WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer nanotechnology research

  1. Nanotechnology in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Office of Cancer Nanotechnology Research has had a major impact on bringing novel nano-enabled solutions through the pre-clinical space. The strategic framework of this effort is presented here.

  2. Published Research - NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer has published much exciting and impactful research over the years. Find here a list of all of these listed in PubMed and others across the field of Cancer Nanotechnology.

  3. Cancer Nanotechnology Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Nanotechnology Plan serves as a strategic document to the NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer as well as a guiding document to the cancer nanotechnology and oncology fields, as a whole.

  4. Highlights of recent developments and trends in cancer nanotechnology research--view from NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, L C; Farrell, D; Grodzinski, P

    2014-01-01

    Although the incidence of cancer and cancer related deaths in the United States has decreased over the past two decades due to improvements in early detection and treatment, cancer still is responsible for a quarter of the deaths in this country. There is much room for improvement on the standard treatments currently available and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has recognized the potential for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in this area. The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer was formed in 2004 to support multidisciplinary researchers in the application of nanotechnology to cancer diagnosis and treatment. The researchers in the Alliance have been productive in generating innovative solutions to some of the central issues of cancer treatment including how to detect tumors earlier, how to target cancer cells specifically, and how to improve the therapeutic index of existing chemotherapies and radiotherapy treatments. Highly creative ideas are being pursued where novelty in nanomaterial development enables new modalities of detection or therapy. This review highlights some of the innovative materials approaches being pursued by researchers funded by the NCI Alliance. Their discoveries to improve the functionality of nanoparticles for medical applications includes the generation of new platforms, improvements in the manufacturing of nanoparticles and determining the underlying reasons for the movement of nanoparticles in the blood. © 2013.

  5. NanoParticle Ontology for Cancer Nanotechnology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dennis G.; Pappu, Rohit V.; Baker, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    Data generated from cancer nanotechnology research are so diverse and large in volume that it is difficult to share and efficiently use them without informatics tools. In particular, ontologies that provide a unifying knowledge framework for annotating the data are required to facilitate the semantic integration, knowledge-based searching, unambiguous interpretation, mining and inferencing of the data using informatics methods. In this paper, we discuss the design and development of NanoParticle Ontology (NPO), which is developed within the framework of the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), and implemented in the Ontology Web Language (OWL) using well-defined ontology design principles. The NPO was developed to represent knowledge underlying the preparation, chemical composition, and characterization of nanomaterials involved in cancer research. Public releases of the NPO are available through BioPortal website, maintained by the National Center for Biomedical Ontology. Mechanisms for editorial and governance processes are being developed for the maintenance, review, and growth of the NPO. PMID:20211274

  6. Applications of nanotechnology in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura; Gunasekera, Ayanthi; Douek, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Modern cancer therapy is more individualized to specific cancer subtypes, in an attempt to treat those patients who are likely to obtain greater benefit and avoid treatment induced side effects in those who will not. Nanotechnology heralds an era whereby cancer could be diagnosed by a single agent, treated simultaneously while the diagnosis is being made, and its response to treatment monitored. Whilst nanotechnology is still mostly in the research stage, several applications are ready for translation from the bench to the bedside, in particular in the field of breast cancer. This is exciting new area of research where science fiction may become a reality.

  7. Multifunctional Nanotechnology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    MULTIFUNCTIONAL NANOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH MARCH 2016 INTERIM TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED STINFO COPY AIR...REPORT 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JAN 2015 – JAN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MULTIFUNCTIONAL NANOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE...H. Yoon, and C. S. Hwang, “Electrically configurable electroforming and bipolar resistive switching in Pt/TiO2/Pt structures.,” Nanotechnology , vol

  8. Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Masrom

    2005-01-01

    The following subjects discussed: What is nanotechnology, Nanotechnology research and development, whats new about nanosciences, nano research facilities, impact of nanotechnology, commercially available nanotechnology, review on research status

  9. Nanotechnology in cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironidou-Tzouveleki, Maria; Imprialos, Konstantinos; Kintsakis, Athanasios

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current evolutions on nanotechnology and its applications on cancer theragnostics.Rapid advances and emerging technologies in nanotechnology are having a profound impact on cancer treatment. Applications of nanotechnology, which include liposomes, nanoparticles, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, nanocantilever, carbon nanotubes and quantum dots have significantly revolutionized cancer theragnostics. From a pharmaceutical viewpoint, it is critical that the biodistribution of active agents has to be controlled as much as possible. This aspect is vital in order to assure the proper efficiency and safety of the anticancer agents. These biocompatible nanocomposites provide specific biochemical interactions with receptors expressed on the surface of cancer cells. With passive or active targeting strategies, an increased intracellular concentration of drugs can be achieved in cancer cells , while normal cells are being protected from the drug simultaneously. Thus, nanotechnology restricts the extent of the adverse effects of the anticancer therapy. Treatment for metastatic breast cancer, sarcoma in AIDS patients, ovarian and lung cancer is already on market or under final phases of many clinical trials, showing remarkable results. As nanotechnology is perfected, side effects due to normal cell damage will decrease, leading to better results and lengthening patient's survival.

  10. Nanotechnology and cancer applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gökdeniz, Mehmet; Akbaba, Muhsin; Nazlıcan, Ersin

    2018-01-01

    Applicationsof nanotechnology in various disciplines of medicine particularly cancer careare becoming increasingly popular so much so that the process of replacingtraditional health‑care by nanomedicine had already begun. Nanomedicine focuseson the formulations of imaging, diagnostic and therapeutic agents, which can becarried by biocompatible nanoparticles, for the purpose of cancer/ diseasemanagement.Common nanomaterials and devices applicable in cancer medicine are liposomes,polymeric‑mice...

  11. Strategic Workshops on Cancer Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Larry A.; Lee, Jerry S H.; Molnar, Linda K.; Panaro, Nicholas J.; Farrell, Dorothy; Ptak, Krzysztof; Alper, Joseph; Grodzinski, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers the potential for new approaches to detecting, treating and preventing cancer. To determine the current status of the cancer nanotechnology field and the optimal path forward, the National Cancer Institute’s Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer held three strategic workshops, covering the areas of in-vitro diagnostics and prevention, therapy and post-treatment, and in-vivo diagnosis and imaging. At each of these meetings, a wide range of experts from academia, industry, the non-profit sector, and the Federal government discussed opportunities in the field of cancer nanotechnology and barriers to its implementation. PMID:20460532

  12. Nanotechnology Cancer Therapy and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology offers the means to target therapies directly and selectively to cancerous cells and neoplasms. With these tools, clinicians can safely and effectively deliver chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and the next generation of immuno- and gene therapies to the tumor. Futhermore, surgical resection of tumors can be guided and enhanced by way of nanotechnology tools. Find out how nanotechnology will offer the next generation of our therapeutic arsenal to the patient.

  13. Cancer nanotechnology: emerging role of gold nanoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudgus, Rachel A; Bhattacharya, Resham; Mukherjee, Priyabrata

    2011-12-01

    Over the last few decades, the study of nanotechnology has grown exponentially. Nanotechnology bridges science, engineering and technology; it continues to expand in definition as well as practice. One sub-set of nanotechnology is bionanotechnology, this will be the focus of this review. Currently, bionanotechnology is being studied and exploited for utility within medicinal imaging, diagnosis and therapy in regard to cancer. Cancer is a world-wide health problem and the implication rate as well as the death rate increase year to year. However promising work is being done with gold nanoparticles for detection, diagnosis and targeted drug delivery therapy. Gold nanoparticles can be synthesized in various shapes and sizes, which directly correlates to the color; they can also be manipulated to carry various antibody, protein, plasmid, DNA or small molecule drug. Herein we summarize some of the very influential research being done in the field of Cancer Nanotechnology with an emphasis on gold nanoparticles.

  14. NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer funds the Cancer Nanotechnology Training Centers collectively with the NCI Cancer Training Center. Find out about the funded Centers, to date, that train our next generation of scientists in the field of Canc

  15. Nanotechnology and nuclear medicine; research and preclinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Majid; Afrasiabi, Kolsoom; Nabipour, Iraj; Seyedabadi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The birth of nanotechnology in human society was around 2000 years ago and soon found applications in various fields. In this article, we highlight the current status of research and preclinical applications and also future prospects of nanotechnology in medicine and in nuclear medicine. The most important field is cancer. A regular nanotechnology training program for nuclear medicine physicians may be welcome.

  16. Nanotechnology for Cancer Therapy Based on Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Yang Zhao; Rui Cheng; Zhe Yang; Zhong-Min Tian

    2018-01-01

    Chemotherapy has been widely applied in clinics. However, the therapeutic potential of chemotherapy against cancer is seriously dissatisfactory due to the nonspecific drug distribution, multidrug resistance (MDR) and the heterogeneity of cancer. Therefore, combinational therapy based on chemotherapy mediated by nanotechnology, has been the trend in clinical research at present, which can result in a remarkably increased therapeutic efficiency with few side effects to normal tissues. Moreover,...

  17. International strategy for Nanotechnology Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    The worldwide nanotechnology research and development (R and D) investment reported by government organizations has increased by a factor of 3.5 between 1997 and 2001, and the highest rate of 90% is in 2001. At least 30 countries have initiated or are beginning national activities in this field. Scientists have opened a broad net of discoveries that does not leave any major research area untouched in physical, biological, and engineering sciences. Industry has gained confidence that nanotechnology will bring competitive advantages. The worldwide annual industrial production is estimated to exceed $1 trillion in 10-15 years from now, which would require about 2 million nanotechnology workers. U.S. has initiated a multidisciplinary strategy for development of science and engineering fundamentals through the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Japan and Europe have broad programs, and their current plans look ahead to four to five years. Other countries have encouraged their own areas of strength, several of them focusing on fields of the potential markets. Differences among countries are observed in the research domain they are aiming for, the level of program integration into various industrial sectors, and in the time scale of their R and D targets. Nanotechnology is growing in an environment where international interactions accelerate in science, education and industrial R and D. A global strategy of mutual interest is envisioned by connecting individual programs of contributing countries, professional communities, and international organizations

  18. Targeted Nanotechnology for Cancer Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Randall; Bauer, Lisa; Hoimes, Christopher; Ghaghada, Ketan B.; Karathanasis, Efstathios

    2014-01-01

    Targeted nanoparticle imaging agents provide many benefits and new opportunities to facilitate accurate diagnosis of cancer and significantly impact patient outcome. Due to the highly engineerable nature of nanotechnology, targeted nanoparticles exhibit significant advantages including increased contrast sensitivity, binding avidity and targeting specificity. Considering the various nanoparticle designs and their adjustable ability to target a specific site and generate detectable signals, nanoparticles can be optimally designed in terms of biophysical interactions (i.e., intravascular and interstitial transport) and biochemical interactions (i.e., targeting avidity towards cancer-related biomarkers) for site-specific detection of very distinct microenvironments. This review seeks to illustrate that the design of a nanoparticle dictates its in vivo journey and targeting of hard-to-reach cancer sites, facilitating early and accurate diagnosis and interrogation of the most aggressive forms of cancer. We will report various targeted nanoparticles for cancer imaging using X-ray computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging and optical imaging. Finally, to realize the full potential of targeted nanotechnology for cancer imaging, we will describe the challenges and opportunities for the clinical translation and widespread adaptation of targeted nanoparticles imaging agents. PMID:25116445

  19. Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Won Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment.

  20. Nanotechnology for Cancer Therapy Based on Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yang Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy has been widely applied in clinics. However, the therapeutic potential of chemotherapy against cancer is seriously dissatisfactory due to the nonspecific drug distribution, multidrug resistance (MDR and the heterogeneity of cancer. Therefore, combinational therapy based on chemotherapy mediated by nanotechnology, has been the trend in clinical research at present, which can result in a remarkably increased therapeutic efficiency with few side effects to normal tissues. Moreover, to achieve the accurate pre-diagnosis and real-time monitoring for tumor, the research of nano-theranostics, which integrates diagnosis with treatment process, is a promising field in cancer treatment. In this review, the recent studies on combinational therapy based on chemotherapy will be systematically discussed. Furthermore, as a current trend in cancer treatment, advance in theranostic nanoparticles based on chemotherapy will be exemplified briefly. Finally, the present challenges and improvement tips will be presented in combination therapy and nano-theranostics.

  1. Nanotechnology research for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, Forrest J.; Lozano, Karen; Gutierrez, Jose M.; Chipara, Mircea; Thapa, Ram; Chow, Alice

    2009-04-01

    Nanotechnology is impacting the future of the military and aerospace. The increasing demands for high performance and property-specific applications are forcing the scientific world to take novel approaches in developing programs and accelerating output. CONTACT or Consortium for Nanomaterials for Aerospace Commerce and Technology is a cooperative nanotechnology research program in Texas building on an infrastructure that promotes collaboration between universities and transitioning to industry. The participants of the program include the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), five campuses of the University of Texas (Brownsville, Pan American, Arlington, Austin, and Dallas), the University of Houston, and Rice University. Through the various partnerships between the intellectual centers and the interactions with AFRL and CONTACT's industrial associates, the program represents a model that addresses the needs of the changing and competitive technological world. Into the second year, CONTACT has expanded to twelve projects that cover four areas of research: Adaptive Coatings and Surface Engineering, Nano Energetics, Electromagnetic Sensors, and Power Generation and Storage. This paper provides an overview of the CONTACT program and its projects including the research and development of new electrorheological fluids with nanoladen suspensions and composites and the potential applications.

  2. The Dartmouth Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence: magnetic hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ian; Fiering, Steve N; Griswold, Karl E; Hoopes, P Jack; Kekalo, Katerina; Ndong, Christian; Paulsen, Keith; Petryk, Alicea A; Pogue, Brian; Shubitidze, Fridon; Weaver, John

    2015-01-01

    The Dartmouth Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence - one of nine funded by the National Cancer Institute as part of the Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer - focuses on the use of magnetic nanoparticles for cancer diagnostics and hyperthermia therapy. It brings together a diverse team of engineers and biomedical researchers with expertise in nanomaterials, molecular targeting, advanced biomedical imaging and translational in vivo studies. The goal of successfully treating cancer is being approached by developing nanoparticles, conjugating them with Fabs, hyperthermia treatment, immunotherapy and sensing treatment response.

  3. Nanotechnology: Advancing the translational respiratory research

    OpenAIRE

    Dua, Kamal; Shukla, Shakti Dhar; de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha; Hansbro, Philip Michael

    2017-01-01

    Considering the various limitations associated with the conventional dosage forms, nanotechnology is gaining increased attention in drug delivery particularly in respiratory medicine and research because of its advantages like targeting effects, improved pharmacotherapy, and patient compliance. This paper provides a quick snapshot about the recent trends and applications of nanotechnology to various translational and formulation scientists working on various respiratory diseases, which can he...

  4. Engaging Undergraduates through Interdisciplinary Research in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, Anura U.; Offutt, Christine; Whitling, Jacqueline; Woodhouse, Donald

    2012-01-01

    To recruit and retain more students in all science disciplines at our small (5,000 student) public university, we implemented an interdisciplinary strategy focusing on nanotechnology and enhanced undergraduate research. Inherently interdisciplinary, the novelty of nanotechnology and its growing career potential appeal to students. To engage…

  5. Nanotechnology in the management of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiezhong; Gu, Wenyi; Yang, Lei; Chen, Chen; Shao, Renfu; Xu, Kewei; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major disease with high mortality. All cervical cancers are caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV). Although preventive vaccines for cervical cancer are successful, treatment of cervical cancer is far less satisfactory because of multidrug resistance and side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent application of nanotechnology to the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer as well as the development of HPV vaccines. Early detection of cervical cancer enables tumours to be efficiently removed by surgical procedures, leading to increased survival rate. The current method of detecting cervical cancer by Pap smear can only achieve 50% sensitivity, whereas nanotechnology has been used to detect HPVs with greatly improved sensitivity. In cervical cancer treatment, nanotechnology has been used for the delivery of anticancer drugs to increase treatment efficacy and decrease side effects. Nanodelivery of HPV preventive and therapeutic vaccines has also been investigated to increase vaccine efficacy. Overall, these developments suggest that nanoparticle-based vaccine may become the most effective way to prevent and treat cervical cancer, assisted or combined with some other nanotechnology-based therapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Convergence of nanotechnology and cancer prevention: are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menter, David G; Patterson, Sherri L; Logsdon, Craig D; Kopetz, Scott; Sood, Anil K; Hawk, Ernest T

    2014-10-01

    Nanotechnology is emerging as a promising modality for cancer treatment; however, in the realm of cancer prevention, its full utility has yet to be determined. Here, we discuss the potential of integrating nanotechnology in cancer prevention to augment early diagnosis, precision targeting, and controlled release of chemopreventive agents, reduced toxicity, risk/response assessment, and personalized point-of-care monitoring. Cancer is a multistep, progressive disease; the functional and acquired characteristics of the early precancer phenotype are intrinsically different from those of a more advanced anaplastic or invasive malignancy. Therefore, applying nanotechnology to precancers is likely to be far more challenging than applying it to established disease. Frank cancers are more readily identifiable through imaging and biomarker and histopathologic assessment than their precancerous precursors. In addition, prevention subjects routinely have more rigorous intervention criteria than therapy subjects. Any nanopreventive agent developed to prevent sporadic cancers found in the general population must exhibit a very low risk of serious side effects. In contrast, a greater risk of side effects might be more acceptable in subjects at high risk for cancer. Using nanotechnology to prevent cancer is an aspirational goal, but clearly identifying the intermediate objectives and potential barriers is an essential first step in this exciting journey. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Diagnosis of prostate cancer via nanotechnological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang BJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Benedict J Kang,1,2,* Minhong Jeun,1,2,* Gun Hyuk Jang,1,2 Sang Hoon Song,3 In Gab Jeong,3 Choung-Soo Kim,3 Peter C Searson,4 Kwan Hyi Lee1,2 1KIST Biomedical Research Institute, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST, 3Department of Urology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 4Institute for Nanobiotechnology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among the Caucasian adult males in Europe and the USA. Currently available diagnostic strategies for patients with prostate cancer are invasive and unpleasant and have poor accuracy. Many patients have been overly or underly treated resulting in a controversy regarding the reliability of current conventional diagnostic approaches. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research in the development of novel noninvasive prostate cancer diagnostics using nanotechnology coupled with suggested diagnostic strategies for their clinical implication.Keywords: bioassay, nanomaterial, nanodevice, PSA, non-PSA biomarker, bodily fluid

  8. Sociocultural Meanings of Nanotechnology: Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    2004-06-01

    This article identifies six social-science research methodologies that will be useful for charting the sociocultural meaning of nanotechnology: web-based questionnaires, vignette experiments, analysis of web linkages, recommender systems, quantitative content analysis, and qualitative textual analysis. Data from a range of sources are used to illustrate how the methods can delineate the intellectual content and institutional structure of the emerging nanotechnology culture. Such methods will make it possible in future to test hypotheses such as that there are two competing definitions of nanotechnology - the technical-scientific and the science-fiction - that are influencing public perceptions by different routes and in different directions.

  9. Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Pothur R.; Philbert, Martin; Vu, Tania Q.; Huang, Qingrong; Kokini, Josef L.; Saos, Etta; Chen, Hongda; Peterson, Charles M.; Friedl, Karl E.; McDade-Ngutter, Crystal; Hubbard, Van; Starke-Reed, Pamela; Miller, Nancy; Betz, Joseph M.; Dwyer, Johanna; Milner, John; Ross, Sharon A.

