AO control system. It has since been developed into a modern and powerful central-processing-unit-based real-time control system, capable of using hardware acceleration (including field programmable gate arrays and graphical processing units), based primarily around commercial off-the-shelf hardware. It is powerful enough to be used as the real-time controller for all currently planned 8 m class telescope AO systems. Here we give details of this controller and the concepts behind it, and report on performance, including latency and jitter, which is less than 10 μs for small AO systems.

  6. Interactive Real-time Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Lau

    seeks to implement and assess existing reconstruction algorithms using multi-processors of modern graphics cards and many-core computer processors and to cover some of the potential clinical applications which might benefit from using an interactive real-time MRI system. First an off......-line, but interactive, slice alignment tool was used to support the notion that 3D blood flow quantification in the heart possesses the ability to obtain curves and volumes which are not statistical different from standard 2D flow. Secondly, the feasibility of an interactive real-time MRI system was exploited...... with regard to optimal sampling strategy for detecting motion in four different anatomies on two different MRI scanner brands. A fully implemented interactive real-time MRI system was exploited in a group of healthy fetuses and proved its eligibility as an alternative diagnostic tool for fetal imaging...

  7. Real-Time Visualization of Tissue Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Chrien, Thomas D. (Inventor); Eastwood, Michael L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A real-time display of tissue ischemia which comprises three CCD video cameras, each with a narrow bandwidth filter at the correct wavelength is discussed. The cameras simultaneously view an area of tissue suspected of having ischemic areas through beamsplitters. The output from each camera is adjusted to give the correct signal intensity for combining with, the others into an image for display. If necessary a digital signal processor (DSP) can implement algorithms for image enhancement prior to display. Current DSP engines are fast enough to give real-time display. Measurement at three, wavelengths, combined into a real-time Red-Green-Blue (RGB) video display with a digital signal processing (DSP) board to implement image algorithms, provides direct visualization of ischemic areas.

  8. Real Time Implementation Of Face Recognition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Manchanda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes face recognition method using PCA for real time implementation. Nowadays security is gaining importance as it is becoming necessary for people to keep passwords in their mind and carry cards. Such implementations however, are becoming less secure and practical, also is becoming more problematic thus leading to an increasing interest in techniques related to biometrics systems. Face recognition system is amongst important subjects in biometrics systems. This system is very useful for security in particular and has been widely used and developed in many countries. This study aims to achieve face recognition successfully by detecting human face in real time, based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA algorithm.

  9. Real-time systems scheduling fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Chetto, Maryline

    2014-01-01

    Real-time systems are used in a wide range of applications, including control, sensing, multimedia, etc.  Scheduling is a central problem for these computing/communication systems since responsible of software execution in a timely manner. This book provides state of knowledge in this domain with special emphasis on the key results obtained within the last decade. This book addresses foundations as well as the latest advances and findings in Real-Time Scheduling, giving all references to important papers. But nevertheless the chapters will be short and not overloaded with confusing details.

  10. Machine vision for real time orbital operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinz, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision for automation and robotic operation of Space Station era systems has the potential for increasing the efficiency of orbital servicing, repair, assembly and docking tasks. A machine vision research project is described in which a TV camera is used for inputing visual data to a computer so that image processing may be achieved for real time control of these orbital operations. A technique has resulted from this research which reduces computer memory requirements and greatly increases typical computational speed such that it has the potential for development into a real time orbital machine vision system. This technique is called AI BOSS (Analysis of Images by Box Scan and Syntax).

  11. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  12. Real-time systems scheduling 2 focuses

    CERN Document Server

    Chetto, Maryline

    2014-01-01

    Real-time systems are used in a wide range of applications, including control, sensing, multimedia, etc. Scheduling is a central problem for these computing/communication systems since it is responsible for software execution in a timely manner. This book, the second of two volumes on the subject, brings together knowledge on specific topics and discusses the recent advances for some of them.  It addresses foundations as well as the latest advances and findings in real-time scheduling, giving comprehensive references to important papers, but the chapters are short and not overloaded with co

  13. A Phase II Trial of SABR (Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer Using a Non-Robotic Linear Accelerator and Real-Time Target Tracking: Report of Toxicity, Quality of Life and Disease Control Outcomes with 5-Year Minimum Followup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine Anastasios Mantz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose/Objective(s: Herein, we report the results of an IRB-approved phase II trial of Varian Trilogy/TrueBeam-based SABR monotherapy for low-risk prostate cancer using the Calypso® System to provide real-time electromagnetic tracking of the prostate’s position during treatment delivery. Materials/Methods: A total of 102 low-risk patients completed protocol treatment between January 2007 and May 2009. A total dose of 40.0 Gy in 5 every-other-day fractions of 8.0 Gy was prescribed to the planning target volume. Target setup and tracking procedures were as follows: (1 the Calypso® System was used to achieve target setup prior to each fraction; (2 conebeam CT imaging was then used for correction of setup error and for assessment of target and Organs-at-Risk (OAR deformations; (3 after treatment delivery was initiated, the Calypso® System then provided real-time intrafractional target tracking. The NCI CTCAE v3.0 was used to assess urinary and rectal toxicity during treatment and at defined followup time points. Biochemical response and quality of life measurements were made at concurrent followup points.Results: Urinary toxicities were most common. At 6 months, 19.6%, 2.9% and 4.9% of patients reported grades 1 – 2 urinary frequency, dysuria and retention, respectively. Rectal toxicities were uncommon. By 12 months, 2.9% of patients reported painless rectal bleeding with subsequent symptom resolution without requiring invasive interventions. Quality of life measurements demonstrated a significant decline over baseline in urinary irritative/obstructive scores at 1 month following SABR but otherwise did not demonstrate any difference for bowel, bladder and sexual function scores at any other followup time point. One patient suffered biochemical recurrence at 6 years following SABR.Conclusions: At five years minimum followup for this favorable patient cohort, prostate SABR resulted in favorable toxicity, quality of life and biochemical

  14. Real time estimates of GDP growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the components of the EICIE, the Econometric Institute Current Indicator of the Economy. This measure concerns quarterly and annual growth of Dutch real Gross Domestic Product. The key component of our real-time forecasting model for Dutch quarterly GDP is weekly staffing servic

  15. Real time estimates of GDP growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. de Groot (Bert); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper describes the components of the EICIE, the Econometric Institute Current Indicator of the Economy. This measure concerns quarterly and annual growth of Dutch real Gross Domestic Product. The key component of our real-time forecasting model for Dutch quarterly GDP is weekly sta

  16. Advances in Real-Time Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Samarjit

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures given in honor to Georg Farber as tribute to his contributions in the area of real-time and embedded systems. The chapters of many leading scientists cover a wide range of aspects, like robot or automotive vision systems or medical aspects.

  17. Scene independent real-time indirect illumination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Falster, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A novel method for real-time simulation of indirect illumination is presented in this paper. The method, which we call Direct Radiance Mapping (DRM), is based on basal radiance calculations and does not impose any restrictions on scene geometry or dynamics. This makes the method tractable for real...

  18. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joe; Eto, Joe; Lesieutre, Bernard; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Parashar, Manu

    2008-07-07

    The increased need to manage California?s electricity grid in real time is a result of the ongoing transition from a system operated by vertically-integrated utilities serving native loads to one operated by an independent system operator supporting competitive energy markets. During this transition period, the traditional approach to reliability management -- construction of new transmission lines -- has not been pursued due to unresolved issues related to the financing and recovery of transmission project costs. In the absence of investments in new transmission infrastructure, the best strategy for managing reliability is to equip system operators with better real-time information about actual operating margins so that they can better understand and manage the risk of operating closer to the edge. A companion strategy is to address known deficiencies in offline modeling tools that are needed to ground the use of improved real-time tools. This project: (1) developed and conducted first-ever demonstrations of two prototype real-time software tools for voltage security assessment and phasor monitoring; and (2) prepared a scoping study on improving load and generator response models. Additional funding through two separate subsequent work authorizations has already been provided to build upon the work initiated in this project.

  19. Refactoring Real-Time Java Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Thomsen, Bent; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2011-01-01

    Just like other software, Java profiles benefits from refactoring when they have been used and have evolved for some time. This paper presents a refactoring of the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) and the Safety Critical Java (SCJ) profile (JSR-302). It highlights core concepts and makes...

  20. Real-time analysis of telemetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Simon A.; Laffey, Thomas J.; Schmidt, James L.; Read, Jackson Y.; Dunham, Larry L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper descibes a knowledge-based system for performing real-time monitoring and analysis of telemetry data from the NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST). In order to handle asynchronous inputs and perform in real time the system consists of three or more separate processes, which run concurrently and communicate via a message passing scheme. The data management process gathers, compresses, and scales the incoming telemetry data befoe sending it to the other tasks. The inferencing process uses the incoming data to perform a real-time analysis of the state and health of the Space Telescope. The I/O process receives telemetry monitors from the data management process, updates its graphical displays in real time, and acts as the interface to the console operator. The three processes may run on the same or different computers. This system is currently under development and is being used to monitor testcases produced by the Bass Telemetry System in the Hardware/Software Integration Facility at Lockheed Missile and Space Co. in Sunnyvale, California.

  1. Real-time dynamics of proton decay

    CERN Document Server

    Grigoriev, D

    2005-01-01

    Substituting Skyrmion for nucleon, one can potentially see -- in real time -- how the monopole is catalysing the proton (or neutron) decay, and even obtain a plausible estimate for catalysis cross-section. Here we discuss the key aspects of a practical implementation of such approach and demonstrate how one can overcome the main technical problems: Gauss constraint violation and reflections at the boundaries.

  2. The Power of Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valasek, Mark A.; Repa, Joyce J.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has emerged as a robust and widely used methodology for biological investigation because it can detect and quantify very small amounts of specific nucleic acid sequences. As a research tool, a major application of this technology is the rapid and accurate assessment of changes in gene…

  3. Feedback as Real-Time Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very moment it takes place. This article argues for a…

  4. Real Time Structured Light and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilm, Jakob

    , increased processing power, and methods presented in this thesis, it is possible to perform structured light scans in real time with 20 depth measurements per second. This offers new opportunities for studying dynamic scenes, quality control, human-computer interaction and more. This thesis discusses...

  5. Real-time Texture Error Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Laurentiu Lacrama

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates an improved solution for the real-time error detection of texture errors that occurs in the production process in textile industry. The research is focused on the mono-color products with 3D texture model (Jacquard fabrics. This is a more difficult task than, for example, 2D multicolor textures.

  6. [Physiotherapy of cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Izabella; Szekanecz, Éva; Szekanecz, Zoltán; Bender, Tamás

    2016-07-01

    Physiotherapy of cancer patients is one of the most controversial issues in our country. Malignant diseases are firstly mentioned as a contraindication of physiotherapy. Until now, physiotherapy was not suggested (or only in limited accessibility) for those patients who had malignant disease in medical history. International medical practice was less restrictive in managing this topic. The development of imaging techniques put this question in a new light. On the basis of evidence, the majority of articles have reported beneficial effects of physiotherapy in cancer patients, and only few articles mentioned it as harmful. Of course, each patient requires an individual assessment, however, if we exclude the possibility of tumor recurrence and metastasis, most of physiotherapy procedures can be used safely. One of the aims of this review is to support the physicians' decisions when to prescribe treatments, in such a way, that more patients could receive physiotherapy. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(31), 1224-1231.

  7. Real-time automatic registration in optical surgical navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qinyong; Yang, Rongqian; Cai, Ken; Si, Xuan; Chen, Xiuwen; Wu, Xiaoming

    2016-05-01

    An image-guided surgical navigation system requires the improvement of the patient-to-image registration time to enhance the convenience of the registration procedure. A critical step in achieving this aim is performing a fully automatic patient-to-image registration. This study reports on a design of custom fiducial markers and the performance of a real-time automatic patient-to-image registration method using these markers on the basis of an optical tracking system for rigid anatomy. The custom fiducial markers are designed to be automatically localized in both patient and image spaces. An automatic localization method is performed by registering a point cloud sampled from the three dimensional (3D) pedestal model surface of a fiducial marker to each pedestal of fiducial markers searched in image space. A head phantom is constructed to estimate the performance of the real-time automatic registration method under four fiducial configurations. The head phantom experimental results demonstrate that the real-time automatic registration method is more convenient, rapid, and accurate than the manual method. The time required for each registration is approximately 0.1 s. The automatic localization method precisely localizes the fiducial markers in image space. The averaged target registration error for the four configurations is approximately 0.7 mm. The automatic registration performance is independent of the positions relative to the tracking system and the movement of the patient during the operation.

  8. Detection of let-7a microRNA by real-time PCR in gastric carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-He Zhang; Xian-Jun Wang; Guo-Xiong Li; En Yang; Ning-Min Yang

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To establish an accurate and rapid stem-loop reverse transcriptional real-time PCR (RT-PCR) method to quantify human let-7a miRNA in gastric cancer.METHODS: According to the sequence of let-7a miRNA,the stem-loop reverse transcriptional primer, the primers and quantitative MGB probes of real-time PCR were designed and synthesized. The dynamic range and the sensitivity of quantitative reverse transcriptional real-time PCR were determined. The levels of let-7a miRNA were examined in 32 gastric carcinoma samples by stem-loop RT-PCR method.RESULTS: The dynamic range and sensitivity of the let-7a miRNA quantification scheme were evaluated,the result showed the assay could precisely detect 10copies of mature let-7a miRNA in as few as 0.05 ng of total RNA of gastric mucosa. The results of specificity analysis showed no fluorescence signal occurred even though 50 ng of human genomic DNA was added to the reverse transcription (RT) reaction. The expression level of let-7a miRNA in gastric tumor tissues was significantly lower compared to normal tissues in 14 samples from 32patients.CONCLUSION: The stem-loop RT-PCR is a reliable method to detect let-7a miRNA which may play an important role in the development of gastric carcinoma.

  9. Collecting data in real time with postcards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The success of information technology (IT) in transforming healthcare is often limited by the lack of clear understanding of the context at which the technology is used. Various methods have been proposed to understand healthcare context better in designing and implementing Health Information...... Systems. These methods often involve cross-sectional, retrospective data collection. This paper describes the postcard method for prospective real-time data collection, both in paper format and electronic format. This paper then describes the results obtained using postcard techniques in Denmark...... and Australia. The benefits of this technique are illustrated. There are limitations in using postcard techniques and this paper provides a detail discussion about these limitations. Postcard techniques provide unique advantages in understanding real time healthcare context and it is an important technique...

  10. Real-Time Watercolor for Animation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Luft; Oliver Deussen

    2006-01-01

    We present algorithms that allow for real-time rendering of 3D-scenes with a watercolor painting appearance. Our approach provides an appropriate simplification of the visual complexity, imitates characteristic natural effects of watercolor, and provides two essential painting techniques: the wet-on-wet and the wet-on-dry painting. We concentrate on efficient algorithms based on image space processing rather than on an exact simulation. This allows for the real-time rendering of 3D-scenes. During an animation a high frame-to-frame coherence can be achieved due to a stable segmentation scheme. Finally, we seamlessly integrate a smooth illumination into the watercolor renderings using information from the 3D-scene.

  11. Real Time Radiation Exposure And Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Barzilla, Janet E.; Semones, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation from solar particle events (SPEs) poses a serious threat to future manned missions outside of low Earth orbit (LEO). Accurate characterization of the radiation environment in the inner heliosphere and timely monitoring the health risks to crew are essential steps to ensure the safety of future Mars missions. In this project we plan to develop an approach that can use the particle data from multiple satellites and perform near real-time simulations of radiation exposure and health risks for various exposure scenarios. Time-course profiles of dose rates will be calculated with HZETRN and PDOSE from the energy spectrum and compositions of the particles archived from satellites, and will be validated from recent radiation exposure measurements in space. Real-time estimation of radiation risks will be investigated using ARRBOD. This cross discipline integrated approach can improve risk mitigation by providing critical information for risk assessment and medical guidance to crew during SPEs.

  12. Monte Carlo study of real time dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandru, Andrei; Bedaque, Paulo F; Vartak, Sohan; Warrington, Neill C

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo studies involving real time dynamics are severely restricted by the sign problem that emerges from highly oscillatory phase of the path integral. In this letter, we present a new method to compute real time quantities on the lattice using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism via Monte Carlo simulations. The key idea is to deform the path integration domain to a complex manifold where the phase oscillations are mild and the sign problem is manageable. We use the previously introduced "contraction algorithm" to create a Markov chain on this alternative manifold. We substantiate our approach by analyzing the quantum mechanical anharmonic oscillator. Our results are in agreement with the exact ones obtained by diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The method we introduce is generic and in principle applicable to quantum field theory albeit very slow. We discuss some possible improvements that should speed up the algorithm.

  13. Real time PCR. Application in dengue studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Prada-Arismendy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PCR (polymerase chain reaction is a routinely used tool in every diagnostic and research laboratory. This technique has been used in detection of mutations and pathogens, forensic investigation, and even is the base tool for human genome sequencing. A modification of PCR technique, real time PCR, allows the quantification of nucleic acids with higher sensibility, specificity and reproducibility. This article is intended to clarify the foundations of real-time PCR, using an application model for virology. In the actual work, it was quantified the viral load of dengue virus serotype 2 produced from infected murine macrophages; the obtained results in this work established that murine strain BALB/c presents a greater susceptibility to dengue virus infection, which establishes BALB/c murine strain as a best model of study for investigation of dengue virus infection physiopathology.

  14. AMON: Transition to real-time operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, D. F.; Keivani, A.; Tešić, G.

    2016-04-01

    The Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON) will link the world's leading high-energy neutrino, cosmic-ray, gamma-ray and gravitational wave observatories by performing real-time coincidence searches for multimessenger sources from observatories' subthreshold data streams. The resulting coincidences will be distributed to interested parties in the form of electronic alerts for real-time follow-up observation. We will present the science case, design elements, current and projected partner observatories, status of the AMON project, and an initial AMON-enabled analysis. The prototype of the AMON server has been online since August 2014 and processing archival data. Currently, we are deploying new high-uptime servers and will be ready to start issuing alerts as early as winter 2015/16.

  15. System Equivalent for Real Time Digital Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xi

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a method of making system equivalents for the Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS), which should enhance its capability of simulating large power systems. The proposed equivalent combines a Frequency Dependent Network Equivalent (FDNE) for the high frequency electromagnetic transients and a Transient Stability Analysis (TSA) type simulation block for the electromechanical transients. The frequency dependent characteristic for FDNE is obtained by curve-fitting frequency domain admittance characteristics using the Vector Fitting method. An approach for approximating the frequency dependent characteristic of large power networks from readily available typical power-flow data is also introduced. A new scheme of incorporating TSA solution in RTDS is proposed. This report shows how the TSA algorithm can be adapted to a real time platform. The validity of this method is confirmed with examples, including the study of a multi in-feed HVDC system based network.

  16. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mark [Alamo, CA; Gosnell, Tom B [Moraga, CA; Ham, Cheryl [Livermore, CA; Perkins, Dwight [Livermore, CA; Wong, James [Dublin, CA

    2012-05-15

    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  17. Real Time Radiation Monitoring Using Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Wilkins, Richard T. (Inventor); Hanratty, James J. (Inventor); Lu, Yijiang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    System and method for monitoring receipt and estimating flux value, in real time, of incident radiation, using two or more nanostructures (NSs) and associated terminals to provide closed electrical paths and to measure one or more electrical property change values .DELTA.EPV, associated with irradiated NSs, during a sequence of irradiation time intervals. Effects of irradiation, without healing and with healing, of the NSs, are separately modeled for first order and second order healing. Change values.DELTA.EPV are related to flux, to cumulative dose received by NSs, and to radiation and healing effectivity parameters and/or.mu., associated with the NS material and to the flux. Flux and/or dose are estimated in real time, based on EPV change values, using measured .DELTA.EPV values. Threshold dose for specified changes of biological origin (usually undesired) can be estimated. Effects of time-dependent radiation flux are analyzed in pre-healing and healing regimes.

  18. "Fast" Is Not "Real-Time": Designing Effective Real-Time AI Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Cindy A.; Cromarty, Andrew S.

    1985-04-01

    Realistic practical problem domains (such as robotics, process control, and certain kinds of signal processing) stand to benefit greatly from the application of artificial intelligence techniques. These problem domains are of special interest because they are typified by complex dynamic environments in which the ability to select and initiate a proper response to environmental events in real time is a strict prerequisite to effective environmental interaction. Artificial intelligence systems developed to date have been sheltered from this real-time requirement, however, largely by virtue of their use of simplified problem domains or problem representations. The plethora of colloquial and (in general) mutually inconsistent interpretations of the term "real-time" employed by workers in each of these domains further exacerbates the difficul-ties in effectively applying state-of-the-art problem solving tech-niques to time-critical problems. Indeed, the intellectual waters are by now sufficiently muddied that the pursuit of a rigorous treatment of intelligent real-time performance mandates the redevelopment of proper problem perspective on what "real-time" means, starting from first principles. We present a simple but nonetheless formal definition of real-time performance. We then undertake an analysis of both conventional techniques and AI technology with respect to their ability to meet substantive real-time performance criteria. This analysis provides a basis for specification of problem-independent design requirements for systems that would claim real-time performance. Finally, we discuss the application of these design principles to a pragmatic problem in real-time signal understanding.

  19. Real-time RGBD SLAM system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czupryński, BłaŻej; Strupczewski, Adam

    2015-09-01

    A real-time tracking and mapping SLAM system is presented. The developed system uses input from an RGBD sensor and tracks the camera pose from frame to frame. The tracking is based on matched feature points and is performed with respect to selected keyframes. The system is robust and scalable, as an arbitrary number of keyframes can be chosen for visualization and tracking depending on the desired accuracy and speed. The presented system is also a good platform for further research.

  20. Tactical AI in Real Time Strategy Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    a parent , and each parent can have multiple children based on what decision options are available at the parent node. The search evaluates each child...The real time strategy (RTS) tactical decision making problem is a difficult problem. It is generally more complex due to its high degree of time...evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) in this tactical decision making problem allows an AI agent to make fast, effective solutions that do not require modification

  1. Robust synthesis for real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel; Traonouez, Louis-Marie;

    2014-01-01

    Specification theories for real-time systems allow reasoning about interfaces and their implementation models, using a set of operators that includes satisfaction, refinement, logical and parallel composition. To make such theories applicable throughout the entire design process from an abstract ...... strategies in timed games. Finally, we consider the parametric robustness problem and propose a counter-example refinement heuristic for computing safe perturbation values....

