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Sample records for cancer ngo regional

  1. Building a Latin American cancer patient advocacy movement: Latin American cancer NGO regional overview Desarrollando un movimiento de apoyo para pacientes de cáncer en America Latina: resumen regional - ONGs de cáncer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Durstine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the this paper is to assess and identify the key strengths and weaknesses for cancer control NGOs in Latin America, with the goal to make recommendations about how to improve thev impact of the patient advocacy movement as it pertains to cancer. The methods included literature review, expert interviews and site visits to Latin American cancer hospitals and NGOs. The overall findings conclude that NGOs currently do not take a leadership role in cancer control in Latin America. The lack of a survivorship movement, faulty patient information services and failure of the governments to include NGOs in policy creation are identified as areas for further project work and collaboration. The stigma of cancer still remains and a burgeoning patient movement can be created to help destigmatize and debunk the myths that surround cancer.El objetivo de este artículo es el de identificar y evaluar las fortalezas y debilidades clave de las ONG dedicadas al control del cáncer en Latinoamérica, con el fin de generar recomendaciones sobre el modo de mejorar el impacto del movimiento de apoyo para pacientes de cáncer. Los métodos incluyeron una revisión de la literatura, entrevistas a expertos y visitas a hospiptales y ONG dedicados al cáncer en Latinoamérica. Los hallazgos principales permiten concluir que en este momento las ONG no tienen un rol de liderazgo para el control del cáncer en Latinoamérica. La ausencia de un movimiento de sobrevivientes, servicios de información deficientes a los pacientes y el fracaso del gobierno para incluir a las ONG en la creación de políticas se identifican como áreas de trabajo y colaboración en proyectos a futuro. El estigma del cáncer aún subsiste y es factible crear un movimiento que florezca y ayude a desvanecerlo al exponer los mitos que rodean este padecimiento.

  2. NGO field workers in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Haroon SIDDIQUE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available NGOs came into the society in their present form after World War II and more precisely in 1960s. Before that also different forms of philanthropy existed. Like elsewhere in the world, in Pakistan also state and the market were the two sectors catering for different needs of the people. When foreign funding started coming into the poor countries, the channel of NGOs was considered more appropriate including the fact they had roots in the society and the benefit could reach the far flung areas. NGO field workers are the real actors in the NGOs’ activities but sadly the NGOs those raise the slogans of working for the destitute do not bother to facilitate the NGO field workers. Eventually the NGO field workers are facing problems of job insecurity, poor salary structure, unhealthy working environment and even harassment especially in case of women NGO field workers in Pakistan

  3. NGO Work Committee Visits Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    ON June 27, 19 members of the Work Committee of the UN FWCW’s 1995 NGO Forum on Women arrived in Beijing. During their five-day visit in the capital they talked with representatives from the host country about preparations for the forum, the meeting place, facilities and other relevant matters. Huang Qizao, Vice-Chairperson of the FWCW’s China Organizing Committee, Committee Director of the NGO Forum and

  4. The Main Activities and Features of NGO in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuLingling; YanMoufeng

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, activities of non-governmental organizations(NGO) were increasing. The international community paid more and more attention to the rolep layed by NGO. The cooperation among NGO was strengthening. Governments of all countries supported the activities of NGO conditionally and at the same time, took advantage of the activities held by NGO to serve their foreign policies.

  5. Indicators of NGO Security in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-14

    in Afghanistan. Goodhand argues it will take more than just military action. Hoffman, Peter and Larry Minear. ed. NGO Policy Dialogue XI...http://hwproject.tufts.edu/new/pdf/Report11.pdf. Update to proceedings NGO Policy Dialogue XI: Afghanistan Revisited, Report 11. Proc

  6. [Regional anesthesia and cancer immunology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Toru; Mori, Katsuya; Inoue, Kei; Suzuki, Takeshi; Morisaki, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Regional anesthesia has been widely applied as an excellent method for perioperative analgesia. Recent studies suggested that regional anesthesia is a promising approach to minimize the risk of surgical site infection and postoperative cancer recurrence, subsequently providing the benefits to the long-term outcome. In particular, it is of great interest that regional anesthesia might be able to reduce cancer recurrence. In cancer patients, innate immunity against cancer could be depressed, resulting in the predisposition to evoke metastasis. Besides, during the perioperative periods, tumor immunity is significantly depressed due to surgical pain, activation of sympathetic nervous system, inflammatory responses, and others. In this review article, we discuss the tumor immunity during the perioperative period, with focus on the alterations of tumor immunity and regional anesthesia.

  7. Parallel NGO networks for HIV control: risks and opportunities for NGO contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Shehla; Gul, Xaher; Nishtar, Noureen Aleem

    2012-12-27

    Policy measures for preventive and promotive services are increasingly reliant on contracting of NGOs. Contracting is a neo-liberal response relying on open market competition for service delivery tenders. In contracting of health services a common assumption is a monolithic NGO market. A case study of HIV control in Pakistan shows that in reality the NGO market comprises of parallel NGO networks having widely different service packages, approaches and agendas. These parallel networks had evolved over time due to vertical policy agendas. Contracting of NGOs for provision of HIV services was faced with uneven capacities and turf rivalries across both NGO networks. At the same time contracting helped NGO providers belonging to different clusters to move towards standardized service delivery for HIV prevention. Market based measures such as contracting need to be accompanied with wider policy measures that facilitate in bringing NGOs groups to a shared understanding of health issues and responses.

  8. Transnational NGO, Development and Global Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    . In China, NGO work until recently mainly remained within the national framework and is seen as supplementary to state strategies and potential intermediates between state and society. For many parts of the Middle East, NGOs remain controversial as agents of colonial expansion, perpetual elites and foreign...

  9. The Work of Ngo Bao Chau

    CERN Document Server

    Hales, Thomas C

    2010-01-01

    In August 2010, Ngo Bao Chau was awarded a Fields Medal for his deep work relating the Hitchin fibration to the Arthur-Selberg trace formula, and in particular for his proof of the Fundamental Lemma for Lie algebras. This article gives a brief introduction to his work for a general mathematical audience.

  10. NGO Forum on Women, Beijing’95

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The ten-day NGO Forum was held at over one-hundred meeting places in Huairou. a scenic suburb of Beijing. Over 30,000 participants from around the world gathered there and held more than 5,000 workshops, panels and sessions covering a variety of themes, including the econorny. governance and politics, legal rights, education, health, the environment science and technology.

  11. A talk on the relationships between libraries and NGO%略谈图书馆NGO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华芳

    2004-01-01

    NGO即非政府组织的英文缩写.文章介绍了与图书馆相关的NGO--中国图书馆学会、数字图书馆国际论坛和中国高等学校数字图书馆联盟以及青年志愿者组织等,并试图从图书馆的角度来阐释NGO.

  12. Gastric Cancer Regional Detection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Berkan; Hardalaç, Fırat; Serhatlioğlu, Selami; İlhan, Mustafa Necmi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel system was created to localize cancerous regions for stomach images which were taken with computed tomography(CT). The aim was to determine the coordinates of cancerous regions which spread in the stomach area in the color space with using this system. Also, to limit these areas with a high accuracy ratio and to feedback to the user of this system were the other objectives. This integration was performed with using energy mapping, analysis methods and multiple image processing methods and the system which was consisted from these advanced algorithms was appeared. For this work, in the range of 25-40 years and when gender discrimination was insignificant, 30 volunteer patients were chosen. During the formation of the system, to exalt the accuracy to the maximum level, 2 main stages were followed up. First, in the system, advanced image processing methods were processed between each other and obtained data were studied. Second, in the system, FFT and Log transformations were used respectively for the first two cases, then these transformations were used together for the third case. For totally three cases, energy distribution and DC energy intensity analysis were done and the performance of this system was investigated. Finally, with using the system's unique algorithms, a non-invasive method was achieved to detect the gastric cancer and when FFT and Log transformation were used together, the maximum success rate was obtained and this rate was calculated as 83,3119 %.

  13. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CARDIOESOPHAGEAL CANCER AND STOMACH CANCER IN ALTAY REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Lazarev, A.; Shoyhet, Ya; Nechunaev, V.; Panasjan, A.; Tsyvkina, V.

    2007-01-01

    The article summarizes analytical results of morbidity and mortality of stomach cancer and cardioesophageal cancer in Altay region in comparison with Russian indices since 1990 to 2005. Downtrend of morbidity is registered morbidity was reduced on 10.000 (16 %) since 1990. At the same time specific increase of cardioesophageal cancer is registered including Altay region. Morbidity of cardioesophageal cancer is increased twice in Altay region. Different types of adenocarcinoma dominated (92 %)...

  14. Co-Constructing Knowledge through NGO-Driven Circle Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbæk, Jonas

    This presentation revolves around the question of what degree of control, if any, the users participating in NGO-driven development programs may have over their own development. Based on a multi-sited ethnography of NGO organizing and communication that I conducted in the period of 2010 to 2015, ...

  15. On James Bond and the importance of NGO accountability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unerman, J.; O'Dwyer, B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to set out key issues in the academic study of non-governmental organisation (NGO) accountability, and to introduce papers appearing in this special issue on NGO accountability. Design/methodology/approach - This is a discussion paper exploring key issues theor

  16. NGO's moving business : an analysis of contrasting strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijstee, M.M. van; Glasbergen, P.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we seek to advance understanding of nongovernmental organization (NGO) strategies with regard to influencing corporations. We study two contrasting NGO strategies (symbolic gain and symbolic damage), which simultaneously target the same corporation on the same issue. In so doing, we

  17. Records & reputations: Everyday politics of a Philippine Development NGO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, D.

    2000-01-01

    This study looks into the working of policies, practices and accountability of NGOs. It is based on fieldwork with one development NGO in the Cordillera of the Philippines: the Cordillera Women NGO, or CWNGO (a pseudonym). Through this study I wanted to find out why certain groups of actors form org

  18. Cancer prevention in the Asia Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Keun-Young

    2010-01-01

    Cancer incidences as well as the most prevalent cancer types vary greatly across Asian countries since people have differing health behaviors as well as lifestyle factors related to cancer risk. Countries have varying systems of government organization, laws, resources, facilities, and management strategies for addressing the cancer burden. Examples such as Korea and Japan with existing national cancer control programs need to focus on early screening and detection and quality of screening methods. If screening and detection increase to cover more than 50% of the target population, survival rate increases and thus the number of cancer patients detected increases resulting in higher medical cost. Thus, expansion of cancer screening, in addition to smoking prevention, immunization increase, and diet control awareness, are needed for cancer prevention strategies. Countries such as Thailand, China, Malaysia, and Turkey need to begin organized efforts to reduce cancer deaths through state-wide cancer screening programs. Strategies focused on increasing survival among cancer patients are also needed. In addition, government organizations and law regulations need to be in place as the first step towards cancer prevention. For the countries such as Nepal, Pakistan, Mongolia, and Iraq which do not have any cancer-related organizations in place, the first step that is needed is to raise public awareness about cancer; a public awareness campaign is the number one priority and should begin immediately. The easiest and most feasible step at this point is dissemination of cancer education materials during school health education and physical health screening. This must be started immediately because we need to avoid the development of existing cancers where patients will need to seek specialized cancer treatment facilities that are non-existent in these regions. In addition, hospitals need to take a step further and start undergoing registration of cancer prevalence and

  19. Winning without Fighting: Military/Ngo Interaction Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Assistance (OUA) to provide assistance and lifesaving support to the effected populations.42 Many countries including Russia, France, Malaysia ...Eventually, CARE, the Norwegian Refugee Council, and The International Council of Voluntary Agencies formalized the NGO coordination meetings.67

  20. NGO-Business Partnerships: a Win-Win Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ménascé, David

    2016-01-01

    NGO-business partnerships have been multiplying for several years now. These new alliances help to strengthen the legitimacy and social acceptability of companies, but they also – above all – make essential goods and services accessible to a wider population. In this way, these partnerships boost the efficacy of NGO actions while reinventing the way in which businesses envisage their activity in developing countries. In this interview, Franck Renaudin goes back over the potentialities, the ke...

  1. Economic Programmes and Poverty Reduction: NGO Experiences from Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekhar, D.; P Shobana

    2000-01-01

    The impact of economic programmes of SHARE, an NGO from Tamil Nadu, on poverty reduction is analysed with the help of data from 84 hosueholds. The economic programmes contributed to savings and income increase, and enhanced the leadership qualities, awareness and knowledge. The member group is not significantly different from the comparison group in terms of control over income and decision-making. This suggests that the NGO economic programmes have limitation is bringing about non-economic b...

  2. NGO - PRIVATE ACTORS AT AN INTERNATIONAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAILA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available International law, taken by globalization, helps emerge “private actors at an international level” by generating “a removal from territories of problems and solutions”. The question of NGO accessing international jurisdictions is situated at this intersection, which is a dangerous one for jurists. The ways of national laws intersect, in fact, with those of international law. More over, private international law, more specifically, the private judicial nature of NGOs that enter into contact with public international law, an intersection that will imprint a plural-disciplinary character that marks this study. Thus, we must follow this rocky road and try a private approach of a question disputed by public law, which is also a part of international law. The risks of maladroitness are numerous, but must be assumed according to their importance and of the rarity of clarification attempts. NGOs, legal persons from private law exercising their activities in international context contain, in fact, elements of foreign origin that result in specific problems of international law. And if “international law can not be the domain of perfect solutions” it can allow however the adoption of others which, that can seem less perfect to some, will possess the aptitude of “creating the laws of a state”. Thus, only by allying public international law to private law, the question of NGOs access to international jurisdictions can receive an answer.

  3. NGO 'S ROLE IN SOCIAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA CLAUDIA MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to be a company - NGO relationship analysis and points out that a company can find its strategic stakeholders among non - profit organizations. In world practice social responsibility is spoken frequently about the collaboration between the business sector and non - profit. At the international level, NGOs are one of the most important dialogue partners of the business sector. In Romania, NGOs are often seen as something always require organizations that sponsor or if you want to do exercises image. On the one hand NGOs are wondering what to do to see their sponsored projects, although according to modern definitions, sponsorship does not really have much in common with corporate social. On the other hand companies are trying to answer the question "who are strategic stakeholders". Their proactive involvement of the stakeholders helps to cultivate relationships that can provide a competitive advantage especially in times of crisis. Like any business, stakeholder engagement has a number of constraints: requires time, financial and human resources dedicated to rely on a continuous process of monitoring and may require. Moreover, if not properly planned and implemented, could damage relations between the company and stakeholders

  4. The paradox of greater NGO accountability: A case study of Amnesty Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Dwyer, B.; Unerman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite mounting public, governmental and corporate interest in issues of non-governmental organisation (NGO) accountability, there are few academic studies investigating the emergence of accountability mechanisms in specific advocacy NGO settings. Drawing on the theoretical constructs of hierarchic

  5. Business-NGO interactions in a multi-stakeholder context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijstee, M.M. van; Glasbergen, P.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to contribute to our understanding of the conditions under which Business– nongovernmental organization (NGO) interactions lead to improvements in corporate social responsibility (CSR), by assessing the role that the stakeholder context of the firm plays in the proc

  6. Small NGO Schools in India: Implications for Access and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the proliferation of private, fee-paying schools in India, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) play an important role in providing educational services, especially in un-served and under-served communities. This paper uses qualitative research to critically examine the nature and potential of NGO provision of primary schooling in…

  7. Cloud Computing Future Framework for e-management of NGO's

    CERN Document Server

    Lamba, Harjit Singh

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing is an emerging new computing paradigm for delivering computing services. This computing approach relies on a number of existing technologies, e.g., the Internet, virtualization, grid computing, Web services, etc. Cloud Computing aims to provide scalable and inexpensive on-demand computing infrastructures with good quality of service levels. It represents a shift away from computing as a product that is purchased, to computing as a service that is delivered to consumers from the cloud. It helps an organization in saving costs and creating new business opportunities.This paper provides a framework, Education Cloud for the e- management of NGO's. The Education Cloud can transform a nonprofit, or an entire sector of nonprofits, achieves its mission and creates lasting impact in its communities. This paper also presents the case study of Kalgidhar trust, Baru Sahib, Himachal Pradesh, NGO which is using the education as the tool to solve the social issues.

  8. NGO:向下生根向上成林

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾西津

    2009-01-01

    @@ NGO,即NGO组织的再组织,具有组织联盟、领域联合、区域合作、部门联席、网络纽带、伞状代言组织等多元结构,以及基金会、专业律师、专业募款组织、专业管理者联合等NGo的支持性组织,从而将多元的NGo组织,以及本土的社会资源、社会需求联接起来.

  9. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, L E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccination...... guidelines and policies for HPV vaccination. CONCLUSION: Current practices to prevent cervical cancer in the Pacific Region do not match the high burden of disease from cervical cancer. A regional approach, including reducing vaccine prices by bulk purchase of vaccine, technical support for implementation...

  10. CPAFFC Delegation Attends 56th Annual UN DPI/NGO Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYanling

    2004-01-01

    At the invitation of the NGO Section of the Department of Public Information (DPI)of the United Nations, the CPAFFC delegation attended the 56th Annual DPI/NGO Conference at the UN Headquarters in New York, from September 8 to 10, 2003.

  11. CPAFFC Delegation Attends 56th Annual UN DPI/NGO Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the NGO Section of the Department of Public Information (DPI)of the United Nations, the CPAFFC delegation attended the 56th Annual DPI/NGO Conference at the UN Headquarters in New York, from September 8 to 10, 2003.

  12. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  13. Multifunctional Photosensitizer Grafted on Polyethylene Glycol and Polyethylenimine Dual-Functionalized Nanographene Oxide for Cancer-Targeted Near-Infrared Imaging and Synergistic Phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shenglin; Yang, Zhangyou; Tan, Xu; Wang, Yang; Zeng, Yiping; Wang, Yu; Li, Changming; Li, Rong; Shi, Chunmeng

    2016-07-13

    The integration of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with photothermal therapy (PTT) offers improved efficacy in cancer phototherapy. Herein, a PDT photosensitizer (IR-808) with cancer-targeting ability and near-infrared (NIR) sensitivity was chemically conjugated to both polyethylene glycol (PEG)- and branched polyethylenimine (BPEI)-functionalized nanographene oxide (NGO). Because the optimal laser wavelength (808 nm) of NGO for PTT is consistent with that of IR-808 for PDT, the IR-808-conjugated NGO sheets (NGO-808, 20-50 nm) generated both large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and local hyperthermia as a result of 808 nm laser irradiation. With PEG- and BPEI-modified NGO as the carrier, the tumor cellular uptake of NGO-808 exhibited higher efficacy than that of strongly hydrophobic free IR-808. Through evaluation with both human and mouse cancer cells, NGO-808 was demonstrated to provide significantly enhanced PDT and PTT effects compared to individual PDT using IR-808 or PTT using NGO. Furthermore, NGO-808 preferentially accumulated in cancer cells as mediated by organic-anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) overexpressed in many cancer cells, providing the potential for highly specific cancer phototherapy. Using the targeting ability of NGO-808, in vivo NIR fluorescence imaging enabled tumors and their margins to be clearly visualized at 48 h after intravenous injection, providing a theranostic platform for imaging-guided cancer phototherapy. Remarkably, after a single injection of NGO-808 and 808 nm laser irradiation for 5 min, the tumors in two tumor xenograft models were ablated completely, and no tumor recurrence was observed. After treatment with NGO-808, no obvious toxicity was detected in comparison to control groups. Thus, high-performance cancer phototherapy with minimal side effects was afforded from synergistic PDT/PTT treatment and cancer-targeted accumulation of NGO-808.

  14. The promise of acceptance as an NGO security management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Larissa; Freeman, Faith; O'Neill, Michael; Rowley, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    This paper explores three questions related to acceptance as a security management approach. Acceptance draws upon relationships with community members, authorities, belligerents and other stakeholders to provide consent for the presence and activities of a non-governmental organisation (NGO), thereby reducing threats from these actors. Little is documented about how NGOs gain and maintain acceptance, how they assess and monitor the presence and degree of acceptance, or how they determine whether acceptance is effective in a particular context. Based on field research conducted in April 2011 in Kenya, South Sudan and Uganda, we address each of these three issues and argue that acceptance must be actively sought as both a programme and a security management strategy. In the paper we delineate elements common to all three contexts as well as missed opportunities, which identify areas that NGOs can and should address as part of an acceptance approach.

  15. Romania- New Tobacco control law from an NGO perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaltan Florin Dumitru

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In our presentation we are evaluating the progress of the tobacco control in Romania looking form the point of view on NGO in the last 26 years. We are signalling the progressive steps towards policy and an advocacy from our perspective and the consequences of our success. The final result is reflected in the new law starting in force on March 17th, 2016, a real advance in our fight. We are identifying in the same time the new challenging problems after launching the new law. Probably the biggest gain of our fight is the extensive partnership with all the factors, our efforts to bring together in a big family as the coalition “Romania Respira” politicians, advocates, judges, economists, young’s and also the new way found to encourage all: mass media, politicians, journalists, public to support us.

  16. Epidemiology of prostate cancer in the Asia-Pacific region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Baade

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to examine and compare available data on incidence, mortality and survival for countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Incidence data were obtained from GLOBOCAN 2008, other online data sources and individual cancer registries. Country-specific mortality statistics by individual year were sourced from the World Health Organization Statistical Information System Mortality Database. All incidence and mortality rates were directly age-standardised to the Segi World Standard population and joinpoint models were used to assess trends. Data on survival were obtained from country-specific published reports where available. Approximately 14% (122,000 of all prostate cancers diagnosed worldwide in 2008 were within the Asia-Pacific region (10 per 100,000 population, with three out of every four of these prostate cancer cases diagnosed in either Japan (32%, China (28% or Australia (15%. There were also about 42,000 deaths due to prostate cancer in the Asia-Pacific region (3 per 100,000. For the nine countries with incidence trend data available, eight showed recent significant increases in prostate cancer incidence. In contrast, recent decreases in prostate cancer mortality have been reported for Australia, Japan and New Zealand, but mortality has increased in several other countries. The lack of population-based data across most of the countries in this region limits the ability of researchers to understand and report on the patterns and distribution of this important cancer. Governments and health planners typically require quantitative evidence as a motivation for change. Unless there is a widespread commitment to improve the collection and reporting of data on prostate cancer it is likely that the burden of prostate cancer will continue to increase. Enhancing knowledge transfer between countries where there are differentials in capacity, policy and experience may provide the necessary impetus and opportunity to overcome at

  17. Epidemiology of prostate cancer in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baade, Peter D; Youlden, Danny R; Cramb, Susanna M; Dunn, Jeff; Gardiner, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine and compare available data on incidence, mortality and survival for countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Incidence data were obtained from GLOBOCAN 2008, other online data sources and individual cancer registries. Country-specific mortality statistics by individual year were sourced from the World Health Organization Statistical Information System Mortality Database. All incidence and mortality rates were directly age-standardised to the Segi World Standard population and joinpoint models were used to assess trends. Data on survival were obtained from country-specific published reports where available. Approximately 14% (122,000) of all prostate cancers diagnosed worldwide in 2008 were within the Asia-Pacific region (10 per 100,000 population), with three out of every four of these prostate cancer cases diagnosed in either Japan (32%), China (28%) or Australia (15%). There were also about 42,000 deaths due to prostate cancer in the Asia-Pacific region (3 per 100,000). For the nine countries with incidence trend data available, eight showed recent significant increases in prostate cancer incidence. In contrast, recent decreases in prostate cancer mortality have been reported for Australia, Japan and New Zealand, but mortality has increased in several other countries. The lack of population-based data across most of the countries in this region limits the ability of researchers to understand and report on the patterns and distribution of this important cancer. Governments and health planners typically require quantitative evidence as a motivation for change. Unless there is a widespread commitment to improve the collection and reporting of data on prostate cancer it is likely that the burden of prostate cancer will continue to increase. Enhancing knowledge transfer between countries where there are differentials in capacity, policy and experience may provide the necessary impetus and opportunity to overcome at least some of

  18. Creating strategic value and sustainable innovation through Business-NGO partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth; Lodsgård, Lise

    A growing body of research emphasizes the potentials of business-NGO partnerships (BNP’s) in developing sustainable innovation. The purpose of this study is to set up a model for defining these business-NGO partnerships and to investigate through a multiple cross-sectoral case-study how...... the different partnership types are managed to create strategic value through sustainable innovation. The findings reveal different practices, opportunities and challenges in creating SI across the different types of business-NGO partnerships....

  19. Dual Value Creation and Business Model Design: An Ethnographic Study of an Internationalizing NGO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    This ethnographic research explores the process of business model design in the context of an NGO internationalizing to an emerging market. It contributes to the business model literature by investigating how this NGO - targeting multiple key stakeholders - was experimenting (1) with value propos...... proposition; (2) creating the value/promise; and (3) delivering the value. Theoretically the paper is grounded in the dynamic capability view of the firm providing venues for future research and implications for policy and practice....

  20. Global and regional estimates of cancer mortality and incidence by site: I. Application of regional cancer survival model to estimate cancer mortality distribution by site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Alan D

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Global Burden of Disease 2000 (GBD 2000 study starts from an analysis of the overall mortality envelope in order to ensure that the cause-specific estimates add to the total all cause mortality by age and sex. For regions where information on the distribution of cancer deaths is not available, a site-specific survival model was developed to estimate the distribution of cancer deaths by site. Methods An age-period-cohort model of cancer survival was developed based on data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER. The model was further adjusted for the level of economic development in each region. Combined with the available incidence data, cancer death distributions were estimated and the model estimates were validated against vital registration data from regions other than the United States. Results Comparison with cancer mortality distribution from vital registration confirmed the validity of this approach. The model also yielded the cancer mortality distribution which is consistent with the estimates based on regional cancer registries. There was a significant variation in relative interval survival across regions, in particular for cancers of bladder, breast, melanoma of the skin, prostate and haematological malignancies. Moderate variations were observed among cancers of colon, rectum, and uterus. Cancers with very poor prognosis such as liver, lung, and pancreas cancers showed very small variations across the regions. Conclusions The survival model presented here offers a new approach to the calculation of the distribution of deaths for areas where mortality data are either scarce or unavailable.

  1. Survival of women with breast cancer in Kaunas Region, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanauskienė, Rugilė; Gedminaitė, Jurgita; Juozaitytė, Elona; Vanagas, Giedrius; Simoliūnienė, Renata; Padaiga, Zilvinas

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The assessment of breast cancer survival rates and comparison with those of other countries may help to deepen knowledge among decision makers in the health care system and to improve the inequalities in accessibility to early detection and effective treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate breast cancer survival rates in Kaunas region, Lithuania, and to compare them with those in the selected European countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A retrospective study was carried out using medical records and data gathered from the Lithuanian Cancer Registry. A group of 240 patients with primary breast cancer diagnosed in 2008 in Kaunas region was analyzed. All causes of death were included in the analysis. The closing date of follow-up was September 30, 2010. Survival was determined using the life-table method and the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the effects of prognostic risk factors on survival. RESULTS. The median age of the patients was 63 years (range, 28-95). The 1-year and 2-year cumulative survival for breast cancer patients in Kaunas region, Lithuania, was 94.2% and 90.1%, respectively. As expected, the survival of patients with diagnosed advanced disease (stage III and IV) was significantly worse than that of patients with stage I (PLithuania was found to be similar to most European countries.

  2. HIV-related stigma and NGO-isation in India: a historico-empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Devaki

    2012-06-01

    In response to World Bank critiques in 2007, the Indian Ministry of Health and Family Welfare declared that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related stigma was a barrier to the participation of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the implementation of HIV prevention targeted interventions. Taking a deeper view of HIV-related stigma as a historically inflected process of devaluation, this article details the history and transformation of NGO involvement in the HIV epidemic from 1986 through economic liberalisation in the 1990s up to the Second National AIDS Control Programme (NACP II 1999-2006). It additionally examines findings from interviews and participant observation of NGO workers (N = 24) from four targeted intervention NGOs in Delhi funded under NACP II. Analysis reveals that a second wave of HIV-related NGO involvement has mushroomed in the past two decades, affording NGO workers multiple pathways to credibility in the Indian response to the epidemic. Contradictions embedded in the overlap of these pathways produce stigma, reflecting 'adverse incorporation' of the NGO workers. Drawing upon noteworthy exceptions to this trend from the first wave of Indian HIV-related NGOs, the article calls for NGO participation as an explicitly political project of addressing the social inequalities that shape stigma as well as vulnerability to illness writ large.

  3. Regional Distributions of Distant Metastases Detected in Differentiated Thyroid Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebuzer Kalender

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of our multicenter study is to determine retrospectively the regional distributions of distant metastases which are detected in differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC. Material and Method: Thirty-two of 960 patients with distant metastases who were given radioiodine (RAI treatment in Gaziantep University School of Medicine and Mustafa Kemal University School of Medicine were included to study. Six of patients were male, 26 of them were female. Mean age was 52±15.4. Hystopathological diagnoses were reported as papillary thyroid cancer in 23 patients and folliculary thyroid cancer in 9 patients. The distant metastasis ratio, metastasis regions and distributions were determined. Results: It was observed only lung metastasis in 18 (56.25 %, only bone metastasis in 6 (18.75 %, combination of lung and bone metastases in 3 (9.4 %, other organ metastases accompanying to bone and lung metastases in 3 (9.4 % (liver, soft tissue, mediastinum and multipl organ involvoment in 2 (6.2 % of patients. It was determined single metastasis region in 24 (75 %, 2 metastasis regions in 6 (18.75 % and multipl metastasis regions in 2 (6.25 % of patients. Discussion: Distant metastases are the biggest problem in treatment and follow-up of DTCs. It is very important to diagnosis of metastases and determine the regions of involvoment in these patients.

  4. Gender relations, "Hindu" nationalism, and NGO responses in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlet, S

    1999-03-01

    This article explores the strategies employed by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to challenge the right wing nationalism that dominates Indian politics. The opposition of the NGOs to the current political climate has evolved a variety of strategies, depending on their links with northern NGOs or international organizations such as the UN, and their reliance on foreign funding. The organizations that have links with international NGO community primarily express their opposition through consciousness raising and networking strategies. Because NGOs activities at the national level have the potential to attract the attention and anger of nationalist actors, many choose to operate at local level for fear of harassment. Some get involved in initiatives such as direct-action campaigns which spring up when violence breaks out in a locality, or immediately afterwards. Another strategy being set up by NGOs is cooperative and cross-community initiatives to encourage as well as build on historic relationships of socioeconomic and political interdependence between Hindus and Muslims. These strategies seek to strengthen people's awareness of the distinction between personal spiritual beliefs, the true character of India's composite culture, and of the religious rhetoric being disseminated by nationalist for the purpose of securing political power. Although much effort has been exerted by these organizations, these strategies have limitations, which are discussed in this paper.

  5. Will patients benefit from regionalization of gynecologic cancer care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen F Brookfield

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patient chances for cure and palliation for a variety of malignancies may be greatly affected by the care provided by a treating hospital. We sought to determine the effect of volume and teaching status on patient outcomes for five gynecologic malignancies: endometrial, cervical, ovarian and vulvar carcinoma and uterine sarcoma. METHODS: The Florida Cancer Data System dataset was queried for all patients undergoing treatment for gynecologic cancers from 1990-2000. RESULTS: Overall, 48,981 patients with gynecologic malignancies were identified. Endometrial tumors were the most common, representing 43.2% of the entire cohort, followed by ovarian cancer (30.9%, cervical cancer (20.8%, vulvar cancer (4.6%, and uterine sarcoma (0.5%. By univariate analysis, although patients treated at high volume centers (HVC were significantly younger, they benefited from an improved short-term (30-day and/or 90-day survival for cervical, ovarian and endometrial cancers. Multivariate analysis (MVA, however, failed to demonstrate significant survival benefit for gynecologic cancer patients treated at teaching facilities (TF or HVC. Significant prognostic factors at presentation by MVA were age over 65 (HR = 2.6, p<0.01, African-American race (HR = 1.36, p<0.01, and advanced stage (regional HR = 2.08, p<0.01; advanced HR = 3.82, p<0.01, respectively. Surgery and use of chemotherapy were each significantly associated with improved survival. CONCLUSION: No difference in patient survival was observed for any gynecologic malignancy based upon treating hospital teaching or volume status. Although instances of improved outcomes may occur, overall further regionalization would not appear to significantly improve patient survival.

  6. The Thatung in Cap Ngo Meh (Lantern Festival Ritual In Hakka Society in Singkawang, West Kalimantan-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ikhsan Tanggok

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cap Ngo Meh and Thatung are two things that cannot be separated from the life of Hakka people in Singkawang. In each Cap Ngo Meh festival, the performance of Thatung is a must. Cap Ngo Meh festival would not be completed if there was no performance of Thatung. Thatung can help humans and otherwise humans also have to give gifts to him. Therefore,Thatung is a special performance in Cap Ngo Meh festival in Singkawang.The main purpose of this paper is to show the relationship between Thatung performance and Cap Ngo Meh festival in Singkawang. The function of Thatung performance in Cap Ngo Meh festival in Singkawang is not only to repel evil spirits that may affect humans, but also to promote economics, improving of popularity himself and tourism in Singkawang.DOI: 10.15408/ref.v13i5.918

  7. The fundamental lemma and the Hitchin fibration [after Ngo Bao Chau

    CERN Document Server

    Hales, Thomas C

    2011-01-01

    This article is a Bourbaki seminar report on Ngo Bao Chau's proof of the fundamental lemma. About thirty years ago, R. P. Langlands conjectured a collection of identities to hold among integrals over conjugacy classes in reductive groups. Ngo Bao Chau has proved these identities (collectively called the fundamental lemma) by interpreting the integrals in terms of the cohomology of the fibers of the Hitchin fibration. The fundamental lemma has profound consequences for the theory of automorphic representations. Significant recent theorems in number theory use the fundamental lemma as an ingredient in their proofs.

  8. Observing extreme-mass-ratio inspirals with eLISA/NGO

    CERN Document Server

    Gair, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    The extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) of stellar mass compact objects into massive black holes in the centres of galaxies are an important source of low-frequency gravitational waves for space-based detectors. We discuss the prospects for detecting these sources with the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), recently proposed as an ESA mission candidate under the name NGO. We show that NGO could observe a few tens of EMRIs over its two year mission lifetime at redshifts z < 0.5 and describe how the event rate changes under possible alternative specifications of the eLISA design.

  9. Predictors of loco-regional recurrence and cancer-related death after breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausei, Stefano; Rovera, Francesca; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Tornese, Deborah; Fachinetti, Anna; Boni, Luigi; Dionigi, Renzo

    2010-01-01

    To determine which tumor-related factors might predispose the patient to loco-regional recurrence or death and the impact of these factors on the different types of events. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 1991 women between January 1998 and March 2010 for a first primary nonmetastatic breast cancer and treated with surgery and neo-adjuvant/adjuvant therapy. The overall survival distribution was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The prognostic impact of several factors on cumulative overall and loco-regional recurrence free survival was evaluated by univariate (log-rank test) and multivariate analysis (Cox regression). At log-rank test, pT, nodal status, histotype, grading, lymphangioinvasive growth, tumor diameter, estrogen receptors (ER) status, progesterone receptors (PR) status, expression of Ki67, and expression of Her2/neu had a prognostic value on loco-regional recurrence or overall survival. In the multivariate analysis grading remained the only independent predictor of loco-regional recurrences. With regard to overall survival, the Cox model selected grading along with nodal status and PR status. Loco-regional recurrences after breast cancer surgery are not frequent events. They are markers of tumor aggressiveness and predictor of an increased likelihood of cancer-related death. However, loco-regional recurrence and systemic tumor progression are partially independent events, since some prognostic factors differ.

  10. Pancreaticoduodenectomy for advanced gastric cancer with pancreaticoduodenal region involvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Bao Wang; Li-Tao Yang; Ze-Wei Zhang; Jian-Min Guo; Xiang-Dong Cheng

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To characterize the factors of the improved survival following combined pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and gastrectomy for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer with pancreaticoduodenal region involvement. METHODS:From 1995 to 2004,53 patients with primary gastric cancer were diagnosed with synchronous (n=44) or metachronous (n=9) pancreaticoduodenal region involvement.Of these,17 patients (32%) underwent total gastrectomy (TG) or distal subtotal gastrectomy (SG) combined with PD simultaneously.The preoperative demographic,clinical information,clinicopathologic features and the surgical results of these 17 patients were considered as factors influencing survival and were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank comparison. RESULTS:The actual 1-and 3-year survival rates of these 17 patients after resection were 77% and 34%, respectively,and three patients survived for more than 5 years after surgery.The tumor-free resection margin (P=0.0174) and a well-differentiated histologic type (P=0.0011) were significant prognostic factors on univariate analysis.No mortality occurred within one mo after operation,postoperative weight loss of different degree was present in all the patients with TG and 12 cases had other complications.There were 9(53%) cases of recurrence in 5-48 mo after operation.The survival rate in the palliative and explorative group was significantly (P=0.0064) lower than in the combined PD group. CONCLUSION:Judicious use of en bloc PD and gastrectomy and strictly preventing postoperative complications may improve the long-term survival for advanced gastric cancer patients with pancreaticoduodenal region involvement.Well-differentiated histology and negative resection margin are the most important predictors of long survival.

  11. Breast Cancer Screening Interventions in Selected Counties Across US Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Shamly; Martin, Michelle Y; Levine, Robert S.; Pisu, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the types of, and the populations targeted by interventions implemented to increase breast cancer screening rates in counties with large African American populations across different US regions. Methods A brief questionnaire was administered by e-mail to county representatives from 33 states from October 2008 through March 2009. Responses were obtained from 33% of 203 targeted counties. Results Most counties (>80%) reported interventions for African American women and for women with low income. Women were exposed to different kinds of interventions depending on where they lived. Most counties in the Northeast (93%), Southwest (82%) and Midwest (100%) implemented interventions that provided free or low cost mammograms. Counties in the Southeast (83%) were more likely to report education interventions. Counties from the Southwest reported using a variety of interventions to encourage breast cancer screening. Conclusion In this selected group of counties, different types of interventions were used to increase breast cancer screening in minority and disadvantaged women. Interventions implemented were similar to those shown in the literature to be effective in increasing screening rates in specific populations. Future research should examine the use of screening interventions in a larger sample of US counties. PMID:20820899

  12. NGO Provision of Basic Education: Alternative or Complementary Service Delivery to Support Access to the Excluded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Pauline

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on approaches by non-government organisations (NGOs) to reach primary school-aged children excluded from access to the conventional state education system. It highlights recent shifts in international literature and agency priorities from the portrayal of NGO provision as a (non-formal) "alternative" to (formal) state…

  13. Investigation of Organizational Interaction and Support in an NGO through Computer-Mediated Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Jen; Chang, Yao-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Discussion forums have been used to support organizational communication and they have become a candidate for study of organizational behaviors. However, online behaviors of NGOs have been insufficiently studied compared to those studies conducted in education and industries. Our empirical study examined how social workers in one NGO used an…

  14. Advocacy in Action: Annual 2006 DPI/NGO Conference at the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) was again represented at the annual 2006 DPI/NGO conference, along with 1,600 participants from around the world. The mood this year was somber and quite serious, possibly in response to the uncertainty created by the Middle East crisis that was raging while the conference was taking…

  15. Human Trafficking and Education: A Qualitative Case Study of Two NGO Programs in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spires, Robert Weber

    2012-01-01

    In this qualitative, ethnographic case study, I examine two Thai NGO shelters/schools working with human trafficking survivors and at-risk populations of children ages 5-18. The two NGOs had a residential component, meaning that children live at the shelter, and an educational component, meaning that children are taught academic and vocational…

  16. Egypt's NGO Sector. A Briefing Paper. Education for Development Occasional Papers Series 1, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaTowsky, Robert J.

    Of the nearly 14,500 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) now registered with Egypt's Ministry of Social Affairs, 25% are inactive, 3% are less than 3 years old, and 7% are private member associations. The Egyptian government's promotion of specific social programs and service models in the NGO sector began after the October War of 1973. Egyptian…

  17. Cancer burden trends in Umbria region using a joinpoint regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Michele Masanotti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The analysis of the epidemiological data on cancer is an important tool to control and evaluate the outcomes of primary and secondary prevention, the effectiveness of health care and, in general, all cancer control activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The aim of the this paper is to analyze the cancer mortality in the Umbria region from 1978 to 2009 and incidence from 1994-2008. Sex and site-specific trends for standardized rates were analyzed by "joinpoint regression", using the surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER software. RESULTS. Applying the jointpoint analyses by sex and cancer site, to incidence spanning from 1994 to 2008 and mortality from 1978 to 2009 for all sites, both in males and females, a significant joinpoint for mortality was found; moreover the trend shape was similar and the joinpoint years were very close. In males standardized rate significantly increased up to 1989 by 1.23% per year and significantly decreased thereafter by -1.31%; among females the mortality rate increased in average of 0.78% (not significant per year till 1988 and afterward significantly decreased by -0.92% per year. Incidence rate showed different trends among sexes. In males was practically constant over the period studied (not significant increase 0.14% per year, in females significantly increased by 1.49% per year up to 2001 and afterward slowly decreased (-0.71% n.s. estimated annual percent change − EAPC. CONCLUSIONS. For all sites combined trends for mortality decreased since late '80s, both in males and females; such behaviour is in line with national and European Union data. This work shows that, even compared to health systems that invest more resources, the Umbria public health system achieved good health outcomes.

  18. Endometrial and cervical cancer: incidence and mortality among women in the Lodz region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Leśniczak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By the early 21st century the most common cancer of female genitals in Poland was cervical cancer. Now endometrial cancer ranks first. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among women in the Lodz region. Material and methods: Data on the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among inhabitants of the Lodz region were obtained from the National Cancer Registry and Bulletin of Cancer Cases in the Lodz region. The analysis covered ten consecutive years beginning in 2001. Results : The number of new cases reported in 2010 exceeded that observed in 2001 by 181. The standardized incidence rate of endometrial cancer increased by 6.3, while the standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer decreased by 1.4. Conclusions : In the years 2001-2010, the incidence of endometrial cancer increased by 88.3% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 6.5% among inhabitants of the Lodz region. In the years 2001-2010, mortality of endometrial cancer increased by 24.5% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 12.6%. In 2010, the highest crude incidence rates in the Lodz region of both endometrial and cervical cancer at 39.1 were recorded in the district town of Piotrków.

  19. Mutations in the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yibing Zhao; Hongyu Yang; Guoyu Chen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mutations in the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in gastric cancer.Methods: The mtDNA of D-loop region was amplified by PCR and sequenced in 20 samples from gastric cancer tissue and adjacent normal membrane. Results: There were 7/20(35% ) mutations in the mtDNA of D-loop region in gastric cancer patients. There were four microsatellite instabilities among the 18 mutations. Nine new polymorphisms were identified in 20 patients. Conclusion: The mtDNA of Dloop region might be highly polymorphoric and the mutation rate is high in patients with gastric cancer.

  20. Cancer incidence rates in the Kurdistan region/Iraq from 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ramadhan T; Abdulljabar, Rezvan; Saeed, Abdullah; Kittani, Sarwar Sadiq; Sulaiman, Hushyar M; Mohammed, Sami A; Rashid, Rekawt M; Hussein, Nawfal R

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a disease of gradual increase in incidence overall the world. Kurdistan Region in Iraq has been exposed to several carcinogenic hazards. There are few reports about the increased risk of cancer in different cities in Iraq. These reports did not cover Kurdistan region. The aim of this paper was to study cancer incidence and to identify possible risks of cancer in this region. Cancer registries from 9 hospitals in three cities of Kurdistan were used as a source of data. Information on these cases was subjected to careful verification regarding repetition, place of residence and other possible errors. Overall registered cases in 2007, 2008 and 2009 were 1444, 2081, 2356 respectively. 49% of registered cases were males and 51% were female. The Age Standardized Rate of cancer was 89.83/100 000 among male and 83.93/100 000 among female. The results showed major variation in incidence rates of different types of cancer in the three governorates of Kurdistan. Furthermore, there was evidence of increased risks of cancer in Kurdistan Region in Iraq. Hematological malignancies were the most common cancer among male (21.13% of all cancer in males) and second most common in female (18.8% of all cancer in female), only exceeded by breast cancer. To reach sound conclusions about extent and determinants of cancer in Kurdistan, enormous multi-spectrum efforts are now needed.

  1. The incentive effects of missions - Evidence from experiments with NGO employees and students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, Leonie

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the incentive effects of an organization׳s ‘mission’ on the effort provision of agents. Across treatments, I exogenously vary how much the agents׳ and their projects׳ missions match. In the first study, NGO employees are assigned the role of agents in an online, one-shot, princ......This paper studies the incentive effects of an organization׳s ‘mission’ on the effort provision of agents. Across treatments, I exogenously vary how much the agents׳ and their projects׳ missions match. In the first study, NGO employees are assigned the role of agents in an online, one......-agent game with random matching, I do not find a motivational effect of missions, unlike in my first two studies....

  2. Magnetic Back Action Effect of Magnetic Sensors for eLISA/NGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, I.; Diaz-Aguiló, M.; Gibert, F.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Ramos-Castro, J.

    2013-01-01

    The fluxgate magnetometers used in LISA Pathfinder mission are able to perform very low noise measurements at milli-Hertz frequency, however they need to be kept somehow away from the Test Masses (TMs) due to the quantity of ferromagnetic material contained in the fluxgate's core, which constitutes a potential source of disturbance to the performance. As a result, the estimation of the magnetic field and gradient in the TMs is very problematic, despite the excellent quality of the readout data. The design of a magnetic diagnostic measuring system able to deal with the magnetic constraints for eLISA/NGO will imply the magnetic characterization of the sensors in order to estimate the magnetic back action effect on their environment. The magnetic impact caused by the magnetometers also depends on the noise reduction techniques used in the signal conditioning circuit, which is being studied to develop criteria for the best choice of magnetic sensors for eLISA/NGO.

  3. Public-private Partnerships in Micro-finance: Should NGO Involvement be Restricted?

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Chowdhury, Prabal; Roy, Jaideep

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines public-private partnerships in micro-finance, whereby NGOs can help in channelizing credit to the poor, both in borrower selection, as well as in project implementation. We argue that a distortion may arise out of the fact that the private partner, i.e. the NGO, is a motivated agent. We find that whenever the project is neither too productive, nor too unproductive, reducing such distortion requires unbundling borrower selection and project implementati...

  4. Performing global citizenship: women NGO workers' negotiations of complicities in their work practices

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Sara

    2010-01-01

    The practices of NGOs and development agencies located in the global North have been criticised for displaying (post-)colonial continuities. Concurrently, western feminism has been critiqued for assuming universality in the experiences of white western women. Hence there is a need for reflection on operating within and resisting of these power structures. Using interview data, this thesis investigates the reflections of women NGO workers located in the global North working on gendered iss...

  5. Numerical simulation of time delay interferometry for NGO/eLISA

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Gang

    2012-01-01

    NGA/eLISA is a new mission proposal with arm length 106 km and one interferometer down-scaled from LISA (http://elisa-ngo.org/). Just like LISA and ASTROD-GW, in order to attain the requisite sensitivity for NGO/eLISA, laser frequency noise must be suppressed below the secondary noises such as the optical path noise, acceleration noise etc. In previous papers, we have used the CGC 2.7 ephemeris to numerically simulate the time delay interferometry for LISA and ASTROD-GW with one arm dysfunctional and found that they are both well below their respective limits under which the laser frequency noise is required to be suppressed. In this paper, we follow the same procedure to simulate the time delay interferometry numerically. To do this, we work out a set of 1000-day optimized mission orbits of NGO/eLISA spacecraft starting at January 1st, 2021 using the CGC 2.7 ephemeris framework. We then use this numerical solution to calculate the residual optical path differences in the second-generation solutions of our pr...

  6. Integrated map of the chromosome 8p12-p21 region, a region involved in human cancers and Werner syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imbert, A.; Chaffanet, M.; Birnbaum, D.; Pebusque, M.J. [INSERM, Marseille (France)] [and others

    1996-02-15

    This article discusses the genetic mapping of the specific region on human chromosome 8, 8p12-p21, and its implications to human hereditary cancers and diseases. The localization of disease genes such as NEFL and FGFR1 are given, accomplished using contigs which span the region of deletion involved in these hereditary diseases. 59 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in the Asia-Paciifc region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danny R.Youlden; Susanna M.Cramb; Cheng Har Yip; Peter D.Baade

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of the incidence and mortality of female breast cancer for countries in the Asia-Paciifc region. Methods: Statistical information about breast cancer was obtained from publicly available cancer registry and mortality databases (such as GLOBOCAN), and supplemented with data requested from individual cancer registries. Rates were directly age-standardised to the Segi World Standard population and trends were analysed using joinpoint models. Results: Breast cancer was the most common type of cancer among females in the region, accounting for 18% of all cases in 2012, and was the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths (9%). Although incidence rates remain much higher in New Zealand and Australia, rapid rises in recent years were observed in several Asian countries. Large increases in breast cancer mortality rates also occurred in many areas, particularly Malaysia and hTailand, in contrast to stabilising trends in Hong Kong and Singapore, while decreases have been recorded in Australia and New Zealand. Mortality trends tended to be more favourable for women aged under 50 compared to those who were 50 years or older. Conclusion: It is anticipated that incidence rates of breast cancer in developing countries throughout the Asia-Pacific region will continue to increase. Early detection and access to optimal treatment are the keys to reducing breast cancer-related mortality, but cultural and economic obstacles persist. Consequently, the challenge is to customise breast cancer control initiatives to the particular needs of each country to ensure the best possible outcomes.

  8. Transmedia storytelling in the NGO communication. Sí me importa by Oxfam Intermón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MARTÍNEZ VALERO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, transmedia storytelling has been used for spreading fiction narrative worlds, such as films and TV series. However, it was a matter of time that its ability for explaining the reality was discovered and utilised by social organizations to explain their causes and to reach new audiences. Moreover, the new mobile environment challenges the creativity of the organizations to develop products that make use of this new form of consumption. The Sí me importa campaign, a transmedia project of the Spanish NGO Oxfam Intermón, reclaimed the importance of the in-ternational cooperation through social networks, comic, theatre, contemporary art and cinema.

  9. Precision Laser Development for Interferometric Space Missions NGO, SGO, and GRACE Follow-On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Kenji; Camp, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Optical fiber and semiconductor laser technologies have evolved dramatically over the last decade due to the increased demands from optical communications. We are developing a laser (master oscillator) and optical amplifier based on those technologies for interferometric space missions, including the gravitational-wave missions NGO/SGO (formerly LISA) and the climate monitoring mission GRACE Follow-On, by fully utilizing the matured wave-guided optics technologies. In space, where simpler and more reliable system is preferred, the wave-guided components are advantageous over bulk, crystal-based, free-space laser, such as NPRO (Nonplanar Ring Oscillator) and bulk-crystal amplifier.

  10. NGO:我国公共危机管理的当然主体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小伟

    2007-01-01

    NGO参与公共危机管理有其客观必然性和现实可能性,然而我国危机管理中的NGO 参与严重不足,这既与政府传统的危机处理方式有关,也与NGO自身能力和社会环境有关.本文从政府、社会、NGO自身三个层面探讨了NGO参与危机管理的机制.

  11. Causative relationship between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer in various regions of Saudi Arabia: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Jamal M; Al-Saif, Ahmad M; Al-Karrawi, Mohammed A; Al-Sagair, Othman A

    2011-01-01

    The unwarranted connection between diabetes mellitus and breast cancer has gained new ground in recent years. Breast cancer in Saudi females accounts for approximately 21% of all cancers and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Saudi females is also 21.5%. DM is diagnosed in the age group of 30+ years with possible exposure to predisposing factors like hyperinsulinemia and obesity at younger age. Further, 12% of the breast cancer cases are diagnosed in the young females aged 20-34 years. Despite the readily available access to healthcare facilities in the Kingdom, a large number of diabetics, approximately 27.9%, were unaware of having diabetes mellitus. This subpopulation is quite susceptible of developing breast cancer at later age. This review discusses common etiological and predisposing factors for breast cancer and diabetes, regional distribution and possible correlation of diabetes and cancer in Saudi Arabia.

  12. Regional PET/CT after water gastric inflation for evaluating loco-regional disease of gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Jin, E-mail: suji76@hanmail.net [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Woo, E-mail: wwlee@snubh.org [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hai-Jeon, E-mail: punsu07@naver.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho-Young, E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Ho, E-mail: kholeemail@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hoon, E-mail: yhkrad@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Park, Do Joong, E-mail: djpark@snubh.org [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung-Ho, E-mail: hhkim@snubh.org [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); So, Young, E-mail: youngso@kuh.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-06-15

    Objective: We aimed to improve diagnostic accuracy of {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT for gastric cancer with water gastric inflation. Materials and methods: 44 gastric cancer patients (M:F = 30:14, age ± std = 62.1 ± 14.5y) were enrolled before surgery. Fifty minutes after injection of FDG (0.14 mCi/kg body weight), whole body PET/CT was performed first and then regional PET/CT over gastric area was obtained 80 min post FDG injection after water gastric inflation. Diagnostic accuracies for loco-regional lesions were compared between whole body and regional PET/CT. Results: 48 primary tumors (23 EGC and 25 AGC) and 348 LN stations (61 metastatic and 287 benign) in 44 patients were investigated. Primary tumor sensitivity of whole body PET/CT (50% = 24/48) was significantly improved by regional PET/CT (75% = 36/48, p < 0.005). Sensitivity of whole body PET/CT (24.6% = 15/61) for LN metastasis was also significantly improved by regional PET/CT (36.1% = 22/61, p < 0.01), whereas specificity of whole body PET/CT (99.3% = 285/287) was not compromised by regional PET/CT (98.3% = 282/287, p > 0.05). Higher primary tumor FDG uptake in regional PET/CT indicated shorter progress-free survival (p = 0.0003). Conclusion: Diagnostic accuracy of whole body PET/CT for loco-regional disease of gastric cancer could be significantly improved by regional PET/CT after water gastric inflation and prognosis could be effectively predicted by primary tumor FDG uptake in regional PET/CT.

  13. Frontiers of cancer care in Asia-Pacific region: cancer care in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, ES; Do, VT; Barton, MB

    2008-01-01

    Cancer has a significant impact on the Australian community. One in three men and one in four women will develop cancer by the age of 75. The estimated annual health expenditure due to cancer in 2000-1 in Australia was $2.7 billion, representing 5.5% of the country’s total healthcare expenditure. An historical overview of the national cancer control strategies in Australia is provided. In males, the five most common cancers in order of decreasing incidence are: prostate cancer, colorectal can...

  14. How community trust was gained by an NGO in Malawi, Central Africa, to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Linda M; Waters, Catherine M; Rankin, Sally H; Schell, Ellen; Laviwa, Jones; Luhanga, Melton Richard

    2013-07-01

    Trust is valuable social capital that is essential for effective partnerships to improve a community's health. Yet, how to establish trust in culturally diverse communities is elusive for many researchers, practitioners, and agencies. The purpose of this qualitative study was to obtain perspectives of individuals working for a nongovernmental organization (NGO) about gaining community trust in Malawi in order to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS. Twenty-six interviews were conducted over 12 months. Content analysis revealed the relationship between NGO staff and the community is crucial to gaining community trust. Gender, social context, and religious factors influence the establishment of trust within the relationship, but NGO assumptions about the community can erode community trust. Nurses and other health professionals working with the NGOs can help create conditions to build trust in an ethically and culturally sensitive manner whereby communities can develop processes to address their own health concerns.

  15. Regional variation in incidence for smoking and alcohol related cancers in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henau, Kris; Van Eycken, Elizabeth; Silversmit, Geert; Pukkala, Eero

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of life habits may vary substantially within a country. Incidence maps of strongly related diseases can illustrate the distribution of these life style habits. In this study we explored the spatial variation in Belgium for different cancers related to alcohol and/or tobacco. From the Belgian Cancer Registry, municipality specific World Standardised incidence rates for the years 2004-2011 are used to create detailed smoothed cancer maps by subsite or histology for cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver and lung. Cancer incidence is compared both visually (from incidence maps) and with Poisson regression analysis using mortality from chronic liver disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a proxy for alcohol and tobacco prevalence, respectively. The incidence rates for oral cavity, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer were comparable with the alcohol gradient. However, glottic cancer revealed a pattern that was more comparable with lung cancer. These two tumour types resembled more closely to the smoking pattern. Oesophageal cancer showed two patterns: squamous cell carcinoma was highly comparable with the background alcohol consumption, while adenocarcinoma was unrelated to one of our two proxies. Our approach and results are an encouraging example how data from a young cancer registry can be used in studies describing the regional cancer burden. The results can be useful for primary prevention to increase awareness for the public, authorities and health care professionals in specific subpopulations.

  16. A Systematic Review of Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Pacific Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Josephine; Souares, Y; Hoy, D;

    2014-01-01

    is substantial, with age standardized incidence rates ranging from 8.2 to 50.7 and age standardized mortality rate from 2.7 to 23.9 per 100,000 women per year. The HPV genotype distribution suggests that 70-80% of these cancers could be preventable by the currently available bi- or quadrivalent HPV vaccines......This study provides the first systematic literature review of cervical cancer incidence and mortality as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype prevalence among women with cervical cancer in the Pacific Island countries and territories. The cervical cancer burden in the Pacific Region...

  17. The clinical impact of hypoxia-regulated gene expression in loco-regional gastroesophageal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, M.; Alsner, J.; Tramm, T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: In a former study (1), the hypoxia gene expression classifier, developed in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, was applied in 89 patients with loco-regional gastroesophageal cancer (GC). Analysis of the 15 genes was indicative of hypoxia being more profound in esophagus...... and display greater heterogeneity compared to AC. However, previous indications that the hypoxia classifier might hold prognostic significance in ESCC patients could not be confirmed. Ongoing work includes in vitro studies of esophageal cancer cell lines in order to identify alternative hypoxia induced genes...... and to further explore the prognostic value of hypoxia in patients with loco-regional gastroesophageal cancer. (Figure Presented)....

  18. Government-NGO collaboration and sustainability of orphans and vulnerable children projects in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Alana; Hartwig, Kari; Merson, Michael

    2008-02-01

    Given current donor attention to orphans and children made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS, and the need for a new framework that recognizes the complementary roles of nations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), this analysis reviews NGO-operated community-based orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) projects in Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland. There has been a lack of attention within the field of evaluation to inter-organizational relationships, specifically those with government agencies, as a factor in sustainability. We analyzed evaluations of nine OVC projects funded by the Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation for the influence of government-NGO collaboration on project sustainability. For eight of the nine projects, evaluations provided evidence of the importance of the government partnership for sustainability. Government collaboration was important in projects designed to help families access government grants, initiate community-based solutions, and advocate for OVC rights through legislation. Government partnerships were also critical to the sustainability of two projects involved in placing children in foster care, but these showed signs of tension with government partners. In addition to the more common factors associated with sustainability, such as organizational characteristics, donors and NGOs should concentrate on developing strong partnerships with local and national government agencies for the sustainability of their projects.

  19. Sustainability of NGO capacity building in southern Africa: successes and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie; Gomez, Ligia; Hartwig, Kari

    2011-01-01

    Despite an increase in organizational capacity building efforts by external organizations in low and middle income countries, the documentation of these efforts and their effects on health programs and systems remains limited. This paper reviews key frameworks for considering sustainability of capacity building and applies these frameworks to an evaluation of the sustainability of an AIDS non-governmental organization (NGO) capacity building initiative. From 2004-2007 Bristol-Myers Squibb Foundation's Secure the Future(TM) initiative in southern Africa funded a five country program, the NGO Training Institute (NGOTI), to build capacity of NGOs working to address HIV/AIDS. Lessons learned from this project include issues of ownership, the importance of integrating planning for sustainability within capacity-building projects, and the value of identifying primary capacity-building objectives in order to select sustainability strategies that are focused on maintaining program benefits. Sustainability for capacity building projects can be developed by discussing key issues early in the planning process with all primary stakeholders.

  20. The politics of NGO registration in international protectorates: the cases of Bosnia and Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Matthew; Jeffrey, Alex

    2008-12-01

    Following international interventions in Bosnia-Herzegovina(1) and Iraq, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have played a central role in delivering humanitarian relief, encouraging participation in new systems of government, and advocating on behalf of marginalised groups. Although intervening agencies have framed such autonomous organisations as unquestionably virtuous, scholars have increasingly questioned the agency of NGOs, pointing to the constraining effects of funding and regulatory mechanisms. This paper contributes to this body of work by offering a detailed examination of legislation requiring NGOs to register with nascent state institutions. Drawing on case study material from Bosnia and Iraq, it argues that NGO registration should not be dismissed as a technical or legal matter, but that it should be embraced as a significant political practice embedded in relations of power. Registration legislation has increased the transparency of NGO funding origins and institutional practices, yet it has simultaneously acted as a barrier to smaller organisations and led to the transmission of international objectives through civil society entities.

  1. Insiders and outsiders: local government and NGO engagement in disaster response in Guimaras, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espia, Juhn Chris P; Fernandez, Pepito

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines local government and non-governmental organisation (NGO) engagement in disaster response in the wake of the M/T Solar 1 oil spill in Guimaras, Western Visayas, Philippines, on 11 August 2006. It assesses the response activities of these two entities as well as the institutional factors that affected their interaction on the ground. Local government and NGO engagement was shaped by multi-layered, overlapping, and oftentimes contending government-designed response frameworks. Within these frameworks, government actors played the role of primary implementer and provider of relief, allowing them to determine who could be involved and the extent of their involvement. The absence of formal roles for NGOs in these frameworks not only undermines their ability to work in a setting where such institutional set-ups are operational but also it reaffirms their 'outsider' status. This study of the Guimaras oil spill illustrates the complexity and the institutional difficulties inherent in disaster response and coordination in the Philippines.

  2. NGO Partnerships in Using Ecotourism for Conservation: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Brito, Tania P; Buckley, Ralf C; Byrne, Jason

    2016-01-01

    We analyse 214 cases worldwide where non-governmental organisations (NGOs) use ecotourism for conservation. Other stakeholders in these initiatives include local communities, the private sector, and government agencies. Stakeholder relationships determine NGO roles and project management structures and governance. We classified cases into 10 structural categories based on the initiating stakeholder and the NGO role, and used these categories to analyze geographic patterns and success factors. Most of the 214 cases are community-based (~170; 79%); most are in developing countries (190; 89%); and most are in protected areas (196; 91%). Frequencies of structural categories differ between continents. More cases in Latin America and Asia are initiated by NGOs and local communities, and more in Africa by the private sector. Case-study authors used a range of economic, socio-cultural and environmental criteria to judge whether projects were successful. At global scale, we found no significant association between project success and the involvement of private tourism entrepreneurs. Projects involving either local or international NGOs had higher success rates than those that involved both simultaneously. Future research could adopt political ecology approaches to examine: the factors that lead NGOs to adopt ecotourism enterprises; their internal decision-making processes and strategies; their interactions with the stakeholders involved; and their conservation goals and outcomes.

  3. Accountability of Chinese NGO and its Path%中国NGO问责及其路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔维红

    2011-01-01

    伴随公民治理主体的日益多元化,中国NGO越来越多地承担了提供准公共物品的职能,因此有必要对中国NGO进行问责.文章就中国NGO 问责中的"问"与"责"进行分析,并在此基础上从问责主体出发,以捐赠者为视角,对中国NGO 问责的路径进行了探讨.捐赠者对中国NGO的问责属外部监督,是他律.中国NGO的健康发展,不仅需要他律,而且更需要自律,他律与自律的相互结合,促进中国NGO的良性运行,公益使命得到更好的倡导.

  4. The comparative advantage of NGO (non-governmental organizations) in the health sector--a look at the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, A R; Green, A T

    1994-01-01

    Attention being given to the development of an appropriate public/private mix in health-care delivery should not exclude the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs). There is a widely accepted thesis of NGO comparative advantage over government, but evidence to support this thesis is generally more anecdotal than analytical. This paper considers evidence available in the literature and from field research in southern Africa, especially with regard to efficiency, innovation and reaching grass-roots communities. The paper concludes that the comparative advantage of the NGO sector needs to be analysed in relation to both the private for-profit sector and the public sector.

  5. Type III methyltransferase M.NgoAX from Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA1090 regulates biofilm formation and human cell invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka eKwiatek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the etiological factor of the sexually transmitted gonorrhea disease that may lead, under specific conditions, to systemic infections. The gonococcal genome encodes many Restriction Modification (RM systems, which main biological role is to defend the pathogen from potentially harmful foreign DNA. However, RM systems seem also to be involved in several other functions. In this study, we examined the effect of inactivation the N. gonorrhoeae FA1090 ngo0545 gene encoding M.NgoAX methyltransferase on the global gene expression, biofilm formation, interactions with human epithelial host cells and overall bacterial growth. Expression microarrays showed at least a two-fold deregulation of a total of 121 genes in the NgoAX knock-out mutant compared to the wt strain under standard grow conditions. As determined by the assay with crystal violet, the NgoAX knock-out strain formed a slightly larger biofilm biomass per cell than the wt strain (OD570/600 = 13.8  2.24 and 9.35  2.06, respectively. SCLM observations showed that the biofilm formed by the gonococcal ngo0545 gene mutant is more relaxed and dispersed than the one formed by the wt strain. Thickness of the biofilm formed by both strains was 48.3 (14.9 µm for the mutant and 28.6 (4.0 µm for the wt. This more relaxed feature of the biofilm in respect to adhesion and bacterial interactions seems advantageous for pathogenesis of the NgoAX-deficient gonococci at the stage of human epithelial cell invasion. Indeed, the overall adhesion of mutant bacterial cells to human cells was lower than adhesion of the wt gonococci (adhesion index = 0.672 ( 0.2 and 2.15 ( 1.53, respectively; yet, a higher number of mutant than wt bacteria were found inside the Hec-1-B epithelial cells (invasion index = 3.38 ( 0.93  105 for mutant and 4.67 ( 3.09  104 for the wt strain. These results indicate that NgoAX-deficient cells have lower ability to attach to human cells

  6. Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Barriers of Screening Program among Women in Wufeng County, a High-Incidence Region of Cervical Cancer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Jia; Shuang Li; Ru Yang; Hang Zhou; Qunying Xiang; Ting Hu; Qinghua Zhang; Zhilan Chen; Ding Ma; Ling Feng

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cervical cancer screening is an effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but the screening attendance rate in developing countries is far from satisfactory, especially in rural areas. Wufeng is a region of high cervical cancer incidence in China. This study aimed to investigate the issues that concern cervical cancer and screening and the factors that affect women's willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening in the Wufeng area. PARTICIPANTS ...

  7. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelli Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women’s health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2. Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5. A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease. Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer.