    2010-01-01

    The tantalizing potential of nanotechnology is to fabricate and combine nanoscale approaches and building blocks to make useful tools and, ultimately, interventions for medical science, including nutritional science, at the scale of ∼1–100 nm. In the past few years, tools and techniques that facilitate studies and interventions in the nanoscale range have become widely available and have drawn widespread attention. Recently, investigators in the food and nutrition sciences have been applying the tools of nanotechnology in their research. The Experimental Biology 2009 symposium entitled “Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences” was organized to highlight emerging applications of nanotechnology to the food and nutrition sciences, as well as to suggest ways for further integration of these emerging technologies into nutrition research. Speakers focused on topics that included the problems and possibilities of introducing nanoparticles in clinical or nutrition settings, nanotechnology applications for increasing bioavailability of bioactive food components in new food products, nanotechnology opportunities in food science, as well as emerging safety and regulatory issues in this area, and the basic research applications such as the use of quantum dots to visualize cellular processes and protein-protein interactions. The session highlighted several emerging areas of potential utility in nutrition research. Nutrition scientists are encouraged to leverage ongoing efforts in nanomedicine through collaborations. These efforts could facilitate exploration of previously inaccessible cellular compartments and intracellular pathways and thus uncover strategies for new prevention and therapeutic modalities. PMID:19939997

  10. Nanotechnology research: applications in nutritional sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Pothur R; Philbert, Martin; Vu, Tania Q; Huang, Qingrong; Kokini, Josef L; Saltos, Etta; Saos, Etta; Chen, Hongda; Peterson, Charles M; Friedl, Karl E; McDade-Ngutter, Crystal; Hubbard, Van; Starke-Reed, Pamela; Miller, Nancy; Betz, Joseph M; Dwyer, Johanna; Milner, John; Ross, Sharon A

    2010-01-01

    The tantalizing potential of nanotechnology is to fabricate and combine nanoscale approaches and building blocks to make useful tools and, ultimately, interventions for medical science, including nutritional science, at the scale of approximately 1-100 nm. In the past few years, tools and techniques that facilitate studies and interventions in the nanoscale range have become widely available and have drawn widespread attention. Recently, investigators in the food and nutrition sciences have been applying the tools of nanotechnology in their research. The Experimental Biology 2009 symposium entitled "Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences" was organized to highlight emerging applications of nanotechnology to the food and nutrition sciences, as well as to suggest ways for further integration of these emerging technologies into nutrition research. Speakers focused on topics that included the problems and possibilities of introducing nanoparticles in clinical or nutrition settings, nanotechnology applications for increasing bioavailability of bioactive food components in new food products, nanotechnology opportunities in food science, as well as emerging safety and regulatory issues in this area, and the basic research applications such as the use of quantum dots to visualize cellular processes and protein-protein interactions. The session highlighted several emerging areas of potential utility in nutrition research. Nutrition scientists are encouraged to leverage ongoing efforts in nanomedicine through collaborations. These efforts could facilitate exploration of previously inaccessible cellular compartments and intracellular pathways and thus uncover strategies for new prevention and therapeutic modalities.

  11. Nanotechnology Strategies To Advance Outcomes in Clinical Cancer Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartshorn, Christopher M; Bradbury, Michelle S; Lanza, Gregory M; Nel, Andre E; Rao, Jianghong; Wang, Andrew Z; Wiesner, Ulrich B; Yang, Lily; Grodzinski, Piotr

    2018-01-23

    Ongoing research into the application of nanotechnology for cancer treatment and diagnosis has demonstrated its advantages within contemporary oncology as well as its intrinsic limitations. The National Cancer Institute publishes the Cancer Nanotechnology Plan every 5 years since 2005. The most recent iteration helped codify the ongoing basic and translational efforts of the field and displayed its breadth with several evolving areas. From merely a technological perspective, this field has seen tremendous growth and success. However, an incomplete understanding of human cancer biology persists relative to the application of nanoscale materials within contemporary oncology. As such, this review presents several evolving areas in cancer nanotechnology in order to identify key clinical and biological challenges that need to be addressed to improve patient outcomes. From this clinical perspective, a sampling of the nano-enabled solutions attempting to overcome barriers faced by traditional therapeutics and diagnostics in the clinical setting are discussed. Finally, a strategic outlook of the future is discussed to highlight the need for next-generation cancer nanotechnology tools designed to address critical gaps in clinical cancer care.

  12. DNA Nanotechnology for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinit; Palazzolo, Stefano; Bayda, Samer; Corona, Giuseppe; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Rizzolio, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    DNA nanotechnology is an emerging and exciting field, and represents a forefront frontier for the biomedical field. The specificity of the interactions between complementary base pairs makes DNA an incredible building material for programmable and very versatile two- and three-dimensional nanostructures called DNA origami. Here, we analyze the DNA origami and DNA-based nanostructures as a drug delivery system. Besides their physical-chemical nature, we dissect the critical factors such as stability, loading capability, release and immunocompatibility, which mainly limit in vivo applications. Special attention was dedicated to highlighting the boundaries to be overcome to bring DNA nanostructures closer to the bedside of patients. PMID:27022418

  13. Review of "Cancer Nanotechnology: Methods and Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology)" by Stephen R. Grobmyer (Editor), Brij M. Moudgil (Editor)

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmetz Nicole F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Cancer remains one of the leading causes of death. Research and resulting technologies have contributed to rising numbers of cancer survivors. Cancer nanotechnology is a novel and burgeoning field with the promise to open the door for the development of improved cancer therapies and detection methods. Cancer nanotechnology has the potential to become clinical reality.

  14. Nanotechnology-driven cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosmane, Narayan S.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, much efforts have been devoted to developing nanomaterials-based boron drugs for neutron capture therapy (NCT) and to date, a majority of the studies have proved reasonably promising. Conversely, further in vivo studies and clinical trails are needed to establish them as appropriate boron carriers; this is especially so with the relatively novel boron nanotubes and magnetic nanoparticles. More advanced forms of boron nanotubes can be anticipated as much interest in their synthesis as their future applications. Thus, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a promising treatment for malignant brain tumors as well as for other types of cancers, such as, liver, prostate, bladder, breasts, head and neck tumors. Current research focuses on both the design and synthesis of high boron containing compounds as BNCT agents, and the search for suitable delivery vehicles. To be suitable BNCT agents, the problem of their low water-solubility needs to be resolved by chemical modification. In the case of magnetic nanoparticles, strategies are required to counter their tendency of embolization and their unclear cytotoxicity must be resolved

  15. The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer: achievement and path forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Krzysztof; Farrell, Dorothy; Panaro, Nicholas J; Grodzinski, Piotr; Barker, Anna D

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a 'disruptive technology', which can lead to a generation of new diagnostic and therapeutic products, resulting in dramatically improved cancer outcomes. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) of National Institutes of Health explores innovative approaches to multidisciplinary research allowing for a convergence of molecular biology, oncology, physics, chemistry, and engineering and leading to the development of clinically worthy technological approaches. These initiatives include programmatic efforts to enable nanotechnology as a driver of advances in clinical oncology and cancer research, known collectively as the NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer (ANC). Over the last 5 years, ANC has demonstrated that multidisciplinary approach catalyzes scientific developments and advances clinical translation in cancer nanotechnology. The research conducted by ANC members has improved diagnostic assays and imaging agents, leading to the development of point-of-care diagnostics, identification and validation of numerous biomarkers for novel diagnostic assays, and the development of multifunctional agents for imaging and therapy. Numerous nanotechnology-based technologies developed by ANC researchers are entering clinical trials. NCI has re-issued ANC program for next 5 years signaling that it continues to have high expectations for cancer nanotechnology's impact on clinical practice. The goals of the next phase will be to broaden access to cancer nanotechnology research through greater clinical translation and outreach to the patient and clinical communities and to support development of entirely new models of cancer care.

  16. Collaboration with Pharma Will Introduce Nanotechnologies in Early Stage Drug Development | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Lab has begun to assist several major pharmaceutical companies in adopting nanotechnologies in early stage drug development, when the approach is most efficient and cost-effective. For some time, the national lab’s Nanotechno

  17. Applications of Nanotechnology in Bladder Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Wei Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective therapies can prevent superficial bladder cancer from developing into muscle-invasive stage or more severe stages which require radical cystectomy and negatively affect life quality. In terms of therapeutic approaches against superficial bladder cancer, intravesical (regional therapy has several advantages over oral (systemic therapy. Though urologists can directly deliver drugs to bladder lesions by intravesical instillation after transurethral resection, the efficacy of conventional drug delivery is usually low due to the bladder permeability barrier and bladder periodical discharge. Nanoparticles have been well developed as pharmaceutical carriers. By their versatile properties, nanoparticles can greatly improve the interactions between urothelium and drugs and also enhance the penetration of drugs into urothelium with lesions, which dramatically improves therapeutic efficacy. In this review, we discuss the advances of nanotechnology in bladder cancer therapy by different types of nanoparticles with different encapsulating materials.

  18. Application of nanotechnology in cancers prevention, early detection and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shraddha P; Patel, Parshottambhai B; Parekh, Bhavesh B

    2014-01-01

    Use of nanotechnology in medical science is a rapidly developing area. New opportunities of diagnosis, imaging and therapy have developed due to recent rapid advancement by nanotechnology. The most common areas to be affected are diagnostic, imaging and targeted drug delivery in gastroenterology, oncology, cardiovascular medicine, obstetrics and gynecology. Mass screening with inexpensive imaging might be possible in the near future with the help of nanotechnology. This review paper provides an overview of causes of cancer and the application of nanotechnology in cancer prevention, detection and treatment.

  19. Targeted therapy using nanotechnology: focus on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Vanna; Pala, Nicolino; Sechi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology and biotechnology have contributed to the development of engineered nanoscale materials as innovative prototypes to be used for biomedical applications and optimized therapy. Due to their unique features, including a large surface area, structural properties, and a long circulation time in blood compared with small molecules, a plethora of nanomaterials has been developed, with the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of several diseases, in particular by improving the sensitivity and recognition ability of imaging contrast agents and by selectively directing bioactive agents to biological targets. Focusing on cancer, promising nanoprototypes have been designed to overcome the lack of specificity of conventional chemotherapeutic agents, as well as for early detection of precancerous and malignant lesions. However, several obstacles, including difficulty in achieving the optimal combination of physicochemical parameters for tumor targeting, evading particle clearance mechanisms, and controlling drug release, prevent the translation of nanomedicines into therapy. In spite of this, recent efforts have been focused on developing functionalized nanoparticles for delivery of therapeutic agents to specific molecular targets overexpressed on different cancer cells. In particular, the combination of targeted and controlled-release polymer nanotechnologies has resulted in a new programmable nanotherapeutic formulation of docetaxel, namely BIND-014, which recently entered Phase II clinical testing for patients with solid tumors. BIND-014 has been developed to overcome the limitations facing delivery of nanoparticles to many neoplasms, and represents a validated example of targeted nanosystems with the optimal biophysicochemical properties needed for successful tumor eradication.

  20. Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Remillard, S.; Kapustka, L.; Goudey, S.

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging field. There are currently over 500 consumer products available in the marketplace and the field of nanotechnology itself that will be worth over 1 trillion by 2012. However, with an increasing number of products emerging, there is also a consequent rise in ecological and human exposure. The risk and degree of exposure to nanoscale particles (NP) will vary depending on the form of the particle, for example, powder, liquid or encapsulated, when contact occurs. Although, general public exposure to NP is increasing due to the shear number of products available, the majority of human exposure still occurs in an occupational setting. Preliminary exposure studies demonstrate that NP may enter the body via the gastrointestinal, respiratory and integumentary systems and then translocate to other vital organs and systems (for example via the olfactory bulb). Historical data on ultrafine particles have shown a higher incidence of lung cancer and respiratory disorders associated with exposure. Due to these data and evidence emerging directly on NP, precautionary measures may be warranted to ensure worker safety. Regulatory agencies and manufacturers are beginning to consider standard practices that adequately protect workers from nanoscale particle exposure. The occupational hazards associated with exposure and the current safety recommendations will be discussed.

  1. Center of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence for Translational Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence for Translational Diagnostics, which forms the third cycle CCNE Program at Stanford University, is a consortium that has three highly synchronized Projects and three Cores.

  2. Enhancing cancer immunotherapy through nanotechnology-mediated tumor infiltration and activation of immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Haifa; Sun, Tong; Hoang, Hanh H; Burchfield, Jana S; Hamilton, Gillian F; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Ferrari, Mauro

    2017-12-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has become arguably the most promising advancement in cancer research and therapy in recent years. The efficacy of cancer immunotherapy is critically dependent on specific physiological and physical processes - collectively referred to as transport barriers - including the activation of T cells by antigen presenting cells, T cells migration to and penetration into the tumor microenvironment, and movement of nutrients and other immune cells through the tumor microenvironment. Nanotechnology-based approaches have great potential to help overcome these transport barriers. In this review, we discuss the ways that nanotechnology is being leveraged to improve the efficacy and potency of various cancer immunotherapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nanotechnology Characterization Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research performs preclinical characterization of nanomaterials...

  4. Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research performs preclinical characterization of nanomaterials...

  5. Best Practices in Cancer Nanotechnology – Perspective from NCI Nanotechnology Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, William C.; Torchilin, Vladimir; Patri, Anil; Hrkach, Jeff; Stern, Stephen; Lee, Robert; Nel, Andre; Panaro, Nicholas J.; Grodzinski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Historically, treatment of patients with cancer using chemotherapeutic agents has been associated with debilitating and systemic toxicities, poor bioavailability, and unfavorable pharmacokinetics. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, on the other hand, can specifically target cancer cells while avoiding their healthy neighbors, avoid rapid clearance from the body, and be administered without toxic solvents. They hold immense potential in addressing all of these issues which has hampered further development of chemotherapeutics. Furthermore, such drug delivery systems will lead to cancer therapeutic modalities which are not only less toxic to the patient but also significantly more efficacious. In addition to established therapeutic modes of action, nanomaterials are opening up entirely new modalities of cancer therapy, such as photodynamic and hyperthermia treatments. Furthermore, nanoparticle carriers are also capable of addressing several drug delivery problems which could not be effectively solved in the past and include overcoming formulation issues, multi-drug-resistance phenomenon and penetrating cellular barriers that may limit device accessibility to intended targets such as the blood-brain-barrier. The challenges in optimizing design of nanoparticles tailored to specific tumor indications still remain; however, it is clear that nanoscale devices carry a significant promise towards new ways of diagnosing and treating cancer. This review focuses on future prospects of using nanotechnology in cancer applications and discusses practices and methodologies used in the development and translation of nanotechnology-based therapeutics. PMID:22669131

  6. Cancer Nanotechnology Startup Challenge: a new way to realize the fruits of innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Currell, Fred; Bellringer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A significant new innovation-development model is being launched in the field of cancer and nanotechnology. A significant new innovation-development model is being launched in the field of cancer and nanotechnology.

  7. Cancer Nanotechnology Startup Challenge: a new way to realize the fruits of innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currell, Fred; Bellringer, Mark

    A significant new innovation-development model is being launched in the field of cancer and nanotechnology. A significant new innovation-development model is being launched in the field of cancer and nanotechnology.

  8. Nanotechnology: Future of Oncotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharpure, Kshipra M; Wu, Sherry Y; Li, Chun; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K

    2015-07-15

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have established its importance in several areas including medicine. The myriad of applications in oncology range from detection and diagnosis to drug delivery and treatment. Although nanotechnology has attracted a lot of attention, the practical application of nanotechnology to clinical cancer care is still in its infancy. This review summarizes the role that nanotechnology has played in improving cancer therapy, its potential for affecting all aspects of cancer care, and the challenges that must be overcome to realize its full promise. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Update on Nanotechnology-based Drug Delivery Systems in Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Benjamin N; Pfeffer, Claire M; Singh, Amareshwar T K

    2017-11-01

    The emerging field of nanotechnology meets the demands for innovative approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The nanoparticles are biocompatible and biodegradable and are made of a core, a particle that acts as a carrier, and one or more functional groups on the core which target specific sites. Nanotech in drug delivery includes nanodisks, High Density Lipoprotein nanostructures, liposomes, and gold nanoparticles. The fundamental advantages of nanoparticles are: improved delivery of water-insoluble drugs, targeted delivery, co-delivery of two or more drugs for combination therapy, and visualization of the drug delivery site by combining imaging system and a therapeutic drug. One of the potential applications of nanotechnology is in the treatment of cancer. Conventional methods for cancer treatments have included chemotherapy, surgery, or radiation. Early recognition and treatment of cancer with these approaches is still challenging. Innovative technologies are needed to overcome multidrug resistance, and increase drug localization and efficacy. Application of nanotechnology to cancer biology has brought in a new hope for developing treatment strategies on cancer. In this study, we present a review on the recent advances in nanotechnology-based approaches in cancer treatment. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  10. DNA nanotechnology and its applications in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lifan; Yu, Lu; Shen, Wanqiu

    2014-09-01

    DNA nanotechnology, which uses DNA as a material to self-assemble designed nanostructures, including DNA 2D arrays, 3D nanostructures, DNA nanotubes and DNA nanomechanical devices, has showed great promise in biomedical applications. Various DNA nanostructures have been used for protein characterization, enzyme assembly, biosensing, drug delivery and biomimetic assemblies. In this review, we will present recent advances of DNA nanotechnology and its applications in biomedical research field.

  11. Targeting Ovarian Cancer with Porphysome Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Gross, S. M.; Miles, D. T.; Murray, R. W. Nanometer Gold Clusters Protected by Surface-Bound Monolayers of Thiolated Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Polymer ... Polymeric Micelles in Poorly Permeable Tumours Depends on Size. Nature nanotechnology 2011, 6, 815-823. 13. Pluen, A.; Boucher, Y.; Ramanujan, S...developed for improving their stability, delivery effi ciency, and preferen- tial accumulation at target-tissue, such as polymers loaded with

  12. Application of nanotechnology in the treatment and diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancers: review of recent patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, Jose; Melguizo, Consolacion; Perazzoli, Gloria; Cabeza, Laura; Carrasco, Esther; Oliver, Jaime; Jiménez-Luna, Cristina; Leiva, Maria C; Ortiz, Raúl; Álvarez, Pablo J; Aranega, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cancers remain one of the main causes of death in developed countries. The main obstacles to combating these diseases are the limitations of current diagnostic techniques and the low stability, availability, and/or specificity of pharmacological treatment. In recent years, nanotechnology has revolutionized many fields of medicine, including oncology. The association of chemotherapeutic agents with nanoparticles offers improvement in the solubility and stability of antitumor agents, avoidance of drug degradation, and reductions in therapeutic dose and toxicity, increasing drug levels in tumor tissue and decreasing them in healthy tissue. The use of specific molecules that drive nanoparticles to the tumor tissue represents a major advance in therapeutic specificity. In addition, the use of nanotechnology in contrast agents has yielded improvements in the diagnosis and the follow-up of tumors. These nanotechnologies have all been applied in gastrointestinal cancer treatment, first in vitro, and subsequently in vivo, with promising results reported in some clinical trials. A large number of patents have been generated by nanotechnology research over recent years. The objective of this paper is to review patents on the clinical use of nanoparticles for gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis and therapy and to offer an overview of the impact of nanotechnology on the management of this disease.

  13. Experiences in supporting the structured collection of cancer nanotechnology data using caNanoLab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaheen, Sharon; Lijowski, Michal; Heiskanen, Mervi; Klemm, Juli

    2015-01-01

    Summary The cancer Nanotechnology Laboratory (caNanoLab) data portal is an online nanomaterial database that allows users to submit and retrieve information on well-characterized nanomaterials, including composition, in vitro and in vivo experimental characterizations, experimental protocols, and related publications. Initiated in 2006, caNanoLab serves as an established resource with an infrastructure supporting the structured collection of nanotechnology data to address the needs of the cancer biomedical and nanotechnology communities. The portal contains over 1,000 curated nanomaterial data records that are publicly accessible for review, comparison, and re-use, with the ultimate goal of accelerating the translation of nanotechnology-based cancer therapeutics, diagnostics, and imaging agents to the clinic. In this paper, we will discuss challenges associated with developing a nanomaterial database and recognized needs for nanotechnology data curation and sharing in the biomedical research community. We will also describe the latest version of caNanoLab, caNanoLab 2.0, which includes enhancements and new features to improve usability such as personalized views of data and enhanced search and navigation. PMID:26425409

  14. Nanotechnology

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Structuring matter on the nanometer range is much more that just making things smaller than in existing microscale devices. Rather the exploitation of phenomena that stem exclusively from the nanoscale dimensions of device elements holds the promise of new functionalities and applications in various fields as electronics, mechanics, optics or medicine. I will give a general introduction in the basics of nanotechnology, illustrated by existing and envisaged applications from which a strong impact on both science and our daily life is to be expected. I will also discuss the methodology and experimental techniques, as scanning probe microscopies and lithography.