  2. Real-time optical information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram

    1994-01-01

    Real-Time Optical Information Processing covers the most recent developments in optical information processing, pattern recognition, neural computing, and materials for devices in optical computing. Intended for researchers and graduate students in signal and information processing with some elementary background in optics, the book provides both theoretical and practical information on the latest in information processing in all its aspects. Leading researchers in the field describe the significant signal processing algorithms architectures in optics as well as basic hardware concepts,

  3. Real-Time Neutron Radiography at CARR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Lin-feng; HAN; Song-bai; WANG; Hong-li; WU; Mei-mei; WEI; Guo-hai; WANG; Yu

    2012-01-01

    <正>A real-time detector system for neutron radiography based on CMOS camera has been designed for the thermal neutron imaging facility under construction at China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR). This system is equipped with a new scientific CMOS camera with 5.5 million pixels and speed up to 100 fps at full frame. The readout noise is less than 2.4 electron per pixel. It is capable of providing

  4. Real Time Route for Dynamic Road Congestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Riad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing service delivery and travel time during rush hours downtown is strategic target for several organizations, especially the emergency organizations. This paper presents an On-line and Real-time Dynamic Route System (ORDRS which benefits from the advantages and integration between information system and communications technology. It utilizes Global Positioning System (GPS, Geographical Information Systems (GIS, and Global System for Mobile communications (GSM; for producing the real time routes for vehicles. GPS-Tracker is the main input device for ORDRS. It is fixated in a vehicle, sends vehicle's movement data (Geo-info to the control center wirelessly through either Short Message Service (SMS or General Packet Radio Service (GPRS. Geo-info includes time, date, longitude, latitude, speed, and etc., these data is classified over time during weekdays into interval time slices, each slice is 30 minutes. Speeds are treated by GIS tools to determine historical and real time speeds for each street segment in the road network which is being used for calculating time impedance (cost matrix for each street segment dynamically. ORDRS uses a cost matrix of the current time slice for determining the best route to each vehicle in duty attached. Several algorithms was used to calculate the shortest route, a comparison between Dijekstra and Yen algorithms was studied.

  5. Real-time Interactive Tree Animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Ed; Yu, Yue; Huang, Jingwei; Lin, Winnie; Fedkiw, Ronald

    2017-01-30

    We present a novel method for posing and animating botanical tree models interactively in real time. Unlike other state of the art methods which tend to produce trees that are overly flexible, bending and deforming as if they were underwater plants, our approach allows for arbitrarily high stiffness while still maintaining real-time frame rates without spurious artifacts, even on quite large trees with over ten thousand branches. This is accomplished by using an articulated rigid body model with as-stiff-as-desired rotational springs in conjunction with our newly proposed simulation technique, which is motivated both by position based dynamics and the typical O(N) algorithms for articulated rigid bodies. The efficiency of our algorithm allows us to pose and animate trees with millions of branches or alternatively simulate a small forest comprised of many highly detailed trees. Even using only a single CPU core, we can simulate ten thousand branches in real time while still maintaining quite crisp user interactivity. This has allowed us to incorporate our framework into a commodity game engine to run interactively even on a low-budget tablet. We show that our method is amenable to the incorporation of a large variety of desirable effects such as wind, leaves, fictitious forces, collisions, fracture, etc.

  6. Real-Time RFID-Based Intelligent Healthcare Diagnosis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Rajiv; Chowdhury, Belal

    In a health care context, the use of RFID (Radio Frequency Identi- fication) technology can be employed for not only bringing down health care costs but also to facilitate automatic streamlining patient identification processes in health centers and assist medical practitioners in quick and accurate diagnosis and treatments. In this paper, we outline a describe design and application of RFID-based Real-time Intelligent Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment Support System (ICDTS) in health care.

  7. Rehabilitation of cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available With the developments in cancer treatment, more and more patients are surviving their disease. However, very little emphasis is being placed to rehabilitate these cancer survivors. Ignorance, social structure, stigma attached in seeking psychological help, and poor communication skills of oncology staff all contribute to poor rehabilitative efforts. The priority of governmental agencies and health efforts to fight rampant communicable diseases, malnutrition, maternal health, and the frequent natural calamities, puts rehabilitation movements in the back seat. Treatment and prevention of disability and its rehabilitation requires comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach. There is an urgent need to promote physical and psychological rehabilitation.

  8. The first clinical treatment with kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM): A real-time image guidance method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keall, Paul J., E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au; O’Brien, Ricky; Huang, Chen-Yu [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Aun Ng, Jin [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006, Australia and School of Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Colvill, Emma [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006, Australia and Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales 2065 (Australia); Rugaard Poulsen, Per; Fledelius, Walther [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Juneja, Prabhjot; Booth, Jeremy T. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006, Australia and Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales 2065 (Australia); Simpson, Emma; Bell, Linda; Alfieri, Florencia; Eade, Thomas; Kneebone, Andrew [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales 2065 (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) is a real-time image guidance method that uses widely available radiotherapy technology, i.e., a gantry-mounted x-ray imager. The authors report on the geometric and dosimetric results of the first patient treatment using KIM which occurred on September 16, 2014. Methods: KIM uses current and prior 2D x-ray images to estimate the 3D target position during cancer radiotherapy treatment delivery. KIM software was written to process kilovoltage (kV) images streamed from a standard C-arm linear accelerator with a gantry-mounted kV x-ray imaging system. A 120° pretreatment kV imaging arc was acquired to build the patient-specific 2D to 3D motion correlation. The kV imager was activated during the megavoltage (MV) treatment, a dual arc VMAT prostate treatment, to estimate the 3D prostate position in real-time. All necessary ethics, legal, and regulatory requirements were met for this clinical study. The quality assurance processes were completed and peer reviewed. Results: During treatment, a prostate position offset of nearly 3 mm in the posterior direction was observed with KIM. This position offset did not trigger a gating event. After the treatment, the prostate motion was independently measured using kV/MV triangulation, resulting in a mean difference of less than 0.6 mm and standard deviation of less than 0.6 mm in each direction. The accuracy of the marker segmentation was visually assessed during and after treatment and found to be performing well. During treatment, there were no interruptions due to performance of the KIM software. Conclusions: For the first time, KIM has been used for real-time image guidance during cancer radiotherapy. The measured accuracy and precision were both submillimeter for the first treatment fraction. This clinical translational research milestone paves the way for the broad implementation of real-time image guidance to facilitate the detection and correction of geometric and

  9. Development of a model based on biochemical, real-time tissue elastography and ultrasound data for the staging of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-Hao; Li, Qiao; Hu, Yuan-Ping; Ying, Li

    2016-01-01

    The liver fibrosis index (LFI), based on real-time tissue elastography (RTE), is a method currently used to assess liver fibrosis. However, this method may not consistently distinguish between the different stages of fibrosis, which limits its accuracy. The aim of the present study was to develop novel models based on biochemical, RTE and ultrasound data for predicting significant liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. A total of 85 consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) were prospectively enrolled and underwent a liver biopsy and RTE. The parameters for predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis were determined by conducting multivariate analyses. The splenoportal index (SPI; P=0.002) and LFI (P=0.023) were confirmed as independent predictors of significant fibrosis. Using multivariate analyses for identifying parameters that predict cirrhosis, significant differences in γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT; P=0.049), SPI (P=0.002) and LFI (P=0.001) were observed. Based on these observations, the novel model LFI-SPI score (LSPS) was developed to predict the occurrence of significant liver fibrosis, with an area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.87. The diagnostic accuracy of the LSPS model was superior to that of the LFI (AUROC=0.76; P=0.0109), aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI; AUROC=0.64; P=0.0031), fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4; AUROC= 0.67; P= 0.0044) and FibroScan (AUROC=0.68; P=0.0021) models. In addition, the LFI-SPI-GGT score (LSPGS) was developed for the purposes of predicting liver cirrhosis, demonstrating an AUROC value of 0.93. The accuracy of LSPGS was similar to that of FibroScan (AUROC=0.85; P=0.134), but was superior to LFI (AUROC= 0.81; P= 0.0113), APRI (AUROC= 0.67; P<0.0001) and FIB-4 (AUROC=0.719; P=0.0005). In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that the use of LSPS and LSPGS may complement current methods of diagnosing significant liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with CHB

  10. Cherenkov imaging during volumetric modulated arc therapy for real-time radiation beam tracking and treatment response monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Glaser, Adam K.; Gladstone, David J.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-03-01

    External beam radiotherapy utilizes high energy radiation to target cancer with dynamic, patient-specific treatment plans. The otherwise invisible radiation beam can be observed via the optical Cherenkov photons emitted from interaction between the high energy beam and tissue. Using a specialized camera-system, the Cherenkov emission can thus be used to track the radiation beam on the surface of the patient in real-time, even for complex cases such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Two patients undergoing VMAT of the head and neck were imaged and analyzed, and the viability of the system to provide clinical feedback was established.

  11. Exploring Earthquakes in Real-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, T. K.; Kafka, A. L.; Coleman, B.; Taber, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes capture the attention of students and inspire them to explore the Earth. Adding the ability to view and explore recordings of significant and newsworthy earthquakes in real-time makes the subject even more compelling. To address this opportunity, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), in collaboration with Moravian College, developed ';jAmaSeis', a cross-platform application that enables students to access real-time earthquake waveform data. Students can watch as the seismic waves are recorded on their computer, and can be among the first to analyze the data from an earthquake. jAmaSeis facilitates student centered investigations of seismological concepts using either a low-cost educational seismograph or streamed data from other educational seismographs or from any seismic station that sends data to the IRIS Data Management System. After an earthquake, students can analyze the seismograms to determine characteristics of earthquakes such as time of occurrence, distance from the epicenter to the station, magnitude, and location. The software has been designed to provide graphical clues to guide students in the analysis and assist in their interpretations. Since jAmaSeis can simultaneously record up to three stations from anywhere on the planet, there are numerous opportunities for student driven investigations. For example, students can explore differences in the seismograms from different distances from an earthquake and compare waveforms from different azimuthal directions. Students can simultaneously monitor seismicity at a tectonic plate boundary and in the middle of the plate regardless of their school location. This can help students discover for themselves the ideas underlying seismic wave propagation, regional earthquake hazards, magnitude-frequency relationships, and the details of plate tectonics. The real-time nature of the data keeps the investigations dynamic, and offers students countless opportunities to explore.

  12. CUDA-based real time surgery simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Youquan; De, Suvranu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a general software platform that enables real time surgery simulation on the newly available compute unified device architecture (CUDA)from NVIDIA. CUDA-enabled GPUs harness the power of 128 processors which allow data parallel computations. Compared to the previous GPGPU, it is significantly more flexible with a C language interface. We report implementation of both collision detection and consequent deformation computation algorithms. Our test results indicate that the CUDA enables a twenty times speedup for collision detection and about fifteen times speedup for deformation computation on an Intel Core 2 Quad 2.66 GHz machine with GeForce 8800 GTX.

  13. Real-time inclinometer using accelerometer MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Hanto, D; Hermanto, B; Puranto, P; Handoko, L T

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary design of inclinometer for real-time monitoring system of soil displacement is proposed. The system is developed using accelerometer sensor with microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device. The main apparatus consists of a single MEMS sensor attached to a solid pipe and stucked pependicularly far away below the soil surface. The system utilizes small fractions of electrical signals from MEMS sensor induced by the pipe inclination due to soil displacements below the surface. It is argued that the system is accurate enough to detect soil displacements responsible for landslides, and then realizes a simple and low cost landslide early warning system.

  14. Testing Real-Time Systems Using UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Anders; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikucionis, Marius

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents principles and techniques for model-based black-box conformance testing of real-time systems using the Uppaal model-checking tool-suite. The basis for testing is given as a network of concurrent timed automata specified by the test engineer. Relativized input....../output conformance serves as the notion of implementation correctness, essentially timed trace inclusion taking environment assumptions into account. Test cases can be generated offline and later executed, or they can be generated and executed online. For both approaches this chapter discusses how to specify test...... objectives, derive test sequences, apply these to the system under test, and assign a verdict....

  15. Real-time detection of gravitational microlensing

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, M R; Axelrod, T S; Becker, A; Bennett, D P; Cook, K H; Freeman, K C; Griest, K; Guern, J A; Lehner, M; Marshall, S L; Peterson, B A; Quinn, P J; Reiss, D; Rodgers, A W; Stubbs, C W; Sutherland, W; Welch, D

    1995-01-01

    Real-time detection of microlensing has moved from proof of concept in 1994 to a steady stream of events this year. Global dissemination of these events by the MACHO and OGLE collaborations has made possible intensive photometric and spectroscopic followup from widely dispersed sites confirming the microlensing hypothesis. Improved photometry and increased temporal resolution from followup observations greatly increases the possibility of detecting deviations from the standard point-source, point-lens, inertial motion microlensing model. These deviations are crucial in understanding individual lensing systems by breaking the degeneracy between lens mass, position and velocity. We report here on GMAN (Global Microlensing Alert Network), the coordinated followup of MACHO alerts.

  16. Low cost real time interactive analysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetina, F.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts continue to develop a low cost real time interactive analysis system for the reception of satellite data. A multi-purpose ingest hardware software frame formatter was demonstrated for GOES and TIROS data and work is proceeding on extending the capability to receive GMS data. A similar system was proposed as an archival and analysis system for use with INSAT data and studies are underway to modify the system to receive the planned SeaWiFS (ocean color) data. This system was proposed as the core of a number of international programs in support of U.S. AID activities. Systems delivered or nearing final testing are listed.

  17. Linear Regression Based Real-Time Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misel Batmend

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces real time filtering method based on linear least squares fitted line. Method can be used in case that a filtered signal is linear. This constraint narrows a band of potential applications. Advantage over Kalman filter is that it is computationally less expensive. The paper further deals with application of introduced method on filtering data used to evaluate a position of engraved material with respect to engraving machine. The filter was implemented to the CNC engraving machine control system. Experiments showing its performance are included.

  18. Real-time image and video processing

    CERN Document Server

    Kehtarnavaz, Nasser

    2006-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the guidelines and strategies for transitioning an image or video processing algorithm from a research environment into a real-time constrained environment. Such guidelines and strategies are scattered in the literature of various disciplines including image processing, computer engineering, and software engineering, and thus have not previously appeared in one place. By bringing these strategies into one place, the book is intended to serve the greater community of researchers, practicing engineers, industrial professionals, who are interested in taking an im

  19. Object detection in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solder, Ulrich; Graefe, Volker

    1991-03-01

    An algorithm working on monocular gray-scale image sequences for object detection combined with a road tracker is presented. This algorithm appropriate for the real-time demands of an autonomous car driving with speeds over 40 km/h may be used for triggering obstacle avoidance maneuvers such as coming to a safe stop automatically in front of an obstacle or following another car. Moving and static objects have been detected in real-world experiments on various types of roads even under unfavorable weather conditions. . Morgenthaler and

  20. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  1. Fast leaf-fitting with generalized underdose/overdose constraints for real-time MLC tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Dan; Sawant, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Real-time multileaf collimator (MLC) tracking is a promising approach to the management of intrafractional tumor motion during thoracic and abdominal radiotherapy. MLC tracking is typically performed in two steps: transforming a planned MLC aperture in response to patient motion and refitting the leaves to the newly generated aperture. One of the challenges of this approach is the inability to faithfully reproduce the desired motion-adapted aperture. This work presents an optimization-based framework with which to solve this leaf-fitting problem in real-time. Methods: This optimization framework is designed to facilitate the determination of leaf positions in real-time while accounting for the trade-off between coverage of the PTV and avoidance of organs at risk (OARs). Derived within this framework, an algorithm is presented that can account for general linear transformations of the planned MLC aperture, particularly 3D translations and in-plane rotations. This algorithm, together with algorithms presented in Sawant et al. [“Management of three-dimensional intrafraction motion through real-time DMLC tracking,” Med. Phys. 35, 2050–2061 (2008)] and Ruan and Keall [Presented at the 2011 IEEE Power Engineering and Automation Conference (PEAM) (2011) (unpublished)], was applied to apertures derived from eight lung intensity modulated radiotherapy plans subjected to six-degree-of-freedom motion traces acquired from lung cancer patients using the kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring system developed at the University of Sydney. A quality-of-fit metric was defined, and each algorithm was evaluated in terms of quality-of-fit and computation time. Results: This algorithm is shown to perform leaf-fittings of apertures, each with 80 leaf pairs, in 0.226 ms on average as compared to 0.082 and 64.2 ms for the algorithms of Sawant et al., Ruan, and Keall, respectively. The algorithm shows approximately 12% improvement in quality-of-fit over the Sawant et al

  2. Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum from clinical specimens by cycling probe-based real-time PCR and nested real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraosa, Yasunori; Toyotome, Takahito; Yahiro, Maki; Watanabe, Akira; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria Aparecida; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2016-05-01

    We developed new cycling probe-based real-time PCR and nested real-time PCR assays for the detection of Histoplasma capsulatum that were designed to detect the gene encoding N-acetylated α-linked acidic dipeptidase (NAALADase), which we previously identified as an H. capsulatum antigen reacting with sera from patients with histoplasmosis. Both assays specifically detected the DNAs of all H. capsulatum strains but not those of other fungi or human DNA. The limited of detection (LOD) of the real-time PCR assay was 10 DNA copies when using 10-fold serial dilutions of the standard plasmid DNA and 50 DNA copies when using human serum spiked with standard plasmid DNA. The nested real-time PCR improved the LOD to 5 DNA copies when using human serum spiked with standard plasmid DNA, which represents a 10-fold higher than that observed with the real-time PCR assay. To assess the ability of the two assays to diagnose histoplasmosis, we analyzed a small number of clinical specimens collected from five patients with histoplasmosis, such as sera (n = 4), formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue (n = 4), and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) (n = 1). Although clinical sensitivity of the real-time PCR assay was insufficiently sensitive (33%), the nested real-time PCR assay increased the clinical sensitivity (77%), suggesting it has a potential to be a useful method for detecting H. capsulatum DNA in clinical specimens.

  3. Venous thromboembolism in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fuat Eren

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a major complication of cancer and represents an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The incidence of VTE is 0.6-7.8% in patients with cancer more than double the incidence of VTE in patients without cancer. The risk of VTE which includes deep venous thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE is increased two to seven fold in patients with cancer. VTE risk is especially high among certain groups such as hospitalized patients with cancer and those receiving active antineoplastic therapy. Also cancer patients, who undergoing major surgery, are increased risk of VTE. Trauma, long-haul travel, increased age, obesity, previous VTE and genetic component are also predisposing factors for VTE. Patients with cancer who develop VTE should be managed multidisciplinary treatment guidelines. The primary goal of thromboprophylaxis in patients with cancer is to prevent VTE. The large majority of cancer patients should be treated with therapeutic doses of unfractioned heparin (UFH or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH. Prophylaxis should include cancer patients who underwent major surgery for cancer and patients with a history of VTE.

  4. Cancer patients' evaluation of communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Johnsen, Anna Thit;

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how communication with health care staff is perceived by Danish cancer patients and to characterise those patients who report problems in communication.......The aims of this study were to assess how communication with health care staff is perceived by Danish cancer patients and to characterise those patients who report problems in communication....

  5. Integrated real-time roof monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Bao-tang; GUO Hua; KING Andrew

    2009-01-01

    CSIRO has recently developed a real-time roof monitoring system for under-ground coal mines and successfully tried the system in gate roads at Ulan Mine. The sys-tem integrated displacement monitoring, stress monitoring and seismic monitoring in one package. It included GEL multianchor extensometers, vibrating wire uniaxial stress meters, ESG seismic monitoring system with microseismic sensors and high-frequency AE sen-sors. The monitoring system automated and the data can be automatically collected by a central computer located in an underground nonhazardous area. The data are then trans-ferred to the surface via an optical fiber cable. The real-time data were accessed at any location with an Internet connection. The trials of the system in two tailgates at Ulan Mine demonstrate that the system is effective for monitoring the behavior and stability of read-ways during Iongwall mining. The continuous roof displacement/stress data show clear precursors of roof falls. The seismic data (event count and locations) provide insights into the roof failure process during roof fall.

  6. Video Surveillance for Real Time Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Raajan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe an integrated solution for video surveillance in a fortified environment. The focus of this study is on identification of real time objects on different environments. The system is composed of robust object detection module, which normally detects the presence of abandoned objects, concealed objects hidden inside the human clothing, objects in dark environment and performs image segmentation with the intention of facilitating human operator’s task of retrieving the cause of a buzzer. The abandoned objects are detected by image segmentation based on temporal rank order filtering. Image fusion technique which fuses a color visual image and a corresponding IR image for concealed objects in guarded environment and in some cases like dark environment heat signature can be used for detecting real time objects etc. In the clips of interest, the key frame is the one depicting a person leaving a dangerous object and is determined on the basis of a feature indicating the movement around the dangerous region.

  7. Real-time PCR in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Holger; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Klemm, Richard; Moche, Christian; Hansen-Hagge, Thomas; Gärtner, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    A central method in a standard biochemical laboratory is represented by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), therefore many attempts have been performed so far to implement this technique in lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices. PCR is an ideal candidate for miniaturization because of a reduction of assay time and decreased costs for expensive bio-chemicals. In case of the "classical" PCR, detection is done by identification of DNA fragments electrophoretically separated in agarose gels. This method is meanwhile frequently replaced by the so-called Real-Time-PCR because here the exponential increase of amplificates can be observed directly by measurement of DNA interacting fluorescent dyes. Two main methods for on-chip PCRs are available: traditional "batch" PCR in chambers on a chip using thermal cycling, requiring about 30 minutes for a typical PCR protocol and continuous-flow PCR, where the liquid is guided over stationary temperature zones. In the latter case, the PCR protocol can be as fast as 5 minutes. In the presented work, a proof of concept is demonstrated for a real-time-detection of PCR products in microfluidic systems.