  8. Gene expression meta-analysis identifies chromosomal regions involved in ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Mads; Jochumsen, Kirsten M; Mogensen, Ole;

    2009-01-01

    the relation of gene expression and chromosomal position to identify chromosomal regions of importance for early recurrence of ovarian cancer. By use of *Gene Set Enrichment Analysis*, we have ranked chromosomal regions according to their association to survival. Over-representation analysis including 1......Ovarian cancer cells exhibit complex karyotypic alterations causing deregulation of numerous genes. Some of these genes are probably causal for cancer formation and local growth, whereas others are causal for metastasis and recurrence. By using publicly available data sets, we have investigated......-4 consecutive cytogenetic bands identified regions with increased expression for chromosome 5q12-14, and a very large region of chromosome 7 with the strongest signal at 7p15-13 among tumors from short-living patients. Reduced gene expression was identified at 4q26-32, 6p12-q15, 9p21-q32, and 11p14-11. We...

  9. Personalization of loco-regional care for primary breast cancer patients (part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toi, Masakazu; Winer, Eric P; Benson, John R; Inamoto, Takashi; Forbes, John F; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Robertson, John F R; Grobmyer, Stephen R; Jatoi, Ismail; Sasano, Hironobu; Kunkler, Ian; Ho, Alice Y; Yamauchi, Chikako; Chow, Louis W C; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Han, Wonshik; Noguchi, Shinzaburo; Pegram, Mark D; Yamauchi, Hideko; Lee, Eun-Sook; Larionov, Alexey A; Bevilacqua, Jose L B; Yoshimura, Michio; Sugie, Tomoharu; Yamauchi, Akira; Krop, Ian E; Noh, Dong Young; Klimberg, V Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Kyoto Breast Cancer Consensus Conference, Kyoto, Japan, 18-20 February 2014 The loco-regional management of breast cancer is increasingly complex with application of primary systemic therapies, oncoplastic techniques and genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility. Personalization of loco-regional treatment is integral to optimization of breast cancer care. Clinical and pathological tumor stage, biological features and host factors influence loco-regional treatment strategies and extent of surgical procedures. Key issues including axillary staging, axillary treatment, radiation therapy, primary systemic therapy (PST), preoperative hormonal therapy and genetic predisposition were identified and discussed at the Kyoto Breast Cancer Consensus Conference (KBCCC2014). In the second of a two part conference scene, consensus recommendations for radiation treatment, primary systemic therapies and management of genetic predisposition are reported and focus on the following topics: influence of both clinical response to PST and stage at presentation on recommendations for postmastectomy radiotherapy; use of regional nodal irradiation in selected node-positive patients and those with adverse pathological factors; extent of surgical resection following downstaging of tumors with PST; use of preoperative hormonal therapy in premenopausal women with larger, node-negative luminal A-like tumors and managing increasing demands for contralateral prophylactic mastectomy in patients with a unilateral sporadic breast cancer.

  10. An improved method for detecting and delineating genomic regions with altered gene expression in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Genomic regions with altered gene expression are a characteristic feature of cancer cells. We present a novel method for identifying such regions in gene expression maps. This method is based on total variation minimization, a classical signal restoration technique. In systematic evaluations, we show that our method combines top-notch detection performance with an ability to delineate relevant regions without excessive over-segmentation, making it a significant advance over existing methods. ...

  11. A Conceptual Model for Supporting Para-Teacher Learning in an Indian Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Harini; McKenney, Susan; Pieters, Jules

    2010-01-01

    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are being recognized globally for their influential role in realizing the UN Millennium Development Goal of education for all in developing countries. NGOs mostly employ untrained para-educators for grassroots activities. The professional development of these teachers is critical for NGO effectiveness, yet…

  12. Generational, Cultural, and Linguistic Integration for Literacy Learning and Teaching in Uganda: Pedagogical Possibilities, Challenges, and Lessons from One NGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaka, Willy; Graham, Ross; Masaazi, Fred Masagazi; Anyandru, Elly Moses

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative case study focuses on a volunteer-led local NGO in Uganda to examine how integrating generations, cultures, and languages is enhancing literacy learning to help ethnically and linguistically diverse rural communities survive in the prevailing globally competitive neoliberal environment. Immersing the study in the social practices…

  13. Risk of regional recurrence in triple-negative breast cancer patients: a Dutch cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roozendaal, Lori M; Smit, Leonie H M; Duijsens, Gaston H N M; de Vries, Bart; Siesling, Sabine; Lobbes, Marc B I; de Boer, Maaike; de Wilt, Johannes H W; Smidt, Marjolein L

    2016-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is associated with early recurrence and low survival rates. Several trials investigate the safety of a more conservative approach of axillary treatment in clinically T1-2N0 breast cancer. Triple-negative breast cancer comprises only 15 % of newly diagnosed breast cancers, which might result in insufficient power for representative results for this subgroup. We aimed to provide a nationwide overview on the occurrence of (regional) recurrences in triple-negative breast cancer patients with a clinically T1-2N0 status. For this cohort study, 2548 women diagnosed between 2005 and 2008 with clinically T1-2N0 triple-negative breast cancer were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Follow-up data until 2014 were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed in 2486 patients, and (completion) axillary lymph node dissection in 562 patients. Final pathologic nodal status was pN0 in 78.5 %, pN1mi in 4.5 %, pN1 in 12.3 %, pN2-3 in 3.6 %, and pNx in 1.1 %. During a follow-up of 5 years, regional recurrence occurred in 2.9 %, local recurrence in 4.2 % and distant recurrence in 12.2 %. Five-year disease-free survival was 78.7 %, distant disease-free survival 80.5 %, and 5-year overall survival 82.3 %. Triple-negative clinically T1-2N0 breast cancer patients rarely develop a regional recurrence. Their disease-free survival is more threatened by distant recurrence, affecting their overall survival. Consequently, it seems justified to include triple-negative breast cancer patients in randomized controlled trials investigating the safety of minimizing axillary staging and treatment.

  14. Bridge over troubled waters? The state-NGO interface in governing urban environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tropp, H.

    1997-12-31

    Environmental degradation and depletion of natural resources are aggravating problems in many developing countries. A particular case about Non-Governmental Organisations` (NGOs) commitment to river water pollution in Madras (south India) is developed here, mainly with regards to the interface between the state and NGO sector. A significant reason behind environmental problems are insufficient structures of governance. An often proposed solution, by both international and local organisations and governments, is to develop a partnership between the state and local organisations and communities. The arguments here show that such increased cooperation or decentralization may not come easy and is complicated by various meanings of governance, such as discretionary state power, limited transparency of bureaucratic and political processes, red-tapism and different perceptions of causes and solutions to environmental problems 25 refs, 1 fig

  15. SOCIAL ECONOMY DIMENSIONS FROM ROMANIA. PERSPECTIVES AND REALITIES OF NGO SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELICIA ANDRIONI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with 2000 European Union understood the importance of a new perspective for European community: Social Economy. Social economy refers to individuals or legal entities who come together to take on an active economic role in the social inclusion. Social Economy represents the activities and services income generating to help vulnerable people to integrate on the labor market. In this article, in the theoretical part after we are presenting some social economy conceptual delimitations, are highlighted some dimensions of social economy in Romania, and also we analyze the actual situation and the role of the social economy for NGO sector. Our descriptive analyze used the following research methods: analysis documents, comparative analysis.

  16. Effect of elastic and plastic tensile mechanical loading on the magnetic properties of NGO electrical steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuning, N.; Steentjes, S.; Schulte, M.; Bleck, W.; Hameyer, K.

    2016-11-01

    The magnetic properties of non-grain-oriented (NGO) electrical steels are highly susceptible to mechanical stresses, i.e., residual, external or thermal ones. For rotating electrical machines, mechanical stresses are inevitable and originate from different sources, e.g., material processing, machine manufacturing and operating conditions. The efficiency and specific losses are largely altered by different mechanical stress states. In this paper the effect of tensile stresses and plastic deformations on the magnetic properties of a 2.9 wt% Si electrical steel are studied. Particular attention is paid to the effect of magnetic anisotropy, i.e., the influence of the direction of applied mechanical stress with respect to the rolling direction. Due to mechanical stress, the induced anisotropy has to be evaluated as it is related to the stress-dependent magnetostriction constant and the grain alignment.

  17. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer Symptoms Symptoms of cancer ... tumor Obesity Pancreatic cancer Prostate cancer Stomach cancer Testicular cancer Throat or larynx cancer Thyroid cancer Patient Instructions ...

  18. Diabetes mellitus and colorectal cancer screening in the population of the Italian region Friuli Venezia Giulia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Valent

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Colorectal cancer is the most common cancer in Italy, where screening programs are now in place all over the country. We conducted a research to assess whether the use and outcomes of colorectal cancer screening are different between diabetics, who are at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer, and non-diabetics in the Italian Northeastern region Friuli Venezia Giulia. Methods: This was a retrospective population-based study which used the administrative databases of the regional health information system as the sources of information. For the two screening rounds 2010-2011 and 2012-2013, we compared adherence to the program and the results of the fecal occult blood tests and of the colonoscopy among diabetic and non-diabetic residents. Results: Overall, more than 300,000 persons were invited for the colorectal cancer screening in each round. Of them, approximately 8.8% were diabetic. In the regional population, adherence to the screening program was significantly lower among diabetics than among non-diabetics. The proportion of positive fecal occult blood tests was higher among diabetics than among non-diabetics. Among diabetics, the detection rate for initial and advanced adenomas was higher than among non-diabetics, whereas no clear pattern was observed for the detection of cancers. Conclusion: In Friuli Venezia Giulia, efforts should be directed at improving the management of diabetic patients and at reducing the inequalities in access to care due to this comorbidity.

  19. [Gastric cancer in the Honorio Delgado Regional Hospital in Arequipa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estremadoyro, O; Alvarez de Trillo, Y; Estremadoyro Stagnaro, L; Gamero Tejada, D

    1995-01-01

    We present the study of 120 cases of gastric carcinoma, observed in the Hospital Regional Honorio Delgado from Arequipa Peru, in 2683 gastroscopies, with 4.5% of incidence. We offer date of age, sex, race, occupation, antecedents, social-economic conditions, clinics, diagnosis, pathologies aspects and mortality.

  20. Cancer mortality trends in the Umbria region of Italy 1978–2004: a joinpoint regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrinelli Anna Maria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present paper was to analyse cancer mortality in the Umbria region, from 1978 to 2004. Mortality trends depend on a number of factors including exposures, health system interventions, and possibly artefact (e.g. classification change, variations of data completeness. Descriptive data on mortality only allow for generation of hypotheses to explain observed trends. Some clues on the respective role of possible mortality determinants may be found comparing mortality with incidence and survival data. Methods Mortality data for the periods 1978–1993 and 1994–2004 were supplied by the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT and the Regional Causes of Death Registry (ReNCaM respectively. Sex and site-specific mortality time trends were analysed by the "joinpoint regression" method. Results For all sites combined, in both sexes, the standardised rate was first increasing before the end of the eighties and decreasing thereafter. Gastric cancer mortality showed a different trend by gender; that is the rate constantly decreased over the period among females while, for males, it was first increasing up to 1985 and decreasing thereafter. Liver cancer trend showed a pattern similar to gastric cancer. Large bowel cancer showed a gender specific trend, that is it was increasing among males and stable among females. Also lung cancer mortality varied by gender: it started to decline after 1989 among males but was steadily increasing over the study period among women. A decreasing trend for female breast cancer mortality began in 1994. Prostate cancer mortality trend is the only one showing two significant joinpoints: mortality decreased up to 1990, then it increased up to 1998 and, finally, was decreasing. Conclusion Overall cancer mortality was decreasing in both sexes in Umbria and this favourable trend will probably continue and further improve since population screening against breast, cervix, and large bowel cancers

  1. [The perioperative period in cancer surgery: a critical moment! Is there a role for regional anesthesia in preventing cancer recurrence?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloeil, H; Nouette-Gaulain, K

    2012-06-01

    Surgical treatment of cancer is usually necessary but it can paradoxically aggravate the patient outcome by increasing the risk of recurrence. Many perioperative factors have been shown to contribute to the dissemination of the tumor: surgery itself, stress, inflammation, pain, anaesthetic drugs, blood transfusion, etc. The type of anaesthesia chosen in the cancer patient could then be crucial and influence the evolution of the disease. Experimental, preclinical and retrospective studies have suggested that a regional anesthesia associated or not with a general anesthesia for carcinologic surgery might reduce the risk of cancer recurrence. This text reviews the factors promoting the recurrence of tumors after carcinologic surgery and the potential possibilities of protection associated with the type of anaesthesia chosen.

  2. Assessing needs and assets for building a regional network infrastructure to reduce cancer related health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kristen J; Lima, Diana S; Meade, Cathy D; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Scarinci, Isabel; McGuire, Allison; Gwede, Clement K; Pledger, W Jack; Partridge, Edward; Lipscomb, Joseph; Matthews, Roland; Matta, Jaime; Flores, Idhaliz; Weiner, Roy; Turner, Timothy; Miele, Lucio; Wiese, Thomas E; Fouad, Mona; Moreno, Carlos S; Lacey, Michelle; Christie, Debra W; Price-Haywood, Eboni G; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Coppola, Domenico; Sodeke, Stephen O; Green, B Lee; Lichtveld, Maureen Y

    2014-06-01

    Significant cancer health disparities exist in the United States and Puerto Rico. While numerous initiatives have been implemented to reduce cancer disparities, regional coordination of these efforts between institutions is often limited. To address cancer health disparities nation-wide, a series of regional transdisciplinary networks through the Geographic Management Program (GMaP) and the Minority Biospecimen/Biobanking Geographic Management Program (BMaP) were established in six regions across the country. This paper describes the development of the Region 3 GMaP/BMaP network composed of over 100 investigators from nine institutions in five Southeastern states and Puerto Rico to develop a state-of-the-art network for cancer health disparities research and training. We describe a series of partnership activities that led to the formation of the infrastructure for this network, recount the participatory processes utilized to develop and implement a needs and assets assessment and implementation plan, and describe our approach to data collection. Completion, by all nine institutions, of the needs and assets assessment resulted in several beneficial outcomes for Region 3 GMaP/BMaP. This network entails ongoing commitment from the institutions and institutional leaders, continuous participatory and engagement activities, and effective coordination and communication centered on team science goals.

  3. Prevention, screening and treatment of colorectal cancer: a global and regional generalized cost effectiveness analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johns Benjamin P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regional generalized cost-effectiveness estimates of prevention, screening and treatment interventions for colorectal cancer are presented. Methods Standardised WHO-CHOICE methodology was used. A colorectal cancer model was employed to provide estimates of screening and treatment effectiveness. Intervention effectiveness was determined via a population state-transition model (PopMod that simulates the evolution of a sub-regional population accounting for births, deaths and disease epidemiology. Economic costs of procedures and treatment were estimated, including programme overhead and training costs. Results In regions characterised by high income, low mortality and high existing treatment coverage, the addition of screening to the current high treatment levels is very cost-effective, although no particular intervention stands out in cost-effectiveness terms relative to the others. In regions characterised by low income, low mortality with existing treatment coverage around 50%, expanding treatment with or without screening is cost-effective or very cost-effective. Abandoning treatment in favour of screening (no treatment scenario would not be cost effective. In regions characterised by low income, high mortality and low treatment levels, the most cost-effective intervention is expanding treatment. Conclusions From a cost-effectiveness standpoint, screening programmes should be expanded in developed regions and treatment programmes should be established for colorectal cancer in regions with low treatment coverage.

  4. Gastric cancer mortality trends in Spain, 1976-2005, differences by autonomous region and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Navarro Pablo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of oncologic death worldwide. One of the most noteworthy characteristics of this tumor's epidemiology is the marked decline reported in its incidence and mortality in almost every part of the globe in recent decades. This study sought to describe gastric cancer mortality time trends in Spain's regions for both sexes. Methods Mortality data for the period 1976 through 2005 were obtained from the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Cases were identified using the International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th revision (codes 151 and C16, respectively. Crude and standardized mortality rates were calculated by geographic area, sex, and five-year period. Joinpoint regression analyses were performed to ascertain whether changes in gastric cancer mortality trends had occurred, and to estimate the annual percent change by sex and geographic area. Results Gastric cancer mortality decreased across the study period, with the downward trend being most pronounced in women and in certain regions situated in the interior and north of mainland Spain. Across the study period, there was an overall decrease of 2.90% per annum among men and 3.65% per annum among women. Generally, regions in which the rate of decline was sharpest were those that had initially registered the highest rates. However, the rate of decline was not constant throughout the study period: joinpoint analysis detected a shift in trend for both sexes in the early 1980s. Conclusion Gastric cancer mortality displayed in both sexes a downward trend during the study period, both nationally and regionally. The different trend in rates in the respective geographic areas translated as greater regional homogeneity in gastric cancer mortality by the end of the study period. In contrast, rates in women fell more than did those in men. The increasing differences between the sexes could indicate that some risk factors may be modifying

  5. Personalization of loco-regional care for primary breast cancer patients (part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toi, Masakazu; Winer, Eric P; Benson, John R; Inamoto, Takashi; Forbes, John F; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Robertson, John F R; Grobmyer, Stephen R; Jatoi, Ismail; Sasano, Hironobu; Kunkler, Ian; Ho, Alice Y; Yamauchi, Chikako; Chow, Louis W C; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Han, Wonshik; Noguchi, Shinzaburo; Pegram, Mark D; Yamauchi, Hideko; Lee, Eun-Sook; Larionov, Alexey A; Bevilacqua, Jose L B; Yoshimura, Michio; Sugie, Tomoharu; Yamauchi, Akira; Krop, Ian E; Noh, Dong Young; Klimberg, V Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Kyoto Breast Cancer Consensus Conference, Kyoto, Japan, 18-20 February 2014 The loco-regional management of breast cancer is increasingly complex with application of primary systemic therapies, oncoplastic techniques and genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility. Personalization of loco-regional treatment is integral to optimization of breast cancer care. Clinical and pathological tumor stage, biological features and host factors influence loco-regional treatment strategies and extent of surgical procedures. Key issues including axillary staging, axillary treatment, radiation therapy, primary systemic therapy (PST), preoperative hormonal therapy and genetic predisposition were identified and discussed at the Kyoto Breast Cancer Consensus Conference (KBCCC2014). In the first of a two part conference scene, consensus recommendations for axillary management are presented and focus on the following topics: indications for completion axillary lymph node dissection in primary surgical patients with ≤2 macrometastases or any sentinel nodal deposits after PST; the timing of sentinel lymph node biopsy in the context of PST; use of axillary irradiation as a component of primary treatment plans and the role of intraoperative node assessment in the post-Z0011 era.

  6. Trends in corrected lung cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; de Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier; de Moura, Lenildo; Lana, Gustavo C; Azevedo, Gulnar; França, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the trend in cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions before and after correction for underreporting of deaths and redistribution of ill-defined and nonspecific causes. METHODS The study used data of deaths from lung cancer among the population aged from 30 to 69 years, notified to the Mortality Information System between 1996 and 2011, corrected for underreporting of deaths, non-registered sex and age , and causes with ill-defined or garbage codes according to sex, age, and region. Standardized rates were calculated by age for raw and corrected data. An analysis of time trend in lung cancer mortality was carried out using the regression model with autoregressive errors. RESULTS Lung cancer in Brazil presented higher rates among men compared to women, and the South region showed the highest death risk in 1996 and 2011. Mortality showed a trend of reduction for males and increase for women. CONCLUSIONS Lung cancer in Brazil presented different distribution patterns according to sex, with higher rates among men and a reduction in the mortality trend for men and increase for women. PMID:27355467

  7. Risk Factors of Gastric Cancer in Wuwei City an Endemic Region of Gastric Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denghai Mi; Chengyu Su; Haozeng Luo; Jilin Yi; Tianzhong Jing; Qing Xu; Wangsheng Yang; Guoquan Yang; Shuzhen Wang; Gonghan Liu

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Studies have shown that risk factors of gastric cancer include living habits, eating moldy pickled food, dystrophy, lack of nutrients, and genetics, etc. This study explores the prevalence of these factors in Wuwei, a city in northwest China with a high incidence of gastric cancer.METHODS Family histories of the residents in Wuwei City were investigated with a case-control method. Segregation ratio and heredity degree of gastric cancer were calculated using theLi-Mantel-Cart and Falconer's regression methods. Chronic gastritis patients were followed-up by home visits, gastroscopy, and pathology. Carcinogenic fungi and volatilile N-nitroso compounds were noted in the residents' meals. Helicobactor pylori (Hp) was assessed in their gastric mucosa and the total content of serum vitamin C in 293 healthy adults was determined.RESULTS In Wuwei City, the segregation ratio of gastric cancer was 0.077. The heredity degree of first-degree relatives was 22.91%. The incidence rate of cancer per year in people in an atrophic gastritis group was 1.09%. Eight kinds of nitrosamines and 14 kinds of carcinogenic fungi were detected in the residents' food. Total average vitamin C in the serum of the 293 healthy adults in the summer was 5.74±2.79 mg/L. The positive rate of Hp in gastric mucosa of the residents was 67%.CONCLUSION The majorextrinsic factors include infection of Hp, atrophic gastritis (especially atrophic hyperplasia), and genetic susceptibility.

  8. Lifestyle habits and the risk of head and neck cancer in Zagreb region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znaor, Ariana; Virag, Miso; Znaor, Tin; Manojlović, Spomenka; Kusec, Rajko

    2011-12-01

    In 2002, International Agency for Research on Cancer launched a multicentric case-control study of head and neck cancer in 15 centres in 11 European countries, Croatia included. The Alcohol-related Cancers and Genetic Susceptibility in Europe (ARCAGE) study database with approximately 2500 case-control pairs is currently the largest head and neck cancer patients database in Europe. The aim of the present study was to estimate the risk of smoking and alcohol consumption in head and neck cancer patients from Zagreb region recruited in scope of the ARCAGE study. The cases (45 males, 9 females) and the controls (37 males, 9 females) were recruited from University Hospital Dubrava and Merkur University Hospital. A blood sample and a lifestyle questionnaire were collected from all study subjects. Data were analysed by logistic regression analysis. The distribution of cases was: 43 oral, 9 pharyngeal and 2 laryngeal cancer cases. Ever-smokers had a 4-fold higher cancer risk (adjusted OR 4.3 (CI 1.20-15.4)) compared to never-smokers. The adjusted odds ratio for alcohol consumption more than once a week was 4.1 (CI 1.5-11.2). The results are in keeping with previously published data from other countries.

  9. [Concentration of cadmium in breast cancer tissue of women living in the Wielkopoiska region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydzewska, Anna; Król, Iwona; Lipiński, Leszek

    2004-01-01

    The research was carried out concerning the contents of cadmium in breast cancer tissues in 52 women aged 35-81 years (x = 67.62 +/- 12.43) living in the Wielkopolska region. Particular concentrations of this metal in the range of 0.01-1.08 mg/g wet wt. (x = 0.13 +/- 0.18) were found in all the studied specimens. The obtained results were assessed regarding the women's place of residence--Kalisz, Leszno, Pila or Poznan voivodships--and a particular living area: an industrialised town, other towns or villages of the Wielkopolska region. A statistically significant difference in the content of cadmium in breast cancer tissues was found in women inhabiting the Poznan and Pila voivodships. Moreover, marked differences were observed between the average cadmium concentrations in the breast cancer tissue samples in women living in the remaining voivodships and the types of living areas.

  10. [Nucleotide sequence of HLA-DQA1 promoter region (QAP) in a lung cancer patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, C; Zhou, W; Song, C

    1996-06-01

    The HLA-DQA1 allele and nucleotide sequence of HLA-DQA1 promoter region (QAP) in a patient with IDDM complicated lung cancer have been identified by PCR/SSCP, PCR/SSCP and PCR/sequencing. The results showed that: (1) All of the lung cancer patient and his family members carried HLA-DQA1* 0301/0501 alleles. (2) a single base substitution G-->A at position -155 and deletion CAA at position -161 to -163 occurred in the patient. These results suggest that the mutation of HLA-DQA1 promoter region may modulate HLA-DQA1 gene expression by trans-acting factors binding to variant cis-acting elements and may be responsible for pathogenesis of lung cancer.

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the TP53 region and susceptibility to invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schildkraut, Joellen M; Goode, Ellen L; Clyde, Merlise A;

    2009-01-01

    The p53 protein is critical for multiple cellular functions including cell growth and DNA repair. We assessed whether polymorphisms in the region encoding TP53 were associated with risk of invasive ovarian cancer. The study population includes a total of 5,206 invasive ovarian cancer cases (2......,829 of which were serous) and 8,790 controls from 13 case-control or nested case-control studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Three of the studies performed independent discovery investigations involving genotyping of up to 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP......) in the TP53 region. Significant findings from this discovery phase were followed up for replication in the other OCAC studies. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to generate posterior median per allele odds ratios (OR), 95% probability intervals (PI), and Bayes factors (BF) for genotype associations...

  12. Regional differences of physiological functions and cancer susceptibility in the human large intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cats, A; DeVries, EGE; Mulder, NH; Kleibeuker, JH

    1996-01-01

    Regional differences in function, metabolism and morphology between proximal colon, distal colon and rectum may be important in the pathogenesis and biologic behaviour of tumours originating from these segments. Thus, the effect of primary prevention of colorectal cancer may also differ from one lar

  13. Regional radiotherapy in high-risk breast cancer: is the issue solved?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, M; Petersen, C; Offersen, B V;

    2015-01-01

    Adjuvant radiotherapy is the treatment standard for breast cancer with lymph node metastases after breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy. The inclusion of regional lymph nodes into the treatment volumes has been a question in recent clinical trials. Their impact on treatment standards and open...

  14. No role for human papillomavirus infection in oral cancers in a region in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprise, Claudie; Madathil, Sreenath A; Allison, Paul; Abraham, Priya; Raghavendran, Anantharam; Shahul, Hameed P; ThekkePurakkal, Akhil-Soman; Castonguay, Geneviève; Coutlée, François; Schlecht, Nicolas F; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Franco, Eduardo L; Nicolau, Belinda

    2016-02-15

    Oral cancer is a major public health issue in India with ∼ 77,000 new cases and 52,000 deaths yearly. Paan chewing, tobacco and alcohol use are strong risk factors for this cancer in India. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are also related to a subset of head and neck cancers (HNCs). We examined the association between oral HPV and oral cancer in a sample of Indian subjects participating in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited incident oral cancer cases (N = 350) and controls frequency-matched by age and sex (N = 371) from two main referral hospitals in Kerala, South India. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were collected by interviews. Epithelial cells were sampled using Oral CDx® brushes from the oral cancer site and the normal mucosa. Detection and genotyping of 36 HPV genotypes were done using a polymerase chain reaction protocol. Data collection procedures were performed by qualified dentists via a detailed protocol with strict quality control, including independent HPV testing in India and Canada. HPV DNA was detected in none of the cases or controls. Associations between oral cancer and risk factors usually associated with HPV infection, such as oral sex and number of lifetime sexual partners, were examined by logistic regression and were not associated with oral cancer. Lack of a role for HPV infection in this study may reflect cultural or religious characteristics specific to this region in India that are not conducive to oral HPV transmission. A nationwide representative prevalence study is needed to investigate HPV prevalence variability among Indian regions.

  15. [Loco-regional chemotherapy at the outpatient clinic for gastric cancer patients with home enteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Michio; Nagahama, Takeshi; Sugano, Norihide; Satoh, Eigo; Maruyama, Shouji; Tanami, Hideo; Chiba, Tetsuma; Murakata, Ayano; Mitsuhashi, Yosuke; Uehira, Daisuke; Akazawa, Naoya; Suzuki, Keiichirou

    2011-11-01

    In over the 10 years from 2000-2010, 21 gastric cancer patients received loco-regional chemotherapy with home enteral nutrition (HEN) at an outpatient clinic because of insufficient oral intake. These loco-regional chemotherapy regimens consisted of 5 intra-aortic chemotherapies, 4 hepato-arterial infusions and 12 intra-peritoneal chemotherapies. Five out of 8 cases that had measurable lesions showed PR, and 3 cases revealed PD. The patients received HEN with peptide central formula, 400-1,200 kcal/day in night time. The average duration of HEN was 12.9 months. The post-operative nutritional management was needed for continuation and securing of outpatient chemotherapy. The author reported an experience of the outpatient loco-regional chemotherapy with HEN for the gastric cancer patients who could not eat a sufficient volume of food.

  16. Regional trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Denmark prior to mammographic screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, A H; Andersen, K W; Madsen, Mette;

    1994-01-01

    To provide a basis for the evaluation of mammographic screening programmes in Denmark, a study was undertaken of the regional differences in breast cancer incidence and mortality. All 16 regions were followed for the 20 year period, 1970-89, before the start of the first population...... among women below age 60. The mortality was more stable, changing only from 24 to 28 (per 100,000 standardised WSP), but a significant increase occurred in the late 1980s. The study showed regional differences in both incidence and mortality of breast cancer in Denmark. Both the incidence......-based mammographic screening programme in the Copenhagen municipality in 1991. Multiplicative Poisson models were used for the analysis. In general, the incidence increased during this period from 55 to 70 [per 100,000 standardised world standard population (WSP)], and the analysis shows this to be most pronounced...

  17. Cosmological Backgrounds of Gravitational Waves and eLISA/NGO: Phase Transitions, Cosmic Strings and Other Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Binétruy, Pierre; Caprini, Chiara; Dufaux, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    We review the main cosmological backgrounds of gravitational waves accessible to detectors in space sensitive to the range $10^{-4}$ to $10^{-1}$ Hz, with a special emphasis on those backgrounds due to phase transitions or networks of cosmic strings. We apply this to identify the scientific potential of the NGO/eLISA mission of ESA, regarding the detectability of such cosmological backgrounds.

  18. Loco-regionally advance breast cancer: evaluation of management of breast cancer with special reference to multimodal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuman Panda

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: Patients with LBAC who are able to complete treatment with chemotherapy, mastectomy, and postmastectomy radiation have a high probability of locoregional control. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy can make inoperable locally advanced breast cancer operable and with the use of neo-adjuvant CT, breast conservation surgery is possible even in locally advanced breast cancer. Use of post-operative CT and RT can increase the disease free survival period. Use of multimodal treatment in the form of CT, surgery and radiotherapy can increase the disease free survival period in locally advanced breast cancer. The advent of successful multimodal regimens incorporating systemic treatment (chemotherapy or chemohormonal therapy as well as local therapy (surgery and radiation has significantly improved disease-free and overall survival as well as local-regional control. Longer follow-up of these conservatively treated patients will be needed, however, to determine whether local-regional control is preserved. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(11.000: 4767-4777

  19. Preliminary results of SIB-IMRT in head and neck cancers: Report from a regional cancer center in northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty Santam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Intensity-modulated radiotherapy using simultaneous integrated boost (SIB-IMRT is an attractive method for the treatment of head and neck cancers with sparing of the salivary function. Aims : To assess the feasibility, toxicity, and tumor control using SIB-IMRT in locally advanced head and neck cancers in the Indian setting. Settings and Design : The study was conducted in a regional cancer center in northern India. A review of the treatment result of the first 20 patients is presented. Methods and Materials : SIB-IMRT was planned for 20 patients-14 patients were treated with the SIB-72 schedule delivering a dose of 72 Gy, 66 Gy, and 57 Gy to the PTV GTV , PTV CTV1 , and PTV CTV2 in 33 fractions. Six patients were treated with the SIB-66 schedule delivering 66 Gy, 60 Gy, and 54 Gy to the above-mentioned volumes in 30 fractions. Patients were monitored for toxicity using the CTCAE v 3.0 criteria. Descriptive analysis of toxicity and actuarial estimates of the loco-regional control and survival are presented. Results : Grade III mucositis was seen in 65% patients. None of the patients had Grade III dermatitis. The projected 2-year overall survival was 95%. Conclusion : SIB-IMRT schedules evaluated were found to be safe and effective and are being subjected to further prospective studies.

  20. Prognostic Factors for Local, Loco-regional and Systemic Recurrence in Early-stage Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, A; Kümmel, S; Barinoff, J; Heitz, F; Holtschmidt, J; Weikel, W; Lorenz-Salehi, F; du Bois, A; Harter, P; Traut, A; Blohmer, J U; Ataseven, B

    2015-07-01

    Aim: The risk of recurrence in breast cancer depends on factors such as treatment but also on the intrinsic subtype. We analyzed the risk factors for local, loco-regional and systemic recurrence, evaluated the differences and analyzed the risk of recurrence for different molecular subtypes. Material and Methods: A total of 3054 breast cancer patients who underwent surgery followed by adjuvant treatment at HSK hospital or Essen Mitte Hospital between 1998 and 2011 were analyzed. Based on immunohistochemical parameters, cancers were divided into the following subgroups: luminal A, luminal B (HER2-), luminal B (HER2+), HER2+ and TNBC (triple negative breast cancer). Results: 67 % of tumors were classified as luminal A, 13 % as luminal B (HER2-), 6 % as luminal B (HER2+), 3 % as HER2+ and 11 % as TNBC. After a median follow-up time of 6.6 years there were 100 local (3.3 %), 32 loco-regional (1 %) and 248 distant recurrences (8 %). Five-year recurrence-free survival for the overall patient collective was 92 %. On multivariate analysis, positive nodal status, TNBC subtype and absence of radiation therapy were found to be independent risk factors for all forms of recurrence. Age loco-regional recurrence was low. In addition to nodal status, subgroup classification was found to be an important factor affecting the risk of recurrence.

  1. Mutation in D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA in gastric cancer and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Bing Zhao; Hong-Yu Yang; Xi-Wei Zhang; Guo-Yu Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: lo investigate the mutation in D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA in gastric cancer and its influence on the changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell cycle. METHODS: The D-loop region was amplified by PCR and sequenced. Reactive oxygen species and cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry in 20 specimens from gastriccancer and adjacent normal tissues. According to the sequence results, gastric cancer tissue was divided into mutation group and control group. Reactive oxygen species, apoptosis and proliferation in the two groups were compared.RESULTS: Among the 20 gastric cancer specimens, 18 mutations were identified in 7 patients, the mutation rate being 35%. There were four microsatellite instabilities in the mutations. No mutation was found in the adjacent tissues. Reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, and proliferation in the mutation group were all significantly higher than those in control group.CONCLUSION: Mutation in D-loop region plays a role in the genesis and development of gastric cancer.

  2. Transcription Restores DNA Repair to Heterochromatin, Determining Regional Mutation Rates in Cancer Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L. Zheng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatic mutations in cancer are more frequent in heterochromatic and late-replicating regions of the genome. We report that regional disparities in mutation density are virtually abolished within transcriptionally silent genomic regions of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs arising in an XPC−/− background. XPC−/− cells lack global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER, thus establishing differential access of DNA repair machinery within chromatin-rich regions of the genome as the primary cause for the regional disparity. Strikingly, we find that increasing levels of transcription reduce mutation prevalence on both strands of gene bodies embedded within H3K9me3-dense regions, and only to those levels observed in H3K9me3-sparse regions, also in an XPC-dependent manner. Therefore, transcription appears to reduce mutation prevalence specifically by relieving the constraints imposed by chromatin structure on DNA repair. We model this relationship among transcription, chromatin state, and DNA repair, revealing a new, personalized determinant of cancer risk.

  3. [Primary-multiple cancer of the breast (from the data of the Chelyabinsk Regional Oncology Dispensary)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhtereva, E I; Tseĭlikman, E G; Vazhenin, A V; Dinerman, M Z; Kuklenko, L P

    1986-01-01

    102 cases of primary multiple breast cancer (bilateral and multicentric tumors-61; synchronous tumors of the breast and genitals-12) were treated at the Regional Oncological Dispensary in Chelyabinsk in 1976-83. Tumors generally occurred in patients of the 40-50 years bracket at an interval of 5.2 +/- 0.3 years. A certain role in the pathogenesis of primary multiple breast cancer was played by reproductive function as well as previous treatment modality (gamma-therapy, cytostatic treatment and ovariectomy).

  4. Recent trends in racial and regional disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmi

    2017-01-01

    Background Although black women experienced greater cervical cancer incidence and mortality rate reduction in recent years, they continue to have higher incidence rates than whites. Great variations also exist among geographic regions of the US, with the South having both the highest incidence and mortality rates compared to other regions. The present study explores the question of whether living in the South is associated with greater racial disparity in cervical cancer incidence and mortality by examining race- and region-specific rates and the trend between 2000 and 2012. Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 Program data was used. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, annual percent changes, and disparity ratios were calculated using SEER*Stat software and Joinpoint regression for four groups: US14-Non-Hispanic White (NHW), US14-Non-Hispanic Black (NHB), South-NHW, and South-NHB, where South included 4 registries from Georgia and Louisiana and US14 were 14 US registries except the four South registries. Results The average age-adjusted cervical cancer incidence rate was the highest among South-NHBs (11.1) and mortality rate was the highest among US14-NHBs (5.4). In 2012, the degree of racial disparities between South-NHBs and South-NHWs was greater in terms of mortality rates (NHB:NHW = 1.80:1.35) than incidence rates (NHB:NHW = 1.45:1.15). While mortality disparity ratios decreased from 2000–2012 for US14-NHB (APC: -1.9(-2.3,-1.4), mortality disparity ratios for South-NHWs (although lower than NHBs) increased compared to US14-NHW. Incidence rates for NHBs continued to increase with increasing age, whereas rates for NHWs decreased after age 40. Mortality rates for NHBs dramatically increased at age 65 compared to a relatively stable trend for NHWs. The increasing racial disparity with increasing age in terms of cervical cancer incidence rates became more pronounced when corrected for hysterectomy prevalence. Conclusions

  5. [Cooperation between an NGO and "host" states in the control of leprosy in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalk, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    The proliferation of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) can be considered the result of the inability of the current democratic system to perform all the tasks desired by its citizens. Although NGOs often do quite positive work, they tend to diminish governmental power and are capable of interfering in the internal affairs of other countries. In this context, there are efforts to control their activities, and this control can produce both negative effects (blocking the defense of human rights) and positive ones (correcting the lack of coordination in the work by NGOs). NGOs working with the control of leprosy have a long history of cooperation with "host" states in Latin America. In the worst cases they work in a vacuum left by the state. In a country like Brazil, where the government prioritizes the control of Hansen disease and community participation in the political process - NGOs generally work "in harmony" with national authorities. The most useful contribution to state efforts has been the technical and financial support for training health personnel, supervision, and awareness-raising campaigns. Thus, the NGO becomes "quasi-governmental" in performing its tasks.

  6. Being Untaught: How NGO Field Workers Empower Parents of Children with Disabilities in Dadaab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Krupar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Roughly 350,000 refugees, over 90% of them Somali, lived in five sprawling camps in Dadaab, Kenya in 2015. In the Dadaab refugee camps, families had unique experiences of disability, education, women’s roles, and involvement with International Non-Governmental Organization (INGO programming. INGOs provided a variety of basic services including education such as the program analyzed here for parents of children with disabilities. Many children with disabilities in the refugee camps faced social stigma and lacked access to education. This research draws on practices and literature in family literacy and parental involvement programming to explore how one NGO training sought to empower women learners to send their children with disabilities to school in Kambioos, the smallest and newest refugee camp in Dadaab. Using ethnographic methods, one training program involving parents and children was video-taped. The video was used as a cue to interview field workers about how the training empowered parents, particularly mothers. The study found that empowerment of women through training for parents of children with disabilities centered on parents’ interaction with formal schools and engagement in their communities.

  7. The role of NGO in informal seed production and dissemination: The case of eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekadu Beyene

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed is the basic input to crop production. Farmer-based seed production as an alternative agricultural technology transfer is increasingly given especial attention in developing countries where food insecurity is critical. This paper aims to assess the seed production and dissemination strategy among smallholder farmers in eastern Ethiopia that has been introduced by Hararghe Catholic Secretariat (a Non-GovernmentalOrganization. A survey of 160 households in four administrative districts and focus group discussions were used to collect data. While narratives helped understand the process, logistic regressionwas used to identify determinants of land allocation to seed production. Results indicate the crucial role of informal networks and social capital as facilitators of access to production inputs, information and knowledge. The informal seed supply system initiated by the NGO has a huge potential to benefit smallholder farmers by improving their access to higher-yielding varieties of various crops, thereby contributing to an increase in their wellbeing. However, the traditional practice of seed exchange, influenced by social relations, will remain uneconomical to seed producers. Thus, the paper suggests that this potential can be further exploited if some preconditions such as establishment of seed banks, investment in human capital, removal of the underlying constraints and creation of reliable seed markets are given emphasis.

  8. Post-disaster housing reconstruction: Perspectives of the NGO and local authorities on delay issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Khairin Norhashidah; Nifa, Faizatul Akmar Abdul; Ismail, Risyawati Mohamed; Lin, Chong Khai

    2016-08-01

    Post disaster reconstruction is complex, dynamic and chaotic in nature and as such represents many challenges because it is unlike normal construction. However, the time scale of reconstruction is shorter than the normal construction, but it often deals with uncertainties and the scale of the construction activities required is relatively high. After a disaster impacts a country, many governments, institutions and aid organizations cooperate and involved with the reconstruction process. This is seen as a tool for applying policies and programs designed to remedy the weakness in developmental policies, infrastructure and institutional arrangements. This paper reports a part of an on-going research on post-disaster housing reconstruction in Malaysia. An extensive literature review and pilot interviews were undertaken to establish the factors that contribute to the delay in post-disaster reconstruction project. Accordingly, this paper takes the perspective of recovery from non-government organization (NGO) and local authorities which act as providers of social services, builders of infrastructure, regulators of economic activity and managers of the natural environment. As a result, it is important on how those decisions are made, who is involved in the decision-making, and what are the consequences of this decision.

  9. Low-Frequency Gravitational-Wave Science with eLISA/ NGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Aoudia, Sofiane; Babak, Stanislav; Binetruy, Pierre; Berti, Emanuele; Bohe, Alejandro; Caprini, Chiara; Colpi, Monica; Cornish, Neil J.; Danzmann, Karsten; Dufaux, Jean-Francois; Gair, Jonathan; Jennrich, Oliver; Jetzer, Philippe; Klein, Antoine; Lang, Ryan N.; Lobo, Alberto; Littenberg, Tyson; McWilliams, Sean T.; Nelemans, Gijs; Petiteau, Antoine; Porter, Edward K.; Schutz, Bernard F.; Stebbins, Robin; Vallisneri, Michele

    2011-01-01

    We review the expected science performance of the New Gravitational-Wave Observatory (NGO, a.k.a. eLISA), a mission under study by the European Space Agency for launch in the early 2020s. eLISA will survey the low-frequency gravitational-wave sky (from 0.1 mHz to 1 Hz), detecting and characterizing a broad variety of systems and events throughout the Universe, including the coalescences of massive black holes brought together by galaxy mergers; the inspirals of stellar-mass black holes and compact stars into central galactic black holes; several millions of ultracompact binaries, both detached and mass transferring, in the Galaxy; and possibly unforeseen sources such as the relic gravitational-wave radiation from the early Universe. eLISA's high signal-to-noise measurements will provide new insight into the structure and history of the Universe, and they will test general relativity in its strong-field dynamical regime.

  10. Low-frequency gravitational-wave science with eLISA/NGO

    CERN Document Server

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Babak, Stanislav; Binetruy, Pierre; Berti, Emanuele; Bohe, Alejandro; Caprini, Chiara; Colpi, Monica; Cornish, Neil J; Danzmann, Karsten; Dufaux, Jean-Francois; Gair, Jonathan; Jennrich, Oliver; Jetzer, Philippe; Klein, Antoine; Lang, Ryan N; Lobo, Alberto; Littenberg, Tyson; McWilliams, Sean T; Nelemans, Gijs; Petiteau, Antoine; Porter, Edward K; Schutz, Bernard F; Sesana, Alberto; Stebbins, Robin; Sumner, Tim; Vallisneri, Michele; Vitale, Stefano; Volonteri, Marta; Ward, Henry

    2012-01-01

    We review the expected science performance of the New Gravitational-Wave Observatory (NGO, a.k.a. eLISA), a mission under study by the European Space Agency for launch in the early 2020s. eLISA will survey the low-frequency gravitational-wave sky (from 0.1 mHz to 1 Hz), detecting and characterizing a broad variety of systems and events throughout the Universe, including the coalescences of massive black holes brought together by galaxy mergers; the inspirals of stellar-mass black holes and compact stars into central galactic black holes; several millions of ultracompact binaries, both detached and mass transferring, in the Galaxy; and possibly unforeseen sources such as the relic gravitational-wave radiation from the early Universe. eLISA's high signal-to-noise measurements will provide new insight into the structure and history of the Universe, and they will test general relativity in its strong-field dynamical regime.

  11. Beyond idealism and realism: Canadian NGO/government relations during the negotiation of the FCTC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencucha, Raphael; Labonté, Ronald; Rouse, Michael J

    2010-04-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) marks a unique point in the history of global health governance. This convention produced the first legally binding treaty under the auspices of the World Health Organization. Another first was the extent to which non-governmental organizations (NGOs) participated in the negotiation process. This article explores the relationship between one group of NGOs and their respective government during the negotiation of the FCTC. Documentary analyses and 18 individual in-depth interviews were conducted with both government and NGO representatives. In contrast to the polar perspectives of idealism (NGOs as unique and autonomous) and realism (NGOs as funded arms of the government), our findings suggest that neither opposition nor conformity on the part of the NGOs characterize the relationship between the NGOs and government. While specific to the case under study (the FCTC), our findings nonetheless indicate the need for a nuanced view of the relationship between governments and NGOs, at least during the process of multilateral health policy negotiations.

  12. Loco-regional treatment in metastatic breast cancer patients: is there a survival benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Bevan H; Nguyen, Nam P; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Rapiti, Elisabetta; Vlastos, Georges

    2010-02-01

    A number of studies have recently demonstrated a survival benefit in stage IV breast cancer patients following surgical resection of the primary tumor. Here, we investigate the relationship between loco-regional treatment and survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer and evaluate the impact of different loco-regional treatments. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using PubMed to analyze studies with the following criteria: Type of loco-regional treatment (surgery alone or combined with radiation, radiotherapy), overall survival, progression-free survival, selection factors for local treatment, and complication rates. Thirteen studies evaluated the effect of loco-regional treatment on overall survival with overall median survival increasing from a range of 12.6-28.3 months among patients without surgery to a range of 25-42 months among patients with surgery. In addition, six studies reported a 3-year survival benefit of 28-95% and 17-79% in women with and without locoregional therapy respectively. Two studies did not find any improvement in overall survival. One study found an improvement in 5-year breast cancer-specific survival of 27% with negative surgical margins versus 12% with no surgery. Three studies reported an advantage in progression-free survival in the treatment group compared with the non-treatment group. Loco-regional treatment for breast cancer patients with distant metastases at diagnosis is an important issue because of possible improvement of survival or disease-free survival. The possibility of surgery and/or radiotherapy following induction chemotherapy should be weighed and left to individual practice. Participation in randomized controlled trials should be encouraged.

  13. [A multicenter trial of regional medical cooperation for cancer chemotherapy after the great East Japan earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Shoko; Seya, Yukiko; Murayama, Motoko; Ogasawara, Kimiyo; Kisara, Shigeki; Ishii, Tadashi; Sugawara, Michie; Chida, Yasunori; Kanbe, Mariko; Kakudo, Yuichi; Mano, Nariyasu; Ishioka, Chikashi

    2013-03-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake was the first disaster we experienced after the administration of oncology care had mostly shifted from hospitals to outpatient departments in Japan. Disaster medical assistance teams(DMATs)were deployed immediately after the disaster, and actively assisted during the acute phase of the catastrophe. After experiencing the earthquake, we realized the necessity of medical support teams, even for chronic disease. Here we report a multicenter trial of regional medical cooperation for cancer chemotherapy. First, soon after the earthquake, representatives from the regional hospitals discussed the proper roles for each institution. As agreed to in the discussion, cancer patients were redistributed from a disaster base hospital to a local general hospital, and oncologists supported the other regional hospitals on a regular basis. This broad regional network functioned well and patients resumed their treatment as soon as the situation allowed. Second, we performed a survey of the patients and found that the most important problem was patients' lack of understanding of their own illnesses. Third, we conducted an opinion survey of medical professionals on regional medical cooperation. Based on the trial, we found it important in disasters to establish regional cooperation and solid communication systems, and to promote patient education.

  14. BiNGO及DAVID在miR-155靶基因富集分析中的应用%Application of BiNGO and DAVID in Biological Enrichment Analysis of miR-155 Target Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蓉; 蔡琳

    2012-01-01

    kinase activity(GO molecular function, P<0. 01) and metabolic regulation, transcriptional regulation, macromol-ecule biosynthesis, gene expression regulation,signal transduction(GO biological process, P<0. 01). In KEGG pathway, the gene set indicated an enrichment in T cell receptor signaling pathway, B cell receptor signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathways, ErbB signaling pathway, etc(signal transduction pathway, P<0. 05) and colorectal cancer, acute and chronic myeloid leukemia (human diseases pathway,P<0. 05). Conclusion BiNGO and DAVID have their own advantages, the combination of two software analysis of miRNAs target gene sets for biological description can provide bioinformatics basis for further functional studies.

  15. EPIDEMIC STRENGTH OF CARDIA AND DISTANT STOMACH CANCER IN THE HIGH RISK REGION OF ESOPHAGEAL CANCER AND THEIR IMPLICATION TO EDOSCOPIC SCREENING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-wei; Yong-wei; MA Cai-fen; SHAN Bao-en; WANG Shi-jie; WEN Deng-gui; LI Ying-sai; YU Wei-fang; WANG Shun-ping; ER Li-mian; CONG Qing-wen; WANG Jun-he; LI Su-ping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the epidemic strength of cardia and distant stomach cancers in the high risk region of esophageal cancer along the south Taihang mountain such as in Shexian, Linxian, and Cixian Counties, and to clarify the tasks for the control of upper gastrointestinal tract cancer as a whole in the region. Methods: Comparisons of incidence and mortality rates of esophageal, cardia and stomach cancers were made between Cixian, Linxian and Shexian Counties with reference to detection rates of cancer in situ and precancerous lesions of the three upper gastrointestinal cancers by endoscopic screening. The screening was performed from 1999 through 2004 in the three adjacent counties including a total of 6233 local residents aged 40 to 69 years old. Results: The incidence rates for cardia cancer for the male and female from 2000 through 2004 were 69.9 and 41.5, and the mortality rates were 54.3and 33.2 respectively in Shexian County. Esophageal, cardia, and stomach cancers constitute about 70~80 percent of all malignant disease by incidence or mortality rates. Endoscopic survey with iodine staining can effectively detect squamous cell precancerous lesions in the esophagus, but the method is inadequate for the detection of adeno precancerous lesions of the cardia and stomach. Conclusion: The south Taihang mountain region is a high risk area not only for esophagus cancer, but also for cardia and stomach cancers. To control upper gastrointestinal tract cancers as a whole in the region, special attention should be paid to the control of cardia and stomach cancers. Presently, to find effective screening methods for detecting cardia and stomach precancerous lesions is especially important.

  16. Hepatitis C virus quasispecies in cancerous and noncancerous hepatic lesions: the core protein-encoding region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam,Shahjalal S.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We have shown that highly proofreading DNA polymerase is required for the polymerase chain reaction in the genetic analysis of hepatitis C virus (HCV. To clarify the status of HCV quasispecies in hepatic tissue using proofreading DNA polymerase, we performed a genetic analysis of the HCV core protein-encoding region in cancerous and noncancerous lesions derived from 4 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast to the previously published data, we observed neither deletions nor stop codons in the analyzed region and no significant difference in the complexity of HCV quasispecies between cancerous and noncancerous lesions. This result suggests that the HCV core gene is never structurally defective in hepatic tissues, including cancerous lesions. However, in 3 of the patients, the consensus HCV species differed between cancerous and noncancerous lesions, suggesting that the predominant replicating HCV species differs between these 2 types of lesions. Moreover, during the course of the study, we obtained several interesting variants possessing a substitution at codon 9 of the core gene, whose substitution has been shown to induce the production of the F protein synthesized by a - 2/+1 ribosomal frameshift.

  17. Regional spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue using pulsed terahertz transmission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Tyler; El-Shenawee, Magda; Campbell, Lucas

    2016-03-01

    This work seeks to obtain the properties of paraffin-embedded breast cancer tumor tissues using transmission imaging and spectroscopy. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded breast tumors are first sectioned into slices of 20 μm and 30 μm and placed between two tsurupica slides. The slides are then scanned in a pulsed terahertz system using transmission imaging. The tissue regions in adjacent pathology section are compared to the transmission imaging scan in order to define a region of points over which to average the electrical properties results from the scan.

  18. REGIONAL EXPERIENCE OF CERVICAL CANCER PREVENTION IN THE REPUBLIC OF SAKHA (YAKUTIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Afanaseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There are evidences of increasing cervix uteri malignant tumors in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia in the period of 2003–2013. In such situation new, more effective, but less expensive organizational measures for prevention and early identification of oncological diseases should be developed. The recent epidemiological studies have convincingly shown that high-oncological-risk genital papilloma viral infection was certain risk factor of developing pre-cancer changes and cervical cancer. Detection of HPV regional epidemiological characteristics is extremely important for optimization of programs on diagnostics and prevention of cervix uteri cancer. The epidemiological and molecular-biological studies in Yakutia have detected more high infection rate in the female population than in male one. It was established that 11 high-oncological-risks genotypes of the virus circulating in the region with considerable prevalence of HPV Type 16. Since 2008 the program on vaccination against papilloma viral infection for girls and young women aged 10 to 25 years has been implemented in Yakutia Over six years, the number of vaccinated girls and women in Yakutsk reached 1093 persons. It has been the first experience in the Siberian and Far Eastern Federal Regions.

  19. 政府与NGO合作扶贫路径取向探析%Orientation of Government-NGO Cooperation Poverty Aid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立栋

    2012-01-01

    Government-NGO cooperation poverty aid is faced with a lot of problems: NGO is not well recog- nized by mass community; NGO is faced with transformation bottle neck while being interfered by power centraliza- tion and the deficiency of policies. For the aim of reducing poverty, Chinese government cooperates with NGO forthe cause of poverty aid in two ways : bottom-up and top-down. For the perfection of gc.vernment-NGO cooperation, government should solve the developmental problems of NGO, and NGO should enhance the capability of self-con- struction, improve cooperative relationship and implement competition as well as cooperation.%当前政府与NGO合作扶贫面临着许多问题:NGO的社会认知度严重不足;NGO面临转型瓶颈,同时受到权力中心论的干扰,政策法规缺失严重。为达到减少社会贫困的目的,我国政府与NGO合作扶贫的路径采取自上而下和自下而上两种合作路径。完善政府与NGO合作的扶贫机制,政府应当在政策上解决NGO的发展问题,NGO也应加强自身能力建设、改进合作关系,实现既竞争又合作。

  20. ANALYSIS OF KEY-MOTIVATORS IN THE ROMANIAN-NGO ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Pacesila

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the ways to motivate volunteers and employees or members from non-governmental sector in order to find out which are the most effective of them and to see if there are differences regarding the motivation depending on the type of organization and the field of activity. The reason for investigating the literature in the field is to see how the contemporary authors have defined the term NGO as well as the concept of motivation.Methodology: The research described in this paper is based on qualitative research method. Data gathering methods included the document analysis in order to bring some important clarifications on the concept of non-governmental organizations and motivation as well as semi-structured interview in order to identify the ways to motivate human resources from nongovernmental sector.Findings: The analysis and interpretation of the data highlight that there are differences in the ways of motivating non-governmental sector human resources depending on the field of activity, but not depending on the type of organization. Despite the obstacles encountered, the management of NGOs uses the most effective ways in order to increase the motivation level of volunteers, employees or members.Research limitation: The limits of this paper come once with the limited number of the interviewees, as well as the types of non-governmental organizations surveyed.Value of paper: The paper has both theoretical and practical importance, explaining the concepts of NGOs and motivation and analysing the ways of motivating human resources in the non-governmental organizations.

  1. Major chromosomal breakpoint intervals in breast cancer tumors co-localize with differentially methylated regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Hung Eric eTang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid tumors exhibit chromosomal rearrangements resulting in gain or loss of multiple loci (copy number variation and translocations that occasionally result in the creation of novel chimeric genes. In the case of breast cancer, although most individual tumors each have unique CNV landscape the breakpoints, as measured over large datasets, appear to be non-randomly distributed in the genome. Breakpoints show a significant regional concentration at genomic loci spanning perhaps several megabases. The proximal cause of these breakpoint concentrations is a subject of speculation but is, as yet, largely unknown. To shed light on this issue, we have performed a bio-statistical analysis on our previously published data for a set of 119 breast tumors and normal controls, where each sample has both high resolution CNV and methylation data. The method examined the distribution of closeness of breakpoint regions with differentially methylated regions, coupled with additional genomic parameters, such as repeat elements and designated fragile sites in the reference genome. Through this analysis, we have identified a set of 91 regional loci called breakpoint enriched differentially methylated regions (BEDMRs characterized by altered DNA methylation in cancer compared to normal cells that are associated with frequent breakpoint concentrations within a distance of 1Mb. BEDMR loci are further associated with local hypomethylation (66% concentrations of the Alu SINE repeats within 3Mb and tend to occur near a number of cancer related genes such as the protocadherins, AKT1, DUB3, GAB2. BEDMRs seem to deregulate members of the histone gene family and chromatin remodeling factors e.g JMJD1B which might affect the chromatin structure and disrupt coordinate signaling and repair. From this analysis we propose that preference for chromosomal breakpoints is related to genome structure coupled with alterations in DNA methylation and hence chromatin structure associated

  2. [Role of loco-regional treatments for patients with breast cancer liver metastases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Cristina; Danova, Marco; Chatzileontiadou, Sofia; Palmeri, Laura; Vercelli, Alessandro; Palmeri, Sergio

    2009-09-01

    Breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM) are not uncommon (about 18% of cases): although some patients have been reported as still living after 25 months, median survival after hormonal- or chemotherapy is 6-14 months. In recent years, new chemotherapy regimens and molecular targeted therapies have given medical oncologists reason to believe that metastatic disease can be eradicated, or at least controlled for prolonged periods. In an attempt to improve survival, consideration has also been given to loco-regional treatments such as hepatic resection and radio-frequency ablation, which have been associated with better outcomes in selected patients. This review considers the role of two loco-regional approaches in a multidisciplinary perspective in the treatment of single or multiple breast cancer metastases limited to the liver. An expanded role for hepatic resection and ablation is being investigated. We assessed available data in the literature to determine their role on survival outcomes. They suggest that loco-regional treatments might be of significant benefit in a selected group of women with BCLM, but the role of these local treatments in multimodality treatment of liver metastases remains controversial. It can generally be said that loco-regional treatments can improve overall survival, with no mortality and less than 20% morbidity in patients at low surgical risk; however, they should only be considered cytoreductive treatments and, as such, always need to be integrated with systemic therapy.

  3. Pattern of loco-regional failure after definitive radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytte, Tine; Nielsen, Tine Bjørn; Brink, Carsten;

    2014-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with poor survival even though patients are treated with curatively intended radiotherapy. Survival is affected negatively by lack of loco-regional tumour control, but survival is also influenced by comorbidity caused by age and smoking, and occurr......Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with poor survival even though patients are treated with curatively intended radiotherapy. Survival is affected negatively by lack of loco-regional tumour control, but survival is also influenced by comorbidity caused by age and smoking......, and occurrence of distant metastasis. It is challenging to evaluate loco-regional control after definitive radiotherapy for NSCLC since it is difficult to distinguish between radiation-induced damage to the lung tissue and tumour progression/recurrence. In addition it may be useful to distinguish between...... intrapulmonary failure and mediastinal failure to be able to optimize radiotherapy in order to improve loco-regional control even though it is not easy to discriminate between the two sites of failure. Material and methods. This study is a retrospective analysis of 331 NSCLC patients treated with definitive...

  4. Costs and health effects of breast cancer interventions in epidemiologically different regions of Africa, North America, and Asia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.T.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.; Groot, C.A. de; Anderson, B.O.; Hortobagyi, G.N.

    2006-01-01

    We estimated the costs and health effects of treating stage I, II, III, and IV breast cancer individually, of treating all stages, and of introducing an extensive cancer control program (treating all stages plus early stage diagnosis) in three epidemiologically different world regions--Africa, North

  5. Knowledge assessment of women living in the Wielkopolska region concerning risk factors for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gawdzik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cervical cancer (CC is a malignant tumor which for many years has been a serious epidemiological problem in Poland. This issue is important because CC is the second most common type of malignant tumor, after breast cancer, and the second most common cause of death among women. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of women living in the Wielkopolska region (Gniezno district of risk factors for cervical cancer. Material and methods: The study used the diagnostic poll method, based on a previously developed survey questionnaire. The study was carried out between March and April 2013. The study group consisted of 100 women, involving schoolgirls from the secondary school in Gniezno (Group I, workers (doctors, nurses and midwives of two outpatient clinics in the Gniezno district (Group II and patients of the same clinics (Group III. Results : According to the respondents, the main cause of CC is human papillomavirus (Group II – 36% and genetic predisposition (Group III – 35%. It is alarming that 26% of women did not know the risk factors for CC. Conclusions : It is necessary to improve health education, especially concerning the main factors affecting the development of CC, in order to reduce the morbidity and mortality rates related to this cancer.

  6. Loco-regional administration of nanomedicines for the treatment of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrastazu Pereira, Gabriela; Lawson, Amanda Jane; Buttini, Francesca; Sonvico, Fabio

    2016-10-01

    Lung cancer poses one of the most significant challenges to modern medicine, killing thousands every year. Current therapy involves surgical resection supplemented with chemotherapy and radiotherapy due to high rates of relapse. Shortcomings of currently available chemotherapy protocols include unacceptably high levels of systemic toxicity and low accumulation of drug at the tumor site. Loco-regional delivery of nanocarriers loaded with anticancer agents has the potential to significantly increase efficacy, while minimizing systemic toxicity to anticancer agents. Local drug administration at the tumor site using nanoparticulate drug delivery systems can reduce systemic toxicities observed with intravenously administered anticancer drugs. In addition, this approach presents an opportunity for sustained delivery of anticancer drug over an extended period of time. Herein, the progress in the development of locally administered nanomedicines for the treatment of lung cancer is reviewed. Administration by inhalation, intratumoral injection and means of direct in situ application are discussed, the benefits and drawbacks of each modality are explored.

  7. Expanding the Scope of Nursing Research in Low Resource and Middle Resource Countries, Regions, and States Focused on Cervical Cancer Prevention, Early Detection, and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Underwood, Sandra Millon; Ramsay-Johnson, Edith; Dean, Asante; Russ, Jori; Ivalis, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. There are significant disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality globally as well as in the United States. The most significant global disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality are reported in low resource and middle resource countries, regions, and states. This report provides an overview of cervical cancer epidemiology and etiology, and identi...

  8. Postmastectomy radiation in supraclavicular and internal mammary regions of patients with breast cancer of stage II/III

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Xin; GUO Xiao-mao; ZHANG Zhen; CHEN Jia-yi

    2009-01-01

    @@ Adjuvant radiotherapy plays a vital role in the treatment of breast cancer, but irradiated area was not standardized. The ipsilateral chest wall and supraclavicular regions with or without internal mammary lymph nodes were reported in patients receiving postmastectomy radiotherapy.1,2 In our study, 133 consecutive patients with breast cancer of stage II/III who had received postmastectomy radiotherapy of supraclavicular and internal mammary regions at Cancer Hospital of Fudan University were analyzed for their survival and locoregional control as well as their relative prognostic predicator.

  9. Non-Governmental Organization (NGO Libraries for The Visually Impaired in Nigeria: Alternative Format Use and Perception of Information Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetoro, 'Niran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria's non-government organization (NGO libraries for the visually impaired has over the years been at the forefront of information services provision to persons with visual impairment. This study adopted a survey research design to investigate use of alternative formats and perceptions of information services to the visually impaired, focusing on two purposively chosen NGO libraries for the visually impaired in Nigeria. Using a complete enumeration approach, data were gathered from 180 users of the libraries through the use of a structured questionnaire with a reliability score (${\\alpha}=0.74$. Data from 112 (62.2% of the 180 administered copies of a questionnaire that were retrieved were analysed. The study found that Braille materials had a high level of utilization ($\\bar{x}=4.46$ and were the most frequently utilized (90.9%. Perception of information services by the visually impaired was positive while use of alternative formats was significantly and positively related to users' perception of information services (r = .041; p < 0.05. The study recommends improved transcription and investment in alternative formats and in e-resources. It also recommends collaborations to widen access as well as constant evaluation of services.

  10. Retrospective study of histological types of esophageal cancer prevalent in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Torrealba Bustos

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to determine the statistical relation between the most frequent histological types of oesophageal carcinoma in the Metropolitan region of Santiago, Chile. For it there were obtained clinical samples of different laboratories of Pathological Anatomy of the Metropolitan region corresponding to the south and east sector of Santiago, gathering a total of 348 cases, which were diagnosed by means of endoscopic biopsy, using as parameters the morphologic characteristics of neoplastic tissue evaluated by light microscopy with hematoxylin-eosin dye. The obtained information was submitted to a model of logistic multiple regression, in order to determine the associations between the most frequent histological types of oesophageal cancer (adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma, topographic location compromised to the moment of the diagnosis, age and sex of the patients in study. The proportion between the histological types of cancer of esophagus did not present significant differences, which contrasts with the results of international publications. The analyses demonstrated that the low third is the only parameter that is subject to variation, which relates to the metaplasia of Barrett and the development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma.

  11. [Immunohistochemical study using a double fluorescent staining on the regional lymph nodes of gastric cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, S

    1990-01-01

    For the purpose to investigate the immunological anti-tumor function of lymphocytes in the regional lymph nodes of gastric cancer, a double staining procedure using several monoclonal antibodies against the surface membranes of T and NK cells with fluorescent antibody technique was conducted. The number of CD11b+ cells out of CD8+ cells was small with almost all being CD11b- belonging to cytotoxic T cells. Leu8+ cells and Leu8- cells out of CD4+ cells were recognized in equal numbers and were reciprocal. The ratio of CD4+ Leu8-/CD4+ demonstrated an increase in the group injected with OK-432. The ratio of OKT9+ or OKIa1+ occupied in CD8+ or CD4+ cells was only several percent, and few in number. An increase for the ratio of CD4+ OKT9+/CD4+ was observed in the group injected with IL-2. Similar increases for the ratio of CD4+ OKIa1+/CD4+ were obtained in the group injected with OK-432 and in the metastatic group, respectively. The Leu7+ CD16+ cells were not observed. The Leu7- CD16+ cells were observed in a part where metastases were focused. These results indicated that lymphocytes in regional lymphocyte of gastric cancer might hold the hidden anti-tumor effect, but did not display the full function without preoperative intratumor injection of BRM such as IL-2 or OK-432.