  15. Recent insights in nanotechnology-based drugs and formulations designed for effective anti-cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piktel, Ewelina; Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Wątek, Marzena; Wollny, Tomasz; Deptuła, Piotr; Bucki, Robert

    2016-05-26

    The rapid development of nanotechnology provides alternative approaches to overcome several limitations of conventional anti-cancer therapy. Drug targeting using functionalized nanoparticles to advance their transport to the dedicated site, became a new standard in novel anti-cancer methods. In effect, the employment of nanoparticles during design of antineoplastic drugs helps to improve pharmacokinetic properties, with subsequent development of high specific, non-toxic and biocompatible anti-cancer agents. However, the physicochemical and biological diversity of nanomaterials and a broad spectrum of unique features influencing their biological action requires continuous research to assess their activity. Among numerous nanosystems designed to eradicate cancer cells, only a limited number of them entered the clinical trials. It is anticipated that progress in development of nanotechnology-based anti-cancer materials will provide modern, individualized anti-cancer therapies assuring decrease in morbidity and mortality from cancer diseases. In this review we discussed the implication of nanomaterials in design of new drugs for effective antineoplastic therapy and describe a variety of mechanisms and challenges for selective tumor targeting. We emphasized the recent advantages in the field of nanotechnology-based strategies to fight cancer and discussed their part in effective anti-cancer therapy and successful drug delivery.

  16. Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin

    2016-01-01

    Present an overview of the Nanotechnology Project at NASA's Game Changing Technology Industry Day. Mature and demonstrate flight readiness of CNT reinforced composites for future NASA mission applications?Sounding rocket test in a multiexperiment payload?Integrate into cold gas thruster system as propellant storage?The technology would provide the means for reduced COPV mass and improved damage tolerance and flight qualify CNT reinforced composites. PROBLEM/NEED BEING ADDRESSED:?Reduce weight and enhance the performance and damage tolerance of aerospace structuresGAME-CHANGING SOLUTION:?Improve mechanical properties of CNTs to eventually replace CFRP –lighter and stronger?First flight-testing of a CNT reinforced composite structural component as part of an operational flight systemUNIQUENESS:?CNT manufacturing methods developed?Flight qualify CNT reinforced composites

  17. Nanotechnology based approaches in cancer therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Amit Kumer; Islam, Md Reazul; Choudhury, Zahid Sadek; Kadir, Mohammad Fahim; Mostafa, Asif

    2014-01-01

    The current decades are marked not by the development of new molecules for the cure of various diseases but rather the development of new delivery methods for optimum treatment outcome. Nanomedicine is perhaps playing the biggest role in this concern. Nanomedicine offers numerous advantages over conventional drug delivery approaches and is particularly the hot topic in anticancer research. Nanoparticles (NPs) have many unique criteria that enable them to be incorporated in anticancer therapy. This topical review aims to look at the properties and various forms of NPs and their use in anticancer treatment, recent development of the process of identifying new delivery approaches as well as progress in clinical trials with these newer approaches. Although the outcome of cancer therapy can be increased using nanomedicine there are still many disadvantages of using this approach. We aim to discuss all these issues in this review. (review)

  18. Convergence of biomarkers, bioinformatics and nanotechnology for individualized cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, John H.; Moffitt, Richard A.; Stokes, Todd H.; Liu, Jian; Young, Andrew N.; Nie, Shuming; Wang, May D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in biomarker discovery, biocomputing, and nanotechnology have raised new opportunities for the emerging field of personalized medicine in which disease detection, diagnosis, and therapy are tailored to each individual’s molecular profile, and also for predictive medicine that uses genetic/molecular information to predict disease development, progression, and clinical outcome. Here we discuss advanced biocomputing tools for cancer biomarker discovery and multiplexed nanoparticle probes for cancer biomarker profiling, together with prospects and challenges in correlating biomolecular signatures with clinical outcome. This bio-nano-info convergence holds great promise for molecular diagnosis and individualized therapy of cancer and other human diseases. PMID:19409634

  19. Impact of nanotechnology on the delivery of natural products for cancer prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; Sanna, Vanna

    2016-06-01

    Chemoprevention of human cancer by dietary products is a practical approach of cancer control, especially when chemoprevention is involved during the early stages of the carcinogenesis process. Research over the last few decades has clearly demonstrated the efficacy of dietary products for chemoprevention in cell culture and preclinical animal model systems. However, these in vitro and in vivo effects have not been able to be translated to bedside for clinical use. Among many reasons, inefficient systemic delivery and bioavailability of promising chemopreventive agents are considered to significantly contribute to such a disconnection. Since its advent in the field of cancer, nanotechnology has provided researchers with expertise to explore new avenues for diagnosis, prevention, and therapy of the disease. In a similar trait, we introduced a novel concept in which nanotechnology was utilized for enhancing the outcome of chemoprevention (Cancer Res. 2009; 69:1712-1716). This idea, which we termed as 'nanochemoprevention', was exploited by several laboratories and has now become an advancing field in chemoprevention research. This review summarizes some of these applications of nanotechnology in medicine, particularly focused on controlled and sustained release of bioactive compounds with emphasis on current and future utilization of nanochemoprevention for prevention and therapy of cancer. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Nanotechnology in stem cells research: advances and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Kaushik Dilip; Griffith, May; Muinck, Ebo De; Rafat, Mehrdad

    2012-01-01

    Human beings suffer from a myriad of disorders caused by biochemical or biophysical alteration of physiological systems leading to organ failure. For a number of these conditions, stem cells and their enormous reparative potential may be the last hope for restoring function to these failing organ or tissue systems. To harness the potential of stem cells for biotherapeutic applications, we need to work at the size scale of molecules and processes that govern stem cells fate. Nanotechnology provides us with such capacity. Therefore, effective amalgamation of nanotechnology and stem cells - medical nanoscience or nanomedicine - offers immense benefits to the human race. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role and importance of nanotechnology in stem cell research by focusing on several important areas such as stem cell visualization and imaging, genetic modifications and reprogramming by gene delivery systems, creating stem cell niche, and similar therapeutic applications.

  1. Nanotechnology research among some leading OIC member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajwa, R. S.; Yaldram, K.; Hussain, S. S.; Ahmed, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we present an overview of the research activities in nanotechnology for the period 2001–2011 for six selected countries belonging to the Organization of Islamic cooperation (OIC). The selection has been made based on the research output of these countries. The countries are Iran, Turkey, Egypt, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan. The factors considered are the number of publications, citations per paper, p-index, and collaborative research output. Iran with 7,795 publications and an annual growth rate of 41 % leads the group, followed by Turkey with 3,169 publications and an annual growth rate of 29 %. Turkey however, has a much better citation per paper (8.96), and p-index (63.34) as compared to Iran (4.59 and 54.36, respectively). We can classify the six countries into two categories. Those, that have a well coordinated national program in nanotechnology, namely, Iran, Malaysia, and Saudi Arabia and those that do not have any national program but are still showing a reasonable good activity in nanotechnology namely Turkey, Egypt, and Pakistan. A brief account of the initiatives taken by the six selected countries of OIC in the field of nanotechnology is also presented.

  2. Can nanotechnology help advance glaciological research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, H. E.; McNew, C.; Wang, C.; McLaughlin, S.; Kocis, T. N.

    2017-12-01

    In a rapidly changing cryosphere, identifying sources, pathways, and residence times of snow and glacier meltwater is critical to developing improved understanding of watershed-stream connections and hydrological/glaciological melt models. Traditionally, glaciologists have used a variety of tracers, including chloride, microparticles, and dyes, to identify the structure and morphology of subglacial drainage systems. However, minimum detection limits, tracer expense, and the ability of watersheds to retain a memory of past tracer inputs have restricted both the scale of tracer application and the repeated or simultaneous use of most known tracers, thus limiting our ability to study complex glacial systems. These shortcomings in hydrologic tracers can be overcome by utilizing a tracer that allows for the unique identification between spatial and temporal inputs while maintaining identical transport characteristics. Here, we present the use of DNA-labeled nanoparticles, developed for nano-medicine and drug delivery, as environmental tracers. The DNA-labeled particle tracers consist of short DNA strands encapsulated within biodegradable polymer microspheres, which allow for repeatable production of numerous uniquely labelled tracers of pre-determined size and physical transport properties. Each batch of tracers are independently quantifiable; even a single DNA molecule can be detected with cost-effective quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We have tested our tracer technology in complex systems such as valley glaciers in Sweden and Alaska and in both laboratory and field studies of channel flow, overland flow, and flow in porous media; these proof-of-concept studies indicate that nanotechnology allows for powerful characterization, description, and, ultimately, prediction of flow pathways in glacial systems and the environment.

  3. The state of research after 25 years of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-01

    In 1990 the transistor was big—not just hugely prevalent in day-to-day devices but literally large in size compared with present day counterparts. Still, as Christoph Gerber describes in our latest Nanotechnology Discussions podcast [1], with transistor footprints decreasing every two years as described in Moore's law, by 1990 the electronics industry saw itself broaching new territory: nanotechnology. Atoms had made their debut as real-world observables with the first scanning probe microscopes only a few years previously, prompted by efforts to understand how physical systems behave at this scale. And in this heady climate of burgeoning nanoscale innovations Nanotechnology published its first issue, the world's first academic journal dedicated to nanoscale science and technology. This year the journal publishes its 25th volume and to celebrate we have commissioned a special issue presenting a snapshot of developments leading some of the most active areas in the field today [2]. As nanotechnology has matured both device-focused and fundamental research have placed high demands on improving fabrication processes to generate structures cheaply, efficiently and reliably. Since its discovery graphene has been under close scrutiny for the potential to exploit its optical transparency, mechanical flexibility and high carrier mobility. 'However', point out Ho Cho, Jong-Hyun Ahn and colleagues in Korea, 'it is still significantly challenging to develop clean and simple fabrication procedures'. They demonstrate how photo-curable ion gel gate dielectrics can be used to produce self-aligned flexible graphene transistors and inverters [3] simply without extra graphene-patterning steps. Sang Ouk Kim and colleagues at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology demonstrate another method for avoiding complex fabrication techniques, creating highly aligned graphene nanoribbon with their mussel-inspired block copolymer lithography and directed self-assembly [4

  4. Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI is the nation's leader in cancer research. Learn more about NCI's cancer research areas, key initiatives, progress made in cancer research, and resources for researchers like research tools, specimens and data.

  5. Defense Nanotechnology Research and Development Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ...), Army Research Office (ARO) and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)initiated numerous research and development programs focusing on advancing science and technology below one micron in size...

  6. Nanotechnology-Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0157 TITLE: Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanotechnology -Based Detection of Novel microRNAs for Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...identify novel differentially expressed miRNAs in the body fluids (blood, urine, etc.) for an early detection of PCa. Advances in nanotechnology and

  7. Nanotechnology on a dime: building affordable research facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBattista, Jeff; Clare, Donna; Lynch, David

    2005-08-01

    Designing buildings to house nanotechnology research presents a multitude of well-recognized challenges to architectural and engineering design teams, from environmental control to spatial arrangements to operational functionality. These technical challenges can be solved with relative ease on projects with large budgets: designers have the option of selecting leading-edge systems without undue regard for their expense. This is reflected in the construction cost of many nanotechnology research facilities that run well into the hundreds of millions of dollars. Smaller universities and other institutions need not be shut out of the nanotechnology research field simply because their construction budgets are tens of millions of dollars or less. The key to success for these less expensive projects lies with making good strategic decisions: identifying priorities for the facility in terms of what it will is--and will not--provide to the researchers. Making these strategic decisions puts bounds on the tactical, technical problems that the design team at large must address, allowing them to focus their efforts on the key areas for success. The process and challenges of this strategic decision-making process are examined, with emphasis placed on the types of decisions that must be made and the factors that must be considered when making them. Case study examples of projects undertaken at the University of Alberta are used to illustrate how strategic-level decision-making sets the stage for cutting-edge success on a modest budget.

  8. 76 FR 8788 - National Nanotechnology Coordination Office; Bridging NanoEHS Research Efforts: A Joint US-EU...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY National Nanotechnology Coordination Office; Bridging NanoEHS Research Efforts: A Joint US-EU Workshop: Public Meeting AGENCY: National Nanotechnology Coordination Office, STPO. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The National Nanotechnology Coordination...

  9. Concise review: carbon nanotechnology: perspectives in stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryzhkova, Marina V

    2013-05-01

    Carbon nanotechnology has developed rapidly during the last decade, and carbon allotropes, especially graphene and carbon nanotubes, have already found a wide variety of applications in industry, high-tech fields, biomedicine, and basic science. Electroconductive nanomaterials have attracted great attention from tissue engineers in the design of remotely controlled cell-substrate interfaces. Carbon nanoconstructs are also under extensive investigation by clinical scientists as potential agents in anticancer therapies. Despite the recent progress in human pluripotent stem cell research, only a few attempts to use carbon nanotechnology in the stem cell field have been reported. However, acquired experience with and knowledge of carbon nanomaterials may be efficiently used in the development of future personalized medicine and in tissue engineering.

  10. Nanotechnology Research Directions: IWGN Workshop Report. Vision for Nanotechnology R&D in the Next Decade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roco, M

    1999-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the creation and utilization of materials, devices, and systems through the control of matter on the nanometer-length scale, that is, at the level of atoms, molecules, and supramolecular structures...

  11. Scientists' Ethical Obligations and Social Responsibility for Nanotechnology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Elizabeth A; Kim, Youngjae; Scheufele, Dietram A

    2016-02-01

    Scientists' sense of social responsibility is particularly relevant for emerging technologies. Since a regulatory vacuum can sometimes occur in the early stages of these technologies, individual scientists' social responsibility might be one of the most significant checks on the risks and negative consequences of this scientific research. In this article, we analyze data from a 2011 mail survey of leading U.S. nanoscientists to explore their perceptions the regarding social and ethical responsibilities for their nanotechnology research. Our analyses show that leading U.S. nanoscientists express a moderate level of social responsibility about their research. Yet, they have a strong sense of ethical obligation to protect laboratory workers (in both universities and industry) from unhealthy exposure to nanomaterials. We also find that there are significant differences in scientists' sense of social and ethical responsibility depending on their demographic characteristics, job affiliation, attention to media content, risk perceptions and benefit perceptions. We conclude with some implications for future research.

  12. Nanotechnology in bladder cancer: current state of development and clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Ben; Lin, Tzu-yin; Dall'Era, Marc; Pan, Chong-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is being developed for the diagnosis and treatment of both nonmyoinvasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and invasive bladder cancer. The diagnostic applications of nanotechnology in NMIBC mainly focus on tumor identification during endoscopy to increase complete resection of bladder cancer while nanotechnology to capture malignant cells or their components continues to be developed. The therapeutic applications of nanotechnology in NMIBC are to reformulate biological and cytotoxic agents for intravesical instillation, combine both diagnostic and therapeutic application in one nanoformulation. In invasive and advanced bladder cancer, magnetic resonance imaging with supraparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles can improve the sensitivity and specificity in detecting small metastasis to lymph nodes. Nanoformulation of cytotoxic agents can potentially decrease the toxicity while increasing efficacy. PMID:25929573

  13. EDITORIAL: Nanopores—the 'Holey Grail' in nanotechnology research Nanopores—the 'Holey Grail' in nanotechnology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-06-01

    'Negative space' may be as important in the development of nanomaterials as it is in creating works of art. The term refers to the space around and between objects, an important aspect in artistic composition. In nanotechnology, while nanoposts and nanowires have been assiduously studied and exploited for enhancing the performance of solar cells [1], real-time chemical sensors [2], UV emitters [3] and many other applications, nanopore structures have also yielded important advances in a wide range of fields. In this issue Melnikov, Leburton and Gracheva report on the electrostatic properties of nanopores in a layered semiconductor, and show how they allow a more accurate characterization of DNA than pores in other membranes [4]. Nanoporous materials have been applied to a diverse range of technological challenges. In recognition of its potential in high-efficiency solar cells, Prakasam and colleagues in the US reported the first ever synthesis of self-aligned nanoporous haematite [5]. Haematite is abundant, stable, non-toxic and has a band gap in the visible region and, as their work demonstrates, the photoresponse of nanoporous haematite is very promising for energy harvesting applications. Nanoporous aluminum oxide has also proved to be a particularly valuable material in applications ranging from liquid display panels to biosensor microchips. A collaboration of researchers in Taiwan demonstrated that porous aluminum oxide on an indium tin oxide surface could act as an alignment layer in liquid crystal display panels that have a transmittance of 60-80%, and switch from black to bright with a response time of 62.5 ms [6]. In Korea, Chung, Son and Min investigated the effect of nanostructural parameters of porous aluminum oxide on cell adhesion and proliferation for cell-based microchips [7]. While aluminum oxide without any modifications is not favourable for adherent cell culture, the proliferation of cells dramatically increased in porous aluminum oxide

  14. Review on Early Technology Assessment of Nanotechnologies in oncology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retel, Valesca; Retèl, Valesca P.; Hummel, J. Marjan; van Harten, Willem H.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is expected to play an increasingly important role in the diagnostics, prognostics, and management of targeted cancer treatments. While papers have described promising results for nanotechnology in experimental settings, the translation of fundamental research into clinical

  15. Structural DNA Nanotechnology: Artificial Nanostructures for Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yonggang; Castro, Carlos; Choi, Jong Hyun

    2018-04-04

    Structural DNA nanotechnology utilizes synthetic or biologic DNA as designer molecules for the self-assembly of artificial nanostructures. The field is founded upon the specific interactions between DNA molecules, known as Watson-Crick base pairing. After decades of active pursuit, DNA has demonstrated unprecedented versatility in constructing artificial nanostructures with significant complexity and programmability. The nanostructures could be either static, with well-controlled physicochemical properties, or dynamic, with the ability to reconfigure upon external stimuli. Researchers have devoted considerable effort to exploring the usability of DNA nanostructures in biomedical research. We review the basic design methods for fabricating both static and dynamic DNA nanostructures, along with their biomedical applications in fields such as biosensing, bioimaging, and drug delivery. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering Volume 20 is June 4, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  16. Some applications of nanotechnologies in stem cells research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belicchi, M.; Cancedda, R.; Cedola, A.; Fiori, F.; Gavina, M.; Giuliani, A.; Komlev, V.S.; Lagomarsino, S.; Mastrogiacomo, M.; Renghini, C.; Rustichelli, F.

    2009-01-01

    Stem cell based tissue engineering therapies involve the administration of ex vivo manipulated stem cell populations with the purpose of repairing and regenerating damaged or diseased tissue. Currently available methods of monitoring transplanted cells are quite limited. To monitor the outcomes of stem cell therapy longitudinally requires the development of non-destructive strategies that are capable of identifying the location, magnitude, and duration of cellular survival and fate. The recent development of imaging techniques offers great potential to address these critical issues by non-invasively tracking the fate of the transplanted cells. This review offers a focused presentation of some examples of the use of imaging techniques connected to the nanotechnological world in research areas related to stem cells. In particular investigations will be considered concerning tissue-engineered bone, treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration, treatment by human stem cells of muscular dystrophy of Duchenne in small animal models and the repair of spinal cord injuries.