  8. An efficient real time superresolution ASIC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Dikpal; Yue, Zhanfeng; Topiwala, Pankaj

    2008-04-01

    Superresolution of images is an important step in many applications like target recognition where the input images are often grainy and of low quality due to bandwidth constraints. In this paper, we present a real-time superresolution application implemented in ASIC/FPGA hardware, and capable of 30 fps of superresolution by 16X in total pixels. Consecutive frames from the video sequence are grouped and the registered values between them are used to fill the pixels in the higher resolution image. The registration between consecutive frames is evaluated using the algorithm proposed by Schaum et al. The pixels are filled by averaging a fixed number of frames associated with the smallest error distances. The number of frames (the number of nearest neighbors) is a user defined parameter whereas the weights in the averaging process are decided by inverting the corresponding smallest error distances. Wiener filter is used to post process the image. Different input parameters, such as size of input image, enlarging factor and the number of nearest neighbors, can be tuned conveniently by the user. We use a maximum word size of 32 bits to implement the algorithm in Matlab Simulink as well as the hardware, which gives us a fine balance between the number of bits and performance. The algorithm performs with real time speed with very impressive superresolution results.

  9. Real-time applications of neural nets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J.E.

    1989-05-01

    Producing, accelerating and colliding very high power, low emittance beams for long periods is a formidable problem in real-time control. As energy has grown exponentially in time so has the complexity of the machines and their control systems. Similar growth rates have occurred in many areas, e.g., improved integrated circuits have been paid for with comparable increases in complexity. However, in this case, reliability, capability and cost have improved due to reduced size, high production and increased integration which allow various kinds of feedback. In contrast, most large complex systems (LCS) are perceived to lack such possibilities because only one copy is made. Neural nets, as a metaphor for LCS, suggest ways to circumvent such limitations. It is argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems. While complimentary to AI, they mesh nicely with characteristics desired for real-time systems. Such issues are considered, examples given and possibilities discussed. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  10. ROBUST MEMORY MANAGEMENT USING REAL TIME CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Karthikeyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Memory fragmentation is the development of a large number of separate free areas. Memory management in embedded systems demand effective implementation schemes to avoid fragmentation problem. Existing dynamic memory allocation methods fail to suit real time system requirements. Execution times need to be deterministic and this motivates the need for allocation and deallocation to be done in constant time with the help of API’s. In µC/OS-II, memory allocation is semi-dynamic and a buddy allocator dynamic memory allocation algorithm is commonly used. Programmer must statically allocate a memory and partition the region using µC/OS-II Kernel API. Tasks can only request pre-partitioned fixed-size memory space from µC/OS-II. Memory allocation times are influenced by the ratio of memory allocation to the stack size of the task. In this research work memory management in LPC 1768 environment using RTOS µC/OS-II is proposed. Effective sharing of memory blocks among tasks co exists with partition. The captured results shows that the memory allocation and deallocation suits real time. The implication of the work is that, the necessity to reserve a static set of locations ahead of time is eliminated so that memory can be allocated at compile or design time.

  11. Lung cancer in younger patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasowa, Leda; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death. The incidence increases with age and the occurrence in young patients is relatively low. The clinicopathological features of lung cancer in younger patients have not been fully explored previously. METHODS: To assess the age...... differences in the clinical characteristics of lung cancer, we conducted a retrospective analysis comparing young patients ≤ 65 years of age with an elderly group > 65 years of age. Among 1,232 patients evaluated due to suspicion of lung cancer in our fast-track setting from January-December 2013, 312 newly...... diagnosed lung cancer patients were included. RESULTS: Patients ≤ 65 years had a significantly higher representation of females (p = 0.0021), more frequent familial cancer aggregation (p = 0.028) and a lower incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.0133). When excluding pure carcinoid tumours...

  12. Memory controllers for real-time embedded systems predictable and composable real-time systems

    CERN Document Server

    Akesson, Benny

    2012-01-01

      Verification of real-time requirements in systems-on-chip becomes more complex as more applications are integrated. Predictable and composable systems can manage the increasing complexity using formal verification and simulation.  This book explains the concepts of predictability and composability and shows how to apply them to the design and analysis of a memory controller, which is a key component in any real-time system. This book is generally intended for readers interested in Systems-on-Chips with real-time applications.   It is especially well-suited for readers looking to use SDRAM memories in systems with hard or firm real-time requirements. There is a strong focus on real-time concepts, such as predictability and composability, as well as a brief discussion about memory controller architectures for high-performance computing. Readers will learn step-by-step how to go from an unpredictable SDRAM memory, offering highly variable bandwidth and latency, to a predictable and composable shared memory...

  13. Real-Time and Near Real-Time Data for Space Weather Applications and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, H. J.; Balch, C. C.; Biesecker, D. A.; Matsuo, T.; Onsager, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    Space weather can be defined as conditions in the vicinity of Earth and in the interplanetary environment that are caused primarily by solar processes and influenced by conditions on Earth and its atmosphere. Examples of space weather are the conditions that result from geomagnetic storms, solar particle events, and bursts of intense solar flare radiation. These conditions can have impacts on modern-day technologies such as GPS or electric power grids and on human activities such as astronauts living on the International Space Station or explorers traveling to the moon or Mars. While the ultimate space weather goal is accurate prediction of future space weather conditions, for many applications and services, we rely on real-time and near-real time observations and model results for the specification of current conditions. In this presentation, we will describe the space weather system and the need for real-time and near-real time data that drive the system, characterize conditions in the space environment, and are used by models for assimilation and validation. Currently available data will be assessed and a vision for future needs will be given. The challenges for establishing real-time data requirements, as well as acquiring, processing, and disseminating the data will be described, including national and international collaborations. In addition to describing how the data are used for official government products, we will also give examples of how these data are used by both the public and private sector for new applications that serve the public.

  14. Real-time colorimetric detection of DNA methylation of the PAX1 gene in cervical scrapings for cervical cancer screening with thiol-labeled PCR primers and gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang J

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Jin Huang,1,2 Yu-Ligh Liou,1,2 Ya-Nan Kang,3 Zhi-Rong Tan,1,2 Ming-Jing Peng,1,2 Hong-Hao Zhou1,2 1Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 2Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Central South University, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China Background: DNA methylation can induce carcinogenesis by silencing key tumor suppressor genes. Analysis of aberrant methylation of tumor suppressor genes can be used as a prognostic and predictive biomarker for cancer. In this study, we propose a colorimetric method for the detection of DNA methylation of the paired box gene 1 (PAX1 gene in cervical scrapings obtained from 42 patients who underwent cervical colposcopic biopsy. Methods: A thiolated methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP primer was used to generate MSP products labeled with the thiol group at one end. After bisulfite conversion and MSP amplification, the unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs were placed in a reaction tube and NaCl was added to induce aggregation of bare AuNPs without generating polymerase chain reaction products. After salt addition, the color of AuNPs remained red in the methylated PAX1 gene samples because of binding to the MSP-amplified products. By contrast, the color of the AuNP colloid solution changed from red to blue in the non-methylated PAX1 gene samples because of aggregation of AuNPs in the absence of the MSP-amplified products. Furthermore, PAX1 methylation was quantitatively detected in cervical scrapings of patients with varied pathological degrees of cervical cancer. Conventional quantitative MSP (qMSP was also performed for comparison. Results: The two methods showed a significant correlation of the methylation frequency of the PAX1 gene in cervical scrapings with severity of cervical cancer (n=42, P<0.05. The results of the

  15. Pain in patients with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, K.C.P.; Besse, K.; Wagemans, M.; Zuurmond, W.; Giezeman, M.J.; Lataster, A.; Mekhail, N.; Burton, A.W.; Kleef, M. van; Huygen, F.

    2011-01-01

    Pain in patients with cancer can be refractory to pharmacological treatment or intolerable side effects of pharmacological treatment may seriously disturb patients' quality of life. Specific interventional pain management techniques can be an effective alternative for those patients. The appropriate

  16. A real-time virtual delivery system for photon radiotherapy delivery monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Treatment delivery monitoring is important for radiotherapy, which enables catching dosimetric error at the earliest possible opportunity. This project develops a virtual delivery system to monitor the dose delivery process of photon radiotherapy in real-time using GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC method.Methods: The simulation process consists of 3 parallel CPU threads. A thread T1 is responsible for communication with a linac, which acquires a set of linac status parameters, e.g. gantry angles, MLC configurations, and beam MUs every 20 ms. Since linac vendors currently do not offer interface to acquire data in real time, we mimic this process by fetching information from a linac dynalog file at the set frequency. Instantaneous beam fluence map (FM is calculated based. A FM buffer is also created in T1 and the instantaneous FM is accumulated to it. This process continues, until a ready signal is received from thread T2 on which an in-house developed MC dose engine executes on GPU. At that moment, the accumulated FM is transferred to T2 for dose calculations, and the FM buffer in T1 is cleared. Once the dose calculation finishes, the resulting 3D dose distribution is directed to thread T3, which displays it in three orthogonal planes in color wash overlaid on the CT image. This process continues to monitor the 3D dose distribution in real-time.Results: An IMRT and a VMAT cases used in our patient-specific QA are studied. Maximum dose differences between our system and treatment planning system are 0.98% and 1.58% for the IMRT and VMAT cases, respectively. The update frequency is >10Hz and the relative uncertainty level is 2%.Conclusion: By embedding a GPU-based MC code in a novel data/work flow, it is possible to achieve real-time MC dose calculations to monitor delivery process.------------------------------Cite this article as: Shi F, Gu X, Graves YJ, Jiang S, Jia X. A real-time virtual delivery system for photon radiotherapy delivery

  17. [Analytical performances of real-time PCR by Abbott RealTime CMV with m2000 for the detection of cytomegalovirus in urine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Monte, Anne; Cannavo, Isabelle; Caramella, Anne; Ollier, Laurence; Giordanengo, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the leading cause of sensoneurinal disability due to infectious congenital disease. The diagnosis of congenital CMV infection is based on the search of CMV in the urine within the first two weeks of life. Viral culture of urine is the gold standard. However, the PCR is highly sensitive and faster. It is becoming an alternative choice. The objective of this study is the validation of real-time PCR by Abbott RealTime CMV with m2000 for the detection of cytomegalovirus in urine. Repeatability, reproducibility, detection limit and inter-sample contamination were evaluated. Urine samples from patients (n=141) were collected and analyzed simultaneously in culture and PCR in order to assess the correlation of these two methods. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR were also calculated. The Abbott RealTime CMV PCR in urine is an automated and sensitive method (detection limit 200 UI/mL). Fidelity is very good (standard deviation of repeatability: 0.08 to 0.15 LogUI/mL and reproducibility 0.18 LogUI/mL). We can note a good correlation between culture and Abbott RealTime CMV PCR (kappa 96%). When considering rapid culture as reference, real-time PCR was highly sensitive (100%) and specific (98.2%). The real-time PCR by Abbott RealTime CMV with m2000 is optimal for CMV detection in urine.

  18. Real-time forecasts of dengue epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, T. K.; Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease prevalent in the tropics and subtropics, with an estimated 2.5 billion people at risk of transmission. In many areas with endemic dengue, disease transmission is seasonal but prone to high inter-annual variability with occasional severe epidemics. Predicting and preparing for periods of higher than average transmission is a significant public health challenge. Here we present a model of dengue transmission and a framework for optimizing model simulations with real-time observational data of dengue cases and environmental variables in order to generate ensemble-based forecasts of the timing and severity of disease outbreaks. The model-inference system is validated using synthetic data and dengue outbreak records. Retrospective forecasts are generated for a number of locations and the accuracy of these forecasts is quantified.

  19. A Flexible Real-Time Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WICKSTROM,GREGORY L.

    2000-08-17

    Assuring hard real-time characteristics of I/O associated with embedded software is often a difficult task. Input-Output related statements are often intermixed with the computational code, resulting in I/O timing that is dependent on the execution path and computational load. One way to mitigate this problem is through the use of interrupts. However, the non-determinism that is introduced by interrupt driven I/O may be so difficult to analyze that it is prohibited in some high consequence systems. This paper describes a balanced hardware/software solution to obtain consistent interrupt-free I/O timing, and results in software that is much more amenable to analysis.

  20. Embedded and real-time operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, K C

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the basic concepts and principles of operating systems, showing how to apply them to the design and implementation of complete operating systems for embedded and real-time systems. It includes all the foundational and background information on ARM architecture, ARM instructions and programming, toolchain for developing programs, virtual machines for software implementation and testing, program execution image, function call conventions, run-time stack usage and link C programs with assembly code. It describes the design and implementation of a complete OS for embedded systems in incremental steps, explaining the design principles and implementation techniques. For Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP) embedded systems, the author examines the ARM MPcore processors, which include the SCU and GIC for interrupts routing and interprocessor communication and synchronization by Software Generated Interrupts (SGIs). Throughout the book, complete working sample systems demonstrate the design principles and...

  1. Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, Charles K

    2009-01-01

    Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications presents a thorough discussion of the mathematical theory and computational schemes of Kalman filtering. The filtering algorithms are derived via different approaches, including a direct method consisting of a series of elementary steps, and an indirect method based on innovation projection. Other topics include Kalman filtering for systems with correlated noise or colored noise, limiting Kalman filtering for time-invariant systems, extended Kalman filtering for nonlinear systems, interval Kalman filtering for uncertain systems, and wavelet Kalman filtering for multiresolution analysis of random signals. Most filtering algorithms are illustrated by using simplified radar tracking examples. The style of the book is informal, and the mathematics is elementary but rigorous. The text is self-contained, suitable for self-study, and accessible to all readers with a minimum knowledge of linear algebra, probability theory, and system engineering.

  2. Feedback as real-time constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very...... instant it takes place. This article argues for a clear distinction between the timing of communicative events, such as responses that are provided as help for feedback constructions, and the feedback construction itself as an event in a psychic system. Although feedback is described as an internal......, system-relative construction, different teaching environments offer diverse conditions for feedback constructions. The final section of this article explores this idea with the help of examples from both synchronous oral interaction and asynchronous text-based interaction mediated by digital media....

  3. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Klaus R; Jørgensen, Erik;

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time, introdu......Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time......, introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility, with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effect within 6 minutes and within 30 minutes...

  4. Mobility and language change in real time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monka, Malene

    -mobile peers prior to being geographically and socially mobile (e.g. Andersson & Thelander 1994). In the presentation I discuss this question by presenting a real time panel-study of language change in 23 speakers from three municipalities in distinct dialect areas in Denmark. The language change of six mobile......Diachronic studies of the interrelationship between mobility and language change leave us with some unanswered questions of causation. The most important question is whether language change is caused by mobility, or if mobile informants mark themselves linguistically different than their non...... the non-mobile speakers in the old recordings, and that the degree of language change differs among the mobile informants from the three dialect areas. Based on the qualitative analyses I argue that differences in geographic and social orientation in the old recordings can explain differences between...

  5. Operational and real-time Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ioana SANDU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A key component of a company’s IT framework is a business intelligence (BI system. BI enables business users to report on, analyze and optimize business operations to reduce costs and increase revenues. Organizations use BI for strategic and tactical decision making where the decision-making cycle may span a time period of several weeks (e.g., campaign management or months (e.g., improving customer satisfaction.Competitive pressures coming from a very dynamic business environment are forcing companies to react faster to changing business conditions and customer requirements. As a result, there is now a need to use BI to help drive and optimize business operations on a daily basis, and, in some cases, even for intraday decision making. This type of BI is usually called operational business intelligence and real-time business intelligence.

  6. Real-time, face recognition technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, S.

    1995-11-01

    The Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory recently developed the real-time, face recognition technology KEN. KEN uses novel imaging devices such as silicon retinas developed at Caltech or off-the-shelf CCD cameras to acquire images of a face and to compare them to a database of known faces in a robust fashion. The KEN-Online project makes that recognition technology accessible through the World Wide Web (WWW), an internet service that has recently seen explosive growth. A WWW client can submit face images, add them to the database of known faces and submit other pictures that the system tries to recognize. KEN-Online serves to evaluate the recognition technology and grow a large face database. KEN-Online includes the use of public domain tools such as mSQL for its name-database and perl scripts to assist the uploading of images.

  7. Near real-time stereo vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles H. (Inventor); Matthies, Larry H. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The apparatus for a near real-time stereo vision system for use with a robotic vehicle is described. The system is comprised of two cameras mounted on three-axis rotation platforms, image-processing boards, a CPU, and specialized stereo vision algorithms. Bandpass-filtered image pyramids are computed, stereo matching is performed by least-squares correlation, and confidence ranges are estimated by means of Bayes' theorem. In particular, Laplacian image pyramids are built and disparity maps are produced from the 60 x 64 level of the pyramids at rates of up to 2 seconds per image pair. The first autonomous cross-country robotic traverses (of up to 100 meters) have been achieved using the stereo vision system of the present invention with all computing done onboard the vehicle. The overall approach disclosed herein provides a unifying paradigm for practical domain-independent stereo ranging.

  8. CONSIDERATIONS ON REAL TIME DATA WAREHOUSING (RTDW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Bogdan DINU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The RTDW concept originated in the early 2000s. By that time, computing power had increased to a level that was allowing extraction of data collections for reporting purposes. Such collections were used almost in real time and at speeds nearly comparable to what an operation system was capable to deliver. The main idea will be to eliminate some of the components of the classic extraction process which is basically the most costly factor less time - consuming. We anticipate that the following factors will be decisive: elimination of batch-type processes [1], data compression techniques, data capture techniques, ability to keep in cache a large volume of data, parallel processing, and data mining algorithms that can adapt to such applications.

  9. Real-time color holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desse, Jean-Michel; Albe, Felix; Tribillon, Jean-Louis

    2002-09-01

    A new optical technique based on real-time color holographic interferometry has been developed for analyzing unsteady aerodynamic wakes in fluid mechanics or for measuring displacements and deformations in solid mechanics. The technique's feasibility is demonstrated here. It uses three coherent wavelengths produced simultaneously by a cw laser (mixed argon and krypton). Holograms are recorded on single-layer panchromatic silver halide (Slavich PFG 03C) plates. Results show the optical setup can be adjusted to obtain a uniform background color. The interference fringe pattern visualized is large and colored and exhibits a single central white fringe, which makes the zero order of the interferogram easy to identify. An application in a subsonic wind tunnel is presented, in which the unsteady wake past a cylinder is recorded at high rate.

  10. Terrestrial Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, M.

    2013-12-01

    As volcano monitoring involves more and different sensors from seismic to GPS receivers, from video and thermal cameras to multi-parameter probes measuring temperature, ph values and humidity in the ground and the air, it becomes important to design real-time networks that integrate and leverage the multitude of available parameters. In order to do so some simple principles need to be observed: a) a common time base for all measurements, b) a packetized general data communication protocol for acquisition and distribution, c) an open and well documented interface to the data permitting standard and emerging innovative processing, and d) an intuitive visualization platform for scientists and civil defense personnel. Although mentioned as simple principles, the list above does not necessarily lead to obvious solutions or integrated systems, which is, however, required to take advantage of the available data. Only once the different data streams are put into context to each other in terms of time and location can a broader view be obtained and additional information extracted. The presentation is a summary of currently available technologies and how they can achieve the goal of an integrated real-time volcano monitoring system. A common time base are standard for seismic and GPS networks. In different projects we extended this to video feeds and time-lapse photography. Other probes have been integrated with vault interface enclosures (VIE) as used in the Transportable Array (TA) of the USArray. The VIE can accommodate the sensors employed in volcano monitoring. The TA has shown that Antelope is a versatile and robust middleware. It provides the required packetized general communication protocol that is independent from the actual physical communication link leaving the network design to adopt appropriate and possible hybrid solutions. This applies for the data acquisition and the data/information dissemination providing both a much needed collaboration platform, as

  11. Real-Time Imaging of Quantum Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Fickler, Robert; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Entanglement - correlations between at least two systems that are stronger than classically explainable - is widely regarded as one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and quantum information science. Although, the creation of entanglement between two systems has become possible in laboratories, it has been out of the grasp of one of the most natural ways to investigate nature: direct visual observation. Here we show that modern imaging technology, namely a triggered intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera, is fast and sensitive enough to image in real-time the influence of the measurement of one photon on its entangled partner. To demonstrate the non-classicality of the measurements quantitatively from the registered intensity we develop a novel method to statistically analyze the image and precisely quantify the number of photons within a certain region. In addition, we show the high flexibility of our experimental setup in creating any desired spatial-mode entanglement, even...

  12. Wi-Fi real time location systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Benjamin A.

    This thesis objective was to determine the viability of utilizing an untrained Wi-Fi. real time location system as a GPS alternative for indoor environments. Background. research showed that GPS is rarely able to penetrate buildings to provide reliable. location data. The benefit of having location information in a facility and how they might. be used for disaster or emergency relief personnel and their resources motivated this. research. A building was selected with a well-deployed Wi-Fi infrastructure and its. untrained location feature was used to determine the distance between the specified. test points and the system identified location. It was found that the average distance. from the test point throughout the facility was 14.3 feet 80% of the time. This fell within. the defined viable range and supported that an untrained Wi-Fi RTLS system could be a. viable solution for GPS's lack of availability indoors.

  13. Towards real time speckle controlled retinal photocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliedtner, Katharina; Seifert, Eric; Stockmann, Leoni; Effe, Lisa; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    Photocoagulation is a laser treatment widely used for the therapy of several retinal diseases. Intra- and inter-individual variations of the ocular transmission, light scattering and the retinal absorption makes it impossible to achieve a uniform effective exposure and hence a uniform damage throughout the therapy. A real-time monitoring and control of the induced damage is highly requested. Here, an approach to realize a real time optical feedback using dynamic speckle analysis is presented. A 532 nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser is used for coagulation. During coagulation, speckle dynamics are monitored by a coherent object illumination using a 633nm HeNe laser and analyzed by a CMOS camera with a frame rate up to 1 kHz. It is obvious that a control system needs to determine whether the desired damage is achieved to shut down the system in a fraction of the exposure time. Here we use a fast and simple adaption of the generalized difference algorithm to analyze the speckle movements. This algorithm runs on a FPGA and is able to calculate a feedback value which is correlated to the thermal and coagulation induced tissue motion and thus the achieved damage. For different spot sizes (50-200 μm) and different exposure times (50-500 ms) the algorithm shows the ability to discriminate between different categories of retinal pigment epithelial damage ex-vivo in enucleated porcine eyes. Furthermore in-vivo experiments in rabbits show the ability of the system to determine tissue changes in living tissue during coagulation.