  12. Genetic variants in regulatory regions of microRNAs are associated with lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kaipeng; Wang, Cheng; Qin, Na; Yang, Jianshui; Zhu, Meng; Dai, Juncheng; Jin, Guangfu; Shen, Hongbing; Ma, Hongxia; Hu, Zhibin

    2016-07-26

    Genetic variants in regulatory regions of some miRNAs might be associated with lung cancer risk and survival. We performed a case-control study including 1341 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases and 1982 controls to evaluate the associations of 7 potentially functional polymorphisms in several differently expressed miRNAs with NSCLC risk. Each SNP was also tested for the association with overall survival of 1001 NSCLC patients. We identified that rs9660710 in miR-200b/200a/429 cluster and rs763354 in miR-30a were significantly associated with NSCLC risk [odds ratio (OR) = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.30, P = 0.002; OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80-0.98, P = 0.017; respectively]. However, no significant association between variants and NSCLC death risk was observed in survival analysis. Functional annotation showed that both rs9660710 and rs763354 were located in regulatory elements in lung cancer cells. Compared to normal tissues, miR-200a-3p, miR-200a-5p, miR-200b-3p, miR-200b-5p and miR-429 were significantly increased in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Lung Adenocarcinoma (LUAD) tumors, whereas miR-30a-3p and miR-30a-5p were significantly decreased in tumors (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, we observed that rs9660710 is an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) or methylation eQTL for miR-429 expression in TCGA normal tissues. Our results indicated that rs9660710 in miR-200b/200a/429 cluster and rs763354 in miR-30a might modify the susceptibility to NSCLC.

  13. Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaohua; El-Sayed, Ivan H; Qian, Wei; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    2006-02-15

    Due to strong electric fields at the surface, the absorption and scattering of electromagnetic radiation by noble metal nanoparticles are strongly enhanced. These unique properties provide the potential of designing novel optically active reagents for simultaneous molecular imaging and photothermal cancer therapy. It is desirable to use agents that are active in the near-infrared (NIR) region of the radiation spectrum to minimize the light extinction by intrinsic chromophores in native tissue. Gold nanorods with suitable aspect ratios (length divided by width) can absorb and scatter strongly in the NIR region (650-900 nm). In the present work, we provide an in vitro demonstration of gold nanorods as novel contrast agents for both molecular imaging and photothermal cancer therapy. Nanorods are synthesized and conjugated to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) monoclonal antibodies and incubated in cell cultures with a nonmalignant epithelial cell line (HaCat) and two malignant oral epithelial cell lines (HOC 313 clone 8 and HSC 3). The anti-EGFR antibody-conjugated nanorods bind specifically to the surface of the malignant-type cells with a much higher affinity due to the overexpressed EGFR on the cytoplasmic membrane of the malignant cells. As a result of the strongly scattered red light from gold nanorods in dark field, observed using a laboratory microscope, the malignant cells are clearly visualized and diagnosed from the nonmalignant cells. It is found that, after exposure to continuous red laser at 800 nm, malignant cells require about half the laser energy to be photothermally destroyed than the nonmalignant cells. Thus, both efficient cancer cell diagnostics and selective photothermal therapy are realized at the same time.

  14. Regional lymphadenectomy for gallbladder cancer: Rational extent, technical details, and patient outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshio Shirai; Toshifumi Wakai; Jun Sakata; Katsuyoshi Hatakeyama

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To define the rational extent of regional lymphadenectomy for gallbladder cancer and to clarify its effect on long-term survival.METHODS:A total of 152 patients with gallbladder cancer who underwent a minimum of "extended" portal lymph node dissection (defined as en bloc removal of the first- and second-echelon nodes) from 1982 to 2010 were retrospectively analyzed.Based on previous studies,regional lymph nodes of the gallbladder were divided into first-echelon nodes (cystic duct or pericholedochal nodes),second-echelon nodes (node groups posterosuperior to the head of the pancreas or around the hepatic vessels),and more distant nodes.RESULTS:Among the 152 patients (total of 3352 lymph nodes retrieved,median of 19 per patient),79 patients (52%) had 356 positive nodes.Among nodepositive patients,the prevalence of nodal metastasis was highest in the pericholedochal (54%) and cystic duct (38%) nodes,followed by the second-echelon node groups (29% to 19%),while more distant node groups were only rarely (5% or less) involved.Diseasespecific survival after R0 resection differed according to the nodal status (P < 0.001):most node-negative patients achieved long-term survival (median,not reached; 5-year survival,80%),whereas among nodepositive patients,22 survived for more than 5 years (median,37 mo; 5-year survival,43%).CONCLUSION:The rational extent of lymphadenectomy for gallbladder cancer should include the firstand second-echelon nodes.A considerable proportion of node-positive patients benefit from such aggressive lymphadenectomy.

  15. Regional lymph node metastases are a strong risk factor for venous thromboembolism: results from the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Boris; Ahlbrecht, Jonas; Ay, Cihan; Dunkler, Daniela; Thaler, Johannes; Scheithauer, Werner; Quehenberger, Peter; Zielinski, Christoph; Pabinger, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Advanced cancer is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism. However, lymph node metastases are usually not considered an established risk factor. In the framework of the prospective, observational Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study we investigated the association between local (N0), regional (N1–3), and distant (M1) cancer stages and the occurrence of venous thromboembolism. Furthermore, we were specifically interested in the relationship between stage and biomarkers that have been reported to be associated with venous thromboembolism. We followed 832 patients with solid tumors for a median of 527 days. The study end-point was symptomatic venous thromboembolism. At study inclusion, 241 patients had local, 138 regional, and 453 distant stage cancer. The cumulative probability of venous thromboembolism after 6 months in patients with local, regional and distant stage cancer was 2.1%, 6.5% and 6.0%, respectively (P=0.002). Compared to patients with local stage disease, patients with regional and distant stage disease had a significantly higher risk of venous thromboembolism in multivariable Cox-regression analysis including age, newly diagnosed cancer (versus progression of disease), surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy (regional: HR=3.7, 95% CI: 1.5–9.6; distant: HR=5.4, 95% CI: 2.3–12.9). Furthermore, patients with regional or distant stage disease had significantly higher levels of D-dimer, factor VIII, and platelets, and lower hemoglobin levels than those with local stage disease. These results demonstrate an increased risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with regional disease. Elevated levels of predictive biomarkers in patients with regional disease underpin the results and are in line with the activation of the hemostatic system in the early phase of metastatic dissemination. PMID:23585523

  16. Magnesium, zinc, arsenic, selenium and platinum urinary excretion from cancer patients of Antofagasta region, Chile: multi-metal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, I; Rivera, L; Ávila, J; Cortés, P

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the short-term 24 h urinary excretion of platinum, arsenic, selenium, magnesium and zinc in patients with lung cancer and with cancer other than lungs treated with cisplatin or/and carboplatin from Antofagasta, Chile. Design Urine measurements of Pt and Se were made by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, As by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry and Mg and Zn by means of flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Setting All samples were provided by the Oncological Centre of Antofagasta Regional Hospital (Region of Antofagasta, Chile). Participants Ninety 24-h urine samples from cancer patients after the infusion of Pt-base drugs and 10 24-h urine samples from cancer patients not treated with metal-base drugs. Main outcome measures Concentrations of Pt, Se, As, Zn and Mg coming from 24-h urine samples. Results Pt excreted was not significantly different between patients with lung and other cancers treated with cisplatin. The excretion of Mg, Zn and Se was greater than As. Then, Pt favours the excretion of essential elements. For lung and other types of cancers treated with drugs without Pt, excretion of Mg, Zn and Se was also greater than that of As, suggesting antagonism Mg-Zn-Se–anti-cancer drug relationship. Conclusions The amounts of Mg, Zn and Se excreted were greater than for As either with or without Pt-containing drugs, suggesting antagonist Mg-Zn-Se–anti-cancer drug relationships. The excretion of As, Mg, Zn and Se is induced by Pt. Knowledge obtained can contribute to understanding the arsenic cancer mechanism and the As-Mg-Zn-Se-Pt inter-element association for lung cancer and other types of cancer. PMID:27757244

  17. Increased risk of male cancer and identification of a potential prostate cancer cluster region in BRCA2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed Nielsen, Henriette; Petersen, Janne; Therkildsen, Christina;

    2016-01-01

    and prostate cancer with cumulative risks of 12.5% and 18.8%, respectively. Breast cancer developed at a mean age of 59 years, typically as ER/PR positive ductal carcinomas. Prostate cancer developed at a mean age of 68 years, with Gleason scores ≥ 8 in 40% of the tumors. The hazard ratio for BRCA2-associated...

  18. A map of nuclear matrix attachment regions within the breast cancer loss-of-heterozygosity region on human chromosome 16q22.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaposhnikov, Sergey A.; Akopov, Sergey B.; Chernov, Igor P.

    2007-01-01

    There is abundant evidence that the DNA in eukaryotic cells is organized into loop domains that represent basic structural and functional units of chromatin packaging. To explore the DNA domain organization of the breast cancer loss-of-heterozygosity region on human chromosome 16q22.1, we have...... identified a significant portion of the scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs) within this region. Forty independent putative S/MAR elements were assigned within the 16q22.1 locus. More than 90% of these S/MARs are AT rich, with GC contents as low as 27% in 2 cases. Thirty-nine (98%) of the S...

  19. Epidemiology, diagnostics and long-term overall survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer in the Brest Region

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Lung cancer has been the most common cancer in the world and in Belarus. Aim of the research: To evaluate the epidemiology of non-small cell lung cancer and improvements in diagnostics and treatment for the past 11 years in the Brest Region of Belarus. Material and methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of statistical data (incidence rate, mortality) in the regional cancer registry of the Brest oncological clinic since 2000 and assessed survival for 652 adul...

  20. Regional bias of intratumoral genetic heterogeneity of nucleotide repeats in colon cancers with microsatellite instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youn Jin; Kim, Min Sung; An, Chang Hyeok; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2014-10-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) may produce regional biases in genotype and phenotype evaluation in a single tumor and may impede proper cancer diagnosis. To evaluate the extent of ITH in colorectal cancer (CRC) with microsatellite instability (MSI), we obtained 4-7 biopsies from 39 CRCs followed by MSI analysis either using the Bethesda MSI evaluation system or Promega system with 5 mononucleotide markers. We found decreased prevalence of MSI (+) by the Promega system compared to the Bethesda system. The overall discordance between the two systems was 54 %. In contrast to the previous studies that had shown discordance only in low MSI (MSI-L), our results showed the discordance not only in MSI-L, but also in high MSI (MSI-H) cases. Among the MSI (+) CRCs, ITH of MSI status was identified in 41.7 % of CRC by the Bethesda system and 22.2 % by the Promega system. In terms of MSI markers, the ITH originated from dinucleotide markers in most cases (69 %), but it originated from mononucleotide markers (31 %) as well. Pooling of DNA from a regional biopsy with MSI (+) with additional biopsies from stable MSI (MSS) showed that this approach was beneficial to increase the sensitivity of MSI detection. Our results indicate that ITH of MSI phenotype by the Bethesda system is more overestimated than previously identified. However, because there was considerable ITH of MSI subtypes and markers even by the Promega system, our data suggest that analysis of MSI status in multiple regional biopsies is needed for a better evaluation of MSI status in CRC.

  1. Functional single nucleotide polymorphisms within the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A/2B region affect pancreatic cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campa, Daniele; Pastore, Manuela; Gentiluomo, Manuel; Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Malecka-Panas, Ewa; Neoptolemos, John P.; Niesen, Willem; Vodicka, Pavel; Fave, Gianfranco Delle; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Gazouli, Maria; Pacetti, Paola; Di Leo, Milena; Ito, Hidemi; Klüter, Harald; Soucek, Pavel; Corbo, Vincenzo; Yamao, Kenji; Hosono, Satoyo; Kaaks, Rudolf; Vashist, Yogesh; Gioffreda, Domenica; Strobel, Oliver; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Dijk, Frederike; Andriulli, Angelo; Ivanauskas, Audrius; Bugert, Peter; Tavano, Francesca; Vodickova, Ludmila; Zambon, Carlo Federico; Lovecek, Martin; Landi, Stefano; Key, Timothy J.; Boggi, Ugo; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Jamroziak, Krzysztof; Mohelnikova-Duchonova, Beatrice; Mambrini, Andrea; Bambi, Franco; Busch, Olivier; Pazienza, Valerio; Valente, Roberto; Theodoropoulos, George E.; Hackert, Thilo; Capurso, Gabriele; Cavestro, Giulia Martina; Pasquali, Claudio; Basso, Daniela; Sperti, Cosimo; Matsuo, Keitaro; Büchler, Markus; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Izbicki, Jakob; Costello, Eithne; Katzke, Verena; Michalski, Christoph; Stepien, Anna; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Canzian, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The CDKN2A (p16) gene plays a key role in pancreatic cancer etiology. It is one of the most commonly somatically mutated genes in pancreatic cancer, rare germline mutations have been found to be associated with increased risk of developing familiar pancreatic cancer and CDKN2A promoter hyper-methylation has been suggested to play a critical role both in pancreatic cancer onset and prognosis. In addition several unrelated SNPs in the 9p21.3 region, that includes the CDNK2A, CDNK2B and the CDNK2B-AS1 genes, are associated with the development of cancer in various organs. However, association between the common genetic variability in this region and pancreatic cancer risk is not clearly understood. We sought to fill this gap in a case-control study genotyping 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2,857 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients and 6,111 controls in the context of the Pancreatic Disease Research (PANDoRA) consortium. We found that the A allele of the rs3217992 SNP was associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (ORhet=1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.27, p=0.026, ORhom=1.30, 95% CI 1.12-1.51, p=0.00049). This pleiotropic variant is reported to be a mir-SNP that, by changing the binding site of one or more miRNAs, could influence the normal cell cycle progression and in turn increase PDAC risk. In conclusion, we observed a novel association in a pleiotropic region that has been found to be of key relevance in the susceptibility to various types of cancer and diabetes suggesting that the CDKN2A/B locus could represent a genetic link between diabetes and pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:27486979

  2. Public awareness of colon cancer screening among the general population: A study from the Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Khayyat, Yasir Mohammed; Ibrahim, Ezzeldin Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Screening for colon cancer aims at early detection and prompt treatment of the disease. Prior knowledge of the disease will contribute to increased participation. However, barriers to performing screening are not known. Methods: A survey using a questionnaire was presented to patients attending the Outpatient Department of a tertiary hospital in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia, to evaluate the background knowledge of colon cancer screening, the diagnostic methods used for that ...

  3. NGO:中国农村成人教育的助力——来自NGO特性分析与经验研究的结果%NGO: Power Assistant of Chinese Rural Adult Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡燕平; 林克显

    2010-01-01

    文章阐述了现实社会中存在的一事实:农村成人教育的助力-NGO(Nongovernmental Organi–zation).在理论层面上结合NGO的特性分析了NGO在开展农村成人教育中已经具备了成为助力的条件,在实践层面研究NGO援助农村成人教育的经验,以事实来解读这种"助力".另外,总结经验结合我国国情,分析NGO加入农村成教具有可行性.

  4. Inter- and intra-tumor profiling of multi-regional colon cancer and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogita, Akihiro; Yoshioka, Yasumasa; Sakai, Kazuko; Togashi, Yosuke; Sogabe, Shunsuke; Nakai, Takuya; Okuno, Kiyotaka; Nishio, Kazuto

    2015-02-27

    Intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity may hinder personalized molecular-target treatment that depends on the somatic mutation profiles. We performed mutation profiling of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tumors of multi-regional colon cancer and characterized the consequences of intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity and metastasis using targeted re-sequencing. We performed targeted re-sequencing on multiple spatially separated samples obtained from multi-regional primary colon carcinoma and associated metastatic sites in two patients using next-generation sequencing. In Patient 1 with four primary tumors (P1-1, P1-2, P1-3, and P1-4) and one liver metastasis (H1), mutually exclusive pattern of mutations was observed in four primary tumors. Mutations in primary tumors were identified in three regions; KARS (G13D) and APC (R876*) in P1-2, TP53 (A161S) in P1-3, and KRAS (G12D), PIK3CA (Q546R), and ERBB4 (T272A) in P1-4. Similar combinatorial mutations were observed between P1-4 and H1. The ERBB4 (T272A) mutation observed in P1-4, however, disappeared in H1. In Patient 2 with two primary tumors (P2-1 and P2-2) and one liver metastasis (H2), mutually exclusive pattern of mutations were observed in two primary tumors. We identified mutations; KRAS (G12V), SMAD4 (N129K, R445*, and G508D), TP53 (R175H), and FGFR3 (R805W) in P2-1, and NRAS (Q61K) and FBXW7 (R425C) in P2-2. Similar combinatorial mutations were observed between P2-1 and H2. The SMAD4 (N129K and G508D) mutations observed in P2-1, however, were nor detected in H2. These results suggested that different clones existed in primary tumors and metastatic tumor in Patient 1 and 2 likely originated from P1-4 and P2-1, respectively. In conclusion, we detected the muti-clonalities between intra- and inter-tumors based on mutational profiling in multi-regional colon cancer using next-generation sequencing. Primary region from which metastasis originated could be speculated by mutation profile. Characterization of inter- and

  5. Gastric cancer screening in 16 villages of Zhuanghe region: a mass screeningreport from a high risk area of stomach cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yuan; Wei Gong; Rong Tian Xu; Xuan Jie Wang; Hua Gao

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the comprehensive prevention and treatment of gastric cancer among high-risk population inthe high risk areas.METHODS A gastrocarcinoma mass screening was performed in 16 villages of Zhuanghe region. About50 000 population were involved and 3033 cases aged above 35 suffering from gastric diseases, and/or hadfamily history of gastric cancer were screened. Clinical epidemiological investigation, double-contrast X-ray,serum pepsinogen monitor, gastroscopic biopsies and histopathologic examinations were adopted in thescreening.RESULTS The ratio of the examined patients with gastric disorder reached up to 82% and 32 patients withgastric cancer were detected (1.06%) and 18 cases were early gastric cancer (56.25%). Patients with gastriccancer were treated successively. Aside from gastric cancer, several gastric lesions were also detected, whichlaid a good foundation for further interventional treatment. It was also found in the examination that93.97% of the local residents were addicted to salted pork and more than 60% of the residents had Hpinfection.CONCLUSION Gastric diseases, Hp infection of gastric mucosa and eating salted pork are very common inZhuanghe region. These are very dangerous factors causing gastric cancer. It is feasible to quit eating saltedpork and eradicate Hp infection and cure precancerous diseases.

  6. The Women's Studies Center--A Women's-Led NGO Deepening Democracy in Chile: Educating Women through Personal Empowerment and Political Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Caroline

    This paper explores how the Women's Studies Center (Centro de Estudios de la Mujer, CEM), a feminist, women-led nongovernmental organization (NGO), is contributing to socio-cultural change in Chile 11 years after the country's democratic transition. CEM merges the theoretical and the practical, and the personal and the political through education…

  7. Mortality trends and risk of dying from breast cancer in the 32 states and 7 socioeconomic regions of Mexico, 2002-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Jesús Sánchez-Barriga

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine mortality trends from breast cancer in Mexico nationwide, by state, by socioeconomic region, and to establish an association between education, state of residence, and socioeconomic region with mortality from breast cancer in 2002–2011.Methods. Records of mortality associated with breast cancer were obtained. Rates of mortality nationwide, by state, and by socioeconomic region were calculated. The strength of association between states where women resided, socioeconomi...

  8. Frameshift mutation of WISP3 gene and its regional heterogeneity in gastric and colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Hwa; Choi, Youn Jin; Je, Eun Mi; Kim, Ho Shik; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2016-04-01

    WISP3 is involved in many cancer-related processes including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell death, invasion, and metastasis and is considered a tumor suppressor. The aim of our study was to find whether WISP3 gene was mutated and expressionally altered in gastric (GC) and colorectal cancers (CRCs). WISP3 gene possesses a mononucleotide repeat in the coding sequence that could be mutated in cancers with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H). We analyzed 79 GCs and 156 CRCs, and found that GCs (8.8%) and CRCs (10.5%) with MSI-H, but not those with microsatellite stable/low MSI, harbored a frameshift mutation. We also analyzed intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) of the frameshift mutation in 16 CRCs and found that the WISP3 mutation exhibited regional ITH in 25% of the CRCs. In immunohistochemistry, loss of WISP3 expression was identified in 24% of GCs and 21% of CRCs. The loss of expression was more common in those with WISP3 mutation than with wild-type WISP3 and those with MSI-H than with microsatellite stable/low MSI. Our data indicate that WISP3 harbored not only frameshift mutation but also mutational ITH and loss of expression, which together might play a role in tumorigenesis of GC and CRC with MSI-H by inhibiting tumor suppressor functions of WISP3. Our data also suggest that mutation analysis in multiregions is needed for a proper evaluation of mutation status in GC and CRC with MSI-H.

  9. Role of 3’-untranslated region translational control in cancer development, diagnostics and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrii; Vislovukh; Thaiz; Rivera; Vargas; Anna; Polesskaya; Irina; Groisman

    2014-01-01

    The messenger RNA 3’-untranslated region(3’UTR)plays an important role in regulation of gene expres-sion on the posttranscriptional level. The 3’UTR con-trols gene expression via orchestrated interactionbetween the structural components of mRNAs(cis-ele-ment) and the specific trans-acting factors(RNA bind-ing proteins and non-coding RNAs). The crosstalk ofthese factors is based on the binding sequences and/or direct protein-protein interaction, or just functionalinteraction. Much new evidence that has accumulatedsupports the idea that several RNA binding factors canbind to common mRNA targets: to the non-overlappingbinding sites or to common sites in a competitive fash-ion. Various factors capable of binding to the sameRNA can cooperate or be antagonistic in their actions.The outcome of the collective function of all factorsbound to the same mRNA 3’UTR depends on manycircumstances, such as their expression levels, affinity to the binding sites, and localization in the cell, which can be controlled by various physiological conditions. Moreover, the functional and/or physical interactions of the factors binding to 3’UTR can change the character of their actions. These interactions vary during the cell cycle and in response to changing physiological condi-tions. Abnormal functioning of the factors can lead to disease. In this review we will discuss how alterations of these factors or their interaction can affect cancer development and promote or enhance the malignant phenotype of cancer cells. Understanding these altera-tions and their impact on 3’UTR-directed posttran-scriptional gene regulation will uncover promising new targets for therapeutic intervention and diagnostics. We will also discuss emerging new tools in cancer di-agnostics and therapy based on 3’UTR binding factors and approaches to improve them.

  10. Increased Helicobacter pylori-associated Gastric Cancer Risk in the Andean Region of Colombia Is Mediated by Spermine Oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Rupesh; de Sablet, Thibaut; Asim, Mohammad; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Barry, Daniel P.; Verriere, Thomas G.; Sierra, J. Carolina; Hardbower, Dana M.; Delgado, Alberto G.; Schneider, Barbara G.; Israel, Dawn A.; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Nagy, Toni A.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Murray-Stewart, Tracy; Bravo, Luis E.; Peek, Richard M.; Fox, James G.; Woster, Patrick M.; Casero, Robert A.; Correa, Pelayo; Wilson, Keith T.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection causes gastric cancer, the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. More than half of the world’s population is infected, making universal eradication impractical. Clinical trials suggest that antibiotic treatment only reduces gastric cancer risk in patients with non-atrophic gastritis (NAG), and is ineffective once preneoplastic lesions of multifocal atrophic gastritis (MAG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) have occurred. Therefore, additional strategies for risk stratification and chemoprevention of gastric cancer are needed. We have implicated polyamines, generated by the rate limiting enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), in gastric carcinogenesis. During H. pylori infection, the enzyme spermine oxidase (SMOX) is induced, which generates hydrogen peroxide from the catabolism of the polyamine spermine. Herein, we assessed the role of SMOX in the increased gastric cancer risk in Colombia associated with the Andean mountain region when compared to the low risk region on the Pacific coast. When co-cultured with gastric epithelial cells, clinical strains of H. pylori from the high risk region induced more SMOX expression and oxidative DNA damage, and less apoptosis than low risk strains. These findings were not attributable to differences in the CagA oncoprotein. Gastric tissues from subjects from the high risk region exhibited greater levels of SMOX and oxidative DNA damage by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, and this occurred in NAG, MAG, and IM. In Mongolian gerbils, a prototype colonizing strain from the high risk region induced more SMOX, DNA damage, dysplasia and adenocarcinoma than a colonizing strain from the low risk region. Treatment of gerbils with either α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an inhibitor of ODC, or MDL 72527, an inhibitor of SMOX, reduced gastric dysplasia and carcinoma, as well as apoptosis-resistant cells with DNA damage. These data indicate that aberrant activation of polyamine-driven oxidative

  11. Role of salvage radiotherapy for regional lymph node recurrence after radical surgery in advanced gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byoung Hyuck; Eom, Keun Yong; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Hyung Ho; Park, Do Jong [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    To evaluate the role of salvage radiotherapy (RT) for the treatment of regional lymph node recurrence (RLNR) after radical surgery in advanced gastric cancer. We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 26 patients who underwent salvage treatment after diagnosis of RLNR between 2006 and 2011. Patients with peritoneal seeding or distant metastasis were excluded. Eighteen patients received RT with or without chemotherapy and the other 8 did chemotherapy only without RT. A three-dimensional conformal RT was performed with median dose of 56 Gy (range, 44 to 60 Gy). Sixteen patients had fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, 5 did taxane-based chemotherapy, and irinotecan was applied in 4. With a median follow-up of 20 months (range, 5 to 57 months), median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) after diagnosis of RLNR were 29 months and 12 months in the entire patients, respectively. Radiotherapy (p = 0.007) and disease-free interval (p = 0.033) were statistically significant factors for OS in multivariate analysis. Median OS was 36 months in patients who received RT and 16 months in those who did not. Furthermore, delivery of RT (p < 0.001), complete remission after salvage treatment (p = 0.040) and performance status (p 0.023) were associated with a significantly better PFS. Gastrointestinal toxicities from RT were mild in most patients. Salvage RT combined with systemic chemotherapy may be an effective treatment managing RLNR from advanced gastric cancer.

  12. Targeting glucose metabolism in cancer: new class of agents for loco-regional and systemic therapy of liver cancer and beyond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Lynn Jeanette; Chapiro, Julius; Duwe, Gregor; Geschwind, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent cancers and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In patients with unresectable disease, loco-regional catheter-based intra-arterial therapies (IAT) can achieve selective tumor control while minimizing systemic toxicity. As molecular features of tumor growth and microenvironment are better understood, new targets arise for selective anticancer therapy. Particularly, antiglycolytic drugs that exploit the hyperglycolytic cancer cell metabolism - also known as the 'Warburg effect' - have emerged as promising therapeutic options. Thus, future developments will combine the selective character of loco-regional drug delivery platforms with highly specific molecular targeted antiglycolytic agents. This review will exemplify literature on antiglycolytic approaches and particularly focus on intra-arterial delivery methods.

  13. Targeting glucose metabolism in cancer: new class of agents for loco-regional and systemic therapy of liver cancer and beyond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Lynn Jeanette; Chapiro, Julius; Duwe, Gregor; Geschwind, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent cancers and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In patients with unresectable disease, loco-regional catheter-based intra-arterial therapies (IAT) can achieve selective tumor control while minimizing systemic toxicity. As molecular features of tumor growth and microenvironment are better understood, new targets arise for selective anticancer therapy. Particularly, antiglycolytic drugs that exploit the hyperglycolytic cancer cell metabolism – also known as the ‘Warburg effect’ – have emerged as promising therapeutic options. Thus, future developments will combine the selective character of loco-regional drug delivery platforms with highly specific molecular targeted antiglycolytic agents. This review will exemplify literature on antiglycolytic approaches and particularly focus on intra-arterial delivery methods. PMID:26989470

  14. Risk of regional recurrence in triple-negative breast cancer patients: a Dutch cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, van Lori M.; Smit, Leonie H.M.; Duijsens, Gaston H.N.M.; Vries, de Bart; Siesling, Sabine; Lobbes, Marc B.I.; Boer, de Maaike; Wilt, de Johannes H.W.; Smidt, Marjolein L.

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is associated with early recurrence and low survival rates. Several trials investigate the safety of a more conservative approach of axillary treatment in clinically T1-2N0 breast cancer. Triple-negative breast cancer comprises only 15 % of newly diagnosed breast cancer

  15. In an Age of Open Access to Research Policies: Physician and Public Health NGO Staff Research Use and Policy Awareness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L Moorhead

    Full Text Available Through funding agency and publisher policies, an increasing proportion of the health sciences literature is being made open access. Such an increase in access raises questions about the awareness and potential utilization of this literature by those working in health fields.A sample of physicians (N=336 and public health non-governmental organization (NGO staff (N=92 were provided with relatively complete access to the research literature indexed in PubMed, as well as access to the point-of-care service UpToDate, for up to one year, with their usage monitored through the tracking of web-log data. The physicians also participated in a one-month trial of relatively complete or limited access.The study found that participants' research interests were not satisfied by article abstracts alone nor, in the case of the physicians, by a clinical summary service such as UpToDate. On average, a third of the physicians viewed research a little more frequently than once a week, while two-thirds of the public health NGO staff viewed more than three articles a week. Those articles were published since the 2008 adoption of the NIH Public Access Policy, as well as prior to 2008 and during the maximum 12-month embargo period. A portion of the articles in each period was already open access, but complete access encouraged a viewing of more research articles.Those working in health fields will utilize more research in the course of their work as a result of (a increasing open access to research, (b improving awareness of and preparation for this access, and (c adjusting public and open access policies to maximize the extent of potential access, through reduction in embargo periods and access to pre-policy literature.

  16. A new breast cancer risk analysis approach using features extracted from multiple sub-regions on bilateral mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenqing; Tseng, Tzu-Liang B.; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Jianying; Qian, Wei

    2015-03-01

    A novel breast cancer risk analysis approach is proposed for enhancing performance of computerized breast cancer risk analysis using bilateral mammograms. Based on the intensity of breast area, five different sub-regions were acquired from one mammogram, and bilateral features were extracted from every sub-region. Our dataset includes 180 bilateral mammograms from 180 women who underwent routine screening examinations, all interpreted as negative and not recalled by the radiologists during the original screening procedures. A computerized breast cancer risk analysis scheme using four image processing modules, including sub-region segmentation, bilateral feature extraction, feature selection, and classification was designed to detect and compute image feature asymmetry between the left and right breasts imaged on the mammograms. The highest computed area under the curve (AUC) is 0.763 ± 0.021 when applying the multiple sub-region features to our testing dataset. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 0.60 and 0.73, respectively. The study demonstrates that (1) features extracted from multiple sub-regions can improve the performance of our scheme compared to using features from whole breast area only; (2) a classifier using asymmetry bilateral features can effectively predict breast cancer risk; (3) incorporating texture and morphological features with density features can boost the classification accuracy.

  17. Estimation of life expectancy of patients diagnosed with the most common cancers in the Valparaiso Region, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taramasco, C; Figueroa, K; Lazo, Y; Demongeot, J

    2017-01-01

    Background The 1000s of people who die from cancer each year have become one of the leading causes of death among the Chilean population, placing it as the second cause of death in the region of Valparaiso between 1997 and 2003. Statistics have provided different measures regarding the life expectancy of cancer patients which have resulted in being useful to establish courses of action for prevention and treatment plans to follow. Methods Data was extracted from the cancer module of the Epidemiology Assistance System (SADEPI for its initials in Spanish) which stores information about cancer cases in the provinces of Valparaiso and Petorca. The survival period is defined as the difference in days between the date of occurrence and the date of death of the patient by separating the data into quartiles. Results The more frequent cancers in the region of Valparaiso behave similarly to global behaviours of the disease. The majority of affected patients are around 65 years of age which progressively lowers its occurrence in younger adults under the age of 45. Conclusions Further efforts are required for early detection and timely access to treatment for cancer patients. Statistics are an important support in achieving this. PMID:28144287

  18. MicroRNA genes and their target 3'-untranslated regions are infrequently somatically mutated in ovarian cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina L Ryland

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are key regulators of gene expression and have been shown to have altered expression in a variety of cancer types, including epithelial ovarian cancer. MiRNA function is most often achieved through binding to the 3'-untranslated region of the target protein coding gene. Mutation screening using massively-parallel sequencing of 712 miRNA genes in 86 ovarian cancer cases identified only 5 mutated miRNA genes, each in a different case. One mutation was located in the mature miRNA, and three mutations were predicted to alter the secondary structure of the miRNA transcript. Screening of the 3'-untranslated region of 18 candidate cancer genes identified one mutation in each of AKT2, EGFR, ERRB2 and CTNNB1. The functional effect of these mutations is unclear, as expression data available for AKT2 and EGFR showed no increase in gene transcript. Mutations in miRNA genes and 3'-untranslated regions are thus uncommon in ovarian cancer.

  19. MicroRNA genes and their target 3'-untranslated regions are infrequently somatically mutated in ovarian cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryland, Georgina L; Bearfoot, Jennifer L; Doyle, Maria A; Boyle, Samantha E; Choong, David Y H; Rowley, Simone M; Tothill, Richard W; Gorringe, Kylie L; Campbell, Ian G

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs are key regulators of gene expression and have been shown to have altered expression in a variety of cancer types, including epithelial ovarian cancer. MiRNA function is most often achieved through binding to the 3'-untranslated region of the target protein coding gene. Mutation screening using massively-parallel sequencing of 712 miRNA genes in 86 ovarian cancer cases identified only 5 mutated miRNA genes, each in a different case. One mutation was located in the mature miRNA, and three mutations were predicted to alter the secondary structure of the miRNA transcript. Screening of the 3'-untranslated region of 18 candidate cancer genes identified one mutation in each of AKT2, EGFR, ERRB2 and CTNNB1. The functional effect of these mutations is unclear, as expression data available for AKT2 and EGFR showed no increase in gene transcript. Mutations in miRNA genes and 3'-untranslated regions are thus uncommon in ovarian cancer.

  20. MicroRNA Genes and Their Target 3′-Untranslated Regions Are Infrequently Somatically Mutated in Ovarian Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Maria A.; Boyle, Samantha E.; Choong, David Y. H.; Rowley, Simone M.; Tothill, Richard W.; Gorringe, Kylie L.; Campbell, Ian G.

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs are key regulators of gene expression and have been shown to have altered expression in a variety of cancer types, including epithelial ovarian cancer. MiRNA function is most often achieved through binding to the 3′-untranslated region of the target protein coding gene. Mutation screening using massively-parallel sequencing of 712 miRNA genes in 86 ovarian cancer cases identified only 5 mutated miRNA genes, each in a different case. One mutation was located in the mature miRNA, and three mutations were predicted to alter the secondary structure of the miRNA transcript. Screening of the 3′-untranslated region of 18 candidate cancer genes identified one mutation in each of AKT2, EGFR, ERRB2 and CTNNB1. The functional effect of these mutations is unclear, as expression data available for AKT2 and EGFR showed no increase in gene transcript. Mutations in miRNA genes and 3′-untranslated regions are thus uncommon in ovarian cancer. PMID:22536442

  1. Breast cancer screening disparities among immigrant women by world region of origin: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana; Lofters, Aisha; Kumar, Matthew; Glazier, Richard H

    2016-07-01

    Rates of mammography screening for breast cancer are disproportionately low in certain subgroups including low-income and immigrant women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in rates of appropriate breast cancer screening (i.e., screening mammography every 2 years) among Ontario immigrant women by world region of origin and explore the association between appropriate breast cancer screening among these women groups and individual and structural factors. A cohort of 183,332 screening-eligible immigrant women living in Ontario between 2010 and 2012 was created from linked databases and classified into eight world regions of origin. Appropriate screening rates were calculated for each region by age group and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and healthcare-related characteristics. The association between appropriate screening across the eight regions of origin and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and health-related characteristics was explored using multivariate Poisson regression. Screening varied by region of origin, with South Asian women (48.5%) having the lowest and Caribbean and Latin American women (63.7%) the highest cancer screening rates. Factors significantly associated with lower screening across the world regions of origin included living in the lowest income neighborhoods, having a refugee status, being a new immigrant, not having a regular physical examination, not being enrolled in a primary care patient enrollment model, having a male physician, and having an internationally trained physician. Multiple interventions entailing cross-sector collaboration, promotion of patient enrollment models, community engagement, comprehensive and intensive outreach to women, and knowledge translation and transfer to physicians should be considered to address screening disparities among immigrant population. Consideration should be given to design and delivery of culturally appropriate and easily accessible cancer screening programs

  2. Identification and characterization of novel associations in the CASP8/ALS2CR12 region on chromosome 2 with breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei-Yu Lin; N.J. Camp (Nicola); M. Ghoussaini (Maya); J. Beesley (Jonathan); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); J. Hopper (John); C. Apicella (Carmel); M.C. Southey (Melissa); J. Stone (Jennifer); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); L.J. van 't Veer (Laura); E.J. Th Rutgers (Emiel J.); K.R. Muir (K.); A. Lophatananon (Artitaya); S. Stewart-Brown (Sarah); P. Siriwanarangsan (Pornthep); P.A. Fasching (Peter); L. Haeberle (Lothar); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias W.); J. Peto (Julian); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); O. Fletcher (Olivia); N. Johnson (Nichola); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); Q. Wang (Qing); J. Dennis (Joe); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); T. Cheng (Timothy); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); Frederik Marmé; H. Surowy (Harald); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); P. Guénel (Pascal); T. Truong (Thérèse); F. Menegaux (Florence); C. Mulot (Claire); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); S.F. Nielsen (Sune); H. Flyger (Henrik); J. Benítez (Javier); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); J.I.A. Perez (Jose Ignacio Arias); P. Menéndez (Primitiva); A. González-Neira (Anna); G. Pita (G.); M. Rosario Alonso; N. Álvarez (Nuria); D. Herrero (Daniel); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); H. Brenner (Hermann); A.K. Dieffenbach (Aida Karina); V. Arndt (Volker); C. Stegmaier (Christa); A. Meindl (Alfons); P. Lichtner (Peter); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); T. Brüning (Thomas); Y.-D. Ko (Yon-Dschun); D.C. Tessier (Daniel C.); D. Vincent (Daniel); F. Bacot (Francois); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); S. Khan (Sofia); K. Matsuo (Keitaro); H. Ito (Hidemi); H. Iwata (Hisato); A. Horio (Akiyo); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); N.N. Antonenkova (Natalia); T. Dörk (Thilo); A. Lindblom (Annika); S. Margolin (Sara); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); A.H. Wu (Anna H.); C.-C. Tseng (Chiu-chen); D. Van Den Berg (David); D.O. Stram (Daniel O.); P. Neven (Patrick); E. Wauters (Erwin); H. Wildiers (Hans); D. Lambrechts (Diether); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); A. Rudolph (Anja); P. Seibold (Petra); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); F.J. Couch (Fergus); X. Wang (Xianshu); C. Vachon (Celine); K. Purrington (Kristen); G.G. Giles (Graham G.); R.L. Milne (Roger L.); C.A. McLean (Catriona Ann); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); B.E. Henderson (Brian); F.R. Schumacher (Fredrick); L. Le Marchand (Loic); J. Simard (Jacques); M.S. Goldberg (Mark); F. Labrèche (France); M. Dumont (Martine); S.-H. Teo; C.H. Yip (Cheng Har); N. Hassan (Norhashimah); E.N. Vithana (Eranga); V. Kristensen (Vessela); W. Zheng (Wei); S.L. Deming-Halverson (Sandra); M. Shrubsole (Martha); J. Long (Jirong); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); S. Kauppila (Saila); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); G. Glendon (Gord); S. Tchatchou (Sandrine); P. Devilee (Peter); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); L.A. Brinton (Louise); K. Czene (Kamila); H. Darabi (Hatef); M. Eriksson (Mikael); J.S. Brand (Judith S.); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); A.M.W. Van DenOuweland (Ans M.W.); A. Jager (Agnes); J. Li (Jingmei); J. Liu (Jianjun); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); X.-O. Shu (Xiao-Ou); W. Lu (Wei); Y. Gao; H. Cai (Hui); S.S. Cross (Simon); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); W.J. Blot (William); L.B. Signorello (Lisa B.); Q. Cai (Qiuyin); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); B. Perkins (Barbara); M. Shah (Mitul); F. Blows (Fiona); D. Kang (Daehee); K.Y. Yoo; D-Y. Noh (Dong-Young); J.M. Hartman (Joost); X. Miao; K.S. Chia (Kee Seng); T.C. Putti (Thomas Choudary); U. Hamann (Ute); C. Luccarini (Craig); C. Baynes (Caroline); S. Ahmed (Shahana); M. Maranian (Melanie); S. Healey (Sue); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); S. Sangrajrang (Suleeporn); V. Gaborieau (Valerie); P. Brennan (Paul); J.D. McKay (James); S. Slager (Susan); A.E. Toland (Amanda); D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); C-Y. Shen (Chen-Yang); C.-N. Hsiung (Chia-Ni); P.-E. Wu (Pei-Ei); S.-L. Ding (Shian-Ling); A. Ashworth (Alan); M. Jones (Michael); N. Orr (Nick); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); H. Tsimiklis (Helen); E. Makalic (Enes); D.F. Schmidt (Daniel); Q.M. Bui (Quang); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); D. Hunter (David); R. Hein (Rebecca); N. Dahmen (N.); L. Beckmann (Lars); K. Aaltonen (Kirsimari); T.A. Muranen (Taru); T. Heikkinen (Tuomas); A. Irwanto (Astrid); N. Rahman (Nazneen); C. Turnbull (Clare); Q. Waisfisz (Quinten); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); M.A. Adank (Muriel); R. Van Der Luijt (Rob); P. Hall (Per); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); A.M. Dunning (Alison); D.F. Easton (Douglas); A. Cox (Angela)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPrevious studies have suggested that polymorphisms in CASP8 on chromosome 2 are associated with breast cancer risk. To clarify the role of CASP8 in breast cancer susceptibility, we carried out dense genotyping of this region in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Single-nucl

  3. Identification and characterization of novel associations in the CASP8/ALS2CR12 region on chromosome 2 with breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei-Yu Lin, Lin; Camp, Nicola J.; Ghoussaini, Maya; Beesley, Jonathan; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Hopper, John L.; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Stone, Jennifer; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Van't Veer, Laura J.; Th Rutgers, Emiel J.; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Fasching, Peter A.; Haeberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Cheng, Timothy; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Frederik Marmé, Marmé; Surowy, Harald M.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Menegaux, Florence; Mulot, Claire; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; Pilar Zamora, M.; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Rosario Alonso, M.; Álvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Meindl, Alfons; Lichtner, Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon Dschun; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Khan, Sofia; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Horio, Akiyo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Dörk, Thilo; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Neven, Patrick; Wauters, Els; Wildiers, Hans; Lambrechts, Diether; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bonanni, Bernardo; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Mclean, Catriona; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Marchand, Loic Le; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Hassan, Norhashimah; Vithana, Eranga Nishanthie; Kristensen, Vessela; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Long, Jirong; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Van DenOuweland, Ans M W; Jager, Agnes; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Shu, Xiao Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu Tang; Cai, Hui; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W R; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B.; Cai, Qiuyin; Pharoah, Paul D P; Perkins, Barbara; Shah, Mitul; Blows, Fiona M.; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun Young; Noh, Dong Young; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Chia, Kee Seng; Putti, Thomas Choudary; Hamann, Ute; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Maranian, Mel; Healey, Catherine S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; Mckay, James; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Shen, Chen Yang; Hsiung, Chia Ni; Wu, Pei Ei; Ding, Shian Ling; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Bui, Quang M.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hunter, David J.; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Muranen, Taru A.; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Irwanto, Astrid; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare A.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Adank, Muriel A.; Van Der Luijt, Rob B.; Hall, Per; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison; Easton, Douglas F.; Cox, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that polymorphisms in CASP8 on chromosome 2 are associated with breast cancer risk. To clarify the role of CASP8 in breast cancer susceptibility, we carried out dense genotyping of this region in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Single-nucleotide polym

  4. Identification and characterization of novel associations in the CASP8/ALS2CR12 region on chromosome 2 with breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Wei-Yu; Camp, Nicola J; Ghoussaini, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that polymorphisms in CASP8 on chromosome 2 are associated with breast cancer risk. To clarify the role of CASP8 in breast cancer susceptibility, we carried out dense genotyping of this region in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Single-nucleotide po...

  5. [Epidemiology of cervical cancer in a region of western Algeria, 2006-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boublenza, L; Hadef, K; Beldjillali, H; Chabni, N; Reguegba, D; Meguenni, K

    2013-05-01

    The authors present a retrospective analysis of data about cervical cancer from 2006 through 2010 in the province (wilaya) of Tlemcen (Algeria). During this five-year study period, 196 cases of cervical cancer were recorded, with a mean age at onset of 48.5 years. These cervical cancers accounted for 13% of all gynecologic cancers. It is the second leading cancer among women in this province, with an incidence of 13.3 per 100 000 women. The health authorities in Algeria must set up an organized screening policy and appropriate treatment to reduce the mortality rate from this cancer.

  6. NQO1 C609T polymorphism correlated to colon cancer risk in farmers from western region of Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Lan Su; Mei-Rong Yan; Ling Yang; Qimuge-Suyila

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) C609T polymorphism and colon cancer risk in farmers from western region of Inner Mongolia.Methods:Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was performed to analyze NQO1 C609T polymorphism from 160 healthy controls and 76 colon cancer patients.Results:Among the colon cancer patients,the incidence of NQO1 T allele (53.29%) was significantly higher than it in control group (33.75%,P<0.001).The individuals with NQO1 T allele had higher risk [2.239 (95% CI:1.510-3.321) times] to develop colon cancer than individuals with NQO1 C allele.The incidence of NQO1 (T/T) (34.21%) in colon cancer patients was higher than that in control group (15.62%,P<0.001).Odds ratios (OR) analysis suggested that NQO1 (T/T) and NQO1 (T/C) genotype carriers had 3.813 (95% CI:1.836-7.920) times and 2.080 (1.026-4.219) times risk compared with wild-type NQO1 (C/C) gene carriers in developing colon cancer.Individuals with NQO1 (T/T)genotype had 2.541 (95% CI:0.990-6.552)times,3.713 (95% CI:1.542-8.935)times,and 3.471 (95% CI:1.356-8.886) times risk than individuals with NQO1 (T/C) or NQO1 (C/C) genotype in well-differentiated,moderately-differentiated,and poorly-differentiated colon cancer patients,respectively.Conclusions:NQO1 gene C609T could be one of risk factors of colon cancer in farmers from western region of Inner Mongolia.

  7. Radiochemotherapy in combination with regional hyperthermia in preirradiated patients with recurrent rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani, V.; Issels, R.D.; Buecklein, V. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Univ. Hospital Grosshadern, Dept. of Internal Medicine III; Institute of Molecular Immunology, Muenchen (Germany). KKG Hyperthermie GSF-Haematologikum; Pazos, M.; Schaffer, P.; Wilkowski, R.; Duehmke, E. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Univ. Hospital Grosshadern, Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Rahman, S.; Tschoep, K.; Schaffer, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Univ. Hospital Grosshadern, Dept. of Internal Medicine III

    2008-03-15

    Background and Purpose: Encouraging results of phase II studies combining chemotherapy with radiotherapy have been published. In this study, the results of a multimodal salvage therapy including radiochemotherapy (RCT) and regional hyperthermia (RHT) in preirradiated patients with recurrent rectal cancer are reported. Patients and Methods: All patients enrolled had received previous pelvic irradiation (median dose 50.4 Gy). The median time interval between prior radiotherapy and the onset of local recurrence was 34 months. The combined treatment consisted of reirradiation with a median dose of 39.6 Gy (30.0-45.0 Gy), delivered in fractions of 1.8 Gy/day. 5-fluorouracil was given as continuous infusion 350 mg/m2/day five times weekly, and RHT (BSD-2000 system) was applied twice a week within 1 h after radiotherapy. The primary endpoint was local progression-free survival (LPFS); secondary endpoints were overall survival, symptom control, and toxicity. Results: 24 patients (median age 59 years) with a previously irradiated locally recurrent adenocarcinoma of the rectum were enrolled. The median LPFS was 15 months (95% confidence interval 12-18 months) with a median follow-up of 27 months (16-37 months). The overall 1-year and 3-year survival rates were 87% and 30%, respectively. Pain was the main symptom in 17 patients. Release of pain was achieved in 12/17 patients (70%). No grade 3 or 4 hematologic or skin toxicity occurred. Grade 3 gastrointestinal acute toxicity was observed in 12.5% of the patients. Paratumoral thermometry revealed a homogeneous distribution of temperatures. Conclusion: RCT combined with RHT is an efficient salvage therapy showing high efficacy with acceptable toxicity and can be recommended as treatment option for this unfavorable group of preirradiated patients with local recurrence of rectal cancer. (orig.)

  8. Descriptive Epidemiology of Human Thyroid Cancer: Experience from a Regional Registry and the Volcanic Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualino eMalandrino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer (TC, the most common endocrine tumor, has steadily increased worldwide due to the increase of the papillary histotype. The reasons for this spread have not been established. In addition to more sensitive thyroid nodule screening, the effect of environmental factors cannot be excluded. Because high incidences of TC were found in volcanic areas (Hawaii and Iceland, a volcanic environment may play a role in the pathogenesis of TC.In January 2002, the Regional Register for Thyroid Cancer was instituted in Sicily. With a population of approximately 5 million inhabitants with similar genetic and lifestyle features, the coexistence in Sicily of rural, urban, industrial, moderate-to-low iodine intake and volcanic areas provides a conducive setting for assessing the environmental influences on the etiology of TC.In Sicily, between 2002 and 2004, 1,950 new cases of TC were identified, with an age-standardized rate (world ASR(w=17.8/100000 in females and 3.7/100000 in males and a high female/male ratio (4.3:1.0. The incidence of TC was heterogeneous within Sicily. There were 2.3 times more cases in the Catania province (where most of the inhabitants live in the volcanic area of Mt. Etna: ASR(w=31.7/105 in females and 6.4/105 in males vs 14.1 in females and 3.0 in males in the rest of Sicily. Multivariate analysis documented that residents in the volcanic area of Mt. Etna had a higher risk of TC, compared to the residents in urban, industrial and iodine deficient areas of Sicily. An abnormally high concentration of several chemicals was found in the drinking water of the Mt. Etna aquifer, which provides water to most of the residents in the Catania province. Our data suggest that environmental carcinogen(s of volcanic origin may promote papillary TC. Additional analyses, including cancer biological and molecular features, will allow a better understanding of risk factors and etiopathogenetic mechanisms.

  9. Brief Communication: Economic Comparison of Opportunistic Infection Management With Antiretroviral Treatment in People Living With HIV/AIDS Presenting at an NGO Clinic in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John KR

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART usage in India is escalating. With the government of India launching the free HAART rollout as part of the "3 by 5" initiative, many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA have been able to gain access to HAART medications. Currently, the national HAART centers are located in a few district hospitals (in the high- and medium-prevalence states and have very stringent criteria for enrolling PLHA. Patients who do not fit these criteria or patients who are too ill to undergo the prolonged wait at the government hospitals avail themselves of nongovernment organization (NGO services in order to take HAART medications. In addition, the government program has not yet started providing second-line HAART (protease inhibitors. Hence, even with the free HAART rollout, NGOs with the expertise to provide HAART continue to look for funding opportunities and other innovative ways of making HAART available to PLHA. Currently, no study from Indian NGOs has compared the direct and indirect costs of solely managing opportunistic infections (OIs vs HAART. Objective Compare direct medical costs (DMC and nonmedical costs (NMC with 2005 values accrued by the NGO and PLHA, respectively, for either HAART or exclusive OI management. Study design Retrospective case study comparison. Setting Low-cost community care and support center - Freedom Foundation (NGO, Bangalore, south India. Patients Retrospective analysis data on PLHA accessing treatment at Freedom Foundation between January 1, 2003 and January 1, 2005. The HAART arm included case records of PLHA who initiated HAART at the center, had frequent follow-up, and were between 18 and 55 years of age. The OI arm included records of PLHA who were also frequently followed up, who were in the same age range, who had CD4+ cell counts Results At 2005 costs, the median DMC plus NMC in the OI group was 21,335 Indian rupees (Rs (mean Rs 24,277/- per patient per year (pppy

  10. Using Social Network Analysis to Evaluate Community Capacity Building of a Regional Community Cancer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, John; Tyson, Dinorah Martinez; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Gwede, Clement; Vadaparampil, Susan; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Meade, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) is one of 25 Community Network Programs funded by the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities with the objectives to create a collaborative infrastructure of academic and community based organizations and to develop effective and sustainable interventions to…

  11. Integration of multiethnic fine-mapping and genomic annotation to prioritize candidate functional SNPs at prostate cancer susceptibility regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Hazelett, Dennis J.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Stram, Daniel O.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Wang, Zhaoming; Rand, Kristin A.; Hoover, Robert N.; Machiela, Mitchell J.; Yeager, Merideth; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles C.; Hutchinson, Amy; Yu, Kai; Xu, Jianfeng; Travis, Ruth C.; Key, Timothy J.; Siddiq, Afshan; Canzian, Federico; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Stanford, Janet L.; Kolb, Suzanne; Gapstur, Susan M.; Diver, W. Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L.; Strom, Sara S.; Pettaway, Curtis A.; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Yeboah, Edward D.; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B.; Adjei, Andrew A.; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P.; Isaacs, William B.; Chen, Constance; Lindstrom, Sara; Le Marchand, Loic; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Pomerantz, Mark; Long, Henry; Li, Fugen; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; John, Esther M.; Ingles, Sue A.; Kittles, Rick A.; Murphy, Adam B.; Blot, William J.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Nemesure, Barbara; Carpten, John; Leske, M. Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anselm J. M.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W.; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Klein, Eric A.; Zheng, S. Lilly; Witte, John S.; Casey, Graham; Riboli, Elio; Li, Qiyuan; Freedman, Matthew L.; Hunter, David J.; Gronberg, Henrik; Cook, Michael B.; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J.; Easton, Douglas F.; Henderson, Brian E.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Conti, David V.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of biological mechanisms underlying genetic risk associations for prostate cancer is complicated by the relatively large number of risk variants (n = 100) and the thousands of surrogate SNPs in linkage disequilibrium. Here, we combined three distinct approaches: multiethnic fine-mapping, putative functional annotation (based upon epigenetic data and genome-encoded features), and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses, in an attempt to reduce this complexity. We examined 67 risk regions using genotyping and imputation-based fine-mapping in populations of European (cases/controls: 8600/6946), African (cases/controls: 5327/5136), Japanese (cases/controls: 2563/4391) and Latino (cases/controls: 1034/1046) ancestry. Markers at 55 regions passed a region-specific significance threshold (P-value cutoff range: 3.9 × 10−4–5.6 × 10−3) and in 30 regions we identified markers that were more significantly associated with risk than the previously reported variants in the multiethnic sample. Novel secondary signals (P < 5.0 × 10−6) were also detected in two regions (rs13062436/3q21 and rs17181170/3p12). Among 666 variants in the 55 regions with P-values within one order of magnitude of the most-associated marker, 193 variants (29%) in 48 regions overlapped with epigenetic or other putative functional marks. In 11 of the 55 regions, cis-eQTLs were detected with nearby genes. For 12 of the 55 regions (22%), the most significant region-specific, prostate-cancer associated variant represented the strongest candidate functional variant based on our annotations; the number of regions increased to 20 (36%) and 27 (49%) when examining the 2 and 3 most significantly associated variants in each region, respectively. These results have prioritized subsets of candidate variants for downstream functional evaluation. PMID:26162851

  12. Integration of multiethnic fine-mapping and genomic annotation to prioritize candidate functional SNPs at prostate cancer susceptibility regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Hazelett, Dennis J; Wiklund, Fredrik; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Stram, Daniel O; Berndt, Sonja I; Wang, Zhaoming; Rand, Kristin A; Hoover, Robert N; Machiela, Mitchell J; Yeager, Merideth; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles C; Hutchinson, Amy; Yu, Kai; Xu, Jianfeng; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J; Siddiq, Afshan; Canzian, Federico; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Stanford, Janet L; Kolb, Suzanne; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L; Strom, Sara S; Pettaway, Curtis A; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Eeles, Rosalind A; Yeboah, Edward D; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B; Adjei, Andrew A; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P; Isaacs, William B; Chen, Constance; Lindstrom, Sara; Le Marchand, Loic; Giovannucci, Edward L; Pomerantz, Mark; Long, Henry; Li, Fugen; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue A; Kittles, Rick A; Murphy, Adam B; Blot, William J; Signorello, Lisa B; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Nemesure, Barbara; Carpten, John; Leske, M Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anselm J M; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J; Klein, Eric A; Zheng, S Lilly; Witte, John S; Casey, Graham; Riboli, Elio; Li, Qiyuan; Freedman, Matthew L; Hunter, David J; Gronberg, Henrik; Cook, Michael B; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J; Easton, Douglas F; Henderson, Brian E; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Conti, David V; Haiman, Christopher A

    2015-10-01

    Interpretation of biological mechanisms underlying genetic risk associations for prostate cancer is complicated by the relatively large number of risk variants (n = 100) and the thousands of surrogate SNPs in linkage disequilibrium. Here, we combined three distinct approaches: multiethnic fine-mapping, putative functional annotation (based upon epigenetic data and genome-encoded features), and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses, in an attempt to reduce this complexity. We examined 67 risk regions using genotyping and imputation-based fine-mapping in populations of European (cases/controls: 8600/6946), African (cases/controls: 5327/5136), Japanese (cases/controls: 2563/4391) and Latino (cases/controls: 1034/1046) ancestry. Markers at 55 regions passed a region-specific significance threshold (P-value cutoff range: 3.9 × 10(-4)-5.6 × 10(-3)) and in 30 regions we identified markers that were more significantly associated with risk than the previously reported variants in the multiethnic sample. Novel secondary signals (P < 5.0 × 10(-6)) were also detected in two regions (rs13062436/3q21 and rs17181170/3p12). Among 666 variants in the 55 regions with P-values within one order of magnitude of the most-associated marker, 193 variants (29%) in 48 regions overlapped with epigenetic or other putative functional marks. In 11 of the 55 regions, cis-eQTLs were detected with nearby genes. For 12 of the 55 regions (22%), the most significant region-specific, prostate-cancer associated variant represented the strongest candidate functional variant based on our annotations; the number of regions increased to 20 (36%) and 27 (49%) when examining the 2 and 3 most significantly associated variants in each region, respectively. These results have prioritized subsets of candidate variants for downstream functional evaluation.

  13. PET/CT in cancer: moderate sample sizes may suffice to justify replacement of a regional gold standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Poulsen, Mads Hvid; Bouchelouche, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: For certain cancer indications, the current patient evaluation strategy is a perfect but locally restricted gold standard procedure. If positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) can be shown to be reliable within the gold standard region and if it can be argued that PET....../CT also performs well in adjacent areas, then sample sizes in accuracy studies can be reduced. PROCEDURES: Traditional standard power calculations for demonstrating sensitivities of both 80% and 90% are shown. The argument is then described in general terms and demonstrated by an ongoing study...... of metastasized prostate cancer. RESULTS: An added value in accuracy of PET/CT in adjacent areas can outweigh a downsized target level of accuracy in the gold standard region, justifying smaller sample sizes. CONCLUSIONS: If PET/CT provides an accuracy benefit in adjacent regions, then sample sizes can be reduced...

  14. Efficacy and safety assessment of short EOF program regional arterial infusion chemotherapy and conventional chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Cai Shui; Lin Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the efficacy and safety of short EOF program regional arterial infusion chemotherapy and conventional chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer.Methods: 66 cases of patients diagnosed of advanced gastric cancer in our hospital were enrolled for study, given preoperative short EOF program chemotherapy and randomly divided into two groups. Observation group received short EOF program regional arterial infusion chemotherapy and control group received short EOF program intravenous chemotherapy. Then number of apoptosis cells and contents of apoptosis genes in the tumor tissue, serum liver and kidney function indicators as well as cfDNA methylation degree of two groups were detected. Results:(1) indicators of efficacy: the number of apoptosis cells in gastric cancer tissue of observation group was more than that of control group, mRNA levels of Caspase-3, Caspase-9, Fas and FasL were higher than those of control group, and serum p16, RNF180, SFRP2, SOX17 and RUNX methylation ratios were lower than those of control group; (2) indicators of safety: serum RBP, CysC, ALT and AST contents of observation group were lower than those of control group.Conclusions:Short EOF program regional arterial infusion chemotherapy can more effectively kill cancer cells, reduce methylation degree of tumor-associated genes and decrease liver function and kidney function damage; both efficacy and safety of it are better than conventional chemotherapy.

  15. MicroRNAs and Androgen Receptor 3′ Untranslated Region: A Missing Link in Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikand, Kavleen; Barik, Sailen; Shukla, Girish C.

    2012-01-01

    The ligand-activated transcription factor, androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer initiates as an androgen-dependent disease and further accumulation of multiple sequential genetic and epigenetic alterations transform it into an aggressive, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The molecular basis of the transition from androgen-dependent prostate cancer to CRPC remains unclear. However, it is apparent that AR plays a pivotal role in this alteration. The recent discovery that microRNAs (miRNAs) can target the function of AR suggests a functional role of these non-coding RNAs in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. miRNAs usually function by targeting the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of a mRNA by base-pairing interactions and modulate translation either by destabilizing the message or by repression of protein synthesis in actively translating ribosomes. Here, we discuss the potential molecular pathways through which AR targeting miRNAs may promote CRPC. Modulation of AR expression by miRNAs presents a novel therapeutic option for prostate cancer, albeit it will likely be used in combination with the existing therapies. PMID:22468168

  16. IκBα polymorphism at promoter region (rs2233408 influences the susceptibility of gastric cancer in Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Joseph JY

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear factor of kappa B inhibitor alpha (IκBα protein is implicated in regulating a variety of cellular process from inflammation to tumorigenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of rs2233408 T/C genotype in the promoter region of IκBα to gastric cancer and the association of this polymorphism with clinicopathologic variables in gastric cancer patients. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted between 1999 and 2006 in Guangdong Province, China. A total of 564 gastric cancer patients and 566 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. rs2233408 genotypes in IκBα were analyzed by TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. Results Both rs2233408 T homozygote (TT and T heterozygotes (TC and TT had significantly reduced gastric cancer risk (TT: OR = 0.250, 95% CI = 0.069-0.909, P = 0.035; TC and TT: OR = 0.721, 95% CI = 0.530-0.981, P = 0.037, compared with rs2233408 C homozygote (CC. rs2233408 T heterozygotes were significantly associated with reduced risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer with ORs of 0.648 (95% CI = 0.459-0.916, P = 0.014, but not with the diffuse or mix type of gastric cancer. The association between rs2233408 T heterozygotes and gastric cancer appeared more apparent in the older patients (age>40 (OR = 0.674, 95% CI = 0.484-0.939, P = 0.02. rs2233408 T heterozygotes was associated with non-cardiac gastric cancer (OR = 0.594, 95% CI = 0.411-0.859, P = 0.006, but not with cardiac gastric cancer. However, rs2233408 polymorphism was not associated with the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Conclusions IκBα rs2233408 T heterozygotes were associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer, especially for the development of certain subtypes of gastric cancer in Chinese population.

  17. "No God and no Norway": collective resource loss among members of Tamil NGO's in Norway during and after the last phase of the civil war in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guribye Eugene

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the mental health of refugees have tended to focus upon the impact of traumatic experiences in the country of origin, and acculturation processes in exile. The effects of crises in the country of origin on refugees living in exile have been little studied. This article examines how the final stages of the civil war in Sri Lanka in 2009 influenced members of pro-LTTE Tamil NGO's in Norway. Method Ethnographic fieldwork methods were employed within Tamil NGO's in the two largest cities in Norway between November 2008 and June 2011. Results The findings suggest that collective resources became severely drained as a result of the crisis, severely disrupting the fabric of social life. Public support from the majority community remained scarce throughout the crisis. Conclusions The study suggests that there is a need for public support to exile groups indirectly affected by man-made crises in their country of origin.

  18. Fashion NGO Redress Reveals Positive Prospects for China's Sustainable Fashion Industry-- The EcoChic Design Award China 2012 winners announced on Shanghai Fashion Week%Fashion NGO Redress Reveals Positive Prospects for China's Sustainable Fashion Industry-- The EcoChic Design Award China 2012 winners announced on Shanghai Fashion Week

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    On October 22nd, in the city of Shanghai, China witnessed a new era of sustainable fashion design during The EcoChic Design Award China 2012 Grand Final, organized by fashion NGO Redress, which saw ten competition finalists compete in Mainland China's inaugural mainstream sustainable fashion design competition.

  19. NGO facing problems in China develoment and countermeasure research%NGO在我国发展所面临的问题及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昳茹

    2011-01-01

    In the World,the NGO organizations which featuring non-profit and Non Government participation have played an increasingly important role in environmental protection,health,charity and public affairs.However,in China NGO only have a short history,in policies and regulations,management and direction of development is not very clear,there are still many problems.In this article,by reviewing the development process of China's NGO organizations,current status,sort of typical pattern of China's NGO development.Meanwhile,the NGO's development and growth problems were analyzed,and proposed solutions.%在国际上,以非营利、非官方为特色的NGO组织在环保、卫生、慈善和公共事务方面日益发挥着重要的作用。然而,NGO在我国的出现还只有数年时间,在政策法规、管理模式和发展方向上不甚明确,还存在着诸多的问题。在本文中,通过回顾我国NGO组织的发展历程、现行状况,梳理我国NGO发展的典型模式。同时,对于NGO的发展壮大遇到的问题进行了分析,并提出了解决的方法。

  20. Tendencies of mortality by prostate cancer in the states of the Central-West Region of Brazil, 1980-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, João Francisco Santos; Mattos, Inês Echenique; Aydos, Ricardo Dutra

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the pattern of prostate cancer mortality in the Central-West Region, in the period 1980 - 2011. The quadrennial and annual mortality rates, age-standardized by the world population, were calculated. Polynomial regression models were estimated to analyze trends of mortality in Brazilian regions and in the states of the Central-West Region. Throughout Brazil there was an increase in the magnitude of mortality rates during the study's period. In the Central-West Region, mortality rates from prostate cancer increased from 7.65/100,000 in the period 1980 - 1983, to 14.36/100,000 in the last four years, exceeding the national average. For Mato Grosso do Sul, an increased trend, although not constant, was observed for prostate mortality rates, while those rates showed stability for Mato Grosso and presented a constant trend of increment for Goiás along the studied period. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between mortality rates from prostate cancer and the proportional mortality from ill-defined causes of death in the three states, but no correlations were observed between these rates and the ratios of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) tests realized. Difficulties in the access to the health services network, better quality of death records with reduction of ill-defined causes and increased use of PSA may have contributed to the mortality pattern observed in the Central-West Region. Further studies are needed to investigate these relationships in order, to better understand the patterns of mortality from this cancer in the Central-West population.