  17. Some applications of nanotechnologies in stem cells research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belicchi, M. [Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico di Milano, Via Francesco Sforza, Milano 20122 (Italy); Cancedda, R. [Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro and Dipartimento di Oncologia Biologia e Genetica - Universita di Genova, Largo R. Benzi 10, Genova 16132 (Italy); Cedola, A. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie - CNR, Via Cinto Romano 42, Roma 00156 (Italy); Fiori, F. [Dipartimento S.A.I.F.E.T. Sezione di Scienze Fisiche - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona 60131 (Italy); INBB - Istituto Nazionale Biostrutture e Biosistemi (Italy); CNISM - Matec (Ancona) (Italy); Gavina, M. [Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico di Milano, Via Francesco Sforza, Milano 20122 (Italy); Giuliani, A. [Dipartimento S.A.I.F.E.T. Sezione di Scienze Fisiche - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona 60131 (Italy); CNISM - Matec (Ancona) (Italy); Komlev, V.S. [Dipartimento S.A.I.F.E.T. Sezione di Scienze Fisiche - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona 60131 (Italy); Institute for Physical Chemistry of Ceramics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ozernaya 48, 119361 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lagomarsino, S. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie - CNR, Via Cinto Romano 42, Roma 00156 (Italy); Mastrogiacomo, M. [Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro and Dipartimento di Oncologia Biologia e Genetica - Universita di Genova, Largo R. Benzi 10, Genova 16132 (Italy); Renghini, C. [Dipartimento S.A.I.F.E.T. Sezione di Scienze Fisiche - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona 60131 (Italy); INBB - Istituto Nazionale Biostrutture e Biosistemi (Italy); CNISM - Matec (Ancona) (Italy); Rustichelli, F., E-mail: f.rustichelli@univpm.i [Dipartimento S.A.I.F.E.T. Sezione di Scienze Fisiche - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona 60131 (Italy); INBB - Istituto Nazionale Biostrutture e Biosistemi (Italy); CNISM - Matec (Ancona) (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    Stem cell based tissue engineering therapies involve the administration of ex vivo manipulated stem cell populations with the purpose of repairing and regenerating damaged or diseased tissue. Currently available methods of monitoring transplanted cells are quite limited. To monitor the outcomes of stem cell therapy longitudinally requires the development of non-destructive strategies that are capable of identifying the location, magnitude, and duration of cellular survival and fate. The recent development of imaging techniques offers great potential to address these critical issues by non-invasively tracking the fate of the transplanted cells. This review offers a focused presentation of some examples of the use of imaging techniques connected to the nanotechnological world in research areas related to stem cells. In particular investigations will be considered concerning tissue-engineered bone, treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration, treatment by human stem cells of muscular dystrophy of Duchenne in small animal models and the repair of spinal cord injuries.

  18. Nanotechnology-based inhalation treatments for lung cancer: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Javed Ahmad,1,* Sohail Akhter,2,3,* Md Rizwanullah,1 Saima Amin,1 Mahfoozur Rahman,4 Mohammad Zaki Ahmad,5 Moshahid Alam Rizvi,6 Mohammad A Kamal,7 Farhan Jalees Ahmad1,21Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Nanomedicine Research Lab, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India; 3Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire(CBM-CNRS UPR4301, University of Orléans, Orléans Cedex 2, France; 4Department of Pharmaceutics, Abhilashi College of Pharmacy, Mandi, HP, India; 5Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Najran University, Saudi Arabia; 6Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India; 7Metabolomics and Enzymology Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Considering the challenges associated with conventional chemotherapy, targeted and local delivery of chemotherapeutics via nanoparticle (NP carriers to the lungs is an emerging area of interest. Recent studies and growing clinical application in cancer nanotechnology showed the huge potential of NPs as drug carriers in cancer therapy, including in lung carcinoma for diagnosis, imaging, and theranostics. Researchers have confirmed that nanotechnology-based inhalation chemotherapy is viable and more effective than conventional chemotherapy, with lesser side effects. Recently, many nanocarriers have been investigated, including liposomes, polymeric micelles, polymeric NPs, solid lipid NPs, and inorganic NPs for inhalation treatments of lung cancer. Yet, the toxicity of such nanomaterials to the lungs tissues and further distribution to other organs due to systemic absorption on inhalation delivery is a debatable concern. Here, prospect of NPs-based local lung cancer targeting through inhalation route as well as its associated challenges are discussed.Keywords: nanoparticles, lung cancer, inhalational chemotherapy, drug targeting, nanotoxicity

  19. The role of nanotechnology in induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lukui; Qiu, Rong; Li, Lushen

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews the recent studies on development of nanotechnology in the field of induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells. Stem cell therapy is a promising therapy that can improve the quality of life for patients with refractory diseases. However, this option is limited by the scarcity of tissues, ethical problem, and tumorigenicity. Nanotechnology is another promising therapy that can be used to mimic the extracellular matrix, label the implanted cells, and also can be applied in the tissue engineering. In this review, we briefly introduce implementation of nanotechnology in induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells research. Finally, the potential application of nanotechnology in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is also discussed.

  20. Applications of nanotechnology in gastric cancer: detection and prevention by nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elingarami, Sauli; Liu, Ming; Fan, Jing; He, Nongyue

    2014-01-01

    New and emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology, have the potential to advance nutrition science by assisting in the discovery, development, and delivery of several intervention strategies to improve health and reduce the risk and complications of several diseases, including gastric cancer. This article reviews gastric cancer in relation to nutrition, discussing gastric carcinogenesis in-depth in relation to prevention of the disease by nutrition, as well as current detection approaches using nanotechnology. The current status of molecular nutritional biomarkers for gastric cancer is also discussed, as well as future strategies for the tailored management of gastric cancer.

  1. Nanotechnology research and development for military and industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Paul B.; Brantley, Christina L.; Edwards, Eugene; Roberts, J. Keith; Chew, William; Warren, Larry C.; Ashley, Paul R.; Everitt, Henry O.; Webster, Eric; Foreman, John V.; Sanghadasa, Mohan; Crutcher, Sihon H.; Temmen, Mark G.; Varadan, Vijay; Hayduke, Devlin; Wu, Pae C.; Khoury, Christopher G.; Yang, Yang; Kim, Tong-Ho; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Brown, April S.; Callahan, John

    2011-04-01

    Researchers at the Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) have initiated multidiscipline efforts to develop nano-based structures and components for insertion into advanced missile, aviation, and autonomous air and ground systems. The objective of the research is to exploit unique phenomena for the development of novel technology to enhance warfighter capabilities and produce precision weapons. The key technology areas that the authors are exploring include nano-based microsensors, nano-energetics, nano-batteries, nano-composites, and nano-plasmonics. By integrating nano-based devices, structures, and materials into weaponry, the Army can revolutionize existing (and future) missile systems by significantly reducing the size, weight and cost. The major research thrust areas include the development of chemical sensors to detect rocket motor off-gassing and toxic industrial chemicals; the development of highly sensitive/selective, self-powered miniaturized acoustic sensors for battlefield surveillance and reconnaissance; the development of a minimum signature solid propellant with increased ballistic and physical properties that meet insensitive munitions requirements; the development of nano-structured material for higher voltage thermal batteries and higher energy density storage; the development of advanced composite materials that provide high frequency damping for inertial measurement units' packaging; and the development of metallic nanostructures for ultraviolet surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The current status of the overall AMRDEC Nanotechnology research efforts is disclosed in this paper. Critical technical challenges, for the various technologies, are presented. The authors' approach for overcoming technical barriers and achieving required performance is also discussed. Finally, the roadmap for each technology, as well as the overall program, is presented.

  2. Nanoscience and nanotechnologies in food industries: opportunities and research trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Shivendu; Dasgupta, Nandita; Chakraborty, Arkadyuti Roy; Melvin Samuel, S.; Ramalingam, Chidambaram; Shanker, Rishi; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2014-06-01

    Nanomaterials have gained importance in various fields of science, technology, medicine, colloid technologies, diagnostics, drug delivery, personal care applications and others due to their small size and unique physico-chemical characteristic. Apart from above mentioned area, it is also extensively being used in food sector specifically in preservation and packaging. The future applications in food can also be extended to improve the shelf life, food quality, safety, fortification and biosensors for contaminated or spoiled food or food packaging. Different types and shapes of nanomaterials are being employed depending upon the need and nature of the food. Characterisation of these nanomaterials is essential to understand the interaction with the food matrix and also with biological compartment. This review is focused on application of nanotechnology in food industries. It also gives insight on commercial products in market with usage of nanomaterials, current research and future aspects in these areas. Currently, they are being incorporated into commercial products at a faster rate than the development of knowledge and regulations to mitigate potential health and environmental impacts associated with their manufacturing, application and disposal. As nanomaterials are finding new application every day, care should be taken about their potential toxic effects.

  3. Disciplinary Identity of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research- A Study of Postgraduate Researchers’ Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Chari, Deepa Nathamuni; Howard, Robert; Bowe, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscience and Nanotechnology research although growing at very fast rate, its disciplinary identity remains ‘ill-defined’. It is often viewed as multidisciplinary; and/or interdisciplinary science or even as a unique discipline on its own way. As a consequence, whether this growing research area requires researchers that have studied specialised undergraduate or postgraduate nanoscience and nanotechnology programmes; or traditional science and engineering disciplines is still less understoo...

  4. Researcher views about funding sources and conflicts of interest in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A

    2012-12-01

    Dependence in nanotechnology on external funding and academic-industry relationships has led to questions concerning its influence on research directions, as well as the potential for conflicts of interest to arise and impact scientific integrity and public trust. This study uses a survey of 193 nanotechnology industry and academic researchers to explore whether they share similar concerns. Although these concerns are not unique to nanotechnology, its emerging nature and the prominence of industry funding lend credence to understanding its researchers' views, as these researchers are shaping the norms and direction of the field. The results of the survey show general agreement that funding sources are influencing research directions in nanotechnology; many respondents saw this influence in their own work as well as other researchers' work. Respondents also agreed that funding considerations were likely to influence whether researchers shared their results. Irrespective of their institutional affiliation or funding status, twice as many researchers as not considered financial conflicts of interest a cause for concern, and three times as many respondents as not disagreed financial conflicts of interest in nanotechnology were uncommon. Only a third was satisfied with the way that conflicts of interest are currently managed and believed current procedures would protect the integrity of nanotechnology research. The results also found differences in views depending on researchers' institutional affiliation and funding status.

  5. Wondrous nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, I.Z.; Hussain, S.B.

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades, a lot of progress has been made in Nanotechnology and Nanoscience, an exploitation of matter on atomic, molecular and supermolecular scale. Nanotechnology because of its size is widely used in such varied fields as surface science, molecular biology, organic chemistry, semi-conductor physics, micro fabrication, medical sciences, electronics, biomaterials, energy production, etc. Using nanotechnology, Researchers have been able to develop new materials with nanoscale dimensions to directly control matter on the atomic or molecular scale. Due to the range of many potential applications, both industrial and military, many governments boast invested billions of dollars in nanotechnology and nanoscience research. This brief review deals with the fundamentals of nanotechnology and nanoscience and its application in various fields. It also discusses the future of nanotechnology and the risks involved in it. (author)

  6. Review of the federal strategy for nanotechnology-related environmental, health, and safety research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee for Review of the Federal Strategy to Address Environmental Health and Safety Research Needs for Engineered Nanoscale Materials; Committee on Toxicology; National Research Council

    .... The book recommends a robust national strategic plan for addressing nanotechnology-related EHS risks, which will need to focus on promoting research that can assist all stakeholders, including...

  7. Nanotechnology applications and implications research supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency STAR grants program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Nora; Thomas, Treye A; Duncan, Jeremiah S

    2007-10-01

    Since 2002, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been funding research on the environmental aspects of nanotechnology through its Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants program. In total, more than $25 million has been awarded for 86 research projects on the environmental applications and implications of nanotechnology. In the applications area, grantees have produced promising results in green manufacturing, remediation, sensors, and treatment using nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Although there are many potential benefits of nanotechnology, there has also been increasing concern about the environmental and health effects of nanomaterials, and there are significant gaps in the data needed to address these concerns. Research performed by STAR grantees is beginning to address these needs.

  8. Hybrid Nanotechnologies for Detection and Synergistic Therapies for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Hierro Majadahonda, 28222 Madrid, Spain, the §Cancer Research Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, and the...correspondence should be addressed: Unidad de Inmunología Molecular, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro , C/Manuel de Falla 1, 28222 Majadahonda, Madrid...accordance with the guidelines of the Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro Ani- mal Care and Use Committee and performed in accordance with Spanish

  9. Methodological proposal for occupational health and safety actions in research laboratories with nanotechnologies activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luís Renato Balbão; Amaral, Fernando Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnologies is a multidisciplinary set of techniques to manipulate matter on nanoscale level, more precisely particles below 100 nm whose characteristic due to small size is essentially different from those found in macro form materials. Regarding to these new properties of the materials there are knowledge gaps about the effects of these particles on human organism and the environment. Although it still being considered emerging technology it is growing increasingly fast as well as the number of products using nanotechnologies in some production level and so the number of researchers involved with the subject. Given this scenario and based on literature related, a comprehensive methodology for health and safety at work for researching laboratories with activities in nanotechnologies was developed, based on ILO structure guidelines for safety and health at work system on which a number of nanospecific recommendations were added to. The work intends to offer food for thought on controlling risks associated to nanotechnologies.

  10. Potential Applications of Nanotechnology for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua eMcCarroll

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in our understanding of pancreatic cancer and the emerging concept of personalized medicine for the treatment of this disease, it is still the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the western world. It is established that pancreatic cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease with a complex tumor microenvironment. Indeed the extensive stroma surrounding the cancer cells has been shown to be important in promoting tumor growth and metastases, as well as sequestering chemotherapeutic agents consequently decreasing delivery to the tumor cells. Nanotechnology has come to the forefront in the areas of medical diagnostics, imaging, and therapeutic drug delivery. This review will focus on the potential applications of nanotechnology for diagnosis, imaging, and delivery of therapeutic agents for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  11. Gazelles, unicorns, and dragons battle cancer through the Nanotechnology Startup Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truman, Rosemarie; Locke, Cody J

    On March 4th, 2016, Springer's C ancer Nanotechnology office promoted the launch of the Nanotechnology Startup Challenge in Cancer ( NSC 2 ). This innovation-development model is a partnership among our company, the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI), MedImmune, the global biologics arm of AstraZeneca, and multiple institutes at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NSC 2 "crowdsources" talent from around the world to launch startups with near-term, commercially viable cancer nanotechnology inventions, which were developed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB). Crowdsourcing is a process in which one uses the internet to engage a large group of people in an activity, such as NSC 2 . For this initiative, CAI engaged universities, industry professionals, foundations, investors, relevant media outlets, seasoned entrepreneurs, and life sciences membership organizations to request that they participate in the challenge. From this outreach, fifty-six key thought leaders have enrolled in NSC 2 as judges, mentors, and/or advisors to challenge teams (http://www.nscsquared.org/judges.html). Along with crowdsourcing talent to bolt startups around NIH inventions, NSC 2 will also catalyze the launch of companies around "third-party" cancer nanotechnology inventions, which were conceived and developed outside of the NIH. Twenty-eight robust teams were accepted to the challenge on March 14th, 2016.

  12. Bio-Nanotechnology: Challenges for Trainees in a Multidisciplinary Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica Erin

    2009-01-01

    The recent developments in the field of nanotechnology have provided scientists with a new set of nanoscale materials, tools and devices in which to investigate the biological science thus creating the mulitdisciplinary field of bio-nanotechnology. Bio-nanotechnology merges the biological sciences with other scientific disciplines ranging from chemistry to engineering. Todays students must have a working knowledge of a variety of scientific disciplines in order to be successful in this new field of study. This talk will provide insight into the issue of multidisciplinary education from the perspective of a graduate student working in the field of bio-nanotechnology. From the classes we take to the research we perform, how does the modern graduate student attain the training required to succeed in this field?

  13. Nanotechnology in hyperthermia cancer therapy: From fundamental principles to advanced applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beik, Jaber; Abed, Ziaeddin; Ghoreishi, Fatemeh S; Hosseini-Nami, Samira; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Shakeri-Zadeh, Ali; Kamrava, S Kamran

    2016-08-10

    In this work, we present an in-depth review of recent breakthroughs in nanotechnology for hyperthermia cancer therapy. Conventional hyperthermia methods do not thermally discriminate between the target and the surrounding normal tissues, and this non-selective tissue heating can lead to serious side effects. Nanotechnology is expected to have great potential to revolutionize current hyperthermia methods. To find an appropriate place in cancer treatment, all nanotechnology-based hyperthermia methods and their risks/benefits must be thoroughly understood. In this review paper, we extensively examine and compare four modern nanotechnology-based hyperthermia methods. For each method, the possible physical mechanisms of heat generation and enhancement due to the presence of nanoparticles are explained, and recent in vitro and in vivo studies are reviewed and discussed. Nano-Photo-Thermal Therapy (NPTT) and Nano-Magnetic Hyperthermia (NMH) are reviewed as the two first exciting approaches for targeted hyperthermia. The third novel hyperthermia method, Nano-Radio-Frequency Ablation (NaRFA) is discussed together with the thermal effects of novel nanoparticles in the presence of radiofrequency waves. Finally, Nano-Ultrasound Hyperthermia (NUH) is described as the fourth modern method for cancer hyperthermia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies–converging societal response research?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronteltap, Amber; Fischer, Arnout R. H.; Tobi, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development. With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence of social science methods help to anticipate societal response. This paper systematically reviews the current state of convergence in societal response research by first sketching the predominant approaches to previous new technologies, followed by an analysis of current research into societal response to nanotechnology. A set of 107 papers on previous new technologies shows that rational actor models have played an important role in the study of societal response to technology, in particular in the field of information technology and the geographic region of Asia. Biotechnology and nuclear power have, in contrast, more often been investigated through risk perception and other affective determinants, particularly in Europe and the USA. A set of 42 papers on societal response to nanotechnology shows similarities to research in biotechnology, as it also builds on affective variables such as risk perception. Although there is a tendency to extend the rational models with affective variables, convergence in social science approaches to response to new technologies still has a long way to go. The challenge for researchers of societal response to technologies is to converge to some shared principles by taking up the best parts from the rational actor models dominant in information technology, whilst integrating non-rational constructs from biotechnology research. The introduction of nanotechnology gives a unique opportunity to do so.

  15. Medical applications of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Waracki, Mateusz; Bugaj, Bartosz; Pypno, Damian; Cabała, Krzysztof

    2015-10-29

    Nanotechnologies are new areas of research focusing on affecting matter at the atomic and molecular levels. It is beyond doubt that modern medicine can benefit greatly from it; thus nanomedicine has become one of the main branches of nanotechnological research. Currently it focuses on developing new methods of preventing, diagnosing and treating various diseases. Nanomaterials show very high efficiency in destroying cancer cells and are already undergoing clinical trials. The results are so promising that nanomaterials might become an alternative to traditional cancer therapy, mostly due to the fact that they allow cancer cells to be targeted specifically and enable detailed imaging of tissues, making planning further therapy much easier. Nanoscience might also be a source of the needed breakthrough in the fight against atherosclerosis, since nanostructures may be used in both preventing and increasing the stability of atherosclerotic lesions. One area of interest is creating nanomaterials that are not only efficient, but also well tolerated by the human body. Other potential applications of nanotechnology in medicine include: nanoadjuvants with immunomodulatory properties used to deliver vaccine antigens; the nano-knife, an almost non-invasive method of destroying cancer cells with high voltage electricity; and carbon nanotubes, which are already a popular way of repairing damaged tissues and might be used to regenerate nerves in the future. The aim of this article is to outline the potential uses of nanotechnology in medicine. Original articles and reviews have been used to present the new developments and directions of studies.