  14. Real Time Eye Template Detection and Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Mehta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in the field of facial expression recognition especially in the last two decades. An example of such a system is the improvement of driver carefulness and accident reduction. The driver’s face is tracked while he is driving and he is warned if there seems to be an alerting fact that can result in an accident such as sleepy eyes, or looking out of the road. Furthermore, with a facial feature tracker, it becomes possible to play a synthesized avatar so that it imitates the expressions of the performer. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI systems may also be enriched by a facial feature tracker. For a user who is incapable of using her hands, a facial expression controller may be a solution to send limited commands to a computer. Eye blinking is one of the prominent areas to solve many real world problems. The process of blink detection consists of two phases. These are eye tracking followed by detection of blink. The work that has been carried out for eye tracking only is not suitable for eye blink detection. Therefore some approaches had been proposed for eye tracking along with eyes blink detection. In this thesis, real time implementation is done to count number of eye blinks in an image sequence. At last after analyzing all these approaches some of the parameters we obtained on which better performance of eye blink detection algorithm depend. This project focuses on automatic eye blink detection in real time. The aim of this thesis is to count the number of eye blinks in a video. This project will be performed on a video database of the facial expressions.

  15. Real-time visualization of joint cavitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory N Kawchuk

    Full Text Available Cracking sounds emitted from human synovial joints have been attributed historically to the sudden collapse of a cavitation bubble formed as articular surfaces are separated. Unfortunately, bubble collapse as the source of joint cracking is inconsistent with many physical phenomena that define the joint cracking phenomenon. Here we present direct evidence from real-time magnetic resonance imaging that the mechanism of joint cracking is related to cavity formation rather than bubble collapse. In this study, ten metacarpophalangeal joints were studied by inserting the finger of interest into a flexible tube tightened around a length of cable used to provide long-axis traction. Before and after traction, static 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired. During traction, rapid cine magnetic resonance images were obtained from the joint midline at a rate of 3.2 frames per second until the cracking event occurred. As traction forces increased, real-time cine magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated rapid cavity inception at the time of joint separation and sound production after which the resulting cavity remained visible. Our results offer direct experimental evidence that joint cracking is associated with cavity inception rather than collapse of a pre-existing bubble. These observations are consistent with tribonucleation, a known process where opposing surfaces resist separation until a critical point where they then separate rapidly creating sustained gas cavities. Observed previously in vitro, this is the first in-vivo macroscopic demonstration of tribonucleation and as such, provides a new theoretical framework to investigate health outcomes associated with joint cracking.

  16. Employing Real Time PCR for the Diagnosis of Huntington Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frouzandeh Mahjoubi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Huntington disease (HD is a dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disease characterized by choreiform movement disturbances and dementia. The onset age of this disease is varied but usually is between the ages 40-50. Huntington's disease is caused by a triplet-repeat expansion in the IT15 gene (also known as huntingtin or HD which is located on chromosome 4p3.1. Since many clinical picture of HD are indistinguishable from other distinct genetic disorders molecular test such as PCR is the only way to confirm the disease. The aim of this study was to introduce a new and fast technique for the diagnosis of Huntington disease.Materials and Methods: Blood specimens were collected from individuals suspected for Huntington disease and also people with no symptoms and family history of this disease. DNAs were extracted according to standard protocol. Using conventional PCR, patient positive for Huntington disease were diagnosed. Then employing real time PCR on the basis of difference between melting temperature (Tm a new and fast diagnostic method was introduced.Results: Among 29 patients suspected to be HD only 8 HD patients were confirmed using PCR and real time PCR. The numbers of CAG repeat were between 42-50 and melting temperatures were between 89-92.Conclusion: The concept of using melting temperature in real time PCR protocol presented in here could be employed for the rapid diagnosis of the diseases caused by the increased in triple repeat sequences. It is fast, robust and has the potential use for the prenatal diagnosis.

  17. An Efficient Secure Real-Time Concurrency Control Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Yingyuan; LIU Yunsheng; CHEN Xiangyang

    2006-01-01

    Secure real-time databases must simultaneously satisfy two requirements in guaranteeing data security and minimizing the missing deadlines ratio of transactions. However, these two requirements can conflict with each other and achieve one requirement is to sacrifice the other. This paper presents a secure real-time concurrency control protocol based on optimistic method. The concurrency control protocol incorporates security constraints in a real-time optimistic concurrency control protocol and makes a suitable tradeoff between security and real-time requirements by introducing secure influence factor and real-time influence factor. The experimental results show the concurrency control protocol achieves data security without degrading real-time performance significantly.

  18. 荧光定量PCR检测血清微小RNA-21方法的建立及对乳腺癌诊断的初步应用%Establishment of real-time PCR for detecting serum microRNA-21 and its preliminary application in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪峰; 徐建军; 张青云

    2011-01-01

    .Then miR-16 ( internal reference gene for miR-21 ) and miR-21 were reverse transcribed into corresponding cDNA by stem-loop RT primers.Their cDNA were amplified and detected by using SYBR green Ⅰ real-time PCR.The accuracy of assay was analyzed by signal to noise ratio (SNR) ; the specificity of assay was evaluated by melting curve; the precision of assay was assessed by R2 of standard curve and the stability of assay was calculated by intra-assay and inter-assay variation.Furthermore,the level of miR-21 and miR-16 were detected by this method among the serum samples of 33 breast cancer patients,18 benign breast disease patients and 49 healthy individuals.And the sensitivity and specificity in breast cancer diagnosis were evaluated according to cut-off value which was defined by relative expressions of miR-21 between breast cancer patients and healthy population.Results Through optimization of temperature and time in the annealing and extension stage during PCR,SNR was ≥99.36% ; peak of melting curve was single; R2 of standard curve was 0.994 8 and Coefficient of Variance (CV) of intra-assay < 1.5%,CV of inter-assay <4%.They indicated that this method was accurate,specific,precise and stable.When miR-16 was taken as internal reference,the relative expressions of serum miR-21 detected by SYBR green Ⅰ realtime PCR among the serum samples of breast cancer patients,benign breast disease patients and healthy population were 20.83 ± 18.18,20.86 ± 10.11 and 9.33 ±4.44,which had statistical significance among of them (x2 =16.92,P < 0.001 ).There was statistical significance in healthy people vs breast cancer patients ( Z =- 2.58,P ≤ 0.01 ) and healthy people vs benign breast disease patients ( Z =- 4.42,P ≤0.01 ),but was not between breast cancer patients and benign breast cancer patients (Z =-0.51,P =0.608).When the value of 18.32 for the relative expressions of miR-21 was defined as cut-off value,the sensitivity and specificity of this method to

  19. 'Patient satisfaction' in hospitalized cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstein, Jon; Dahl, Alv A; Laading, Jacob; Fosså, Sophie D

    2002-01-01

    Predictors of 'patient satisfaction' with hospitalization at a specialized cancer hospital in Norway are examined in this study. Two weeks after their last hospitalization, 2021 consecutive cancer patients were invited to rate their satisfaction with hospitalization, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Compliance rate was 72% (n = 1453). Cut-off levels separating dissatisfied from satisfied patients were defined. It was found that 92% of the patients were satisfied with their stay in hospital, independent of cancer type and number of previous admissions. Performance of nurses and physicians, level of information perceived, outcome of health status, reception at the hospital and anxiety independently predicted 'patient satisfaction'. The model explained 35% of the variance with an area under the curve of 0.76 of the Receiver Operator Curve. Cancer patients' satisfaction with their hospital stay was high, and predicted by four independently predictive variables related to the performance of caregivers. These suggest areas for further improvement in the healthcare service.

  20. RTMOD: Real-Time MODel evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziani, G; Galmarini, S. [Joint Research centre, Ispra (Italy); Mikkelsen, T. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept. (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The 1998 - 1999 RTMOD project is a system based on an automated statistical evaluation for the inter-comparison of real-time forecasts produced by long-range atmospheric dispersion models for national nuclear emergency predictions of cross-boundary consequences. The background of RTMOD was the 1994 ETEX project that involved about 50 models run in several Institutes around the world to simulate two real tracer releases involving a large part of the European territory. In the preliminary phase of ETEX, three dry runs (i.e. simulations in real-time of fictitious releases) were carried out. At that time, the World Wide Web was not available to all the exercise participants, and plume predictions were therefore submitted to JRC-Ispra by fax and regular mail for subsequent processing. The rapid development of the World Wide Web in the second half of the nineties, together with the experience gained during the ETEX exercises suggested the development of this project. RTMOD featured a web-based user-friendly interface for data submission and an interactive program module for displaying, intercomparison and analysis of the forecasts. RTMOD has focussed on model intercomparison of concentration predictions at the nodes of a regular grid with 0.5 degrees of resolution both in latitude and in longitude, the domain grid extending from 5W to 40E and 40N to 65N. Hypothetical releases were notified around the world to the 28 model forecasters via the web on a one-day warning in advance. They then accessed the RTMOD web page for detailed information on the actual release, and as soon as possible they then uploaded their predictions to the RTMOD server and could soon after start their inter-comparison analysis with other modelers. When additional forecast data arrived, already existing statistical results would be recalculated to include the influence by all available predictions. The new web-based RTMOD concept has proven useful as a practical decision-making tool for realtime

  1. CRANS - CONFIGURABLE REAL-TIME ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccluney, K.

    1994-01-01

    In a real-time environment, the results of changes or failures in a complex, interconnected system need evaluation quickly. Tabulations showing the effects of changes and/or failures of a given item in the system are generally only useful for a single input, and only with regard to that item. Subsequent changes become harder to evaluate as combinations of failures produce a cascade effect. When confronted by multiple indicated failures in the system, it becomes necessary to determine a single cause. In this case, failure tables are not very helpful. CRANS, the Configurable Real-time ANalysis System, can interpret a logic tree, constructed by the user, describing a complex system and determine the effects of changes and failures in it. Items in the tree are related to each other by Boolean operators. The user is then able to change the state of these items (ON/OFF FAILED/UNFAILED). The program then evaluates the logic tree based on these changes and determines any resultant changes to other items in the tree. CRANS can also search for a common cause for multiple item failures, and allow the user to explore the logic tree from within the program. A "help" mode and a reference check provide the user with a means of exploring an item's underlying logic from within the program. A commonality check determines single point failures for an item or group of items. Output is in the form of a user-defined matrix or matrices of colored boxes, each box representing an item or set of items from the logic tree. Input is via mouse selection of the matrix boxes, using the mouse buttons to toggle the state of the item. CRANS is written in C-language and requires the MIT X Window System, Version 11 Revision 4 or Revision 5. It requires 78K of RAM for execution and a three button mouse. It has been successfully implemented on Sun4 workstations running SunOS, HP9000 workstations running HP-UX, and DECstations running ULTRIX. No executable is provided on the distribution medium; however

  2. MO-E-BRB-04: Real-Time Exit-Fluence Delivery Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebers, J. [University of Virginia Health System (United States)

    2015-06-15

    could be used. review error detection via log file analysis Learn how exit detector signal recorded in log file could be used to improve patient safety understand real-time EPID-based transmission dosimetry methods understand the goals of real-time delivery monitoring CMS Innovation grant. Rapid response supportive and palliative care program for patients with advanced cancer, starts July, 2012; Accuray Inc. Exit detector based QA software evaluation, Sept, 2012-Sept, 2013; ROI GRant from ASTRO “Safety and Quality: IMRT treatment delivery accuracy”.

  3. Virtual environments in cancer care: Pilot-testing a three-dimensional web-based platform as a tool for support in young cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Olsen, Pia Riis; Hansson, Helena Eva

    2016-01-01

    Bringing virtual environments into cancer support may offer a particular potential to engage patients and increase adherence to treatment. Developing and pilot-testing an online real-time multi-user three-dimensional platform, this study tested the use of an early prototype of the platform among...

  4. Towards real-time remote processing of laparoscopic video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaghi, Zahra; Duffy, Edward B.; Kwartowitz, David M.

    2015-03-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique where surgeons insert a small video camera into the patient's body to visualize internal organs and small tools to perform surgical procedures. However, the benefit of small incisions has a drawback of limited visualization of subsurface tissues, which can lead to navigational challenges in the delivering of therapy. Image-guided surgery (IGS) uses images to map subsurface structures and can reduce the limitations of laparoscopic surgery. One particular laparoscopic camera system of interest is the vision system of the daVinci-Si robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA). The video streams generate approximately 360 megabytes of data per second, demonstrating a trend towards increased data sizes in medicine, primarily due to higher-resolution video cameras and imaging equipment. Processing this data on a bedside PC has become challenging and a high-performance computing (HPC) environment may not always be available at the point of care. To process this data on remote HPC clusters at the typical 30 frames per second (fps) rate, it is required that each 11.9 MB video frame be processed by a server and returned within 1/30th of a second. The ability to acquire, process and visualize data in real-time is essential for performance of complex tasks as well as minimizing risk to the patient. As a result, utilizing high-speed networks to access computing clusters will lead to real-time medical image processing and improve surgical experiences by providing real-time augmented laparoscopic data. We aim to develop a medical video processing system using an OpenFlow software defined network that is capable of connecting to multiple remote medical facilities and HPC servers.

  5. Toward real-time remote processing of laparoscopic video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaghi, Zahra; Duffy, Edward B; Kwartowitz, David M

    2015-10-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgical technique where surgeons insert a small video camera into the patient's body to visualize internal organs and use small tools to perform surgical procedures. However, the benefit of small incisions has a drawback of limited visualization of subsurface tissues, which can lead to navigational challenges in the delivering of therapy. Image-guided surgery uses the images to map subsurface structures and can reduce the limitations of laparoscopic surgery. One particular laparoscopic camera system of interest is the vision system of the daVinci-Si robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California). The video streams generate approximately 360 MB of data per second, demonstrating a trend toward increased data sizes in medicine, primarily due to higher-resolution video cameras and imaging equipment. Processing this data on a bedside PC has become challenging and a high-performance computing (HPC) environment may not always be available at the point of care. To process this data on remote HPC clusters at the typical 30 frames per second (fps) rate, it is required that each 11.9 MB video frame be processed by a server and returned within 1/30th of a second. The ability to acquire, process, and visualize data in real time is essential for the performance of complex tasks as well as minimizing risk to the patient. As a result, utilizing high-speed networks to access computing clusters will lead to real-time medical image processing and improve surgical experiences by providing real-time augmented laparoscopic data. We have performed image processing algorithms on a high-definition head phantom video (1920 × 1080 pixels) and transferred the video using a message passing interface. The total transfer time is around 53 ms or 19 fps. We will optimize and parallelize these algorithms to reduce the total time to 30 ms.

  6. Real time model for public transportation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Celiński

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article outlines managing a public transportation fleet in the dynamic aspect. There are currently many technical possibilities of identifying demand in the transportation network. It is also possible to indicate legitimate basis of estimating and steering demand. The article describes a general public transportation fleet management concept based on balancing demand and supply. Material and methods: The presented method utilizes a matrix description of demand for transportation based on telemetric and telecommunication data. Emphasis was placed mainly on a general concept and not the manner in which data was collected by other researchers.  Results: The above model gave results in the form of a system for managing a fleet in real-time. The objective of the system is also to optimally utilize means of transportation at the disposal of service providers. Conclusions: The presented concept enables a new perspective on managing public transportation fleets. In case of implementation, the project would facilitate, among others, designing dynamic timetables, updated based on observed demand, and even designing dynamic points of access to public transportation lines. Further research should encompass so-called rerouting based on dynamic measurements of the characteristics of the transportation system.

  7. The Colliderscope: a real-time show

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    Ninety-six LED lights distributed over the facade of the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) in Blegdamsvej (Denmark) reproduce the actual signals coming from the Transition Radiation Detector (TRT) in ATLAS. Thanks to the Colliderscope, when a collision occurs below the ground in Geneva, people passing by in Blegdamsvej will be aware of it almost in real-time.   Niels Bohr Institute facade lit up to reflect the latest data from ATLAS-TRT . The pattern, intensity and duration of the Colliderscope’s flashes of light depend on the physical parameters of particles crossing the ATLAS TRT detector. “At the Colliderscope very little happens randomly”, explains Troels Petersen, a physicist at NBI and one of the people who conceived it. “Particularly interesting events, such as electrons, are shown by a bright light that remains on the facade for several seconds”. The Niels Bohr Institute has participated in the development of the TRT detector, and this is why t...

  8. Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Vu; Duong, Tuan

    2005-01-01

    A recently written computer program implements dominant-element-based gradient descent and dynamic initial learning rate (DOGEDYN), which was described in Method of Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis (NPO-40034) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 1 (January 2005), page 59. To recapitulate: DOGEDYN is a method of sequential principal-component analysis (PCA) suitable for such applications as data compression and extraction of features from sets of data. In DOGEDYN, input data are represented as a sequence of vectors acquired at sampling times. The learning algorithm in DOGEDYN involves sequential extraction of principal vectors by means of a gradient descent in which only the dominant element is used at each iteration. Each iteration includes updating of elements of a weight matrix by amounts proportional to a dynamic initial learning rate chosen to increase the rate of convergence by compensating for the energy lost through the previous extraction of principal components. In comparison with a prior method of gradient-descent-based sequential PCA, DOGEDYN involves less computation and offers a greater rate of learning convergence. The sequential DOGEDYN computations require less memory than would parallel computations for the same purpose. The DOGEDYN software can be executed on a personal computer.

  9. Real-time DIRCM system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Mikael

    2004-12-01

    Directed infrared countermeasures (DIRCM) play an increasingly important role in electronic warfare to counteract threats posed by infrared seekers. The usefulness and performance of such countermeasures depend, for example, on atmospheric conditions (attenuation and turbulence) and platform vibrations, causing pointing and tracking errors for the laser beam and reducing the power transferred to the seeker aperture. These problems make it interesting to simulate the performance of a DIRCM system in order to understand how easy or difficult it is to counteract an approaching threat and evaluate limiting factors in various situations. This paper describes a DIRCM model that has been developed, including atmospheric effects such as attenuation and turbulence as well as closed loop tracking algorithms, where the retro reflex of the laser is used for the pointing control of the beam. The DIRCM model is part of a large simulation framework (EWSim), which also incorporates several descriptions of different seekers (e.g. reticle, rosette, centroid, nutating cross) and models of robot dynamics. Effects of a jamming laser on a specific threat can be readily verified by simulations within this framework. The duel between missile and countermeasure is simulated in near real-time and visualized graphically in 3D. A typical simulation with a reticle seeker jammed by a modulated laser is included in the paper.

  10. Real-Time Accumulative Computation Motion Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturnino Maldonado-Bascón

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively.

  11. Recommendations for Real-Time Speech MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingala, Sajan Goud; Sutton, Brad P.; Miquel, Marc E.; Nayak, Krishna S.

    2016-01-01

    Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (RT-MRI) is being increasingly used for speech and vocal production research studies. Several imaging protocols have emerged based on advances in RT-MRI acquisition, reconstruction, and audio-processing methods. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art, discusses technical considerations, and provides specific guidance for new groups entering this field. We provide recommendations for performing RT-MRI of the upper airway. This is a consensus statement stemming from the ISMRM-endorsed Speech MRI summit held in Los Angeles, February 2014. A major unmet need identified at the summit was the need for consensus on protocols that can be easily adapted by researchers equipped with conventional MRI systems. To this end, we provide a discussion of tradeoffs in RT-MRI in terms of acquisition requirements, a priori assumptions, artifacts, computational load, and performance for different speech tasks. We provide four recommended protocols and identify appropriate acquisition and reconstruction tools. We list pointers to open-source software that facilitate implementation. We conclude by discussing current open challenges in the methodological aspects of RT-MRI of speech. PMID:26174802

  12. Real-time optoacoustic monitoring of stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Moritz; Turner, Jake; Hambauer, Sebastian; Krieg, Sandro M.; Lehmberg, Jens; Lindauer, Ute; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Characterizing disease progression and identifying possible therapeutic interventions in stroke is greatly aided by the use of longitudinal function imaging studies. In this study, we investigate the applicability of real-time multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) as a tool for non-invasive monitoring of the progression of stroke in the whole brain. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method was used to induce stroke. Mice were imaged under isoflurane anesthesia preoperatively and at several time points during and after the 60-minute occlusion. The animals were sacrificed after 24 hours and their excised brains frozen at -80°C for sectioning. The cryosection were stained using H&E staining to identify the ischemic lesion. Major vessels are readily identifiable in the whole mouse head in the in vivo optoacoustic scans. During ischemia, a reduction in cerebral blood volume is detectable in the cortex. Post ischemia, spectral unmixing of the optoacoustic signals shows an asymmetry of the deoxygenated hemoglobin in the hemisphere affected by MCAO. This hypoxic area was mainly located around the boundary of the ischemic lesion and was therefore identified as the ischemic penumbra. Non-invasive functional MSOT imaging is able to visualize the hypoxic penumbra in brains affected by stroke. Stopping the spread of the infarct area and revitalizing the penumbra is central in stroke research, this new imaging technique may therefore prove to be a valuable tool in the monitoring and developing new treatments.

  13. Business Hypervisors for Real-time Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perneel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available System virtualization is one of the hottest trends in information technology today. It is not just another nice to use technology but has become fundamental across the business world. It is successfully used with many business application classes where cloud computing is the most visual one. Recently, it started to be used for soft Real-Time (RT applications such as IP telephony, media servers, audio and video streaming servers, automotive and communication systems in general. Running these applications on a traditional system (Hardware + Operating System guarantee their Quality of Service (QoS; virtualizing them means inserting a new layer between the hardware and the (virtual Operating System (OS, and thus adding extra overhead. Although these applications’ areas do not always demand hard time guarantees, they require the underlying virtualization layer supports low latency and provide adequate computational resources for completion within a reasonable or predictable timeframe. These aspects are intimately intertwined with the logic of the hypervisor scheduler. In this paper, a series of tests are conducted on three hypervisors (VMware ESXi, Hyper-V server and Xen to provide a benchmark of the latencies added to the applications running on top of them. These tests are conducted for different scenarios (use cases to take into consideration all the parameters and configurations of the hypervisors’ schedulers. Finally, this benchmark can be used as a reference for choosing the best hypervisor-application combination.