  1. Cervical Cancer Screening in the US–Mexico Border Region: A Binational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefelbein, Emily L.; Smith, Ruben; Rojas, Rosalba; Mirchandani, Gita G.; McDonald, Jill A.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer mortality is high along the US–Mexico border. We describe the prevalence of a recent Papanicolaou screening test (Pap) among US and Mexican border women. We analyzed 2006 cross-sectional data from Mexico’s National Survey of Health and Nutrition and the US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Women aged 20–77 years in 44 US border counties (n = 1,724) and 80 Mexican border municipios (n = 1,454) were studied. We computed weighted proportions for a Pap within the past year by age, education, employment, marital status, health insurance, health status, risk behaviors, and ethnicity and adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) for the US, Mexico, and the region overall. Sixty-five percent (95 %CI 60.3–68.6) of US women and 32 % (95 %CI 28.7–35.2) of Mexican women had a recent Pap. US residence (APR = 2.01, 95 %CI 1.74–2.33), marriage (APR = 1.31, 95 %CI 1.17–1.47) and insurance (APR = 1.38, 95 %CI 1.22–1.56) were positively associated with a Pap test. Among US women, insurance and marriage were associated (APR = 1.21, 95 %CI 1.05–1.38 and 1.33, 95 %CI 1.10–1.61, respectively), and women aged 20–34 years were about 25 % more likely to have received a test than older women. Insurance and marriage were also positively associated with Pap testing among Mexican women (APR = 1.39, 95 %CI 1.17–1.64 and 1.50; 95 %CI 1.23–1.82, respectively), as were lower levels of education (≤8th grade or 9th–12th grade versus some college) (APR = 1.74; 95 %CI 1.21–2.52 and 1.60; 95 %CI 1.03–2.49, respectively). Marriage and insurance were associated with a recent Pap test on both sides of the border. Binational insurance coverage increases and/or cost reductions might bolster testing among unmarried and uninsured women, leading to earlier cervical cancer diagnosis and potentially lower mortality. PMID:22965734

  2. The burden of cancer risk in Canada's indigenous population: a comparative study of known risks in a Canadian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Brenda Elias1, Erich V Kliewer1–3, Madelyn Hall1, Alain A Demers1,2, Donna Turner1,2, Patricia Martens1, Say P Hong1, Lyna Hart4, Caroline Chartrand5, Garry Munro41Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 2CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 3British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs Health Information Research Governance Committee, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 5Manitoba First Nations Diabetes Integration Project, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaBackground: Canadian First Nations, the largest of the Aboriginal groups in Canada, have had lower cancer incidence and mortality rates than non-Aboriginal populations in the past. This pattern is changing with increased life expectancy, a growing population, and a poor social environment that influences risk behaviors, metabolic conditions, and disparities in screening uptake. These factors alone do not fully explain differences in cancer risk between populations, as genetic susceptibility and environmental factors also have significant influence. However, genetics and environment are difficult to modify. This study compared modifiable behavioral risk factors and metabolic-associated conditions for men and women, and cancer screening practices of women, between First Nations living on-reserve and a non-First Nations Manitoba rural population (Canada.Methods: The study used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and the Manitoba First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey to examine smoking, binge drinking, metabolic conditions, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and cancer-screening practices.Results: First Nations on-reserve had significantly higher rates of smoking (P < 0.001, binge drinking (P < 0.001, obesity (P < 0.001 and diabetes (P < 0.001, and less leisure-time physical activity (P = 0.029, and consumption of fruits and vegetables (P < 0.001. Sex differences were also

  3. 农民工非政府组织问题探析%Analysis of the Problems of Migrant Workers NGO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莉芸

    2013-01-01

    In China, the migrant workers policy is being gradually perfected, but migrant workers are still in a weak position and lost a lot of rights. Migrant workers non-governmental organization is a organization pushing hand to enhance the status of migrant work-ers and obtain right. In this paper, based on the theory of NGO for migrant workers, it analyzes the status quo of the lack and proposes to development path of migrant workers NGO including strengthening government support for migrant workers NGO, perfecting legal system, improving its organization construction, multi-channel solutions to fund, etc.%  在我国,关于农民工的政策制定正在逐步完善,但目前农民工仍处于弱势地位,丧失很多权利。农民工非政府组织是提升农民工地位,取得话语权的组织推手。基于农民工非政府组织理论,对其缺失现状进行分析,旨在通过加强政府对农民工非政府组织的支持,健全法律制度,完善自身组织建设,多渠道解决资金等途径,发展农民工非政府组织。

  4. Cooperation Model and Future Development Between NGO and Libraries%NGO与图书馆的合作模式及发展方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张治理

    2011-01-01

    This paper learns successful experience from NGO of developed countries, analyzes NGO' s role and issues in the process of Chinese library development, including cooperation models, NGO' s impact on library service and construction as well as some cooperation issues needed to be solved between NGO and library. On the basis of that, it proposes that the Library Society of China should play an important role in bringing NGO into library community to advance the development of Chinese libraries.%借鉴发达国家NGO的成功经验,分析NGO在中国图书馆发展过程中的状况和问题,包括NGO与图书馆的合作形式、NGO对图书馆建设与服务的影响及NGO与图书馆合作中一些亟待解决的问题。在此基础上,提出问题的解决方法:充分发挥中国图书馆学会的作用,将NGO有效地引入到图书馆事业中来,从而推动中国图书馆事业的发展。

  5. Costs of integrating demand-based reproductive health commodity model into the Government and NGO service delivery systems in Bangladesh: a supply side perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ziaul; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Anwar, Shahela; Kabir, Humayun; Gazi, Rukhsana

    2015-01-01

    To estimate additional total cost and average cost of integrating the demand-based reproductive health commodity model into the existing Government and NGO facilities in Bangladesh. Activity based cost analysis was conducted during 2006-2008 in two low performing rural sub-districts (Nabigong and Raipur sub-district) and one urban slum area in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Activity-based cost data were collected using ingredient approach, which comprised of listing all types of inputs by activity, quantities and prices for each input. Total cost was presented according to capital and recurrent items. The supply side perspective was considered for entire analysis. The total cost of integrating demand-based reproductive health commodity (DBRHC) model into the Government and NGO service delivery system was estimated to BDT 18,667,634 (US$274,524). The proportion of capital cost was 59 % and the recurrent cost was 41 % of the total cost. The average cost per beneficiaries was BDT 230 (US$3.38) only for introducing this model into the existing health system. The built-in interventions of DBRHC model were doable at low-cost at the selected Government and NGO settings at the grass-root level. The model has potential of further cost containment during scaling up-if the intervention costs are adjusted with the existing functionaries of the Government and NGOs.

  6. A robust University-NGO partnership: Analysing school efficiencies in Bolivia with community-based management techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Neiva de Figueiredo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Community-based management research is a collaborative effort between management, academics and communities in need with the specific goal of achieving social change to foster social justice. Because it is designed to promote and validate joint methods of discovery and community-based sources of knowledge, community-based management research has several unique characteristics, which may affect its execution. This article describes the process of a community-based management research project which is descriptive in nature and uses quantitative techniques to examine school efficiencies in low-income communities in a developing country – Bolivia. The article describes the partnership between a US-based university and a Bolivian not-for-profit organisation, the research context and the history of the research project, including its various phases. It focuses on the (yet unpublished process of the community-based research as opposed to its content (which has been published elsewhere. The article also makes the case that the robust partnership between the US-based university and the Bolivian NGO has been a determining factor in achieving positive results. Strengths and limitations are examined in the hope that the experience may be helpful to others conducting descriptive quantitative management research using community-engaged frameworks in cross-cultural settings. Keywords: international partnership, community-engaged scholarship, education efficiency, multicultural low-income education.

  7. Regional variations in mortality rates of pancreatic cancer in China:Results from 1990-1992 national mortality survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Xin Chen; Peizhong Peter Wang; Si-Wei Zhang; Lian-Di Li; Feng-Zhu Lu; Xi-Shan Hao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To examine the regional variations in mortality rates of pancreatic cancer in China.METHODS: Aggregated mortality data of pancreatic cancer were extracted from the 1990-1992 national death of all causes and its mortality survey in China. Age specific and standardized mortality rates were calculated at both national and provincial levels with selected characteristics including sex and residence status.RESULTS: Mortality of pancreatic cancer ranked the ninth and accounted for 1.38 percent of the total malignancy deaths. The crude and age standardized mortality rates of pancreatic cancer in China in the period of 1990-1992 were 1.48/100 000 and 1.30/100 000, respectively. Substantial regional variations in mortality rates across China were observed with adjusted mortality rates ranging from 0.43/100 000 to 3.70/100 000 with an extremal value of 8.7.Urban residents had significant higher pancreatic mortality than rural residents.CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show different mortality rates of this disease and highlight the importance of further investigation on factors, which might contribute to the observed epidemiological patterns.

  8. Correlation between ECT2 gene expression and methylation change of ECT2 promoter region in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mang-Li Zhang; Sen Lu; Lin Zhou; Shu-Sen Zheng

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is closely related to epigenetic abnormality. The epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 gene (ECT2) plays a critical role in Rho activation during cytokinesis, and thus may play a role in the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we investigated the relationships between aberrant expression and epigenetic changes of the ECT2 gene in pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Four cell lines (PANC-1, Colo357, T3M-4 and PancTuⅠ) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissues were used for mRNA detection. After restriction isoschizomer endonucleases (MspⅠ/HpaⅡ) were used to digest the DNA sequence (5'-CCGG-3'), PCR was made to amplify the product. And RT-PCR was applied to determine the expression of the gene. RESULTS: The mRNA expression of the ECT2 gene was higher in pancreatic tumor tissue than in normal tissue. The gene was also expressed in the 4 PDAC cell lines. The methylation states of the upstream regions of the ECT2 gene were almost identical in normal, tumor pancreatic tissues, and the 4 PDAC cell lines. Some of the 5'-CCGG-3' areas in the upstream region of ECT2 were methylated, while others were unmethylated. CONCLUSIONS: The oncogene ECT2 is overexpressed in pancreatic tumor tissues as veriifed by RT-PCR detection. The methylation status of DNA in promoter areas is involved in the gene expression, along with other factors, in pancreatic cancer.

  9. Mutation Screening in the Mitochondrial D-Loop Region of Tumoral and Non-tumoral Breast Cancer in Iranian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Heidari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations in mitochondrial coding and non coding regions seem to be important in carcinogenesis. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate coding region (mt-tRNAPhe and tRNAPro and non-coding sequence, mitochondrial displacement loop (mtDNA D-loop, in the cancerous and non-cancerous lesions of Iranian patients with breast cancer (BC. Genomic DNA was extracted from 50 breast tumors and surrounding normal tissue pairs as well as from 50 unrelated normal breast tissues from Iranian Kurdish population. Subsequently, PCR amplification was performed using specific primers, and then PCR products were subjected to direct sequencing. 41 genetic variants were identified in mtDNA D-loop among tumoral and non-tumoral tissues but not in tRNAPhe and tRNAPro sequences. Our findings indicated that C182T, 194insT, 285insA and 16342delT were just found in BC tumors whereas 302insC, C309T and C16069T found in both tumors and surrounding normal tissues. Although our findings showed that the observed genetic variations were not restricted to breast cancer tissues, some genetic changes were found only in BC tumors. Our results, in agreement with the evidence from earlier studies, confirm that the mtDNA genetic alterations might be implicated in tumor initiation, progression and development. text-align: justify;

  10. Mortality trends and risk of dying from breast cancer in the 32 states and 7 socioeconomic regions of Mexico, 2002-2011

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    Juan Jesús Sánchez-Barriga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine mortality trends from breast cancer in Mexico nationwide, by state, by socioeconomic region, and to establish an association between education, state of residence, and socioeconomic region with mortality from breast cancer in 2002–2011.Methods. Records of mortality associated with breast cancer were obtained. Rates of mortality nationwide, by state, and by socioeconomic region were calculated. The strength of association between states where women resided, socioeconomic regions, and education with mortality from breast cancer was determined.Results. Women who completed elementary school had a higher risk of dying from breast cancer than people with more education [relative risk (RR 2.58, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.49–2.67]. Mexico City had the strongest association with dying from breast cancer as state and as socioeconomic region 7 [Mexico City: RR 3.47, CI95% 2.7-4.46 (2002 and RR 3.33, CI95% 2.66-4.15 (2011 and region 7: RR 3.72, CI 95%: 3.15-4.38 (2002 and RR 2.87, CI 95%: 2.51-3.28 (2011].Conclusions. In Mexico, the raw mortality rates per 100 000 women who died from breast cancer increased. Mortality was higher in women who had elementary school than in those with more education. The strongest association was in Mexico City as state and as region 7. 

  11. Prospective phase II trial of regional hyperthermia and whole liver irradiation for numerous chemorefratory liver metastases from colerectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jeong Il; Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Doo Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-03-15

    A prospective phase II trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of regional hyperthermia and whole liver irradiation (WLI) for numerous chemorefractory liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Enrolled patients had numerous chemorefractory hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. Five sessions of hyperthermia and seven fractions of 3-gray WLI were planned. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was determined using the Korean version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire C-30 and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Hepatobiliary version 4.0. Objective and pain response was evaluated. A total of 12 patients consented to the study and the 10 who received WLI and hyperthermia were analyzed. WLI was completed as planned in nine patients and hyperthermia in eight. Pain response was partial in four patients and stable in four. Partial objective response was achieved in three patients (30.0%) and stable disease was seen in four patients at the 1-month follow-up. One patient died 1 month after treatment because of respiratory failure related to pleural metastasis progression. Other grade III or higher toxicities were detected in three patients; however, all severe toxicities were related to disease progression rather than treatment. No significant difference in HRQoL was noted at the time of assessment for patients who were available for questionnaires. Combined WLI and hyperthermia were well tolerated without severe treatment-related toxicity with a promising response from numerous chemorefractory hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer.

  12. Mean Absorbed Dose to the Anal-Sphincter Region and Fecal Leakage among Irradiated Prostate Cancer Survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsadius, David, E-mail: david.alsadius@oncology.gu.se [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Hedelin, Maria [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Lundstedt, Dan [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Pettersson, Niclas [Department of Radiophysics, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Wilderaeng, Ulrica [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Steineck, Gunnar [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To supplement previous findings that the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation to the anal sphincter or lower rectum affects the occurrence of fecal leakage among irradiated prostate-cancer survivors. We also wanted to determine whether anatomically defining the anal-sphincter region as the organ at risk could increase the degree of evidence underlying clinical guidelines for restriction doses to eliminate this excess risk. Methods and Materials: We identified 985 men irradiated for prostate cancer between 1993 and 2006. In 2008, we assessed long-term gastrointestinal symptoms among these men using a study-specific questionnaire. We restrict the analysis to the 414 men who had been treated with external beam radiation therapy only (no brachytherapy) to a total dose of 70 Gy in 2-Gy daily fractions to the prostate or postoperative prostatic region. On reconstructed original radiation therapy dose plans, we delineated the anal-sphincter region as an organ at risk. Results: We found that the prevalence of long-term fecal leakage at least once per month was strongly correlated with the mean dose to the anal-sphincter region. Examining different dose intervals, we found a large increase at 40 Gy; {>=}40 Gy compared with <40 Gy gave a prevalence ratio of 3.8 (95% confidence interval 1.6-8.6). Conclusions: This long-term study shows that mean absorbed dose to the anal-sphincter region is associated with the occurrence of long-term fecal leakage among irradiated prostate-cancer survivors; delineating the anal-sphincter region separately from the rectum and applying a restriction of a mean dose <40 Gy will, according to our data, reduce the risk considerably.

  13. Role of Ultrasonography of Regional Nodal Basins in Staging Triple-Negative Breast Cancer and Implications For Local-Regional Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaitelman, Simona F., E-mail: sfshaitelman@mdanderson.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tereffe, Welela [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dogan, Basak E. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hess, Kenneth R. [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Caudle, Abigail S. [Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Valero, Vicente [Department of Breast Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Stauder, Michael C. [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Krishnamurthy, Savitri [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Candelaria, Rosalind P. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Strom, Eric A.; Woodward, Wendy A. [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hunt, Kelly K. [Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Buchholz, Thomas A. [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Whitman, Gary J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: We sought to determine the rate at which regional nodal ultrasonography would increase the nodal disease stage in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) beyond the clinical stage determined by physical examination and mammography alone, and significantly affect the treatments delivered to these patients. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of women with stages I to III TNBC who underwent physical examination, mammography, breast and regional nodal ultrasonography with needle biopsy of abnormal nodes, and definitive local-regional treatment at our institution between 2004 and 2011. The stages of these patients' disease with and without ultrasonography of the regional nodal basins were compared using the Pearson χ{sup 2} test. Definitive treatments of patients whose nodal disease was upstaged on the basis of ultrasonographic findings were compared to those of patients whose disease stage remained the same. Results: A total of 572 women met the study requirements. In 111 (19.4%) of these patients, regional nodal ultrasonography with needle biopsy resulted in an increase in disease stage from the original stage by physical examination and mammography alone. Significantly higher percentages of patients whose nodal disease was upstaged by ultrasonographic findings compared to that in patients whose disease was not upstaged underwent neoadjuvant systemic therapy (91.9% and 51.2%, respectively; P<.0001), axillary lymph node dissection (99.1% and 34.5%, respectively; P<.0001), and radiation to the regional nodal basins (88.2% and 29.1%, respectively; P<.0001). Conclusions: Regional nodal ultrasonography in TNBC frequently changes the initial clinical stage and plays an important role in treatment planning.

  14. Epidemiology, diagnostics and long-term overall survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer in the Brest Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siarhei Panko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lung cancer has been the most common cancer in the world and in Belarus. Aim of the research: To evaluate the epidemiology of non-small cell lung cancer and improvements in diagnostics and treatment for the past 11 years in the Brest Region of Belarus. Material and methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of statistical data (incidence rate, mortality in the regional cancer registry of the Brest oncological clinic since 2000 and assessed survival for 652 adult patients with different stages of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC who underwent surgery in the Thoracic Surgery Department of Brest Regional Hospital in 2002–2010. Results: Lung cancer continues to have the highest incidence rate among malignant neoplasms and because of its high fatality rate is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the Brest Region and Belarus. The chest radiography screening programme of lung cancer since 2000 and the implementation of computed tomography (CT- and ultrasonography (USG-guided needle biopsy and VATS LigaSure pulmonary wedge resection for the evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules has allowed an increase of diagnostic rates and improved the histological confirmation rate of lung cancer in the Brest Region. Multivariate analysis indicates that male sex, age older than seventy and incomplete surgical resection are independent predictors of poor prognosis for postoperative long-term overall survival. Conclusions : Today it is necessary to carry out low-dose spiral computerized diagnostics in the Brest Region, which would detect a greater proportion of asymptomatic lung cancers. Surgical resection remains the only consistent and successful option of a cure for patients with lung cancer.

  15. Females with paired occurrence of cancers in the UADT and genital region have a higher frequency of either Glutathione S-transferase M1/T1 null genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhavar Sameer G

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Upper Aero digestive Tract (UADT is the commonest site for the development of second cancer in females after primary cervical cancer. Glutathione S-transferase (GSTM1 and / or T1 null genotype modulates the risk of developing UADT cancer (primary as well as second cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in GST null genotype frequencies in females with paired cancers in the UADT and genital region as compared to females with paired cancers in the UADT and non-genital region. Forty-nine females with a cancer in the UADT and another cancer (at all sites-genital and non-genital were identified from a database of patients with multiple primary neoplasms and were analyzed for the GSTM1 and T1 genotype in addition to known factors such as age, tobacco habits, alcohol habits and family history of cancer. Frequencies of GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null, and either GSTM1/T1 null were higher in females with paired occurrence of cancer in the UADT and genital site (54%, 33% and 75% respectively in comparison to females with paired occurrence of cancer in the UADT and non-genital sites (22%, 6% and 24% respectively. The significantly higher inherited frequency of either GSTM1/T1 null genotype in females with a paired occurrence of cancers in UADT and genital region (p = 0.01, suggests that these females are more susceptible to damage by carcinogens as compared to females who have UADT cancers in association with cancers at non-genital sites.

  16. SNPs in the coding region of the metastasis-inducing gene MACC1 and clinical outcome in colorectal cancer

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    Schmid Felicitas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer is one of the main cancers in the Western world. About 90% of the deaths arise from formation of distant metastasis. The expression of the newly identified gene metastasis associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1 is a prognostic indicator for colon cancer metastasis. Here, we analyzed for the first time the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the coding region of MACC1 for clinical outcome of colorectal cancer patients. Additionally, we screened met proto-oncogene (Met, the transcriptional target gene of MACC1, for mutations. Methods We sequenced the coding exons of MACC1 in 154 colorectal tumors (stages I, II and III and the crucial exons of Met in 60 colorectal tumors (stages I, II and III. We analyzed the association of MACC1 polymorphisms with clinical data, including metachronous metastasis, UICC stages, tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and patients’ survival (n = 154, stages I, II and III. Furthermore, we performed biological assays in order to evaluate the functional impact of MACC1 SNPs on the motility of colorectal cancer cells. Results We genotyped three MACC1 SNPs in the coding region. Thirteen % of the tumors had the genotype cg (rs4721888, L31V, 48% a ct genotype (rs975263, S515L and 84% a gc or cc genotype (rs3735615, R804T. We found no association of these SNPs with clinicopathological parameters or with patients’ survival, when analyzing the entire patients’ cohort. An increased risk for a shorter metastasis-free survival of patients with a ct genotype (rs975263 was observed in younger colon cancer patients with stage I or II (P = 0.041, n = 18. In cell culture, MACC1 SNPs did not affect MACC1-induced cell motility and proliferation. Conclusion In summary, the identification of coding MACC1 SNPs in primary colorectal tumors does not improve the prediction for metastasis formation or for patients’ survival compared to MACC1 expression analysis alone. The ct genotype (rs

  17. Female breast cancer in Vietnam:a comparison across Asian speciifc regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Phuong Dung Yun Trieu; Claudia Mello-Thoms; Patrick C. Brennan

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies and the leading cause of cancer death of women over the world. A large number of females with breast cancer in Vietnam and other Southeast Asian (SEA) countries present at an early age with more aggressive tumors compared with women in Australia. Despite experiencing a low incidence rate, the increasing incidence rate among SEA countries exceeds that of the Westernized world. Changes in reproductive factors, environmental exposures, and lifestyle are the possible causes of this trend. However, limited evidence shows that these factors are associated with breast cancer in the Vietnamese population. Breast cancer incidence rates within Vietnam are not uniform and appear to be dependent on geographic location. Findings from this review have important implications for breast cancer control and treatment in Vietnam. A good understanding of the morphology of the breast and the type and nature of breast cancers presenting in Vietnam is required to facilitate the introduction of an effective national breast screening program.

  18. Polymorphism (ALA16VAL) correlates with regional lymph node status in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, Claudia Giuliano; da Silva, Leonardo Leiria de Moura; Toscani, Nadima Vieira; Zettler, Cláudio Galleano; Gottlieb, Maria Gabriela do Valle; Alexandre, Cláudio Osmar Pereira; Graudenz, Márcia Silveira; Mânica da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice

    2010-01-15

    We studied the possible association between Ala16Val manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene genotypes and breast cancer lymph node status because previous investigations suggested an association between the AA genotype and breast cancer. We included 281 women (188 controls and 93 cases of invasive breast cancer with axillary lymph node metastasis (LN+) and without lymph node metastasis (LN-). DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tumor tissue or peripheral blood leukocytes, and MnSOD polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. In addition, the immunohistochemical profile (p53, Ki-67 and estrogen/progesterone receptors) was also compared between invasive breast cancer groups and different MnSOD genotypes. The frequency of the VV genotype was higher in the LN+ group than in the control and LN- groups (chi(2)=5.081, P=0.02). Subjects with LN+ breast cancer (LN+ group) showed a higher incidence of VV genotype carriers associated with positive Ki-67 marker. Subjects with LN+ breast cancer (LN+ group) showed a higher incidence of VV genotype carriers associated with negative p53 marker. Despite the fact that the AA genotype is well established as being associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, the VV genotype may be associated with a higher metastatic potential, suggesting that MnSOD imbalance is the condition associated with carcinogenesis.

  19. A consensus plan for action to improve access to cancer care in the association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In many countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), cancer is an increasing problem due to ageing and a transition to Western lifestyles. Governments have been slow to react to the health consequences of these socioeconomic changes, leading to the risk of a cancer epidemic overwhelming the region. A major limitation to motivating change is the paucity of high-quality data on cancer, and its socioeconomic repercussions, in ASEAN. Two initiatives have been launched to address these issues. First, a study of over 9000 new cancer patients in ASEAN - the ACTION study - which records information on financial difficulties, as well as clinical outcomes, subsequent to the diagnosis. Second, a series of roundtable meetings of key stakeholders and experts, with the broad aim of producing advice for governments in ASEAN to take appropriate account of issues relating to cancer, as well as to generate knowledge and interest through engagement with the media. An important product of these roundtables has been the Jakarta Call to Action on Cancer Control. The growth and ageing of populations is a global challenge for cancer services. In the less developed parts of Asia, and elsewhere, these problems are compounded by the epidemiological transition to Western lifestyles and lack of awareness of cancer at the government level. For many years, health services in less developed countries have concentrated on infectious diseases and mother-and-child health; despite a recent wake-up call (United Nations, 2010), these health services have so far failed to allow for the huge increase in cancer cases to come. It has been estimated that, in Asia, the number of new cancer cases per year will grow from 6.1 million in 2008 to 10.6 million in 2030 (Sankaranarayanan et al., 2014). In the countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), corresponding figures are 770 thousand in 2012 (Figure 1), rising to 1.3 million in 2030 (Ferlay et al., 2012). ASEAN

  20. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusch, V.W.; Griffin, B.R.; Livingston, R.B. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted.

  1. Methylation of BRCA1 promoter region is associated with unfavorable prognosis in women with early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nicholas C; Huang, Ya-Fang; Yokoyama, Kazunari K; Chu, Pei-Yi; Chen, Fang-Ming; Hou, Ming-Feng

    2013-01-01

    BRCA1-associated breast cancers are associated with particular features such as early onset, poor histological differentiation, and hormone receptor negativity. Previous studies conducted in Taiwanese population showed that the mutation of BRCA1 gene does not play a significant role in the occurrence of breast cancer. The present study explored methylation of BRCA1 promoter and its relationship to clinical features and outcome in Taiwanese breast cancer patients. Tumor specimens from a cohort of 139 early-stage breast cancer patients were obtained during surgery before adjuvant treatment for DNA extraction. Methylation of BRCA1 promoter region was determined by methylation-specific PCR and the results were related to clinical features and outcome of patients using statistical analysis. Methylation of the BRCA1 promoter was detected in 78 (56%) of the 139 tumors. Chi-square analysis indicated that BRCA1 promoter methylation correlated significantly with triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-) status of breast cancer patients (p = 0.041). The Kaplan-Meier method showed that BRCA1 promoter methylation was significantly associated with poor overall survival (p = 0.026) and disease-free survival (p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis which incorporated variables of patients' age, tumor size, grade, and lymph node metastasis revealed that BRCA1 promoter methylation was associated with overall survival (p = 0.027; hazard ratio, 16.38) and disease-free survival (p = 0.003; hazard ratio, 12.19) [corrected].Our findings underscore the clinical relevance of the methylation of BRCA1 promoter in Taiwanese patients with early-stage breast cancer.

  2. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy as ovarian cancer treatment: ever more used with major regional differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    The traditional first-line treatment for patients with advanced ovarian cancer with primary debulking surgery (PDS) and adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial as some authors report a potential benefit from the alternative treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and interval debulking...

  3. Peptides from the variable region of specific antibodies are shared among lung cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique de Costa

    Full Text Available Late diagnosis of lung cancer is still the main reason for high mortality rates in lung cancer. Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease which induces an immune response to different tumor antigens. Several methods for searching autoantibodies have been described that are based on known purified antigen panels. The aim of our study is to find evidence that parts of the antigen-binding-domain of antibodies are shared among lung cancer patients. This was investigated by a novel approach based on sequencing antigen-binding-fragments (Fab of immunoglobulins using proteomic techniques without the need of previously known antigen panels. From serum of 93 participants of the NELSON trial IgG was isolated and subsequently digested into Fab and Fc. Fab was purified from the digested mixture by SDS-PAGE. The Fab containing gel-bands were excised, tryptic digested and measured on a nano-LC-Orbitrap-Mass-spectrometry system. Multivariate analysis of the mass spectrometry data by linear canonical discriminant analysis combined with stepwise logistic regression resulted in a 12-antibody-peptide model which was able to distinguish lung cancer patients from controls in a high risk population with a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 90%. With our Fab-purification combined Orbitrap-mass-spectrometry approach, we found peptides from the variable-parts of antibodies which are shared among lung cancer patients.

  4. NGO-provided free HIV treatment and services in Burkina Faso: scarcity, therapeutic rationality and unfair process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridde Valéry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Until 2010, Burkina Faso was an exception to the international trend of abolishing user fees for antiretroviral treatment (ART. Patients were still expected to pay 1,500F CFA (2 Euros per month for ART. Nevertheless, many non-governmental organizations (NGOs exempted patients from payment. The objective of this study was to investigate how NGOs selected the beneficiaries of payment exemptions for government-provided ART and rationed out complementary medical and psychosocial services. For this qualitative study, we conducted 13 individual interviews and three focus group discussions (n = 13 persons with program staff in nine NGOs (4,000 patients, two NGO coordinating structures and one national program. These encounters were recorded and transcribed, and their content was thematically analyzed. The results were presented to the NGOs for feedback. Results indicate that there are no concrete guidelines for identifying patients warranting payment exemptions. Formerly, ART was scarce in Burkina Faso and the primary criterion for treatment selection was clinical. Our results suggest that this scarcity, mediated by an approach we call sociotherapeutic rationality (i.e. maximization of clinical success, may have led to inequities in the provision of free ART. This approach may be detrimental to assuring equity since the most impoverished lack resources to pay for services that maximize clinical success (e.g. viral load that would increase their chances of being selected for treatment. However, once selected into treatment, attempts were made to ration-out complementary services more equitably. This study demonstrates the risks entailed by medication scarcity, which presents NGOs and health professionals with impossible choices that run counter to the philosophy of equity in access to treatment. Amid growing concerns of an international funding retreat for ART, it is important to learn from the past in order to better manage the potentially

  5. PROJECTED LIFETIME CANCER RISKS FROM EXPOSURE TO REGIONAL RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT IN THE MARSHALL ISLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Charles E.; Bouville, Andre; Apostoaei, Iulian; Simon, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive fallout from nuclear test detonations during 1946–1958 at Bikini and Enewetak atolls in the Marshall Islands (MI) exposed populations living elsewhere in the archipelago. A comprehensive analysis, presented in seven companion papers, has produced estimates of tissue-specific radiation absorbed dose to MI residents at all historically inhabited atolls from internal (ingested) and external radioactive components of fallout, by calendar year, and by age of the population at time of exposure. The present report deals, for the first time, with the implications of these doses on cancer risk among exposed members of the MI population. Radiation doses differed by geographic location and year of birth, and radiation-related cancer risk depends upon age at exposure and age at observation for risk. Using dose-response models based on committee reports published by the National Research Council and the National Institutes of Health, we project that, during the lifetimes of members of the MI population potentially exposed to ionizing radiation from weapons test fallout deposited during the testing period (1948–1958) and from residual radioactive sources during the subsequent 12 years (1959–1970), perhaps 1.6% (with 90% uncertainty range 0.4% and 3.4%) of all cancers might be attributable to fallout-related radiation exposures. The projected proportion of cancers attributable to radiation from fallout from all nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands is 55% (28%–69%) among 82 persons exposed in 1954 on Rongelap and Ailinginae, 10% (2%–22%) for 157 persons exposed on Utrik, and 2% (0.5%–5%) and 1% (0.2%–2%), respectively, for the much larger populations exposed in mid-latitude locations including Kwajalein and in southern locations including Majuro. By cancer type, point estimates of attributable risk varied by location, between 12% and 95% for thyroid cancer, between 2% and 78% for leukemia, and between 1% and 55% for all cancers combined. The

  6. Effect of preoperative S-1 combined with regional transcatheter arterial chemoembolization on malignant degree of locally advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Juan Xu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of preoperative S-1 combined with regional transcatheter arterial chemoembolization on malignant degree of locally advanced gastric cancer. Methods:A total of 134 patients who were diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer in our hospital from May 2012 to December 2014 were selected for study, received surgical resection after chemotherapy, and were divided into intravenous chemotherapy group and combined treatment group according to different chemotherapy regimens. After chemotherapy and before operation, serum tumor marker levels were detected;after operation, recurrence and metastasis-related molecule levels in tumor tissue were detected. Results:After chemotherapy and before operation, serum CEA, CA199, CA72-4, TSGF, ESM-1 and DKK-1 levels of combined treatment group were significantly lower than those of intravenous chemotherapy group;TET1, TET2, LATS1 and RUNX3 levels in tumor tissue of combined treatment group were higher than those of intravenous chemotherapy group while Sipa1, GOLPH3, AEP, MT2-MMP, OPN, Galectin-1, Galectin-3 and Galectin-9 levels were lower than those of intravenous chemotherapy group. Conclusions:Compared with systemic intravenous chemotherapy, preoperative S-1 combined with regional transcatheter arterial chemoembolization can more effectively kill gastric cancer cells and prevent tumor recurrence and metastasis at molecular level.

  7. K-19 mRNA RT-PCR in detecting micrometastasis in regional lymph nodes of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Suo; Quan Wang; Hong-Juan Jin; Hong Li; Hang Zhao

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the value and prospect of RT-PCR in detecting micrometastasis in regional lymph nodes of gastric cancer.METHODS: Histopathology was used and K19 mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR in tumor tissues and lymph nodes from gastric cancer patients undergoing radical resection of gastric carcinoma. RESULTS: K19 mRNA was expressed in all tumor specimens of 30 cases; of the 126 lymph nodes, 26 were histopathologically positive (20.6%), and 42 positive (33.3%) by RT-PCR. Amplification fragments of 460 and 540 bp were shown in all the tumor tissues and metastatic lymph nodes after K19 and 3-actin RT-PCR, while only a 540 bp fragment appeared in the lymph nodes of non-tumor patients.CONCLUSION: K19 mRNA RT-PCR is sensitive and specific in testing micrometastasis in regional lymph nodes of gastric cancer, and it is superior to routine histopathology.

  8. Shortening of the 3' untranslated region: an important mechanism leading to overexpression of HMGA2 in serous ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Xiangjun; Yang Jing; Zhang Qi; Cui Heng; Zhang Yujun

    2014-01-01

    Background Oncofetal protein high-mobility-group AT-hook protein 2 (HMGA2) is reactivated in serous ovarian cancer (SOC) and its overexpression correlates with poor prognosis.To explore the mechanism,we investigated whether HMGA2 could avoid microRNA regulation due to gene truncation or 3' UTR shortening by alternative polyadenylation.Methods Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the abundance of different regions of HMGA2 mRNA in 46 SOC samples.Rapid amplification of cDNA 3' ends (3' RACE) and Southern blotting were used to confirm the shortening of 3' untranslated region (UTR).5' RACE and Southern blotting were used to prove the mRNA decay.Results No significant difference in the ratio of the stable coding region to the fragile region was observed between SOC and control normal fallopian tubes,indicating that the HMGA2 gene is not truncated in SOC.Varying degrees of 3' UTR shortening in SOC samples were observed by comparing the abundance of the proximal region and distal region of the HMGA2 3' UTR.The ratio of the proximal to the distal region of the 3' UTR correlated significantly with expression of the HMGA2 coding region in SOC (r=0.579,P <0.01).Moreover,although the abundance of the HMGA2 coding region varied,all samples,including the very low expressed samples,exhibit relatively high levels of the proximal 3' UTR region,suggesting a dynamic decay of HMGA2 mRNA from the 5' end.The shortening of 3' UTR and the decay from the 5' end were confirmed by 3' RACE,5' RACE and subsequent Southern blotting.Conclusion Heterogeneous 3' UTR lengths render HMGA2 susceptible to different levels of negative regulation by microRNAs,which represents an important mechanism of HMGA2 reactivation in SOC.

  9. Loco-regional cancer drug therapy: present approaches and rapidly reversible hydrophobization (RRH) of therapeutic agents as the future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budker, Vladimir G; Monahan, Sean D; Subbotin, Vladimir M

    2014-12-01

    Insufficient drug uptake by solid tumors remains the major problem for systemic chemotherapy. Many studies have demonstrated anticancer drug effects to be dose-dependent, although dose-escalation studies have resulted in limited survival benefit with increased systemic toxicities. One solution to this has been the idea of loco-regional drug treatments, which offer dramatically higher drug concentrations in tumor tissues while minimizing systemic toxicity. Although loco-regional delivery has been most prominent in cancers of the liver, soft tissues and serosal peritoneal malignancies, survival benefits are very far from desirable. This review discusses the evolution of loco-regional treatments, the present approaches and offers rapidly reversible hydrophobization of drugs as the new future direction.

  10. Isolated loco-regional recurrence of breast cancer is more common in young patients and following breast conserving therapy: Long-term results of European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, Truuske; van der Hage, J.A.; Putter, H.; Bonnema, J.; Bartelink, H.; van de Velde, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic factors for isolated loco-regional recurrence in patients treated for invasive stage I or H breast cancer. The study population comprised 3602 women who had undergone primary surgery for early stage breast cancer, who were enrolled in European Organis

  11. Isolated loco-regional recurrence of breast cancer is more common in young patients and following breast conserving therapy : Long-term results of European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, GH; van der Hage, JA; Putter, H; Bonnema, J; Bartelink, H; van de Velde, CJ

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic factors for isolated loco-regional recurrence in patients treated for invasive stage I or H breast cancer. The study population comprised 3602 women who had undergone primary surgery for early stage breast cancer, who were enrolled in European Organis

  12. Awareness and Knowledge of BreastCancer Among University Students in Al Madina Al Munawara Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherien Shalaby

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer, a critical health problem, is considered to be a progressive disease with a poor prognosis if detected late. Public education about the disease plays a pivotal rolein early detection and subsequent improvements in prognosis. The present study assesses the knowledge and awareness about various aspects of breast cancer among female university students.Methods: The knowledge of various aspects of breast cancer including incidence, early warning signs, risk factors, screening, early detection measures and sources of information was evaluated among female students in different faculties of Taibah University, Al Madina AlMunawara, Saudi Arabia, from December 1 to 31, 2008. A self-structured validated questionnaire that contained 23 itemized questions about breast cancer was randomly distributed to the participants. Respondents’ levels of knowledge were determined and transferred to electronic spreadsheets for further analysis.Results: Of 301 students, 247 (82% were available for final analysis with a mean age of 27 years (SD 12.1; age range: 18 to 39 years. Two hundred eleven (85.4% respondents were single, 218 (88% nulliparous and 213 (86% had no family history of breast cancer. Their knowledge about the incidence of the disease was poor; only 34% replied correctly. A total of 148 (59.9% respondents mentioned swelling in the skin/axilla while 123 (49.7% suggested skin changes as early warning signs of breast cancer. None of the participants expressed knowledge about all established risk factors of the disease. One hundred fifty-nine (64.4% did not know the proper way to perform a breast self-examination and 104 (42.2% had never performed this test. Additionally, 128 (51.8% knew that mammography was a screening toolfor breast cancer. Sources of information about the disease were: television and radio (139,56.2%, printed material in journals and newspapers (86, 34.8% and family physicians (13,15.2%.Conclusion: This study

  13. Clinical significance of preoperative regional intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Wu Zhang; Shou-Chun Zou; Dun Shi; Da-Jian Zhao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Preoperative intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy could increase the radical resection rate of advanced gastric cancer, but its effect on the long-term survival has not been assessed. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical significance of preoperative intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer.METHODS: Clinicopathological data of 91 patients who underwent curative resection for advanced gastric cancer were collected. Among them, 37 patients undertaken preoperative intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy were used as the interventional chemotherapy group, and the remaining 54 patients as the control group. Eleven factors including clinicopathological variables, treatment procedures and molecular biological makers that might contribute to the long-term survival rate were analyzed using Cox multivariate regression analysis.RESULTS: The 5-year survival rate was 52.5% and 39.8%,respectively, for the interventional group and the control group (P<0.05). Cox multivariate regression analysis revealed that the TNM stage (P<0.001), preoperative intraarterial infusion chemotherapy (P = 0.029) and growth pattern (P = 0.042) were the independent factors for the long-term survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer.CONCLUSION: Preoperative intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy plays an important role in improving the prognosis of advanced gastric cancer.

  14. Characterization of Dielectric Responses of Human Cancer Cells in the Terahertz Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraga, Keiichiro; Ogawa, Yuichi; Suzuki, Tetsuhito; Kondo, Naoshi; Irisawa, Akiyoshi; Imamura, Motoki

    2014-05-01

    Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy, in combination with a two-interface model, is used to determine the complex dielectric constants of cultured human cancer cells (DLD-1, HEK293 and HeLa). Picosecond and sub-picosecond water dynamics are dominant in the measured complex dielectric constants of these cells. We demonstrate that dielectric responses below 1.0 THz best characterize the particular water dynamics of cancer cells when compared with extracellular water. Debye-Lorentz fitting revealed that this is due to a significantly attenuated slow relaxation mode and enhanced fast relaxation mode of the water in these cancer cells. These findings could lead to a new procedure to digitally evaluate cellular activities or functions, in terms of intracellular water dynamics, and remove the veil from the mysterious intracellular milieu.

  15. A New Way to Increase the Nation Soft Power:Cooperation between Government and NGO%国家软实力提升的一个新视域:政府与 NGO 的互动合作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童珊; 林建军; 黄建男

    2014-01-01

    冷战后,日本政府在提升国家“软实力”的过程中,对ODA项目进行改革,和NGO形成了长效合作机制。主要体现在外务省和NGO的“合作、支援、对话”体系上。该合作机制改善了日本国家形象,为日本ODA发展扫清障碍,提高了ODA的援助效率,有利于日本“价值观”的输出。全面开放的中国在对外交往、对外经贸交流中,同样面临国家形象塑造、文化价值诉求表达、国家软实力提升的问题。科学梳理、厘定日本经验,重视软实力提升,是中国拓展国际话语权、提升软实力、构建核心价值观的有效途径。%Since the cold war ,Japanese government has reformed the ODA when increasing the Soft power ,forming the long -term cooperative system with NGO ,Which mainly includes three ways of cooperation ,support and communication .This system amended Japan image ,opened the way for ODA ,improved the ODA efficiency ,and was beneficial to the output of Japanese values .All-round opening China also encountered with the problems involving the establishment of country image ,the delivery of culture and values ,and the strengthening of soft power when communicating with other countries .China should sum up Japanese experience and focus on the improvement of soft power ,which will be the effective ways to expand the discourse power ,increase the soft power and establish the core values .

  16. Loco-regional therapy for liver cancer%肝癌的局部区域治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶胜龙

    2013-01-01

    局部区域治疗在影像学引导下靶向杀伤肿瘤,是原发性肝癌最主要的非手术治疗方法,包括放射介入治疗(主要为肝动脉化疗栓塞)和局部消融治疗(瘤内乙醇注射、射频、微波、激光、高强度聚焦超声、冷冻等治疗).肝动脉化疗栓塞主要应用于不能手术切除的中晚期肝癌,局部消融治疗适用于直径5 cm以下的小肝癌.肝癌局部区域治疗强调针对具体病情选择合适的方法进行规范治疗.本文简要评述各种局部区域治疗方法的指征、治疗原则、技术要点和疗效,并讨论手术切除与局部消融治疗小肝癌的选择.%Loco-regional therapy, which uses imaging technologies to facilitate targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to cancers, has emerged as the most commonly used non-surgical treatment for primary liver cancer. Since the theory of loco-regional therapy was introduced, various strategies have been developed and successfully applied in clinic, including interventional radiology methods ( mainly transarterial chemoembo-lization) and local ablative methods (such as intratumoral ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation, microwave coagulation, laser-induced thermal therapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound, and cryotherapy). TACE has been widely applied to treat inoperable liver cancers at intermediate and advanced stages, while the local ablative therapies have proven more suitable for small ( <5 cm) liver cancers. However, choosing the appropriate loco -regional therapy strategy should be carried out on an individual basis, considering the patients particular disease condition and characteristics. To help guide such treatment decisions, this review highlights the principal indications, theory, techniques, and reported efficacies of the various loco-regional therapy strategies.

  17. Report of chronic myeloid leukemia from Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Regional Cancer Center, 2002-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajiv Ranjan; Singh, Pritanjali

    2013-07-01

    Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Regional Cancer Center was established in 1993. It's one of the main Health-Care Institution in the state of Bihar. The data of 205 patients was presented in the ICON meeting and 98% of patients were diagnosed in chronic phase. Complete hematological response was seen in 91% of patients in 3 months. A total of 197 (96%) patients were alive at the time of analysis of which 179 (87%) were still in chronic phase with hematological remission.

  18. Acute esophagitis for patients with local-regional advanced non small cell lung cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Yi; Brink, Carsten; Knap, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Esophagitis is common in patients treated with definitive radiotherapy for local-regional advanced non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The purpose of this study was to estimate the dose-effect relationship using clinical and dosimetric parameters in patients receiving intensity modulated...... radiotherapy (IMRT) and concomitant chemotherapy (CCT). METHODS: Between 2009 and 2013, 117 patients with stages IIB-IIIB NSCLC were treated in a multicenter randomized phase II trial with 2 cycles of induction chemotherapy followed by IMRT and CCT. The esophagitis was prospectively scored using the Common...

  19. Ascending colon cancer with synchronous external iliac and inguinal lymph node metastases but without regional lymph node metastasis: a case report and brief literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Yuki; Kuramoto, Masafumi; Masuda, Toshiro; Kuroda, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Ikeshima, Satoshi; Iyama, Ken-Ichi; Shimada, Shinya; Baba, Hideo

    2017-12-01

    Lymph node metastasis to the iliac or inguinal region of colon cancer is extremely rare. We experienced a case of ascending colon cancer with synchronous isolated right external iliac and inguinal lymph node metastases but without any regional lymph node metastasis. An 83-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to anemia. Colonoscopy and computed tomography revealed an ascending colon cancer and also right external iliac and inguinal lymph node swelling. Further examination by F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography strongly suggested that these lymph nodes were metastatic. Right hemicolectomy with lymph node dissection along the superior mesenteric artery, and right external iliac and inguinal lymph node dissection were performed. Histological examination revealed that both lymph nodes were metastasized from colon cancer, and there was no evidence of regional lymph node metastasis. The patient has shown no sign of recurrence at 27 months after surgery.

  20. Cervical Cancer Screening between 35–40 Aged Women at Kisecik Region of Hatay Provinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Nazlican

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Cervical cancer is the most frequently seen genital system cancer in women after endometrium adenocarcinoma. Because cervical is an easy reach organ, early diagnosis can be done due to Papanicolau (Pap smear in the cancer cases of this organ and prognosis ameliorates considerably. In this ailment there are two peaks. The first one is around the ages 35-39, the second one is around the ages 60-64. The aim of the study is to scan cervical cancer among the women between the ages of 35-40 in the district of Kisecik health office. METHOD: This study is a definitional, society based sectional study performed among the women between the ages of 35- 40 in the district of Kisecik in Hatay. 187 women between the ages of 35- 40 were enrolled to the study; 10 out of 187 women who were single were not included to the study. The study was completed after enrolling 150 women out of 177. Cervical smear samples were taken from the participants; and these samples were evaluated in a pathology laboratory according to the Bethesda 2001 scale. RESULTS: The avarage age of the participants was 37.55±1.77. After the evaluation of the cervical smears in the pathology laboratory, the results were normal for 73 participants (%48.7. 36 participants (%24.0 had non specific inflamation, 20 participants (%13.3 had bacterial vaginosis, 19 participants (%12.7 had seconder reactive changes to the inflamation and 2 participants (%1.3 was reported to be ASC-US. CONCLUSION: By the help of cheap and easily applied Pap smear test, society based scanning programmes can be performed frequently and thus; servical lesions may be detected in early phases. Furthermore through education, the level of information about cervical cancer should be raised and consciousness should be created. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 471-474

  1. Quantitative analysis and prediction of regional lymph node status in rectal cancer based on computed tomography imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Chunyan; Liu, Lizhi; Li, Li [Sun Yat-sen University, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Cai, Hongmin; Tian, Haiying [Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Automation, School of Science Information and Technology, Guangzhou (China); Li, Liren [Sun Yat-sen University, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Department of Abdominal (colon and rectal) Surgery, Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China)

    2011-11-15

    To quantitatively evaluate regional lymph nodes in rectal cancer patients by using an automated, computer-aided approach, and to assess the accuracy of this approach in differentiating benign and malignant lymph nodes. Patients (228) with newly diagnosed rectal cancer, confirmed by biopsy, underwent enhanced computed tomography (CT). Patients were assigned to the benign node or malignant node group according to histopathological analysis of node samples. All CT-detected lymph nodes were segmented using the edge detection method, and seven quantitative parameters of each node were measured. To increase the prediction accuracy, a hierarchical model combining the merits of the support and relevance vector machines was proposed to achieve higher performance. Of the 220 lymph nodes evaluated, 125 were positive and 95 were negative for metastases. Fractal dimension obtained by the Minkowski box-counting approach was higher in malignant nodes than in benign nodes, and there was a significant difference in heterogeneity between metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes. The overall performance of the proposed model is shown to have accuracy as high as 88% using morphological characterisation of lymph nodes. Computer-aided quantitative analysis can improve the prediction of node status in rectal cancer. (orig.)

  2. Comparative study on cancer incidence in neighboring regions of Hungary, Austria, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia in 1969-1980. Pannonian Tumor Epidemiology Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The present collaborative study was performed in four confined, neighboring regions of Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia with different demographic and occupational characteristics of their respective populations, various structures of medical facilities, and cancer registration systems. Crude and age-standardized incidence rates and trends of six major cancer sites (stomach, colorectum and lung in both sexes as well as breast, uterine cervix and uterine body in women) in three 4-year periods (1969-1972, 1973-1976, 1977-1980) were computed and mutually compared in the mentioned regions. Relatively high, different but more or less decreasing incidence rates of stomach, and varying but mainly increasing rates and trends of colorectal cancer were observed, while lung cancer incidence rates and tendencies showed great variations in both sexes. For women, besides continuous increase, the tendencies towards culmination and stabilization were found in regions with the highest incidence rates of breast and uterine body cancer in comparison with the more or less declining rates of uterine cervix cancer over the period studied. The observed different incidence rates and trends of these and obviously of other cancer sites require further investigations using more sophisticated epidemiological methods and approaches.

  3. Income level and regional policies, underlying factors associated with unwarranted variations in conservative breast cancer surgery in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiró-Moreno Salvador

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographical variations in medical practice are expected to be small when the evidence about the effectiveness and safety of a particular technology is abundant. This would be the case of the prescription of conservative surgery in breast cancer patients. In these cases, when variation is larger than expected by need, socioeconomic factors have been argued as an explanation. Objectives: Using an ecologic design, our study aims at describing the variability in the use of surgical conservative versus non-conservative treatment. Additionally, it seeks to establish whether the socioeconomic status of the healthcare area influences the use of one or the other technique. Methods 81,868 mastectomies performed between 2002 and 2006 in 180 healthcare areas were studied. Standardized utilization rates of breast cancer conservative (CS and non-conservative (NCS procedures were estimated as well as the variation among areas, using small area statistics. Concentration curves and dominance tests were estimated to determine the impact of income and instruction levels in the healthcare area on surgery rates. Multilevel analyses were performed to determine the influence of regional policies. Results Variation in the use of CS was massive (4-fold factor between the highest and the lowest rate and larger than in the case of NCS (2-fold, whichever the age group. Healthcare areas with higher economic and instruction levels showed highest rates of CS, regardless of the age group, while areas with lower economic and educational levels yielded higher rates of NCS interventions. Living in a particular Autonomous Community (AC, explained a substantial part of the CS residual variance (up to a 60.5% in women 50 to 70. Conclusion The place where a woman lives -income level and regional policies- explain the unexpectedly high variation found in utilization rates of conservative breast cancer surgery.

  4. NGO field security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolph Martin

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available In an environment of increased exposure, deterioration in the rules of war and loss of perceived neutrality, the community of NGOs operating incomplex emergencies is facing significantly increased risks to staff safety and security.

  5. The spatial distribution of esophageal and gastric cancer in Caspian region of Iran: An ecological analysis of diet and socio-economic influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodi Mahmood

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent studies have suggested a systematic geographic pattern of esophageal cancer (EC and gastric cancer (GC incidence in the Caspian region of Iran. The aims of this study were to investigate the association between these cancers and the region's dietary and socioeconomic risk factors and to map EC and GC after adjustment for the risk factors and the removal of random and geographic variations from area specific age standardised incidence ratios (SIRs. We obtained cancer data from the Babol cancer registry from 2001 to 2005, socioeconomic indices from the Statistical Centre of Iran, and dietary patterns from the control group in a case control study conducted in the study region. Regression models were fitted to identify significant covariates, and clusters of elevated rates were identified. We found evidence of systematic clustering for EC and GC in men and women and both sexes combined. EC and GC SIRs were lower in urban areas, and were also lower in areas of high income. EC SIRs were lower in areas with higher proportions of people having unrestricted food choice and higher in areas with higher proportions of people with restricted food choice. EC and GC were associated with aggregated risk factors, including income, urbanisation, and dietary patterns. These variables represent the influence of improved lifestyle which has coincided with a decrease in upper gastrointestinal cancer frequency over recent decades but which has not necessarily been uniform throughout the region.

  6. The spatial distribution of esophageal and gastric cancer in Caspian region of Iran: an ecological analysis of diet and socio-economic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Wolfe, Rory; Jolley, Damien; Forbes, Andrew B; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Burton, Robert C

    2011-02-15

    Recent studies have suggested a systematic geographic pattern of esophageal cancer (EC) and gastric cancer (GC) incidence in the Caspian region of Iran. The aims of this study were to investigate the association between these cancers and the region's dietary and socioeconomic risk factors and to map EC and GC after adjustment for the risk factors and the removal of random and geographic variations from area specific age standardised incidence ratios (SIRs). We obtained cancer data from the Babol cancer registry from 2001 to 2005, socioeconomic indices from the Statistical Centre of Iran, and dietary patterns from the control group in a case control study conducted in the study region. Regression models were fitted to identify significant covariates, and clusters of elevated rates were identified. We found evidence of systematic clustering for EC and GC in men and women and both sexes combined. EC and GC SIRs were lower in urban areas, and were also lower in areas of high income. EC SIRs were lower in areas with higher proportions of people having unrestricted food choice and higher in areas with higher proportions of people with restricted food choice. EC and GC were associated with aggregated risk factors, including income, urbanisation, and dietary patterns. These variables represent the influence of improved lifestyle which has coincided with a decrease in upper gastrointestinal cancer frequency over recent decades but which has not necessarily been uniform throughout the region.

  7. Relationship between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in -174G/C and-634C/G Promoter Region of Interleukin-6 and Prostate Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixin BAO; Weimin YANG; Siwei ZHOU; Zhangqun YE

    2008-01-01

    The association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in -174G/C and -634C/G of interleukin-6 (IL-6) promoter region and prostate cancer was examined in the population of Han people in Hubei region. TaqMan PCR was employed for the gene-typing of -174G/C and -634C/G in promoter region of IL-6 gene to compare the prostate cancer patients and normal controls in terms of genotype frequency, allele frequency and risk of prostate cancer. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the detection of IL-6 concentration in peripheral blood of the patients with prostate cancer and the relationship between the IL-6 level and the genotype was studied.Our results showed that in all the subjects, the genotype of genetic locus -174G/C was found to be GG and no CG and CC were observed. There was a significant difference in gene frequency of GG,CG and CC of-634C/G and allele frequency of G and C between prostate cancer patients and normal controls (P<0.05) and the gene frequency of GG+CG increased with the clinical stages and pathological grades of prostate cancer. The IL-6 level in GG+CG group was significantly higher than that in CC group. It was.concluded that no SNP in-174G/C IL-6 promoter region was found in the population of Han people in Hubei region. The SNP in -634C/G was, to some extent, associated with the development and progression of prostate cancer. The population with GG+CG genetype has higher risk for prostate cancer.

  8. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  9. [The ultrasound diagnosis of regional recurrent cancer of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkareva, O V; Siniukova, G T; Matiakin, E G; Kostiakova, L A; Titova, I A; Tsiklauri, V T

    2012-01-01

    Examination of 220 patients was performed using ultrasound investigation (USI) in B-regimen, color and energy Doppler encoding, 3D-reconstruction of image and sonoelastography. There were 49 recurrences in the regional lymph nodes. Main semiotic signs of regional recurrences were identified. USI with the application of the methods described is highly informative: sensitivity--94.2%, specificity--92.5%, accuracy--91.7%.

  10. The NOD2 3020insC Mutation in Women with Breast Cancer from the Bydgoszcz Region in Poland. First Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janiszewska Hanna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The frameshift NOD2 gene mutation 3020insC is predominantly associated with Crohn's disease, but predisposes to many types of common cancers as well. We studied the frequency of this mutant NOD2 allele in 148 breast cancer women from the Bydgoszcz region in Poland. The NOD2 mutation was present in 8.8% of the patients. The mean age at breast cancer diagnosis of the mutation carriers was 43 years. We did not find any mutation in patients diagnosed with breast cancer after the age of 50 years. There was no association of the NOD2 mutation with a strong family history of breast cancer. On the contrary, the mutation frequency (11.4% was two times higher in women from families with a single case of breast cancer and with aggregation of other common types of cancer, especially digestive tract cancers. Low risk of breast cancer in the mutation carriers seems to be confirmed by finding the 3020insC mutation in three healthy parents of probands aged 73, 74 and 83 years, from three separate families.

  11. Monoclonal antibodies recognizing the non-tandem repeat regions of the human mucin MUC4 in pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Jain

    Full Text Available The MUC4 mucin is a high molecular weight, membrane-bound, and highly glycosylated protein. It is a multi-domain protein that is putatively cleaved into a large mucin-like subunit (MUC4α and a C-terminal growth-factor like subunit (MUC4β. MUC4 plays critical roles in physiological and pathological conditions and is aberrantly overexpressed in several cancers, including those of the pancreas, cervix, breast and lung. It is also a potential biomarker for the diagnosis, prognosis and progression of several malignancies. Further, MUC4 plays diverse functional roles in cancer initiation and progression as evident from its involvement in oncogenic transformation, proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, motility and invasion, and resistance to chemotherapy in human cancer cells. We have previously generated a monoclonal antibody 8G7, which is directed against the TR region of MUC4, and has been extensively used to study the expression of MUC4 in several malignancies. Here, we describe the generation of anti-MUC4 antibodies directed against the non-TR regions of MUC4. Recombinant glutathione-S-transferase (GST-fused MUC4α fragments, both upstream (MUC4α-N-Ter and downstream (MUC4α-C-Ter of the TR domain, were used as immunogens to immunize BALB/c mice. Following cell fusion, hybridomas were screened using the aforementioned recombinant proteins ad lysates from human pancreatic cell lines. Three anti MUC4α-N-Ter and one anti-MUC4α-C-Ter antibodies were characterized by several inmmunoassays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, immunoblotting, immunofluorescene, flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation using MUC4 expressing human pancreatic cancer cell lines. The antibodies also reacted with the MUC4 in human pancreatic tumor sections in immunohistochemical analysis. The new domain-specific anti-MUC4 antibodies will serve as important reagents to study the structure-function relationship of MUC4 domains and for the development of MUC4

  12. Identification of a high frequency of chromosomal rearrangements in the centromeric regions of prostate cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the major chromosomal aberrations (CA) like deletion, translocation,inversion and mosaic in prostate cancer patients of Tamilnadu, Southern India. Totally 45 blood samples were collected from various hospitals in Tamilnadu, Southern India. Equal numbers of normal healthy subjects were chosen after signing a consent form. Volunteers provided blood samples (5 ml) to establish leukocyte cultures. Cytogenetic studies were performed by using Giemsa-banding technique and finally the results were ensured by spectral karyotyping (SKY) technique. In the present investigation, major CA like deletion, translocation, inversion and mosaic were identified in experimental subjects. Results showed frequent CA in chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13, 16, 18 and X. In comparison with experimental subjects, the control subjects exhibited very low levels of major CA (P<0.05). In the present study, the high frequency of centromeric rearrangements indicates a potential role for mitotic irregularities associated with the centromere in prostate cancer tumorigenesis. Identification of chromosome alterations may be helpful in understanding the molecular basis of the disease in better manner.

  13. Smoking correlates with increased cytoskeletal protein‐related coding region mutations in the lung and head and neck datasets of the cancer genome atlas

    OpenAIRE

    Yavorski, John M.; Blanck, George

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cancer from smoking tobacco is considered dependent on mutagens, but significant molecular aspects of smoking‐specific, cancer development remain unknown. We defined sets of coding regions for oncoproteins, tumor suppressor proteins, and cytoskeletal‐related proteins that were compared between nonsmokers and smokers, for mutation occurrences, in the lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSC), bladder carcinoma (BLCA), and pancreatic adenocarcinoma ( PAAD) dat...

  14. Prognostic impact of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR expression on loco-regional recurrence after preoperative radiotherapy in rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ychou Marc

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR represents a major target for current radiosensitizing strategies. We wished to ascertain whether a correlation exists between the expression of EGFR and treatment outcome in a group of patients with rectal adenocarcinoma who had undergone preoperative radiotherapy (RT. Methods Within a six-year period, 138 patients underwent preoperative radiotherapy and curative surgery for rectal cancer (UICC stages II-III at our institute. Among them, 77 pretherapeutic tumor biopsies were available for semi-quantitative immunohistochemical investigation evaluating the intensity and the number (extent of tumor stained cells. Statistical analyses included Cox regression for calculating risk ratios of survival endpoints and logistic regression for determining odds ratios for the development of loco-regional recurrences. Results Median age was 64 years (range: 30–88. Initial staging showed 75% and 25% stage II and III tumors, respectively. RT consisted of 44-Gy pelvic irradiation in 2-Gy fractions using 18-MV photons. In 25 very low-rectal-cancer patients the primary tumor received a boost dose of up to 16 Gy for a sphincter-preservation approach. Concomitant chemotherapy was used in 17% of the cases. All patients underwent complete total mesorectal resection. Positive staining (EGFR+ was observed in 43 patients (56%. Median follow-up was 36 months (range: 6–86. Locoregional recurrence rates were 7 and 20% for EGFR extent inferior and superior to 25%, respectively. The corresponding locoregional recurrence-free survival rate at two years was 94% (95% confidence interval, CI, 92–98% and 84% (CI 95%, 58–95%, respectively (P = 0.06. Multivariate analyses showed a significant correlation between the rate of loco-regional recurrence and three parameters: EGFR extent superior to 25% (hazard ratio = 7.18, CI 95%, 1.17–46, P = 0.037, rectal resection with microscopic residue (hazard ratio = 6.92, CI 95

  15. Smoking correlates with increased cytoskeletal protein-related coding region mutations in the lung and head and neck datasets of the cancer genome atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorski, John M; Blanck, George

    2016-12-01

    Cancer from smoking tobacco is considered dependent on mutagens, but significant molecular aspects of smoking-specific, cancer development remain unknown. We defined sets of coding regions for oncoproteins, tumor suppressor proteins, and cytoskeletal-related proteins that were compared between nonsmokers and smokers, for mutation occurrences, in the lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSC), bladder carcinoma (BLCA), and pancreatic adenocarcinoma ( PAAD) datasets from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). We uncovered significant differences in overall mutation rates, and in mutation rates in cytoskeletal protein-related coding regions (CPCRs, including extracellular matrix protein coding regions), between nonsmokers and smokers in LUAD and HNSC (P < 0.001), raising the question of whether the CPCR mutation differences lead to different clinical courses for nonsmoker and smoker cancers. Another important question inspired by these results is, whether high smoker cancer mutation rates would facilitate genotoxicity or neoantigen-based therapies. No significant, mutation-based differences were found in the BLCA or PAAD datasets, between nonsmokers and smokers. However, a significant difference was uncovered for the average number of overall cancer mutations, in LUAD, for persons who stopped smoking more than 15 years ago, compared with more recent smokers (P < 0.032).

  16. High prevalence of breast cancer in light polluted areas in urban and rural regions of South Korea: An ecologic study on the treatment prevalence of female cancers based on National Health Insurance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Hyo Sun; Kim, Mari; Park, Man Sik

    2015-06-01

    It has been reported that excessive artificial light at night (ALAN) could harm human health since it disturbs the natural bio-rhythm and sleep. Such conditions can lead to various diseases, including cancer. In this study, we have evaluated the association between ALAN and prevalence rates of cancer in females on a regional basis, after adjusting for other risk factors, including obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption rates and PM10 levels. The prevalence rates for breast cancer were found to be significantly associated with ALAN in urban and rural areas. Furthermore, no association was found with ALAN in female lung, liver, cervical, gastric and colon cancer. Despite the limitations of performing ecological studies, this report suggests that ALAN might be a risk factor for breast cancer, even in rural areas.

  17. Profile of malignant spinal cord compression: One year study at regional cancer center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Tariq Rasool

    2016-01-01

    Results: Most of the patients were in the age group of 41–60 years and there was no gender preponderance in patients. Female breast cancer was the most common incident (15.5% malignancy followed by multiple myeloma, lung, and prostatic carcinoma. Lower dorsal spine was the most common site of compression (35% followed by lumbar (31% and mid-dorsal (26% spine. 70 (91% patients had cord compression subsequent to bone metastasis while as other patients had leptomeningeal metastasis. In 31 (40% patients, spinal cord compression was the presenting symptom. Overall, only 26 patients had motor improvement after treatment. Conclusion: Grade of power before treatment was predictive of response to treatment and overall outcome of motor or sensory functions. Neurodeficit of more than 10 days duration was associated with poor outcome in neurological function.

  18. Urinary excretion of platinum, arsenic and selenium of cancer patients from the Antofagasta region in Chile treated with platinum-based drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Domingo A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic exposure increases the risk of non-cancerous and cancerous diseases. In the Antofagasta region in Chile, an established relationship exists between arsenic exposure and the risk of cancer of the bladder, lung and skin. Platinum-based drugs are first-line treatments, and many works recognise selenium as a cancer-fighting nutrient. We characterised the short-term urinary excretion amounts of arsenic, selenium and platinum in 24-h urine samples from patients with lung cancer and those with cancer other than lung treated with cisplatin or/and carboplatin. As - Se - Pt inter-element relationships were also investigated. Results The amounts of platinum excreted in urine were not significantly different between patients with lung cancer and those with other cancers treated with cisplatin, despite the significant variation in platinum amounts supplied from platinum-based drugs. In general, the analytical amounts of excreted selenium were greater than those for arsenic, which could imply that platinum favours the excretion of selenium. For other types of cancers treated with drugs without platinum, excretion of selenium was also greater than that of arsenic, suggesting an antagonist selenium-anti-cancer drug relationship. Conclusions Regards the baseline status of patients, the analytical amounts of excreted Se is greater than those for As, particularly, for cisplatin chemotherapy. This finding could imply that for over the As displacement Pt favours the excretion of Se. The analytical amounts of excreted Se were greater than those for As, either with and without Pt-containing drugs, suggesting an antagonist Se-anti-cancer drug relationship. However, it seemed that differences existed between As - Se - Pt inter-element associations in patients treated for lung cancer in comparison with those treated for cancer other than lung. Therefore, knowledge obtained in this work, can contribute to understanding the arsenic cancer

  19. Colorectal cancer prevention: Perspectives of key players from social networks in a low-income rural US region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E. Schoenberg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social networks influence health behavior and health status. Within social networks, “key players” often influence those around them, particularly in traditionally underserved areas like the Appalachian region in the USA. From a total sample of 787 Appalachian residents, we identified and interviewed 10 key players in complex networks, asking them what comprises a key player, their role in their network and community, and ideas to overcome and increase colorectal cancer (CRC screening. Key players emphasized their communication skills, resourcefulness, and special occupational and educational status in the community. Barriers to CRC screening included negative perceptions of the colonoscopy screening procedure, discomfort with the medical system, and misinformed perspectives on screening. Ideas to improve screening focused on increasing awareness of women's susceptibility to CRC, providing information on different screening tests, improving access, and the key role of health-care providers and key players themselves. We provide recommendations to leverage these vital community resources.