  16. Medical applications of nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Zdrojewicz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies are new areas of research focusing on affecting matter at the atomic and molecular levels. It is beyond doubt that modern medicine can benefit greatly from it; thus nanomedicine has become one of the main branches of nanotechnological research. Currently it focuses on developing new methods of preventing, diagnosing and treating various diseases. Nanomaterials show very high efficiency in destroying cancer cells and are already undergoing clinical trials. The results are so promising that nanomaterials might become an alternative to traditional cancer therapy, mostly due to the fact that they allow cancer cells to be targeted specifically and enable detailed imaging of tissues, making planning further therapy much easier. Nanoscience might also be a source of the needed breakthrough in the fight against atherosclerosis, since nanostructures may be used in both preventing and increasing the stability of atherosclerotic lesions. One area of interest is creating nanomaterials that are not only efficient, but also well tolerated by the human body. Other potential applications of nanotechnology in medicine include: nanoadjuvants with immunomodulatory properties used to deliver vaccine antigens; the nano-knife, an almost non-invasive method of destroying cancer cells with high voltage electricity; and carbon nanotubes, which are already a popular way of repairing damaged tissues and might be used to regenerate nerves in the future.The aim of this article is to outline the potential uses of nanotechnology in medicine. Original articles and reviews have been used to present the new developments and directions of studies.

  17. 2nd FP7 Conference and International Summer School Nanotechnology : From Fundamental Research to Innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsenko, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    This book presents some of the latest achievements in nanotechnology and nanomaterials from leading researchers in Ukraine, Europe, and beyond. It features contributions from participants in the 2nd International Summer School “Nanotechnology: From Fundamental Research to Innovations” and International Research and Practice Conference “Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials”, NANO-2013, which were held in Bukovel, Ukraine on August 25-September 1, 2013. These events took place within the framework of the European Commission FP7 project Nanotwinning, and were organized jointly by the Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, University of Tartu (Estonia), University of Turin (Italy), and Pierre and Marie Curie University (France). Internationally recognized experts from a wide range of universities and research institutions share their knowledge and key results on topics ranging from nanooptics, nanoplasmonics, and interface studies to energy storage and biomedical applications. Pr...

  18. Devices of Responsibility: Over a Decade of Responsible Research and Innovation Initiatives for Nanotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley-Egan, Clare; Bowman, Diana M; Robinson, Douglas K R

    2017-10-10

    Responsible research and innovation (RRI) has come to represent a change in the relationship between science, technology and society. With origins in the democratisation of science, and the inclusion of ethical and societal aspects in research and development activities, RRI offers a means of integrating society and the research and innovation communities. In this article, we frame RRI activities through the lens of layers of science and technology governance as a means of characterising the context in which the RRI activity is positioned and the goal of those actors promoting the RRI activities in shaping overall governance patterns. RRI began to emerge during a time of considerable deliberation about the societal and governance challenges around nanotechnology, in which stakeholders were looking for new ways of integrating notions of responsibility in nanotechnology research and development. For this reason, this article focuses on nanotechnology as the site for exploring the evolution and growth of RRI.

  19. The use of environmental, health and safety research in nanotechnology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan; Shapira, Philip; Tang, Li; Benn, Troy

    2011-01-01

    Environmental, health, and safety (EHS) concerns are receiving considerable attention in nanoscience and nanotechnology (nano) research and development (R&D). Policymakers and others have urged that research on nano's EHS implications be developed alongside scientific research in the nano domain rather than subsequent to applications. This concurrent perspective suggests the importance of early understanding and measurement of the diffusion of nano EHS research. The paper examines the diffusion of nano EHS publications, defined through a set of search terms, into the broader nano domain using a global nanotechnology R&D database developed at Georgia Tech. The results indicate that nano EHS research is growing rapidly although it is orders of magnitude smaller than the broader nano S&T domain. Nano EHS work is moderately multidisciplinary, but gaps in biomedical nano EHS's connections with environmental nano EHS are apparent. The paper discusses the implications of these results for the continued monitoring and development of the cross-disciplinary utilization of nano EHS research.

  20. Hans Jonas: The Principle Responsability, Limits of Research (? and Nanotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Santos Martins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study intends to carry out the reading of the responsibility principle and the new ethical model narrated by Hans Jones to nanotechnology context. Study the historical context of political and economic development and the interrelations with technological development, visiting the transformation of homo sapiens - homo faber - homo tecnologicus. Check if operating at the nanoscale, comprised in the billionth of meter, has elements that may indicate possible damage that might compromise or offer risks to the exercise of rights for future generations. Therefore, we intend to find points of convergence between the management of the potential risks of nanotechnologies and the new ethical model proposed by Hans Jonas in his work "The principle responsibility test an ethics for technological civilization". The study sheds bases in the work cited as theoretical foundation for the study and is based on the notion of risk proposed by Niklas Luhmann, and uses the method of literature refers to these works as well as published articles involving the topics covered.

  1. Applications of nanotechnology, next generation sequencing and microarrays in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elingaramil, Sauli; Li, Xiaolong; He, Nongyue

    2013-07-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies, microarrays and advances in bio nanotechnology have had an enormous impact on research within a short time frame. This impact appears certain to increase further as many biomedical institutions are now acquiring these prevailing new technologies. Beyond conventional sampling of genome content, wide-ranging applications are rapidly evolving for next-generation sequencing, microarrays and nanotechnology. To date, these technologies have been applied in a variety of contexts, including whole-genome sequencing, targeted re sequencing and discovery of transcription factor binding sites, noncoding RNA expression profiling and molecular diagnostics. This paper thus discusses current applications of nanotechnology, next-generation sequencing technologies and microarrays in biomedical research and highlights the transforming potential these technologies offer.

  2. Using natural language processing techniques to inform research on nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastassja A. Lewinski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Literature in the field of nanotechnology is exponentially increasing with more and more engineered nanomaterials being created, characterized, and tested for performance and safety. With the deluge of published data, there is a need for natural language processing approaches to semi-automate the cataloguing of engineered nanomaterials and their associated physico-chemical properties, performance, exposure scenarios, and biological effects. In this paper, we review the different informatics methods that have been applied to patent mining, nanomaterial/device characterization, nanomedicine, and environmental risk assessment. Nine natural language processing (NLP-based tools were identified: NanoPort, NanoMapper, TechPerceptor, a Text Mining Framework, a Nanodevice Analyzer, a Clinical Trial Document Classifier, Nanotoxicity Searcher, NanoSifter, and NEIMiner. We conclude with recommendations for sharing NLP-related tools through online repositories to broaden participation in nanoinformatics.

  3. Strategies on Technology Transfer and Patents Commercialization for Nanotechnology at the Spanish National Research Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maira, Javier; Etxabe, Javier; Serena, Pedro A

    2018-02-14

    Nanoscience and nanotechnology made their appearance in the scientific scene at a time when both the economy of Spain and the Spanish Research and Innovation System were experiencing strong growth. This circumstance resulted in a remarkable development of nanoscience and nanotechnology especially in universities and public research institutions such as the Spanish National Research Council (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-CSIC). However, this development in academia has not been reflected in a similar increment in the transfer of knowledge to the productive sector despite several efforts and initiatives were launched. The CSIC, the main generator of scientific knowledge in Spain, has designed and implemented a series of actions in order to take advantage of the knowledge generated in nanotechnology by its research groups by mean of an appropriate transfer to both the Spanish and the international industry. Internal methodologies used in CSIC in order to protect and commercialize nanotechnology based intellectual property as well as their effects are reviewed. The evolution of CSIC nanotechnology patents portfolio is also analyzed. There has been a clear increase in the patent license agreements of CSIC in the period 2002- 2015 in the field of nanotechnology. This increase is correlated to these facts: (i) Highly qualified team managing Intellectual Property issues, (ii) The presence of CSIC in international fairs, and (iii) Proactive search of companies and investors. Successful results can be achieved in technology transfer when the appropriate resources are available and properly organized with an adequate combination of efforts in knowledge protection, promotion and commercialization of technologies and support to the scientific entrepreneurs of the institution. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Types of Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  5. Nanotechnology-Based Detection and Targeted Therapy in Cancer: Nano-Bio Paradigms and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousa, Shaker A., E-mail: shaker.mosua@acphs.edu [The Pharmaceutical Research Institute at Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, 1 Discovery Drive, Rensselaer, NY 12144 (United States); College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Bharali, Dhruba J. [The Pharmaceutical Research Institute at Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, 1 Discovery Drive, Rensselaer, NY 12144 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    The application of nanotechnology to biomedicine, particularly in cancer diagnosis and treatment, promises to have a profound impact on healthcare. The exploitation of the unique properties of nano-sized particles for cancer therapeutics is most popularly known as nanomedicine. The goals of this review are to discuss the current state of nanomedicine in the field of cancer detection and the subsequent application of nanotechnology to treatment. Current cancer detection methods rely on the patient contacting their provider when they feel ill, or relying on non-specific screening methods, which unfortunately often result in cancers being detected only after it is too late for effective treatment. Cancer treatment paradigms mainly rely on whole body treatment with chemotherapy agents, exposing the patient to medications that non-specifically kill rapidly dividing cells, leading to debilitating side effects. In addition, the use of toxic organic solvents/excipients can hamper the further effectiveness of the anticancer drug. Nanomedicine has the potential to increase the specificity of treatment of cancer cells while leaving healthy cells intact through the use of novel nanoparticles. This review discusses the use of nanoparticles such as quantum dots, nanoshells, nanocrystals, nanocells, and dendrimers for the detection and treatment of cancer. Future directions and perspectives of this cutting-edge technology are also discussed.

  6. Nanotechnology-Based Detection and Targeted Therapy in Cancer: Nano-Bio Paradigms and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhruba J. Bharali

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of nanotechnology to biomedicine, particularly in cancer diagnosis and treatment, promises to have a profound impact on healthcare. The exploitation of the unique properties of nano-sized particles for cancer therapeutics is most popularly known as nanomedicine. The goals of this review are to discuss the current state of nanomedicine in the field of cancer detection and the subsequent application of nanotechnology to treatment. Current cancer detection methods rely on the patient contacting their provider when they feel ill, or relying on non-specific screening methods, which unfortunately often result in cancers being detected only after it is too late for effective treatment. Cancer treatment paradigms mainly rely on whole body treatment with chemotherapy agents, exposing the patient to medications that non-specifically kill rapidly dividing cells, leading to debilitating side effects. In addition, the use of toxic organic solvents/excipients can hamper the further effectiveness of the anticancer drug. Nanomedicine has the potential to increase the specificity of treatment of cancer cells while leaving healthy cells intact through the use of novel nanoparticles. This review discusses the use of nanoparticles such as quantum dots, nanoshells, nanocrystals, nanocells, and dendrimers for the detection and treatment of cancer. Future directions and perspectives of this cutting-edge technology are also discussed.

  7. Nanotechnology-Based Detection and Targeted Therapy in Cancer: Nano-Bio Paradigms and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, Shaker A.; Bharali, Dhruba J.

    2011-01-01

    The application of nanotechnology to biomedicine, particularly in cancer diagnosis and treatment, promises to have a profound impact on healthcare. The exploitation of the unique properties of nano-sized particles for cancer therapeutics is most popularly known as nanomedicine. The goals of this review are to discuss the current state of nanomedicine in the field of cancer detection and the subsequent application of nanotechnology to treatment. Current cancer detection methods rely on the patient contacting their provider when they feel ill, or relying on non-specific screening methods, which unfortunately often result in cancers being detected only after it is too late for effective treatment. Cancer treatment paradigms mainly rely on whole body treatment with chemotherapy agents, exposing the patient to medications that non-specifically kill rapidly dividing cells, leading to debilitating side effects. In addition, the use of toxic organic solvents/excipients can hamper the further effectiveness of the anticancer drug. Nanomedicine has the potential to increase the specificity of treatment of cancer cells while leaving healthy cells intact through the use of novel nanoparticles. This review discusses the use of nanoparticles such as quantum dots, nanoshells, nanocrystals, nanocells, and dendrimers for the detection and treatment of cancer. Future directions and perspectives of this cutting-edge technology are also discussed

  8. Nanotechnology knowledge diffusion: measuring the impact of the research networking and a strategy for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Hsinchun; Larson, Catherine A.; Roco, Mihail C.

    2014-09-01

    Given the global increase in public funding for nanotechnology research and development, it is even more important to support projects with promising return on investment. A main return is the benefit to other researchers and to the entire field through knowledge diffusion, invention, and innovation. The social network of researchers is one of the channels through which this happens. This study considers the scientific publication network in the field of nanotechnology, and evaluates how knowledge diffusion through coauthorship and citations is affected in large institutions by the location and connectivity of individual researchers in the network. The relative position and connectivity of a researcher is measured by various social network metrics, including degree centrality, Bonacich Power centrality, structural holes, and betweenness centrality. Leveraging the Cox regression model, we analyzed the temporal relationships between knowledge diffusion and social network measures of researchers in five leading universities in the United States using papers published from 2000 to 2010. The results showed that the most significant effects on knowledge diffusion in the field of nanotechnology were from the structural holes of the network and the degree centrality of individual researchers. The data suggest that a researcher has potential to perform better in knowledge creation and diffusion on boundary-spanning positions between different communities and when he or she has a high level of connectivity in the knowledge network. These observations may lead to improved strategies in planning, conducting, and evaluating multidisciplinary nanotechnology research. The paper also identifies the researchers who made most significant contributions to nanotechnology knowledge diffusion in the networks of five leading U.S. universities.

  9. "Extremely minimally invasive": recent advances in nanotechnology research and future applications in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Tobias A; Rehman, Azeem A

    2015-01-01

    The term "nanotechnology" refers to the development of materials and devices that have been designed with specific properties at the nanometer scale (10(-9) m), usually being less than 100 nm in size. Recent advances in nanotechnology have promised to enable visualization and intervention at the subcellular level, and its incorporation to future medical therapeutics is expected to bring new avenues for molecular imaging, targeted drug delivery, and personalized interventions. Although the central nervous system presents unique challenges to the implementation of new therapeutic strategies involving nanotechnology (such as the heterogeneous molecular environment of different CNS regions, the existence of multiple processing centers with different cytoarchitecture, and the presence of the blood-brain barrier), numerous studies have demonstrated that the incorporation of nanotechnology resources into the armamentarium of neurosurgery may lead to breakthrough advances in the near future. In this article, the authors present a critical review on the current 'state-of-the-art' of basic research in nanotechnology with special attention to those issues which present the greatest potential to generate major therapeutic progresses in the neurosurgical field, including nanoelectromechanical systems, nano-scaffolds for neural regeneration, sutureless anastomosis, molecular imaging, targeted drug delivery, and theranostic strategies.

  10. Nanotechnology-based combinational drug delivery: an emerging approach for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhi, Priyambada; Mohanty, Chandana; Sahoo, Sanjeeb Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Combination therapy for the treatment of cancer is becoming more popular because it generates synergistic anticancer effects, reduces individual drug-related toxicity and suppresses multi-drug resistance through different mechanisms of action. In recent years, nanotechnology-based combination drug delivery to tumor tissues has emerged as an effective strategy by overcoming many biological, biophysical and biomedical barriers that the body stages against successful delivery of anticancer drugs. The sustained, controlled and targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs in a combination approach enhanced therapeutic anticancer effects with reduced drug-associated side effects. In this article, we have reviewed the scope of various nanotechnology-based combination drug delivery approaches and also summarized the current perspective and challenges facing the successful treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nanotechnology solutions for Alzheimer's disease: advances in research tools, diagnostic methods and therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazem, Amir; Mansoori, G Ali

    2008-03-01

    A century of research has passed since the discovery and definition of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the primary common dementing disorder worldwide. However, AD lacks definite diagnostic approaches and effective cure at the present. Moreover, the currently available diagnostic tools are not sufficient for an early screening of AD in order to start preventive approaches. Recently the emerging field of nanotechnology has promised new techniques to solve some of the AD challenges. Nanotechnology refers to the techniques of designing and manufacturing nanosize (1-100 nm) structures through controlled positional and/or self-assembly of atoms and molecules. In this report, we present the promises that nanotechnology brings in research on the AD diagnosis and therapy. They include its potential for the better understanding of the AD root cause molecular mechanisms, AD's early diagnoses, and effective treatment. The advances in AD research offered by the atomic force microscopy, single molecule fluorescence microscopy and NanoSIMS microscopy are examined here. In addition, the recently proposed applications of nanotechnology for the early diagnosis of AD including bio-barcode assay, localized surface plasmon resonance nanosensor, quantum dot and nanomechanical cantilever arrays are analyzed. Applications of nanotechnology in AD therapy including neuroprotections against oxidative stress and anti-amyloid therapeutics, neuroregeneration and drug delivery beyond the blood brain barrier (BBB) are discussed and analyzed. All of these applications could improve the treatment approach of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. The complete cure of AD may become feasible by a combination of nanotechnology and some other novel approaches, like stem cell technology.

  12. Perspectives of Nanotechnology in Minimally Invasive Therapy of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer, the most common type of cancer among women in the western world, affects approximately one out of every eight women over their lifetime. In recognition of the high invasiveness of surgical excision and severe side effects of chemical and radiation therapies, increasing efforts are made to seek minimally invasive modalities with fewer side effects. Nanoparticles (<100 nm in size have shown promising capabilities for delivering targeted therapeutic drugs to cancer cells and confining the treatment mainly within tumors. Additionally, some nanoparticles exhibit distinct properties, such as conversion of photonic energy into heat, and these properties enable eradication of cancer cells. In this review, current utilization of nanostructures for cancer therapy, especially in minimally invasive therapy, is summarized with a particular interest in breast cancer.

  13. Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems for Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Maria Fioramonti Calixto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a promising alternative approach for improved cancer treatment. In PDT, a photosensitizer (PS is administered that can be activated by light of a specific wavelength, which causes selective damage to the tumor and its surrounding vasculature. The success of PDT is limited by the difficulty in administering photosensitizers (PSs with low water solubility, which compromises the clinical use of several molecules. Incorporation of PSs in nanostructured drug delivery systems, such as polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, hydrogels, liposomes, liquid crystals, dendrimers, and cyclodextrin is a potential strategy to overcome this difficulty. Additionally, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems may improve the transcytosis of a PS across epithelial and endothelial barriers and afford the simultaneous co-delivery of two or more drugs. Based on this, the application of nanotechnology in medicine may offer numerous exciting possibilities in cancer treatment and improve the efficacy of available therapeutics. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for photodynamic therapy of cancer.

  14. Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems for Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Bernegossi, Jéssica; de Freitas, Laura Marise; Fontana, Carla Raquel; Chorilli, Marlus

    2016-03-11

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative approach for improved cancer treatment. In PDT, a photosensitizer (PS) is administered that can be activated by light of a specific wavelength, which causes selective damage to the tumor and its surrounding vasculature. The success of PDT is limited by the difficulty in administering photosensitizers (PSs) with low water solubility, which compromises the clinical use of several molecules. Incorporation of PSs in nanostructured drug delivery systems, such as polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs), solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), hydrogels, liposomes, liquid crystals, dendrimers, and cyclodextrin is a potential strategy to overcome this difficulty. Additionally, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems may improve the transcytosis of a PS across epithelial and endothelial barriers and afford the simultaneous co-delivery of two or more drugs. Based on this, the application of nanotechnology in medicine may offer numerous exciting possibilities in cancer treatment and improve the efficacy of available therapeutics. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for photodynamic therapy of cancer.