  14. Real-Time 3D Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Butler Hine, former director of the Intelligent Mechanism Group (IMG) at Ames Research Center, and five others partnered to start Fourth Planet, Inc., a visualization company that specializes in the intuitive visual representation of dynamic, real-time data over the Internet and Intranet. Over a five-year period, the then NASA researchers performed ten robotic field missions in harsh climes to mimic the end- to-end operations of automated vehicles trekking across another world under control from Earth. The core software technology for these missions was the Virtual Environment Vehicle Interface (VEVI). Fourth Planet has released VEVI4, the fourth generation of the VEVI software, and NetVision. VEVI4 is a cutting-edge computer graphics simulation and remote control applications tool. The NetVision package allows large companies to view and analyze in virtual 3D space such things as the health or performance of their computer network or locate a trouble spot on an electric power grid. Other products are forthcoming. Fourth Planet is currently part of the NASA/Ames Technology Commercialization Center, a business incubator for start-up companies.

  15. Real time visual servoing using controlled illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, J. P.; Motyl, G.; Gallice, J.

    1994-02-01

    A real-time visual servoing approach is applied to robotics tasks consisting of the positioning of the end effector with respect to a priori known polyhedral objects. The vision apparatus is consituted by a compact CCD camera rigidly coupled with two laser stripes mounted on the wrist of a robot manipulator. The objective is to servo the robot and effector at a constant position and orientation with respect to a known object in three- dimensional space in the field of view of the sensory system. The approach is expressed in terms of sensor-based control applied to visual servoing. In the case of camera-light stripe coupling, the elementary visual signals used for visual servoing are the points of discontinuity in the light stripes. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated in a factory automation task consisting of the positioning of the end-effector tool over a vehicle battery. Both simulation and experimentation results are presented, proving the robustness and stability of the algorithm.

  16. Internet-accessible real-time weather information system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; Mehra, P.; Desa, E.; Gouveia, A.D.

    An internet-accessible real-time weather information system has been developed. This system provides real-time accessibility to weather information from a multitude of spatially distributed weather stations. The Internet connectivity also offers...

  17. Execution of a High Level Real-Time Language

    OpenAIRE

    Luqi; Berzins, Valdis

    1988-01-01

    Prototype System Description Language (PSDL) is a high level real-time language with special features for hard real-time system specification and design. It can be used to firm up requirements through execution of its software prototypes The language is designed based on a real-time model merging data and control flow and its implementation is beyond conventional compiler technology because of the need to meet real-time constraints. In this paper we describe and illustrate our research result...

  18. Survey of real-time processing systems for big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Lftikhar, Nadeem; Xie, Xike

    2014-01-01

    for big data; Its open-source implementation such as Hadoop has become the de-facto standard for processing big data, however, Hadoop has the limitation of supporting real-time updates. The improvements in Hadoop for the real-time capability, and the other alternative real-time frameworks have been...

  19. Respiratory-Induced Prostate Motion Using Wavelet Decomposition of the Real-Time Electromagnetic Tracking Signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yuting [Tu and Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California (United States); Liu, Tian; Yang, Xiaofeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University Hospital, Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Wang, Yuenan [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland (United States); Khan, Mohammad K., E-mail: drkhurram2000@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University Hospital, Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to characterize and quantify the impact of respiratory-induced prostate motion. Methods and Materials: Real-time intrafraction motion is observed with the Calypso 4-dimensional nonradioactive electromagnetic tracking system (Calypso Medical Technologies, Inc. Seattle, Washington). We report the results from a total of 1024 fractions from 31 prostate cancer patients. Wavelet transform was used to decompose the signal to extract and isolate the respiratory-induced prostate motion from the total prostate displacement. Results: Our results show that the average respiratory motion larger than 0.5 mm can be observed in 68% of the fractions. Fewer than 1% of the patients showed average respiratory motion of less than 0.2 mm, whereas 99% of the patients showed average respiratory-induced motion ranging between 0.2 and 2 mm. The maximum respiratory range of motion of 3 mm or greater was seen in only 25% of the fractions. In addition, about 2% patients showed anxiety, indicated by a breathing frequency above 24 times per minute. Conclusions: Prostate motion is influenced by respiration in most fractions. Real-time intrafraction data are sensitive enough to measure the impact of respiration by use of wavelet decomposition methods. Although the average respiratory amplitude observed in this study is small, this technique provides a tool that can be useful if one moves to smaller treatment margins (≤5 mm). This also opens ups the possibility of being able to develop patient specific margins, knowing that prostate motion is not unpredictable.

  20. Faster quantitative real-time PCR protocols may lose sensitivity and show increased variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilscher, Chelsey; Vahrson, Wolfgang; Dittmer, Dirk P

    2005-11-27

    Quantitative real-time PCR has become the method of choice for measuring mRNA transcription. Recently, fast PCR protocols have been developed as a means to increase assay throughput. Yet it is unclear whether more rapid cycling conditions preserve the original assay performance characteristics. We compared 16 primer sets directed against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) mRNAs using universal and fast PCR cycling conditions. These primers are of clinical relevance, since they can be used to monitor viral oncogene and drug-resistance gene expression in transplant patients and EBV-associated cancers. While none of the primers failed under fast PCR conditions, the fast PCR protocols performed worse than universal cycling conditions. Fast PCR was associated with a loss of sensitivity as well as higher variability, but not with a loss of specificity or with a higher false positive rate.

  1. Recent advances in epigenomics in NSCLC: real-time detection and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, Antonello; Del Re, Marzia; Petrini, Iacopo; Altavilla, Giuseppe; Danesi, Romano

    2016-08-01

    NSCLC is an aggressive disease with one of the poorer prognosis among cancers. The disappointing response to chemotherapy drives the search for genetic biomarkers aimed at both attaining an earlier diagnosis and choosing the most appropriate chemotherapy. In this scenario, epigenomic markers, such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation and the expression of noncoding RNAs, have been demonstrated to be reliable for the stratification of NSCLC patients. Newest techniques with increased sensitivity and the isolation of nucleic acids from plasma may allow an early diagnosis and then monitoring the efficacy over time. However, prospective confirmatory studies are still lacking. This article presents an overview of the epigenetic markers evaluated in NSCLC and discusses the role of their real-time detection in the clinical management of the disease.

  2. Real-Time Gender Classification by Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Fares Al Mashagba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification of human beings based on their biometric body parts, such as face, fingerprint, gait, iris, and voice, plays an important role in electronic applications and has become a popular area of research in image processing. It is also one of the most successful applications of computer–human interaction and understanding. Out of all the abovementioned body parts,the face is one of most popular traits because of its unique features.In fact, individuals can process a face in a variety of ways to classify it by its identity, along with a number of other characteristics, such as gender, ethnicity, and age. Specifically, recognizing human gender is important because people respond differently according to gender. In this paper, we present a robust method that uses global geometry-based features to classify gender and identify age and human beings from video sequences. The features are extracted based on face detection using skin color segmentation and the computed geometric features of the face ellipse region. These geometric features are then used to form the face vector trajectories, which are inputted to a time delay neural network and are trained using the Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno (BFGS function. Results show that using the suggested method with our own dataset under an unconstrained condition achieves a 100% classification rate in the training set for all application, as well as 91.2% for gender classification, 88% for age identification, and 83% for human identification in the testing set. In addition, the proposed method establishes the real-time system to be used in three applications with a simple computation for feature extraction.

  3. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochergin, Vladimir [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Crawford, Michael A. [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  4. Towards quantitative mRNA analysis in paraffin-embedded tissues using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction: a methodological study on lymph nodes from melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsen, Helene Nortvig; Steiniche, Torben; Nexo, Ebba; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen J; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl

    2003-02-01

    Improved extraction techniques combined with sensitive real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction may allow detection of mRNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) materials, but the factors affecting mRNA quantification in clinical material using these methods have not been systematically analyzed. We designed analyses using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for quantification of MART-1, beta-actin, and beta(2)-microglobulin mRNAs. The analytical intra- and interassay imprecision (coefficient of variation) was in the range 10 to 20% for all three genes studied. Using these protocols, we studied the influence of tissue autolysis and length of formalin-fixation on mRNA detection in metastatic melanoma. Delay in freezing reduced detectable mRNA, although this was less than predicted and mostly occurred early in autolysis. MART-1, beta-actin, and beta(2)-microglobulin mRNAs were consistently detected in FFPE metastatic melanoma even after fixation for up to 3 weeks, although the total mRNA detected was markedly reduced in fixed compared with fresh tissues (up to 99%). Quantification of MART-1 was, however, possible if this was expressed relative to a housekeeping gene. The polymerase chain reaction product from FFPE tissues could be increased up to 100-fold amplifying short (tissue processing and in fixation length seem to be less important sources of imprecision than previously assumed. Our findings suggest that quantitative analysis of mRNA in archive and routine diagnostic tissues may be possible.

  5. A comparison of BCF-12 organic scintillators and Al2O3:C crystals for real-time medical dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg; Andersen, Claus Erik; Lindvold, Lars;

    2008-01-01

    Radioluminescence (RL) from aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C) crystals and organic scintillators such as the blue-emitting BCF-12 can be used for precise real-time dose rate measurements during radiation therapy of cancer patients. Attaching the dosimeters to thin light-guiding fiber cables enables in vivo...... can be circumvented for pulsed beams due to the long life-time of the main luminescence center. In contrast, chromatic removal seems to be the most effective method for organic scintillators, but is found to yield some experimental complexities. In this paper, we report on dose rate measurements using...

  6. Real-time dosimetry in external beam radiation therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramachandran; Prabhakar

    2013-01-01

    With growing complexity in radiotherapy treatment delivery,it has become mandatory to check each and every treatment plan before implementing clinically.This process is currently administered by an independent secondary check of all treatment parameters and as a pre-treatment quality assurance (QA) check for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans.Although pre-treatment IMRT QA is aimed to ensure the correct dose is delivered to the patient,it does not necessarily predict the clinically relevant patient dose errors.During radiotherapy,treatment uncertainties can affect tumor control and may increase complications to surrounding normal tissues.To combat this,image guided radiotherapy is employed to help ensure the plan conditions are mimicked on the treatment machine.However,it does not provide information on actual delivered dose to the tumor volume.Knowledge of actual dose delivered during treatment aid in confirming the prescribed dose and also to replan/reassess the treatment in situations where the planned dose is not delivered as expected by the treating physician.Major accidents in radiotherapy would have been averted if real time dosimetry is incorporated as part of the routine radiotherapy procedure.Of late real-time dosimetry is becoming popular with complex treatments in radiotherapy.Realtime dosimetry can be either in the form of point doses or planar doses or projected on to a 3D image dataset to obtain volumetric dose.They either provide entrance dose or exit dose or dose inside the natural cavities of a patient.In external beam radiotherapy,there are four different established platforms whereby the delivered dose information can be obtained:(1)Collimator;(2)Patient;(3)Couch;and(4)Electronic Portal Imaging Device.Current real-time dosimetric techniques available in radiotherapy have their own advantages and disadvantages and a combination of one or more of these methods provide vital information

  7. Optical endomicroscopy and the road to real-time, in vivo pathology: present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carignan Charles S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epithelial cancers account for substantial mortality and are an important public health concern. With the need for earlier detection and treatment of these malignancies, the ability to accurately detect precancerous lesions has an increasingly important role in controlling cancer incidence and mortality. New optical technologies are capable of identifying early pathology in tissues or organs in which cancer is known to develop through stages of dysplasia, including the esophagus, colon, pancreas, liver, bladder, and cervix. These diagnostic imaging advances, together as a field known as optical endomicroscopy, are based on confocal microscopy, spectroscopy-based imaging, and optical coherence tomography (OCT, and function as “optical biopsies,” enabling tissue pathology to be imaged in situ and in real time without the need to excise and process specimens as in conventional biopsy and histopathology. Optical biopsy techniques can acquire high-resolution, cross-sectional images of tissue structure on the micron scale through the use of endoscopes, catheters, laparoscopes, and needles. Since the inception of these technologies, dramatic technological advances in accuracy, speed, and functionality have been realized. The current paradigm of optical biopsy, or single-area, point-based images, is slowly shifting to more comprehensive microscopy of larger tracts of mucosa. With the development of Fourier-domain OCT, also known as optical frequency domain imaging or, more recently, volumetric laser endomicroscopy, comprehensive surveillance of the entire distal esophagus is now achievable at speeds that were not possible with conventional OCT technologies. Optical diagnostic technologies are emerging as clinically useful tools with the potential to set a new standard for real-time diagnosis. New imaging techniques enable visualization of high-resolution, cross-sectional images and offer the opportunity to guide biopsy, allowing maximal

  8. Development of a real-time in-vivo dose guided radiotherapy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushino, T.; Smith, M.; Perle, S. [Global Dosimetry Solutions, Irvine, CA (United States); Justus, B.; Huston, A.; Falkenstein, P. [U. S. Naval Research Lab., Optical Physics Branch, Washington, DC (United States); Miller, R.; Coleman, N. [National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Accurately assessing the dose to target organs and surrounding tissues in radiation therapy is paramount to achieving maximum treatment efficacy. The goal of radiation therapy is to deliver an optimum dose of ionizing radiation to the target area while at the same time, minimizing the dose to the surrounding tissues. Frequently the target tissue is spatially dynamic and is in close proximity to other tissues whose radiation dose should be minimized to avoid damage. A highly spatially resolved real-time patient dosimetry system will allow radiation therapists and physicians to verify, instantaneously, that the radiation dose is being delivered accurately to the intended target area. There also is a need to accurately assess skin dose in real-time during fluoroscopically-guided interventional procedures to minimize skin damage. A substantial increase in the number of fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures since the 1990 has resulted in an increase in the incidence of radiation-induced skin injuries. This has become a concern to the extent that F.D.A. proposed regulations for monitoring radiation doses delivered by fluoroscopy machines(1). The most likely cause of radiation induced skin injuries are due to particularly long procedures performed at normal dose rates. The availability of real-time radiation dose information will allow the operating physician to appropriately balance the clinical benefit of enhanced visualization versus radiation risks associated with long interventional procedures. Global Dosimetry Solutions (G.D.S.), Inc., a fully accredited world-wide provider of dosimetry services to a wide range of customers including hospitals, medical and dental offices, veterinary clinics, university and national laboratories, nuclear power plants, etc., has developed an in vivo, real-time radiation monitoring technologies for use in radiotherapy and fluoroscopically-guided procedures. The core technologies were developed by Drs. Brian Justus and Alan

  9. Muscle dysfunction in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Frank; Jones, L W; Andersen, J L

    2014-01-01

    implications of muscle dysfunction in cancer patients. The efficacy of exercise training to prevent and/or mitigate cancer-related muscle dysfunction is also discussed. DESIGN: We identified 194 studies examining muscular outcomes in cancer patients by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases. RESULTS: Muscle......, be powered to evaluate clinical outcomes associated with improvements in muscle function, or be promoted in advanced stage settings, aiming to reverse cancer-related muscle dysfunction, and thus potentially improve time-to-progression, treatment toxicity and survival....

  10. Real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, F.; Daniell, J.; Khazai, B.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Markus, M.; Vervaeck, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM, www.cedim.de) - an interdisciplinary research center founded by the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - has embarked on a new style of disaster research known as Forensic Disaster Analysis. The notion has been coined by the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk initiative (IRDR, www.irdrinternational.org) launched by ICSU in 2010. It has been defined as an approach to studying natural disasters that aims at uncovering the root causes of disasters through in-depth investigations that go beyond the reconnaissance reports and case studies typically conducted after disasters. In adopting this comprehensive understanding of disasters CEDIM adds a real-time component to the assessment and evaluation process. By comprehensive we mean that most if not all relevant aspects of disasters are considered and jointly analysed. This includes the impact (human, economy, and infrastructure), comparisons with recent historic events, social vulnerability, reconstruction and long-term impacts on livelihood issues. The forensic disaster analysis research mode is thus best characterized as "event-based research" through systematic investigation of critical issues arising after a disaster across various inter-related areas. The forensic approach requires (a) availability of global data bases regarding previous earthquake losses, socio-economic parameters, building stock information, etc.; (b) leveraging platforms such as the EERI clearing house, relief-web, and the many sources of local and international sources where information is organized; and (c) rapid access to critical information (e.g., crowd sourcing techniques) to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of disasters. The main scientific questions being addressed are: What are critical factors that control loss of life, of infrastructure, and for economy? What are the critical interactions

  11. Instrumentation development for real time brainwave monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Lawrence Frederick; Clough, Benjamin W.

    2005-12-01

    The human brain functions through a chemically-induced biological process which operates in a manner similar to electrical systems. The signal resulting from this biochemical process can actually be monitored and read using tools and having patterns similar to those found in electrical and electronics engineering. The primary signature of this electrical activity is the ''brain wave'', which looks remarkably similar to the output of many electrical systems. Likewise, the device currently used in medical arenas to read brain electrical activity is the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is synonymous with a multi-channel oscilloscope reading. Brain wave readings and recordings for medical purposes are traditionally taken in clinical settings such as hospitals, laboratories or diagnostic clinics. The signal is captured via externally applied scalp electrodes using semi-viscous gel to reduce impedance. The signal will be in the 10 to 100 microvolt range. In other instances, where surgeons are attempting to isolate particular types of minute brain signals, the electrodes may actually be temporarily implanted in the brain during a preliminary procedure. The current configurations of equipment required for EEGs involve large recording instruments, many electrodes, wires, and large amounts of hard disk space devoted to storing large files of brain wave data which are then eventually analyzed for patterns of concern. Advances in sensors, signal processing, data storage and microelectronics over the last decade would seem to have paved the way for the realization of devices capable of ''real time'' external monitoring, and possible assessment, of brain activity. A myriad of applications for such a capability are likewise presenting themselves, including the ability to assess brain functioning, level of functioning and malfunctioning. Our plan is to develop the sensors, signal processing, and portable instrumentation package which could

  12. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  13. Real time blood testing using quantitative phase imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa V Pham

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a real-time blood testing system that can provide remote diagnosis with minimal human intervention in economically challenged areas. Our instrument combines novel advances in label-free optical imaging with parallel computing. Specifically, we use quantitative phase imaging for extracting red blood cell morphology with nanoscale sensitivity and NVIDIA's CUDA programming language to perform real time cellular-level analysis. While the blood smear is translated through focus, our system is able to segment and analyze all the cells in the one megapixel field of view, at a rate of 40 frames/s. The variety of diagnostic parameters measured from each cell (e.g., surface area, sphericity, and minimum cylindrical diameter are currently not available with current state of the art clinical instruments. In addition, we show that our instrument correctly recovers the red blood cell volume distribution, as evidenced by the excellent agreement with the cell counter results obtained on normal patients and those with microcytic and macrocytic anemia. The final data outputted by our instrument represent arrays of numbers associated with these morphological parameters and not images. Thus, the memory necessary to store these data is of the order of kilobytes, which allows for their remote transmission via, for example, the cellular network. We envision that such a system will dramatically increase access for blood testing and furthermore, may pave the way to digital hematology.

  14. A real-time treatment guidance system for Pleural PDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Liang, Xing; Sandell, Julia; Finlay, Jarod C.; Dimofte, Andreea; Rodriguez, Carmen; Cengel, Keith; Friedberg, Joseph; Hahn, Stephen M; Glatstein, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Intrapleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment with lung-sparing surgical treatment for mesothelioma. In the current intrapleural PDT protocol, a moving fiber-based point source is used to deliver the light and the light dose are monitored by 7 detectors placed in the pleural cavity. To improve the delivery of light dose uniformity, an infrared (IR) camera system is used to track the motion of the light sources. A treatment planning system uses feedback from the detectors as well as the IR camera to update light fluence distribution in real-time, which is used to guide the light source motion for uniform light dose distribution. We have reported previously the success of using IR camera to passively monitor the light fluence rate distribution. In this study, the real-time feedback has been implemented in the current system prototype, by transferring data from the IR camera to a computer at a rate of 20 Hz, and by calculation/displaying using Matlab. A dual-correction method is used in the feedback system, so that fluence calculation can match detector readings. Preliminary data from a phantom showed superior light uniformity using this method. Light fluence uniformity from patient treatments is also shown using the correction method dose model. PMID:26005245

  15. Real-Time Monitoring of Psychotherapeutic Processes: Concept and Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiepek, Günter; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Gruber, Martin; Strunk, Guido; Bachler, Egon; Aas, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The feasibility of a high-frequency real-time monitoring approach to psychotherapy is outlined and tested for patients' compliance to evaluate its integration to everyday practice. Criteria concern the ecological momentary assessment, the assessment of therapy-related cognitions and emotions, equidistant time sampling, real-time nonlinear time series analysis, continuous participative process control by client and therapist, and the application of idiographic (person-specific) surveys. Methods: The process-outcome monitoring is technically realized by an internet-based device for data collection and data analysis, the Synergetic Navigation System. Its feasibility is documented by a compliance study on 151 clients treated in an inpatient and a day-treatment clinic. Results: We found high compliance rates (mean: 78.3%, median: 89.4%) amongst the respondents, independent of the severity of symptoms or the degree of impairment. Compared to other diagnoses, the compliance rate was lower in the group diagnosed with personality disorders. Conclusion: The results support the feasibility of high-frequency monitoring in routine psychotherapy settings. Daily collection of psychological surveys allows for the assessment of highly resolved, equidistant time series data which gives insight into the nonlinear qualities of therapeutic change processes (e.g., pattern transitions, critical instabilities). PMID:27199837

  16. Result Variation and Efficiency Kinetics in Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shahsiah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent monitoring of DNA amplification is the basis of real-time PCR. Absolute quantification can be achieved using a standard curve method. The standard curve is constructed by amplifying known amounts of standards under identical conditions to that of the samples.The objective of the current study is to propose a mathematical model to assess the acceptability of PCR resulys.Four commercial standards for HCV-RNA (hepatitis C virus RNA along with 6 patient samples were measured by real-time PCR, using two different RT-PCR reagents. The standard deviation of regression (Sy,x was calculated for each group of standard and compared by F-Test. The efficiency kinetics was computed by logistic regression, c2 goodness of fit test was preformed to assess the appropriateness of the efficiency curves.Calculated efficiencies were not significantly different from the value predicted by logistic regression model. Reactions with more variation showed less stable efficiency curves, with wider range of amplification efficiencies.Amplification efficiency kinetics can be computed by fitting a logistic regression curve to the gathered fluorescent data of each reaction. This model can be employed to assess the acceptability of PCR results calculated by standard curve method.