  20. Diffusion Weighted Imaging of the Uterus: Regional ADC Variation with Oral Contraceptive Usage and Comparison with Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messiou, Christina; Morgan, Veronica A.; Silva, Sonali S. de; Souza, Nandita M. de (Cancer Research UK Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom)); Ind, Thomas E. (Dept. of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, St George' s Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom))

    2009-07-15

    Background: There is growing interest in diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cervical carcinoma but normal uterine appearances and effects of the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) have not been described. Purpose: To establish apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for normal regions of uterus, determine the effect of the OCP on these values, and compare them with ADCs from cervical cancer. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven premenopausal women (19 taking the OCP) with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were studied with T2W and diffusion weighted MRI (DW-MRI). Regions of interest were drawn on ADC maps by visual matching with T2W images on different zones of the uterus and values compared between women not taking and taking the OCp.A further group of 25 women with clinically obvious tumors of the cervix were also studied with T2W and DW-MRI and ADC values of tumor were compared with ADC values of cervical epithelium and stroma. Results: The ADC values of adjacent zones of the uterus and cervix were significantly different from one another (P<0.001). The junctional zone was seen as a band of restricted diffusion between endometrium and outer myometrium. The ADC value of the junctional zone of the uterus was significantly greater (P<0.001) in patients taking the OCP than those patients not taking the OCp.There was no significant affect of the OCP on the ADC values of other uterine zones. Conclusion: The zonal anatomy of the uterus is well demonstrated by DW-MRI with hormonal effects secondary to the OCP affecting junctional zone alone. ADC of cervical tumor is significantly different to cervical epithelium and stroma indicating a role in cervical cancer detection and local staging

  1. Loco-regional control after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and conservative treatment for locally advanced breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Antonin; Borget, Isabelle; Bahri, Manel; Arnedos, Monica; Rivin, Eleonor; Vielh, Philippe; Balleyguier, Corinne; Rimareix, Françoise; Bourgier, Céline

    2014-01-01

    Breast-conserving treatment (BCT) has been validated for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Our objective was to evaluate the difference in loco-regional recurrence (LRR) rates between BCT and mastectomy in patients receiving radiation therapy after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NCT). A retrospective data base was used to identify all patients with breast cancer undergoing NCT from 2002 to 2007. Patients with initial metastatic disease were excluded from this analysis. LRR was compared between those undergoing BCT and mastectomy. Individual variables associated with LRR were evaluated. Two hundred eighty-four patients were included, 111 (39%) underwent BCT and 173 (61%) mastectomy. Almost all patients (99%) in both groups received postoperative radiation. Pathologic complete response was seen in 37 patients, of which 28 underwent BCT (p loco-regional control rate was 91% (95% CI: 86-94%). The 10-year LRR rate was similar in the BCT group (9.2% [95% CI: 4.9-16.7%]) and in the mastectomy group (10.7% [95% CI: 5.9-15.2%]; p = 0.8). Ten-year overall survival (OS) rates (63% [95% CI: 46-79%] in the BCT group; 60% [95% CI: 47-73%] in the mastectomy group, p = 0.8) were not statistically different between the two patient populations. Multivariate analysis showed that AJCC stage ≥ III (HR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.2-5.8; p = 0.02), negative PR (HR: 6; 95% CI: 1.2-30.6, p = 0.03), and number of positive lymph nodes ≥3 (HR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1-5.9; p = 0.03) were independent predictors of LRR. Ten-year OS was similar in the BCT and in the mastectomy group (p = 0.1). The rate of LRR was low and did not significantly differ between the BCT and the mastectomy group after NCT. Randomized trials assessing whether mastectomy can be safely omitted in selected breast cancer patients (nonstage III tumors or those which do not require adjuvant hormone suppression) which respond to NCT are required.

  2. Regional cancer centre demonstrates voluntary conformity with the national Radiation Oncology Practice Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manley, Stephen, E-mail: stephen.manley@ncahs.health.nsw.gov.au; Last, Andrew; Fu, Kenneth; Greenham, Stuart; Kovendy, Andrew; Shakespeare, Thomas P [North Coast Cancer Institute, Lismore, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Radiation Oncology Practice Standards have been developed over the last 10 years and were published for use in Australia in 2011. Although the majority of the radiation oncology community supports the implementation of the standards, there has been no mechanism for uniform assessment or governance. North Coast Cancer Institute's public radiation oncology service is provided across three main service centres on the north coast of NSW. With a strong focus on quality management, we embraced the opportunity to demonstrate conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards. The Local Health District's Clinical Governance units were engaged to perform assessments of our conformity with the standards and this was signed off as complete on 16 December 2013. The process of demonstrating conformity with the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards has enhanced the culture of quality in our centres. We have demonstrated that self-assessment utilising trained auditors is a viable method for centres to demonstrate conformity. National implementation of the Radiation Oncology Practice Standards will benefit individual centres and the broader radiation oncology community to improve the service delivered to our patients.

  3. Region-specific differences in colorectal cancer: Slovakia and Hungary have highest incidence in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, V; Ginter, E

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological data on colorectal cancer (CRC) exhibit high incidence in Central East Europe. Hungary, Slovakia and Croatia represent the lead. For decades it was the Czech Republic but it attained the fourth rank after the mid-2000. Remarkably, the Ashkenazi Jews who imigrated to the USA from Central Europe have the highest incidence of CRC among US minorities. They also have high incidence of inflammatory bowel disease, a risk for CRC. Notably, countries surrounding the Central European focus of CRC, Austria, Germany, Poland, Romania, Ukraine and Russia have substantially lower incidence. CRC in Central Europe has higher incidence than CRC among the highest at-risk cohort in the USA, the elderly blacks. Research and the genome wide screening identified genetic mutations associated with CRC in Ashkenazis from Central Europe. Some risk factors for CRC are non genotypic as evidenced by wide variation in CRC incidence in the course of only a few decades. Recent trends offer hope that identification of the non-innate pathogenic mechanisms would potentially reduce the burden of this third most lethal malignancy (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 40).

  4. Study of Genes and Environment in Patients With Cancer in East Anglia, Trent, or West Midlands Regions of the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    Bladder Cancer; Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Esophageal Cancer; Intraocular Melanoma; Kidney Cancer; Lymphoma; Melanoma (Skin); Pancreatic Cancer; Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter

  5. NGO在中国人权事业进步中的作用%The function of NGO in the progress in China's Human Rights Cause

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎尔平

    2006-01-01

    NGO在人权领域中的作用应得到充分的认可.目前,NGO在第二、三代人权领域发挥着积极的作用,特别是在中国扶贫事业中,NGO发挥着巨大的作用.事实上,扶贫便是最大的人权保护,从事扶贫工作的NGO也就属于广义上的人权NGO.未来中国NGO可以渐进式地向第一代人权领域扩展,努力为中国人权事业的进步作出更大的贡献.

  6. Chinese Anti-Cancer Association as a non-governmental organization undertakes systematic cancer prevention work in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting

    2015-08-01

    Cancer has become the first leading cause of death in the world, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Facing the increasing trend of cancer incidence and mortality, China issued and implemented "three-early (early prevention, early diagnosis and early treatment)" national cancer prevention plan. As the main body and dependence of social governance, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) take over the role of government in the field of cancer prevention and treatment. American Cancer Society (ACS) made a research on cancer NGOs and civil society in cancer control and found that cancer NGOs in developing countries mobilize civil society to work together and advocate governments in their countries to develop policies to address the growing cancer burden. Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), Cancer Council Australia (CCA), and Malaysian cancer NGOs are the representatives of cancer NGOs in promoting cancer control. Selecting Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (CACA) as an example in China, this article is to investigate how NGOs undertake systematic cancer prevention work in China. By conducting real case study, we found that, as a NGO, CACA plays a significant role in intensifying the leading role of government in cancer control, optimizing cancer outcomes, decreasing cancer incidence and mortality rates and improving public health.

  7. Genomewide high-density SNP linkage analysis of non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families identifies various candidate regions and has greater power than microsatellite studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Neira Anna

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent development of new high-throughput technologies for SNP genotyping has opened the possibility of taking a genome-wide linkage approach to the search for new candidate genes involved in heredity diseases. The two major breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in 30% of hereditary breast cancer cases, but the discovery of additional breast cancer predisposition genes for the non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families has so far been unsuccessful. Results In order to evaluate the power improvement provided by using SNP markers in a real situation, we have performed a whole genome screen of 19 non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families using 4720 genomewide SNPs with Illumina technology (Illumina's Linkage III Panel, with an average distance of 615 Kb/SNP. We identified six regions on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 7, 11 and 14 as candidates to contain genes involved in breast cancer susceptibility, and additional fine mapping genotyping using microsatellite markers around linkage peaks confirmed five of them, excluding the region on chromosome 3. These results were consistent in analyses that excluded SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium. The results were compared with those obtained previously using a 10 cM microsatellite scan (STR-GWS and we found lower or not significant linkage signals with STR-GWS data compared to SNP data in all cases. Conclusion Our results show the power increase that SNPs can supply in linkage studies.

  8. Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. M.; Heo, T. R.; Lee, K. B.; Jang, K. H.; Kim, H. N.; Lee, S. H.; Jeong, M. H. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Proton beam has been applied to treat various tumor patients in clinical studies. However, it is still undefined whether proton radiation can inhibit the blood vessel formation and induce the cell death in vascular endothelial cells in growing organs. The aim of this study are first, to develop an optimal animal model for the observation of blood vessel development with low dose of proton beam and second, to investigate the effect of low dose proton beam on the inhibition of blood vessel formation induced by hypoxic conditions. In this study, flk1-GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos were used to directly visualize and determine the inhibition of blood vessels by low dose (1, 2, 5 Gy) of proton beam with spread out Bragg peak (SOBP). And we observed cell death by acridine orange staining at 96 hours post fertilization (hpf) stage of embryos after proton irradiation. We also compared the effects of proton beam with those of gamma-ray. An antioxidant, N-acetyl cystein (NAC) was used to investigate whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the cell deaths induced by proton irradiation. Irradiated flk-1-GFP transgenic embryos with proton beam irradiation (35 MeV, spread out Bragg peak, SOBP) demonstrated a marked inhibition of embryonic growth and an altered fluorescent blood vessel development in the trunk region. When the cells with DNA damage in the irradiated zebrafish were stained with acridine orange, green fluorescent cell death spots were increased in trunk regions compared to non-irradiated control embryos. Proton beam also significantly increased the cell death rate in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but pretreatment of N-acetyl cystein (NAC), an antioxidant, recovered the proton-induced cell death rate (p<0.01). Moreover, pretreatment of NAC abrogated the effect of proton beam on the inhibition of trunk vessel development and malformation of trunk truncation. From this study, we found that proton radiation therapy can inhibit the

  9. A region growing method for tumor volume segmentation on PET images for rectal and anal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ellen; Betler, James; Parda, David; Reitz, Bodo; Kirichenko, Alexander; Mohammadi, Seyed; Miften, Moyed

    2009-10-01

    The application of automated segmentation methods for tumor delineation on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) images presents an opportunity to reduce the interobserver variability in radiotherapy (RT) treatment planning. In this work, three segmentation methods were evaluated and compared for rectal and anal cancer patients: (i) Percentage of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV% max), (ii) fixed SUV cutoff of 2.5 (SUV2.5), and (iii) mathematical technique based on a confidence connected region growing (CCRG) method. A phantom study was performed to determine the SUV% max threshold value and found to be 43%, SUV43% max. The CCRG method is an iterative scheme that relies on the use of statistics from a specified region in the tumor. The scheme is initialized by a subregion of pixels surrounding the maximum intensity pixel. The mean and standard deviation of this region are measured and the pixels connected to the region are included or not based on the criterion that they are greater than a value derived from the mean and standard deviation. The mean and standard deviation of this new region are then measured and the process repeats. FDG-PET-CT imaging studies for 18 patients who received RT were used to evaluate the segmentation methods. A PET avid (PETavid) region was manually segmented for each patient and the volume was then used to compare the calculated volumes along with the absolute mean difference and range for all methods. For the SUV43% max method, the volumes were always smaller than the PETavid volume by a mean of 56% and a range of 21%-79%. The volumes from the SUV2.5 method were either smaller or larger than the PETavid volume by a mean of 37% and a range of 2%-130%. The CCRG approach provided the best results with a mean difference of 9% and a range of 1%-27%. Results show that the CCRG technique can be used in the segmentation of tumor volumes on FDG-PET images, thus providing treatment planners with a clinically

  10. Health hazards and medical treatment of volunteers aged 18-30 years working in international social projects of non-governmental organizations (NGO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, T; Rieke, B; Neppach, K; Morrison, A; Martin, J

    2014-01-01

    The specific health risk profile and diversity of treatments sought by young volunteers participating in international social projects should differ from those of their older colleagues. In the absence of any data to identify whether this was correct, a retrospective analysis was performed using a standardized questionnaire. Questions included what diseases occurred, and details of the frequency and types of treatment sought during their stay - (e.g. self-treatment, medical/dental intervention, or local healer). The 153 participants were aged 18-30 years and worked in a non-governmental organization for >6 months. The participants were: 53% female, mean age 20 years, and mean duration of stay was 11.2 months. Their NGO placement abroad was in Latin America 65.4%, 14.4% in Africa, and 9.8% in Asia. 83% of the young volunteers had received some advice regarding travel medicine before their departure. However, they suffered from more injuries compared to private travellers, and febrile infections were more common when compared to older studies. 21.2% suffered from dental problems and 50% of them sought medical treatment. This study highlights a previously unreported higher risk profile of specific health problems occurring in young NGO volunteers, including some potentially life-threatening diagnoses that differed from their older colleagues and normal travellers. It is recommended that young volunteers should receive age specific, comprehensive pre-departure training in health and safety, first aid, and management of common health problems. A medical check-up upon returning home should be mandatory. The provision of a basic first aid kit to each volunteer before departure is also recommended.

  11. Finding Combination of Features from Promoter Regions for Ovarian Cancer-related Gene Group Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Olayan, Rawan S.

    2012-12-01

    In classification problems, it is always important to use the suitable combination of features that will be employed by classifiers. Generating the right combination of features usually results in good classifiers. In the situation when the problem is not well understood, data items are usually described by many features in the hope that some of these may be the relevant or most relevant ones. In this study, we focus on one such problem related to genes implicated in ovarian cancer (OC). We try to recognize two important OC-related gene groups: oncogenes, which support the development and progression of OC, and oncosuppressors, which oppose such tendencies. For this, we use the properties of promoters of these genes. We identified potential “regulatory features” that characterize OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors promoters. In our study, we used 211 oncogenes and 39 oncosuppressors. For these, we identified 538 characteristic sequence motifs from their promoters. Promoters are annotated by these motifs and derived feature vectors used to develop classification models. We made a comparison of a number of classification models in their ability to distinguish oncogenes from oncosuppressors. Based on 10-fold cross-validation, the resultant model was able to separate the two classes with sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100% with the complete set of features. Moreover, we developed another recognition model where we attempted to distinguish oncogenes and oncosuppressors as one group from other OC-related genes. That model achieved accuracy of 82%. We believe that the results of this study will help in discovering other OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors not identified as yet.

  12. Paget's Disease is Associated with Eleven Cancerous Regions: a Case Report and Therapeutic Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxi SONG; Zhenning WANG; Huimian XU; Zhenyu YUE; Chengzhong XING

    2009-01-01

    Paget's disease of the breast is an uncommon disorder that accounts for 1% to 3% of all mammary tumors. The incidence of underlying carcinoma associated with Paget's disease has been re-ported in 82% to 100% of cases. The finding of underlying carcinoma reaches almost 100% when a palpable lump is also present. In this rare case, we described a patient presenting with Paget's disease but no palpable lump. However, we found 11 independent regions which were all invasive ductal carci-noma after the operation. Considering this patient, we should pay more attention to a multifocal and multicentric breast carcinoma associated with Paget's disease. Furthermore, we believe the mammog-raphy examination and a modified radical mastectomy are the most appropriate treatments for this population in clinical practice.

  13. Pulmonary function after high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation and radiotherapy in patients with advanced loco-regional breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolsma, WV; DeVries, EGE; VanderMark, TW; Sleijfer, DT; Willemse, PHB; VanderGraaf, WTA; Mulder, POM; Szabo, BG; Mulder, NH

    1997-01-01

    Our aim was to study the extent of pulmonary toxicity after high-dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy in breast cancer patients. In a retrospective study the pulmonary symptoms and chest X-rays were analysed before, during and after treatment in 17 patients, treated with loco-regional radiotherapy to

  14. Malignant melanoma: A retrospective series from a regional cancer center in India

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    Sharma Kuldeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To present our experience in treating malignant melanoma patients. Methods and Materials : All melanoma patients treated at the Department of Radiotherapy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, from 1995 to 2007 were studied retrospectively. The endpoints were loco-regional recurrence, distant recurrence, recurrence-free survival (RFS, and duration of follow-up (DOFU. RFS and DOFU were analyzed with respect to the factors like age, sex, tissue of origin, site of disease, number of nodes, lymphadenopathy, ulceration, stage, and operability to find out any association. Results : Seventy-two patients were found evaluable with 40 males and 32 females (median age 46.5 years. Eye was the commonest primary site with visual disturbance as the commonest symptom. Overall, 87% of the lesions were single, with most of the nonocular lesions presenting in the advanced stage. During the disease course, regional lymphadenopathy and distant metastases were seen in 33% and 32% of cases, respectively. Highest incidence of lymphadenopathy was seen in skin lesions and in primaries from trunk and extremities. Of all treated patients, 47% achieved complete response, 18% partial response, and others had either stable or progressive disease. The median DOFU was 6.2 months. RFS was studied only in curatively treated cases with a median of 10 months. Operability at presentation was the only prognostic factor influencing DOFU. Conclusion : Malignant melanoma is an uncommon disease in India carrying a lot of morbidity due to late presentation. Its management is still not clear regarding the optimum use and schedule of treatment modalities. More prospective studies in the future are required to come to a definite conclusion.

  15. MicroRNA Seed Region Length Impact on Target Messenger RNA Expression and Survival in Colorectal Cancer.

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    Lila E Mullany

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNA repress messenger RNAs post-transcriptionally through binding to the 3' UTR of the mRNA with the miRNA seed region. It has been purported that longer seed regions have a greater efficacy on mRNA repression. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating differential expression of miRNAs involved in regulating the immune response, an important mechanism in colorectal cancer (CRC, by seed length category. We subsequently evaluated differential expression of these miRNAs' targets in colonic tissue and the impact of these miRNAs on CRC survival. We determined sequence complementarity between each miRNA seed region and the 3' UTR of each experimentally verified mRNA target gene. We classified miRNAs into groups based on seed regions matching perfectly to a mRNA UTR with six bases beginning at position two, seven bases beginning at position one, seven bases beginning at position two, or eight bases beginning at position one. We analyzed these groups in terms of miRNA differential expression between carcinoma and normal colorectal mucosa, differential colonic target mRNA expression, and risk of dying from CRC. After correction for multiple comparisons, the proportion of the miRNAs that were associated with differential mRNA expression was 0% for the 6-mer, 13.64% for the 7α-mer group, 12.82% for the 7β-mer group, and 8.70% for the 8-mer group. The proportion of miRNAs associated with survival was 20% for the 6-mer group, 27.27% for the 7α-mer group, 10.23% for the 7β-mer group, and 21.74% for the 8-mer group. We did not see a linear relationship between seed length and miRNA expression dysregulation, mRNA expression, or survival. Our findings do not support the hypothesis the seed region length alone influences mRNA repression.

  16. The region-of-interest size impacts on Ki67 quantification by computer-assisted image analysis in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christgen, Matthias; von Ahsen, Sabrina; Christgen, Henriette; Länger, Florian; Kreipe, Hans

    2015-09-01

    Therapeutic decision-making in breast cancer depends on histopathologic biomarkers and is influenced by the Ki67 proliferation index. Computer-assisted image analysis (CAIA) promises to improve Ki67 quantification. Several commercial applications have been developed for semiautomated CAIA-based Ki67 quantification, many of which rely on measurements in user-defined regions of interest (ROIs). Because of intratumoral proliferative heterogeneity, definition of the ROI is an important step in the analytical procedure. This study explores the ROI size impacts on Ki67 quantification. Whole-slide sections of 100 breast cancers were immunostained with the anti-Ki67 antibody 30-9 and were analyzed on the iScan Coreo digital pathology platform using a Food and Drug Administration-cleared Ki67 quantification software version v5.3 (Virtuoso; Ventana, Tucson, TX). For each case, the Ki67 labeling index (LI) was determined in multiple ROIs of gradually increasing size centered around a high-proliferation area. The spatial Ki67 decline was modeled with nonlinear regression. Depending on the ROI size, the median Ki67 LI varied between 55% and 15%. The proportion of tumors classified as Ki67 low according to the St Gallen 2013/2015 cutoff increased from 2% to 56%, as the ROI size increased from 50 to 10,000 cells captured. The interrater reliability of conventional Ki67 assessment versus CAIA-based Ki67 quantification was also dependent on the ROI size and varied between slight and almost perfect agreement (Cohen κ = 0.06-0.85). In conclusion, the ROI size is a critically important parameter for semiautomated Ki67 quantification by CAIA. Ki67 LIs determined on platforms like iScan Coreo/Virtuoso require an ROI size adjustment, for which we offer a downloadable data transformation tool.

  17. Identification of area-level influences on regions of high cancer incidence in Queensland, Australia: a classification tree approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengersen Kerrie L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strategies for cancer reduction and management are targeted at both individual and area levels. Area-level strategies require careful understanding of geographic differences in cancer incidence, in particular the association with factors such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity and accessibility. This study aimed to identify the complex interplay of area-level factors associated with high area-specific incidence of Australian priority cancers using a classification and regression tree (CART approach. Methods Area-specific smoothed standardised incidence ratios were estimated for priority-area cancers across 478 statistical local areas in Queensland, Australia (1998-2007, n = 186,075. For those cancers with significant spatial variation, CART models were used to identify whether area-level accessibility, socioeconomic status and ethnicity were associated with high area-specific incidence. Results The accessibility of a person's residence had the most consistent association with the risk of cancer diagnosis across the specific cancers. Many cancers were likely to have high incidence in more urban areas, although male lung cancer and cervical cancer tended to have high incidence in more remote areas. The impact of socioeconomic status and ethnicity on these associations differed by type of cancer. Conclusions These results highlight the complex interactions between accessibility, socioeconomic status and ethnicity in determining cancer incidence risk.

  18. Customized individual applicators for endocavitary brachytherapy in patients with cancers of the nasal cavity, sinonasal region and nasopharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadah, Basel Al; Niewald, Marcus; Papaspyrou, George; Dzierma, Yvonne; Schneider, Mathias; Schick, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    Brachytherapy has become an established therapeutic regimen for primary, persistent, recurrent and metastatic tumour disease in the head and neck region. This study presents the authors' preliminary experience with intracavitary brachytherapy by means of an individual silicone applicator in the treatment of patients with nasal, sinonasal, orbital and nasopharyngeal cancer. Between January 2001 and January 2013, twenty patients with cancer of the nasal cavity, the paranasal sinuses and nasopharynx underwent surgery and intracavitary brachytherapy with the aid of an individually manufactured silicone applicator in the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery and in the Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology at the Saarland University Medical Center of Homburg, Germany. The tumour was localized in the nasal cavity/paranasal sinuses (15) affecting the orbit twice and the nasopharynx (5). There were 14 patients with squamous cell carcinoma, 2 patients with mixed tumours and one patient with adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucosal melanoma or plasmocytoma. The majority of the patients presented with advanced disease (T3 or T4 tumours). In 18/20 patients, brachytherapy was performed as a boost technique, in the remaining two solely because of a previous radiation series. All surgical interventions were performed endonasally. Three to six weeks after surgery, a cast of the nasal cavity was created under general anaesthesia. Subsequently, an individual brachytherapy silicon applicator with two to four plastic tubes was manufactured. The radiation therapy was applied using the Ir-192 high-dose-rate-afterloading method (total dose 10-20 Gy) in two to five sessions, additionally in 18/20 patients a percutaneous radiotherapy with a total dose of 30-60 Gy was applied. After a mean duration of follow-up of 2 years, 7/20 patients experienced a local progression, 5/19 a regional recurrence in the neck nodes and 4/19 distant metastases. The 2-year

  19. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses a surgical tool to remove the tumor.Mohs' surgery. Layers of cancer cells are removed one ... usually have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The medicine may have ...

  20. Region 2 of 8q24 is associated with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer in Caribbean men of African descent from Guadeloupe (French West Indies)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geraldine CancelTassin; Marc Romana; Cecile Gaffory; Pascal Blanchet; Olivier Cussenot; Luc Multigner

    2015-01-01

    Multiple regions of the genome have been associated with the risk of prostate cancer in Caucasians, particularly including several polymorphisms located at 8q24. Region 2 of 8q24 has been repeatedly found to be associated with the risk of prostate cancer among men of African descent, although one study performed in the Caribbean island of Jamaica did not report this finding. In this study, the single nucleotide polymorphism rs16901979, located in region 2 of 8q24, was genotyped in 498 cases of histologically confirmed prostate cancer and 541 controls from the French Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe, where the population is largely of African descent. The AA genotype and the A allele at rs16901979 were associated with elevated risks of prostate cancer (odds ratios [ORs] = 1.84, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.26–2.69, P = 0.002 and OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.13–1.64, P = 0.001, respectively). Following stratification of the patients by disease aggressiveness, as defined by the Gleason score, the pooled genotypes AC + AA were associated with a higher risk of a Gleason score ≥7 at diagnosis (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.17–2.73, P = 0.007). In summary, the A allele at rs16901979 was associated with the risk of prostate cancer in the Caribbean population of Guadeloupe, confirming its involvement in populations of African descent. Moreover, our study provides the first evidence of an association between this variant and the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.

  1. Association of CYP1B1 Polymorphisms with Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study in the Han Population in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, P. R. China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Jiao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies investigating possible associations between cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1 polymorphisms and breast cancer risk have been inconsistent. We set out to ascertain whether there might be an association between polymorphisms in exon 2 (codon 119, G→T and exon 3 (codon 432, G→C of CYP1B1 and breast cancer in a Chinese Han population in the rural region of Ningxia. Using an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction method and direct DNA sequencing, the presence or absence of the two CYP1B1 polymorphisms was investigated. Genotype and allele frequencies were analyzed in breast cancer cases (n = 152 and healthy age-matched controls (n = 156. The odds ratio (OR of 119G→T or 432G→C in breast cancer cases and controls was 3.3 (95% CI: 1.28 to 8.28 and 2.8 (95% CI: 1.04 to 7.51, respectively. In addition, the OR for people with both polymorphisms (119T and 432C was 4.69 (95% CI: 1.97 to 11.19. Our results suggest that certain polymorphisms in the CYP1B1 gene might increase risk for breast cancer among Han Chinese, perhaps because they influence the efficiency of CYP1B1 bio-transformation of oestrogens or pro-carcinogens into DNA- reactive electrophiles that may act as cancer-initiating agents.

  2. Association of CYP1B1 Polymorphisms with Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study in the Han Population in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, P. R. China

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyan Jiao; Chunlian Liu; Weidong Guo; Liang Peng; Yintao Chen; Martin, Francis L.

    2010-01-01

    Studies investigating possible associations between cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1) polymorphisms and breast cancer risk have been inconsistent. We set out to ascertain whether there might be an association between polymorphisms in exon 2 (codon 119, G→T) and exon 3 (codon 432, G→C) of CYP1B1 and breast cancer in a Chinese Han population in the rural region of Ningxia. Using an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction method and direct DNA sequencing, the presence or absence of the two CYP1B1 po...

  3. Effects of a Regional Chinese Diet and Its Vitamin Supplementation on Proliferation of Human Esophageal Cancer Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN JIANG; HuI-ZHANG DU; WEN-YI ZHU; HUI-JUAN XIAO; CHENG-YU HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of a local diet popular in Yanting region (YT diet) on the proliferation of two human cell lines (Eta-109 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma line and HL7702 normal liver epithelial cell line) in rats by a ero-physiological approach. Methods Male SD rats were divided into six groups and fed respectively with a conventional diet and the YT diet (one of the five experimental diets) supplemented with two vitamin mixtures (Mix.1: vitamins A, E, and folio acid; Mix.2: mix.l plus riboflavin and vitamin C) at two different doses. On the 30th day, sera were collected from the rats and added into a medium for cell culture, with 10% FBS used as a serum control. The effects were assessed by MTI" assay, DNA synthesis and flow cytometry assays. Results Compared with the control, the sera from rats fed with the YT diet significantly promoted the proliferation of Eca-109 cells, which was, however, reversed by the supplementation with two vitamin mixtures at high doses. Surprisingly, the same treatment produced contrary effects on HL7702 cells as compared with Eca-109 cells. Conclusion The sera from rats fed with the YT diet could promote the proliferation of human esophageal cancer cell line Eca-109, whereas the sera from those fed with the YT diet supplemented with vitamin mixtures might have inhibitory effects on the proliferation of Eca-109 cells.

  4. Automated selection of regions of interest for intensity-based FRET analysis of transferrin endocytic trafficking in normal vs. cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Ronak; Vanderpoel, Andrew; Eladdadi, Amina; Anderson, Kate; Abe, Ken; Barroso, Margarida

    2014-03-15

    The overexpression of certain membrane-bound receptors is a hallmark of cancer progression and it has been suggested to affect the organization, activation, recycling and down-regulation of receptor-ligand complexes in human cancer cells. Thus, comparing receptor trafficking pathways in normal vs. cancer cells requires the ability to image cells expressing dramatically different receptor expression levels. Here, we have presented a significant technical advance to the analysis and processing of images collected using intensity based Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) confocal microscopy. An automated Image J macro was developed to select region of interests (ROI) based on intensity and statistical-based thresholds within cellular images with reduced FRET signal. Furthermore, SSMD (strictly standardized mean differences), a statistical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) evaluation parameter, was used to validate the quality of FRET analysis, in particular of ROI database selection. The Image J ROI selection macro together with SSMD as an evaluation parameter of SNR levels, were used to investigate the endocytic recycling of Tfn-TFR complexes at nanometer range resolution in human normal vs. breast cancer cells expressing significantly different levels of endogenous TFR. Here, the FRET-based assay demonstrates that Tfn-TFR complexes in normal epithelial vs. breast cancer cells show a significantly different E% behavior during their endocytic recycling pathway. Since E% is a relative measure of distance, we propose that these changes in E% levels represent conformational changes in Tfn-TFR complexes during endocytic pathway. Thus, our results indicate that Tfn-TFR complexes undergo different conformational changes in normal vs. cancer cells, indicating that the organization of Tfn-TFR complexes at the nanometer range is significantly altered during the endocytic recycling pathway in cancer cells. In summary, improvements in the automated selection of FRET ROI datasets

  5. Screening of Trace Elements in Hair of the Female Population with Different Types of Cancers in Wielkopolska Region of Poland

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    Bogusław Czerny

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cancer constitutes a major health problem worldwide. Thus, search for reliable and practical markers of the disease process remains the key issue of the diagnostic process. Objectives. The study aims at linking the trace element status of an organism, assessed by hair analysis, with the occurrence of cancer diseases. Material and Methods. Hair samples were collected from 299 patients with cancer diseases confirmed by a histopathological test and from 100 controls. Cancer patients were divided into three groups, depending on cancer type: hormone-dependent cancer, cancer of the alimentary tract, and cancer with high glycolytic activity. Mineral element analysis of hair was performed using an atomic emission spectrophotometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Results. Statistically significantly lower concentrations of selenium, zinc, copper, germanium and boron, iron, and magnesium were observed in the three groups of cancer patients. Disturbance in the axis glucose-insulin and changes in concentrations of heavy metals and toxic elements were also noted. Conclusions. It seems safe to conclude that our results confirmed usefulness of hair element analysis in screening tests for the assessment of the biomarker of various cancer diseases in a female population.

  6. DNA methylation of the Fthl17 5’-upstream region regulates differential Fthl17 expression in lung cancer cells and germline stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Nana; Matsui, Yasuhisa

    2017-01-01

    The Ferritin heavy polypeptide-like 17 (Fthl17) gene is a member of the cancer/testis antigen gene family, and is preferentially expressed in cancer cells and in testis. Although DNA methylation has been linked to the regulation of human FTHL17 gene expression, detailed epigenetic regulation of its expression has not been investigated. To address this, we assessed the epigenetic regulation of murine Fthl17 gene expression in cancer cells and germ cells. Fthl17 was more highly expressed in testis, a murine lung cancer cell line, KLN205, and in germline stem cells (GSCs) than in normal lung tissues. Furthermore, the Fthl17 expression level in GSCs was significantly higher than in KLN205 cells. We performed bisulfite-sequencing and luciferase (luc) reporter assays to examine the role of DNA methylation of the Fthl17 promoter in the regulation of Fthl17 expression. In KLN205 cells, testis, and GSCs, the Fthl17 5’-upstream region was hypo-methylated compared with normal lung tissues. Luc reporter assays indicated that hypo-methylation of the -0.6 kb to 0 kb region upstream from the transcription start site (TSS) was involved in the up-regulation of Fthl17 expression in KLN205 cells and GSCs. Because the -0.6 kb to -0.3 kb or the -0.3 kb to 0 kb region were relatively more hypo-methylated in KLN205 cells and in GSCs, respectively, compared with other regions between -0.6 kb to 0 kb, those regions may contribute to Fthl17 up-regulation in each cell type. Following treatment with 5-Azacytidine, the -0.3 kb to 0 kb region became hypo-methylated, and Fthl17 expression was up-regulated in KLN205 cells to a level comparable to that in GSCs. Together, the results suggest that hypo-methylation of different but adjacent regions immediately upstream of the Fthl17 gene contribute to differential expression levels in lung cancer cells and GSCs, and hypo-methylation of the TSS-proximal region may be critical for high level expression. PMID:28207785

  7. A pilot study to investigate the role of the 26S proteasome in radiotherapy resistance and loco-regional recurrence following breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfadl, Dalia; Hodgkinson, Victoria C; Long, Ervine D; Scaife, Lucy; Drew, Philip J; Lind, Michael J; Cawkwell, Lynn

    2011-08-01

    Breast conserving therapy is a currently accepted method for managing patients with early stage breast cancer. However, approximately 7% of patients may develop loco-regional tumour recurrence within 5 years. We previously reported that expression of the 26S proteasome may be associated with radio-resistance. Here we aimed to analyse the 26S proteasome in a pilot series of early breast cancers and correlate the findings with loco-regional recurrence. Fourteen patients with early breast cancer who developed loco-regional recurrence within 4 years of completing breast conserving therapy were selected according to strict criteria and compared with those from 14 patients who were disease-free at 10 years. Decreased expression of the 26S proteasome was significantly associated with radio-resistance, manifested as the development of a loco-regional recurrence within 4 years of breast conserving therapy (p = 0.018). This small pilot study provides further suggestion that the 26S proteasome may be associated with response to radiotherapy.

  8. Radiation Therapy Risk Factors for Development of Lymphedema in Patients Treated With Regional Lymph Node Irradiation for Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Ravi A. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Miller, Cynthia L. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Skolny, Melissa N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Warren, Laura E.G. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Horick, Nora [Department of Biostatistics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Jammallo, Lauren S.; Sadek, Betro T.; Shenouda, Mina N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); O' Toole, Jean [Department of Physical and Occupational Therapy, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Specht, Michelle C. [Division of Surgical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: We previously evaluated the risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema (LE) with the addition of regional lymph node irradiation (RLNR) and found an increased risk when RLNR is used. Here we analyze the association of technical radiation therapy (RT) factors in RLNR patients with the risk of LE development. Methods and Materials: From 2005 to 2012, we prospectively screened 1476 women for LE who underwent surgery for breast cancer. Among 1507 breasts treated, 172 received RLNR and had complete technical data for analysis. RLNR was delivered as supraclavicular (SC) irradiation (69% [118 of 172 patients]) or SC plus posterior axillary boost (PAB) (31% [54 of 172]). Bilateral arm volume measurements were performed pre- and postoperatively. Patients' RT plans were analyzed for SC field lateral border (relative to the humeral head), total dose to SC, RT fraction size, beam energy, and type of tangent (normal vs wide). Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze associated risk factors for LE. Results: Median postoperative follow-up was 29.3 months (range: 4.9-74.1 months). The 2-year cumulative incidence of LE was 22% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15%-32%) for SC and 20% (95% CI: 11%-37%) for SC plus PAB (SC+PAB). None of the analyzed variables was significantly associated with LE risk (extent of humeral head: P=.74 for <1/3 vs >2/3, P=.41 for 1/3 to 2/3 vs >2/3; P=.40 for fraction size of 1.8 Gy vs 2.0 Gy; P=.57 for beam energy 6 MV vs 10 MV; P=.74 for tangent type wide vs regular; P=.66 for SC vs SC+PAB). Only pretreatment body mass index (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15, P=.0007) and the use of axillary lymph node dissection (HR: 7.08, 95% CI: 0.98-51.40, P=.05) were associated with risk of subsequent LE development. Conclusions: Of the RT parameters tested, none was associated with an increased risk of LE development. This study underscores the need for future work investigating alternative RLNR risk factors for LE.

  9. Endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer: A ten-year cohort study of women living in the Estrie Region of Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Aziz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Endometriosis has been believed to increase the risk of developing ovarian cancer, but recent data supporting this hypothesis are lacking. The aim of this study was to verify whether the incidence of endometriosis, ovarian cancer and the both increased during the last 10 years among women living in the Estrie region of Quebec. Methods We collected data of women diagnosed with endometriosis, ovarian cancer or both, between 1997 and 2006, from a population living in the Estrie region of Quebec. We performed this retrospective cross-sectional study from the CIRESSS (Centre Informatisé de Recherche Évaluative en Services et Soins de Santé system, the database of the CHUS (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada. Results Among the 2854 identified patients, 2521 had endometriosis, 292 patients had ovarian cancer and 41 patients had both ovarian cancer and endometriosis. We showed a constant increase in the number of ovarian cancer (OC between 1997 and 2006 (r2 = 0.557, P = 0.013, which is not the case for endometriosis (ENDO or endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC. The mean age ± SD was 40.0 ± 9.9 and 53.9 ± 11.4 for patients having ENDO and OC, respectively. Mean age of women with EAOC was 48.3 ± 10.8, suggesting an early onset of ovarian cancer in women having endometriosis of about 5.5 years average, P = 0.003. Women with ENDO were at increased risk for developing OC (Rate Ratio [RR] = 1.6; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.12-2.09. Pathological analyses showed the predominance of endometrioid type (24.4% and clear-cell type (21.9% types in EAOC compared to OC, P = 0.0070 and 0.0029, respectively. However, the serous type is the most widespread in OC (44.5% in comparison to EAOC (19.51%, P = 0.0023. Conclusion Our findings highlight that the number of cases of ovarian cancer is constantly increasing in the last ten years and that endometriosis represents a serious risk factor which

  10. The database of chromosome imbalance regions and genes resided in lung cancer from Asian and Caucasian identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Fang-Yi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer-related genes show racial differences. Therefore, identification and characterization of DNA copy number alteration regions in different racial groups helps to dissect the mechanism of tumorigenesis. Methods Array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH was analyzed for DNA copy number profile in 40 Asian and 20 Caucasian lung cancer patients. Three methods including MetaCore analysis for disease and pathway correlations, concordance analysis between array-CGH database and the expression array database, and literature search for copy number variation genes were performed to select novel lung cancer candidate genes. Four candidate oncogenes were validated for DNA copy number and mRNA and protein expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH, reverse transcriptase-qPCR (RT-qPCR, and immunohistochemistry (IHC in more patients. Results We identified 20 chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 459 genes for Caucasian and 17 regions containing 476 genes for Asian lung cancer patients. Seven common chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 117 genes, included gain on 3p13-14, 6p22.1, 9q21.13, 13q14.1, and 17p13.3; and loss on 3p22.2-22.3 and 13q13.3 were found both in Asian and Caucasian patients. Gene validation for four genes including ARHGAP19 (10q24.1 functioning in Rho activity control, FRAT2 (10q24.1 involved in Wnt signaling, PAFAH1B1 (17p13.3 functioning in motility control, and ZNF322A (6p22.1 involved in MAPK signaling was performed using qPCR and RT-qPCR. Mean gene dosage and mRNA expression level of the four candidate genes in tumor tissues were significantly higher than the corresponding normal tissues (PP=0.06. In addition, CISH analysis of patients indicated that copy number amplification indeed occurred for ARHGAP19 and ZNF322A genes in lung cancer patients. IHC analysis of paraffin blocks from Asian Caucasian patients demonstrated that the frequency of

  11. ~:ashion NGO Redress launches New Certificate for Recycled Textile Clothing--This R Certificate allows consumers to track their recycled textile clothing's journey from factory to retail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Asia's leading fashion NGO, Redress, launches their consumer-facing R certificate*, which verifies that retailers, brands or designers recycled their own factory fabric waste and/ or unused clothing waste into their own brand new, recycled textile clothing items. This method of recycling reduces textile waste and saves the Earth's natural resources. The R Certificate* is a new programme in line with Redress' overarching mission to reduce waste in Asia's fashion industry.

  12. Adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil after curative resection of cancer of the pancreas and periampullary region: phase III trial of the EORTC gastrointestinal tract cancer cooperative group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.G. Klinkenbijl (Jean); J. Wils; J. Jeekel (Hans); T. Sahmoud; R. van Pel; M.L. Couvreur; C.H. Veenhof; J.P. Arnaud; D. González González (Dionisio); L.Th. de Wit (Laurens); A. Hennipman

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: The survival benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil versus observation alone after surgery was investigated in patients with pancreatic head and periampullary cancers. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: A previous study of adjuvant radiotherapy

  13. Preclinical evaluation of gene delivery methods for the treatment of loco-regional disease in breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rajendran, Simon

    2011-04-01

    Preclinical results with various gene therapy strategies indicate significant potential for new cancer treatments. However, many therapeutics fail at clinical trial, often due to differences in tissue physiology between animal models and humans, and tumor phenotype variation. Clinical data relevant to treatment strategies may be generated prior to clinical trial through experimentation using intact patient tissue ex vivo. We developed a novel tumor slice model culture system that is universally applicable to gene delivery methods, using a realtime luminescence detection method to assess gene delivery. Methods investigated include viruses (adenovirus [Ad] and adeno-associated virus), lipofection, ultrasound (US), electroporation and naked DNA. Viability and tumor populations within the slices were well maintained for seven days, and gene delivery was qualitatively and quantitatively examinable for all vectors. Ad was the most efficient gene delivery vector with transduction efficiency >50%. US proved the optimal non-viral gene delivery method in human tumor slices. The nature of the ex vivo culture system permitted examination of specific elements. Parameters shown to diminish Ad gene delivery included blood, regions of low viability and secondary disease. US gene delivery was significantly reduced by blood and skin, while tissue hyperthermia improved gene delivery. US achieved improved efficacy for secondary disease. The ex vivo model was also suitable for examination of tissue-specific effects on vector expression, with Ad expression mediated by the CXCR4 promoter shown to provide a tumor selective advantage over the ubiquitously active cytomegalovirus promoter. In conclusion, this is the first study incorporating patient tissue models in comparing gene delivery from various vectors, providing knowledge on cell-type specificity and examining the crucial biological factors determining successful gene delivery. The results highlight the importance of in

  14. Preclinical evaluation of gene delivery methods for the treatment of loco-regional disease in breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rajendran, Simon

    2012-01-31

    Preclinical results with various gene therapy strategies indicate significant potential for new cancer treatments. However, many therapeutics fail at clinical trial, often due to differences in tissue physiology between animal models and humans, and tumor phenotype variation. Clinical data relevant to treatment strategies may be generated prior to clinical trial through experimentation using intact patient tissue ex vivo. We developed a novel tumor slice model culture system that is universally applicable to gene delivery methods, using a realtime luminescence detection method to assess gene delivery. Methods investigated include viruses (adenovirus [Ad] and adeno-associated virus), lipofection, ultrasound (US), electroporation and naked DNA. Viability and tumor populations within the slices were well maintained for seven days, and gene delivery was qualitatively and quantitatively examinable for all vectors. Ad was the most efficient gene delivery vector with transduction efficiency >50%. US proved the optimal non-viral gene delivery method in human tumor slices. The nature of the ex vivo culture system permitted examination of specific elements. Parameters shown to diminish Ad gene delivery included blood, regions of low viability and secondary disease. US gene delivery was significantly reduced by blood and skin, while tissue hyperthermia improved gene delivery. US achieved improved efficacy for secondary disease. The ex vivo model was also suitable for examination of tissue-specific effects on vector expression, with Ad expression mediated by the CXCR4 promoter shown to provide a tumor selective advantage over the ubiquitously active cytomegalovirus promoter. In conclusion, this is the first study incorporating patient tissue models in comparing gene delivery from various vectors, providing knowledge on cell-type specificity and examining the crucial biological factors determining successful gene delivery. The results highlight the importance of in

  15. Assessing Adverse Events of Postprostatectomy Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Evaluation of Outcomes in the Regione Emilia-Romagna, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Timothy N., E-mail: tns3b@virginia.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Hegarty, Sarah E. [Center for Research in Medical Education and Health Care, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Division of Biostatistics, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Rabinowitz, Carol [Center for Research in Medical Education and Health Care, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Maio, Vittorio [Jefferson School of Population Health, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hyslop, Terry [Department of Biostatistics & Bioinformatics, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kimmel Cancer Center & Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Louis, Daniel Z. [Center for Research in Medical Education and Health Care, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Although the likelihood of radiation-related adverse events influences treatment decisions regarding radiation therapy after prostatectomy for eligible patients, the data available to inform decisions are limited. This study was designed to evaluate the genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and sexual adverse events associated with postprostatectomy radiation therapy and to assess the influence of radiation timing on the risk of adverse events. Methods: The Regione Emilia-Romagna Italian Longitudinal Health Care Utilization Database was queried to identify a cohort of men who received radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer during 2003 to 2009, including patients who received postprostatectomy radiation therapy. Patients with prior radiation therapy were excluded. Outcome measures were genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and sexual adverse events after prostatectomy. Rates of adverse events were compared between the cohorts who did and did not receive postoperative radiation therapy. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were developed for each class of adverse events, including models with radiation therapy as a time-varying covariate. Results: A total of 9876 men were included in the analyses: 2176 (22%) who received radiation therapy and 7700 (78%) treated with prostatectomy alone. In multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, the additional exposure to radiation therapy after prostatectomy was associated with increased rates of gastrointestinal (rate ratio [RR] 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.27; P<.001) and urinary nonincontinence events (RR 1.83; 95% CI 1.83-2.80; P<.001) but not urinary incontinence events or erectile dysfunction. The addition of the time from prostatectomy to radiation therapy interaction term was not significant for any of the adverse event outcomes (P>.1 for all outcomes). Conclusion: Radiation therapy after prostatectomy is associated with an increase in gastrointestinal and genitourinary adverse events. However

  16. Haplotype frequencies in a sub-region of chromosome 19q13.3, related to risk and prognosis of cancer, differ dramatically between ethnic groups

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    Wang Jun

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A small region of about 70 kb on human chromosome 19q13.3 encompasses 4 genes of which 3, ERCC1, ERCC2, and PPP1R13L (aka RAI are related to DNA repair and cell survival, and one, CD3EAP, aka ASE1, may be related to cell proliferation. The whole region seems related to the cellular response to external damaging agents and markers in it are associated with risk of several cancers. Methods We downloaded the genotypes of all markers typed in the 19q13.3 region in the HapMap populations of European, Asian and African descent and inferred haplotypes. We combined the European HapMap individuals with a Danish breast cancer case-control data set and inferred the association between HapMap haplotypes and disease risk. Results We found that the susceptibility haplotype in our European sample had increased from 2 to 50 percent very recently in the European population, and to almost the same extent in the Asian population. The cause of this increase is unknown. The maximal proportion of overall genetic variation due to differences between groups for Europeans versus Africans and Europeans versus Asians (the Fst value closely matched the putative location of the susceptibility variant as judged from haplotype-based association mapping. Conclusion The combined observation that a common haplotype causing an increased risk of cancer in Europeans and a high differentiation between human populations is highly unusual and suggests a causal relationship with a recent increase in Europeans caused either by genetic drift overruling selection against the susceptibility variant or a positive selection for the same haplotype. The data does not allow us to distinguish between these two scenarios. The analysis suggests that the region is not involved in cancer risk in Africans and that the susceptibility variants may be more finely mapped in Asian populations.

  17. 论中国政府对外传播中的NGO缺失——基于"藏独—奥运"风波中的NGO分析%Low Awareness of NGO In The China's Governmental International Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小燕; 王晶

    2008-01-01

    在西方国家对外传播中,非政府组织(NGO)或配合政府的行为,为政府拉高声势;或补充、代替政府去完成政府不便出面或难以完成的使命.而中国政府对外传播中,却面,临着NG0严重缺失的困境.论文针对此,从以下方面提出省思:亲中国际NGO积弱、国际NGO强大的动员渗透能量、西方NGO背后的推手、国际NGO的两面性.作者同时提出发展NGO的思路:加快培植亲中国际NGO;区分不同利益集团的NGO,对症下药;有效处理与西方媒体的关系;以主动心态抓住先机、加强沟通、稀释敌意与仇视等.

  18. An audit of surgical treatment of ovarian cancer in a metropolitan health region. Association of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of the North East Thames Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, C N; Potsides, P; Curling, O M

    1991-04-01

    The varied application of surgery to the initial treatment of 908 cases of primary ovarian cancer is analysed. In patients with advanced disease (FIGO Stages IIb, III and IV) 256 (46%) of 555 women achieved minimal residual disease status by primary surgery and this proportion fell to 24% when only stages III and IV were considered; of these cases 7% underwent adjunctive intestinal resection or urinary tract surgery. Although not in a clinical trial situation the women achieving minimal residual disease status before chemotherapy survived better in the short term, although long-term survival remained disappointing. In early disease 3% of young women have been subjected to hysterectomy and removal of both ovaries. By contrast, in 16% of women over the age of 40 years with early ovarian cancer bilateral oophorectomy was not carried out.

  19. Identification of novel SNPs by next-generation sequencing of the genomic region containing the APC gene in colorectal cancer patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yin; Wang, Jun; Shao, Jiaofang; Chen, Qiyun; Mo, Fan; Ma, Liang; Han, Xu; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Cixiong; Lin, Shuyong; Yu, Jiekai; Zheng, Shu; Lin, Sheng-Cai; Lin, Biaoyang

    2010-06-01

    We described an approach of identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in complete genomic regions of key genes including promoters, exons, introns, and downstream sequences by combining long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or NimbleGen sequence capture with next-generation sequencing. Using the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene as an example, we identified 210 highly reliable SNPs by next-generation sequencing analysis program MAQ and Samtools, of which 69 were novel ones, in the 123-kb APC genomic region in 27 pair of colorectal cancers and normal adjacent tissues. We confirmed all of the eight randomly selected high-quality SNPs by allele-specific PCR, suggesting that our false discovery rate is negligible. We identified 11 SNPs in the exonic region, including one novel SNP that was not previously reported. Although 10 of them are synonymous, they were predicted to affect splicing by creating or removing exonic splicing enhancers or exonic splicing silencers. We also identified seven SNPs in the upstream region of the APC gene, three of which were only identified in the cancer tissues. Six of these upstream SNPs were predicted to affect transcription factor binding. We also observed that long-range PCR was better in capturing GC-rich regions than the NimbleGen sequence capture technique.

  20. Lesson's-learned from a 2003-2006 USA-Honduras NGO and University Geosciences Education Partnership in Land use Land / Land Cover Change Analysis using Remote Sensing and GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    Between 2004 and 2006 the Loma Linda University ESSE21 Mesoamerican Project (Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century) collaborated with a series of academic, NGO (nongovernmental) and government agencies, including a USAID (United States Agency for International Development) integrated environmental resource management project to: a) build the human and technical capacity of local partners in the use of geospatial technologies, e.g. GIS, GPS, Remote Sensing, b) improve their capacity to apply these tools to biodiversity, health, sustainability, protected-area management, and other NRM (Natural Resource Management) decision-making needs and problems, and c) establish long term institutional relationships for teacher/student exchange, including development of joint curricula and research projects focused on health geoinformatics as well as sustainable development. Much of this has contributed toward a new "geotourism" effort adopted by Honduras called the SAVE Honduras strategy (Scientific, Academic, Volunteer, Educational). A central element of this initiative is to increase joint collaborative research and learning together by students and faculty at US universities working with Honduran institutions (private and public). See SAVE Strategy page = http://www.fundacionsave.com/home_eng.html In the presentation we describe our experience over the last three years collaborating with key partners such as the Central American Observatory of Suyapa based at the UNAH (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras) which has opened a new GIS/Remote Sensing Laboratory. We also collaborated closely with CURLA (Centro Universitario Regional del Litoral Atlántico) located near La Ceiba--a land grant-type institution- -to support outreach and extension activities by students and staff to local-level NGOs and community groups dealing with conservation, hazards mitigation, biodiversity, fisheries and related problems. We have also participated in joint "informal

  1. Comparing private sector family planning services to government and NGO services in Ethiopia and Pakistan: how do social franchises compare across quality, equity and cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirali M; Wang, Wenjuan; Bishai, David M

    2011-07-01

    Policy makers in developing countries need to assess how public health programmes function across both public and private sectors. We propose an evaluation framework to assist in simultaneously tracking performance on efficiency, quality and access by the poor in family planning services. We apply this framework to field data from family planning programmes in Ethiopia and Pakistan, comparing (1) independent private sector providers; (2) social franchises of private providers; (3) non-government organization (NGO) providers; and (4) government providers on these three factors. Franchised private clinics have higher quality than non-franchised private clinics in both countries. In Pakistan, the costs per client and the proportion of poorest clients showed no differences between franchised and non-franchised private clinics, whereas in Ethiopia, franchised clinics had higher costs and fewer clients from the poorest quintile. Our results highlight that there are trade-offs between access, cost and quality of care that must be balanced as competing priorities. The relative programme performance of various service arrangements on each metric will be context specific.

  2. CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kavoussi

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  3. Identification of sequence polymorphisms in the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA as a risk factor for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cuimin; Li, Ruijuan; Wang, Ping; Jin, Pule; Li, Shengmian; Guo, Zhanjun

    2012-08-01

    Accumulation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the displacement loop (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may be associated with an increased cancer risk. We investigated the lung cancer risk profile of D-loop SNPs in a case-controlled study. The minor alleles of nucleotides 235A/G and 324A/G were associated with an increased risk for lung cancer patients. The minor alleles of the nucleotides 151C/T, 200A/G, 524C/CA, and 16274G/A were specifically associated with the cancer risk of squamous cell carcinoma, whereas the minor allele of nucleotide 16298T/C was specifically associated with the risk of small cell lung cancer. In conclusion, SNPs in mtDNA are potential modifiers of lung cancer risk. The analysis of genetic polymorphisms in the mitochondrial D-loop can help identify subgroups of patients who are at a high risk of developing lung cancer.

  4. Evaluation of the Relationship Between Global Ultraviolet Indea in Different Regions of Iran with Skin Cancer in 1383

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Naddafi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Skin cancer is the most frequent malignancy in Iran. Exposure to the excessive ultraviolet radiation is an important factor in creating skin tumors. The purpose of this study is to determine how the ultraviolet index has been distributed in all townships throughout the country, to determine different kinds of skin cancer and to evaluate a geographical distribution of skin cancers with regard to the UV geographical distribution."nMaterials and Methods: This study is ecologic, descriptive and analytical in nature. A total number of 6921 skin cancer cases registered at the Center for Disease Control of Iran in 2004 were thoroughly analyzed and UV data were collected from the world wide web. With the help of ArcGIS software and SPSS, the statistical analysis was done. "nResults:The incidence rates were 10.13 for the total skin cancer, 7.53 for basal cell carcinoma, 1.79 for squamous cell carcinoma and 0.39 for malignant melanoma per 100000 population of Iran. The mean ultraviolet index differed from 9 in July to 3 in January. The correlation between the skin cancer incidence at the level of districts and ultraviolet index was not significantly observed. "nConclusion:Skin cancer is a public health problem in Iran. Further research in this regard would lead to skin cancer registration improvement and more understanding of different climatic, cultural and behavioral factors in developing skin tumors. With this knowledge the possibility of more effective prevention of the most prevalent cancer in Iran can be created.

  5. HPV vaccination and allocative efficiency: regional analysis of the costs and benefits with the bivalent AS04-adjuvanted vaccine, from the perspective of public health, for the prevention of cervical cancer and its pre-cancerous lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bonanni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: by means of the decisions on whether to introduce the HPV vaccination, Public Health has already established the importance of associating the vaccination strategy to the policy of secondary prevention. The screening + vaccination strategy is more effective than the two methods taken individually. In support of this combined strategy and in order to make available per each region concrete elements for their regional planning, an assessment has been made, which also takes into account the effect of cross-protection regarding high-risk strains not contained in both vaccines, bivalent and quadrivalent, and more frequently responsible for pre-cancerous lesions and cervical cancer (CCU. This analysis evaluates the costs and benefits of screening + vaccination strategy in a 12-year-old female cohort. Furthermore, the paper provides results that may be useful to assess the opportunity to extend the vaccination to a second cohort of 24-25-year-old women. The analysis is preceded by a brief summary of CCU epidemiology available data, public health policies that give precise guidelines for vaccination strategies and analytical tools suitable to support public policy makers to efficiently allocate resources. Methods: two different models were used for two regional analyses.The vaccines may have different sustained- and cross-protection levels against non-vaccine oncogenic HPV-types. In the first analysis, a prevalence-based model estimated the potential net difference in HPV-related lesions (abnormal pap smear, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, cervical cancer (CC and genital warts (GW and associated costs generated by the two vaccines. Vaccine efficacy rates were based on published data for each vaccine. Lifetime vaccine efficacy was assumed. Results are reported over one year after reaching a steady state. Incidence and treatment costs were obtained from Italian and European sources. We also performed a cost-effectiveness analysis

  6. The value of postoperative hepatic regional chemotherapy in prevention of recurrence after radical resection of primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Quan Wu; Jia Fan; Shuang Jian Qiu; Jian Zhou; Zhao You Tang

    2000-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION In China, primary liver cancer (PLC) ranks second in cancer mortality since the 1990s. In the field of PLC treatment, surgical resection remains the best,which includes large PLC resection, small PLC resection, re-resection of subclinical recurrence, as well as cytoreduction and sequential resection for unresectable PLC. However, recurrence and metastasis have become the major obstacles for further prolonging survival after resection.

  7. [Cancer of the organs of the pancreatoduodenal region (based on autopsy data from 2 hospitals in the city of Donetsk)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaĭlichenko, V A

    1979-01-01

    The incidence of cancer of the pancreatoduodenal organs (the pancreas, major duodenal papilla, extrahepatic bile ducts, duodenum) is reported according to the autopsy findings obtained at two clinical hospitals (provincial and municipal) of Donetsk city during the period from 1957 to 1973. There is a tendency to the increased mortality due to cancer of the localization concerned against the background of the reduced total mortality.

  8. Second Malignancies After Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Breast Cancer: Is There Increased Risk With Addition of Regional Radiation to Local Radiation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Sarah Nicole [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott, E-mail: styldesl@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Li, Dongdong [Cancer Control Research Department, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Olson, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Centre for the North, Prince George, British Columbia (Canada); McBride, Mary [Cancer Control Research Department, British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an increased risk of second malignancies (SM), particularly lung cancer, in early stage breast cancer patients treated with the addition of nodal fields to breast and/or chest wall radiation therapy (RT). Materials and Methods: Subjects were stage I/II female breast cancer patients 20 to 79 years of age, diagnosed between 1989 and 2005 and treated with adjuvant RT at our institution. Patients were included if they survived and did not have SM within 3 years of diagnosis. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare SM incidence to cancer incidence in the general sex- and age-matched populations. Secondary malignancy risks in patients treated with local RT (LRT) to the breast/chest wall were compared to those in patients treated with locoregional RT (LRRT) to the breast/chest wall and regional nodes, using multivariate regression analysis (MVA) to account for covariates. Results: The cohort included 12,836 patients with a median follow-up of 8.4 years. LRRT was used in 18% of patients. The SIR comparing patients treated with LRT to the general population was 1.29 (CI: 1.21-1.38). No statistically significant increased incidence of in-field malignancies (SIR, 1.04; CI: 0.87-1.23) and lung cancers (SIR, 1.06; CI: 0.88-1.26) was detected. The SIR comparing patients treated with LRRT to the general population was 1.39 (CI: 1.17-1.64). No statistically significant increased incidence of in-field malignancies (SIR, 1.26; CI: 0.77-1.94) and lung cancers (SIR, 1.27; CI: 0.76-1.98) was detected. On MVA comparing LRRT to LRT, the adjusted hazard ratio was 1.20 for in-field malignancies (CI: 0.68-2.16) and 1.26 for lung cancer (CI: 0.67-2.36). The excess attributable risk (EAR) to regional RT was 3.1 per 10,000 person years (CI: −8.7 to 9.9). Conclusions: No statistically significant increased risk of second malignancy was detected after LRRT relative to

  9. Target hepatic artery regional chemotherapy and bevacizumab perfusion in liver metastatic colorectal cancer after failure of first-line or second-line systemic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Zhang, Ji; Cao, Guang; Liu, Peng; Xu, Haifeng; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhu, Xu; Gao, Song; Guo, Jianhai; Zhu, Linzhong; Zhang, Pengjun

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRLM) is a refractory disease after failure of first-line or second-line chemotherapy. Bevacizumab is recommended as first-line therapy for advanced colorectal cancer, but is unproven in CRLM through the hepatic artery. We report favorable outcomes with targeted vessel regional chemotherapy (TVRC) for liver metastatic gastric cancer. TVRC with FOLFOX and bevacizumab perfusion through the hepatic artery was attempted for CRLM for efficacy and safety evaluation. In a single-institution retrospective observational study, 246 patients with CRLM after at least first-line or second-line failure of systemic chemotherapy received TVRC with FOLFOX (i.e. oxaliplatin, leucovorin, and 5-fluorouracil). Of 246 patients, 63 were enrolled into two groups: group 1 (n=30) received bevacizumab and TVRC following tumor progression during previous TVRC treatments; group 2 (n=33) received TVRC plus bevacizumab for CRLM on initiating TVRC. There were no significant differences in the median survival time (14.7 vs. 13.2 months, P=0.367), although the median time to progression was significant (3.3 vs. 5.5 months, P=0.026) between groups. No severe adverse events related to TVRC plus bevacizumab perfusion occurred. Target vessel regional chemotherapy with FOLFOX plus bevacizumab perfusion through the hepatic artery was effective and safe in CRLM. The optimal combination of TVRC and bevacizumab needs further confirmation in future phase II-III clinical trials.

  10. Polymorphisms in the gene regions of the adaptor complex LAMTOR2/LAMTOR3 and their association with breast cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana E De Araujo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The late endosomal LAMTOR complex serves as a convergence point for both the RAF/MEK/ERK and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways. Interestingly, both of these signalling cascades play a significant role in the aetiology of breast cancer. Our aim was to address the possible role of genetic polymorphisms in LAMTOR2 and LAMTOR3 as genetic risk factors for breast cancer. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: We sequenced the exons and exon-intron boundaries of LAMTOR2 (p14 and LAMTOR3 (MP1 in 50 prospectively collected pairs of cancerous tissue and blood samples from breast cancer patients and compared their genetic variability. We found one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in LAMTOR2 (rs7541 and two SNPs in LAMTOR3 (rs2298735 and rs148972953 in both tumour and blood samples, but no somatic mutations in cancerous tissues. In addition, we genotyped all three SNPs in 296 samples from the Risk Prediction of Breast Cancer Metastasis Study and found evidence of a genetic association between rs148972953 and oestrogen (ER and progesterone receptor negative status (PR (ER: OR = 3.60 (1.15-11.28; PR: OR = 4.27 (1.43-12.72. However, when we additionally genotyped rs148972953 in the MARIE study including 2,715 breast cancer cases and 5,216 controls, we observed neither a difference in genotype frequencies between patients and controls nor was the SNP associated with ER or PR. Finally, all three SNPs were equally frequent in breast cancer samples and female participants (n = 640 of the population-based SAPHIR Study. CONCLUSIONS: The identified polymorphisms in LAMTOR2 and LAMTOR3 do not seem to play a relevant role in breast cancer. Our work does not exclude a role of other not yet identified SNPs or that the here annotated polymorphism may in fact play a relevant role in other diseases. Our results underscore the importance of replication in association studies.