  15. NanoSTAIR: A new strategic proposal to impulse standardization in nanotechnology research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipiña, J.M.L. de; Salvi, O.; Hazebrouck, B.; Jovanovic, A.; Carre, F.; Saamanen, A.; Brouwer, D.; Schmitt, M.; Martin, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21st century within Europe and a Key-Enabling Technology (KET) by Horizon 2020. Standardization has been identified in H2020 as one of the innovation-support measures by bridging the gap between research and the market, and helping the

  16. Nanotechnology and Ethics: The Role of Regulation Versus Self-Commitment in Shaping Researchers' Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, M.; Harms, Rainer; Hatak, Isabella

    2012-01-01

    The governance of nanotechnology seeks to limit its risks, without constraining opportunities. The literature on the effectiveness of approaches to governance has neglected approaches that impact directly on the behavior of a researcher. We analyze the effectiveness of legal regulations versus

  17. Research councils facing new science and technology : the case of nanotechnology in Finland, the Netherlands, Norway and Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Most, F.V.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates how research funding organizations (RFOs) respond to a new emerging field of science and technology. It takes nanoscience and nanotechnology (nanotechnology for short) as its case and compares the responses of RFOs in Finland, the Netherlands, Norway and Finland.

  18. nanoSTAIR: a new strategic proposal to impulse standardization in nanotechnology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Ipiña, J. M.; Salvi, O.; Hazebrouck, B.; Jovanovic, A.; Carre, F.; Saamanen, A.; Brouwer, D.; Schmitt, M.; Martin, S.

    2015-05-01

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21st century within Europe and a Key-Enabling Technology (KET) by Horizon 2020. Standardization has been identified in H2020 as one of the innovation-support measures by bridging the gap between research and the market, and helping the fast and easy transfer of research results to the European and international market. The development of new and improved standards requires high quality technical information, creating a fundamental interdependency between the standardization and research communities. In the frame of project nanoSTAIR (GA 319092), the present paper describes the European scenario on research and standardization in nanotechnology and presents a proposal of a European strategy (nanoSTAIR) to impulse direct “pipelines” between research and standardization. In addition, strategic actions focused on integration of standardization in the R&D projects, from the early stages of the design of a future business (Project Proposal), are also described.

  19. nanoSTAIR: a new strategic proposal to impulse standardization in nanotechnology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ipiña, J M López; Salvi, O; Hazebrouck, B; Jovanovic, A; Carre, F; Saamanen, A; Brouwer, D; Schmitt, M; Martin, S

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21 st century within Europe and a Key-Enabling Technology (KET) by Horizon 2020. Standardization has been identified in H2020 as one of the innovation-support measures by bridging the gap between research and the market, and helping the fast and easy transfer of research results to the European and international market. The development of new and improved standards requires high quality technical information, creating a fundamental interdependency between the standardization and research communities. In the frame of project nanoSTAIR (GA 319092), the present paper describes the European scenario on research and standardization in nanotechnology and presents a proposal of a European strategy (nanoSTAIR) to impulse direct “pipelines” between research and standardization. In addition, strategic actions focused on integration of standardization in the R and D projects, from the early stages of the design of a future business (Project Proposal), are also described. (paper)

  20. Nanotechnology Research Directions for Societal Needs in 2020 Retrospective and Outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Roco, Mihail C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2011-01-01

    This volume presents a comprehensive perspective on the global scientific, technological, and societal impact of nanotechnology since 2000, and explores the opportunities and research directions in the next decade to 2020.  The vision for the future of nanotechnology presented here draws on scientific insights from U.S. experts in the field, examinations of lessons learned, and international perspectives shared by participants from 35 countries in a series of high-level workshops organized by Mike Roco of the National Science Foundation (NSF), along with a team of American co-hosts that includes Chad Mirkin, Mark Hersam, Evelyn Hu, and several other eminent U.S. scientists.  The study performed in support of the U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) aims to redefine the R&D goals for nanoscale science and engineering integration and to establish nanotechnology as a general-purpose technology in the next decade. It intends to provide decision makers in academia, industry, and government with a n...

  1. Potential of nanotechnology as a delivery platform against tuberculosis: current research review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, S; Kusum Devi, V

    2015-03-28

    This review focusses on the current ongoing research in the field of tuberculosis comprising the resistant strains. It specifies a proper data analysis with results in concise form from areas gripping in: diagnostic nanotechnology, vaccine nanotechnology and the prime field of interest i.e., therapeutic nanotechnology. Primarily, therapeutic area recollects the research findings from advanced drug delivery (primary era) to the targeted drug delivery (modern era). The vaccine-based area derives the immune-specific targeting with enhanced emphasis on vaccine extraction and preparation of nanoparticles. Finally, the diagnostic area signifies the imaging techniques that may be employed in the diagnosis of TB. Not only that, there are some researches that emphasized on finding the comparable diagnostic differences between normal and resistant strains. With the advent of carbon nanotubes, metallic NPs, a newer hope has emerged out in diagnostic research, which may extend to therapeutic research applications too. Modifications of natural polymers, least or no use of organic solvents, size controlled NPs, optimized methodology, etc., are fields that need more effort to bypass toxicity. If above desired possibilities get the priority during research, it may lead to shift in the timeline towards much more oriented research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nanotechnology Approaches to Studying Epigenetic Changes in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehn, Robert

    2011-03-01

    Placing polyelectrolytes into confined geometries has a profound effect on their molecular configuration. For instance, placing long DNA molecules into channels with a cross-section of about 100 nm 2 stretches them out to about 70% of their contour length. We are using this effect to map epigenetic changes on single DNA and chromatin strands. This mapping on single molecules becomes central in the study of the heterogeneity of cell population in cancer, since rapid change of epigenetic makeup, propagated through rare cancer stem cells, is a hallmark of its progression. We demonstrate the basic building blocks for the single-molecule epigenetic analysis of genomic sized DNA. In particular, we have achieved the mapping of methylated regions in DNA with heterogeneous 5-methyl cytosine modification using a specific fluorescent marker. We further show that chromatin with an intact histone structure can be stretched similar to DNA, and that the epigenetic state of histone tails can be detected using fluorescent antibodies.

  3. Advanced Lung Cancer Screening: An Individualized Molecular Nanotechnology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    proportion of smokers , former 146 smokers and never smokers was not different between cases and controls. 147 Detection of DNA Methylation 148 We...highest risk smokers for an expensive screening modality such as CT scanning. Hypothesis: DNA methylation testing is more specific in selecting those...with non -cancerous nodules, and have completed the writing of a manuscript containing these results. The abstract of that manuscript is as follows

  4. Nanotechnology-Enabled Optical Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    quantitatively and dynamically detect molecular markers of breast cancer in vivo without tissue removal or directly after removal in a surgical...hour oshells by c es, the nano ting to a fin ER2- positiv (CHTN) th tinction spect ter of 276 nm sert depicts co microscopy. n was visua rption...conclusively determine the penetration depth of the nanoshells. Additionally, a quantitative difference of the nanoshell signal at the surface of the Her2

  5. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnological selection Nanotechnological selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-01

    across the channel. The aim of achieving selectivity encompasses a huge range of fields in nanotechnology research, from sensing and medicine to nanoelectronics and self-assembly. As our understanding of how nanosystems behave deepens, so too does the hunger to improve our capabilities, allowing greater precision and control in manipulating these systems. Selectivity is far from trivial when shrinking to systems of nanoscale dimensions, but the range of opportunities it brings just keeps on growing. References [1] Gong X, Li J, Guo C, Xu K and Hui Y 2012 Molecular switch for tuning ions across nanopores by an external electric field Nanotechnology 24 025502 [2] Brannon-Peppas L and Blanchette J O 2004 Nanoparticle and targeted systems for cancer therapy Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev 56 1649-59 [3] Lukianova-Hleb E Y, Hanna E Y, Hafner J H and Lapotko D O 2010 Tunable plasmonic nanobubbles for cell theranostics Nanotechnology 21 085102 [4] Zhang T, Mubeen S, Myung N V and Deshusses M A 2008 Recent progress in carbon nanotube-based gas sensors Nanotechnology 19 332001 [5] Mangu R, Rajaputra S and Singh V P 2011 MWCNT-polymer composites as highly sensitive and selective room temperature gas sensors Nanotechnology 22 215502 [6]Meller A, Nivon L, Brandin E, Golovchenko J and Branton D 2000 Rapid nanopore discrimination between single polynucleotide molecules Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 97 1079-84 [7] Asghar W, Ilyas A, Deshmukh R R, Sumitsawan S, Timmons R B and Iqbal S M 2011 Pulsed plasma polymerization for controlling shrinkage and surface composition of nanopores Nanotechnology 22 285304

  6. Selected proceedings of the FP7 International Summer School Nanotechnology: From Fundamental Research to Innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsenko, Leonid; Brodin, Mikhaylo; Nanomaterials imaging techniques, surface studies, and applications

    2013-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge research on a wide range of nanotechnology techniques and applications.  It features contributions from scientists who participated in the International Summer School “Nanotechnology: From Fundamental Research to Innovations” in Bukovel, Ukraine on August 26 – September 2, 2012 funded by the European Commission FP7 project Nanotwinning implemented by the Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and partner institutions: University of Tartu (Estonia), European Profiles A.E. (Greece), University of Turin (Italy) and Université Pierre et Marie Curie (France).  Worldwide experts present the latest results on such key topics as microscopy of nanostructures; nanocomposites; nanostructured interfaces and surfaces; nanooptics; nanoplasmonics; and enhanced vibrational spectroscopy.  Imaging technique coverage ranges from atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy, multiphoton imagery, and laser diagnostics of nanomaterials and nanostructures, to resonance ...

  7. Microsystems and nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhaoying [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Precision Instruments and Mechanology; Lin, Liwei [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Wang, Zhonglin (eds.) [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Center for Nanostructure Characterization and Fabrication (CNCF)

    2012-07-01

    This book presents the latest science and engineering research and achievements in the fields of microsystems and nanotechnology, bringing together contributions by authoritative experts from the United States, Germany, Great Britain, Japan and China to discuss the latest advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology and micro/nanotechnology. The book is divided into five parts - the fundamentals of microsystems and nanotechnology, microsystems technology, nanotechnology, application issues, and the developments and prospects.

  8. Some applications of nanotechnologies in stem cells research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belicchi, M.; Cancedda, R.; Cedola, A.; Fiori, F.; Gavina, M.; Giuliani, A.; Komlev, V. S.; Lagomarsino, S.; Mastrogiacomo, M.; Renghini, C.; Rustichelli, F.; Syková, Eva; Torrente, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 165, č. 3 (2009), s. 139-147 ISSN 0921-5107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : imaging techniques * stem cells * nanoparticles Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.715, year: 2009

  9. Bio-Nanotechnology Infrastructure and Technology Oriented Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-17

    expressed in healthy versus diseased tissues, these findings will guide therapy and research dealing with those diseases. It can also be exploited...Khizroev, “A method to design high SNR nanoscale magnetic sensors using an array of tunneling magneto -resistive (TMR) devices,” Journal of Physics D

  10. Strategy for Nanotechnology-Related Environmenta, Health, and Safety Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    should begin right away. Also needed in the near term are evaluations of nanomaterials with respect to solubility in lipids and aqueous environments, in...size, shape, charge, surface area, and solubility . The skin projects evaluate skin penetration and biological response to nanoparticles that enter the...society/EHSprojects.html#B5-32 B5-33 Sepulveda Research Corporation Curcumin and Curcumin Derivatives for Alzheimer’s 1U01AG028583-01 A portion of

  11. PhytoNanotechnology: Enhancing Delivery of Plant Based Anti-cancer Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabassum Khan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources continue to be an invaluable source of new, novel chemical entities of therapeutic utility due to the vast structural diversity observed in them. The quest for new and better drugs has witnessed an upsurge in exploring and harnessing nature especially for discovery of antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and anticancer agents. Nature has historically provide us with potent anticancer agents which include vinca alkaloids [vincristine (VCR, vinblastine, vindesine, vinorelbine], taxanes [paclitaxel (PTX, docetaxel], podophyllotoxin and its derivatives [etoposide (ETP, teniposide], camptothecin (CPT and its derivatives (topotecan, irinotecan, anthracyclines (doxorubicin, daunorubicin, epirubicin, idarubicin, and others. In fact, half of all the anti-cancer drugs approved internationally are either natural products or their derivatives and were developed on the basis of knowledge gained from small molecules or macromolecules that exist in nature. Three new anti-cancer drugs introduced in 2007, viz. trabectedin, epothilone derivative ixabepilone, and temsirolimus were obtained from microbial sources. Selective drug targeting is the need of the current therapeutic regimens for increased activity on cancer cells and reduced toxicity to normal cells. Nanotechnology driven modified drugs and drug delivery systems are being developed and introduced in the market for better cancer treatment and management with good results. The use of nanoparticulate drug carriers can resolve many challenges in drug delivery to the cancer cells that includes: improving drug solubility and stability, extending drug half-lives in the blood, reducing adverse effects in non-target organs, and concentrating drugs at the disease site. This review discusses the scientific ventures and explorations involving application of nanotechnology to some selected plant derived molecules. It presents a comprehensive review of formulation strategies of phytoconstituents in

  12. Research on Vibration Isolation Systems Used in Laser and Nanotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justinas Kuncė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the efficiency of a vibration isolation system made of the optical table and two negative-stiffness tables and considers excitation referring to harmonic and nonharmonic methods in the frequency range of 0,2–110 Hz. The article reviews the types and sources of vibrations and types of vibration isolation systems, including those of negative-stiffness. The paper also presents the methodology of experimental tests and proposes research on vibration transmissibility. A composite system consisting of two vibration isolation table having negative stiffness and an air table has been tested. The results and conclusions of experimental analysis are suggested at the end of the article.Article in Lithuanian

  13. Nanotechnology meets 3D in vitro models: tissue engineered tumors and cancer therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, E L; Porto, L M; Rambo, C R

    2014-01-01

    Advances in nanotechnology are providing to medicine a new dimension. Multifunctional nanomaterials with diagnostics and treatment modalities integrated in one nanoparticle or in cooperative nanosystems are promoting new insights to cancer treatment and diagnosis. The recent convergence between tissue engineering and cancer is gradually moving towards the development of 3D disease models that more closely resemble in vivo characteristics of tumors. However, the current nanomaterials based therapies are accomplished mainly in 2D cell cultures or in complex in vivo models. The development of new platforms to evaluate nano-based therapies in parallel with possible toxic effects will allow the design of nanomaterials for biomedical applications prior to in vivo studies. Therefore, this review focuses on how 3D in vitro models can be applied to study tumor biology, nanotoxicology and to evaluate nanomaterial based therapies. © 2013.

  14. Nanotechnology Laboratory Collaborates with Army to Develop Botulism Vaccine | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) is collaborating with the Army to develop a candidate vaccine against botulism. Under a collaboration agreement between the National Cancer Institute and the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of

  15. Status and future directions in the management of pancreatic cancer: potential impact of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielaff, Catherine M; Mousa, Shaker A

    2018-07-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is typically diagnosed at a late stage, has limited treatments, and patients have poor survival rates. It currently ranks as the seventh leading cause of cancer deaths globally and has increasing rates of diagnosis. Improved PDAC treatment requires the development of innovative, effective, and economical therapeutic drugs. The late stage diagnosis limits options for surgical resection, and traditional PDAC chemotherapeutics correlate with increased organ and hematologic toxicity. In addition, PDAC tumor tissue is dense and highly resistant to many traditional chemotherapeutic applications, making the disease difficult to treat and impeding options for palliative care. New developments in nanotechnology may offer innovative options for targeted PDAC therapeutic drug delivery. Nanotechnology can be implemented using multimodality methods that offer increased opportunities for earlier diagnosis, precision enhanced imaging, targeted long-term tumor surveillance, and controlled drug delivery, as well as improved palliative care and patient comfort. Nanoscale delivery methods have demonstrated the capacity to infiltrate the dense, fibrous tumor tissue associated with PDAC, increasing delivery and effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents and reducing toxicity through the loading of multiple drug therapies on a single nano delivery vehicle. This review presents an overview of nanoscale drug delivery systems and multimodality carriers at the forefront of new PDAC treatments.

  16. South African research agenda to investigate the potential environmental, health and safety risks of nanotechnology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The South African perspective on nanotechnology, recently articulated through its national strategy, envisages nanotechnology to provide solutions to some of the country’s key development challenges, such as the provision of safe water...

  17. Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies–converging societal response research?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Tobi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development. With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence of social science methods help to anticipate

  18. 75 FR 24972 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Nanotechnology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Production Act of 1993--Nanotechnology Enterprise Consortium Notice is hereby given that, on April 1, 2010... identities of the parties to the venture are: Nanotechnology Enterprise, Inc. Columbia, MO; The Boeing..., and government and private funders to collaborate on applying nanotechnology to create innovation...

  19. Use of nanotechnology for improved pharmacokinetics and activity of immunogenic cell death inducers used in cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicka, Martyna; Gubernator, Jerzy

    2017-09-01

    Immunogenic cell death inducers (ICD inducers) are a diverse group of therapeutic molecules capable of eliciting an adaptive immune response against the antigens present on the surface of dying cancer cells. Most of these molecules suffer from low bioavailability, high toxicity and poor pharmacokinetics which limit their application. It is believed that nanotechnology, in particular nano-sized nanocarriers, can address most of the issues that limit the use of ICD inducers. Area covered: The mechanism of action of ICD inducers and their limitations is discussed. In addition, we cover the novel possibilities arising from the use of nanotechnology to improve delivery of ICD inducers to the target tissue as well as the restrictions of modern nanotechnology. Expert opinion: At present, nanocarrier formulations suffer from low bioavailability, poor pharmacokinetics and stability issues. Nonetheless, there is a tremendous future for combinatorial immune-pharmacological treatments of human tumors based on nanocarrier delivery of ICD inducers.

  20. Current cancer research 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatiadis-Smidt, H. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    Topics from the Contents: The Fight against Cancer in Germany - A Critical Review. Conditions and Structures in Research. Familial Breast Cancer - A Critical Assessment. Research without Animal Experiments. Cancer Prevention. New Approaches for Tumor Therapy. Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. Therapy of Brain Tumors with Laser Neurosurgery. The Genome Project. (orig.)

  1. Current cancer research 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatiadis-Smidt, H.

    1998-01-01

    Topics from the Contents: The Fight against Cancer in Germany - A Critical Review. Conditions and Structures in Research. Familial Breast Cancer - A Critical Assessment. Research without Animal Experiments. Cancer Prevention. New Approaches for Tumor Therapy. Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. Therapy of Brain Tumors with Laser Neurosurgery. The Genome Project. (orig.)

  2. 3rd International Summer School Nanotechnology : From Fundamental Research to Innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsenko, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    This book highlights the most recent advances in nanoscience from leading researchers in Ukraine, Europe, and beyond.  It features contributions from participants of the 3rd International Summer School “Nanotechnology: From Fundamental Research to Innovations,” held in Yaremche, Ukraine on August 23-26, 2014 and of the 2nd International NANO-2014 Conference, held in Lviv, Ukraine on August 27-30, 2014.  These events took place within the framework of the European Commission FP7 project Nanotwinning, and were organized jointly by the Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, University of Tartu (Estonia), University of Turin (Italy), and Pierre and Marie Curie University (France).  Internationally recognized experts from a wide range of universities and research institutions share their knowledge and key results in the areas of nanocomposites and nanomaterials, nanostructured surfaces, microscopy of nano-objects, nano-optics and nanophotonics, nanoplasmonics, nanochemistry, na...