  17. Using real time process measurements to reduce catheter related bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, R; Ely, E; Elasy, T; Dittus, R; Foss, J; Wilkerson, K; Speroff, T

    2005-01-01

    

Problem: Measuring a process of care in real time is essential for continuous quality improvement (CQI). Our inability to measure the process of central venous catheter (CVC) care in real time prevented CQI efforts aimed at reducing catheter related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs) from these devices. Design: A system was developed for measuring the process of CVC care in real time. We used these new process measurements to continuously monitor the system, guide CQI activities, and deliver performance feedback to providers. Setting: Adult medical intensive care unit (MICU). Key measures for improvement: Measured process of CVC care in real time; CR-BSI rate and time between CR-BSI events; and performance feedback to staff. Strategies for change: An interdisciplinary team developed a standardized, user friendly nursing checklist for CVC insertion. Infection control practitioners scanned the completed checklists into a computerized database, thereby generating real time measurements for the process of CVC insertion. Armed with these new process measurements, the team optimized the impact of a multifaceted intervention aimed at reducing CR-BSIs. Effects of change: The new checklist immediately provided real time measurements for the process of CVC insertion. These process measures allowed the team to directly monitor adherence to evidence-based guidelines. Through continuous process measurement, the team successfully overcame barriers to change, reduced the CR-BSI rate, and improved patient safety. Two years after the introduction of the checklist the CR-BSI rate remained at a historic low. Lessons learnt: Measuring the process of CVC care in real time is feasible in the ICU. When trying to improve care, real time process measurements are an excellent tool for overcoming barriers to change and enhancing the sustainability of efforts. To continually improve patient safety, healthcare organizations should continually measure their key clinical processes in real

  18. TeleOph: a secure real-time teleophthalmology system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongdong; Wei, Zhou; Yao, Haixia; Zhao, Zhigang; Ngoh, Lek Heng; Deng, Robert H; Yu, Shengsheng

    2010-09-01

    Teleophthalmology (TeleOph) is an electronic counterpart of today's face-to-face, patient-to-specialist ophthalmology system. It enables one or more ophthalmologists to remotely examine a patient's condition via a confidential and authentic communication channel. Specifically, TeleOph allows a trained nonspecialist in a primary clinic to screen the patients with digital instruments (e.g., camera, ophthalmoscope). The acquired medical data are delivered to the hospital where an ophthalmologist will review the data collected and, if required, provide further consultation for the patient through a real-time secure channel established over a public Internet network. If necessary, the ophthalmologist is able to further sample the images/video of the patient's eyes remotely. In order to increase the productivity of the ophthalmologist in terms of number of patients reviewed, and to increase the efficiency of network resource, we manage the network bandwidth based on a Poisson model to estimate patient arrival at the clinics, and the rate of ophthalmologist consultation service for better overall system efficiency. The main objective of TeleOph is therefore to provide the remote patients with a cost-effective access to specialist's eye checkups at primary healthcare clinics, and at the same time, minimize unnecessary face-to-face consultation at the hospital specialist's center.

  19. Establishment and application of a detection kit for human breast cancer-specific gene 1 mRNA by real-time ;quantitative RT-PCR%人乳腺癌特异性基因1 mRNA实时荧光定量逆转录-聚合酶链反应检测试剂盒的建立及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程民; 沈国栋; 卞庚; 徐婷娟; 徐维平; 沈干; 胡世莲

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study was to establish a quantitative method for human breast cancer-specific gene 1(Breast cancer-specific Gene 1,BCSG1)mRNA by real-time RT-PCR.Its application was further evaluated by detecting circulation tumor cells in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients .Method The concentration of each component in the detection kit was optimized;the stability,sensitivity and specificity were determined .The expression level of BCSG1 mRNA was detected in the samples of peripheral blood .Results Optimized primers and probes were obtained,and setting standards were successfully prepared .Through establishing the positive and negative control ma-terials,the specificity,sensitivity,accuracy and quality control were determined for the detection kit .The specificity and accuracy were both more than 95%,and the sensitivity was of 100 copies/ml( whole peripheral blood ) .The detec-tion results of BCSG1 mRNA in peripheral blood samples showed that all the samples were positive for 12 breast canc-er patients clinically diagnosed with metastasis;and 12 samples were positive and other 9 samples were negative among 21 breast cancer patients without clinically diagnosed with metastasis or not ;all the samples were negative for 15 pa-tients with benign breast disease;and all the samples were negative for 10 healthy control .Conclusion The quantita-tive RT-PCR assay for BCSG1 mRNA could be used for the detection of circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood of breast cancer patients ,which would be valuable for the diagnosis and clinical-decision making for breast cancer patients .%目的建立人乳腺癌特异性基因1(BCSG1)mRNA实时荧光定量逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RTPCR)检测试剂盒,并评价其在乳腺癌循环肿瘤细胞检测中的应用价值。方法优化试剂盒中各组分的浓度、确定试剂盒的稳定性、灵敏度及特异性,并检测外周血样品中BCSG1mRNA的表达水平。结果优化了试剂盒中的引物

  20. Detection of carcinoembryonic antigen mRNA in peritoneal washes from gastric cancer patients and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Song Zhang; Jun Xu; Guang-Hua Luo; Rong-Chao Wang; Jiang Zhu; Xiao-Ying Zhang; Peter Nilsson-Ehle; Ning Xu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To establish a more sensitive method for detection of free cancer cells in peritoneal washes from gastric cancer patients during surgery and to evaluate its clinical significance.METHODS: The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) mRNA levels in peritoneal washes from 65 cases of gastric cancer were detected by real-time RT-PCR. Peritoneal lavage cytology (PLC) was applied simultaneously to detection of free cancer cells. Negative controls included peritoneal washes from 5 cases of benign gastric disease and blood samples from 5 adult healthy volunteers.RESULTS: There was no CEA mRNA in peritoneal washes from benign gastric disease patients and in blood of adult healthy volunteers. The positive percentage of free cancer cells detected by real-time RT-PCR was 47.7% and only 12.3% by PLC. The positive rate of CEA mRNA was significantly related with serosa invasion between peritoneal metastasis and stage of gastric cancer.CONCLUSION: Real-time RT-PCR is a sensitive and rapid method for the detection of free cancer cells in peritoneal washes. The presence of free cancer cells in peritoneal washes is related to the pathologic stage of gastric cancer.

  1. Pulmonary embolism in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S P Sawant

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: Pulmonary embolism (PE is rare in the Indian population and is under-reported in patients with malignancy. We studied the clinical profile and outcome of patients with PE and cancer in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: Data of cancer patients with PE, admitted in a tertiary cancer centre, was analyzed. The prevalence of PE was calculated as the number of patients with PE per 10,000 hospital admissions. The demographic data, details of cancer, co-morbidities, details of PE, and treatment given for PE and their outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Results: There were 56,425 hospital admissions in the study period. The prevalence of PE was 6.4 per 10,000 hospital admissions .Thirty-six cancer patients were diagnosed to have PE. In females, gynecological malignancies (36.84% and in males gastrointestinal, head and neck cancers, and hematological malignancies were the most common sites (17.7% each. PE was associated with DVT in 41.7%. Dyspnea was the most common presenting symptom. Five patients (13.88% were asymptomatic and were incidentally detected to have PE . The most common echocardiographic finding was right ventricular dysfunction (55.55%. Mortality among the treated patients was 22% (7 / 31 and in untreated patients it was 80% (4 / 5. The factors that had an impact on a three-month survival were, the presence of massive PE (P = 0.019 and the presence of RV dysfunction at presentation (P = 0.005. Conclusion: The prevalence of PE and mortality due to PE is high in cancer patients. Risk stratification for venous thromboembolism (VTE should be done in all cancer patients and thromboprophylaxis should be optimally used.

  2. Real-time portal imaging devices operating on high-pressure gaseous electronic principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakos, George C.; Richardson, Donna B.; Ghotra, P.; Pillai, Bindu; Seetharaman, Lakshmi; Passalaqua, Anthony M.; DiBianca, Frank A.; Endorf, Robert J.; Devidas, Sreenivas

    1995-05-01

    A novel real-time portal imaging scanning detector, based on high-pressure gaseous electronics principles and operating up to 60 atmospheres, is presented and the predicted performance of this detector is analyzed. The idea is to utilize high pressure gaseous electronics imaging detectors operating in the saturation regime, aimed at improving image performance characteristics in real time portal imaging. As a result, beam localization errors are controlled, identified and corrected accurately and the patient radiotherapy treatment becomes more effective.

  3. Real time UAV autonomy through offline calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunghun

    . Once one or several targets are detected, UAVs near the target are manipulated to approach to the target. If the number of detected targets is more than one, UAVs are evenly grouped to track targets. After a specific period of time, UAVs hand off and continue their original tasks. Thirdly, Emergency algorithm is generated to avoid losses of UAVs when UAVs have system failures. If one UAV is out of fuel or control during the mission, the Emergency algorithm brings the malfunctioning UAV to the point of departure and let the rest UAVs to continue an aerial reconnaissance. An UAV which finishes its task the earliest will continue to search a region which the failed UAV is supposed to search. In addition, Emergency algorithm prevents UAVs colliding into each other by using emergency altitude. Overall, the framework developed here facilitates the solution of several mission planning problems. The robustness built into our discretization of space and time permits feedback corrections on real-time to vehicle trajectories. The library of off-line solutions proposed and developed here minimizes computational overhead during operations.

  4. Real Time Flux Control in PM Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otaduy, P.J.

    2005-09-27

    Significant research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) is being conducted to develop ways to increase (1) torque, (2) speed range, and (3) efficiency of traction electric motors for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) within existing current and voltage bounds. Current is limited by the inverter semiconductor devices' capability and voltage is limited by the stator wire insulation's ability to withstand the maximum back-electromotive force (emf), which occurs at the upper end of the speed range. One research track has been to explore ways to control the path and magnitude of magnetic flux while the motor is operating. The phrase, real time flux control (RTFC), refers to this mode of operation in which system parameters are changed while the motor is operating to improve its performance and speed range. RTFC has potential to meet an increased torque demand by introducing additional flux through the main air gap from an external source. It can augment the speed range by diverting flux away from the main air gap to reduce back-emf at high speeds. Conventional RTFC technology is known as vector control [1]. Vector control decomposes the stator current into two components; one that produces torque and a second that opposes (weakens) the magnetic field generated by the rotor, thereby requiring more overall stator current and reducing the efficiency. Efficiency can be improved by selecting a RTFC method that reduces the back-emf without increasing the average current. This favors methods that use pulse currents or very low currents to achieve field weakening. Foremost in ORNL's effort to develop flux control is the work of J. S. Hsu. Early research [2,3] introduced direct control of air-gap flux in permanent magnet (PM) machines and demonstrated it with a flux-controlled generator. The configuration eliminates the problem of demagnetization because it diverts all the flux from the

  5. Oligonucleotide chip, real-time PCR and sequencing for genotyping of hepatitis B virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Zhong Wang; Guo-Xiang Wu; Li-Bo Luo; Min Chen; Li-Hua Ruan

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To compare the oligonucleotide chip, real-time PCR and sequencing for genotyping of hepatitis B virus in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B.METHODS: Mixture of samples with different genotypes and clinical serum samples from 126 chronic hepatitis B patients was tested for hepatitis B virus genotypes by oligonucleotide chip, real-time PCR and sequencing of PCR products, respectively. Clinical performances, time required and costs of the three assays were evaluated.RESULTS: Oligonucleotide chips and real-time PCR detected 1% and 0.1% genotypes, respectively, in mixed samples. Of the 126 clinical samples from patients with chronic hepatitis B, genotype B was detected in 41(33%), 41 (33%) and 45 (36%) samples, and genotype C in 76 (60%), 76 (60%) and 81 (64%) samples, by oligonucleotide chip, real-time PCR and sequencing,respectively. Oligonucleotide chip and real-time PCR detected mixed genotypes B and C in 9 samples. Realtime PCR was the rapidest and cheapest among the three assays.CONCLUSION: Oligonucleotide chip and real-time PCR are able to detect mixed genotypes, while sequencing only detects the dominant genotype in clinical samples.

  6. Urotherapy for patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldor, J

    1997-04-01

    Cancer cells release various antigens, some of which appear in the urine. Oral autourotherapy is suggested as a new treatment modality for cancer patients. It will provide the intestinal lymphatic system with the many tumor antigens against which antibodies may be produced. These antibodies may be pierced through the blood stream and attack the tumor and its cells.

  7. Research and progress of real-time three-dimensional ultrasonography in diagnosis of breast cancer%实时三维超声在乳腺癌诊断中的研究与进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛妍(综述); 马富成(审校)

    2014-01-01

    近几年,乳腺癌的发病率呈逐年上升趋势,已成为女性最常见的恶性肿瘤之一,早期正确诊断对临床治疗及预后具有重要意义。随着影像技术的不断发展,三维超声成像已成为诊断乳腺癌的重要方法。本文就乳腺三维超声成像技术的研究现状做一综述,并对其未来发展进行展望。%The incidence of breast cancer has been yearly growing recently. Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in women. Early accurate diagnosis is more important for clinical treatment and prognosis. With the development of imaging techniques, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography has become an important method in the diagnosis of breast cancer. This article reviews research situation of breast 3D ultrasonography and further improvements.

  8. Bone health in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coleman, R; Body, J J; Aapro, M

    2014-01-01

    There are three distinct areas of cancer management that make bone health in cancer patients of increasing clinical importance. First, bone metastases are common in many solid tumours, notably those arising from the breast, prostate and lung, as well as multiple myeloma, and may cause major...... morbidity including fractures, severe pain, nerve compression and hypercalcaemia. Through optimum multidisciplinary management of patients with bone metastases, including the use of bone-targeted treatments such as potent bisphosphonates or denosumab, it has been possible to transform the course of advanced...... cancer for many patients resulting in a major reduction in skeletal complications, reduced bone pain and improved quality of life. Secondly, many of the treatments we use to treat cancer patients have effects on reproductive hormones, which are critical for the maintenance of normal bone remodelling...

  9. A real-time transaction service for grid computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Feilong; Li Minglu; Joshua Huang Zhexue; Frank Tong; Cao Jian

    2005-01-01

    A real-time transaction service aims at ensuring the consistency of real-time and transactional Grid applications. This paper proposes an efficient real-time transaction service (RTTS). It provides abilities to discover qualified services, I.e., participants, to execute specified sub-transactions, coordinate real-time Grid transactions, calculate deadline and assign priority for scheduling concurrent transactions. The service discovery adopts the two-level registry mechanismto adapt to transient Grid services. The coordination algorithm invokes multiplefunctional alternative services for each sub-transaction so that it remarkablyimproves the successful ratio of real-time transactions. The experiment result shows that the RTTS can well coordinate real-time transactions for Grid service environment and shield users from the complex process.

  10. Real-time monitoring of cisplatin-induced cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Alborzinia

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of cisplatin more than 40 years ago and its clinical introduction in the 1970s an enormous amount of research has gone into elucidating the mechanism of action of cisplatin on tumor cells. With a novel cell biosensor chip system allowing continuous monitoring of respiration, glycolysis, and impedance we followed cisplatin treatment of different cancer cell lines in real-time. Our measurements reveal a first effect on respiration, in all cisplatin treated cell lines, followed with a significant delay by interference with glycolysis in HT-29, HCT-116, HepG2, and MCF-7 cells but not in the cisplatin-resistant cell line MDA-MB-231. Most strikingly, cell death started in all cisplatin-sensitive cell lines within 8 to 11 h of treatment, indicating a clear time frame from exposure, first response to cisplatin lesions, to cell fate decision. The time points of most significant changes were selected for more detailed analysis of cisplatin response in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Phosphorylation of selected signal transduction mediators connected with cellular proliferation, as well as changes in gene expression, were analyzed in samples obtained directly from sensor chips at the time points when changes in glycolysis and impedance occurred. Our online cell biosensor measurements reveal for the first time the time scale of metabolic response until onset of cell death under cisplatin treatment, which is in good agreement with models of p53-mediated cell fate decision.

  11. Advanced real-time manipulation of video streams

    CERN Document Server

    Herling, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Diminished Reality is a new fascinating technology that removes real-world content from live video streams. This sensational live video manipulation actually removes real objects and generates a coherent video stream in real-time. Viewers cannot detect modified content. Existing approaches are restricted to moving objects and static or almost static cameras and do not allow real-time manipulation of video content. Jan Herling presents a new and innovative approach for real-time object removal with arbitrary camera movements.

  12. Sentiment analysis on students’ real-time feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Altrabsheh, Nabeela

    2016-01-01

    Previous literature identifies that students’ real-time feedback is important in the learning process. There are numerous studies that have collected students’ feedback in real time. However, they include several limitations of which the most important is analysing the feedback. In this thesis, we address these limitations by proposing a system that will automatically analyse students’ feedback in real time and present the analysis results to the lecturer. To create such a system, we propose ...

  13. Perioperative nutrition in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J M; Redmond, H P; Gallagher, H

    1992-01-01

    Cancer patients have the highest incidence of protein-calorie malnutrition seen in hospitalized patients, with significant malnutrition occurring in more than 30% of cancer patients undergoing major upper gastrointestinal procedures. Clinically significant malnutrition occurs as a result of diminished nutrient intake, increased nutrient losses, and tumor-induced derangements in host metabolism. In the absence of adequate exogenous nutrients, the body utilizes endogenous substrates to satisfy the ongoing requirements of both host and tumor for energy and protein. In those patients with malignant obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract, the tumor itself may induce diminished nutrient intake. Present day treatment modalities including gastrointestinal resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy compound these metabolic derangements, further increasing the risk of postoperative morbidity and death. The presence of malnutrition in cancer patients has prognostic importance. In a review of more than 3000 cancer patients, DeWys and colleagues identified significantly improved survival in those patients without weight loss compared with those had lost 6% of their body weight (Am J Med 69:491-497, 1980). Other investigators have noted increased postoperative morbidity and mortality associated with malnutrition. Early hypotheses suggested that reversal of weight loss would improve survival. The development and refinements of enteral and parenteral nutrition have provided the opportunity for studying the relationship between nutritional supplementation and postoperative prognosis. Nutrition support is therefore often instituted to improve nutritional status and thereby reduce the risks of postoperative complications. This article addresses the beneficial role of preoperative nutrition therapy in cancer patients.

  14. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer Symptoms Symptoms of cancer ... tumor Obesity Pancreatic cancer Prostate cancer Stomach cancer Testicular cancer Throat or larynx cancer Thyroid cancer Patient Instructions ...

  15. Real Time Synchronization for Creativity in Distributed Innovation Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peitersen, Dennis Kjaersgaard; Dolog, Peter; Pedersen, Esben Staunsbjerg

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a synchronization approach for real time collaborative sketching for creativity in distributed innovation teams. We base our approach on reverse AJAX. This way we ensure scalable solution for real time drawing and sketching important in creativity settings.......In this paper we introduce a synchronization approach for real time collaborative sketching for creativity in distributed innovation teams. We base our approach on reverse AJAX. This way we ensure scalable solution for real time drawing and sketching important in creativity settings....

  16. Unified Modeling of Complex Real-Time Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hai, He; Chi-Lan, Cai

    2011-01-01

    Complex real-time control system is a software dense and algorithms dense system, which needs modern software engineering techniques to design. UML is an object-oriented industrial standard modeling language, used more and more in real-time domain. This paper first analyses the advantages and problems of using UML for real-time control systems design. Then, it proposes an extension of UML-RT to support time-continuous subsystems modeling. So we can unify modeling of complex real-time control systems on UML-RT platform, from requirement analysis, model design, simulation, until generation code.

  17. Building Real-Time Collaborative Applications with a Federated Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ojanguren-Menendez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-time collaboration is being offered by multiple libraries and APIs (Google Drive Real-time API, Microsoft Real-Time Communications API, TogetherJS, ShareJS, rapidly becoming a mainstream option for webservices developers. However, they are offered as centralised services running in a single server, regardless if they are free/open source or proprietary software. After re-engineering Apache Wave (former Google Wave, we can now provide the first decentralised and federated free/open source alternative. The new API allows to develop new real-time collaborative web applications in both JavaScript and Java environments.

  18. Verifying real-time systems against scenario-based requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao; Nielsen, Brian;

    2009-01-01

    subset of the LSC language. By equivalently translating an LSC chart into an observer TA and then non-intrusively composing this observer with the original system model, the problem of verifying a real-time system against a scenario-based requirement reduces to a classical real-time model checking......We propose an approach to automatic verification of real-time systems against scenario-based requirements. A real-time system is modeled as a network of Timed Automata (TA), and a scenario-based requirement is specified as a Live Sequence Chart (LSC). We define a trace-based semantics for a kernel...