  11. Polymorphisms in the Gene Regions of the Adaptor Complex LAMTOR2/LAMTOR3 and Their Association with Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Araujo, Mariana E.; Erhart, Gertraud; Buck, Katharina; Müller-Holzner, Elisabeth; Hubalek, Michael; Fiegl, Heidelinde; Campa, Daniele; Canzian, Federico; Eilber, Ursula; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Coassin, Stefan; Haun, Margot; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Paulweber, Bernhard; Reitsamer, Roland; Himmel, Irmgard; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Lamina, Claudia; Kronenberg, Florian; Huber, Lukas A.; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background The late endosomal LAMTOR complex serves as a convergence point for both the RAF/MEK/ERK and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways. Interestingly, both of these signalling cascades play a significant role in the aetiology of breast cancer. Our aim was to address the possible role of genetic polymorphisms in LAMTOR2 and LAMTOR3 as genetic risk factors for breast cancer. Methodology/Results We sequenced the exons and exon–intron boundaries of LAMTOR2 (p14) and LAMTOR3 (MP1) in 50 prospectively collected pairs of cancerous tissue and blood samples from breast cancer patients and compared their genetic variability. We found one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in LAMTOR2 (rs7541) and two SNPs in LAMTOR3 (rs2298735 and rs148972953) in both tumour and blood samples, but no somatic mutations in cancerous tissues. In addition, we genotyped all three SNPs in 296 samples from the Risk Prediction of Breast Cancer Metastasis Study and found evidence of a genetic association between rs148972953 and oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptor negative status (PR) (ER: OR = 3.60 (1.15–11.28); PR: OR = 4.27 (1.43–12.72)). However, when we additionally genotyped rs148972953 in the MARIE study including 2,715 breast cancer cases and 5,216 controls, we observed neither a difference in genotype frequencies between patients and controls nor was the SNP associated with ER or PR. Finally, all three SNPs were equally frequent in breast cancer samples and female participants (n = 640) of the population-based SAPHIR Study. Conclusions The identified polymorphisms in LAMTOR2 and LAMTOR3 do not seem to play a relevant role in breast cancer. Our work does not exclude a role of other not yet identified SNPs or that the here annotated polymorphism may in fact play a relevant role in other diseases. Our results underscore the importance of replication in association studies. PMID:23341997

  12. Curcumin-mediated decrease in the expression of nucleolar organizer regions in cervical cancer (HeLa) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinska, Anna; Adamczyk, Jagoda; Pajak, Justyna; Stoklosa, Sylwia; Kubis, Barbara; Pastuszek, Paulina; Slota, Ewa; Wnuk, Maciej

    2014-09-01

    Curcumin, the major yellow-orange pigment of turmeric derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, is a highly pleiotropic molecule with the potential to modulate inflammation, oxidative stress, cell survival, cell secretion, homeostasis and proliferation. Curcumin, at relatively high concentrations, was repeatedly reported to be a potent inducer of apoptosis in cancer cells and thus considered a promising anticancer agent. In the present paper, the effects of low concentrations of curcumin on human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells were studied. We found curcumin-mediated decrease in the cell number and viability, and increase in apoptotic events and superoxide level. In contrast to previously shown curcumin cytotoxicity toward different cervical cancer lines, we observed toxic effects when even as low as 1 μM concentration of curcumin was used. Curcumin was not genotoxic to HeLa cells. Because argyrophilic nucleolar protein (AgNOR protein) expression is elevated in malignant cells compared to normal cells reflecting the rapidity of cancer cell proliferation, we evaluated curcumin-associated changes in size (area) and number of silver deposits. We showed curcumin-induced decrease in AgNOR protein pools, which may be mediated by global DNA hypermethylation observed after low concentration curcumin treatment. In summary, we have shown for the first time that curcumin at low micromolar range may be effective against HeLa cells, which may have implications for curcumin-based treatment of cervical cancer in humans.

  13. Contested Inclusions: Pitfalls of NGO Peace-Building Activities in Liberia Umstrittene Inklusion: Fallstricke bei peace-building-Aktivitäten von NRO in Liberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Fuest

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In post-war situations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs feature highly in peace-building processes in their (perceived capacities as both representatives of civil society and as grassroots agents to be employed in the reconstruction and transformation of society. As elsewhere, in Liberia, peace-building approaches include, first, international blueprints of representation that intend to empower groups generally perceived to be socially subordinate and, second, supporting traditional institutions considered social capital in reconciliation. Using the example of Liberia, this paper explores how in local conflict arenas, NGO workshops – the most popular mode of participatory intervention – are interpreted and appropriated by local actors; it highlights some fallacies and unintended consequences of inclusive procedures in practice and questions the support furnished to heads of gendered secret societies. Nichtregierungsorganisationen (NRO wird in Nachkriegsphasen hohe Kompetenz in Bezug auf peace-building-Prozesse zugesprochen, denn sie repräsentieren die civil society und stellen gleichzeitig Akteure, die an der Basis zum Wiederaufbau und zur gesellschaftlichen Transformation beitragen können. Auch in Liberia schließen peace-building-Konzepte an erster Stelle international erarbeitete Zielvorgaben zur Repräsentanz ein und sehen erstens eine Beteiligung von Gruppen mit niedrigem sozialen Status vor und zweitens die Unterstützung traditioneller Institutionen, die als soziales Kapital im Aussöhnungsprozess angesehen werden. Die Autorin untersucht am Beispiel Liberia, inwieweit NRO-workshops – die beliebteste Form der partizipativen Intervention – in Konfliktzonen von lokalen Akteuren interpretiert und für eigene Ziele genutzt werden; sie verweist auf irrtümliche Annahmen und unbeabsichtigte Konsequenzen der praktischen Anwendung inklusiver Verfahren und stellt die Unterstützung in Frage, die Oberhäuptern geschlechtsspezifischer

  14. Identification and characterization of novel associations in the CASP8/ALS2CR12 region on chromosome 2 with breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Yu; Camp, Nicola J; Ghoussaini, Maya; Beesley, Jonathan; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Hopper, John L; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C; Stone, Jennifer; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Van't Veer, Laura J; Th Rutgers, Emiel J; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Fasching, Peter A; Haeberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Peto, Julian; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Sawyer, Elinor J; Cheng, Timothy; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Marmé, Frederik; Surowy, Harald M; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Menegaux, Florence; Mulot, Claire; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, M Pilar; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Menéndez, Primitiva; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Alvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Meindl, Alfons; Lichtner, Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Khan, Sofia; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Horio, Akiyo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Dörk, Thilo; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Neven, Patrick; Wauters, Els; Wildiers, Hans; Lambrechts, Diether; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bonanni, Bernardo; Couch, Fergus J; Wang, Xianshu; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; Mclean, Catriona; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Hassan, Norhashimah; Vithana, Eranga Nishanthie; Kristensen, Vessela; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha J; Long, Jirong; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S; Hooning, Maartje J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Van Den Ouweland, Ans M W; Jager, Agnes; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B; Cai, Qiuyin; Pharoah, Paul D P; Perkins, Barbara; Shah, Mitul; Blows, Fiona M; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Chia, Kee Seng; Putti, Thomas Choudary; Hamann, Ute; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Maranian, Mel; Healey, Catherine S; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; Mckay, James; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Ding, Shian-Ling; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Bui, Quang M; Chanock, Stephen J; Hunter, David J; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Muranen, Taru A; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Irwanto, Astrid; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare A; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Adank, Muriel A; Van Der Luijt, Rob B; Hall, Per; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison; Easton, Douglas F; Cox, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that polymorphisms in CASP8 on chromosome 2 are associated with breast cancer risk. To clarify the role of CASP8 in breast cancer susceptibility, we carried out dense genotyping of this region in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning a 1 Mb region around CASP8 were genotyped in 46 450 breast cancer cases and 42 600 controls of European origin from 41 studies participating in the BCAC as part of a custom genotyping array experiment (iCOGS). Missing genotypes and SNPs were imputed and, after quality exclusions, 501 typed and 1232 imputed SNPs were included in logistic regression models adjusting for study and ancestry principal components. The SNPs retained in the final model were investigated further in data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising in total 10 052 case and 12 575 control subjects. The most significant association signal observed in European subjects was for the imputed intronic SNP rs1830298 in ALS2CR12 (telomeric to CASP8), with per allele odds ratio and 95% confidence interval [OR (95% confidence interval, CI)] for the minor allele of 1.05 (1.03-1.07), P = 1 × 10(-5). Three additional independent signals from intronic SNPs were identified, in CASP8 (rs36043647), ALS2CR11 (rs59278883) and CFLAR (rs7558475). The association with rs1830298 was replicated in the imputed results from the combined GWAS (P = 3 × 10(-6)), yielding a combined OR (95% CI) of 1.06 (1.04-1.08), P = 1 × 10(-9). Analyses of gene expression associations in peripheral blood and normal breast tissue indicate that CASP8 might be the target gene, suggesting a mechanism involving apoptosis.

  15. Identification and characterization of novel associations in the CASP8/ALS2CR12 region on chromosome 2 with breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Yu; Camp, Nicola J.; Ghoussaini, Maya; Beesley, Jonathan; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Hopper, John L.; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Stone, Jennifer; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Van't Veer, Laura J.; Th Rutgers, Emiel J.; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Fasching, Peter A.; Haeberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Cheng, Timothy; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Marmé, Frederik; Surowy, Harald M.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Menegaux, Florence; Mulot, Claire; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, M. Pilar; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Menéndez, Primitiva; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Álvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Meindl, Alfons; Lichtner, Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Khan, Sofia; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Horio, Akiyo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Dörk, Thilo; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Neven, Patrick; Wauters, Els; Wildiers, Hans; Lambrechts, Diether; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bonanni, Bernardo; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Mclean, Catriona; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Hassan, Norhashimah; Vithana, Eranga Nishanthie; Kristensen, Vessela; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Long, Jirong; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Van Den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Jager, Agnes; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B.; Cai, Qiuyin; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Perkins, Barbara; Shah, Mitul; Blows, Fiona M.; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Noh, Dong-Young; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Chia, Kee Seng; Putti, Thomas Choudary; Hamann, Ute; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Maranian, Mel; Healey, Catherine S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; Mckay, James; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Ding, Shian-ling; Ashworth, Alan; Jones, Michael; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Tsimiklis, Helen; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Bui, Quang M.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hunter, David J.; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckmann, Lars; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Muranen, Taru A.; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Irwanto, Astrid; Rahman, Nazneen; Turnbull, Clare A.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Adank, Muriel A.; Van Der Luijt, Rob B.; Hall, Per; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison; Easton, Douglas F.; Cox, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that polymorphisms in CASP8 on chromosome 2 are associated with breast cancer risk. To clarify the role of CASP8 in breast cancer susceptibility, we carried out dense genotyping of this region in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning a 1 Mb region around CASP8 were genotyped in 46 450 breast cancer cases and 42 600 controls of European origin from 41 studies participating in the BCAC as part of a custom genotyping array experiment (iCOGS). Missing genotypes and SNPs were imputed and, after quality exclusions, 501 typed and 1232 imputed SNPs were included in logistic regression models adjusting for study and ancestry principal components. The SNPs retained in the final model were investigated further in data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising in total 10 052 case and 12 575 control subjects. The most significant association signal observed in European subjects was for the imputed intronic SNP rs1830298 in ALS2CR12 (telomeric to CASP8), with per allele odds ratio and 95% confidence interval [OR (95% confidence interval, CI)] for the minor allele of 1.05 (1.03–1.07), P = 1 × 10−5. Three additional independent signals from intronic SNPs were identified, in CASP8 (rs36043647), ALS2CR11 (rs59278883) and CFLAR (rs7558475). The association with rs1830298 was replicated in the imputed results from the combined GWAS (P = 3 × 10−6), yielding a combined OR (95% CI) of 1.06 (1.04–1.08), P = 1 × 10−9. Analyses of gene expression associations in peripheral blood and normal breast tissue indicate that CASP8 might be the target gene, suggesting a mechanism involving apoptosis. PMID:25168388

  16. Polymorphism in the upstream regulatory region of human papilloma virus type 16 from the cervical cancer biopsies in Xinjiang Uygur women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG YU; ZHENG HAI MA; YAN PIN WANG; XI DAN RE; FU CHUN ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the mutations in the upstream regulatory region (URR) of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) from the cervical cancer biopsies in Xinjiang Uygur women and its relationship to the high incidence of cervical cancer in the southern Xinjiang, the tissue DNA was extracted from the cervical cancer biopsies, and the URR segment of HPV-16 DNA was amplified, sequenced and analyzed. Thereafter, the polymorphism of URR in HPV-16 was then analyzed. It was demonstrated that the positive rate detected for the presence of URR in HPV-16 was 89.47% (17/19). Compared with the previously published sequence in URR of prototype HPV-16, some mutations were detected in the sequence of URR.The mutations in 17 URR fragments of HPV-16 could be divided into 11 patterns (XJU-1 to XJU-11) at nucleic acid level, in which each of XJU-1 and XJU-4 accounted for 23.53% (4/17), and other patterns of mutation accounted for 5.88% (1/17). In comparison with the URR of prototype HPV-16, the DNA identity of these patterns was 98.50%-99.68%. In these 17 URR fragments, two point mutations occurred at position 7192 (G to T) and position 7520 (G to A) and they appeared to be constant in Xinjiang area. These two mutations were ubiquitous in the Asia-American type and conferred strong infection activity and carcinogenicity of this virus. In addition, the mutations at position 7729 (A to C), position 7843 (A to G) and position 7792 (C to T) could enhance its transcription activity considerably. It is concluded that some mutations occur in URR gene of HPV-16 in the cervical cancer biopsies taken from Uygur women in Xinjiang area, suggesting that certain relationship exists among the mutations in URR of HPV-16, the phylogeny of HPV-16 and the high incidence of cervical cancer in southern part of Xinjiang area.

  17. CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms increase lung cancer risk in a high-incidence region of Spain: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Jose Carmen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A rural region in south-west Spain has one of the highest lung cancer incidence rates of the country, as revealed by a previous epidemiological 10-year follow-up study. The present work was undertaken to ascertain the role of CYP1A1 gene polymorphisms and their interaction with tobacco smoking in the development of the disease in this location. Methods One-hundred-and-three cases of lung cancer and 265 controls participated in the study. The participants were screened for the presence of four CYP1A1 polymorphisms, namely MspI, Ile462Val, T3205C, and Thr461Asn. Lung cancer risk was estimated as odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI using unconditional logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, and smoking. Results The distribution of the variant CYP1A1 alleles was different from that described for other Caucasian populations, with CYP1A1*2A showing an uncommonly high frequency (p CYP1A1*2B allele (carrying MspI and Ile462Val mutations was strongly associated with high lung cancer risk (OR = 4.59, CI:1.4-12.6, p p p = 0.04. Moreover, the Thr461Asn polymorphism was found to be associated with SCLC in a Caucasian population for the first time to our knowledge (OR = 8.33, CI: 1.3-15.2, p = 0.04. Conclusion The results suggest that CYP1A1 polymorphisms contribute to increase lung cancer susceptibility in an area with an uncommon high incidence rate.

  18. Increase in mammography detected breast cancer over time at a community based regional cancer center: a longitudinal cohort study 1990–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmgren Judith A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coincident with the advent of mammography screening, breast carcinoma in situ has increased in the US population. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of all women presenting with primary breast cancer, aged 21–94, and biopsy confirmed Stage 0-IV from 1990–2005 identified and tracked by our registry. Clinical presentation characteristics including age, race, TNM stage, family and pregnancy history, histologic type and method of detection by patient (PtD, physician (PhysD or mammography (MgD were chart abstracted at time of diagnosis. Cases with unknown or other method of detection (n = 84, or unusual cell types (n = 26 were removed (n = 6074. Results From 1990 to 1998 the percentage of PtD and MgD cases was roughly equivalent. In 1999 the percentage of MgD cases increased to 56% and PtD dropped to 37%, a significant 20% differential, constant to 2005 (Pearson chi square = 120.99, p Conclusion In our cohort the relative proportion of mammography detected breast cancer increased over time with a higher increase among women age 50+ and an increase of breast carcinoma in situ exclusively among MgD cases. The increase among women currently targeted by mammography screening programs (age ≥ 50 combined with an increase of breast carcinoma in situ most often detected by mammography screening indicates a possible incidence shift to lower stage breast cancer as a result of mammographic detection.

  19. Sparing the region of the salivary gland containing stem cells preserves saliva production after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Luijk, Peter; Pringle, Sarah; Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali V.; Faber, Hette; Hovan, Allan; Baanstra, Mirjam; van der Laan, Hans P.; Kierkels, Roel G. J.; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Witjes, Max J.; Schippers, Jacobus M.; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wu, Jonn; Coppes, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Each year, 500,000 patients are treated with radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, resulting in relatively high survival rates. However, in 40% of patients, quality of life is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequent xerostomia (dry mout

  20. Quality of life in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in a tertiary care center in Malwa region of Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harminder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Although QOL scoring system did not show significant improvement in all areas (except insomnia, pain, appetite loss, constipation, and financial difficulties with reference to their respective chemotherapy cycles, but a judicious diagnosis with an appropriate treatment including chemotherapy may lessen the negative perception of cancer as a deadly and fatal disease in our rural population.

  1. Effect of regional difference on characteristics of gastric cancer%地区差异对胃癌疾病特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    弓艳霞; 唐艳萍; 郭丽; 陈洮明; 康丽丽; 牛薇; 王占风; 陈盈; 张婷

    2016-01-01

    目的:对比分析胃癌在天津市南开区及甘肃省陇南市两地区的疾病特征差异性,并探讨可能的影响因素.方法:收集两地区胃癌患者的临床资料,包括发病率、年龄、性别、家族史、癌前状态、幽门螺杆菌(Helicobacter pylor,H.pylori)感染、胃镜及病理特点、治疗等,回顾性分析两地区胃癌的不同疾病特征.结果:天津市南开区与甘肃省陇南市胃癌发病率分别为4.60%及5.77%,H.pylori检测率分别为74.16%及55.60%,伴随H.pylori感染率分别为50.70%及57.95%,发病年龄分别为63.09岁±9.46岁及54.46岁±8.87岁,其中高发年龄分别为60-69岁及50-59岁,差异具有统计学意义P <<0.05).两地区早期胃癌诊断率分别为0.72%及0.58%,男女发病比分别为1.23:1及1.25:1,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05).甘肃省陇南市胃癌患者多数存在肿瘤家族史及萎缩性胃炎等癌前状态.两地区胃癌发生部位均以胃窦及低分化腺癌为主,但患者采取治疗及预后不同.结论:胃癌的发病率及疾病特征存在地区差异性,天津市南开区胃癌的发病率及H.pylori感染率低,患者随诊依从性好,多数采取手术及化疗积极手段,预后较好;甘肃省陇南市胃癌的发病年龄轻,有明显的家族聚集性,多数患者存在癌前状态.胃癌疾病特征地区差异性可能与环境、饮食、H.pylori感染、患者依从性等因素密切相关.%AIM: To analyze the difference in the characteristics of gastric cancer between patients from Nankai District, Tianjin and those from Longnan City of Gansu Province, and to explore the possible influencing factors.METHODS: Clinical data for gastric cancer patients from the two regions were collected, including incidence, age, gender, family history, precancerous condition, Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection, gastroscopy, pathology, treatment and so on.A retrospective study was then performed to analyze the difference in disease

  2. 我国公共危机治理中的第三部门参与问题研究%nalysis of the Public Crisis Management in the Involvement of the NGO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林杭锋

    2011-01-01

    第三部门具有的民间性、专业性、志愿性等特点使其在处理公共危机事件时具有特殊优势。但是,由于我国第三部门发展先天不足,后天失调,第三部门在参与公共危机治理时极易受到法律、社会环境、公民意识、资金人才甚至自身状况的影响和制约。在历次公共危机治理过程中我国第三部门的表现充分暴露了第三部门参与公共危机治理能力的不足。因此我们必须从学术理论、法律文化、社会环境等方面入手,改变制约第三部门发展的因素,以提高第三部门参与危机治理的能力。%The NGO's features of private, volunteer and so on make it has special advantage over dealing with public crisis. However, due to the development of the NGO congenitally dystrophy, during its participation, it is very easy to impacted and restricted by laws, social environment, civic awareness, funds and even their own situation. The prevention and treatment of public crisis exposed the NGO's lacking of governance capacity in participating in dealing with public crisis, we must seek academic theory, legal cul- ture, social environment aspects, change the factors that restrict the development of the NGO, so that the NGO can participate in a more mature manner of public crisis management.

  3. Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhaoming; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Mingfeng

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may pl...

  4. Variation of HPV Subtypes with Focus on HPV-Infection and Cancer in the Head and Neck Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Gunnar

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) comprises a heterogeneous group of double-strand DNA viruses with variable potential to infect human epithelial cells and trigger neoplastic transformation. Its 8 kb genome encodes proteins required for virus replication and self-organized formation of infectious particles but also for early proteins E6 and E7 able to trigger neoplastic transformation. E6 and E7 of high-risk (HR) HPV subtypes can bind to p53 or release E2F and abrogate replication control. Due to variable amino acid sequence (AAS) in the binding sites of E6 and E7 particular HR-HPV variants within subtypes are essentially heterogeneous in efficacy triggering neoplastic transformation and cancer development. This could explain differences in the clinical course of HPV-driven head and neck cancer.

  5. The dark matter of the cancer genome: aberrations in regulatory elements, untranslated regions, splice sites, non-coding RNA and synonymous mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Sven; Bartsch, Lorenz; Berkmann, Julia C; Fröse, Karin; Heitmann, Jana; Hoppe, Caroline; Iggena, Deetje; Jazmati, Danny; Karschnia, Philipp; Linsenmeier, Miriam; Maulhardt, Thomas; Möhrmann, Lino; Morstein, Johannes; Paffenholz, Stella V; Röpenack, Paula; Rückert, Timo; Sandig, Ludger; Schell, Maximilian; Steinmann, Anna; Voss, Gjendine; Wasmuth, Jacqueline; Weinberger, Maria E; Wullenkord, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a disease of the genome caused by oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inhibition. Deep sequencing studies including large consortia such as TCGA and ICGC identified numerous tumor-specific mutations not only in protein-coding sequences but also in non-coding sequences. Although 98% of the genome is not translated into proteins, most studies have neglected the information hidden in this "dark matter" of the genome. Malignancy-driving mutations can occur in all genetic elements outside the coding region, namely in enhancer, silencer, insulator, and promoter as well as in 5'-UTR and 3'-UTR Intron or splice site mutations can alter the splicing pattern. Moreover, cancer genomes contain mutations within non-coding RNA, such as microRNA, lncRNA, and lincRNA A synonymous mutation changes the coding region in the DNA and RNA but not the protein sequence. Importantly, oncogenes such as TERT or miR-21 as well as tumor suppressor genes such as TP53/p53, APC, BRCA1, or RB1 can be affected by these alterations. In summary, coding-independent mutations can affect gene regulation from transcription, splicing, mRNA stability to translation, and hence, this largely neglected area needs functional studies to elucidate the mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis. This review will focus on the important role and novel mechanisms of these non-coding or allegedly silent mutations in tumorigenesis.

  6. A lymph node ratio of 10% is predictive of survival in stage III colon cancer: a French regional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Charles; Mauvais, François; Cosse, Cyril; Rebibo, Lionel; Joly, Jean-Paul; Dromer, Didier; Aubert, Christine; Carton, Sophie; Dron, Bernard; Dadamessi, Innocenti; Maes, Bernard; Perrier, Guillaume; Manaouil, David; Fontaine, Jean-François; Gozy, Michel; Panis, Xavier; Foncelle, Pierre Henri; de Fresnoy, Hugues; Leroux, Fabien; Vaneslander, Pierre; Ghighi, Caroline; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node ratio (LNR) (positive lymph nodes/sampled lymph nodes) is predictive of survival in colon cancer. The aim of the present study was to validate the LNR as a prognostic factor and to determine the optimum LNR cutoff for distinguishing between "good prognosis" and "poor prognosis" colon cancer patients. From January 2003 to December 2007, patients with TNM stage III colon cancer operated on with at least of 3 years of follow-up and not lost to follow-up were included in this retrospective study. The two primary endpoints were 3-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) as a function of the LNR groups and the cutoff. One hundred seventy-eight patients were included. There was no correlation between the LNR group and 3-year OS (P=0.06) and a significant correlation between the LNR group and 3-year DFS (P=0.03). The optimal LNR cutoff of 10% was significantly correlated with 3-year OS (P=0.02) and DFS (P=0.02). The LNR was not an accurate prognostic factor when fewer than 12 lymph nodes were sampled. Clarification and simplification of the LNR classification are prerequisites for use of this system in randomized control trials. An LNR of 10% appears to be the optimal cutoff.

  7. Broader utilization of origins of DNA replication in cancer cell lines along a 78 kb region of human chromosome 2q34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Manuel S; Hu, Lan; Lueders, John; Walker, Robert; Meltzer, Paul S

    2012-01-01

    Human DNA replication depends on the activation of thousands of origins distributed within the genome. The actual distribution of origins is not known, nor whether this distribution is unique to a cell type, or if it changes with the proliferative state of the cell. In this study, we have employed a real-time PCR-based nascent strand DNA abundance assay, to determine the location of origins along a 78 kb region on Chr2q34. Preliminary studies using nascent DNA strands isolated from either HeLa and normal skin fibroblast cells showed that in both cell lines peaks of high origin activity mapped in similar locations. However, the overall origin profile in HeLa cells corresponded to broad origin activation zones, whereas in fibroblasts a more punctuated profile of origin activation was observed. To investigate the relevance of this differential origin profile, we compared the origin distribution profiles in breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, BT-474, and MCF-7, to their normal counterpart MCF-10A. In addition, the CRL7250 cell line was also used as a normal control. Our results validated our earlier observation and showed that the origin profile in normal cell lines exhibited a punctuated pattern, in contrast to broader zone profiles observed in the cancer cell lines. A quantitative analysis of origin peaks revealed that the number of activated origins in cancer cells is statistically larger than that obtained in normal cells, suggesting that the flexibility of origin usage is significantly increased in cancer cells compared to their normal counterparts.

  8. Facile fabrication of a near-infrared responsive nanocarrier for spatiotemporally controlled chemo-photothermal synergistic cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hao; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Zheyi; Xu, Guiju; Huang, Guang; Ji, Yongsheng; Xiong, Zhichao; Zhang, Quanqing; Dong, Jing; Zhang, Weibing; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-07-01

    Remote-controlled nanocarriers for drug delivery are of great promise to provide timely, sensitive and spatiotemporally selective treatments for cancer therapy. Due to convenient and precise manipulation, deep penetration through tissues and excellent biocompatibility, near-infrared (NIR) irradiation is a preferred external stimulus for triggering the release of loaded drugs. In this work, for spatiotemporally controlled chemo-photothermal synergistic cancer therapy, a NIR responsive nanocarrier was fabricated using reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (rNGO) decorated with mesoporous silica shell and the subsequent functionalization of the thermoresponsive polymer brushes (pNIPAM-co-pAAm) at the outlet of the silica pore channels. rNGO, which combined with the mesoporous silica shell provide a high loading capacity for anticancer drugs (doxorubicin, DOX), was assigned to sense NIR irradiation for the manipulation of pNIPAM-co-pAAm valve to control the diffusion of loaded DOX. Under NIR irradiation, rNGO would generate heat, which could not only elevate the surrounding temperature over the low critical solution temperature (LCST) of pNIPAM-co-pAAm to open the thermoresponsive polymer valve and promote the diffusion of DOX, but also kill the cancer cells through the hypothermia effect. By manipulating NIR irradiation, the nanocarrier exhibited efficiently controlled release of loaded DOX both in the buffer and in living HeLa cells (the model cancer cells), providing powerful and site-targeted treatments, which can be attributed to synergistic effects of chemo-photothermal therapy. To sum up, this novel nanocarrier is an excellent drug delivery platform in remote-controlled chemo-photothermal synergistic cancer therapy via NIR irradiation.Remote-controlled nanocarriers for drug delivery are of great promise to provide timely, sensitive and spatiotemporally selective treatments for cancer therapy. Due to convenient and precise manipulation, deep penetration through

  9. Positive versus negative sentinel nodes in early breast cancer patients: axillary or loco-regional relapse and survival. A study spanning 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fernández, A; Chabrera, C; García Font, M; Fraile, M; Lain, J M; Barco, I; González, C; Gónzalez, S; Reñe, A; Veloso, E; Cassadó, J; Pessarrodona, A; Giménez, N

    2013-10-01

    Sentinel Node Biopsy (SNB) is a minimally invasive alternative to elective axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for nodal staging in early breast cancer. The present study was conducted to evaluate prognostic implications of a negative sentinel node (SN) versus a positive SN (followed by completion ALND) in a closely followed-up sample of early breast cancer patients. We studied 889 consecutive breast cancer patients operated for 908 primaries. Patients received adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy, hormone therapy and eventually trastuzumab. Radiation therapy was based on tangential radiation fields that usually included axillary level I. Median follow-up was 47 months. Axillary recurrence was seen in 1.2% (2/162) of positive SN patients, and 0.8% (5/625) of negative SN patients (p = n.s.). There was an overall 3.2% loco-regional failure rate (29/908). Incidence of distant recurrence was 3.3% (23/693) for negative SN patients, and 4.6% (9/196) for positive SN patients (p = n.s.). Overall mortality rate was 4% (8/198) for positive SN patients, while the corresponding specific mortality rate was 2.5% (5/198). For patients with negative SNs, overall mortality was 4.9% (34/693), and the specific mortality was 1.4% (19/693) (p = n.s.). We did not find significant differences in axillary/loco-regional relapse, distant metastases, disease-free interval or mortality between SN negative and SN positive patients, with a follow-up over 4 years.

  10. Frameshift mutation of a histone methylation-related gene SETD1B and its regional heterogeneity in gastric and colorectal cancers with high microsatellite instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youn Jin; Oh, Hye Rim; Choi, Mi Ryoung; Gwak, Min; An, Chang Hyeok; Chung, Yeun Jun; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2014-08-01

    Histone methyltransferase (HMT), which catalyzes a histone methylation, is frequently altered in cancers at mutation and expression levels. The aims of this study were to explore whether SETD1B, SETDB2, and SETD2, SET domain-containing HMT genes, are mutated and expressionally altered in gastric (GC) and colorectal cancers (CRC). In a public database, we found that SETD1B, SETDB2, and SETD2 had mononucleotide repeats in coding sequences that might be mutation targets in cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI). We analyzed the mutations in 76 GCs and 93 CRCs and found SETD1B (38.7% of GC and 35.6% of CRC with high MSI [MSI-H]), SETDB2 (11.1% of CRC with MSI-H), and SETD2 frameshift mutations (6.7% of CRC with MSI-H). These mutations were not found in stable MSI/low MSI. In addition, we analyzed intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) of SETD1B mutation in 6 CRCs and found that 2 CRCs harbored regional ITH of SETD1B. We also analyzed SETD1B expression in GC and CRC by immunohistochemistry. Loss of SETD1B expression was identified in 15% to 55% of the GC and CRC with respect to the MSI status. Of note, the loss of expression was more common in those with SETD1B mutations than those with wild-type SETD1B. We identified alterations of SET domain-containing HMT at various levels (frameshift mutations, genetic ITH, and expression loss), which together might play a role in tumorigenesis of GC and CRC with MSI-H. Our data suggest that mutation analysis in multiple regions is needed for a better evaluation of mutation status in CRC with MSI-H.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of cervical cancer prevention based on a rapid human papillomavirus screening test in a high-risk region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Carol E; Sellors, John; Shi, Ju-Fang; Ma, Li; Qiao, You-lin; Ortendahl, Jesse; O'Shea, Meredith K H; Goldie, Sue J

    2010-09-01

    This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of a new, rapid human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA screening test for cervical cancer prevention in the high-risk region of Shanxi, China. Using micro-costing methods, we estimated the resources needed to implement preventive strategies using cervical cytology or HPV-DNA testing, including the Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2) test (QIAGEN Corp., Gaithersburg, MD) and the rapid HPV-DNA careHPV test (QIAGEN). Data were used in a previously published model and empirically calibrated to country-specific epidemiological data. Strategies differed by initial test, targeted age, frequency of screening, number of clinic visits required (1, 2 or 3) and service delivery setting (national, county and township levels). Outcomes included lifetime risk of cancer, years of life saved (YLS), lifetime costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (cost per YLS). For all screening frequencies, the most efficient strategy used 2-visit rapid HPV-DNA testing at the county level, including screening and diagnostics in the first visit, and treatment in the second visit. Screening at ages 35, 40 and 45 reduced cancer risk by 50% among women compliant with all 3 screening rounds, and was US$ 150 per YLS, compared with this same strategy applied twice per lifetime. This would be considered very cost-effective evaluated against China's per-capita gross domestic product (US$ 1,702). By enhancing the linkage between screening and treatment through a reduced number of visits, rapid HPV-DNA testing 3 times per lifetime is more effective than traditional cytology, and is likely to be cost-effective in high-risk regions of China.

  12. Regional Inequalities in Lung Cancer Mortality in Belgium at the Beginning of the 21st Century: The Contribution of Individual and Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Industrial Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulien Hagedoorn

    Full Text Available Being a highly industrialized country with one of the highest male lung cancer mortality rates in Europe, Belgium is an interesting study area for lung cancer research. This study investigates geographical patterns in lung cancer mortality in Belgium. More specifically it probes into the contribution of individual as well as area-level characteristics to (sub-district patterns in lung cancer mortality. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001-2011 are used, selecting all Belgian inhabitants aged 65+ at time of the census. Individual characteristics include education, housing status and home ownership. Urbanicity, unemployment rate, the percentage employed in mining and the percentage employed in other high-risk industries are included as sub-district characteristics. Regional variation in lung cancer mortality at sub-district level is estimated using directly age-standardized mortality rates. The association between lung cancer mortality and individual and area characteristics, and their impact on the variation of sub-district level is estimated using multilevel Poisson models. Significant sub-district variations in lung cancer mortality are observed. Individual characteristics explain a small share of this variation, while a large share is explained by sub-district characteristics. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status experience a higher lung cancer mortality risk. Among women, an association with lung cancer mortality is found for the sub-district characteristics urbanicity and unemployment rate, while for men lung cancer mortality was associated with the percentage employed in mining. Not just individual characteristics, but also area characteristics are thus important determinants of (regional differences in lung cancer mortality.

  13. Regional Inequalities in Lung Cancer Mortality in Belgium at the Beginning of the 21st Century: The Contribution of Individual and Area-Level Socioeconomic Status and Industrial Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedoorn, Paulien; Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Willaert, Didier; Vanthomme, Katrien; Gadeyne, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Being a highly industrialized country with one of the highest male lung cancer mortality rates in Europe, Belgium is an interesting study area for lung cancer research. This study investigates geographical patterns in lung cancer mortality in Belgium. More specifically it probes into the contribution of individual as well as area-level characteristics to (sub-district patterns in) lung cancer mortality. Data from the 2001 census linked to register data from 2001-2011 are used, selecting all Belgian inhabitants aged 65+ at time of the census. Individual characteristics include education, housing status and home ownership. Urbanicity, unemployment rate, the percentage employed in mining and the percentage employed in other high-risk industries are included as sub-district characteristics. Regional variation in lung cancer mortality at sub-district level is estimated using directly age-standardized mortality rates. The association between lung cancer mortality and individual and area characteristics, and their impact on the variation of sub-district level is estimated using multilevel Poisson models. Significant sub-district variations in lung cancer mortality are observed. Individual characteristics explain a small share of this variation, while a large share is explained by sub-district characteristics. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status experience a higher lung cancer mortality risk. Among women, an association with lung cancer mortality is found for the sub-district characteristics urbanicity and unemployment rate, while for men lung cancer mortality was associated with the percentage employed in mining. Not just individual characteristics, but also area characteristics are thus important determinants of (regional differences in) lung cancer mortality.

  14. Comparison of two treatment strategies for irradiation of regional lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer: Lymph flow guided portals versus standard radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, Sergey Nikolaevich; Kanaev, Sergey Vasilevich; Semiglazov, Vladimir Fedorovich; Jukova, Ludmila Alekseevna; Krzhivitckiy, Pavel Ivanovich

    2014-01-01

    Aim and Background Radiotherapy being an essential part of breast cancer treatment, we evaluate various radiotherapy strategies in patients with breast cancer. Materials and methods Lymph node (LN) scintigraphy was performed in 172 primary patients with BC. LN visualization started 30–360 min after intratumoral injection of 75–150 MBq of 99mTc-nanocolloids. Our standard recommendation for postoperative radiotherapy in patients with LN invasion by BC were as follows: for patients with external localization of tumour – breast + axillary (Ax) + sub-supraclavicular (SSCL) regions; with internal localization – all above + internal mammary nodes (IM). Proposed strategy of lymph flow guided radiotherapy is based on the assumption that only regions that contain ‘hot’ LNs must be included in a treatment volume. Results Among 110 patients with external localization of BC, Ax LNs were visualized in all cases and in 62 patients it was the only region with ‘hot’ LN. Twenty-three patients (20.9%) had drainage to Ax + SSCL, 12 (10.9%) – Ax + IM, 13 (11.8%) – Ax + SSCL + IM regions. After the visualization of lymph flow patterns, standard treatment volume was changed in 87/110 cases (79.1%): in 56.4%, reduced, in 22.7%, enlarged or changed. In 62 patients with tumours in internal quadrants, we revealed the following patterns of lymph-flow: only to the Ax region in 23 (37.1%); Ax + IM, 13 (21%); Ax + SSCL, 15 (24.2%); Ax + IM + ISSCL, 11 (17.7%) cases. After lymph-flow visualization, the standard irradiation volume was reduced in 53/62 (85.5%) cases. Conclusion Visualization of an individual lymph flow pattern from BC can be used for the optimization of standard fields used for irradiation of regional LNs. PMID:25535581

  15. Dosimetric evaluation of integrated IMRT treatment of the chest wall and supraclavicular region for breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bo; Wei, Xian-ding; Zhao, Yu-tian [Department of Radiation Oncology, the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University, Wuxi (China); Ma, Chang-Ming, E-mail: charlie.ma@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the dosimetric characteristics of irradiation of the chest wall and supraclavicular region as an integrated volume with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) after modified radical mastectomy. This study included 246 patients who received modified radical mastectomy. The patients were scanned with computed tomography, and the chest wall (with or without the internal mammary lymph nodes) and supraclavicular region were delineated. For 143 patients, the chest wall and supraclavicular region were combined as an integrated planning volume and treated with IMRT. For 103 patients, conventional treatments were employed with 2 tangential fields for the chest wall, abutting a mixed field of 6-MV x-rays (16 Gy) and 9-MeV electrons (34 Gy) for the upper supraclavicular region. The common prescription dose was 50 Gy/25 Fx/5 W to 90% of the target volume. The dosimetric characteristics of the chest wall, the supraclavicular region, and normal organs were compared. For the chest wall target, compared with conventional treatments, the integrated IMRT plans lowered the maximum dose, increased the minimum dose, and resulted in better conformity and uniformity of the target volume. There was an increase in minimum, average, and 95% prescription dose for the integrated IMRT plans in the supraclavicular region, and conformity and uniformity were improved. The V{sub 30} of the ipsilateral lung and V{sub 10}, V{sub 30}, and mean dose of the heart on the integrated IMRT plans were lower than those of the conventional plans. The V{sub 5} and V{sub 10} of the ipsilateral lung and V{sub 5} of the heart were higher on the integrated IMRT plans (p < 0.05) than on conventional plans. Without an increase in the radiation dose to organs at risk, the integrated IMRT treatment plans improved the dose distribution of the supraclavicular region and showed better dose conformity and uniformity of the integrated target volume of the chest wall and supraclavicular region.

  16. Human papillomavirus and p53 expression in cancer of unknown primary in the head and neck region in relation to clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivars, Lars; Näsman, Anders; Tertipis, Nikolaos; Vlastos, Andrea; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Dalianis, Tina; Munck-Wikland, Eva; Nordemar, Sushma

    2014-04-01

    Patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP) in the head neck region are generally treated with neck dissection followed by radiotherapy at times combined with chemotherapy, a treatment associated with considerable side effects. Some of these tumors may originate as human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), with better clinical outcome than head neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) in general, and could potentially do well with less treatment. Here, we therefore investigated whether HPV status and p53-expression correlated to clinical outcome in patients with CUP in the head neck region. Fifty metastases were analyzed for presence of HPV DNA, and expression of p16(INK4A) and p53 and the data were correlated to clinical outcome. Patients with HPV DNA-positive (HPVDNA+) metastases had significantly better 5-year overall survival (OS) compared to those with HPVDNA- metastases (80.0% vs. 36.7%, respectively; P = 0.004), with a similar tendency for disease-free survival (DFS). These survival rates showed excellent concordance with those of HPVDNA+ and HPVDNA- OSCC in Sweden during the same time period, strengthening the hypothesis that HPVDNA+ head and neck CUP may originate from HPVDNA+ OSCC. In addition, having absent/intermediary-low as compared to high expression of p53 correlated to a better prognosis with a 69% as compared to 14% 5-year OS, respectively (P p53 expression are valuable prognostic factors in patients with CUP in the head and neck region and should be further explored for clinical use.

  17. Impact on regional recurrence and survival of axillary surgery in women with node-negative primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, C K; Düring, M; Christiansen, P M;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined whether axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) with removal of many normal lymph nodes resulted in a reduced rate of axillary recurrence and better survival, as reported in recent studies. METHODS: The follow-up analyses were based on 8657 patients with node-negative...... primary breast cancer treated solely by surgery. Median follow-up was 9 years. RESULTS: The number of lymph nodes removed correlated with a reduction in the rate of subsequent axillary recurrence (from 2.1 to 0.4 per cent; P = 0.037), local recurrence (from 7.4 to 3.8 per cent; P

  18. A multidisciplinary bone metastases clinic at Toronto Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Centre - A review of the experience from 1999 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kathy K; Sinclair, Emily; Pope, Joan; Farhadian, Macey; Harris, Kristin; Napolskikh, Julie; Yee, Albert; Librach, Lawrence; Wynnychuk, Lesia; Danjoux, Cyril; Chow, Edward; Bone, On Behalf Of The; Team, Metastases

    2008-09-01

    Our objective in this study was to review the experience of a one-stop multidisciplinary bone metastases clinic (BMC) that offers a coordinated multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer patients with bone metastases in a tertiary cancer centre. Patients with symptomatic bone metastases were referred to BMC and assessed by a team of specialists in various disciplines - interventional radiology, orthopedic surgery, palliative medicine, and radiation oncology. At initial consultation, patient demographics, reasons for referral, and case disposition were recorded. From January 1999 to February 2005, a total of 272 patients with bone metastases were referred to the BMC. The median age was 65 years (range 28-95) and median KPS score at consultation was 60 (range 30-90). The majority of patients came from home (74%), while others came from a nursing home or the hospital (9%). Almost a third (28%) of patients had 2 or more reasons of referral, yielding a total of 354 reasons. The most common reason for referral was bone pain (42%), bone metastases (21%), high risk for pathological fracture (12%), and pathological fracture (10%). Of the 272 patients who received consultation, 40% received palliative radiotherapy, 19% received interventional surgery, 7% were referred to other support services such as palliative care, physiotherapy, and 7% had further investigation or imaging. A multidisciplinary clinic is useful for co-coordinating the management of bone metastatic disease in symptomatic patients.

  19. Non-detection of Epstein-Barr virus and human papillomavirus in a region of high gastric cancer risk indicates a lack of a role for these viruses in gastric carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yan Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric mucosa tissue was collected from patients with gastroduodenal diseases in a region of norrteastern China showing a high risk of gastric cancer incidence. The presence of EBV and HPV were assayed to investigate the relationship between gastric carcinomas and virus infection. Neither EBV nor HPV DNA was detected in tissue from the patients. The role of EBV and HPV in gastric cancer is not well understood and still needs to be clarified.

  20. Diferenciais regionais de mortalidade por câncer no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 1979-1981 Regional differentials in cancer mortality in a region of, Brazil, 1979-1981

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Boschi

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir do fato de que os neoplasmas malignos foram a terceira causa de morte no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, no ano de 1980, apresentando taxa bruta igual a 89,8 por 100.000 habitantes, foi analisada a mortalidade por câncer segundo suas principais localizações anatômicas, no período 1979-1981. Dividiu-se o Estado em três regiões distintas: Capital, Cinturão Metropolitano e Interior. Foram calculados coeficientes de mortalidade trienais, posteriormente padronizados pelo método direto utilizando-se, para tal, a população mundial. Para cumprir o objetivo de comparar diferentes regiões geográficas foram calculadas razões padronizadas de mortalidade. Observou-se que as principais localizações anatômicas foram pulmão, estômago, próstata, esôfago e fígado, nos homens; e mama, estômago, pulmão, cérvix uterino e útero (não especificado, nas mulheres. Encontrou-se que as maiores taxas para o total de tumores ocorreram na Capital e as menores no Interior, sendo as maiores razões padronizadas de mortalidade aquelas para mama (1,88, cólon (1,71 e pulmão (1,70. A mortalidade por neoplasmas malignos de esôfago e de fígado foi maior no Interior do que nas demais regiões, em ambos os sexos. Concluiu-se que existe comportamento distinto da mortalidade por câncer entre as diferentes regiões, apontando, mais uma vez, na direção da determinação ambiental de grande parte dos neoplasmas malignos.In 1980, malignant neoplasms ranked 3rd as a cause of death in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with a crude mortality rate of 89.8 per 100,000. Cancer mortality data for 1979-1981 are presented for the State, with the objective of analyzing regional differentials. For the purpose of comparing mortality from the most important cancers, the State was divided into three regions: Capital, Metropolitan Belt and Interior, on the basis of the geographical structure of the State - which gave rise to the present urbanization patterns

  1. Management of the Regional Lymph Nodes Following Breast-Conservation Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: An Evolving Paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Laura E.G. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Punglia, Rinaa S.; Wong, Julia S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bellon, Jennifer R., E-mail: jbellon@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Radiation therapy to the breast following breast conservation surgery has been the standard of care since randomized trials demonstrated equivalent survival compared to mastectomy and improved local control and survival compared to breast conservation surgery alone. Recent controversies regarding adjuvant radiation therapy have included the potential role of additional radiation to the regional lymph nodes. This review summarizes the evolution of regional nodal management focusing on 2 topics: first, the changing paradigm with regard to surgical evaluation of the axilla; second, the role for regional lymph node irradiation and optimal design of treatment fields. Contemporary data reaffirm prior studies showing that complete axillary dissection may not provide additional benefit relative to sentinel lymph node biopsy in select patient populations. Preliminary data also suggest that directed nodal radiation therapy to the supraclavicular and internal mammary lymph nodes may prove beneficial; publication of several studies are awaited to confirm these results and to help define subgroups with the greatest likelihood of benefit.

  2. Prevalence of the BRCA1 c.68_69delAG (BIC: 185delAG) mutation in women with breast cancer from north-central Poland and a review of the literature on other regions of the country

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwig, Martyna; Janiszewska, Hanna; Bąk, Aneta; Pilarska, Maria; Heise, Marta; Junkiert-Czarnecka, Anna; Laskowski, Ryszard; Haus, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study Germline mutations in BRCA tumor suppressor genes are strongly associated with breast and ovarian cancer. The lifetime risk of these cancers in women with BRCA1 mutation is 84% and 27%, respectively. Studies on the prevalence of BRCA1 c.68_69delAG congenital mutation, the most frequent in Ashkenazi Jews, among women with breast cancer from north-central Poland and review of the literature on other regions of the country. Evaluation of the c.68_69delAG association with breast ...

  3. A 22q11.2 amplification in the region encoding microRNA-650 correlates with the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in breast cancer primary cultures of Mexican patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lango-Chavarría, M.; Chimal-Ramírez, G.K.; Ruiz-Tachiquín, M.E.; Espinoza-Sánchez, N.A.; Suárez-Arriaga, M.C.; Fuentes-Pananá, E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer ranks first in incidence and mortality in working age women. Cancer initiation and progression relies on accumulation of genetic and epigenetic aberrations that alter cellular processes, among them, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) denotes particularly aggressive neoplasias given its capacity to invade and metastasize. Several microRNAs (miRNA) have been found able to regulate gene expression at the core of EMT. In this study, the Affymetrix CytoScan HD array was used to analyze three different primary tumor cell isolates from Mexican breast cancer patients. We found an amplification in band 22q11.2 shared by the three samples, in the region that encodes miRNA-650. Overexpression of this miRNA has been associated with downregulation of tumor suppressors ING4 and NDRG2, which have been implicated in cancer progression. Using the Pathway Linker platform the ING4 and NDRG2 interaction networks showed a significant association with signaling pathways commonly deregulated in cancer. Also, several studies support their participation in the EMT. Supporting the latter, we found that the three primary isolates were E-cadherin negative, vimentin positive, presented a cancer stem cell-like phenotype CD44+CD24−/low and were invasive in Transwell invasion assays. This evidence suggests that the gain of region 22q11.2 contributes to trigger EMT. This is the first evidence linking miR-650 and breast cancer. PMID:28101578

  4. No benefit for regional control and survival by planned neck dissection in primary irradiated oropharyngeal cancer irrespective of p16 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquieira, R; Haerle, S K; Huber, G F; Soltermann, A; Haile, S R; Stoeckli, S J; Broglie, Martina A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess regional control and survival in primary irradiated oropharyngeal cancer patients with advanced neck disease (≥cN2a) receiving planned neck dissection (PND) irrespective of the nodal response compared to salvage neck dissection (SND) in case of regional persistence or reccurence in relation to tumoral p16 overexpression. 96 consecutive patients treated at the University Hospital of Zurich, Switzerland were included. Tissue microarray-based scoring of p16 expression was obtained. 5 years overall (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) in the PND and SND cohort were 70 vs. 57 % (p = 0.20) and 80 vs. 65 % (p = 0.14), respectively. Regional control in PND and SND achieved 95 vs. 87 % (p = 0.29), respectively. There was no statistically significant impact of neck treatment (PND vs. SND) on regional control or survival among patients with p16-negative tumors (5 years OS 59 vs. 50 %, p = 0.66; 5 years DSS 59 vs. 57 %, p = 0.89) nor among patients with p16-positive tumors (5 years OS 84 vs. 67 %, p = 0.21; 5 years DSS 95 vs. 81 %, p = 0.24). The type of neck dissection after primary intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) had no impact on regional control and survival even in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated disease. Therefore we are convinced that based on the accuracy of newer diagnostic modalities the surveillance of a radiologically negative neck after primary chemoradiation (CRT) is oncologically safe irrespective of p16 expression of the tumor.

  5. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-03-06

    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  6. TU-G-BRA-01: Assessing Radiation-Induced Reductions in Regional Lung Perfusion Following Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGurk, R; Green, R; Lawrence, M [NC Cancer Hospital, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Schreiber, E; Das, S; Zagar, T; Marks, L [UNC School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Sheikh, A; McCartney, W; Rivera, P [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The dose-dependent nature of radiation therapy (RT)-induced lung injury following hypo-fractionated stereotactic RT is unclear. We herein report preliminary results of a prospective study assessing the magnitude of RT-induced reductions in regional lung perfusion following hypo-fractionated stereotactic RT. Methods: Four patients undergoing hypo-fractionated stereotactic lung RT (SBRT: 12 Gy x 4 fractions or 10 Gy x 5 fractions) had a pre-treatment SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography) perfusion scan providing a 3D map of regional lung perfusion. Scans were repeated 3–6 months post-treatment. Pre- and post SPECT scans were registered to the planning CT scan (and hence the 3D dose data). Changes in regional perfusion (counts per cc on the pre-post scans) were computed in regions of the lung exposed to different doses of radiation (in 5 Gy intervals), thus defining a dose-response function. SPECT scans were internally normalized to the regions receiving <5 Gy. Results: At 3 months post-RT, the changes in perfusion are highly variable. At 6 months, there is a consistent dose-dependent reduction in regional perfusion. The average percent decline in regional perfusion was 10% at 15–20 Gy, 20% at 20–25 Gy, and 30% at 25–30 Gy representing a relatively linear dose response with an approximate 2% reduction per Gray for doses in excess of 10 Gy. There was a subtle increase in perfusion in the lung receiving <10 Gy. Conclusion: Hypo-fractionated stereotactic RT appears to cause a dose-dependent reduction in regional lung perfusion. There appears to be a threshold effect with no apparent perfusion loss at doses <10 Gy, though this might be in part due to the normalization technique used. Additional data is needed from a larger number of patients to better assess this issue. This sort of data can be used to assist optimizing RT treatment plans that minimize the risk of lung injury. Partly supported by the NIH (CA69579) and the Lance Armstrong

  7. A multidisciplinary bone metastases clinic at Toronto Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Centre – A review of the experience from 1999 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy K Li

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Kathy K Li, Emily Sinclair, Joan Pope, Macey Farhadian, Kristin Harris, Julie Napolskikh, Albert Yee, Lawrence Librach, Lesia Wynnychuk, Cyril Danjoux, Edward Chow. On behalf of the Bone Metastases Team.Bone Metastases Site Group, Toronto-Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaAbstract: Our objective in this study was to review the experience of a one-stop multidisciplinary bone metastases clinic (BMC that offers a coordinated multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer patients with bone metastases in a tertiary cancer centre. Patients with symptomatic bone metastases were referred to BMC and assessed by a team of specialists in various disciplines – interventional radiology, orthopedic surgery, palliative medicine, and radiation oncology. At initial consultation, patient demographics, reasons for referral, and case disposition were recorded. From January 1999 to February 2005, a total of 272 patients with bone metastases were referred to the BMC. The median age was 65 years (range 28–95 and median KPS score at consultation was 60 (range 30–90. The majority of patients came from home (74%, while others came from a nursing home or the hospital (9%. Almost a third (28% of patients had 2 or more reasons of referral, yielding a total of 354 reasons. The most common reason for referral was bone pain (42%, bone metastases (21%, high risk for pathological fracture (12%, and pathological fracture (10%. Of the 272 patients who received consultation, 40% received palliative radiotherapy, 19% received interventional surgery, 7% were referred to other support services such as palliative care, physiotherapy, and 7% had further investigation or imaging. A multidisciplinary clinic is useful for co-coordinating the management of bone metastatic disease in symptomatic patients.Keywords: bone metastases, multidisciplinary approach, experience

  8. A Mixed Method Research to Identify Perceived Reasons and Solutions for Low Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening in Urban Families of Bhopal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low uptake of cervical cancer screening is not a matter of poor coverage of health care facilities only. We wish to identify the perceived reasons behind low uptake of screening in Bhopal region and also possible solutions for an urban setting. In a mixed research, through a series of focused group discussions, we wished to do thematic interpretation of the perceptions towards cervical cancer screening by deductive content analysis of FGD and also to obtain a free list of perceived causes and solutions with Smith’s saliency score and perform cluster analysis by pile sorting. We found that the perceived reasons could be grouped into three themes which were (1 information gap leading to fear of unknown, (2 casual attitude, and (3 resource constrains and affordability issues. For the perceived solutions there were 11 codes which could be grouped into two groups; these were increasing awareness and vaccination. Free list of perceived reasons and solutions has also been generated. No single solution can be suggested but a comprehensive approach with awareness campaigns, personalized encouragements, affordable and friendly health care with subsidized vaccination, and screening facilities are expected to increase awareness and acceptability and thus reduce burden of disease in the long run.

  9. Affinity Maturation of Monoclonal Antibody 1E11 by Targeted Randomization in CDR3 Regions Optimizes Therapeutic Antibody Targeting of HER2-Positive Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Bong-Kook; Choi, Soyoung; Cui, Lei Guang; Lee, Young-Ha; Hwang, In-Sik; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Shim, Hyunbo; Lee, Jong-Seo

    2015-01-01

    Anti-HER2 murine monoclonal antibody 1E11 has strong and synergistic anti-tumor activity in HER2-overexpressing gastric cancer cells when used in combination with trastuzumab. We presently optimized this antibody for human therapeutics. First, the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of the murine antibody were grafted onto human germline immunoglobulin variable genes. No difference in affinity and biological activity was observed between chimeric 1E11 (ch1E11) and humanized 1E11 (hz1E11). Next, affinity maturation of hz1E11 was performed by the randomization of CDR-L3 and H3 residues followed by stringent biopanning selection. Milder selection pressure favored the selection of more diverse clones, whereas higher selection stringency resulted in the convergence of the panning output to a smaller number of clones with improved affinity. Clone 1A12 had four amino acid substitutions in CDR-L3, and showed a 10-fold increase in affinity compared to the parental clone and increased potency in an in vitro anti-proliferative activity assay with HER2-overepxressing gastric cancer cells. Clone 1A12 inhibited tumor growth of NCI-N87 xenograft model with similar efficacy to trastuzumab alone, and the combination treatment of 1A12 and trastuzumab completely removed the established tumors. These results suggest that humanized and affinity matured monoclonal antibody 1A12 is a highly optimized molecule for future therapeutic development against HER2-positive tumors.

  10. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A QUESTIONNAIRE SCREENING FOR CANCER DISEASE AMONG THE POPULATION OF THE TERRITORIES OF CHELYABINSK REGION, EXPOSED TO RADIATION INFLUENCE DURING THE ACCIDENT AT THE PRODUCTION ASSOCIATION «MAYAK»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Domozhirova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the incidence of tumors in the most part of the territory of the Chelyabinsk region, exposed to radiation influence after the accident at «Mayak» in 1957 (Argayashsky, Kunashaksky, Krasnoarmejsky, Kaslinsky, Sosnowsky areas and Kyshtym, is lower than the average value for the Chelyabinsk region in total. Screening for cancer using questionnaire method allows detecting not only early, but late stage of tumors, as well as creating awareness of «practically healthy» population about the symptoms of cancer.

  11. Conformal orbit sparing radiation therapy: a treatment option for advanced skin cancer of the parotid and ear region

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, Heath; Hopley, Shane; Brown, Elizabeth; Bernard, Anne; Foote, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction New surgical methods have enabled resection of previously in‐operable tumours in the region of the parotid gland and ear. This has translated to deeper target volumes being treated with adjuvant radiotherapy. Due to the limitations of existing conformal techniques, alternative planning approaches are required to cover the target volume with appropriate sparing of adjacent critical structures. Although intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) may be able to achieve th...

  12. SubClonal Hierarchy Inference from Somatic Mutations: Automatic Reconstruction of Cancer Evolutionary Trees from Multi-region Next Generation Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Niknafs

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent improvements in next-generation sequencing of tumor samples and the ability to identify somatic mutations at low allelic fractions have opened the way for new approaches to model the evolution of individual cancers. The power and utility of these models is increased when tumor samples from multiple sites are sequenced. Temporal ordering of the samples may provide insight into the etiology of both primary and metastatic lesions and rationalizations for tumor recurrence and therapeutic failures. Additional insights may be provided by temporal ordering of evolving subclones--cellular subpopulations with unique mutational profiles. Current methods for subclone hierarchy inference tightly couple the problem of temporal ordering with that of estimating the fraction of cancer cells harboring each mutation. We present a new framework that includes a rigorous statistical hypothesis test and a collection of tools that make it possible to decouple these problems, which we believe will enable substantial progress in the field of subclone hierarchy inference. The methods presented here can be flexibly combined with methods developed by others addressing either of these problems. We provide tools to interpret hypothesis test results, which inform phylogenetic tree construction, and we introduce the first genetic algorithm designed for this purpose. The utility of our framework is systematically demonstrated in simulations. For most tested combinations of tumor purity, sequencing coverage, and tree complexity, good power (≥ 0.8 can be achieved and Type 1 error is well controlled when at least three tumor samples are available from a patient. Using data from three published multi-region tumor sequencing studies of (murine small cell lung cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, in which the authors reconstructed subclonal phylogenetic trees by manual expert curation, we show how different configurations of our tools can

  13. Cancer-associated mutations in the protrusion-targeting region of p190RhoGAP impact tumor cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binamé, Fabien; Bidaud-Meynard, Aurélien; Magnan, Laure; Piquet, Léo; Montibus, Bertille; Chabadel, Anne; Saltel, Frédéric; Lagrée, Valérie; Moreau, Violaine

    2016-09-26

    Spatiotemporal regulation of RhoGTPases such as RhoA is required at the cell leading edge to achieve cell migration. p190RhoGAP (p190A) is the main negative regulator of RhoA and localizes to membrane protrusions, where its GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity is required for directional migration. In this study, we investigated the molecular processes responsible for p190A targeting to actin protrusions. By analyzing the subcellular localization of truncated versions of p190A in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, we identified a novel functional p190A domain: the protrusion localization sequence (PLS) necessary and sufficient for p190A targeting to leading edges. Interestingly, the PLS is also required for the negative regulation of p190A RhoGAP activity. Further, we show that the F-actin binding protein cortactin binds the PLS and is required for p190A targeting to protrusions. Lastly, we demonstrate that cancer-associated mutations in PLS affect p190A localization and function, as well as tumor cell migration. Altogether, our data unveil a new mechanism of regulation of p190A in migrating tumor cells.

  14. Regional hyperthermia in conjunction with definitive radiotherapy against recurrent or locally advanced prostate cancer T3pNoMo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilly, W.; Gellermann, J.; Graf, R.; Felix, R.; Wust, P. [Dept. of Radiation Medicine, Charite Medical School, Berlin (Germany); Hildebrandt, B. [Dept. of Internal Medicine - Hematology and Oncology, Charite Medical School, Berlin (Germany); Weissbach, L. [Dept. of Urology, Urban Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Budach, V. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Charite Medical School, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: since long-term results of the standard treatment of locally advanced or recurrent prostatic carcinoma are unsatisfactory, the role for additional regional hyperthermia was evaluated in a phase I/II study. Patients and methods: from 08/1996 to 03/2000, 22 patients were treated by a standard irradiation regimen (68.4 Gy) in combination with regional hyperthermia (weekly, five to six times), and five of 22 patients received short-term (neoadjuvant) hormonal treatment. Of these, 15 patients had primary prostatic carcinoma T3 pNO MO and seven a histologically confirmed local recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Feasibility of hyperthermia, and acute/late toxicity as well as long-term follow-up (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] control, overall survival) were analyzed. Clinical endpoints were correlated with thermal parameters. Results: mean maximum temperatures along the urethra of 41.4 C (41.0 C for the recurrences), and mean T{sub 90} values of 40.7 C could be achieved. Severe acute toxicity of grade 3 occurred at the rectum in three, at the urethra in four, at the intestine in one, and a burn induced by hyperthermia in one of 22 patients. Late toxicity was only observed rectally in one patient (grade 3) and at the urethra in two patients (grade 2). There was no correlation between thermal parameters and any toxicity. The survival curves showed a PSA control for primary prostatic carcinoma > 50% after 6 years, but no long-term PSA control for the recurrences. Overall survival after 6 years was 95% for primary carcinoma, and 60% for the recurrences. There was a clear correlation between higher temperatures or thermal doses with long-term PSA control. Conclusion: regional hyperthermia might be a low-toxicity approach to increase PSA control of common treatment schedules. Further evaluation, in particular employing improved hyperthermia technology, is worthwhile. (orig.)

  15. Physical and transcriptional mapping of the 17p13.3 region that is frequently deleted in human cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, C; Seranski, P; Mollenhauer, J;

    2000-01-01

    suppressor gene that has also been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of Miller-Diecker syndrome (MDS). However, single-gene isolation efforts have retrieved additional genes from 17p13.3 that could play a role in tumorigenesis. This indicates that the full potential of this chromosomal region...... with respect to disease-related genes has not yet been exhausted and that there may exist still unknown genes that contribute to tumorigenesis or to the complex MDS phenotype. To provide a basis for the systematic isolation and evaluation of such genes, we established a physical map over 1.5 Mb of 17p13...

  16. Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region in MIB-1 positive cells in non-small cell lung cancer:clinicopathological signiifcance and sur vival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dmitriy Sergeevich Kobyakov; Ashot Merudzhanovich Avdalyan; Aleksandr Fedorovich Lazarev; Elena Leonidovna Lushnikova; Lev Moiseevich Nepomnyashchikh

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the relation between argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR)-associated proteins and clinicopathological parameters and survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods:A total of 207 surgical specimens diagnosed as NSCLC were included in this study. Double-staining procedures were performed using antigen Ki-67 (clone MIB-1) and silver nitrate by immunohistochemical and AgNOR-staining methods. Results:The AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells of NSCLC is related to clinicopathological parameters under the TNM (tumor, node, and metastasis) system. The survival of patients with small AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells is better than that of patients with large AgNOR area. Molecular, biological (AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells), and clinicopathological (greatest tumor dimension, metastases to regional lymph nodes, histology, and differentiation) parameters are independent prognostic factors of NSCLC. Conclusion:hTe AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells is related to clinicopathological parameters and survival in NSCLC.

  17. Predictive Role of Functional Visceral Fat Activity Assessed by Preoperative F-18 FDG PET/CT for Regional Lymph Node or Distant Metastasis in Patients with Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisoo Pahk

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of functional visceral fat activity assessed by preoperative F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT in colorectal cancer (CRC for predicting regional lymph node (LN or distant metastasis.We evaluated 131 patients with newly diagnosed CRC. They all underwent pre-operative 18F-FDG PET/CT and surgery. Functional fat activity was measured by maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax using 18F-FDG PET/CT. Functional visceral fat activity was measured by SUVmax of visceral fat/SUVmax of subcutaneous fat (V/S ratio. Mann-Whitney U test, χ2 test, Fisher's exact test, receiver-operating characteristic (ROC analysis, Spearrman's correlation coefficient, and uni- and multivariate logistic regression statistical analyses were done.Patients with higher V/S ratio displayed a significantly higher rate of regional LN (p = 0.004 and distant metastasis (p<0.001. In addition, V/S ratio was the only factor that was significantly associated with distant metastasis. An optimal cut-off V/S ratio of 1.88 was proposed for predicting distant metastasis with a sensitivity of 84.6% and specificity of 78.8% (area under the curve: 0.86; p<0.0001.Functional visceral fat activity is significantly associated with distant metastasis in CRC patients. Furthermore, V/S ratio can be useful as a complementary factor in predicting distant metastasis.

  18. Streamlining cooperation between public authorities and civil society : Exclusive Baltinfo interview with Arnold Rüütel, president of Estonia and patron of the IV Baltic Sea NGO Forum in Pärnu 16-17 April / Arnold Rüütel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rüütel, Arnold

    2004-01-01

    Intervjuu mittetulundusühingute seminari "IV BALTIC SEA NGO FORUM" patrooni Arnold Rüütliga kodanikeühenduste ja avaliku sektori koostööst, ühiskondlikust lepingust, 2002. aastal Riigikogus vastu võetud Eesti kodanikuühiskonna arengu kontseptsioonist

  19. Multi-target siRNA based on DNMT3A/B homologous conserved region influences cell cycle and apoptosis of human prostate cancer cell line TSU-PR1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-feng Du

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal genome hypermethylation participates in the tumorigenesis and development of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer cells highly express DNA methyltransferase 3 (DMNT3 family genes, essential for maintaining genome methylation. In the present study, multi-target siRNA, based on the homologous region of the DNMT3 family, was designed for the in vitro investigation of its effects on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of TSU-PR1 prostate cancer cells. The consequential cell-cycle derangement, through DNMT3A/B or only DNMT3B silencing, was partially efficient, without affecting apoptosis. DNMT3A silencing had absolutely no effect on changing TSU-PR1 cell biological behavior. Hence, DNMT3B alone apparently plays a key role in maintaining the unfavorable behavior of prostate-cancer cells, thereby implying its potential significance as a promising therapeutic target, with DNMT3A simply in the role of helper.