  3. Public Attitudes Toward Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims Bainbridge, William

    2002-01-01

    Data from 3909 respondents to an Internet survey questionnaire provide the first insights into public perceptions of nanotechnology. Quantitative analysis of statistics about agreement and disagreement with two statements, one positive and the other negative, reveals high levels of enthusiasm for the potential benefits of nanotechnology and little concern about possible dangers. The respondents mentally connect nanotechnology with the space program, nuclear power, and cloning research, but rate it more favorably. In contrast, they do not associate nanotechnology with pseudoscience, despite its imaginative exploitation by science fiction writers. Qualitative analysis of written comments from 598 respondents indicates that many ideas about the value of nanotechnology have entered popular culture, and it provides material for an additional 108 questionnaire items that can be used in future surveys on the topic. The findings of this exploratory study can serve as benchmarks against which to compare results of future research on the evolving status of nanotechnology in society

  4. Peralta Cancer Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The investigators in the cell biology program at PCRI have pioneered in the development of techniques for culturing human epithelial cells. The cancer diagnosis program has been concerned with researching new techniques for early diagnosis of breast cancer in women. The cancer treatment program has been concerned with applying cell biology and biochemistry advances to improve cancer management

  5. NANOTECHNOLOGY, NANOMEDICINE; ETHICAL ASPECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçay, Banu; Arda, Berna

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a field that we often hear of its name nowadays. Altough what we know about it is soo poor, we admire this field of technlogy, moreover some societies even argues that nanotechnology will cause second endustrial revolution. In addition, nanotechnology makes our basic scientific knowledge upside down and is soo powerfull that it is potent in nearly every scientific field. Thereby, it is imposible to say that nanotechnology; which is soo effective on human and human life; will not cause social and ethical outcomes. In general, the definition of nanotechnology is the reconfiguration of nanomaterials by human; there also are different definitions according to the history of nanotechnology and different point of views. First of all, in comparison to the other tehnology fields, what is the cause of excellence of nanotechnology, what human can do is to foresee the advantages and disadvantages of it, what are the roles of developed and developping countries for the progression of nanotechnology, what is the attitude of nanoethics and what is view of global politics to nanotechological research according to international regulations are all the focus of interests of this study. Last but not least, our apprehension capacity of nanotechnology, our style of adoption and evaluation of it and the way that how we locate nanotechnology in our lifes and ethical values are the other focus of interests.

  6. Nanotechnology at KT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Hassager, Ole; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide the reader an overview of the research activities at the Department of Chemical Engineering in the area of "nanotechnology"......The objective of this report is to provide the reader an overview of the research activities at the Department of Chemical Engineering in the area of "nanotechnology"...

  7. EDITORIAL: Multitasking in nanotechnology Multitasking in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Nanostructures are smart. Like phones, where making calls is now just one of a long list of handy functions, researchers are increasingly developing nanostructures that seem a 'Jack of all trades' and a master of several. In this issue researchers at the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Northeastern University describe a nanoscale sensing device that not only detects oxygen, water vapour and H2S—at levels of H2S as low as 100 ppm—but powers itself at the same time [1]. With energy high on the agenda in research and commerce the work is likely to prove a valuable contribution in nanoscale technology research, where systems are famed not just for exhibiting rare and highly functional properties, but lots of them. In nanomedicine multifunctionality is particularly topical [2]. Twenty years ago it may have seemed hard to improve on the development of iron oxide nanoparticles capable of targeting proteins so that diseased tissues could be located in the living body through magnetic resonance imaging signals [3]. More recently researchers have demonstrated nanoparticles that not only target and trace the disease, but treat it too. Therapeutic and diagnostic functions are now combined in nanoparticles so often that researchers in the field have adopted a new term—theranostics. At Cornell University in the US, researchers reported the synthesis of gold and iron oxide hybrid nanoparticles that bind to an antigen present in colorectal cancer [4]. The nanoparticles could be traced using magnetic resonance or two-photon photoluminescence imaging, and they could also treat cancerous cells hyperthermally as a result of their high photothermal absorption. At the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid in Spain, researchers have investigated the effect of functionalizing nanoparticles on their biocompatibility and internalization [5]. Their results emphasize how charge is an important factor, with cationic magnetic nanoparticles proving best suited to cell tracking by magnetic

  8. Cancer research and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1978-01-01

    An actual condition of cancer, and the basis and a future view of radiotherapy were described by adding generally established biological and biochemical knowledge to the author's research. It was described that the relapse of cancer after irradiation was induced from outside of cancerous mass, and the nature of relapsed cancerous cells group was also stated. The histological structure of cancer from a view of cell movement and radioresistant cancerous cells group were described. The differentiation of cancerous cells were described, and a study of inhibition of cancer by redifferentiation was considered. It is important to grasp characteristics and a limit of radiotherapy for cancer, to systematize and materialize reasonable therapy which uses drug and immunotherapy together with surgery, and to use radiotherapy reasonably together with redifferentiation therapy of cancerous cells by extracting characteristics and a limit of radiationtherapy from an actual condition of cancer. (Serizawa, K.)

  9. New Advances in Nanotechnology-Based Diagnosis and Therapeutics for Breast Cancer: An Assessment of Active-Targeting Inorganic Nanoplatforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falagan-Lotsch, Priscila; Grzincic, Elissa M; Murphy, Catherine J

    2017-01-18

    Breast cancer is a major cause of suffering and mortality among women. Limitations in the current diagnostic methods and treatment approaches have led to new strategies to positively impact the survival rates and quality of life of breast cancer patients. Nanotechnology offers a real possibility of mitigating breast cancer mortality by early-stage cancer detection and more precise diagnosis as well as more effective treatments with minimal side effects. The current nanoplatforms approved for breast cancer therapeutics are based on passive tumor targeting using organic nanoparticles and have not provided the expected significant improvements in the clinic. In this review, we present the emerging approaches in breast cancer nanomedicine based on active targeting using versatile inorganic nanoplatforms with biomedical relevance, such as gold, silica, and iron oxide nanoparticles, as well as their efficacy in breast cancer imaging, drug and gene delivery, thermal therapy, combinational therapy, and theranostics in preclinical studies. The main challenges for clinical translation and perspectives are discussed.

  10. Nanotechnology applications for glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduom, Edjah K; Bouras, Alexandros; Kaluzova, Milota; Hadjipanayis, Costas G

    2012-07-01

    Glioblastoma remains one of the most difficult cancers to treat and represents the most common primary malignancy of the brain. Although conventional treatments have found modest success in reducing the initial tumor burden, infiltrating cancer cells beyond the main mass are responsible for tumor recurrence and ultimate patient demise. Targeting residual infiltrating cancer cells requires the development of new treatment strategies. The emerging field of cancer nanotechnology holds promise in the use of multifunctional nanoparticles for imaging and targeted therapy of glioblastoma. This article examines the current state of nanotechnology in the treatment of glioblastoma and directions of further study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Nanotechnology R(evolution)

    OpenAIRE

    Tahan, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology as a social concept and investment focal point has drawn much attention. Here we consider the place of nanotechnology in the second great technological revolution of mankind that began some 200 years ago. The so-called nanotechnology revolution represents both a continuation of prior science and technology trends and a re-awakening to the benefits of significant investment in fundamental research. We consider the role the military might play in the development of nanotechnology...

  12. EDITORIAL: Terahertz nanotechnology Terahertz nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Reno, John L.

    2013-05-01

    A useful synergy is being established between terahertz research and nanotechnology. High power sources [1-3] and detectors [4] in what was once considered the terahertz 'frequency gap' [5] in the electromagnetic spectrum have stimulated research with huge potential benefits in a range of industries including food, medicine and security, as well as fundamental physics and astrophysics. This special section, with guest editors Masayoshi Tonouchi and John Reno, gives a glimpse of the new horizons nanotechnology is broaching in terahertz research. While the wavelengths relevant to the terahertz domain range from hundreds of micrometres to millimetres, structures at the nanoscale reveal interesting low energy dynamics in this region. As a result terahertz spectroscopy techniques are becoming increasingly important in nanomaterial characterization, as demonstrated in this special section by colleagues at the University of Oxford in the UK and the Australian National University. They use terahertz spectroscopy to identify the best nanostructure parameters for specific applications [6]. The low energy dynamics in nanostructures also makes them valuable tools for terahertz detection [7]. In addition the much sought after terahertz detection over broadband frequency ranges has been demonstrated, providing versatility that has been greatly in demand, particularly in spectroscopy applications [8, 9]. Also in this special section, researchers in Germany and China tackle some of the coupling issues in terahertz time domain spectroscopy with an emitter specifically well suited for systems operated with an amplified fibre [3]. 'In medical imaging, the advantage of THz radiation is safety, because its energy is much lower than the ionization energy of biological molecules, in contrast to hazardous x-ray radiation,' explains Joo-Hiuk Son from the University of Seoul in Korea in his review [10]. As he also points out, the rotational and vibrational energies of water molecules are

  13. Exploitation of Nanotechnology for the Monitoring of Waterborne Pathogens: State-of-the-Art and Future Research Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridle, Helen; Balharry, Dominique; Gaiser, Birgit; Johnston, Helinor

    2015-09-15

    Contaminated drinking water is one of the most important environmental contributors to the human disease burden. Monitoring of water for the presence of pathogens is an essential part of ensuring drinking water safety. In order to assess water quality it is essential to have methods available to sample and detect the type, level and viability of pathogens in water which are effective, cheap, quick, sensitive, and where possible high throughput. Nanotechnology has the potential to drastically improve the monitoring of waterborne pathogens when compared to conventional approaches. To date, there have been no reviews that outline the applications of nanotechnology in this area despite increasing exploitation of nanotechnology for this purpose. This review is therefore the first overview of the state-of-the-art in the application of nanotechnology to waterborne pathogen sampling and detection schemes. Research in this field has been centered on the use of engineered nanomaterials. The effectiveness and limitations of nanomaterial-based approaches is outlined. A future outlook of the advances that are likely to emerge in this area, as well as recommendations for areas of further research are provided.

  14. Microfluidics & nanotechnology: Towards fully integrated analytical devices for the detection of cancer biomarkers

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, Gerardo; Candeloro, Patrizio; Gentile, Francesco T.; Nicastri, Annalisa; Perri, Angela Mena; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Adamo, A.; Pardeo, Francesca; Catalano, Rossella; Parrotta, Elvira; Espinosa, Horacio Dante; Cuda, Giovanni; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an innovative modular microfluidic platform allowing filtering, concentration and analysis of peptides from a complex mixture. The platform is composed of a microfluidic filtering device and a superhydrophobic surface integrating surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors. The microfluidic device was used to filter specific peptides (MW 1553.73 D) derived from the BRCA1 protein, a tumor-suppressor molecule which plays a pivotal role in the development of breast cancers, from albumin (66.5 KD), the most represented protein in human plasma. The filtering process consisted of driving the complex mixture through a porous membrane having a cut-off of 12-14 kD by hydrodynamic flow. The filtered samples coming out of the microfluidic device were subsequently deposited on a superhydrophobic surface formed by micro pillars on top of which nanograins were fabricated. The nanograins coupled to a Raman spectroscopy instrument acted as a SERS sensor and allowed analysis of the filtered sample on top of the surface once it evaporated. By using the presented platform, we demonstrate being able to sort small peptides from bigger proteins and to detect them by using a label-free technique at a resolution down to 0.1 ng μL-1. The combination of microfluidics and nanotechnology to develop the presented microfluidic platform may give rise to a new generation of biosensors capable of detecting low concentration samples from complex mixtures without the need for any sample pretreatment or labelling. The developed devices could have future applications in the field of early diagnosis of severe illnesses, e.g. early cancer detection. This journal is

  15. Nanotechnology for social needs: contributions from Latin American research in the areas of health, energy and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invernizzi, Noela; Foladori, Guillermo; Robles-Belmont, Eduardo; Záyago Lau, Edgar; Figueroa, Edgar Arteaga; Bagattolli, Carolina; Carrozza, Tomás Javier; Chiancone, Adriana; Urquijo, William

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews, based on data from scientific publications and research groups, the state of the art of nanotechnology research applied to the areas of medicine, energy and water in Latin America. Such areas have been considered as particularly relevant in order to meet the social needs of the developing countries. It is shown that the countries in the region have incorporated these areas to their nanotechnology agendas and several countries have increasing research capacities. However, such capacities are concentrated in Brazil and Mexico, while the regional cooperation networks are still weak. Although the research topics tend to align with relevant social issues, there are still a number of challenges so as the results of such investigations may be effectively reflected in quality of life improvements; one of them is that many publications and research topics are on basic science, which makes it difficult to evaluate their potential application field

  16. Nanotechnology for social needs: contributions from Latin American research in the areas of health, energy and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Invernizzi, Noela, E-mail: noela@ufpr.br; Foladori, Guillermo; Robles-Belmont, Eduardo; Záyago Lau, Edgar; Figueroa, Edgar Arteaga; Bagattolli, Carolina; Carrozza, Tomás Javier; Chiancone, Adriana; Urquijo, William [Universidade Federal do Paraná, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Políticas Públicas (Brazil)

    2015-05-15

    This paper reviews, based on data from scientific publications and research groups, the state of the art of nanotechnology research applied to the areas of medicine, energy and water in Latin America. Such areas have been considered as particularly relevant in order to meet the social needs of the developing countries. It is shown that the countries in the region have incorporated these areas to their nanotechnology agendas and several countries have increasing research capacities. However, such capacities are concentrated in Brazil and Mexico, while the regional cooperation networks are still weak. Although the research topics tend to align with relevant social issues, there are still a number of challenges so as the results of such investigations may be effectively reflected in quality of life improvements; one of them is that many publications and research topics are on basic science, which makes it difficult to evaluate their potential application field.

  17. Longitudinal study on patent citations to academic research articles in nanotechnology (1976-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Daning; Chen Hsinchun; Huang Zan; Roco, Mihail C.

    2007-01-01

    Academic nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) research provides a foundation for nanotechnology innovation reflected in patents. About 60% or about 50,000 of the NSE-related patents identified by 'full-text' keyword searching between 1976 and 2004 at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) have an average of approximately 18 academic citations. The most cited academic journals, individual researchers, and research articles have been evaluated as sources of technology innovation in the NSE area over the 28-year period. Each of the most influential articles was cited about 90 times on the average, while the most influential author was cited more than 700 times by the NSE-related patents. Thirteen mainstream journals accounted for about 20% of all citations. Science, Nature and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) have consistently been the top three most cited journals, with each article being cited three times on average. There is another kind of influential journals, represented by Biosystems and Origin of Life, which have very few articles cited but with exceptionally high frequencies. The number of academic citations per year from ten most cited journals has increased by over 17 times in the interval (1990-1999) as compared to (1976-1989), and again over 3 times in the interval (2000-2004) as compared to (1990-1999). This is an indication of increased used of academic knowledge creation in the NSE-related patents

  18. Frontiers in transport phenomena research and education: Energy systems, biological systems, security, information technology and nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, T.L.; Faghri, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States); Viskanta, R. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2088 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    A US National Science Foundation-sponsored workshop entitled ''Frontiers in Transport Phenomena Research and Education: Energy Systems, Biological Systems, Security, Information Technology, and Nanotechnology'' was held in May of 2007 at the University of Connecticut. The workshop provided a venue for researchers, educators and policy-makers to identify frontier challenges and associated opportunities in heat and mass transfer. Approximately 300 invited participants from academia, business and government from the US and abroad attended. Based upon the final recommendations on the topical matter of the workshop, several trends become apparent. A strong interest in sustainable energy is evident. A continued need to understand the coupling between broad length (and time) scales persists, but the emerging need to better understand transport phenomena at the macro/mega scale has evolved. The need to develop new metrology techniques to collect and archive reliable property data persists. Societal sustainability received major attention in two of the reports. Matters involving innovation, entrepreneurship, and globalization of the engineering profession have emerged, and the responsibility to improve the technical literacy of the public-at-large is discussed. Integration of research thrusts and education activities is highlighted throughout. Specific recommendations, made by the panelists with input from the international heat transfer community and directed to the National Science Foundation, are included in several reports. (author)

  19. Longitudinal study on patent citations to academic research articles in nanotechnology (1976-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Daning, E-mail: hud@email.arziona.edu; Chen Hsinchun [University of Arizona, Artificial Intelligence Lab, Department of Management Information Systems, Eller College of Management (United States); Huang Zan [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Supply Chain and Information Systems, Smeal College of Business (United States); Roco, Mihail C. [National Science Foundation (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Academic nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) research provides a foundation for nanotechnology innovation reflected in patents. About 60% or about 50,000 of the NSE-related patents identified by 'full-text' keyword searching between 1976 and 2004 at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) have an average of approximately 18 academic citations. The most cited academic journals, individual researchers, and research articles have been evaluated as sources of technology innovation in the NSE area over the 28-year period. Each of the most influential articles was cited about 90 times on the average, while the most influential author was cited more than 700 times by the NSE-related patents. Thirteen mainstream journals accounted for about 20% of all citations. Science, Nature and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) have consistently been the top three most cited journals, with each article being cited three times on average. There is another kind of influential journals, represented by Biosystems and Origin of Life, which have very few articles cited but with exceptionally high frequencies. The number of academic citations per year from ten most cited journals has increased by over 17 times in the interval (1990-1999) as compared to (1976-1989), and again over 3 times in the interval (2000-2004) as compared to (1990-1999). This is an indication of increased used of academic knowledge creation in the NSE-related patents.

  20. Nanotechnology Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malroy, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is rapidly affecting all engineering disciplines as new products and applications are being found and brought to market. This session will present an overview of nanotechnology and let you learn about the advances in the field and how it could impact you. Some of the areas touched upon will be nanomaterials with their multifunctional capabilities, nanotechnology impact on energy systems, nanobiotechnology including nanomedicine, and nanotechnology relevant to space systems with a focus on ECLSS. Also, some important advances related to thermal systems will be presented as well as future predictions on nanotechnology.

  1. Nanotechnology for Treating Cancer: Pitfalls and Bridges on the Path to Nanomedicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite their promise, only a few nano-formulated drugs are used in humans. The NCI Nanotechnology Characterization Lab helps companies and academic investigators maximize their chance of successful clinical use.

  2. Nanotechnology in corneal neovascularization therapy--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Lilian; Loza, Raymond J; Han, Kyu-Yeon; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Cunningham, Christy; Purta, Patryk; Drake, James; Jain, Sandeep; Hong, Seungpyo; Chang, Jin-Hong

    2013-03-01

    Nanotechnology is an up-and-coming branch of science that studies and designs materials with at least one dimension sized from 1-100 nm. These nanomaterials have unique functions at the cellular, atomic, and molecular levels. The term "nanotechnology" was first coined in 1974. Since then, it has evolved dramatically and now consists of distinct and independent scientific fields. Nanotechnology is a highly studied topic of interest, as nanoparticles can be applied to various fields ranging from medicine and pharmacology, to chemistry and agriculture, to environmental science and consumer goods. The rapidly evolving field of nanomedicine incorporates nanotechnology with medical applications, seeking to give rise to new diagnostic means, treatments, and tools. Over the past two decades, numerous studies that underscore the successful fusion of nanotechnology with novel medical applications have emerged. This has given rise to promising new therapies for a variety of diseases, especially cancer. It is becoming abundantly clear that nanotechnology has found a place in the medical field by providing new and more efficient ways to deliver treatment. Ophthalmology can also stand to benefit significantly from the advances in nanotechnology research. As it relates to the eye, research in the nanomedicine field has been particularly focused on developing various treatments to prevent and/or reduce corneal neovascularization among other ophthalmologic disorders. This review article aims to provide an overview of corneal neovascularization, currently available treatments, and where nanotechnology comes into play.

  3. Nanotechnology for missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Paul B.

    2004-07-01

    Nanotechnology development is progressing very rapidly. Several billions of dollars have been invested in nanoscience research since 2000. Pioneering nanotechnology research efforts have been primarily conducted at research institutions and centers. This paper identifies developments in nanoscience and technology that could provide significant advances in missile systems applications. Nanotechnology offers opportunities in the areas of advanced materials for coatings, including thin-film optical coatings, light-weight, strong armor and missile structural components, embedded computing, and "smart" structures; nano-particles for explosives, warheads, turbine engine systems, and propellants to enhance missile propulsion; nano-sensors for autonomous chemical detection; and nano-tube arrays for fuel storage and power generation. The Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) is actively collaborating with academia, industry, and other Government agencies to accelerate the development and transition of nanotechnology to favorably impact Army Transformation. Currently, we are identifying near-term applications and quantifying requirements for nanotechnology use in Army missile systems, as well as monitoring and screening research and developmental efforts in the industrial community for military applications. Combining MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and nanotechnology is the next step toward providing technical solutions for the Army"s transformation. Several research and development projects that are currently underway at AMRDEC in this technology area are discussed. A top-level roadmap of MEMS/nanotechnology development projects for aviation and missile applications is presented at the end.