  19. Detection of BRAF Mutations Using a Fully Automated Platform and Comparison with High Resolution Melting, Real-Time Allele Specific Amplification, Immunohistochemistry and Next Generation Sequencing Assays, for Patients with Metastatic Melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Harlé

    Full Text Available Metastatic melanoma is a severe disease with one of the highest mortality rate in skin diseases. Overall survival has significantly improved with immunotherapy and targeted therapies. Kinase inhibitors targeting BRAF V600 showed promising results. BRAF genotyping is mandatory for the prescription of anti-BRAF therapies.Fifty-nine formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanoma samples were assessed using High-Resolution-Melting (HRM PCR, Real-time allele-specific amplification (RT-ASA PCR, Next generation sequencing (NGS, immunohistochemistry (IHC and the fully-automated molecular diagnostics platform IdyllaTM. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated using NGS as the reference standard to compare the different assays.BRAF mutations were found in 28(47.5%, 29(49.2%, 31(52.5%, 29(49.2% and 27(45.8% samples with HRM, RT-ASA, NGS, IdyllaTM and IHC respectively. Twenty-six (81.2% samples were found bearing a c.1799T>A (p.Val600Glu mutation, three (9.4% with a c.1798_1799delinsAA (p.Val600Lys mutation and one with c.1789_1790delinsTC (p.Leu597Ser mutation. Two samples were found bearing complex mutations.HRM appears the less sensitive assay for the detection of BRAF V600 mutations. The RT-ASA, IdyllaTM and IHC assays are suitable for routine molecular diagnostics aiming at the prescription of anti-BRAF therapies. IdyllaTM assay is fully-automated and requires less than 2 minutes for samples preparation and is the fastest of the tested assays.

  20. Cancer Screening in Older Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzman, Brooke; Beldowski, Kathryn; de la Paz, Amanda

    2016-04-15

    Although cancer is the second leading cause of death among persons 65 years and older, there is a paucity of clinical trial data about the effectiveness and harms of cancer screening in this population. Given the heterogeneous nature of the older population, cancer screening in these patients should not be based on age alone. Studies suggest that a life expectancy of at least 10 years is necessary to derive a survival benefit from screening for breast and colorectal cancers; therefore, screening for these cancers is not recommended in those with a life expectancy of less than 10 years. Prostate cancer screening, if performed at all, should not be performed after 69 years of age. Cervical cancer screening may be stopped after 65 years of age if the patient has an adequate history of negative screening results. An individualized approach to cancer screening decisions involves estimating life expectancy, determining the potential benefits and harms of screenings, and weighing those benefits and harms in relation to the patient's values and preferences.

  1. Novel techniques of real-time blood flow and functional mapping: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Kyousuke; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Saito, Masato; Tamura, Yukie; Anei, Ryogo; Kapeller, Christoph; Hayashi, Hideaki; Prueckl, Robert; Guger, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    There are two main approaches to intraoperative monitoring in neurosurgery. One approach is related to fluorescent phenomena and the other is related to oscillatory neuronal activity. We developed novel techniques to visualize blood flow (BF) conditions in real time, based on indocyanine green videography (ICG-VG) and the electrophysiological phenomenon of high gamma activity (HGA). We investigated the use of ICG-VG in four patients with moyamoya disease and two with arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and we investigated the use of real-time HGA mapping in four patients with brain tumors who underwent lesion resection with awake craniotomy. Real-time data processing of ICG-VG was based on perfusion imaging, which generated parameters including arrival time (AT), mean transit time (MTT), and BF of brain surface vessels. During awake craniotomy, we analyzed the frequency components of brain oscillation and performed real-time HGA mapping to identify functional areas. Processed results were projected on a wireless monitor linked to the operating microscope. After revascularization for moyamoya disease, AT and BF were significantly shortened and increased, respectively, suggesting hyperperfusion. Real-time fusion images on the wireless monitor provided anatomical, BF, and functional information simultaneously, and allowed the resection of AVMs under the microscope. Real-time HGA mapping during awake craniotomy rapidly indicated the eloquent areas of motor and language function and significantly shortened the operation time. These novel techniques, which we introduced might improve the reliability of intraoperative monitoring and enable the development of rational and objective surgical strategies.

  2. Psychological aspects of cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graça Cardoso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is accompanied by important psychological distress experienced by both patient and family. From the moment of the diagnosis on, the patient has to develop a great number of mechanisms and tasks of adjustment to the illness and its circumstances. The high prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders during the course of cancer increases in the end stage disea‐ se. Therefore, a global plan of intervention integrating somatic and psychological/ psychiatric care throughout all the phases of the illness is crucial in the treatment of these patients. Health professionals working on this field can also experience emotional reactions to their patients’ suffering. They should be aware of the emotional aspects involved and develop training to help them intervene adequately with the patient and the family. The articulation between oncologists, palliative care professionals, and mental health care teams can be of great help in providing good quality of care to cancer patients.

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Epstein-Barr Virus Load by Using a Real-Time PCR Assay

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    To measure the virus load in patients with symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections, we used a real-time PCR assay to quantify the amount of EBV DNA in blood. The real-time PCR assay could detect from 2 to over 107 copies of EBV DNA with a wide linear range. We estimated the virus load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) from patients with symptomatic EBV infections. The mean EBV-DNA copy number in the PBMNC was 103.7 copies/μg of DNA in patients with EBV-related lymphoprolif...

  4. Quantitation of viral load using real-time amplification techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesters, H G

    2001-01-01

    Real-time PCR amplification techniques are currently used to determine the viral load in clinical samples for an increasing number of targets. Real-time PCR reduces the time necessary to generate results after amplification. In-house developed PCR and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA

  5. "Real-Time" Case Studies in Organizational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Shawn D.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an activity that integrates theory and application by examining the multiple communication events affecting a single organization in "real time" over the course of an academic term. The "real-time" case study (RTCS) avails students of the opportunity to examine organizational communication events as they are occurring in…

  6. 76 FR 42536 - Real-Time System Management Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 511 RIN 2125-AF19 Real-Time System Management Information... additional comments relating to the costs and benefits of the Real-Time System Management Information Program... System Management Information Program on November 8, 2010, at 75 FR 68418. The final rule document...

  7. 75 FR 68418 - Real-Time System Management Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 511 RIN 2125-AF19 Real-Time System Management Information... System Management Information Program that provides, in all States, the capability to monitor, in real... traveler information. The purposes of the Real-Time System Management Information Program are to:...

  8. Real-Time PCR for Universal Phytoplasma Detection and Quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nynne Meyn; Nyskjold, Henriette; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the most efficient detection and precise quantification of phytoplasmas is by real-time PCR. Compared to nested PCR, this method is less sensitive to contamination and is less work intensive. Therefore, a universal real-time PCR method will be valuable in screening programs and in other...

  9. Distributed, Embedded and Real-time Java Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wellings, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Research on real-time Java technology has been prolific over the past decade, leading to a large number of corresponding hardware and software solutions, and frameworks for distributed and embedded real-time Java systems.  This book is aimed primarily at researchers in real-time embedded systems, particularly those who wish to understand the current state of the art in using Java in this domain.  Much of the work in real-time distributed, embedded and real-time Java has focused on the Real-time Specification for Java (RTSJ) as the underlying base technology, and consequently many of the Chapters in this book address issues with, or solve problems using, this framework. Describes innovative techniques in: scheduling, memory management, quality of service and communication systems supporting real-time Java applications; Includes coverage of multiprocessor embedded systems and parallel programming; Discusses state-of-the-art resource management for embedded systems, including Java’s real-time garbage collect...

  10. RT-PLG: Real Time Process Log Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yahya, Bernardo Nugroho; Khosiawan, Yohanes; Choi, Woosik;

    2016-01-01

    . This paper aims to develop a real time process log generator for the usage of streaming process mining tool. The real time process log generator (RT-PLG) is constructed in an independent tool. Afterward, the RT-PLG is utilized to generate a synthetic log for streaming process mining. The tool has been...... evaluated using an existing simulation model....

  11. Intelligent, Real-Time Problem Solving. Phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-30

    approach, and to develop a heuristic algorithm for design-to-time real-time scheduling. E .velopes. During Phase III we extended our work on the real...the anytime algorithm approach, and presents a heuristic algorithm for design-to-time real-time scheduling. The methodology is known as design-to

  12. Real time ray tracing of skeletal implicit surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouiller, Olivier; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    Modeling and rendering in real time is usually done via rasterization of polygonal meshes. We present a method to model with skeletal implicit surfaces and an algorithm to ray trace these surfaces in real time in the GPU. Our skeletal representation of the surfaces allows to create smooth models...

  13. Compilation and synthesis for real-time embedded controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin; Müller-Olm, Markus

    1999-01-01

    This article provides an overview over two constructive approaches to provably correct hard real-time code generation where hard real-time code is generated from abstract requirements rather than verified against the timing requirements a posteriori. The first, more pragmatic approach is concerne...

  14. A Real-time Data Model Based on Temporal Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-fang; LIU Yun-sheng

    2006-01-01

    Real-time database systems contain not only transaction timing constraints, but also data timing constraints. This paper discusses the temporal characteristics of data in real-time databases and offers a definition of absolute and relative temporal consistency. In real-time database systems, it is often the case that the policies of transaction schedules only consider the deadline of real-time transactions, making it insufficient to ensure temporal correctness of transactions. A policy is given by considering both the deadlines of transactions and the "data deadline" to schedule real-time transactions. A real-time relational data model and a real-time relational algebra based on the characteristics of temporal data are also proposed. In this model, the temporal data has not only corresponding values, but also validity intervals corresponding to the data values. At the same time, this model is able to keep historical data values. When validity interval of a relation is[NOW,NOW], real-time relational algebra will transform to traditional relational algebra.

  15. Real-Time Adaptation of Influence Strategies in Online Selling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Parvinen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time adjustments in online selling are becoming increasingly common. In this paper we describe a novel method of real-time adaptation, and introduce influence strategies as a useful level of analysis for personalization of online selling. The proposed method incorporates three perspectives on r

  16. Focused Real-Time Ultrasonography for Nephrologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    We propose that renal consults are enhanced by incorporating a nephrology-focused ultrasound protocol including ultrasound evaluation of cardiac contractility, the presence or absence of pericardial effusion, inferior vena cava size and collapsibility to guide volume management, bladder volume to assess for obstruction or retention, and kidney size and structure to potentially gauge chronicity of renal disease or identify other structural abnormalities. The benefits of immediate and ongoing assessment of cardiac function and intravascular volume status (prerenal), possible urinary obstruction or retention (postrenal), and potential etiologies of acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease far outweigh the limitations of bedside ultrasonography performed by nephrologists. The alternative is reliance on formal ultrasonography, which creates a disconnect between those who order, perform, and interpret studies, creates delays between when clinical questions are asked and answered, and may increase expense. Ultrasound-enhanced physical examination provides immediate information about our patients, which frequently alters our assessments and management plans.

  17. Highly accelerated real-time cardiac cine MRI using k-t SPARSE-SENSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Srichai, Monvadi B; Lim, Ruth P; Harrison, Alexis; King, Wilson; Adluru, Ganesh; Dibella, Edward V R; Sodickson, Daniel K; Otazo, Ricardo; Kim, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    For patients with impaired breath-hold capacity and/or arrhythmias, real-time cine MRI may be more clinically useful than breath-hold cine MRI. However, commercially available real-time cine MRI methods using parallel imaging typically yield relatively poor spatio-temporal resolution due to their low image acquisition speed. We sought to achieve relatively high spatial resolution (∼2.5 × 2.5 mm(2)) and temporal resolution (∼40 ms), to produce high-quality real-time cine MR images that could be applied clinically for wall motion assessment and measurement of left ventricular function. In this work, we present an eightfold accelerated real-time cardiac cine MRI pulse sequence using a combination of compressed sensing and parallel imaging (k-t SPARSE-SENSE). Compared with reference, breath-hold cine MRI, our eightfold accelerated real-time cine MRI produced significantly worse qualitative grades (1-5 scale), but its image quality and temporal fidelity scores were above 3.0 (adequate) and artifacts and noise scores were below 3.0 (moderate), suggesting that acceptable diagnostic image quality can be achieved. Additionally, both eightfold accelerated real-time cine and breath-hold cine MRI yielded comparable left ventricular function measurements, with coefficient of variation cine MRI with k-t SPARSE-SENSE is a promising modality for rapid imaging of myocardial function.

  18. Simplified development of multiplex real-time PCR through master mix augmented by universal fluorogenic reporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadle, Simon; Lehnert, Michael; Schuler, Friedrich; Köppel, René; Serr, Annerose; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Mediator probe (MP) PCR is a real-time PCR approach that uses standardized universal fluorogenic reporter oligonucleotides (UR) in conjunction with label-free sequence-specific probes. To enable multiplex real-time MP PCR, we designed a set of five optimized URs with different fluorescent labels. Performance of the optimized URs was verified in multiplex real-time MP PCR for the detection of a pentaplex food panel and a quadruplex methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) panel. Results were comparable to corresponding multiplex hydrolysis probe (HP) PCR, also designated as TaqMan PCR. Analyses of MRSA DNA standards and DNA extracted from patient swab samples showed improved lower limits of detection (LoDs) by a factor of 2-5 when using quadruplex real-time MP PCR instead of HP PCR. The novel set of standardized URs we present here simplifies development of multiplex real-time PCR assays by requiring only the design of label-free probes. In the future, real-time PCR master mixes could be augmented with up to five standardized fluorogenic URs, each emitting light at a different wavelength.

  19. Recent achievements in real-time computational seismology in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Liang, W.; Huang, B.

    2012-12-01

    Real-time computational seismology is currently possible to be achieved which needs highly connection between seismic database and high performance computing. We have developed a real-time moment tensor monitoring system (RMT) by using continuous BATS records and moment tensor inversion (CMT) technique. The real-time online earthquake simulation service is also ready to open for researchers and public earthquake science education (ROS). Combine RMT with ROS, the earthquake report based on computational seismology can provide within 5 minutes after an earthquake occurred (RMT obtains point source information < 120 sec; ROS completes a 3D simulation < 3 minutes). All of these computational results are posted on the internet in real-time now. For more information, welcome to visit real-time computational seismology earthquake report webpage (RCS).

  20. Real-time feedback from iterative electronic structure calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Vaucher, Alain C; Reiher, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Real-time feedback from iterative electronic structure calculations requires to mediate between the inherently unpredictable execution times of the iterative algorithm employed and the necessity to provide data in fixed and short time intervals for real-time rendering. We introduce the concept of a mediator as a component able to deal with infrequent and unpredictable reference data to generate reliable feedback. In the context of real-time quantum chemistry, the mediator takes the form of a surrogate potential that has the same local shape as the first-principles potential and can be evaluated efficiently to deliver atomic forces as real-time feedback. The surrogate potential is updated continuously by electronic structure calculations and guarantees to provide a reliable response to the operator for any molecular structure. To demonstrate the application of iterative electronic structure methods in real-time reactivity exploration, we implement self-consistent semi-empirical methods as the data source and a...

  1. Ambiguity and Concepts in Real Time Online Internet Traffic Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Awad Hamza Ibrahim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Internet traffic classification gained significant attention in the last few years. Identifying the Internet applications in the real time is one of the most significant challenges in network traffic classification. Most of the proposed classification methods are limited to offline classification and cannot support online classification. This paper aims to highlight the ambiguity in the definition of online classification. Therefore, some of the previous online classification works are discussed and analyzed. This analysing is to check how far the real time online classification was achieved. The results indicate that most of the previous works consider a real Internet traffic but did not consider a real time online classification. In addition, the paper provides a real time classifier which was proposed and used in [1] [2] [3], to show how to perform a real time online classification.

  2. Academic Training: Real Time Process Control - Lecture series

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE REGULAR PROGRAMME 7, 8 and 9 June From 11:00 hrs to 12:00 hrs - Main Auditorium bldg. 500 Real Time Process Control T. Riesco / CERN-TS What exactly is meant by Real-time? There are several definitions of real-time, most of them contradictory. Unfortunately the topic is controversial, and there does not seem to be 100% agreement over the terminology. Real-time applications are becoming increasingly important in our daily lives and can be found in diverse environments such as the automatic braking system on an automobile, a lottery ticket system, or robotic environmental samplers on a space station. These lectures will introduce concepts and theory like basic concepts timing constraints, task scheduling, periodic server mechanisms, hard and soft real-time.ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  3. Survey of real-time processing systems for big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, real-time processing and analytics systems for big data–in the context of Business Intelligence (BI)–have received a growing attention. The traditional BI platforms that perform regular updates on daily, weekly or monthly basis are no longer adequate to satisfy the fast......-changing business environments. However, due to the nature of big data, it has become a challenge to achieve the real-time capability using the traditional technologies. The recent distributed computing technology, MapReduce, provides off-the-shelf high scalability that can significantly shorten the processing time...... for big data; Its open-source implementation such as Hadoop has become the de-facto standard for processing big data, however, Hadoop has the limitation of supporting real-time updates. The improvements in Hadoop for the real-time capability, and the other alternative real-time frameworks have been...

  4. Identifying afterloading PDR and HDR brachytherapy errors using real-time fiber-coupled Al2O3:C dosimetry and a novel statistical error decision criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kertzscher, Gustavo; Andersen, Claus Erik; Siebert, Frank-André

    2011-01-01

    treatment errors, including interchanged pairs of afterloader guide tubes and 2–20mm source displacements, were monitored using a real-time fiber-coupled carbon doped aluminum oxide (Al2O3:C) crystal dosimeter that was positioned in the reconstructed tumor region. The error detection capacity was evaluated...... conditions, and (2) test a new statistical error decision concept based on full uncertainty analysis. Materials and methodsPhantom studies of two gynecological cancer PDR and one prostate cancer HDR patient treatment plans were performed using tandem ring applicators or interstitial needles. Imposed...

  5. Survivin isoforms and clinicopathological characteristics in colorectal adenocarcinomas using real-time qPCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasia Pavlidou; Maria Dalamaga; Christos Kroupis; George Konstantoudakis; Maria Belimezi; George Athanasas; Kleanthi Dimas

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate three isoforms of survivin in colorectal adenocarcinomas. METHODS: We used the LightCycler Technology (Roche), along with a common forward primer and reverse primers specific for the splice variants and two common hybridization probes labeled with fluorescein and LightCycler- Red fluorophore (LC-Red 640). Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on cDNAs from 52 tumor specimens from colorectal cancer patients and 10 unrelated normal colorectal tissues. In the patients group, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and CA19-9 tumor markers were also measured immunochemically. RESULTS: Wild type survivin mRNA isoform was expressed in 48% of the 52 tumor samples, survivin-2b in 38% and survivin-ΔΕx3 in 29%, while no expression was found in normal tissues. The mRNA expression of wild type survivin presented a significant correlation with the expression of the ratio of survivin-2b, survivin-ΔΕx3, survivin-2b/wild type survivin and survivin-ΔΕx3/wild type survivin (P < 0.001). The mRNA expression of wildsurvivin and survivin-ΔΕx3 was related with tumor size and invasion (P = 0.006 and P < 0.005, respectively). A significant difference was found between survivin-2b and morphologic cancer type. Also, the ratio of survivin-ΔEx3/ wild-survivin was significantly associated with prognosis. No association was observed between the three isoforms and grade, metastasis, Dukes stage and gender. The three isoforms were not correlated with CEA and CA19-9. CONCLUSION: Survivin isoforms may play a role in cell apoptosis and their quantification could provide information about clinical management of patients suffering from colorectal cancer.

  6. Evaluation of highly accelerated real-time cardiac cine MRI in tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Elwin C; Kholmovski, Eugene G; Wilson, Brent D; DiBella, Edward V R; Dosdall, Derek J; Ranjan, Ravi; McGann, Christopher J; Kim, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated breath-hold cine MRI is considered to be the gold standard test for the assessment of cardiac function. However, it may fail in patients with arrhythmia, impaired breath-hold capacity and poor ECG gating. Although ungated real-time cine MRI may mitigate these problems, commercially available real-time cine MRI pulse sequences using parallel imaging typically yield relatively poor spatiotemporal resolution because of their low image acquisition efficiency. As an extension of our previous work, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic quality and accuracy of eight-fold-accelerated real-time cine MRI with compressed sensing (CS) for the quantification of cardiac function in tachycardia, where it is challenging for real-time cine MRI to provide sufficient spatiotemporal resolution. We evaluated the performances of eight-fold-accelerated cine MRI with CS, three-fold-accelerated real-time cine MRI with temporal generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisitions (TGRAPPA) and ECG-gated breath-hold cine MRI in 21 large animals with tachycardia (mean heart rate, 104 beats per minute) at 3T. For each cine MRI method, two expert readers evaluated the diagnostic quality in four categories (image quality, temporal fidelity of wall motion, artifacts and apparent noise) using a Likert scale (1-5, worst to best). One reader evaluated the left ventricular functional parameters. The diagnostic quality scores were significantly different between the three cine pulse sequences, except for the artifact level between CS and TGRAPPA real-time cine MRI. Both ECG-gated breath-hold cine MRI and eight-fold accelerated real-time cine MRI yielded all four scores of ≥ 3.0 (acceptable), whereas three-fold-accelerated real-time cine MRI yielded all scores below 3.0, except for artifact (3.0). The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) measurements agreed better between ECG-gated cine MRI and eight-fold-accelerated real-time cine MRI

  7. Near real-time skin deformation mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacenjar, Steve; Chen, Suzie; Jafri, Madiha; Wall, Brian; Pedersen, Richard; Bezozo, Richard

    2013-02-01

    A novel in vivo approach is described that provides large area mapping of the mechanical properties of the skin in human patients. Such information is important in the understanding of skin health, cosmetic surgery[1], aging, and impacts of sun exposure. Currently, several methods have been developed to estimate the local biomechanical properties of the skin, including the use of a physical biopsy of local areas of the skin (in vitro methods) [2, 3, and 4], and also the use of non-invasive methods (in vivo) [5, 6, and 7]. All such methods examine localized areas of the skin. Our approach examines the local elastic properties via the generation of field displacement maps of the skin created using time-sequence imaging [9] with 2D digital imaging correlation (DIC) [10]. In this approach, large areas of the skin are reviewed rapidly, and skin displacement maps are generated showing the contour maps of skin deformation. These maps are then used to precisely register skin images for purposes of diagnostic comparison. This paper reports on our mapping and registration approach, and demonstrates its ability to accurately measure the skin deformation through a described nulling interpolation process. The result of local translational DIC alignment is compared using this interpolation process. The effectiveness of the approach is reported in terms of residual RMS, image entropy measures, and differential segmented regional errors.