  20. Ethics, Risk, and Media Intervention: Women's Breast Cancer in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are of concern among Latin American women, mainly due to the growing prevalence of this disease and the lack of compliance to proper breast cancer screening and treatment. Focusing on Venezuelan women and the challenges and barriers that interact with their health communication, this paper looks into issues surrounding women's breast cancer, such as the challenges and barriers to breast cancer care, the relevant ethics and responsibilities, the right to health, breast cancer risk perception and risk communication, and the media interventions that affect Venezuelan women's perceptions and actions pertaining to this disease. In particular, it describes an action-oriented research project in Venezuela that was conducted over a four-year period of collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include positive indications on more effective interactions between physicians and patients, increasing satisfactions about issues of ethical treatment in providing healthcare services, more sufficient and responsible media coverage of breast cancer healthcare services and information, a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela, and the creation of a code of ethics for the Venezuelan NGO that led the expansion of networking in support of women's breast cancer healthcare.

  1. Novel microsatellite markers and single nucleotide polymorphisms refine the tylosis with oesophageal cancer (TOC) minimal region on 17q25 to 42.5 kb: sequencing does not identify the causative gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Joanne E; Cole, Charlotte G; Huckle, Elisabeth J; Byrne, Shaun; McRonald, Fiona E; Rowbottom, Lynn; Ellis, Anthony; Shaw, Joan M; Leigh, Irene M; Kelsell, David P; Dunham, Ian; Field, John K; Risk, Janet M

    2004-05-01

    Tylosis (focal non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma) is associated with the early onset of squamous cell oesophageal cancer in three families. Linkage and haplotype analyses have previously mapped the tylosis with oesophageal cancer ( TOC) locus to a 500-kb region on chromosome 17q25 that has also been implicated in sporadically occurring squamous cell oesophageal cancer. In the current study, 17 additional putative microsatellite markers were identified within this 500-kb region by using sequence data and seven of these were shown to be polymorphic in the UK and US families. In addition, our complete sequence analysis of the non-repetitive parts of the TOC minimal region identified 53 novel and six known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in one or both of these families. Further fine mapping of the TOC disease locus by haplotype analysis of the seven polymorphic markers and 21 of the 59 SNPs allowed the reduction of the minimal region to 42.5 kb. One known and two putative genes are located within this region but none of these genes shows tylosis-specific mutations within their protein-coding regions. Alternative mechanisms of disease gene action must therefore be considered.

  2. Specific variants in the MLH1 gene region may drive DNA methylation, loss of protein expression, and MSI-H colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miralem Mrkonjic

    Full Text Available We previously identified an association between a mismatch repair gene, MLH1, promoter SNP (rs1800734 and microsatellite unstable (MSI-H colorectal cancers (CRCs in two samples. The current study expanded on this finding as we explored the genetic basis of DNA methylation in this region of chromosome 3. We hypothesized that specific polymorphisms in the MLH1 gene region predispose it to DNA methylation, resulting in the loss of MLH1 gene expression, mismatch-repair function, and consequently to genome-wide microsatellite instability.We first tested our hypothesis in one sample from Ontario (901 cases, 1,097 controls and replicated major findings in two additional samples from Newfoundland and Labrador (479 cases, 336 controls and from Seattle (591 cases, 629 controls. Logistic regression was used to test for association between SNPs in the region of MLH1 and CRC, MSI-H CRC, MLH1 gene expression in CRC, and DNA methylation in CRC. The association between rs1800734 and MSI-H CRCs, previously reported in Ontario and Newfoundland, was replicated in the Seattle sample. Two additional SNPs, in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs1800734, showed strong associations with MLH1 promoter methylation, loss of MLH1 protein, and MSI-H CRC in all three samples. The logistic regression model of MSI-H CRC that included MLH1-promoter-methylation status and MLH1 immunohistochemistry status fit most parsimoniously in all three samples combined. When rs1800734 was added to this model, its effect was not statistically significant (P-value  = 0.72 vs. 2.3×10(-4 when the SNP was examined alone.The observed association of rs1800734 with MSI-H CRC occurs through its effect on the MLH1 promoter methylation, MLH1 IHC deficiency, or both.

  3. Changes in Functional Lung Regions During the Course of Radiation Therapy and Their Potential Impact on Lung Dosimetry for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xue [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Frey, Kirk [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Matuszak, Martha; Paul, Stanton; Ten Haken, Randall [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Yu, Jinming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Kong, Feng-Ming, E-mail: fkong@gru.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To study changes in functional activity on ventilation (V)/perfusion (Q) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) during radiation therapy (RT) and explore the impact of such changes on lung dosimetry in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Fifteen NSCLC patients with centrally located tumors were enrolled. All patients were treated with definitive RT dose of ≥60 Gy. V/Q SPECT-CT scans were performed prior to and after delivery of 45 Gy of fractionated RT. SPECT images were used to define temporarily dysfunctional regions of lung caused by tumor or other potentially reversible conditions as B3. The functional lung (FL) was defined on SPECT by 2 separate approaches: FL1, a threshold of 30% of the maximum uptake of the patient's lung; and FL2, FL1 plus B3 region. The impact of changes in FL between initiation of RT and delivery of 45 Gy on lung dosimetry were analyzed. Results: Fourteen patients (93%) had larger FL2 volumes than FL1 pre-RT (P<.001). Dysfunctional lung became functional in 11 patients (73%) on V SPECT and in 10 patients (67%) on Q SPECT. The dosimetric parameters generated from CT-based anatomical lung had significantly lower values in FL1 than FL2, with a median reduction in the volume of lung receiving a dose of at least 20 Gy (V{sub 20}) of 3%, 5.6%, and mean lung dose of 0.95 and 1.55 on V and Q SPECT respectively. Conclusions: Regional ventilation and perfusion function improve significantly during RT in centrally located NSCLC. Lung dosimetry values vary notably between different definitions of functional lung.

  4. NGO在我国未成年人非刑罚处置中的功效%The Effect of NGO on the Non - Criminal Punishment Treatment of Juveniles in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周家明; 纳瑛

    2011-01-01

    It has become a serious social problem that juveniles break laws and commit crimes. It is an urge to strengthen the function of non - criminal punishment treatment. NGO will definitely become the main organization to carry out non - criminal punishment treatment due to its inherent nature. It has a significant effect in non - criminal punishment treatment.%未成年人违法犯罪成为一个较为严重的社会问题,非刑罚处置的功能和作用亟待加强;NGO组织的天然优势使其成为实施未成年人非刑罚处置的必然选择;NGO组织在未成年人非刑罚处置中的功效显著。

  5. A predictive model to guide management of the overlap region between target volume and organs at risk in prostate cancer volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, Malcolm D.; Lee, Jennifer C.; Einaiem, Sara; Guirguis, Adel; Ikoro, N. C.; Ashamalla Hani [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn (United States)

    2013-12-15

    The goal of this study is to determine whether the magnitude of overlap between planning target volume (PTV) and rectum (Rectum{sub overlap}) or PTV and bladder (Bladder{sub overlap}) in prostate cancer volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is predictive of the dose-volume relationships achieved after optimization, and to identify predictive equations and cutoff values using these overlap volumes beyond which the Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) dose-volume constraints are unlikely to be met. Fifty-seven patients with prostate cancer underwent VMAT planning using identical optimization conditions and normalization. The PTV (for the 50.4 Gy primary plan and 30.6 Gy boost plan) included 5 to 10 mm margins around the prostate and seminal vesicles. Pearson correlations, linear regression analyses, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to correlate the percentage overlap with dose-volume parameters. The percentage Rectum{sub overlap} and Bladder{sub overlap} correlated with sparing of that organ but minimally impacted other dose-volume parameters, predicted the primary plan rectum V{sub 45} and bladder V{sub 50} with R{sup 2} = 0.78 and R{sup 2} = 0.83, respectively, and predicted the boost plan rectum V{sub 30} and bladder V{sub 30} with R{sup 2} = 0.53 and R{sup 2} = 0.81, respectively. The optimal cutoff value of boost Rectumoverlap to predict rectum V75 >15% was 3.5% (sensitivity 100%, specificity 94%, p < 0.01), and the optimal cutoff value of boost Bladder{sub overlap} to predict bladder V{sub 80} >10% was 5.0% (sensitivity 83%, specificity 100%, p < 0.01). The degree of overlap between PTV and bladder or rectum can be used to accurately guide physicians on the use of interventions to limit the extent of the overlap region prior to optimization.

  6. Temporal Nodal Regression and Regional Control After Primary Radiation Therapy for N2-N3 Head-and-Neck Cancer Stratified by HPV Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shao Hui; O' Sullivan, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Xu, Wei; Zhao, Helen [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chen, Duo-duo [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ringash, Jolie; Hope, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Razak, Albiruni [Division of Medical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Gilbert, Ralph; Irish, Jonathan [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery/Surgical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kim, John; Dawson, Laura A.; Bayley, Andrew; Cho, B.C. John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Goldstein, David; Gullane, Patrick [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery/Surgical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Yu, Eugene [Department of Radiology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Weinreb, Ilan [Department of Pathology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Waldron, John, E-mail: John.Waldron@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To compare the temporal lymph node (LN) regression and regional control (RC) after primary chemoradiation therapy/radiation therapy in human papillomavirus-related [HPV(+)] versus human papillomavirus-unrelated [HPV(−)] head-and-neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: All cases of N2-N3 HNC treated with radiation therapy/chemoradiation therapy between 2003 and 2009 were reviewed. Human papillomavirus status was ascertained by p16 staining on all available oropharyngeal cancers. Larynx/hypopharynx cancers were considered HPV(−). Initial radiologic complete nodal response (CR) (≤1.0 cm 8-12 weeks after treatment), ultimate LN resolution, and RC were compared between HPV(+) and HPV(−) HNC. Multivariate analysis identified outcome predictors. Results: A total of 257 HPV(+) and 236 HPV(−) HNCs were identified. The initial LN size was larger (mean, 2.9 cm vs 2.5 cm; P<.01) with a higher proportion of cystic LNs (38% vs 6%, P<.01) in HPV(+) versus HPV(−) HNC. CR was achieved is 125 HPV(+) HNCs (49%) and 129 HPV(−) HNCs (55%) (P=.18). The mean post treatment largest LN was 36% of the original size in the HPV(+) group and 41% in the HPV(−) group (P<.01). The actuarial LN resolution was similar in the HPV(+) and HPV(−) groups at 12 weeks (42% and 43%, respectively), but it was higher in the HPV(+) group than in the HPV(−) group at 36 weeks (90% vs 77%, P<.01). The median follow-up period was 3.6 years. The 3-year RC rate was higher in the HPV(−) CR cases versus non-CR cases (92% vs 63%, P<.01) but was not different in the HPV(+) CR cases versus non-CR cases (98% vs 92%, P=.14). On multivariate analysis, HPV(+) status predicted ultimate LN resolution (odds ratio, 1.4 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.7]; P<.01) and RC (hazard ratio, 0.3 [95% confidence interval 0.2-0.6]; P<.01). Conclusions: HPV(+) LNs involute more quickly than HPV(−) LNs but undergo a more prolonged process to eventual CR beyond the time of initial assessment at 8 to 12

  7. Recent changes in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among children and adults in high-or low-incidence regions of gastric cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dong-hong; ZHOU Li-ya; LIN San-ren; DING Shi-gang; HUANG Yong-hui; GU Fang; ZHANG Li; LI Yuan; CUI Rong-li; MENG Ling-mei; YAN Xiue; ZHANG Jing

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori(H.pylon)infection varies by geographic locations.Studies indicate that the infection rate of H.pylori was previously high in China but that rates had been declining worldwide over recent decades.The aims of our study were:(1)to determine the current prevalence of H.pylori infection among children and adults residing in areas with high(Muping County,Shandong)and low(Yanqing County,Beijing)incidences of gastric cancer in China,and(2)to compare the prevalence for 2006 with the prevalence for the early 1990s.Methods Using Warthin-Starry silver staining of gastdc mucosal biopsy specimens and H.pylori stool antigen tests (HpSA),we tested a total of 2065 asymptomatic children aged 8-15 years and adults aged 40-79 years in the above two regions from May to July 2006.We evaluated 520 children and 526 adults from Muping,and 516 children and 503 adults from Yanqing.Subjects were selected randomly and H.pylon status was determined by HpSA in children and either HpSA or histology of gastric biopsies in adults.Data obtained in the early 1990s in the same two areas of China were also collected and studied.Results For children,the prevalence of H.pylori infection was significantly higher in Muping(37.69%)than it was in Yanqing(25.58%,P<0.001).In both regions,the prevalence of H.pylori increased with age but was not related to gender.A significant difference was observed between 8-9-years old and 10-11-years old(P<0.05),but not between other adjoining age groups(P>0.05).From 1991 to 2006 H.py/ori prevalence among 8-10-year-old children decreased in Muping(60.00%vs 32.07%,P<0.001),but not Yanqing(24.06%vs 19.10%,P>0.05).In the adult group,H.pylori prevalence was 50.95%in Muping,which was significantly higher than the 41.35%positive rate in Yanqing(P<0.01).But there were no statistically significant differences between different age groups of 40-49,50-59,and 60-79 years,or between males and females.A significant decrease in

  8. Magnetic resonance-guided regional gene delivery strategy using a tumor stroma-permeable nanocarrier for pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Q

    2015-07-01

    . Permeability of the nanoparticles modified by cell-penetrating peptides was superior to that of the unmodified counterpart, demonstrating the improved capability of nanoparticles for diffusion in tumor stroma on magnetic resonance imaging.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that an image-guided gene delivery system with a stroma-permeable gene vector could be a potential clinically translatable gene therapy strategy for PDAC. Keywords: molecular imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, interventional, pancreatic cancer, genetic therapy, cell-penetrating peptides

  9. Patterns of nucleolar organizer region in urinary bladder cancer in view of 2004 WHO classification of urothelial neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Soin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The last decade has seen a tremendous upheaval since introduction of WHO-1998 classification (modified in 2004 of bladder carcinoma, which only recently seems to have settled down. We compare both old (WHO-1973 and new (2004 classifications with argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR score. Aims: To compare WHO/ISUP (World Health Organization/International Society of Urologic Pathologists consensus classification-2004 and WHO-1973 classification of bladder carcinoma and to establish correlation between AgNOR scores and various grades of carcinoma bladder. Materials and Methods: Sixty H and E (Hematoxylin and Eosin stained sections of transitional cell carcinoma bladder were graded according to WHO/ISUP (2004 and WHO (1973 classification systems and the results were compared. This was then followed by AgNOR staining of the paraffin-embedded sections and subsequent AgNOR scores were calculated and given as total score, extranucleolar score, intranucleolar score, and nucleolar score. These were correlated with the grade of the tumor. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA test. Results: It was observed that the two grading systems, WHO/ISUP (2004 and WHO (1973 correlated with each other. Also it was observed that the total AgNOR score and extranucleolar AgNOR score increased with the grade of the tumor and thus increasing scores carry significance in assessment of the grade of the tumor. However, intranucleolar and nucleolar scores showed variable degree of overlap in various grades of the bladder tumors. Conclusions: WHO/ISUP (2004 classification correlated well with the WHO (1973 classification. The total AgNOR score was found to be helpful in assessment of the grade of the tumor but the distribution of the AgNOR carried little significance.

  10. Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhaoming; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Mingfeng; Parikh, Hemang; Jia, Jinping; Chung, Charles C.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Hoskins, Jason W; Hutchinson, Amy; Burdette, Laurie; Ibrahim, Abdisamad; Hautman, Christopher; Raj, Preethi S.; Abnet, Christian C.; Adjei, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic architecture of common susceptibility alleles in this region, we conducted an agnostic subset-based meta-analysis (association analysis based...

  11. Novel Approaches to Visualization and Data Mining Reveals Diagnostic Information in the Low Amplitude Region of Serum Mass Spectra from Ovarian Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. Johann

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify patterns of diagnostic signatures in proteomic data generated by high throughput mass spectrometry (MS based serum analysis has recently generated much excitement and interest from the scientific community. These data sets can be very large, with high-resolution MS instrumentation producing 1–2 million data points per sample. Approaches to analyze mass spectral data using unsupervised and supervised data mining operations would greatly benefit from tools that effectively allow for data reduction without losing important diagnostic information. In the past, investigators have proposed approaches where data reduction is performed by a priori “peak picking” and alignment/warping/smoothing components using rule-based signal-to-noise measurements. Unfortunately, while this type of system has been employed for gene microarray analysis, it is unclear whether it will be effective in the analysis of mass spectral data, which unlike microarray data, is comprised of continuous measurement operations. Moreover, it is unclear where true signal begins and noise ends. Therefore, we have developed an approach to MS data analysis using new types of data visualization and mining operations in which data reduction is accomplished by culling via the intensity of the peaks themselves instead of by location. Applying this new analysis method on a large study set of high resolution mass spectra from healthy and ovarian cancer patients, shows that all of the diagnostic information is contained within the very lowest amplitude regions of the mass spectra. This region can then be selected and studied to identify the exact location and amplitude of the diagnostic biomarkers.

  12. Polymorphism attribution of cSNPs in cancer-related genes located in loss regions with a high frequency of HCC between HBV and health groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; NI Hong; CHEN Li; CHEN Chengbin; SONG Wenqin

    2007-01-01

    Cancer-related genes harbored in the loss regions containing a high frequency of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were selected.Related information was gathered and the coding single nucleotide polymorphism (cSNP) sequences were obtained from the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) database.The appropriate primers and oligonucleotide probes were then designed in accordance with the SNP sites,and subsequently,the gene chips for detecting SNPs were constructed.Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of healthy controls and from patients with HBV infection.The sequences,including the SNPs,were amplified via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and labeled using digoxigenin deoxyuridine tri-phosphate (Dig-dUTP).The labeled products were then hybridized with the SNP chips.Results confirmed that the differences in allele frequencies of three SNPs EGFL3 (rs947345),Caspase9 (rs2308950),and E2F2 (rs3218171) were distinct between HBV-infected patients and controls,suggesting that these SNPs ocuring in high frequency in HBV-infected individuals may be associated with susceptibility to HCC.

  13. Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoming; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Mingfeng; Parikh, Hemang; Jia, Jinping; Chung, Charles C.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Hoskins, Jason W.; Hutchinson, Amy; Burdette, Laurie; Ibrahim, Abdisamad; Hautman, Christopher; Raj, Preethi S.; Abnet, Christian C.; Adjei, Andrew A.; Ahlbom, Anders; Albanes, Demetrius; Allen, Naomi E.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Aldrich, Melinda; Amiano, Pilar; Amos, Christopher; Andersson, Ulrika; Andriole, Gerald; Andrulis, Irene L.; Arici, Cecilia; Arslan, Alan A.; Austin, Melissa A.; Baris, Dalsu; Barkauskas, Donald A.; Bassig, Bryan A.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Berg, Christine D.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Biritwum, Richard B.; Black, Amanda; Blot, William; Boeing, Heiner; Boffetta, Paolo; Bolton, Kelly; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bracci, Paige M.; Brennan, Paul; Brinton, Louise A.; Brotzman, Michelle; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Buring, Julie E.; Butler, Mary Ann; Cai, Qiuyin; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Canzian, Federico; Cao, Guangwen; Caporaso, Neil E.; Carrato, Alfredo; Carreon, Tania; Carta, Angela; Chang, Gee-Chen; Chang, I-Shou; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Che, Xu; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Chih-Yi; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Chen, Constance; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chokkalingam, Anand P.; Chu, Lisa W.; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Colditz, Graham A.; Colt, Joanne S.; Conti, David; Cook, Michael B.; Cortessis, Victoria K.; Crawford, E. David; Cussenot, Olivier; Davis, Faith G.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Deng, Xiang; Ding, Ti; Dinney, Colin P.; Di Stefano, Anna Luisa; Diver, W. Ryan; Duell, Eric J.; Elena, Joanne W.; Fan, Jin-Hu; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Feychting, Maria; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Flanagan, Adrienne M.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Freedman, Neal D.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Gallinger, Steven; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gapstur, Susan M.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Garcia-Closas, Reina; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Giffen, Carol A.; Giles, Graham G.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goggins, Michael; Gokgoz, Nalan; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Gorlick, Richard; Greene, Mark H.; Gross, Myron; Grossman, H. Barton; Grubb, Robert; Gu, Jian; Guan, Peng; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hallmans, Goran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Harris, Curtis C.; Hartge, Patricia; Hattinger, Claudia; Hayes, Richard B.; He, Qincheng; Helman, Lee; Henderson, Brian E.; Henriksson, Roger; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Hohensee, Chancellor; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hoover, Robert N.; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Hsing, Ann W.; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Hu, Nan; Hu, Wei; Hu, Zhibin; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Hunter, David J.; Inskip, Peter D.; Ito, Hidemi; Jacobs, Eric J.; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jenab, Mazda; Ji, Bu-Tian; Johansen, Christoffer; Johansson, Mattias; Johnson, Alison; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kamat, Ashish M.; Kamineni, Aruna; Karagas, Margaret; Khanna, Chand; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Christopher; Kim, In-Sam; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Yeul Hong; Kim, Young-Chul; Kim, Young Tae; Kang, Chang Hyun; Jung, Yoo Jin; Kitahara, Cari M.; Klein, Alison P.; Klein, Robert; Kogevinas, Manolis; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kohno, Takashi; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kratz, Christian P.; Krogh, Vittorio; Kunitoh, Hideo; Kurtz, Robert C.; Kurucu, Nilgun; Lan, Qing; Lathrop, Mark; Lau, Ching C.; Lecanda, Fernando; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Lee, Maxwell P.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lerner, Seth P.; Li, Donghui; Liao, Linda M.; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lin, Dongxin; Lin, Jie; Lindstrom, Sara; Linet, Martha S.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Liu, Jianjun; Ljungberg, Börje; Lloreta, Josep; Lu, Daru; Ma, Jing; Malats, Nuria; Mannisto, Satu; Marina, Neyssa; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGlynn, Katherine A.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; McNeill, Lorna H.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Melin, Beatrice S.; Meltzer, Paul S.; Mensah, James E.; Miao, Xiaoping; Michaud, Dominique S.; Mondul, Alison M.; Moore, Lee E.; Muir, Kenneth; Niwa, Shelley; Olson, Sara H.; Orr, Nick; Panico, Salvatore; Park, Jae Yong; Patel, Alpa V.; Patino-Garcia, Ana; Pavanello, Sofia; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Peplonska, Beata; Peters, Ulrike; Petersen, Gloria M.; Picci, Piero; Pike, Malcolm C.; Porru, Stefano; Prescott, Jennifer; Pu, Xia; Purdue, Mark P.; Qiao, You-Lin; Rajaraman, Preetha; Riboli, Elio; Risch, Harvey A.; Rodabough, Rebecca J.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Ruder, Avima M.; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Sanson, Marc; Schned, Alan; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Schwartz, Kendra L.; Schwenn, Molly; Scotlandi, Katia; Seow, Adeline; Serra, Consol; Serra, Massimo; Sesso, Howard D.; Severi, Gianluca; Shen, Hongbing; Shen, Min; Shete, Sanjay; Shiraishi, Kouya; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Siddiq, Afshan; Sierrasesumaga, Luis; Sierri, Sabina; Loon Sihoe, Alan Dart; Silverman, Debra T.; Simon, Matthias; Southey, Melissa C.; Spector, Logan; Spitz, Margaret; Stampfer, Meir; Stattin, Par; Stern, Mariana C.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.; Stram, Daniel O.; Strom, Sara S.; Su, Wu-Chou; Sund, Malin; Sung, Sook Whan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tan, Wen; Tanaka, Hideo; Tang, Wei; Tang, Ze-Zhang; Tardon, Adonina; Tay, Evelyn; Taylor, Philip R.; Tettey, Yao; Thomas, David M.; Tirabosco, Roberto; Tjonneland, Anne; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Toro, Jorge R.; Travis, Ruth C.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Troisi, Rebecca; Truelove, Ann; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Tucker, Margaret A.; Tumino, Rosario; Van Den Berg, David; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Vermeulen, Roel; Vineis, Paolo; Visvanathan, Kala; Vogel, Ulla; Wang, Chaoyu; Wang, Chengfeng; Wang, Junwen; Wang, Sophia S.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wheeler, William; White, Emily; Wiencke, John K.; Wolk, Alicja; Wolpin, Brian M.; Wong, Maria Pik; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Chen; Wu, Tangchun; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Yi-Long; Wunder, Jay S.; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Xu, Jun; Yang, Hannah P.; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yatabe, Yasushi; Ye, Yuanqing; Yeboah, Edward D.; Yin, Zhihua; Ying, Chen; Yu, Chong-Jen; Yu, Kai; Yuan, Jian-Min; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Zhou, Baosen; Mirabello, Lisa; Savage, Sharon A.; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J.; Yeager, Meredith; Landi, Maria Terese; Shi, Jianxin; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Amundadottir, Laufey T.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic architecture of common susceptibility alleles in this region, we conducted an agnostic subset-based meta-analysis (association analysis based on subsets) across six distinct cancers in 34 248 cases and 45 036 controls. Based on sequential conditional analysis, we identified as many as six independent risk loci marked by common single-nucleotide polymorphisms: five in the TERT gene (Region 1: rs7726159, P = 2.10 × 10−39; Region 3: rs2853677, P = 3.30 × 10−36 and PConditional = 2.36 × 10−8; Region 4: rs2736098, P = 3.87 × 10−12 and PConditional = 5.19 × 10−6, Region 5: rs13172201, P = 0.041 and PConditional = 2.04 × 10−6; and Region 6: rs10069690, P = 7.49 × 10−15 and PConditional = 5.35 × 10−7) and one in the neighboring CLPTM1L gene (Region 2: rs451360; P = 1.90 × 10−18 and PConditional = 7.06 × 10−16). Between three and five cancers mapped to each independent locus with both risk-enhancing and protective effects. Allele-specific effects on DNA methylation were seen for a subset of risk loci, indicating that methylation and subsequent effects on gene expression may contribute to the biology of risk variants on 5p15.33. Our results provide strong support for extensive pleiotropy across this region of 5p15.33, to an extent not previously observed in other cancer susceptibility loci. PMID:25027329

  14. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI in Head-and-Neck Cancer: The Impact of Region of Interest Selection on the Intra- and Interpatient Variability of Pharmacokinetic Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craciunescu, Oana I., E-mail: oana.craciunescu@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Yoo, David S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Cleland, Esi [GECAD Ghana Ltd., Acra (Ghana); Muradyan, Naira [iCAD Inc., Nashua, NH (United States); Carroll, Madeline D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); MacFall, James R.; Barboriak, Daniel P. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Brizel, David M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI-extracted parameters measure tumor microvascular physiology and are usually calculated from an intratumor region of interest (ROI). Optimal ROI delineation is not established. The valid clinical use of DCE-MRI requires that the variation for any given parameter measured within a tumor be less than that observed between tumors in different patients. This work evaluates the impact of tumor ROI selection on the assessment of intra- and interpatient variability. Method and Materials: Head and neck cancer patients received initial targeted therapy (TT) treatment with erlotinib and/or bevacizumab, followed by radiotherapy and concurrent cisplatin with synchronous TT. DCE-MRI data from Baseline and the end of the TT regimen (Lead-In) were analyzed to generate the vascular transfer function (K{sup trans}), the extracellular volume fraction (v{sub e}), and the initial area under the concentration time curve (iAUC{sub 1min}). Four ROI sampling strategies were used: whole tumor or lymph node (Whole), the slice containing the most enhancing voxels (SliceMax), three slices centered in SliceMax (Partial), and the 5% most enhancing contiguous voxels within SliceMax (95Max). The average coefficient of variation (aCV) was calculated to establish intrapatient variability among ROI sets and interpatient variability for each ROI type. The average ratio between each intrapatient CV and the interpatient CV was calculated (aRCV). Results: Baseline primary/nodes aRCVs for different ROIs not including 95Max were, for all three MR parameters, in the range of 0.14-0.24, with Lead-In values between 0.09 and 0.2, meaning a low intrapatient vs. interpatient variation. For 95Max, intrapatient CVs approximated interpatient CVs, meaning similar data dispersion and higher aRCVs (0.6-1.27 for baseline) and 0.54-0.95 for Lead-In. Conclusion: Distinction between different patient's primary tumors and/or nodes cannot be made using 95Max ROIs. The other

  15. Compromised quality of life in adult patients who have received a radiation dose towards the basal part of the brain. A case-control study in long-term survivors from cancer in the head and neck region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löfdahl Elisabet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders have compromised quality of life (QoL. Whether this is due to their endocrine consequences (hypopituitarism, their underlying hypothalamic-pituitary disorder or both is still under debate. The aim of this trial was to measure quality of life (QoL in long-term cancer survivors who have received a radiation dose to the basal part of the brain and the pituitary. Methods Consecutive patients (n=101 treated for oropharyngeal or epipharyngeal cancer with radiotherapy followed free of cancer for a period of 4 to10 years were identified. Fifteen patients (median age 56 years with no concomitant illness and no hypopituitarism after careful endocrine evaluation were included in a case-control study with matched healthy controls. Doses to the hypothalamic-pituitary region were calculated. QoL was assessed using the Symptom check list (SCL-90, Nottingham Health Profile (NHP, and Psychological Well Being (PGWB questionnaires. Level of physical activity was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire. Results The median accumulated dose was 1.9 Gy (1.5–2.2 Gy to the hypothalamus and 2.4 Gy (1.8–3.3 Gy to the pituitary gland in patients with oropharyngeal cancer and 6.0–9.3 Gy and 33.5–46.1 Gy, respectively in patients with epipharyngeal cancer (n=2. The patients showed significantly more anxiety and depressiveness, and lower vitality, than their matched controls. Conclusion In a group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who hade received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region and who had no endocrine consequences of disease or its treatment QoL was compromised as compared with well matched healthy controls.

  16. SU-E-T-59: A Novel Multi-Beam Dynamic IMRT with Fixed-Jaw Technique for Left Breast Cancer Patients with Regional Lymph Nodes Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J; Yang, Z; Hu, W [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study was to investigate the dosimetric benefit of a novel intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique for irradiating the left breast and regional lymph node (RLN). Methods: The breast and RLN (internal mammary node and periclavicular node) and normal tissue were contoured for 16 consecutive left-sided breast cancer patients previously treated with RT after lumpectomy. Nine equi-spaced fields IMRT (9 -field IMRT), tangential multi-beam IMRT (tangential-IMRT) and IMRT with fixed-jaw technique (FJT-IMRT) were developed and compared with three-dimensional conformal RT (3DCRT). Prescribed dose was 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Dose distributions and dose volume histograms were used to evaluate plans. Results: All IMRTs achieved similar target coverage and substantially reduced heart V30 and V20 compared to the 3DCRT. The average heart mean dose had different changes, which were 9.0Gy for 9-field IMRT, 5.7Gy for tangential-IMRT and 4.2Gy for FJT-IMRT. For the contralateral lung and breast, the 9-field IMRT has the highest mean dose; and the FJT-IMRT and tangential-IMRT had similar lower value. For the thyroid, both 9-field IMRT and FJT-IMRT had similar V30 (20% and 22%) and were significantly lower than that of 3DCRT (34%) and tangential-IMRT (46%). Moreover, the thyroid mean dose of FJT-IMRT is the lowest. For cervical esophagus and humeral head, the FJT-IMRT also had the best sparing. Conclusion: All 9-field IMRT, tangential-IMRT and FJT-IMRT had superiority for targets coverage and substantially reduced the heart volume of high dose irradiation. The FJT-IMRT showed advantages of avoiding the contralateral breast and lung irradiation and decreasing the thyroid, humeral head and cervical esophagus radiation dose at the expense of a slight monitor units (MUs) increasing.

  17. Rs11892031[A] on chromosome 2q37 in an intronic region of the UGT1A locus is associated with urinary bladder cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinski, Silvia; Lehmann, Marie-Louise; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Ovsiannikov, Daniel; Moormann, Oliver; Guballa, Christoph; Kress, Alexander; Truss, Michael C; Gerullis, Holger; Otto, Thomas; Barski, Dimitri; Niegisch, Günter; Albers, Peter; Frees, Sebastian; Brenner, Walburgis; Thüroff, Joachim W; Angeli-Greaves, Miriam; Seidel, Thilo; Roth, Gerhard; Volkert, Frank; Ebbinghaus, Rainer; Prager, Hans M; Bolt, Hermann M; Falkenstein, Michael; Zimmermann, Anna; Klein, Torsten; Reckwitz, Thomas; Roemer, Hermann C; Hartel, Mark; Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke; Schöps, Wolfgang; Rizvi, S Adibul Hassan; Aslam, Muhammad; Bánfi, Gergely; Romics, Imre; Ickstadt, Katja; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    Recently, rs11892031[A] has been identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to confer increased risk of urinary bladder cancer (UBC). To confirm this association and additionally study a possible relevance of exposure to urinary bladder carcinogens, we investigated the IfADo UBC study group, consisting of eight case-control series from different regions including 1,805 cases and 2,141 controls. This analysis was supplemented by a meta-analysis of all published data, including 13,395 cases and 54,876 controls. Rs11892031 A/A was significantly associated with UBC risk in the IfADo case-control series adjusted to cigarette smoking, gender, age and ethnicity (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.02-1.37; P = 0.026). In the meta-analysis, a convincing association with UBC risk was obtained (OR = 1.19; 95% Cl = 1.12-1.26; P < 0.0001). Interestingly, the highest odds ratios were obtained for individual case-control series with a high degree of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic amines: cases with suspected occupational UBC (OR = 1.41) and cases from the highly industrialized Ruhr area (OR = 1.98) compared with Ruhr area controls (all combined OR = 1.46). Odds ratios were lower for study groups with no or a lower degree of occupational exposure to bladder carcinogens, such as the Hungary (OR = 1.02) or the ongoing West German case-control series (OR = 1.06). However, the possible association of rs11892031[A] with exposure to bladder carcinogens still should be interpreted with caution, because in contrast to the differences between the individual study groups, interview-based data on occupational exposure were not significantly associated with rs11892031. In conclusion, the association of rs11892031[A] with UBC risk could be confirmed in independent study groups.

  18. Immediate treatment effects of high-dose methotrexate and cranial irradiation on neuropsychological functions of children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia at a regional cancer center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaramoorthy Chidambaram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Overall cure rates for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL have improved; however, the neuropsychological sequelae of ALL treatment have not been adequately documented in India. Aims: The present study assesses the immediate effects of ALL treatment on neuropsychological functioning, at the Regional Cancer Center in Chennai, South India. Materials and Methods: Newly diagnosed with ALL patients (n = 24 (aged 6-15 years; 13M:11F registered between March 2008 and February 2009 were included. Patients who had received high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX and cranial radiotherapy (CRT as part of their treatment were enrolled for the study. Neurocognitive assessments were done to assess various functions such as performance intelligence, visuo-perception, visuo-spatial, perceptual organization, processing speed, planning, working memory, and immediate verbal memory (IVM (Malin′s intelligence scale; verbal fluency (ideation fluency test and verbal attention (vigilance test. Three assessments were done during induction (baseline, after re-induction phase (second and during the maintenance phase (third. Results: The patients performed significantly worse in the third assessment (mean duration from diagnosis 17.48 months on performance intelligence quotient (PIQ, visuo-perception, visuo-spatial, processing speed, planning, IVM, verbal attention, and verbal fluency (P 0.05. Significant difference was observed between age groups 6 and 10 (41.7% and 11-15 years (58.3% in perceptual organization, verbal fluency, and verbal attention (P 0.05. Conclusions: Combining HD MTX and CRT had an immediate effect on neuropsychological sequelae among the children with ALL, however, long-term evaluation is recommended to study the long-term effects.

  19. Regional variation in breast cancer treatment in the Netherlands and the role of external peer review : a cohort study comprising 63,516 women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilsdonk, Melvin J.; van Dijk, Boukje A. C.; Otter, Renee; van Harten, Wim H.; Siesling, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment variation is an important issue in health care provision. An external peer review programme for multidisciplinary cancer care was introduced in 1994 in the Netherlands to improve the multidisciplinary organisation of cancer care in hospitals. So far the clinical impact of exter

  20. Identification of a novel susceptibility locus at 13q34 and refinement of the 20p12.2 region as a multi-signal locus associated with bladder cancer risk in individuals of European ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Jonine D; Middlebrooks, Candace D; Banday, A Rouf; Ye, Yuanqing; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Koutros, Stella; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Rafnar, Thorunn; Bishop, Timothy; Furberg, Helena; Matullo, Giuseppe; Golka, Klaus; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Taylor, Jack A; Fletcher, Tony; Siddiq, Afshan; Cortessis, Victoria K; Kooperberg, Charles; Cussenot, Olivier; Benhamou, Simone; Prescott, Jennifer; Porru, Stefano; Dinney, Colin P; Malats, Núria; Baris, Dalsu; Purdue, Mark P; Jacobs, Eric J; Albanes, Demetrius; Wang, Zhaoming; Chung, Charles C; Vermeulen, Sita H; Aben, Katja K; Galesloot, Tessel E; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Sulem, Patrick; Stefansson, Kari; Kiltie, Anne E; Harland, Mark; Teo, Mark; Offit, Kenneth; Vijai, Joseph; Bajorin, Dean; Kopp, Ryan; Fiorito, Giovanni; Guarrera, Simonetta; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Selinski, Silvia; Hengstler, Jan G; Gerullis, Holger; Ovsiannikov, Daniel; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Castelao, Jose Esteban; Calaza, Manuel; Martinez, Maria Elena; Cordeiro, Patricia; Xu, Zongli; Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; Kumar, Rajiv; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H Bas; Ljungberg, Börje; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Krogh, Vittorio; Dorronsoro, Miren; Travis, Ruth C; Tjønneland, Anne; Brennan, Paul; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Riboli, Elio; Conti, David; Stern, Marianna C; Pike, Malcolm C; Van Den Berg, David; Yuan, Jian-Min; Hohensee, Chancellor; Jeppson, Rebecca P; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Roupret, Morgan; Comperat, Eva; Turman, Constance; De Vivo, Immaculata; Giovannucci, Edward; Hunter, David J; Kraft, Peter; Lindstrom, Sara; Carta, Angela; Pavanello, Sofia; Arici, Cecilia; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Kamat, Ashish M; Zhang, Liren; Gong, Yilei; Pu, Xia; Hutchinson, Amy; Burdett, Laurie; Wheeler, William A; Karagas, Margaret R; Johnson, Alison; Schned, Alan; Monawar Hosain, G M; Schwenn, Molly; Kogevinas, Manolis; Tardón, Adonina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; García-Closas, Reina; Lloreta, Josep; Andriole, Gerald; Grubb, Robert; Black, Amanda; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Weinstein, Stephanie; Virtamo, Jarmo; Haiman, Christopher A; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil E; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Vineis, Paolo; Wu, Xifeng; Chanock, Stephen J; Silverman, Debra T; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2016-03-15

    Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 15 independent genomic regions associated with bladder cancer risk. In search for additional susceptibility variants, we followed up on four promising single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that had not achieved genome-wide significance in 6911 cases and 11 814 controls (rs6104690, rs4510656, rs5003154 and rs4907479, P < 1 × 10(-6)), using additional data from existing GWAS datasets and targeted genotyping for studies that did not have GWAS data. In a combined analysis, which included data on up to 15 058 cases and 286 270 controls, two SNPs achieved genome-wide statistical significance: rs6104690 in a gene desert at 20p12.2 (P = 2.19 × 10(-11)) and rs4907479 within the MCF2L gene at 13q34 (P = 3.3 × 10(-10)). Imputation and fine-mapping analyses were performed in these two regions for a subset of 5551 bladder cancer cases and 10 242 controls. Analyses at the 13q34 region suggest a single signal marked by rs4907479. In contrast, we detected two signals in the 20p12.2 region-the first signal is marked by rs6104690, and the second signal is marked by two moderately correlated SNPs (r(2) = 0.53), rs6108803 and the previously reported rs62185668. The second 20p12.2 signal is more strongly associated with the risk of muscle-invasive (T2-T4 stage) compared with non-muscle-invasive (Ta, T1 stage) bladder cancer (case-case P ≤ 0.02 for both rs62185668 and rs6108803). Functional analyses are needed to explore the biological mechanisms underlying these novel genetic associations with risk for bladder cancer.

  1. Global cancer statistics, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Lindsey A; Bray, Freddie; Siegel, Rebecca L; Ferlay, Jacques; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-03-01

    Cancer constitutes an enormous burden on society in more and less economically developed countries alike. The occurrence of cancer is increasing because of the growth and aging of the population, as well as an increasing prevalence of established risk factors such as smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, and changing reproductive patterns associated with urbanization and economic development. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, about 14.1 million new cancer cases and 8.2 million deaths occurred in 2012 worldwide. Over the years, the burden has shifted to less developed countries, which currently account for about 57% of cases and 65% of cancer deaths worldwide. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among males in both more and less developed countries, and has surpassed breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer death among females in more developed countries; breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer death among females in less developed countries. Other leading causes of cancer death in more developed countries include colorectal cancer among males and females and prostate cancer among males. In less developed countries, liver and stomach cancer among males and cervical cancer among females are also leading causes of cancer death. Although incidence rates for all cancers combined are nearly twice as high in more developed than in less developed countries in both males and females, mortality rates are only 8% to 15% higher in more developed countries. This disparity reflects regional differences in the mix of cancers, which is affected by risk factors and detection practices, and/or the availability of treatment. Risk factors associated with the leading causes of cancer death include tobacco use (lung, colorectal, stomach, and liver cancer), overweight/obesity and physical inactivity (breast and colorectal cancer), and infection (liver, stomach, and cervical cancer). A substantial portion of cancer cases and deaths could be prevented by broadly

  2. [Effects of recombinant interleukin-2 on several characteristics of functional activity of lymphocytes from the lymph nodes regional to tumor and mononuclear cells of peripheral blood in cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova-Kobzar', R A; Kushko, L Ia; Iakhimovich, L V; Protsyk, V S; Tolstopiatov, B A; Konovalenko, V F; Berezhnaia, N M

    1990-01-01

    The level of endogenous production of IL-2 by lymphocytes of lymph nodes regional to tumour and by mononuclear cells of peripheral blood, proliferative response of these cell to recombinant IL-2, as well as a modifying influence of autologous serum and actively proliferating bioptats of autologous tumours on enumerated parameters have been studied in cancer patients (tumours of the head and neck and locomotor system). Regional IL-2-dependent immunotherapy of malignant tumors with obligatory preliminary testing for individual sensitivity of the tumor bioptat to the influence of the RIL-2 and RIL-2 activated lymphocytes is shown to be promising.

  3. Genetic polymorphism of T6235C mutation in 3 non-coding region of CYP1A1 and GSTM1 genes and lung cancer susceptibility in the Mongolian population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the relative risk for lung cancer associated with genetic polymorphism of T6235C mutation in 3' non-coding region(MspⅠ)of cytochrome P450 1A1(CYP1A1)and glutathione S-transferase M1(GSTM1)in the Mongolian population in Inner Mongolian Region of China.Methods Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism(PCR-RFLP)and multiplex PCR methods were used to analyze blood samples obtained from 263 case subjects and 263 control subjects to determine their genotypes for CYP1...

  4. 企业社会责任背景下企业与环保非政府组织的跨界合作%Cross-Sector Alliance: How do Enterprises and Green NGO Collaborate in the Background of Corporate Social Responsibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李苏; 邱国玉

    2012-01-01

    针对企业社会责任、企业与环保NGO的关系进行了探讨,并分别从NGO与企业合作的原因、角色、合作成果的衡量标准以及合作的态势分析分析入手,阐明跨界合作的重要性,并对合作的顺利展开提出策略建议.%With regard to corporate social responsibility, the article discusses the relationship between enterprises and green NGO. It also investigates the reason of their corporation, their objectives, the role being played by green NGO in this cross-sector alliance, the measure of the fruits of cooperation and a SWOT analysis to describe the significance. Finally, this article provides corresponding advices.

  5. NGO的资金不足和运动能力有限的双向制约破解:“整体政府”的视角%Two-Way Restricting Crack of NGO Funding Shortage and Sports Ability Limit:The Perspective of“Holistic Government”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁超

    2013-01-01

    The development of China's NGO presents great vitality and vigor,but the shortage of funds is a big bottleneck for the further development of the NGO. NGO is a big trouble for the development of the sports ability is insufficient, insufficient exercise capacity reduces to marketing,lack of power,compresses the NGO's activity space,hinders its function, and then results in insufficiency of disposable capital of the organization. That sports ability is limited and the shortage of funds is a two-way cycle. So,some aspects,such as,using the theory of "holistic government" to realize value improvement, the change of managing ways and the cooperation of dealing with public affairs,realize the crack of the development of the"path dependence" and the expansion of space.%中国的NGO发展呈现出巨大的生机和活力,但是资金短缺是制约NGO进一步发展的最大瓶颈。NGO发展的一大困境是运动能力不足,运动能力不足蜕化为营销乏力,压缩了NGO的空间活动行为,职能受阻,导致组织可支配资金不足。运动能力有限和资金不足存在一个双向制约的循环,借鉴“整体政府”理论实现在价值观念的提升、管理方式的转变、公共事务处理的协同等方面实现NGO发展“路径依赖”的破解和进一步发展的空间拓展。

  6. On Modern Vietnamese Writer NGO Tat To’s Confucian Complex%论越南现代作家吴必素的儒家文化情结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄可兴

    2012-01-01

    The Vietnamese writer NGO Tat To was born in a Confucian family and was influenced by Confucian culture for a long time.During 1930s and 1940s,he composed a series of literary works,which consciously or unconsciously demonstrated a strong Confucian atmosphere in the Vietnamese society,highlighted the Vietnamese people’s glorious ethnic moralities,criticized the atrocity of the feudal colonial rulers,and voiced his positive identification toward some outstanding traditional Confucian cultures.%越南作家吴必素出身于儒学世家,他长期受儒家文化的影响,在20世纪三四十年代创作的一系列文学作品中,有意无意地展现了越南社会浓郁的儒家文化氛围,突出越南人民美好的民族品德,批判了封建殖民统治者的暴戾行为,表现了作家对儒家某些优秀传统文化精神的积极认同。

  7. Differences in Regional Diagnostic Strategies and in Intended Versus Actual First-Line Treatment of Patients With Advanced Ovarian Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten Lindberg; Ottesen, Bent; Kehlet, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Triage of patients with ovarian cancer to primary debulking surgery (PDS) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is challenging. In Denmark, the use of NACT has increased, but substantial differences in the use of NACT or PDS exist among centers. We aimed to characterize the differences b......-line treatments as well as in the diagnostic process and use of NACT, calling for further discussion on diagnostic strategy and therapeutically approach for patients with advanced ovarian cancer....

  8. HYPERMETHYLATION OF p14ARF PROMOTER REGION AND EXPRESION OF p14ARF GENE PRODUCT IN NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Kai-hua; SHEN Yi; LUO Yi-rne; WANG Ming-zhao; LIU Hong-xu; ZHAO Hui-ru; ZHANG Lin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate promoter methylation status and protein expression of p14ARF gene in non-small cell lung cancer, and value the role of p14ARF promoter methylation in carcinogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Promoter methylation status and protein expression of p14ARF gene in 40 cases of non-small cell lung cancer were analyzed by methylation specific polymerase china reaction (MSP), restriction enzyme-related polymerase chain reaction (RE-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: The positive rates of p14ARF promoter methylation in tumor tissues and normal tissues adjacent to cancer were 17.5% (7/40) and 2.5% (1/40) respectively. There were statistically significant differences between them, P<0.05. The results of RE-PCR were consistent with that of MSP. The expression rate of p14ARF protein in tumor tissues was significantly lower than that in normal tissues adjacent to cancer, p<0.01. Promoter methylation status and protein expression of p14ARF gene in non-small cell lung cancer showed significantly an inverse correlation (r=-0.56, P<0.01), and both of them did not relate statistically with the clinicopathologic characteristics of patients such as histological classification, clinical stage, differentiation grade and lymph node involvement. Conclusion: Promoter methylation is a crucial mechanism of inactivation of p14ARF gene. Promoter methylation of p14ARF gene might be involved in carcinogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer, and is an early event in development process of non-small cell lung cancer. It might be used as a new target in gene treatments in the future.

  9. Sex-determining region Y-box3 (SOX3) functions as an oncogene in promoting epithelial ovarian cancer by targeting Src kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qin; Wang, Fangyuan; Miao, Yi; Wu, Xiaomei; Bai, Mingzhu; Xi, Xiaowei; Feng, Youji

    2016-09-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most common cancers which cause female mortality. The knowledge of ovarian cancer initiation and progression is critical to develop new therapeutic strategies to treat and prevent it. Recently, SOX3 has been reported to play a pivotal role in tumor progression. However, the clinical significance of SOX3 in human ovarian cancer remains elusive, and the identity of SOX3 in ovarian cancer initiation, progression, and the related underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, we showed that SOX3 expression increased from benign and borderline to malignant ovarian tumors. Subsequently, we found that overexpression of SOX3 in EOC cells promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion, while restrained apoptosis and adhesion of ovarian cancer cells. In contrast, silencing of SOX3 gained the opposite results. Finally, we discovered SOX3 targeted Src kinase in EOC cells. These data imply that SOX3, acting as an oncogene in EOC, is not only a crucial factor in the carcinogenesis but also a promising therapeutic target for EOC.

  10. Helicobacter pylori vacA i region polymorphism but not babA2 status associated to gastric cancer risk in northwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghi, Batool; Safaralizadeh, Reza; Bonyadi, Morteza; Latifi-Navid, Saeid; Somi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori-specific genotypes have been strongly associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer (GC). The aim of the present work was to study the associations of H. pylori virulence factors, vacA i region polymorphisms and babA2 status with GC risk in Azerbaijan patients. The DNA extracted from gastric biopsy specimens was used to access the babA2 and vacA genotypes. Overall, babA2 was present in 85.39 % (76/89) of H. pylori strains: 19 out of 24 (79.16 %) strains from GC, 16 out of 17 (94.14 %) strains from peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and 41 out of 48 (85.14 %) strains from chronic gastritis. No significant association was found between babA2 genotype and clinical outcomes (P > 0.05). i1 vacA polymorphism was detected in 46/89 (51.68 %) strains: in 21/24 (87.5 %), 6/17 (35.29 %) and 19/48 (39.58 %) patients with GC, PUD and chronic gastritis, respectively. i2 allele was detected in 43 (48.31 %) out of all 89 strains examined: 3 (14.28 %) of 24 strains from GC, 11 (64.71 %) of 17 from PUD, and 29 (60.42 %) of 48 strains from chronic gastritis. In this study, multiple linear regression analysis confirmed the strong association of i1 allele with GC (partial regression correlation 0.455 ± 0.101; P = 0). Results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that vacA i1 genotype was significantly associated with GC compared with a control group (gastritis) (odds ratio 13.142, 95 % CI 3.116-55.430; P = 0). Findings from the measurement of H. pylori babA2 and vacA genotypes indicate a strong correlation between the vacA i1 allele and GC risk in the Azerbaijan area of Iran.

  11. Final Results of Local-Regional Control and Late Toxicity of RTOG 9003: A Randomized Trial of Altered Fractionation Radiation for Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitler, Jonathan J., E-mail: jjbeitl@emory.edu [Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Zhang, Qiang [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Fu, Karen K. [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Trotti, Andy [H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center at the University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida (United States); Spencer, Sharon A. [University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama (United States); Jones, Christopher U. [Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, California (United States); Garden, Adam S. [MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States); Shenouda, George [McGill University, Montréal, Quebec (Canada); Harris, Jonathan [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ang, Kian K. [MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To test whether altered radiation fractionation schemes (hyperfractionation [HFX], accelerated fractionation, continuous [AFX-C], and accelerated fractionation with split [AFX-S]) improved local-regional control (LRC) rates for patients with squamous cell cancers (SCC) of the head and neck when compared with standard fractionation (SFX) of 70 Gy. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage III or IV (or stage II base of tongue) SCC (n=1076) were randomized to 4 treatment arms: (1) SFX, 70 Gy/35 daily fractions/7 weeks; (2) HFX, 81.6 Gy/68 twice-daily fractions/7 weeks; (3) AFX-S, 67.2 Gy/42 fractions/6 weeks with a 2-week rest after 38.4 Gy; and (4) AFX-C, 72 Gy/42 fractions/6 weeks. The 3 experimental arms were to be compared with SFX. Results: With patients censored for LRC at 5 years, only the comparison of HFX with SFX was significantly different: HFX, hazard ratio (HR) 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.62-1.00), P=.05; AFX-C, 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.65-1.05), P=.11. With patients censored at 5 years, HFX improved overall survival (HR 0.81, P=.05). Prevalence of any grade 3, 4, or 5 toxicity at 5 years; any feeding tube use after 180 days; or feeding tube use at 1 year did not differ significantly when the experimental arms were compared with SFX. When 7-week treatments were compared with 6-week treatments, accelerated fractionation appeared to increase grade 3, 4 or 5 toxicity at 5 years (P=.06). When the worst toxicity per patient was considered by treatment only, the AFX-C arm seemed to trend worse than the SFX arm when grade 0-2 was compared with grade 3-5 toxicity (P=.09). Conclusions: At 5 years, only HFX improved LRC and overall survival for patients with locally advanced SCC without increasing late toxicity.

  12. Risk factors related to female breast cancer in regions of Northeast China: a 1:3 matched case-control population-based study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhi-gang; JIA Cun-xian; GENG Cui-zhi; TANG Jin-hai; ZHANG Jin; LIU Li-yuan

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in the incidence of breast cancer in China,but no definite risk and protective factors for breast cancer have been identified in Chinese females.This study was designed to identify the risk factors for female breast cancer in North and East China.Methods A 1:3 matched,case-control study was conducted.All of the subjects in the case and control groups were selected from a previous epidemiological survey of 122 058 females aged 25 to 70 years.Single and multiple Logistic regression analyses were used to study potential factors in the development of breast cancer.Results Significant differences at the level of α=0.20 between case and control groups were observed for the following factors:economic status,social status,family annual income,bean product consumption,body mass index (BMI),family history of breast cancer in the first or second degree,number of miscarriages,menstrual pattern,benign breast disease history,nipple leakage,inverted nipple,history of diabetes mellitus,history of hypertension,history of ovarian cyst,physical exercise,current and global quality of life satisfaction,healthy behavior and prevention,and scores of breast cancer-related knowledge.After Cox-regression model analysis (α=0.10),six factors were found to be significantly related to breast cancer,of which the ORs and 95%C/s were:BMI,1.696 (1.169-2.460,P=0.005); benign breast disease history,2.672 (0.848-8.416,P=0.093); family history of breast cancer,7.080 (1.758-28.551,P=0.006); number of miscarriages,1.738 (1.014-2.978,P=0.044); global quality of life satisfaction,3.044 (1.804-5.136,P=0.000); healthy behavior and prevention,3.294 (1.692-6.412,P=0.000).Conclusions A comprehensive range of factors related to breast cancer was identified.Women should be educated about a healthy lifestyle,especially those with a family history of breast cancer or a personal history of benign breast disease.

  13. Utility of second-look examinations in the management of a new hypermetabolic lesion detected by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT for diagnosis of loco-regional recurrence in patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Young; Cho, Kyu Ran; Park, Eun Kyung; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Woo, Ok Hee; Song, Sung Eun; Oh, Yu Whan; Bae, Jeong Won [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    To investigate the clinical significance of a new hypermetabolic lesion detected by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (FDG-PET/CT) as well as the utility of second-look examinations to evaluate loco-regional recurrence of breast cancer. Our database revealed 922 breast cancer patients who underwent surgery from January 2008 to July 2011. We included 20 patients with negative findings on routine follow-up but with new hypermetabolic lesions on FDG-PET/CT. All underwent second-look examination [breast ultrasound (US) = 14, chest CT scan = 6]. A total of 17 cases were pathologically verified and 3 were diagnosed with follow-up imaging. The locations were in the axillae (n = 7), breast (n = 6), chest wall (n = 3), cervical/supraclavicular (n = 3), and internal mammary (n = 1). Of the 20 hypermetabolic lesions, 10 were pathologically confirmed malignancies. Of the 14 patients who had undergone US, 7 had suspicious findings and 5 were confirmed as malignancies. Of a total of 6 patients who had undergone CT scans, 5 had suspicious findings and all turned out to be malignancies. The positive predictive value of the second-look examination was 83.3% (10/12). Second-look examination and pathologic confirmation should be performed for newly appearing hypermetabolic lesions on FDG-PET/CT in order to exclude loco-regional recurrence in breast cancer patients.

  14. Physical and transcript map of the region between D6S264 and D6S149 on chromosome 6q27, the minimal region of allele loss in sporadic epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Emilion, Gracy; Mungall, Andrew J

    2002-01-01

    clone contains a complete open reading frame. The sequence shows homology to a new member of the ribonuclease family. The other two clones are splice variants of this new gene. The gene is expressed ubiquitously in normal tissues. It is expressed in 4/8 ovarian cancer cell lines by Northern analysis...

  15. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

    2013-12-31

    Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well

  16. Ⅳ期乳腺癌局部区域治疗的研究进展%Progress of stage-Ⅳ breast cancer treated with local-regional therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李臻; 董坚; 邹天宁; 陈明清

    2013-01-01

    To review the literature and evaluate the relation between local-regional therapy and the patients survival rate in stage-IV breast cancer. METHODS: Using "breast cancer,stage-IV , local therapy and regional therapy" as keywords to retrieve 2000-01 — 2012-10 related papers on PubMed,CNKI and Wangfang database system. Criterion:!) The prognosis of stage-IV breast cancer with local-regional therapy. 2) The measures and significance of stage-IV breast cancer with local-regional therapy. Thirty-nine literatures were selected to summarize. RESULTS: Large number of previous studies have demonstrated that local-therapy is a positive factor to improve survival in patients with stage- IV breast cancer. This treatment is mainly through the surgery or local radiotherapy to cure primary lesions and could can minimize the tumor load,get more clinical and pathological details. At the same time the intervention of local-regional therapy also makes comprehensive treatment adaptable and the psychological burden alleviatable for patients. CONCLUSION: It is a efficient measure to improve the patients' quality of life and to extend survival rate of stage-IV breast cancer when local-regional therapy appropriately applied on the basement of systemic threapy.%目的:探讨Ⅳ期乳腺癌局部-区域治疗的方法、意义及对患者生存期的影响.方法:应用PubMed、CNKI及万方期刊全文数据库检索系统,以“乳腺肿瘤、Ⅳ期”和“局部治疗”或“区域治疗”等为关键词,检索2000-01-2012-10的相关文献.纳入标准:1)Ⅳ期乳腺癌局部-区域治疗的预后;2)Ⅳ期乳腺癌局部-区域治疗的措施及意义.根据纳入的标准,精选39篇文献进行分析.结果:Ⅳ期乳腺癌的局部-区域治疗可提高乳腺癌患者的中位生存时间;局部-区域治疗主要是通过手术或者局部放疗及两者联合的治疗方法来根治原发病灶,或减小肿瘤负荷、获得更详细的临床病理资料,同时

  17. Cancer and orofacial pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvemini, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer pain is a devastating condition. Pain in the orofacial region, may be present as the single symptom of cancer or as a symptom of cancer in its later stages. This manuscript revises in a comprehensive manner the content of the conference entitled “Orofacial Pain and Cancer” (Dolor Orofacial y Cancer) given at the VI Simposio International “Advances in Oral Cancer” on the 22 July, 2016 in Donostia. Material and Methods We have reviewed (pubmed-medline) from the most relevant literature including reviews, systematic reviews and clinical cases, the significant and evidence-based mechanisms and mediators of cancer-associated facial pain, the diverse types of cancers that can be present in the craniofacial region locally or from distant sites that can refer to the orofacial region, cancer therapy that may induce pain in the orofacial region as well as discussed some of the new advancements in cancer pain therapy. Results There is still a lack of understanding of cancer pain pathophysiology since depends of the intrinsic heterogeneity, type and anatomic location that the cancer may present, making more challenging the creation of better therapeutic options. Orofacial pain can arise from regional or distant tumor effects or as a consequence of cancer therapy. Conclusions The clinician needs to be aware that the pain may present the characteristics of any other orofacial pain disorder so a careful differential diagnosis needs to be given. Cancer pain diagnosis is made by exclusion and only can be reached after a thorough medical history, and all the common etiologies have been carefully investigated and ruled out. The current management tools are not optimal but there is hope for new, safer and effective therapies coming in the next years. Key words:Pain, orofacial, facial, cancer. PMID:27694791

  18. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  19. Dual time point imaging fluorine-18 flourodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for evaluation of large loco-regional recurrences of breast cancer treated with electrochemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Louise Wichmann; Johannesen, Helle Hjorth; Skougaard, Kristin;

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemotherapy is a local anticancer treatment very efficient for treatment of small cutaneous metastases. The method is now being investigated for large cutaneous recurrences of breast cancer that are often confluent masses of malignant tumour with various degrees of inflammation. To this e...

  20. The SRCR/SID region of DMBT1 defines a complex multi-allele system representing the major basis for its variability in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollenhauer, Jan; Müller, Hanna; Kollender, Gaby

    2002-01-01

    Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1) at 10q25.3-q26.1 has been proposed as a candidate tumor-suppressor gene for brain and epithelial cancer. DMBT1 encodes a multifunctional mucin-like protein presumably involved in epithelial differentiation and protection. The gene consists of highly hom...

  1. Genomewide high-density SNP linkage analysis of non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families identifies various candidate regions and has greater power than microsatellite studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. González-Neira (Anna); J.M. Rosa-Rosa; A. Osorio (Ana); E. Gonzalez (Emilio); M.C. Southey (Melissa); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); H. Lynch (Henry); R.A. Oldenburg (Rogier); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); N. Hoogerbrugge (Nicoline); G. Pita (G.); P. Devilee (Peter); D. Goldgar (David); J. Benítez (Javier)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The recent development of new high-throughput technologies for SNP genotyping has opened the possibility of taking a genome-wide linkage approach to the search for new candidate genes involved in heredity diseases. The two major breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BR

  2. Social advertising in the NGO of Cordoba (Argentina. Message construction profiles/ Publicidad social en las ONG de Córdoba (Argentina. Perfiles de la construcción del mensaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Teresa C. Rodríguez García

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Las ONG conforman un sector –cada vez más amplio en la ciudad de Córdoba (Argentina– que lleva mucho tiempo comprometiéndose con el fortalecimiento del sistema democrático y la mejora de los derechos ciudadanos y para ello han utilizado, entre otros recursos, la publicidad social para darse a conocer, mejorar su imagen de credibilidad y transparencia, captar fondos y recursos, reclutar nuevos voluntarios, sensibilizar sobre las causas sociales y educar en favor de la solidaridad. En el presente estudio se investigan, mediante un análisis de contenido, las comunicaciones que llevan a cabo las ONG establecidas en la ciudad argentina de Córdoba. Y se concluye que, aunque hay un esfuerzo para comunicarse con sus públicos por diferentes vías, no siempre se aprovechan totalmente los recursos aplicables en la elaboración del mensaje publicitario. Abstract: NGOs are significantly increasing their presence in the city of Cordoba (Argentina where they are forming a larger sector everyday. Thorough the years, these organizations have committed themselves to strengthen the democratic system and improve civil rights in the community. To achieve this goal, they have relied on social advertising as one of their key resource. Social advertising has been instrumental in establishing their visibility as well as improving their credibility and reputation for transparency. It has also helped them raise funds, recruit new volunteers, raise awareness of social issues and educate people on the values of solidarity. Relaying on content analysis as the primary methodology, this research presents a study about the communication efforts carried out by the NGO sector in the city of Cordoba. The research finds that NGOs do not always optmize their available resources when building their messages, despite their efforts to communicate with a wide ranging audience through different channels.

  3. 突破社区治理困境:社区NGO——社会资本视角的阐释%The Breakthrough of Community Governance:Community NGO --an Interpretation from the Social Capital Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴东民

    2012-01-01

    政府、市场、社会组织是中国社区建设所依仗的三大结构性力量,积习而成的“两头强.中间弱”的态势呼唤基层社会管理体制的创新。当前中国社区建设正处于发展中的瓶颈期,治理主体单一、信任缺失、互惠失范,理性选择范式在解释社区NGO的治理功效上缺乏文化与微观层面的考量,并没有提供令人信服的框架,而社会资本理论中所倡导的核心价值信务——信任、互惠、合作恰恰弥补了这一缺憾,为社区NGO冶理的合理性提供了一种全新的解释范式。%In China,government,market,nongovernmental organizations are the three structural forces in the process of community rebuilding. And the status quo of strong ends, weak middle" calls for innovation of substratum social management systems. There is now a bottleneck in community construction-singularity of governing entity, deficiency of trust and loss of mutual benefits. The rational selecting paradigm is short of cultural and micro-level considerations in explaining how the community NGO affects the community governance. However, social capital theory advocates the core philosophy (e. g. trust,mutual benefits, cooperation) precisely makes up for the deficiency and provides a reasonable explanation for community governance.

  4. Despite shared susceptibility loci, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma embraces more familial cancer than gastric cardia adenocarcinoma in the Taihang Mountains high-risk region of northern central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Deng-gui; YANG Yi; WEN Xiao-duo; SHAN Bao-en

    2013-01-01

    Background In China,esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) share susceptibility loci,but different rates of multiple primary cancer and male/female ratio suggest the proportion of familial cancer is not equal.Methods The percent of cases with a positive family history,median onset age,rate of multiple primary cancer,and male/female ratio associated with upper,middle,lower third ESCC and GCA were compared to reveal the proportion of familial cancer.The 7267 subjects analyzed constituted all ESCC and GCA cases in whom the cancer was resected with cure intention between 1970 and 1994 at the 4th Hospital of Hebei Medical University.Results A positive family history for cancer was most often associated with the multiple primary ESCC and/or GCA cases,e.g.with 42% of the males and 59% of the females.For upper,middle,lower third ESCC and GCA,the percent of cases with a positive family history decreased by 38.5%,26.3%,26.5%,and 11.2% in males (P <0.000) and 25.0%,22.3%,23.9%,and 9.8% in females (P <0.0001).Median onset age increased from 49,52,55,to 56 years old in males and from 50,53,55,to 56 years old in females (both P <0.0001) for upper,middle,lower third ESCC and GCA.Male/female ratio increased from 2.2,2.1,2.2,to 6.2:1 for upper,middle,lower third ESCC and GCA (P<0.0001).For upper,middle,lower third ESCC and GCA,the percent of multiple primary cancers decreased from 21.2%,2.3%,2.2%,to 1.5% in males and from 14.3%,2.4%,3.4%,to 3.1% in females.The preponderance of males,smoking,drinking,or onset-age ≥50 years was significantly higher in GCA than in ESCC,and the difference in the rates of multiple primary cancers between the preponderant and the non-preponderant cases was significant in GCA,but not in ESCC,suggesting non-equal requirement for genetic susceptibility when environmental hazards did not exist.Conclusions The proportion of familial cancer in upper gastrointestinal

  5. Mast Cells Density Positive to Tryptase Correlate with Microvascular Density in both Primary Gastric Cancer Tissue and Loco-Regional Lymph Node Metastases from Patients That Have Undergone Radical Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendola, Michele; Sacco, Rosario; Zuccalà, Valeria; Luposella, Maria; Patruno, Rosa; Gadaleta, Pietro; Zizzo, Nicola; Gadaleta, Cosmo Damiano; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Sammarco, Giuseppe; Oltean, Mihai; Ranieri, Girolamo

    2016-11-15

    Mast Cells (MCs) play a role in immune responses and more recently MCs have been involved in tumoral angiogenesis. In particular MCs can release tryptase, a potent in vivo and in vitro pro-angiogenic factor via proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. MCs can release tryptase following c-Kit receptor activation. Nevertheless, no data are available concerning the relationship among MCs Density Positive to Tryptase (MCDPT) and Microvascular Density (MVD) in both primary gastric cancer tissue and loco-regional lymph node metastases. A series of 75 GC patients with stage T2-3N2-3M₀ (by AJCC for Gastric Cancer Seventh Edition) undergone to radical surgery were selected for the study. MCDPT and MVD were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and by image analysis system and results were correlated each to other in primary tumor tissue and in metastatic lymph nodes harvested. Furthermore, tissue parameters were correlated with important clinico-pathological features. A significant correlation between MCDPT and MVD was found in primary gastric cancer tissue and lymph node metastases. Pearson t-test analysis (r ranged from 0.74 to 0.79; p-value ranged from 0.001 to 0.003). These preliminary data suggest that MCDPT play a role in angiogenesis in both primary tumor and in lymph node metastases from GC. We suggest that MCs and tryptase could be further evaluated as novel targets for anti-angiogenic therapies.

  6. Warty/basaloid penile intraepithelial neoplasia is more prevalent than differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia in nonendemic regions for penile cancer when compared with endemic areas: a comparative study between pathologic series from Paris and Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskin, Ana; Vieillefond, Anicke; Carlotti, Agnes; Plantier, Francoise; Chaux, Alcides; Ayala, Gustavo; Velazquez, Elsa F; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2012-02-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma shows an ample geographic variation in its prevalence with regions of low (North America, Europe, Japan, and Israel) and high (Africa, Asia, and South America) incidence. However, the geographic variation in the distribution of penile intraepithelial neoplasia is not well established. The aim of the present study was to compare the distribution of in situ and invasive lesions between geographic areas with low (France) and high (Paraguay) penile cancer incidence using a series of consecutive cases. The French series included 86 cases (57 in situ and 29 in situ + invasive squamous cell carcinoma), and the Paraguayan series, 117 cases (31 in situ and 86 in situ + invasive squamous cell carcinoma). Incidence of invasive squamous cell carcinoma in the overall samples was higher in the Paraguayan series (P < .00001). Comparing the Paraguayan and the French series, differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia was more prevalent in the former (65.0% versus 19.8%), whereas lesions showing warty and/or basaloid features predominated in the latter (35.0% versus 80.2%) to a significant level (P < .00001). This distinctive pattern of differential distribution was maintained when cases with associated invasive squamous cell carcinoma were excluded. The pattern of distribution of lichen sclerosus was also distinctive, with a significantly higher prevalence in the Paraguayan population when compared with the French series (32.5% versus 12.8%, P = .0015). In summary, there appears to be a distinctive distribution of penile precursor lesions depending on the geographic region in consideration. Penile intraepithelial neoplasia with warty and/or basaloid features predominated in low-incidence areas, whereas differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia was more prevalent in endemic regions for penile cancer. Further prospective studies in matched populations and from different geographic regions are needed to further clarify the reasons for this

  7. Quantitative real-time PCR identifies a critical region of deletion on 22q13 related to prognosis in oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, Patricia P; Rogatto, Silvia R; Kowalski, Luiz P;

    2002-01-01

    of disease (P=0.025), family history of cancer (P=0.001), and death (P=0.021). Relative copy number loss involving the DIA1 gene was correlated to family history of cancer (Palcohol (P=0.026). Log-rank test revealed a significant decrease in survival (P=0......Quantitative real time PCR was performed on genomic DNA from 40 primary oral carcinomas and the normal adjacent tissues. The target genes ECGFB, DIA1, BIK, and PDGFB and the microsatellite markers D22S274 and D22S277, mapped on 22q13, were selected according to our previous loss of heterozygosity...... findings in head and neck tumors. Quantitative PCR relies on the comparison of the amount of product generated from a target gene and that generated from a disomic reference gene (GAPDH-housekeeping gene). Reactions have been performed with normal control in triplicates, using the 7700 Sequence Detection...

  8. 14-3-3σ Expression Identifies Basal-Like Breast Cancer and Regulates Tumor Invasion by Defining Subcellular Regions of Actin Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreau, Aaron Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The mammary gland can be thought of as an "organism" with very complicated biology. The normal breast is comprised of a milieu of different cell types and extracellular matrix (ECM) components, the sum of which yield a complex microenvironment and series of biological interactions that are essential for normal development and functional differentiation. Many of these events go awry in breast cancer, a disease best characterized by the loss of tissue structure, morphology, and function - in es...

  9. Patterns of Local-Regional Failure in Completely Resected Stage IIIA(N2) Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cases: Implications for Postoperative Radiation Therapy Clinical Target Volume Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Wen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China); Fu, Xiao-Long, E-mail: xlfu1964@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China); Cai, Xu-Wei; Yang, Huan-Jun; Wu, Kai-Liang; Fan, Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China); Xiang, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Wei; Chen, Hai-Quan [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze patterns of local-regional failure (LRF) for completely resected stage IIIA(N2) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated in our hospital and to propose a clinical target volume (CTV) for postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) in these patients. Methods and Materials: From 2005 to 2011, consecutive patients with pT1-3N2 NSCLC who underwent complete resection in our hospital but who did not receive PORT were identified. The patterns of first LRF were assessed and evaluated as to whether these areas would be encompassed by our proposed PORT CTV. Results: With a median follow-up of 24 months, 173 of 250 patients (69.2%) experienced disease recurrence. Of the 54 patients with LRF as the first event, 48 (89%) had recurrence within the proposed PORT CTV, and 6 (11%) had failures occurring both within and outside the proposed CTV (all of which occurred in patients with right-lung cancer). Ninety-three percent of failure sites (104 of 112) would have been contained within the proposed PORT CTV. For left-sided lung cancer, the most common lymph node station failure site was 4R, followed by 7, 4L, 6, 10L, and 5. For right-sided lung cancer, the most common site was station 2R, followed by 10R, 4R, and 7. Conclusions: LRF following complete surgery was an important and potentially preventable pattern of failure in stage IIIA(N2) patients. Ipsilateral superior mediastinal recurrences dominated for right-sided tumors, whereas left-sided tumors frequently involved the bilateral superior mediastinum. Most of the LRF sites would have been covered by the proposed PORT CTV. A prospective investigation of patterns of failure after PORT (following our proposed CTV delineation guideline) is presently underway and will be reported in a separate analysis.

  10. 乳腺癌区域血流灌注和代谢与血管生成的关系%Regional blood perfusion, metabolism and angiogenesis of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成刚; 艾毓; 余之刚; 马榕; 张庆慧; 刘树伟; 孙靖中

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨乳腺癌区域血流灌注和代谢与血管生成的关系.方法 应用PET/CT血流灌注成像和代谢成像技术分别定量检测33例乳腺癌患者肿瘤中心区域和边缘区域的血流灌注指标血流量(BF)、血容量(BV)和表面渗透性(Ps)以及代谢指标标准摄取值(SUV);采用免疫组织化学的方法检测术后肿瘤标本CD31、CD105和VEGF的表达,计算其相应的微血管密度MVD(CD31)和MVD(CD105).分析区域血流灌注和代谢指标与MVD(CD31)、MVD(CD105)和VEGF表达的关系.结果MVD(CD31)仅与肿瘤边缘区域的BF相关(P0.05).结论 乳腺癌区域血流灌注和代谢的高低与血管生成有关,通过PET/CT所获得的肿瘤区域血流灌注和代谢结果可反映肿瘤的血管生成状态.%Objective To evaluate the correlation between regional blood perfusion,metabolism and angiogenesis in breast cancer.Methods The PET/CT functional imaging technique was applied to quantitatively detect the central and marginal blood perfusion parameters including blood flow(BF),blood volume(BV)and permeability of surface(Ps),and metabolism index of standard uptake value(SUV)of the tumor in 33 breast cancer patients.The expression of CD31.CD105 and VEGF in paraffin section of breast cancer were detected by immunohistochemical method,then MVD(CD31)and MVD(CD105)were obtained.The relationship between the regional blood perfusion and metabolism and MVD(CD3 1),MVD(CD105)and the expression of VEGF were analyzed. Results There was significant correlation of MVD (CD31)with BF of marginal region(P<0.05).There were significant correlations of MVD(CD105)with BF.PS and SUV(P<0.05). Conclusions Regional blood perfusion,metabolism is correlated with angiogenesis in breast cancer tissue.PETT/CT regional blood perfusion and metabolic imaging iS a noninvasive method which can be used to estimate angiogenesis status clinically in breast cancer.

  11. Extended Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concomitant Boost for Lymph Node–Positive Cervical Cancer: Analysis of Regional Control and Recurrence Patterns in the Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, John A.; Kim, Hayeon; Choi, Serah [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Sukumvanich, Paniti; Olawaiye, Alexander B.; Kelley, Joseph L.; Edwards, Robert P.; Comerci, John T. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is commonly used for nodal staging in locally advanced cervical cancer; however the false negative rate for para-aortic disease are 20% to 25% in PET-positive pelvic nodal disease. Unless surgically staged, pelvis-only treatment may undertreat para-aortic disease. We have treated patients with PET-positive nodes with extended field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to address the para-aortic region prophylactically with concomitant boost to involved nodes. The purpose of this study was to assess regional control rates and recurrence patterns. Methods and Materials: Sixty-one patients with cervical cancer (stage IBI-IVA) diagnosed from 2003 to 2012 with PET-avid pelvic nodes treated with extended field IMRT (45 Gy in 25 fractions with concomitant boost to involved nodes to a median of 55 Gy in 25 fractions) with concurrent cisplatin and brachytherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The nodal location was pelvis-only in 41 patients (67%) and pelvis + para-aortic in 20 patients (33%). There were a total of 179 nodes, with a median number of positive nodes of 2 (range, 1-16 nodes) per patient and a median nodal size of 1.8 cm (range, 0.7-4.5 cm). Response was assessed by PET/CT at 12 to 16 weeks. Results: Complete clinical and imaging response at the first follow-up visit was seen in 77% of patients. At a mean follow-up time of 29 months (range, 3-116 months), 8 patients experienced recurrence. The sites of persistent/recurrent disease were as follows: cervix 10 (16.3%), regional nodes 3 (4.9%), and distant 14 (23%). The rate of para-aortic failure in patients with pelvic-only nodes was 2.5%. There were no significant differences in recurrence patterns by the number/location of nodes, largest node size, or maximum node standardized uptake value. The rate of late grade 3+ adverse events was 4%. Conclusions: Extended field IMRT was well tolerated and resulted in low regional recurrence

  12. The Situation Analysis on Women's NGO Role of Married Women Family Status in Poor Rural Areas---With T County of Gansu as an Example%妇女 NGO在贫困山区农村已婚女性家庭地位提升中的现状分析--基于甘肃省T县的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐永霞; 罗卫国

    2015-01-01

    Women's NGO is Women Nongovernmental Organizations.In poor rural areas women's NGO in promoting married women family status has the biggest effect:help married women out of poverty to get rich, promot their economic status, inter-vent violence in rural family, and give married women temporary shelter.In poor rural mountainous areas, however, women's NGO is smaller, its activity rate is low, its the social awareness is not high, far from network development model.In poor rural areas women's NGO at the beginning of creation should intensify publicity, expand its influence in the society, make clear its mission and work, make reasonable plannings, strengthen the government and social support, so can make a steady develop-ment.%妇女NGO即妇女非政府组织。在贫困山区的农村,妇女NGO在提升已婚女性家庭地位方面所发挥的最大功效有:帮助已婚女性脱贫致富,提升了其经济地位;干预农村家庭暴力,给予已婚女性暂时的庇护。然而在贫困山区的农村,妇女NGO数量规模较小,活动频率低,组织类型结构单一,社会认知度不高,与网络型发展模式相距甚远。针对此现状,贫困山区的妇女NGO,在创建之初就应加大宣传力度,扩大其社会影响力;明确自身的使命与工作重心,对未来的发展应有合理规划;加强政府与社会支持力度,使妇女NGO稳定发展且逐步走向普及。

  13. Role of Private Enterprise in Cancer Control in Low to Middle Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwumere E. Nwogu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. About 65% of cancer deaths globally occur in low to middle income countries (LMICs where prioritization and allocation of resources to cancer care are often quite poor. In the absence of governmental focus on this problem, public-private partnerships may be an avenue to provide effective cancer control. Methods. This manuscript highlights the establishment of a nongovernmental organization (NGO to stimulate the development of partnerships between oncology professionals, private enterprise, and academic institutions, both locally and internationally. Examples of capacity building, grant support, establishment of collaborative networks, and the development of a facility to provide clinical care are highlighted. Results. Collaborations were established between oncology professionals at academic institutions in the US and Nigeria. Cancer control workshops were conducted in Nigeria with grant support from the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC. A monthly tumor board conference was established at LASUTH in Lagos, and further capacity building is underway with grant support from the United States NCI. An outpatient, privately funded oncology clinic in Lagos has been launched. Conclusion. In LMICs, effective partnership between public and private institutions can lead to tangible strides in cancer control. The use of creative healthcare financing models can also support positive change.

  14. Wnt-responsive cancer stem cells are located close to distorted blood vessels and not in hypoxic regions in a p53-null mouse model of human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadakkan, Tegy J; Landua, John D; Bu, Wen; Wei, Wei; Li, Fuhai; Wong, Stephen T C; Dickinson, Mary E; Rosen, Jeffrey M; Lewis, Michael T; Zhang, Mei

    2014-07-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs, or tumor-initiating cells) may be responsible for tumor formation in many types of cancer, including breast cancer. Using high-resolution imaging techniques, we analyzed the relationship between a Wnt-responsive, CSC-enriched population and the tumor vasculature using p53-null mouse mammary tumors transduced with a lentiviral Wnt signaling reporter. Consistent with their localization in the normal mammary gland, Wnt-responsive cells in tumors were enriched in the basal/myoepithelial population and generally located in close proximity to blood vessels. The Wnt-responsive CSCs did not colocalize with the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α-positive cells in these p53-null basal-like tumors. Average vessel diameter and vessel tortuosity were increased in p53-null mouse tumors, as well as in a human tumor xenograft as compared with the normal mammary gland. The combined strategy of monitoring the fluorescently labeled CSCs and vasculature using high-resolution imaging techniques provides a unique opportunity to study the CSC and its surrounding vasculature.

  15. Cancer care in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Tey, J; Baggarley, S; Lee, KM

    2008-01-01

    Singapore is a small country, but it is ideally and centrally located to conveniently serve not only its population but also patients from the surrounding regions. It’s economy is sufficiently strong to maintain highly sophisticated and expensive equipment to manage a high level of healthcare, including oncology services. Cancer incidences in Singapore are on an upward trend based on the report of the Singapore Cancer Registry for the period of 2001-2005. Cancer is the number one cause of dea...

  16. German cancer statistics 2004

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background For years the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) has been annually pooling and reviewing the data from the German population-based cancer registries and evaluating them together with the cause-of-death statistics provided by the statistical offices. Traditionally, the RKI periodically estimates the number of new cancer cases in Germany on the basis of the available data from the regional cancer registries in which registration is complete; this figure, in turn, forms the basis fo...

  17. Efficacy of regional hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy for patients with locally recurrent cervical cancer%区域性热疗联合化疗治疗局部复发宫颈癌的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔亚梅; 彭云武; 李雯雯

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察区域性热疗联合化疗治疗局部复发宫颈癌的疗效及不良反应.方法 自2008年3月至2010年7月64例局部复发宫颈癌按治疗模式的不同分成2组,单纯化疗组与热化疗组,化疗采用CPT-11 160mg/m2,d1;DDP 80mg/m2,d1,每3周重复,共2周期.热疗输出功率为1200W-1000W,以直肠进行测温,温度恒定在40.5℃-41.5℃,恒温治疗时间40min左右,2次/周,每次间隔72小时,8次/疗程.化疗同时行热疗,不行化疗时常规行热疗.结果 单纯化疗组有效率为36.6%,热化疗组有效率为61.7%(P<0.05);单纯化疗组III+IV度白细胞减少发生率明显高于热化疗组,(P<0.05);热化疗组未出现严重不良反应.结论 区域性热疗联合伊立替康+顺铂化疗局部复发宫颈癌,近期疗效确切、不良反应轻,且可减轻化疗不良反应,值得进一步推广应用,其远期疗效有待进一步观察.%Objective:To observe the efficacy and adverse reactions of regional hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy for patients with locally recurrent cervical cancer. Methods: From March 2008 to July 2010,64 patients with locally recurrent cervical cancer were divided into two groups, the chemotherapy alone group and thermo - chemotherapy group. The chemotherapy regiem was used by CPT - 11 160mg/m , dj with DDP 80mg/m , dj , once 3 weeks , with a total of 2 cycles. The deferent power of hyperthermia was 1200W - 1000W. The temperature was detected by the sensor in rectum. The hyperthermia constant was at 40. 51 - 41. 5t , the constant treatment time was a-bout 40min, twice a week, at intervals of 72 hours, 8 times a course. When chemotherapy was conformed, regional hyperthermia was performed simultaneously, but when chemotherapy was not conformed, regional hyperthermia was performed alone. Results: The effective rate( CR + PR )of chemotherapy alone group was 36. 6% , but the thermo -chemotherapy group was 61.7%( P <0.05 ). Ill + IV degree white blood cell shortage was much more

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at CDH1 promoter region in familial gastric cancer Polimorfismos de nucleótido único (SNPs en la región promotora CDH1 en cáncer gástrico familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ramos-de la Medina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: gastric cancer is the most frequent gastrointestinal malignancy in Mexico and the proportion of patients younger than 40 years is one of the highest reported in the world literature. Recently several families with familial diffuse gastric cancer have been identified at the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition. Germline mutations in the E-cadherin gene (CHD1 have been described that result in the development of diffuse hereditary gastric cancer in young patients. Methods: the complete coding sequence at exons 1 to 16 and the promoter region of CDH1 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood samples of two patients with early onset familial diffuse gastric cancer. Results: no germline inactivating mutations of CHD1 were found on either patient. Single nucleotide polymorphisms -160 C→A were detected in the promoter region of CDH1 in both patients. Conclusions: the polymorphism -160 C→A theoretically confers an increased risk of developing diffuse gastric cancer. The relatives of these patients may an increased risk of gastric cancer among other tumors. There is presently not enough evidence to consider the -160 C→A polymorphism an etiologic factor of diffuse gastric cancer in these patients since the frequency and type of genetic alterations of CDH1 are largely unknown in the Mexican population. It will be necessary to conduct epidemiologic studies in the Mexican population to determine the influence that genetic alterations have on the genesis of diffuse gastric carcinoma.Introducción: el cáncer gástrico es la neoplasia más frecuente del tracto gastrointestinal en México y la proporción de pacientes menores de 40 años es una de las más altas reportadas en la literatura mundial. Recientemente se han identificado en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición varias familias con cáncer gástrico difuso familiar. Múltiples mutaciones germinales del gene de E-cadherina (CHD1

  19. Haplotype frequencies in a sub-region of chromosome 19q13.3, related to risk and prognosis of cancer, differ dramatically between ethnic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M.H.; Mailund, T.; Li, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: A small region of about 70 kb on human chromosome 19q13.3 encompasses 4 genes of which 3, ERCC1, ERCC2, and PPP1R13L (aka RAI) are related to DNA repair and cell survival, and one, CD3EAP, aka ASE1, may be related to cell proliferation. The whole region seems related to the cellular r...

  20. The − 5 A/G single-nucleotide polymorphism in the core promoter region of MT2A and its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels in laryngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starska, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.starska@umed.lodz.pl [I Department of Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology, Medical University of Łódź, Kopcinskiego 22, 90-153 Łódź (Poland); Krześlak, Anna; Forma, Ewa [Department of Cytobiochemistry, University of Łódź, Pomorska 142/143, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Olszewski, Jurek [II Department of Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology, Medical University of Łódź, Żeromskiego 113, 90-549 Łódź (Poland); Morawiec-Sztandera, Alina [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of Łódź, Paderewskiego 4, 93-509 Łódź (Poland); Aleksandrowicz, Paweł [Department of Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology, Medical University of Lublin, Jaczewskiego 8, 20-954 Lublin (Poland); Lewy-Trenda, Iwona [Department of Pathology, Medical University of Łódź, Pomorska 251, 92-213 Łódź (Poland); and others

    2014-10-15

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are low molecular weight, cysteine-rich heavy metal-binding proteins which participate in the mechanisms of Zn homeostasis, and protect against toxic metals. MTs contain metal-thiolate cluster groups and suppress metal toxicity by binding to them. The aim of this study was to determine the − 5 A/G (rs28366003) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the core promoter region of the MT2A gene and to investigate its effect on allele-specific gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu content in squamous cell laryngeal cancer (SCC) and non-cancerous laryngeal mucosa (NCM) as a control. The MT2A promoter region − 5 A/G SNP was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism using 323 SCC and 116 NCM. MT2A gene analysis was performed by quantitative real-time PCR. The frequency of A allele carriage was 94.2% and 91.8% in SCC and NCM, respectively, while G allele carriage was detected in 5.8% and 8.2% of SCC and NCM samples, respectively. As a result, a significant association was identified between the − 5 A/G SNP in the MT2A gene with mRNA expression in both groups. Metal levels were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The significant differences were identified between A/A and both the A/G and G/G genotypes, with regard to the concentration of the contaminating metal. The Spearman rank correlation results showed that the MT2A expression and Cd, Zn, Cu levels were negatively correlated. Results obtained in this study suggest that − 5 A/G SNP in MT2A gene may have an effect on allele-specific gene expression and accumulation of metal levels in laryngeal cancer. - Highlights: • MT2A gene expression and metal content in laryngeal cancer tissues • Association between SNP (rs28366003) and expression of MT2A • Significant associations between the SNP and Cd, Zn and Cu levels • Negative correlation between MT2A gene expression and Cd, Zn and Cu levels.

  1. Epidemiological review of gastric cancer in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh P Dikshit; Garima Mathur; Sharayu Mhatre; Yeole, B. B.

    2011-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the one of the leading cause of cancer in southern region of India. Its incidence is decreasing worldwide yet on global scale stomach cancer remains one of the most common causes of cancer death. Etiology of gastric cancer includes Helicobacter pylori infection, diet and lifestyle, tobacco, alcohol and genetic susceptibility. In this review, we tried to find the contribution of Indian scientist in understanding the descriptive and observational epidemiology of stomach cancer...

  2. Polymorphism in Fas Promoter Region Associated with Risk to Breast Cancer%Fas 基因启动子区多态性与乳腺癌发病风险的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丰; 周光华; 陈璇

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨 Fas 基因启动子区单核苷酸多态性与乳腺癌遗传易感性的关系。方法:采用病例对照研究,利用 PCR-RFLP 和测序的方法对214例乳腺癌患者与204例健康人对照的 Fas-670A/G 位点进行基因分型。并对检测结果进行χ2检验。通过实时 ELISA 检测 Fas 基因的表达水平。结果:Fas-670A/G 和乳腺癌群体的基因型分布与对照组有显著差异;GG、AA、AG 基因型个体之间 sFas 基因表达水平有显著差异,GG 型个体 Fas 基因的表达水平显著高于 AA、AG 基因型个体。结论:乳腺癌组中 Fas 基因的表达显著增加,Fas-670A/G 多态性位点通过调节 Fas 基因的表达与女性患乳腺癌发病风险显著相关。且 GG 基因型增强了 Fas 基因的表达,增加了发病风险。%Objective To evaluate the association between polymorphisms in Fas promoter region and susceptibility to breast cancer. Methods In the case-control study, we genotyped Fas-670A/G and Fas-1377A/G by PCR-RFLP in 214 pa-tients with breast cancer and 204 healthy controls. Results were analyzed using Chi-square test. Fas gene expression wwas detected by q-RT-PCR in breast cancer. Results The distribution of Fas-670A/G genotype and allele type was significant difference between the patients and healthy controls. Subjects with GG genotype significantly increased the risk of breast can-cer compared with the individuals carrying AA and AG genotype. Fas expression level in subjects with breast cancer was sig-nificantly increased compared with the healthy control. And the Fas expression in subjects with GG genotype was significantly higher than that in subjects with AA, GG genotypes. Conclusion Fas expression significantly increased in breast cancer. Fas was regulated by Fas-670A/G and significantly associated with susceptibility to breast cancer. GG genotype enhanced Fas ex-pression and increased the risk to breast cancer.

  3. Colorectal cancer and 18FDG-PET/CT: What about adding the T to the N parameter in loco-regional staging?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pier Paolo Mainenti; Delfina Iodice; Sabrina Segreto; Giovanni Storto; Mario Magliulo; Giovanni Domenico De Palma; Marco Salvatore; Leonardo Pace

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether FDG-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) may be an accurate technique in the assessment of the T stage in patients with colorectal cancer. METHODS: Thirty four consecutive patients (20 men and 14 women; mean age: 63 years) with a histologically proven diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma and scheduled for surgery in our hospital were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent FDG-PET/CT preoperatively. The primary tumor site and extent were evaluated on PET/CT images. Colorectal wall invasion was analysed according to a modified T classification that considers only three stages (≤ T2, T3, T4). Assessment of accuracy was carried out using 95% confidence intervals for T. RESULTS: Thirty five/37 (94.6%) adenocarcinomas were identified and correctly located on PET/CT images. PET/CT correctly staged the T of 33/35 lesions identified showing an accuracy of 94.3% (95% CI: 87%-100%). All T1, T3 and T4 lesions were correctly staged, while two T2 neoplasms were overstated as T3. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that FDG-PET/CT may be an accurate modality for identifying primary tumor and defining its local extent in patients with colorectal cancer.

  4. Fine-mapping the HOXB region detects common variants tagging a rare coding allele: evidence for synthetic association in prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J Saunders

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The HOXB13 gene has been implicated in prostate cancer (PrCa susceptibility. We performed a high resolution fine-mapping analysis to comprehensively evaluate the association between common genetic variation across the HOXB genetic locus at 17q21 and PrCa risk. This involved genotyping 700 SNPs using a custom Illumina iSelect array (iCOGS followed by imputation of 3195 SNPs in 20,440 PrCa cases and 21,469 controls in The PRACTICAL consortium. We identified a cluster of highly correlated common variants situated within or closely upstream of HOXB13 that were significantly associated with PrCa risk, described by rs117576373 (OR 1.30, P = 2.62×10(-14. Additional genotyping, conditional regression and haplotype analyses indicated that the newly identified common variants tag a rare, partially correlated coding variant in the HOXB13 gene (G84E, rs138213197, which has been identified recently as a moderate penetrance PrCa susceptibility allele. The potential for GWAS associations detected through common SNPs to be driven by rare causal variants with higher relative risks has long been proposed; however, to our knowledge this is the first experimental evidence for this phenomenon of synthetic association contributing to cancer susceptibility.

  5. Time trends in incidence and prognosis of primary liver cancer and liver metastases of unknown origin in a Danish region, 1985-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Rune; Jepsen, Peter; Jacobsen, Jacob;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Changes, over the last 20 years, in the diagnostic procedures and treatment of primary liver cancer (PLC) and liver metastases of unknown origin (LMUO) may have affected the clinical course of both cancers. Few longitudinal studies examined this issue. In a population-based setting, we...... studied changes in the incidence and prognosis of PLC and LMUO over time. METHODS: Between 1985 and 2004, we identified 2675 patients with PLC and LMUO in three Danish counties, with a population of 1.4 million. We computed the standardized incidence rate (SIR), ratio of PLC to LMUO diagnoses, median...... survival, and estimated mortality rate ratio adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidity. RESULTS: The SIR of PLC increased from 3.2 in 1985 to 5.0 in 2003, and the SIR of LMUO increased from 3.7 to 6.4. No increase was noted in the PLC-to-LMUO ratio over time (P=0.1 for trend). From 1985 to 2004, the median...

  6. Risk factors for esophageal cancer in Kazakhs in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region%新疆哈萨克族食管癌的危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婧; 蔡金凤; 秦江梅

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨新疆哈萨克族食管癌(esophageal cancer,EC)发病危险因素.方法:采用1∶2病例对照研究方法,共收集155个哈萨克族EC患者及310个同性别、同民族、年龄相差不大于±3岁的非EC为对照,采用条件Logistic回归进行影响因素分析.结果:饮用河水(OR=1.59)、辛辣饮食(OR=1.51)、饮酒史(OR=1.50)、食用陈粮(OR=2.21)、少吃水果(OR=1.27)、EC家族史(OR=1.77)、TAP2379 G/A型或A/A型(OR=1.41)、CYP2E1 C1/C1型(OR=1.46)等8个因素为EC的危险因素,CYP2E基因与TAP2379基因型、饮酒史、食用陈粮存在交互作用.结论:哈萨克族EC的发生与不良环境、饮食、遗传基因多态性等均有关,揭示哈萨克族EC是各危险因素综合作用的结果.%AIM:To explore risk factors for esophageal cancer (EC) in Kazakhs in Xinjiang.METHODS:A 1 ∶ 2 case-control study was conducted with 155 cases of EC and 310 controls.The controls were matched to the cases by sex,nationality,and age.Factors affecting the development of EC were investigated using conditional Logistic regression analysis.RESULTS:Drinking water (OR =1.59),spicy diet (OR =1.51),history of alcohol (OR =1.50),consumption of old crops (OR =2.21),eating less fruit (OR =1.27),family history of esophageal cancer (OR =1.77),TAP2379 A/A or A/Ggenotype (OR =1.41),and CYP2E1 C1/C1 genotype (OR =1.46) were found to be risk factors for esophageal cancer.There existed interactions among CYP2E1 and TAP2379 genotypes,history of alcohol,and consumption of old crops.CONCLUSION:The development of esophageal cancer in Kazakhs is associated with bad environment,diet,and genetic polymorphisms,and is a result of combined action of various risk factors.

  7. Refined physical map of the human PAX2/HOX11/NFKB2 cancer gene region at 10q24 and relocalization of the HPV6AI1 viral integration site to 14q13.3-q21.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahn Tomas

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosome band 10q24 is a gene-rich domain and host to a number of cancer, developmental, and neurological genes. Recurring translocations, deletions and mutations involving this chromosome band have been observed in different human cancers and other disease conditions, but the precise identification of breakpoint sites, and detailed characterization of the genetic basis and mechanisms which underlie many of these rearrangements has yet to be resolved. Towards this end it is vital to establish a definitive genetic map of this region, which to date has shown considerable volatility through time in published works of scientific journals, within different builds of the same international genomic database, and across the differently constructed databases. Results Using a combination of chromosome and interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, BAC end-sequencing and genomic database analysis we present a physical map showing that the order and chromosomal orientation of selected genes within 10q24 is CEN-CYP2C9-PAX2-HOX11-NFKB2-TEL. Our analysis has resolved the orientation of an otherwise dynamically evolving assembly of larger contigs upstream of this region, and in so doing verifies the order and orientation of a further 9 cancer-related genes and GOT1. This study further shows that the previously reported human papillomavirus type 6a DNA integration site HPV6AI1 does not map to 10q24, but that it maps at the interface of chromosome bands 14q13.3-q21.1. Conclusions This revised map will allow more precise localization of chromosome rearrangements involving chromosome band 10q24, and will serve as a useful baseline to better understand the molecular aetiology of chromosomal instability in this region. In particular, the relocation of HPV6AI1 is important to report because this HPV6a integration site, originally isolated from a tonsillar carcinoma, was shown to be rearranged in other HPV6a-related malignancies

  8. ON ORAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Svetitsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a rise in the incidence of oral cancer in the Rostov Region since the 1990s. The study has indicated that this rise is associated with regional population growth due to the forced migrants after the collapse of the USSR. Financial problems, unbalanced nutrition, poor oral hygiene, and depression in this group of patients have contributed to the higher incidence of precancers and cancers.

  9. Using NHANES oral health examination protocols as part of an esophageal cancer screening study conducted in a high-risk region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wei

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oral health status of rural residents in the People's Republic of China has not been extensively studied and the relationship between poor oral health and esophageal cancer (EC is unclear. We aim to report the oral health status of adults participating in an EC screening study conducted in a rural high-risk EC area of China and to explore the relationship between oral health and esophageal dysplasia. Methods National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES oral health examination procedures and the Modified Gingival Index (MGI were used in a clinical study designed to examine risk factors for esophageal cancer and to test a new esophageal cytology sampling device. This study was conducted in three rural villages in China with high rates of EC in 2002 and was a collaborative effort involving investigators from the National Institutes of Health and the Cancer Institute of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Results Nearly 17% of the study participants aged 40–67 years old were edentulous. Overall, the mean number of adjusted missing teeth (including third molars and retained dental roots was 13.8 and 35% had 7 contacts or less. Women were more likely to experience greater tooth loss than men. The average age at the time of first tooth loss for those with no posterior functional contacts was approximately 41 years for men and 36 years for women. The mean DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth score for the study population was 8.5. Older persons, females, and individuals having lower educational attainment had higher DMFT scores. The prevalence of periodontal disease (defined as at least one site with 3 mm of attachment loss and 4 mm of pocket depth was 44.7%, and 36.7% of the study participants had at least one site with 6 mm or more of attachment loss. Results from a parsimonious multivariate model indicate that participants with poor oral health wemore likely to have esophageal dysplasia (OR = 1.59; 95

  10. 问诊中国NGO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董永纲

    2010-01-01

    NGO即非营利的合法性、公益性非政府组织,是为帮助政府部门完善服务、提高社会效益而产生的作用于经济利益主体之间的纽带.改革开放以来,NGO在我国迅速发展壮大,但"舶来"的NGO尚未完全融入我国国情,我国政府也并未明确科学管理NGO的方法.NGO与政府必须作出转变,才能做好服务于建设社会主义和谐社会的目标.本文从国内NGO的各种特性入手,分析研究,为规范、管理、运行NGO提出了设想和建议.

  11. The Growing Market for NGO Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilon, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    "Can NGOs provide alternative development in a market-based system of global economics?" Today, a full ten years after the author first asked this question, individuals still have only partial answers. There is no doubt that NGOs are playing in a more significant role in global ODA (overseas development assistance). While the reasons for supply of…

  12. Humanitarian interventions in Macedonia: an NGO perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Morris

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Media coverage of the Kosovo crisis has given the impressionthat UNHCR and the relief agencies were overwhelmed by the influx ofrefugees into Macedonia and that it was highly fortunate that NATO was on hand to save the day. Such is the aftermath of NATO’s large and slickly publicized humanitarian operation. This impression is questionable.

  13. A Framework for NGO-Military Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    the roles of various actors involved in postconflict reconstruction ” (Gheciu 2011, 96). Blurred boundaries, in the case of increasing NATO military...Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs OE Operational Environment OFDA Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance PRT Provincial Reconstruction Team SAR...military units are now tasked with a broad range of stability missions, from peacekeeping to post-conflict reconstruction . Military units

  14. SU-E-J-100: The Combination of Deformable Image Registration and Regions-Of-Interest Mapping Technique to Accomplish Accurate Dose Calculation On Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Esophageal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B-T; Lu, J-Y [Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We introduce a new method combined with the deformable image registration (DIR) and regions-of-interest mapping (ROIM) technique to accurately calculate dose on daily CBCT for esophageal cancer. Methods: Patients suffered from esophageal cancer were enrolled in the study. Prescription was set to 66 Gy/30 F and 54 Gy/30 F to the primary tumor (PTV66) and subclinical disease (PTV54) . Planning CT (pCT) were segmented into 8 substructures in terms of their differences in physical density, such as gross target volume (GTV), venae cava superior (SVC), aorta, heart, spinal cord, lung, muscle and bones. The pCT and its substructures were transferred to the MIM software to readout their mean HU values. Afterwards, a deformable planning CT to daily KV-CBCT image registration method was then utilized to acquire a new structure set on CBCT. The newly generated structures on CBCT were then transferred back to the treatment planning system (TPS) and its HU information were overridden manually with mean HU values obtained from pCT. Finally, the treatment plan was projected onto the CBCT images with the same beam arrangements and monitor units (MUs) to accomplish dose calculation. Planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) from both of the pCT and CBCT were compared to evaluate the dose calculation accuracy. Results: It was found that the dose distribution in the CBCT showed little differences compared to the pCT, regardless of whether PTV or OARs were concerned. Specifically, dose variation in GTV, PTV54, PTV66, SVC, lung and heart were within 0.1%. The maximum dose variation was presented in the spinal cord, which was up to 2.7% dose difference. Conclusion: The proposed method combined with DIR and ROIM technique to accurately calculate dose distribution on CBCT for esophageal cancer is feasible.

  15. Comparison of the Prognostic Value of F-18 Pet Metabolic Parameters of Primary Tumors and Regional Lymph Nodes in Patients with Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Who Are Treated with Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gun Oh Chong

    Full Text Available This study investigated the metabolic parameters of primary tumors and regional lymph nodes, as measured by pre-treatment F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT to compare the prognostic value for the prediction of tumor recurrence. This study also identified the most powerful parameter in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy.Fifty-six patients who were diagnosed with cervical cancer with pelvic and/or paraaortic lymph node metastasis were enrolled in this study. Metabolic parameters including the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax, the metabolic tumor volume (MTV, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG of the primary tumors and lymph nodes were measured by pre-treatment F-18 FDG PET/CT. Univariate and multivariate analyses for disease-free survival (DFS were performed using the clinical and metabolic parameters.The metabolic parameters of the primary tumors were not associated with DFS. However, DFS was significantly longer in patients with low values of nodal metabolic parameters than in those with high values of nodal metabolic parameters. A univariate analysis revealed that nodal metabolic parameters (SUVmax, MTV and TLG, paraaortic lymph node metastasis, and post-treatment response correlated significantly with DFS. Among these parameters, nodal SUVmax (hazard ratio [HR], 4.158; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-22.7; p = 0.041 and post-treatment response (HR, 7.162; 95% CI, 1.5-11.3; p = 0.007 were found to be determinants of DFS according to a multivariate analysis. Only nodal SUVmax was an independent pre-treatment prognostic factor for DFS, and the optimal cutoff for nodal SUVmax to predict progression was 4.7.Nodal SUVmax according to pre-treatment F-18 FDG PET/CT may be a prognostic biomarker for the prediction of disease recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer.

  16. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the 3'-UTR region of the adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 gene is associated with prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenmiao; Yuan, Peng; Yu, Dianke; Du, Feng; Zhu, Anjie; Li, Qing; Zhang, Pin; Lin, Dongxin; Xu, Binghe

    2016-04-05

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer with poor prognosis and high heterogeneity. The aim of this study was to screen patients for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the prognosis of TNBC. Database-derived SNPs (NextBio, Ensembl, NCBI and MirSNP) located in the 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) of genes that are differentially expressed in breast cancer were selected. The possible associations between 111 SNPs and progression risk among 323 TNBC patients were investigated using a two-step case-control study with a discovery cohort (n=162) and a validation cohort (n=161). We identified the rs1054135 SNP in the adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) gene as a predictor of TNBC recurrence. The G allele of rs1054135 was associated with a reduced risk of disease progression as well as a prolonged disease-free survival time (DFS), with a hazard ratio (HR) for recurrence in the combined sample of 0.269 [95%CI: 0.098-0.735;P=0.001]. Notably, for individuals having the rs1054135 SNP with the AA/AG genotype, the magnitude of increased tumour recurrence risk for overweight patients (BMI≥25kg/m2) was significantly elevated (HR2.53; 95%CI: 1.06-6.03). Immunohistochemical staining of adipocytes adjacent to TNBC tissues showed that the expression level of FABP4 was statistically significantly lower in patients with the rs1054135-GG genotype and those in the disease-free group (P=0.0004 and P=0.0091, respectively). These results suggested that the expression of a lipid metabolism-related gene and an important SNP in the 3'-UTR of FABP4 are associated with TNBC prognosis, which may aid in the screening of high-risk patients with TNBC recurrence and the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents.

  17. Age-associated changes in the expression pattern of cyclooxygenase-2 and related apoptotic markers in the cancer susceptible region of rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Alaa F; Liu, Yingying; Eldeen, Mazen B; Morrow, Willard; Razak, Zaineb R; Maradeo, Marie; Badr, Mostafa Z

    2004-09-01

    Senescence-associated changes in the prostate are believed to play an important role in the genesis of prostate cancer. In order to provide further information on how aging increases the prostate susceptibility to cancer, we examined the pattern of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and the concomitant alterations in prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) synthesis in the prostate glands of 4-, 10-, 50- and 100-week-old Fischer 344 rats. This was carried out in the prostatic areas where hormone-induced tumors arise, namely the periurethral ducts of the dorsolateral prostate (DLP). Age-associated changes were also evaluated for pro- and anti-apoptotic factors linked to COX-2 signaling and known to be involved in the normal development of the prostate gland as well as in carcinogenesis. COX-2 expression was increased in the DLP in an age-dependent manner where senescent rats had >3-4-fold higher COX-2 mRNA and protein levels than their juvenile counterparts (P6-fold) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (>3-fold) and in caspase-3 activity (>2-fold) and an up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl(2) (>8-fold), PKCalpha (>2-fold) and pAkt (>4-fold) in the 100-week-old rats versus the 4-week-old animals. There was an approximately 15-fold age-dependent decrease in the pro-apoptotic ratio BAX:Bcl(2) and an increase in the anti-apoptotic variable PKCalpha(*)Bcl(2)/BAX in the senescent rats compared with the juvenile ones. These results suggest that increased COX-2 expression can be linked to the decline in the pro-apoptotic signaling in the prostate gland during aging. Subsequently, COX-2 inhibitors can be considered as a promising class of agents to attenuate the increased cell survival and, hence, protect against tumorigenesis in the aging prostate.

  18. Cancer and orofacial pain

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer pain is a devastating condition. Pain in the orofacial region, may be present as the single symptom of cancer or as a symptom of cancer in its later stages. This manuscript revises in a comprehensive manner the content of the conference entitled “Orofacial Pain and Cancer” (Dolor Orofacial y Cancer) given at the VI Simposio International “Advances in Oral Cancer” on the 22 July, 2016 in Donostia. Material and Methods We have reviewed (pubmed-medline) from the most relevant l...

  19. La interacción de los públicos en las ONG 2.0: El estado actual de la comunicación social/ The interaction of the public in the NGO 2.0: The current state of social communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Soria Ibáñez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available La Web 2.0 está cambiando el modelo de comunicación de las ONGs, pasando del uso de lasherramientas más tradicionales como la rueda de prensa o el comunicado, a otras másvanguardistas como el blog o las redes sociales. Sin lugar a dudas, el usuario (tanto la propiasociedad como los medios de comunicación, es el gran beneficiario de esta cambio, dirigidoa que el internauta genere contenidos e interactúe de forma libre con la ONG. Por ello,consideramos fundamental llevar a cabo un repaso por los principales elementos queforman parte de las páginas webs de las ONGs españolas, y las herramientas queprotagonizan la sala de prensa virtual.Con este estudio se pretende visibilizar la comunicación 2.0 que están ofreciendoactualmente las ONGs a sus stakeholders, porque consideramos que este modelo no sólo esel presente, sino que será el futuro de unas organizaciones que necesitan de sus públicospara seguir en el “mercado” no lucrativo. Sin embargo, los resultados arrojados por nuestrainvestigación nos indican que la comunicación 2.0 con los públicos está aún por determinar.Vemos que las organizaciones estudiadas implementan, poco a poco, elementos que invitanal ciudadano a participar de la ONG. Pero también es cierto que la Web 2.0 se utiliza muchomás para captar colaboradores de manera directa (a través de la e-gestión, en lugar deproporcionar un espacio propio a la sociedad a través de un blog que le permita opinar librey democráticamente./The Web 2.0 is changing the communication model in NGO, as those organizations used touse the traditional tools as the conference or the press inform. However, NGO is using thenew tools as the blog o social networking at the same time. Without doubts, the user (the society and the mass media is the main beneficiary in this change, which is focused tostakeholders make contents and they interact freely with NGO. Furthemore, we considervery important developing a main tools in websites and

  20. Tumor-promoting function of single nucleotide polymorphism rs1836724 (C3388T) alters multiple potential legitimate microRNA binding sites at the 3'-untranslated region of ErbB4 in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Fatemeh; Mesrian Tanha, Hamzeh; Mojtabavi Naeini, Marjan; Ghaedi, Kamran; Azadeh, Mansoureh

    2016-05-01

    ErbB4 can act as either a tumor-suppressor gene or an oncogene in breast cancer. Multiple genetic factors including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affect gene expression patterns. Multiple 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) SNPs reside within the target binding site of microRNAs, which can strengthen or weaken binding to target genes. The present study aimed to predict potential 3'‑UTR variants of ErbB4 that alter the target binding site of microRNAs (miRNAs) and to clarify the association of the potential variant with the risk of developing breast cancer. In silico prediction was performed to identify potential functional SNPs within miRNA target binding sites in the 3'‑UTR of ErbB4. Thus, 146 patients and controls were genotyped using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction. In addition to the Cochran-Armitage test for trend, allele and genotype frequency differences were determined to investigate the association between rs1836724 and the susceptibility to breast cancer. Bioinformatics analysis identified rs1836724 to be a polymorphism in the seed region of four miRNA binding sites (hsa-miR335-5p, hsa-miR-28-5p, has‑miR‑708‑5p and has‑miR‑665), which may participate in the development of breast cancer. Logistic regression data indicated that the T allele of the polymorphism [OR (95% CI)=1.72 (1.056‑2.808), P=0.029] is associated with the risk of breast cancer. Using bioinformatics tools, a correlation was indicated between the presence of the T allele and a reduction in ErbB4 RNA silencing based on miRNA interaction. Furthermore, case subgroup data analysis revealed an association between the C/T genotype and an ER positive phenotype [OR (95% CI)=6.00 (1.082‑33.274), P=0.028] compared with the T/T genotype. ErbB4 and estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) are regulated by identical miRNAs thus there may be a competition for binding sites. Due to this pattern, if the interaction between miRNAs with one gene is reduced, it

  1. Zone-size nonuniformity of {sup 18}F-FDG PET regional textural features predicts survival in patients with oropharyngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Nai-Ming [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Departments of Nuclear Medicine, Taiyuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Keelung (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Hsinchu (China); Fang, Yu-Hua Dean [Chang Gung University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Taiyuan (China); Lee, Li-yu [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan (China); Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Tsan, Din-Li [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan (China); Ng, Shu-Hang [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan (China); Wang, Hung-Ming [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan (China); Liao, Chun-Ta [Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan (China); Yang, Lan-Yan [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Biostatistics Unit, Clinical Trial Center, Taoyuan (China); Hsu, Ching-Han [National Tsing Hua University, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Hsinchu (China); Yen, Tzu-Chen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Departments of Nuclear Medicine, Taiyuan (China); Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei (China)

    2014-10-23

    The question as to whether the regional textural features extracted from PET images predict prognosis in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) remains open. In this study, we investigated the prognostic impact of regional heterogeneity in patients with T3/T4 OPSCC. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 88 patients with T3 or T4 OPSCC who had completed primary therapy. Progression-free survival (PFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were the main outcome measures. In an exploratory analysis, a standardized uptake value of 2.5 (SUV 2.5) was taken as the cut-off value for the detection of tumour boundaries. A fixed threshold at 42 % of the maximum SUV (SUV{sub max} 42 %) and an adaptive threshold method were then used for validation. Regional textural features were extracted from pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT images using the grey-level run length encoding method and grey-level size zone matrix. The prognostic significance of PET textural features was examined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and Cox regression analysis. Zone-size nonuniformity (ZSNU) was identified as an independent predictor of PFS and DSS. Its prognostic impact was confirmed using both the SUV{sub max} 42 % and the adaptive threshold segmentation methods. Based on (1) total lesion glycolysis, (2) uniformity (a local scale texture parameter), and (3) ZSNU, we devised a prognostic stratification system that allowed the identification of four distinct risk groups. The model combining the three prognostic parameters showed a higher predictive value than each variable alone. ZSNU is an independent predictor of outcome in patients with advanced T-stage OPSCC, and may improve their prognostic stratification. (orig.)

  2. Comments from the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, SSNC, and the Swedish NGO office for Nuclear Waste Review, MKG, on the industry's, SKB, research programme Fud-07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-15

    The Swedish Society for Nature Conservation and the Swedish NGO Office for Nuclear Waste Review recommends in response to Fud-07 that: - The Government must in its forthcoming decision regarding the industry's 2007 research and development program set out requirements that are needed to bring order to the ongoing work on nuclear waste disposition - The Government must assure an effective quality control of the industry's work - The Government needs to review the industry's use of resources from the Swedish Nuclear Waste Fund and empower the Radiation Safety Authority to ensure their proper use - The Government must make it clear that a permit to establish a final repository for high-level waste will not be given until sufficient evidence is available that supports the chosen method and chosen location, and that provide for guaranteed long-term safety - The Government must instruct the Radiation Safety Authority to develop its own full and independent assessment tools and knowledge base to be able to review the industry's research and development work, with particular emphasis on weaker aspects of the industry's work. - The Government must expand the budget of the Radiation Safety Authority to enable the Authority to perform a thorough examination of the industry's forthcoming application to construct a repository. - The Government must ensure that currently outstanding issues and unsolved problems in the industry's research and development project are thoroughly investigated, and solutions arrived at, before permission to begin construction can be given. - The Government must see to it that work commences on drafting public policy that sets out the objectives and functions that a final repository shall fulfil. - The Government must make it clear that it will not be possible for the industry to neglect or avoid giving alternative methods serious consideration in its environmental impact statement (EIS). - The Government should

  3. Accounting for regional background and population size in the detection of spatial clusters and outliers using geostatistical filtering and spatial neutral models: the case of lung cancer in Long Island, New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goovaerts Pierre

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete Spatial Randomness (CSR is the null hypothesis employed by many statistical tests for spatial pattern, such as local cluster or boundary analysis. CSR is however not a relevant null hypothesis for highly complex and organized systems such as those encountered in the environmental and health sciences in which underlying spatial pattern is present. This paper presents a geostatistical approach to filter the noise caused by spatially varying population size and to generate spatially correlated neutral models that account for regional background obtained by geostatistical smoothing of observed mortality rates. These neutral models were used in conjunction with the local Moran statistics to identify spatial clusters and outliers in the geographical distribution of male and female lung cancer in Nassau, Queens, and Suffolk counties, New York, USA. Results We developed a typology of neutral models that progressively relaxes the assumptions of null hypotheses, allowing for the presence of spatial autocorrelation, non-uniform risk, and incorporation of spatially heterogeneous population sizes. Incorporation of spatial autocorrelation led to fewer significant ZIP codes than found in previous studies, confirming earlier claims that CSR can lead to over-identification of the number of significant spatial clusters or outliers. Accounting for population size through geostatistical filtering increased the size of clusters while removing most of the spatial outliers. Integration of regional background into the neutral models yielded substantially different spatial clusters and outliers, leading to the identification of ZIP codes where SMR values significantly depart from their regional background. Conclusion The approach presented in this paper enables researchers to assess geographic relationships using appropriate null hypotheses that account for the background variation extant in real-world systems. In particular, this new

  4. Androgen deprivation causes truncation of the C-terminal region of androgen receptor in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Naoki; Inoue, Kaoru; Yamaji, Ryoichi; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Inui, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor, whereas mutant AR lacking the C-terminal ligand-binding domain functions in a ligand-independent manner. In the present study we report that the C-terminal truncated AR, which we named AR-NH1 (the N-terminal fragment of AR cleaved in the neighborhood of helix 1 of the ligand-binding domain), is produced in LNCaP prostatic carcinoma cells. The AR-NH1 of ~90 kDa was observed in an androgen-independent LNCaP subline and was further accumulated by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. MG132 treatment caused the accumulation of AR-NH1 even in parent LNCaP cells. AR-NH1 was produced in the absence of ligand or in the presence of the AR antagonist bicalutamide, whereas AR agonists suppressed its production. AR-NH1 was detected with different AR antibodies recognizing amino acid residues 1-20 and 300-316 and was also generated from exogenous AR. Both siRNA-mediated AR knockdown and treatment with a serine protease inhibitor (4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride) reduced AR-NH1 levels. According to the predicted cleavage site (between amino acid residues 660-685) and its nuclear localization, it is assumed that AR-NH1 functions as a constitutively active transcription factor. These data suggest that AR-NH1 is produced under hormone therapy and contributes to the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer due to its ligand-independent transcriptional activity.

  5. Saudi Cancer Patients’ Attitudes towardsDisclosure of Cancer Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Al-Amri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to explore Saudi cancer patients' views regarding cancer information disclosure and whether differences existed between regions or gender.Methods: In this cross-sectional questionnaire-based prospective survey, we interviewed 332 Saudi cancer patients who received oncological care at King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia from July 2002 to July 2009 to explore their attitudes regarding disclosure of cancer information. Results: The vast majority of Saudi cancer patients wanted to know the diagnosis of cancer (98% and only 2% wanted the information to remain undisclosed. Seventy percent of the women wanted family members to know compared to only 39% of themen (P<0.001. Only 10% of the patients wanted their friends to know. In this study,99% and 98%, respectively, wanted to know about the benefits of therapy and about their diagnosis of cancer. Of both genders, 98% also wanted to know the side effects of therapy and the prognosis. The attitudes of Saudi men and women with cancer were almost identical apart from sharing information with their family members. 99% ofeastern region cancer patients wanted the diagnosis of cancer disclosed compared to74% of those from other regions (P=0.04. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that most Saudi cancer patients wanted disclosure of cancer information. Significantly more women than men wanted to share information with their family. More Eastern region patients wanted to know about their diagnosis of cancer compared to patients from other regions.

  6. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  8. Multi-modality management for loco-regionally advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer: balancing the benefit of efficacy and functional preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei; Zhu, Guopei; Wang, Yulong; Wang, Xiaoshen; Ji, Qinghai; Wang, Yu; Dou, Shengjin

    2014-09-01

    The 5-year overall survival (OS) of loco-regionally advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-LHC) has declined over the past two decades following the wide application of non-surgical approaches. We aimed to define the new role of open surgery combined with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of LA-LHC for improving survival while maintaining a functional larynx. In the current study, 90 LA-LHC patients treated with open surgery followed by postoperative RT/CRT in our institute from May 2005 to December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. OS, disease-free survival (DFS), loco-regional failure-free survival (LRFFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were calculated, and prognostic factors were analyzed. Functional larynx preservation results were evaluated according to the head and neck quality of life (QoL) Scale. With a median follow-up period of 37 months, the 3- and 5-year OS, DFS, LRFFS and DMFS were 71.3, 63.7, 85.9, 73.7 and 55.9, 53.0, 81.6, 71.9 %, respectively. Vascular embolism and extracapsular extension (ECE) of the lymph nodes were prognostic factors for poorer OS (p = 0.045 and 0.046, respectively). Vascular embolism was the only prognostic factor for poorer DMFS (p = 0.005). Patients who underwent a conservative partial laryngectomy (CPL) experienced a higher QoL in the domains of speech, swallowing and emotion. Functional larynx preservation was achieved in 36/45 patients (80 %) who received CPL. The results of our study demonstrated that CPL followed by adequate adjuvant therapy could achieve superior oncological results compared with non-surgical approaches in LA-LHC patients while also maintaining satisfactory functional larynx in a majority of patients.

  9. Prohibitin 3'-UTR基因多态性与粤东乳腺癌发病风险的研究%Prohibitin 3'-untranslated region polymorphism and breast cancer risk in easter n Guangdong of souther n China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭琳; 黄裔腾; 罗育豪

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨Prohibitin (PHB)3'-非翻译区(untranslated region,UTR)基因多态性与粤东汉族女性乳腺癌易感性的关系。方法:采用病例-对照研究,收集231例乳腺癌患者和169例健康对照,提取血液基因组DNA,利用高分辨率熔解曲线(high resolution melting,HRM)法对PHB基因单核苷酸多态性位点rs1049620、rs9893420、rs4987083进行基因分型,并对检测结果进行非2条件Logistic回归分析和χ检验。结果:PHB基因rs9893420和rs4987083位点在病例组和对照组人群均表现为单一基因型, rs1049620三种基因型G/G、A/G、A/A在病例组和对照组间分布差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),在不同组织病理学分型和不同激素受体表达病例中分布差异亦无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:未发现PHB基因3'-UTR SNP与粤东汉族女性乳腺癌易感性存在关联。%OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of Prohibitin (PHB) 3'- untranslated region (UTR) polymorphism with the risk of breast cancer in eastern Guangdong of southern China.METHODS:A case-control study of 231 breast cancer patients and 169 healthy controls were enrolled into this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood cells. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of rs1049620,rs9893420 and rs4987083 were determined by the high resolution melting (HRM) method.Data were analyzed via Logistic regression analysis and Chi-square test. RESULTS:PHB gene at rs9893420 and rs4987083 sites showed single genotype in breast cancer group and control. There were no significant differences in frequencies of G/G,A/G and A/A at rs1049620 between patients and controls(P>0.05). Meanwhile,no significant correlation could be found between rs1049620 SNP and clinico-pathologic characteristics of breast cancer such as histological classification and expression of hormone receptor. CONCLUSION:Our results do not lend support to the hypothesis that PHB polymorphism contributes to susceptibility of breast

  10. 食管癌放疗后复发再程调强放疗的临床观察%Clinical efficacy of intensity modulated radiation therapy for loco-regionally recurrent e-sophageal cancer after initial radiotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭雷; 卢鑫; 朱兆峰

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨调强放疗(intensity modulater radiation therapy,IMRT)在食管癌首程放疗后局部复发患者中的应用及临床观察。方法:37例首程放疗后局部复发的食管鳞癌患者,采用调强放疗技术进行二程放疗,处方剂量为(50-60)Gy/[2Gy·(25-30)f]。结果:37例患者中完全缓解(complete response,CR)7例,部分缓解(partial response,PR)20例,有效率(response rate,RR)为73.0%(27/37)。本组患者1、2、3年生存率分别为59.5%、32.4%、21.1%。放射性食管炎、骨髓抑制、胃肠道反应的发生率较高。全部病例随访资料完整。截止2012年12月,25例患者已经死亡,其中死于局部复发11例、远处转移8例、食管气管瘘2例、大出血2例、其他疾病1例、自杀1例。结论:调强放疗对于食管癌首程放疗后局部复发患者是一种较好的有效的治疗方法,能取得较好的局部控制率。%Objective:To evaluate the applications and clinical effect of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)for loco-regionally recurrent esophageal cancer after initial radiotherapy.Methods:All 37 patients with loco-regionally recurrent esophageal cancer after initial radiotherapy were treated with IMRT,with a total dose of (50-60)Gy/[2Gy·(25 -30)f].Results:Of 37 patients,7 patients achieved completed remission,20 patients achieved partial remission,the effective rate was 73.0%(27/37).The overall 1 -,2 -,3 -year survival rates were 59.5%, 32.4%,21.1%.In the radiation therapy,the incidence rates of radiation esophagitis and arrest of bone marrow were high.In followed up,until December 2012,25 patients died,1 1 from local recurrence,8 from distant metastases,2 from esophageal leak,2 from haemorrhage,1 from other disease,1 from suicide.Conclusion:To patients with loco-regionally recurrent esophageal cancer after initial radiotherapy,IMRT is an alternative effective method,can improve the local

  11. Tubelike Gold Sphere-Attapulgite Nanocomposites with a High Photothermal Conversion Ability in the Near-Infrared Region for Enhanced Cancer Photothermal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Deng, Dan; Gao, Jingwen; Cai, Chenxin

    2016-04-27

    Near-infrared (NIR)-induced photothermal therapy (PTT) is now considered to be a promising and highly efficient method for tumor therapy. Photothermal agents play a crucial role in PTT, and they are required to possess the ability to harvest NIR light and transform the photon energy into heat energy. This work reports a facile method to synthesize a new PTT agent, which is based on the electrostatic binding of the Au nanospheres (Au NSs, ∼15 nm) to the surface of a nanometer-sized mineral, attapulgite, to form tubelike Au-attapulgite nanocomposites. These nanocomposites consist of numerous Au NSs, which are linked to each other along the attapulgite surface. The nanocomposites exhibit similar localized surface plasmon resonance absorption characteristics to those of Au nanorods with a longitudinal absorption mode that shifts to the NIR region (∼670 nm). Moreover, the nanocomposites have a high Cabs/Csca ratio (cross section of absorption to scattering) and photothermal conversion efficiency of 25.6%. Their photothermal therapy effect is studied using A549 cells and A549 cell-bearing nude mice as examples. The results indicate that the nanocomposites can be effectively taken up by the cells, and the nanocomposites show good biocompatibility. The A549 cells almost died after they were incubated with the nanocomposites (at 100 μg mL(-1)) for 12 h and irradiated by an 808 nm laser with a power density of 0.5 W cm(-2) for 15 min. The tumors of nude mice can also be effectively ablated without regrowth during the period of observation (at least 10 d) after photothermal therapy.

  12. Gastrointestinal cancers in India: Treatment perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Suresh Ghadyalpatil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available GI cancer is not one cancer but is a term for the group of cancers that affect the digestive system including gastric cancer (GC, colorectal cancer (CRC, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, esophageal cancer (EC, and pancreatic cancer (PC. Overall, the GI cancers are responsible for more cancers and more deaths from cancer than any other organ. 5 year survival of these cancers remains low compared to western world. Unlike the rest of the world where organ based specialities hepatobiliary, pancreatic, colorectal and esophagogastric exist , these cancers are managed in India by either a gastrointestinal surgeons, surgical oncologist, or a general surgeon with varying outcomes.The aim of this review was to collate data on GI cancers in indian continent. In colorectal cancers, data from tertiary care centres identifies the unique problem of mucinous and signet colorectal cancer. Results of rectal cancer resection in terms of technique (intersphincteric resection, extralevator aper, minimal invasive approach to be comparable with world literature. However long term outcome and data regarding colon cancers and nationally is needed. Gastric cancer at presentation are advanced and in surgically resected patients, there is need for a trial to compare chemoradiation vs chemotherapy alone to prevent loco regional recurrence. Data on minimal invasive gastric cancer surgery may be sparse for the same reason. Theree is a lot of data on surgical techniques and perioperatve outcomes in pancreatic cancer. There is a high volume of locally advanced gallbladder cancers with efforts on to decide whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is better for down staging. Considering GI cancers, a heterogeneous disease with site specific treatment options and variable outcomes, the overall data and outcomes are extremely variable. Young patients with pathology unique to the Indian subcontinent (for example, signet ring rectal cancer, GBCs need focussed

  13. Clinical research of extensive regional field radiotherapy concurrent with chemotherapy for locally advanced esophageal cancer%局部晚期食管癌扩大野同期放化疗的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周超; 杨海华; 胡炜; 柯文婷; 王碧云; 孔敏; 朱成楚

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨局部晚期食管癌扩大野同期放化疗的疗效及不良反应.方法 101例局部晚期食管癌初治患者入组,其中常规野放疗44例、常规野放化疗29例、扩大野放化疗28例,放疗总剂量60 Gy.常规野临床靶体积(CTV)包括大体肿瘤体积(GTV)外扩0.8 cm、食管原发灶上下各扩3 ~5 cm.扩大野第1阶段CTV包括全食管、GTV外扩0.8cm及淋巴引流区、双侧锁骨上区、胃左淋巴引流区,第2阶段CTV包括GTV外扩0.8 cm、食管原发灶上下各扩3~5 cm,缩野避脊髓.同期化疗包括TP及NP方案.结果 90.1%患者完成放疗计划,同期放化疗患者均完成l周期以上化疗.随访率为99.0%,单纯放疗、同期放化疗的随访时间满2年者分别为24、42例.常规野放疗、常规野放化疗、扩大野放化疗的中位生存时间分别为13、21、19个月,2年总生存率分别为15%、48%、46%,同期放化疗能提高生存率(x2=6.83,P=0.033).同期放化疗3~4级骨髓抑制较单纯放疗发生率高(53%:0%,x2=32.94,P=0.000),其余不良反应(急性放射性肺炎、急性放射性食管炎、食管纤维化、晚期放射性肺损伤)均相似(x2=5.56、6.70、2.39、0.42,P=0.235、0.349、0.881、0.981).结论 同期放化疗能提高局部晚期食管癌的生存率,扩大野放化疗是安全的,但是否能提高局部晚期生存率需进一步研究.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and side effects of extensive regional field radiotherapy concurrent with chemotherapy for locally advanced esophageal cancer.Methods Of the 101 patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer patients,44 patients were treated by involved field radiotherapy alone,29 patients treated by involved field radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy,and 28 patients received extensive regional field radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy,the total dose of radiotherapy was 60 Gy.The clinical target volume (CTV) of involved field included the gross tumor volume

  14. 乌鲁木齐地区人群碘和硒营养状态与甲状腺癌相关性研究%Urumqi region population iodine and selenium nutrition status with thyroid cancer relevant research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白超; 魏巍; 张丽; 杨雯雯; 黄婷

    2016-01-01

    Objective To research the relevance between iodine,selenium nutrition status and thyroid carci-noma in patients with thyroid carcinoma in Urumqi.Methods 140 patients with thyroid carcinoma and 147 patients with benign thyroid nodules were collected from March 2014 to December 2014 in the department of vascular and thyroid surgery in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University and 315 cases of normal thyroid from health examination were collected form the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xin-jiang Medical Universitas control.The general information,urine iodine and blood selenium expression level were recorded for statistical analysis.Results Three groups of urine iodine level difference was sta-tistically significant (Z = 186.52,P <0.001).Compared with benign thyroid nodules group and thyroid normal group,thyroid cancer group urine iodine level were high,and the differences were statistically sig-nificant (Z =186.52,P <0.001).The differences of the blood selenium levels in three groups were were statistically significant (F =85.723,P <0.001).The blood selenium levels in thyroid cancer group and be-nign nodules group were lower than that in the normal thyroid group,and the differences were statistically significant (Z value of 10.681 and 8.459 respectively,P <0.001).The proportion of thyroid cancer in high urinary iodine with low blood selenium research objects were higher than that in the pure high urinary io-dine (χ2 = 11.322,P = 0.001 ).Compare with the pure low blood selenium objects,the proportion of thyroid cancer in high urinary iodine with low blood selenium research objects was not statistically signifi-cant (χ2 =0.000 076,P =0.993).Conclusion In Xinjiang Urumqi region,high urinary iodine with low blood selenium levels may be thyroid cancer related factors of the disease.Iodine and selenium may act syn-ergistically in the occurrence and development of thyroid cancer,which can by controlling the iodine intake and increase selenium nutrition

  15. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Cancer Treatment Coping With Cancer en español Cáncer infantil Every cell in the body has a system that controls its growth, interaction with other cells, and even its life span. ... cancer . Different kinds of cancer have different signs, symptoms, ...