  8. A real-time assessment of factors influencing medication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollarhide, Adrian W; Rutledge, Thomas; Weinger, Matthew B; Fisher, Erin Stucky; Jain, Sonia; Wolfson, Tanya; Dresselhaus, Timothy R

    2014-01-01

    Reducing medical error is critical to improving the safety and quality of healthcare. Physician stress, fatigue, and excessive workload are performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that may influence medical events (actual administration errors and near misses), but direct relationships between these factors and patient safety have not been clearly defined. This study assessed the real-time influence of emotional stress, workload, and sleep deprivation on self-reported medication events by physicians in academic hospitals. During an 18-month study period, 185 physician participants working at four university-affiliated teaching hospitals reported medication events using a confidential reporting application on handheld computers. Emotional stress scores, perceived workload, patient case volume, clinical experience, total sleep, and demographic variables were also captured via the handheld computers. Medication event reports (n = 11) were then correlated with these demographic and PSFs. Medication events were associated with 36.1% higher perceived workload (p sleep (p = .10). These results confirm the effect of factors influencing medication events, and support attention to both provider and hospital environmental characteristics for improving patient safety.

  9. The expression by real-time fluorescence quantitive RT-PCR and clinical significance of miR-335 in breast tissue and cancer%实时荧光定量 RT-PCR 检测乳腺组织中 miR-335的表达水平与临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔明; 肖苠耀; 何越昆; 乔丹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To detect the expressions of miR-335 in breast tissue and cancer by real-time fluorescence quantitive RT-PCR and investigate the significance of miR-335 in early diagnosis of breast cancer. Methods ABI-7900HT, real time fluorescence quantitative instrument, was used for quantitave analysis of miR-335 in 20 cases of breast cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues by pathological diagnosis. Results Compared with adjacent normai tissues, the miR-335 in breast cancer tissues showed significant down-regulation(P<0.0001). The relationship of the pregnancy times and the expression lever of miR-335 in normal tissue samples points that: the more times of pregnancy, the higher miR-335 expression in normal tissue (P=0.0371; correlation coefficient=0.59242). Conclusion Breast cancer has obvious alteration in the expression patterns of miR-335, and real time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR method for detection of miRNA-335 levels in the early diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer provides a new idea and has broad application prospects.%目的:采用实时荧光定量 RT-PCR 分析 miR-335在乳腺癌及癌旁正常组织中的表达水平,探讨 miR-335在乳腺癌疾病中的临床诊断意义。方法运用 ABI-7900HT 实时荧光定量仪对20例已由病理确诊的乳腺癌组织及癌旁正常组织的 miR-335进行了定量分析。结果将乳腺癌与正常组织表达量相比较,发现了 miR-335在所有被检测的乳腺癌组织中均有不同程度的表达水平下调,且结果有显著差异(P<0.0001)。正常组织中的 miR-335表达水平与怀孕次数之间的关系提示:怀孕次数越多,正常组织中的 miR-335表达越高(P=0.0371;相关系数=0.59242)。结论乳腺癌组织及癌旁正常乳腺组织中存在上述 miR-335表达水平的差别,实时荧光定量 RT-PCR 方法检测miRNA-335水平在乳腺癌早期诊断和治疗方面提供了新的思路并具有广阔的应用前景。

  10. Fully integrated monolithic opoelectronic transducer for real.time protein and DNA detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misiakos, Konstatinos; S. Petrou, Panagiota; E. Kakabakos, Sotirios

    2010-01-01

    scheme through a board-to-board receptacle was developed and combined with a portable customized readout and control instrument. Real-time detection of deleterious mutations in BRCA1 gene related to predisposition to hereditary breast/ovarian cancer was performed with the instrument developed using PCR......The development and testing of a portable bioanalytical device which was capable for real-time monitoring of binding assays was demonstrated. The device was based on arrays of nine optoelectronic transducers monolithically integrated on silicon chips. The optocouplers consisted of nine silicon...... products. Detection was based on waveguided photons elimination through interaction with fluorescently labeled PCR products. Detection of single biomolecular binding events was also demonstrated using nanoparticles as labels. In addition, label-free monitoring of bioreactions in real time was achieved...

  11. Detection of BRAF V600E mutation with thyroid tissue using pyrosequencing: comparison with PNA-clamping and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong-Ho; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Yang, Seok-Woo; Hong, Soon Won

    2013-06-01

    We used pyrosequencing, peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-clamping polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR to detect the BRAF V600E mutation and to investigate the prognostic effect of the BRAF V600E mutation in paraffin block specimens from 100 patients diagnosed with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Positive rates of PNA-clamping PCR, real-time PCR, and pyrosequencing were 66%, 70%, and 68%, respectively. Pyrosequencing and PNA-clamping PCR detected mutant type in a 99:1 (wild-type: mutant) DNA concentration, and PNA-clamping PCR detected mutant type in a 99.5:0.5 DNA concentration. Clamping PCR showed higher κ value than real-time PCR (0.729 vs 0.626). The BRAF V600E mutation was associated with an advanced stage of cancer (P = .045) and was found to be associated with poor prognostic factors. This study suggests that pyrosequencing can be as sensitive as real-time PCR and that PNA-clamping PCR is a sensitive and reliable method to detect the BRAF V600E mutation.

  12. Scheduling Non-stationary Bursts of Real-time and Non-real-time Traffic in ATM Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The problem of scheduling real-time and non-real-time traffic in an ATM switch multiplexor when bursts of either type of traffic occur is studied. The scheduling algorithms studied are: Queue Length Threshold (QLT) and Minimum Laxity Threshold (MLT). Analytic results based on Markov Chains are used. In addition the results are compared with an optimal (but impractical) scheduling determined via dynamic programming. Dynamic programming is used in this paper to show that MLT gives a near optimal performance trade-off between real-time and non-real-time traffic for constant arrival rates. The trade-off QLT allows is not close to optimal. For non-real-time bursts MLT still gives a close to optimal trade-off. For real-time bursts the trade-off MLT allows between real-time and non-real-time traffic is not as close to optimal, but even where the MLT trade-off is not near optimal, the QLT trade-off is much worse than the MLT trade-off.

  13. Leptin-LepRb Expressed in Gastric Cancer Patients and Related to Cancer-Related Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chenyan; Hui, Lingyun; Huang, Tianhe

    2017-01-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder among cancer patients. Studies have not only highlighted that leptin and its receptor (LepRb) are independent poor prognostic factors in gastric cancer (GC) patients but also shown that the leptin-LepRb is necessary for antidepressant-like behaviors. In this study, we examined the serum and tissue leptin-LepRb expression in GC patients. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that depressive GC patients had significantly higher serum leptin-LepRb than healthy donors. Leptin-LepRb levels in GC tissues were also significantly higher than in matched paracarcinoma tissues using real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, we observed that both serum and tissue leptin-LepRb were significantly higher in depressive GC patients than those in nondepressive GC patients. Further, the patients with high tumor stage tend to have higher leptin-LepRb mRNA levels than that with low tumor stage. Together, our findings suggest that leptin-LepRb plays an important role in the pathogenesis and depression in GC. Leptin-LepRb therefore could be a potential diagnostic marker and therapeutic target in GC patients with depression.

  14. Real-time knee adduction moment feedback training using an elliptical trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang Hoon; Lee, Song Joo; Ren, Yupeng; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2014-03-01

    The external knee adduction moment (EKAM) is associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in many aspects including presence, progression, and severity of knee OA. Despite of its importance, there is a lack of EKAM estimation methods that can provide patients with knee OA real-time EKAM biofeedback for training and clinical evaluations without using a motion analysis laboratory. A practical real-time EKAM estimation method, which utilizes kinematics measured by a simple six degree-of-freedom goniometer and kinetics measured by a multi-axis force sensor underneath the foot, was developed to provide real-time feedback of the EKAM to the patients during stepping on an elliptical trainer, which can potentially be used to control and alter the EKAM. High reliability (ICC(2,1): 0.9580) of the real-time EKAM estimation method was verified through stepping trials of seven subjects without musculoskeletal disorders. Combined with advantages of elliptical trainers including functional weight-bearing stepping and mitigation of impulsive forces, the real-time EKAM estimation method is expected to help patients with knee OA better control frontal plane knee loading and reduce knee OA development and progression.

  15. Antibiotic resistance in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiol, Carlota; Carratalà, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial infection is one of the most frequent complications in cancer patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. In recent years, the emergence of antimicrobial resistance has become a significant problem worldwide, and cancer patients are among those affected. Treatment of infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria represents a clinical challenge, especially in the case of Gram-negative bacilli, since the therapeutic options are often very limited. As the antibiotics active against MDR bacteria present several disadvantages (limited clinical experience, higher incidence of adverse effects, and less knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of the drug), a thorough acquaintance with the main characteristics of these drugs is mandatory in order to provide safe treatment to cancer patients with MDR bacterial infections. Nevertheless, the implementation of antibiotic stewardship programs and infection control measures is the cornerstone for controlling the development and spread of these MDR pathogens.

  16. Thromboembolism in Patients with Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükçelik, Abdullah; Akbulut, Hakan

    2004-03-01

    One hundred and forty years ago, Armand Trousseau described phlegmasia alba dolens as a sign of internal malignancy. Nowadays, it is commonly believed that the presence malignant tumaor increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (i.e deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) However, cancer is usually associated with other factors such as old age, extensive surgery,immobility, etc., which may predispose to thromboembolism. The majority of thrombotic events occur in the venous system; the incidence of arterial thrombosis is much lower.Recurrent thromboembolism in cancer patients frequently and diminishes the quality of life of the patients.Furthermore, if the thromboembolism is massive, destipte of early and aggressive treatment, it may result in death. In this article, we review thromboembolic complications in cancer patients.

  17. Hypertension in Patients with Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vinicius Barbosa de; Silva, Eduardo Nani; Ribeiro, Mario Luiz; Martins, Wolney de Andrade, E-mail: wolney@cardiol.br [Curso de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Cardiovasculares da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    There is a known association between chemotherapy and radiotherapy for treatment of cancer patients and development or worsening of hypertension. The aim of this article is to review this association. A literature search was conducted for articles reporting this association on the databases PubMed, SciELO and LILACS between 1993 and 2013. There was a high coprevalence of hypertension and cancer, since both diseases share the same risk factors, such as sedentary lifestyle, obesity, smoking, unhealthy diet and alcohol abuse. The use of chemotherapy and adjuvant drugs effective in the treatment of cancer increased the survival rate of these patients and, consequently, increased the incidence of hypertension. We described the association between the use of angiogenesis inhibitors (bevacizumab, sorafenib and sunitinib), corticosteroids, erythropoietin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with the development of hypertension. We also described the relationship between hypertension and carotid baroreceptor injury secondary to cervical radiotherapy. Morbidity and mortality increased in patients with cancer and hypertension without proper antihypertensive treatment. We concluded that there is need for early diagnosis, effective monitoring and treatment strategies for hypertension in cancer patients in order to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  18. Space Shuttle Main Engine real time stability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, F. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a reusable, high performance, liquid rocket engine with variable thrust. The engine control system continuously monitors the engine parameters and issues propellant valve control signals in accordance with the thrust and mixture ratio commands. A real time engine simulation lab was installed at MSFC to verify flight software and to perform engine dynamic analysis. A real time engine model was developed on the AD100 computer system. This model provides sufficient fidelity on the dynamics of major engine components and yet simplified enough to be executed in real time. The hardware-in-the-loop type simulation and analysis becomes necessary as NASA is continuously improving the SSME technology, some with significant changes in the dynamics of the engine. The many issues of interfaces between new components and the engine can be better understood and be resolved prior to the firing of the engine. In this paper, the SSME real time simulation Lab at the MSFC, the SSME real time model, SSME engine and control system stability analysis, both in real time and non-real time is presented.

  19. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preckshot, G.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems.

  20. [Weight loss in cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordick, Florian; Hacker, Ulrich

    2016-02-01

    Cancer patients are regularly affected by malnutrition which often leads to a worsened quality of life and activity in daily living, more side effects and complications during anticancer treatment and shorter survival times. The early diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition are therefore relevant components of oncological treatment. The assessment of the nutritional status and determination of the body-mass-index should be done in every patient with cancer. The clinical examination delivers important findings and indications for malnutrition. Bioimpedance analysis can deliver additional objective information. The treatment of malnutrition should start early and follows a step-wise escalation reaching from nutritional counseling to enteral nutritional support to parenteral nutrition.

  1. Real-time embedded systems design principles and engineering practices

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Xiaocong

    2015-01-01

    This book integrates new ideas and topics from real time systems, embedded systems, and software engineering to give a complete picture of the whole process of developing software for real-time embedded applications. You will not only gain a thorough understanding of concepts related to microprocessors, interrupts, and system boot process, appreciating the importance of real-time modeling and scheduling, but you will also learn software engineering practices such as model documentation, model analysis, design patterns, and standard conformance. This book is split into four parts to help you

  2. Towards Real Time Simulation of Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present recent and preliminary work directed towards the development of a simplified, physics-based model for improved simulation of ship-ship interaction that can be used for both analysis and real-time computing (i.e. with real-time constraints due to visualization). The goal is to implement...... accurate (realistic) and much faster ship-wave and ship-ship simulations than are currently possible. The coupling of simulation with visualization should improve the visual experience such that it can be perceived as more realistic in training. Today the state-of-art in real-time ship-ship interaction...

  3. The Durham adaptive optics real-time controller

    CERN Document Server

    Basden, Alastair; Myers, Richard; Younger, Eddy

    2010-01-01

    The Durham adaptive optics real-time controller was initially a proof of concept design for a generic adaptive optics control system. It has since been developed into a modern and powerful CPU based real-time control system, capable of using hardware acceleration (including FPGAs and GPUs), based primarily around commercial off the shelf hardware. It is powerful enough to be used as the real-time controller for all currently planned 8~m class telescope adaptive optics systems. Here we give details of this controller and the concepts behind it, and report on performance including latency and jitter, which is less than 10~$\\mu$s for small adaptive optics systems.

  4. Real-Time Mass Passenger Transport Network Optimization Problems

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The aim of Real-Time Mass Transport Vehicle Routing Problem (MTVRP) is to find a solution to route n vehicles in real time to pick up and deliver m passengers. This problem is described in the context of flexible large-scale mass transportation options that use new technologies for communication among passengers and vehicles. The solution of such a problem is relevant to future transportation options involving large scale real-time routing of shared-ride fleet transit vehicles. However, the g...

  5. Screening and reconstruction of real-time traffic data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴玉龙; 马骥

    2003-01-01

    The quality of real-time traffic information is of the great importance, therefore the factors having effect on traffic characteristics are analyzed in general, and the necessities of real-time data processing are summarized. The identification and reconstruction of real-time traffic data are analyzed using Kalman filter equation and statistical approach. Four methods for ITS (Intelligent transportation system) detector data screening in traffic management systems are discussed in detail. Meanwhile traffic data examinations are discussed with solutions formulated through analysis, and recommendations are made for information collection and data management in future.

  6. A framework to model real-time databases

    CERN Document Server

    Idoudi, Nizar; Duvallet, Claude; Sadeg, Bruno; Bouaziz, Rafik; Gargouri, Faiez

    2010-01-01

    Real-time databases deal with time-constrained data and time-constrained transactions. The design of this kind of databases requires the introduction of new concepts to support both data structures and the dynamic behaviour of the database. In this paper, we give an overview about different aspects of real-time databases and we clarify requirements of their modelling. Then, we present a framework for real-time database design and describe its fundamental operations. A case study demonstrates the validity of the structural model and illustrates SQL queries and Java code generated from the classes of the model

  7. Real-Time Obstacle Detection Approach using Stereoscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Baha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new and simple approach to obstacle and free space detection in an indoor and outdoor environment in real-time using stereo vision as sensor. The real-time obstacle detection algorithm uses two dimensional disparity map to detect obstacles in the scene without constructing the ground plane. The proposed approach combines an accumulating and thresholding techniques to detect and cluster obstacle pixels into objects using a dense disparity map. The results from both analysis modules are combined to provide information of the free space. Experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method in real-time.

  8. Seroprevalence of occult hepatitis B among Egyptian paediatric hepatitis C cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raouf, H E; Yassin, A S; Megahed, S A; Ashour, M S; Mansour, T M

    2015-02-01

    Occult hepatitis B infection is characterized by the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the serum in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in Egypt is among the highest in the world. In this study, we aim at analysing the rates of occult HBV infections among HCV paediatric cancer patients in Egypt. The prevalence of occult HBV was assessed in two groups of paediatric cancer patients (HCV positive and HCV negative), in addition to a third group of paediatric noncancer patients, which was used as a general control. All groups were negative for HBsAg and positive for HCV antibody. HBV DNA was detected by nested PCR and real-time PCR. HCV was detected by real-time PCR. Sequencing was carried out in order to determine HBV genotypes to all HBV patients as well as to detect any mutation that might be responsible for the occult phenotype. Occult hepatitis B infection was observed in neither the non-HCV paediatric cancer patients nor the paediatric noncancer patients but was found in 31% of the HCV-positive paediatric cancer patients. All the detected HBV patients belonged to HBV genotype D, and mutations were found in the surface genome of HBV leading to occult HBV. Occult HBV infection seems to be relatively frequent in HCV-positive paediatric cancer patients, indicating that HBsAg negativity is not sufficient to completely exclude HBV infection. These findings emphasize the importance of considering occult HBV infection in HCV-positive paediatric cancer patients especially in endemic areas as Egypt.

  9. What Do Prostate Cancer Patients Die Of?

    OpenAIRE

    Riihimäki, Matias; Thomsen, Hauke; Brandt, Andreas; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2011-01-01

    The cause of death in prostate cancer patients is examined using the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. Prostate cancer patients were found to have a higher risk for dying from various causes other than prostate cancer, including external causes and heart failure.

  10. Using dual-energy x-ray imaging to enhance automated lung tumor tracking during real-time adaptive radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menten, Martin J., E-mail: martin.menten@icr.ac.uk; Fast, Martin F.; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.oelfke@icr.ac.uk [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Real-time, markerless localization of lung tumors with kV imaging is often inhibited by ribs obscuring the tumor and poor soft-tissue contrast. This study investigates the use of dual-energy imaging, which can generate radiographs with reduced bone visibility, to enhance automated lung tumor tracking for real-time adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: kV images of an anthropomorphic breathing chest phantom were experimentally acquired and radiographs of actual lung cancer patients were Monte-Carlo-simulated at three imaging settings: low-energy (70 kVp, 1.5 mAs), high-energy (140 kVp, 2.5 mAs, 1 mm additional tin filtration), and clinical (120 kVp, 0.25 mAs). Regular dual-energy images were calculated by weighted logarithmic subtraction of high- and low-energy images and filter-free dual-energy images were generated from clinical and low-energy radiographs. The weighting factor to calculate the dual-energy images was determined by means of a novel objective score. The usefulness of dual-energy imaging for real-time tracking with an automated template matching algorithm was investigated. Results: Regular dual-energy imaging was able to increase tracking accuracy in left–right images of the anthropomorphic phantom as well as in 7 out of 24 investigated patient cases. Tracking accuracy remained comparable in three cases and decreased in five cases. Filter-free dual-energy imaging was only able to increase accuracy in 2 out of 24 cases. In four cases no change in accuracy was observed and tracking accuracy worsened in nine cases. In 9 out of 24 cases, it was not possible to define a tracking template due to poor soft-tissue contrast regardless of input images. The mean localization errors using clinical, regular dual-energy, and filter-free dual-energy radiographs were 3.85, 3.32, and 5.24 mm, respectively. Tracking success was dependent on tumor position, tumor size, imaging beam angle, and patient size. Conclusions: This study has highlighted the influence of

  11. Novel Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an aircraft flight envelope monitoring system that will provide real-time in-cockpit estimations of aircraft flight envelope boundaries,...

  12. Study on the Bus Real-time Dispatching Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YingZou; JianguoLi; JianhuaHuang; ZhenminTang

    2004-01-01

    The real-time dispatching model on bus system is studied in this article. Realtime dispatching can resume the planned schedule quickly, and then to ensure the reliability of the public transport service and to well raise the service quality.

  13. 3D Flash LIDAR Real-Time Embedded Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time...

  14. Real Time Control Software for Electromagnetic Formation Flight Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the development of a maintainable and evolvable real-time control software system for Electromagnetic Formation Flight (EMFF). EMFF systems use...

  15. RadNet Real-Time Monitoring Spectrometry Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The RadNet Real-Time Monitoring Spectrometry Data Inventory contains measured data used to identify and measure specific radioactive materials in the atmosphere at...

  16. RadNet-Air Near Real Time Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet-Air is a national network of air monitoring stations that regularly collect air samples for near real time analysis of radioactivity. The data is transmitted...

  17. Real Time Scheduling Services for Distributed RT-CORBA Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bineta Tresa Mathew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Distributed computing environment is flexible to control in complex embedded systems and their software components gain complexity when these systems are equipped with many microcontrollers and software object which covers diverse platforms, this system is called as DRE system. These DRE systems need new inter-object communication solution thus QoS-enabled middleware services and mechanisms have begun to emerge. Real-time application domain benefit from flexible and open distributed architectures, such as those defined by the CORBA specification. CORBA is well-suited to conventional request/response applications, but not suited to real-time applications due to the lack of QoS features and performance optimizations. The paper shows the design and implementation of the high performance scheduling technique for the real time applications domain with CORBA systems. Four different algorithms are compared by using attributes of real time tasks constraints based on CORBA specification such as RMS, MLF, MUF and EDF.

  18. Real-time Position Control of Concentric Tube Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Pierre E; Lock, Jesse; Itkowitz, Brandon

    2010-05-03

    A novel approach to constructing robots is based on concentrically combining pre-curved elastic tubes. By rotating and extending the tubes with respect to each other, their curvatures interact elastically to position and orient the robot's tip, as well as to control the robot's shape along its length. Since these robots form slender curves, they are well suited for minimally invasive medical procedures. A substantial challenge to their practical use is the real-time solution of their kinematics that are described by differential equations with split boundary equations. This paper proposes a numerically efficient approach to real-time position control. It is shown that the forward kinematics are smooth functions that can be pre-computed and accurately approximated using Fourier series. The inverse kinematics can be solved in real time using root finding applied to the functional approximation. Experimental demonstration of real-time position control using this approach is also described.

  19. Real-Time Smart Tools for Processing Spectroscopy Data Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose novel and real-time smart software tools to process spectroscopy data. Material abundance or compositional maps will be generated for rover guidance,...

  20. NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...