  4. Review of the federal strategy for nanotechnology-related environmental, health, and safety research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee for Review of the Federal Strategy to Address Environmental, Health, and Safety Research Needs for Engineered Nanoscale Materials

    ...s, which are increasingly being used in consumer goods and industry. An effective national plan for identifying and managing potential risks is essential to the successful development and public acceptance of nanotechnology-enabled products...

  5. Nanotechnology in the marketplace: how the nanotechnology industry views risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Despite uncertainty about the potential human health and environmental risks of nanotechnology, major stakeholders such as regulatory agencies and the nanotechnology industry are already negotiating the emerging regulatory framework for nanotechnology. Because of a relative lack of nano-specific regulations, the future of nanotechnology development will depend greatly on the views held by the nanotechnology industry. This study fills the research gap in understanding how the nanotechnology industry perceives the risks of nanotechnology. This is the first interview-based study of the nanotechnology industry in the United States. Semi-structured, open-ended phone interviews were conducted with 17 individuals involved in the commercialization of nanotechnology in the United States. Results indicate that while the industry acknowledges uncertainty about the potential risks of nanotechnology and takes significant precaution in ensuring the safety of their products, they do not see nanotechnology as novel or risky. They do not believe that uncertainty over risk ought to delay the further development of nanotechnology. The industry sees itself as the primary agent in ensuring consumer safety and believes that consumers are adequately protected. They are also largely benefit-centric and view product labeling as inefficacious.

  6. Nanotechnology in the marketplace: how the nanotechnology industry views risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Sean, E-mail: seanlouisbecker@gmail.com [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Despite uncertainty about the potential human health and environmental risks of nanotechnology, major stakeholders such as regulatory agencies and the nanotechnology industry are already negotiating the emerging regulatory framework for nanotechnology. Because of a relative lack of nano-specific regulations, the future of nanotechnology development will depend greatly on the views held by the nanotechnology industry. This study fills the research gap in understanding how the nanotechnology industry perceives the risks of nanotechnology. This is the first interview-based study of the nanotechnology industry in the United States. Semi-structured, open-ended phone interviews were conducted with 17 individuals involved in the commercialization of nanotechnology in the United States. Results indicate that while the industry acknowledges uncertainty about the potential risks of nanotechnology and takes significant precaution in ensuring the safety of their products, they do not see nanotechnology as novel or risky. They do not believe that uncertainty over risk ought to delay the further development of nanotechnology. The industry sees itself as the primary agent in ensuring consumer safety and believes that consumers are adequately protected. They are also largely benefit-centric and view product labeling as inefficacious.

  7. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in vivo Nanotechnology in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-04-01

    Since the development of x-rays the ability to image inside our bodies has provided medicine with a potent diagnostic tool, as well as fascinating us with the eerie evidence of our mechanistic mortality. In December 2008 Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y Tsien received a Nobel Prize for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein. The award recognised a new discovery that further facilitated our abilities to follow cellular activities and delve deeper into the workings of living organisms. Since the first observation of green fluorescent protein in jelly fish over thirty years ago, quantum dots have emerged as a potential alternative tool for imaging [1]. The advantages of quantum dots over organic dyes and fluorescent proteins include intense luminescence, high molar extinction coefficient, resistance to photobleaching, and broad excitation with narrow emission bands. However, one drawback for biological applications has been the layer of hydrophobic organic ligands often present at the surface as a result of the synthesis procedures. One solution to improve the solubility of quantum dots has been to conjugate them with a hydrophilic substance, as reported by Nie et al [2]. Chitosan is a hydrophilic, non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable substance and has been conjugated with quantum dots such as CdSe-ZnS [2] for bioassays and intracellular labelling. As well as luminescence, different nanoparticles present a variety of exceptional properties that render them useful in a range of bio applications, including MRI, drug delivery and cancer hyperthermia therapy. The ability to harness these various attributes in one system was reported by researchers in China, who incorporated magnetic nanoparticles, fluorescent quantum dots and pharmaceutical drugs into chitosan nanoparticles for multifunctional smart drug delivery systems [3]. More recently silicon quantum dots have emerged as a less cytotoxic alternative to CdSe for bio

  8. Nanotechnology applications in thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferberth, Sophie C; Grinstaff, Mark W; Colson, Yolonda L

    2016-07-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging, rapidly evolving field with the potential to significantly impact care across the full spectrum of cancer therapy. Of note, several recent nanotechnological advances show particular promise to improve outcomes for thoracic surgical patients. A variety of nanotechnologies are described that offer possible solutions to existing challenges encountered in the detection, diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Nanotechnology-based imaging platforms have the ability to improve the surgical care of patients with thoracic malignancies through technological advances in intraoperative tumour localization, lymph node mapping and accuracy of tumour resection. Moreover, nanotechnology is poised to revolutionize adjuvant lung cancer therapy. Common chemotherapeutic drugs, such as paclitaxel, docetaxel and doxorubicin, are being formulated using various nanotechnologies to improve drug delivery, whereas nanoparticle (NP)-based imaging technologies can monitor the tumour microenvironment and facilitate molecularly targeted lung cancer therapy. Although early nanotechnology-based delivery systems show promise, the next frontier in lung cancer therapy is the development of 'theranostic' multifunctional NPs capable of integrating diagnosis, drug monitoring, tumour targeting and controlled drug release into various unifying platforms. This article provides an overview of key existing and emerging nanotechnology platforms that may find clinical application in thoracic surgery in the near future. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioprinting for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Stephanie; Onal, Sevgi; Yu, Chu Hsiang; Zhao, Jean J; Tasoglu, Savas

    2015-09-01

    Bioprinting offers the ability to create highly complex 3D architectures with living cells. This cutting-edge technique has significantly gained popularity and applicability in several fields. Bioprinting methods have been developed to effectively and rapidly pattern living cells, biological macromolecules, and biomaterials. These technologies hold great potential for applications in cancer research. Bioprinted cancer models represent a significant improvement over previous 2D models by mimicking 3D complexity and facilitating physiologically relevant cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Here we review bioprinting methods based on inkjet, microextrusion, and laser technologies and compare 3D cancer models with 2D cancer models. We discuss bioprinted models that mimic the tumor microenvironment, providing a platform for deeper understanding of cancer pathology, anticancer drug screening, and cancer treatment development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Restrictions of comparative analysis of investing in scientific research and scientific outcomes of the countries in nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Milanović, Vesna; Bučalina-Matić, Andrea; Golubović, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into restrictions of comparative analysis of investing in scientific research and scientific outcomes of the countries in nanotechnology, having in mind that it is a developing technology which is expected to give significant contribution to science, economy and society in the future. Using the methods of content analysis, comparative methods and relevant literature, certain restrictions of this comparative analysis have been established. They ar...

  11. Potential applications of curcumin and its novel synthetic analogs and nanotechnology-based formulations in cancer prevention and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Surinder K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Curcumin has attracted great attention in the therapeutic arsenal in clinical oncology due to its chemopreventive, antitumoral, radiosensibilizing and chemosensibilizing activities against various types of aggressive and recurrent cancers. These malignancies include leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma, brain cancer, melanoma and skin, lung, prostate, breast, ovarian, liver, gastrointestinal, pancreatic and colorectal epithelial cancers. Curcumin mediates its anti-proliferative, anti-invasive and apoptotic effects on cancer cells, including cancer stem/progenitor cells and their progenies, through multiple molecular mechanisms. The oncogenic pathways inhibited by curcumin encompass the members of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR and erbB2, sonic hedgehog (SHH/GLIs and Wnt/β-catenin and downstream signaling elements such as Akt, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs. In counterbalance, the high metabolic instability and poor systemic bioavailability of curcumin limit its therapeutic efficacy in human. Of great therapeutic interest, the selective delivery of synthetic analogs or nanotechnology-based formulations of curcumin to tumors, alone or in combination with other anticancer drugs, may improve their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic efficacies against cancer progression and relapse. Novel curcumin formulations may also be used to reverse drug resistance, eradicate the total cancer cell mass and improve the anticarcinogenic efficacy of the current anti-hormonal and chemotherapeutic treatments for patients with various aggressive and lethal cancers.

  12. Is there a relationship between research sponsorship and publication impact? An analysis of funding acknowledgments in nanotechnology papers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Wang

    Full Text Available This study analyzes funding acknowledgments in scientific papers to investigate relationships between research sponsorship and publication impacts. We identify acknowledgments to research sponsors for nanotechnology papers published in the Web of Science during a one-year sample period. We examine the citations accrued by these papers and the journal impact factors of their publication titles. The results show that publications from grant sponsored research exhibit higher impacts in terms of both journal ranking and citation counts than research that is not grant sponsored. We discuss the method and models used, and the insights provided by this approach as well as it limitations.

  13. Current situation and industrialization of Taiwan nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, H.-N.; Lee, P.-C.; Tsai, M.-H.; Chien, K.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnology is projected to be a very promising field, and the impact of nanotechnology on society is increasingly significant as the research funding and manufactured goods increase exponentially. A clearer picture of Taiwan's current and future nanotechnology industry is an essential component for future planning. Therefore, this investigation studies the progress of industrializing nanotechnology in Taiwan by surveying 150 companies. Along with understanding Taiwan's current nanotechnology industrialization, this paper also suggests ways to promote Taiwan's nanotechnology. The survey results are summarized and serve as the basis for planning a nanotechnology industrialization strategy

  14. Situation in France: Ethical Reflection on Research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordé, Jacques

    By the end of the 1990s, the possible impacts of nanotechnologies on humans and the environment had already come under the spotlight. Owing to the tremendous promise of the development programmes for these technologies, it seemed important to reflect upon a responsible way of implementing them. Even in 1989, as part of the MIT course on Law, Technology and Public Policy, David Forrest spoke in particular on the subject of regulating nanotechnology development, and in February 1999 a seminar was organised in California to devise guidelines on how to control the new risks associated with these recent technological possibilities [1].

  15. What Students and Researchers in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Should Know about PUS and STS: A Look at Fages and Albe's Viewpoint on Social Issues in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Master's Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, in order to pursue the conversation begun by Fages and Albe ("Cult Stud Sci Educ" 2014), I highlight three conceptual contributions that could be made by familiarizing nanoscience and nanotechnology researchers and engineers with the work being carried out in science and technology studies and public understanding of…

  16. Nanotechnology in Corneal Neovascularization Therapy—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Lilian; Loza, Raymond J.; Han, Kyu-Yeon; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Cunningham, Christy; Purta, Patryk; Drake, James; Jain, Sandeep; Hong, Seungpyo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nanotechnology is an up-and-coming branch of science that studies and designs materials with at least one dimension sized from 1–100 nm. These nanomaterials have unique functions at the cellular, atomic, and molecular levels.1 The term “nanotechnology” was first coined in 1974.2 Since then, it has evolved dramatically and now consists of distinct and independent scientific fields. Nanotechnology is a highly studied topic of interest, as nanoparticles can be applied to various fields ranging from medicine and pharmacology, to chemistry and agriculture, to environmental science and consumer goods.3 The rapidly evolving field of nanomedicine incorporates nanotechnology with medical applications, seeking to give rise to new diagnostic means, treatments, and tools. Over the past two decades, numerous studies that underscore the successful fusion of nanotechnology with novel medical applications have emerged. This has given rise to promising new therapies for a variety of diseases, especially cancer. It is becoming abundantly clear that nanotechnology has found a place in the medical field by providing new and more efficient ways to deliver treatment. Ophthalmology can also stand to benefit significantly from the advances in nanotechnology research. As it relates to the eye, research in the nanomedicine field has been particularly focused on developing various treatments to prevent and/or reduce corneal neovascularization among other ophthalmologic disorders. This review article aims to provide an overview of corneal neovascularization, currently available treatments, and where nanotechnology comes into play. PMID:23425431

  17. Thinking on the Application of Nanotechnology in the Mechanism Research on the Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yunxiang; Zhang Li; Chen Pengdian [Acupuncture and Massage College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510405 (China); Chen Guizhen, E-mail: cgzhen2000@163.com [Second Clinical Medical College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510405 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Nanotechnology is an advanced scientific technique in the 21st century and diabetes mellitus (DM) is a commonly seen chronic disease, which seriously threatens the health of human beings. By analyzing the relationship between nanotechnology and biological medicine, nanotechnology and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the advances and the existing problems of TCM diagnosing and treating DM, the application of nanotechnological methods for the mechanism research on TCM diagnosis and treatment of DM was discussed. It is indicated that nanotechnology is one of the fastest developmental, the most potential and the far-reaching high and new technologies in current world, and it greatly promotes the development of biological medicine and TCM. With the application of nanotechnology of medical diagnostics and medical materials, it will make the development of TCM possess an unprecedented field, which consequently could integrate the macroscopical and microscopical syndrome differentiation. It's pointed out that breakthrough will be achieved from the research of the administration route, the improvement of medical biological availability and the selection of the acupoint prescriptions on mechanism research on TCM for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  18. Thinking on the Application of Nanotechnology in the Mechanism Research on the Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunxiang; Zhang, Li; Chen, Guizhen; Chen, Pengdian

    2011-02-01

    Nanotechnology is an advanced scientific technique in the 21st century and diabetes mellitus (DM) is a commonly seen chronic disease, which seriously threatens the health of human beings. By analyzing the relationship between nanotechnology and biological medicine, nanotechnology and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the advances and the existing problems of TCM diagnosing and treating DM, the application of nanotechnological methods for the mechanism research on TCM diagnosis and treatment of DM was discussed. It is indicated that nanotechnology is one of the fastest developmental, the most potential and the far-reaching high and new technologies in current world, and it greatly promotes the development of biological medicine and TCM. With the application of nanotechnology of medical diagnostics and medical materials, it will make the development of TCM possess an unprecedented field, which consequently could integrate the macroscopical and microscopical syndrome differentiation. It's pointed out that breakthrough will be achieved from the research of the administration route, the improvement of medical biological availability and the selection of the acupoint prescriptions on mechanism research on TCM for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  19. Thinking on the Application of Nanotechnology in the Mechanism Research on the Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yunxiang; Zhang Li; Chen Pengdian; Chen Guizhen

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an advanced scientific technique in the 21st century and diabetes mellitus (DM) is a commonly seen chronic disease, which seriously threatens the health of human beings. By analyzing the relationship between nanotechnology and biological medicine, nanotechnology and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the advances and the existing problems of TCM diagnosing and treating DM, the application of nanotechnological methods for the mechanism research on TCM diagnosis and treatment of DM was discussed. It is indicated that nanotechnology is one of the fastest developmental, the most potential and the far-reaching high and new technologies in current world, and it greatly promotes the development of biological medicine and TCM. With the application of nanotechnology of medical diagnostics and medical materials, it will make the development of TCM possess an unprecedented field, which consequently could integrate the macroscopical and microscopical syndrome differentiation. It's pointed out that breakthrough will be achieved from the research of the administration route, the improvement of medical biological availability and the selection of the acupoint prescriptions on mechanism research on TCM for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  20. Analysis of Co-Authorship Indicators, Betweenness Centrality and Structural Holes of the Iranian Nanotechnology Researchers in Science Citation Index (1991-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassanzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate Iranian papers on nanotechnology area against some scientometrics indicators such as most prolific, most cited and so on. The statistical population were all papers have been published by Iranian researchers on nanotechnology in the Science Citation Index (SCI from 1991 to 7 August 2011 (4605 records that has been done with the aim of identifying, the most prolific, most cited and most effect of Iranian nanotechnology scientists. The results showed that the collaborative index in per-document was 3.39. The highest collaborative index was in 1997 with six authors by per-document. Iranian nanotechnology researchers' degree of collaboration was 0.96 this indicates, greater tendency of nanotechnology authors towards co-authorship. Considering total collaboration coefficient (0.64, nanotechnology authors have shown tendency to production of scientific collaborative document. The highest collaboration coefficient (0.83 And the lowest collaboration coefficient (0.5 have been allocated to the 1997 and 1991 respectively.

  1. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology under the skin Nanotechnology under the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-07-01

    Concerns over health and ecological implications as living organisms are increasingly exposed to nanoparticles are constantly raised. Yet the use of nanoscale structures in technology and medicine has already infiltrated daily life in countless ways. from cosmetics and sun cream to mobile phones. The potential of nanotechnology in medicine is particularly difficult to ignore and ranges from cancer treatment to immune system activation [1]. The reduced dimensions of nanostructures lend them to targeted diagnostic and therapeutic practices that enable treatment with greater accuracy and less discomfort. Striking a balance between over caution and recklessness can be tricky, and provides an additional drive to investigate and learn more about the science of the nanoscale. Alongside investigations to exploit nanoparticles in medicine and technology, there have been a substantial number of studies to investigate the possible effects on our health, as well as some studies on the environmental ramifications. Researchers in the US have investigated the effects on aquatic life of ZnO nanoparticles, which may pollute lakes and rivers through accidental release during fabrication or as wash out from consumer materials [2]. The study is focused on zebrafish during early development. Zhu et al observe that while there may be evidence that Zn2+ ions and ZnO nanoparticles have toxic effects on zebrafish embryos, these effects are apparently mitigated by a type of sediment formulated from the nanoparticles. The positive contribution of nanotechnology in cancer treatment is an area of particularly high research activity at present. Although traditional chemotherapeutic agents can be effective against the growth of cancerous cells, they can have a detrimental effect on the immune system, which is critical in combating cancer. Researchers in China studied the behaviour of C60(OH)20 nanoparticles in vivo and found that they play important roles in the anti-tumour process by activating

  2. 75 FR 75707 - Request for Public Comment on the Draft National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategy for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... Nanotechnology Initiative Strategy for Nanotechnology-Related Environmental, Health, and Safety Research AGENCY..., Engineering, and Technology Subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council request comments from the public regarding the draft National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Strategy for Nanotechnology...

  3. 76 FR 2428 - Request for Public Comment on the Draft National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategy for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Nanotechnology Initiative Strategy for Nanotechnology-Related Environmental, Health, and Safety Research AGENCY..., Engineering, and Technology Subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council request comments from the public regarding the draft National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) Strategy for Nanotechnology...

  4. Proceedings of the second national seminar on new materials research and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph John, N.

    2013-01-01

    The contents of the presentations cover new materials, advanced materials, biomaterials, carbon nanomaterials, computational material science, diamond and diamond related materials, electronic materials, ferroelectric materials, fiber optics, fluorescent materials, functional materials, inorganic materials, lasers materials processing, laser and plasma technology, luminescence materials, magnetic and superconducting materials, materials for defence applications, mesoporous materials, materials for solar energy and energy storing devices, NLO materials, organic materials/electronics, photonic materials, piezoelectric materials, semiconductor materials, smart materials, nanomaterials and composites, nanoelectronics and spintronics, environment and nanotechnology, nano environmental devices, nano fluids, nanobiotechnology, nanomedicine, nanomagnetism, nanopharmacy, sensors, nano sensors/actuatoes, nanotechnology for hill area development, simulation and modeling of nanodevices, crystals, crystal growth, crystal growth methods, characterization techniques, crystal defects, liquid crystals, optoelectronic crystals, polymers, polymer composites, nano polymers, spectroscopy, thin films, deposition, characterization, applications and ultrasonics. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately. (author)

  5. Nanotechnology in automotive industry: research strategy and trends for the future-small objects, big impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Margarida C; Torrão, Guilhermina; Emami, Nazanin; Grácio, José

    2012-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to emphasize and present briefly the nanotechnology science and its potential impact on the automotive industry in order to improve the production of recent models with an optimization of the safety performance and a reduction in the environmental impacts. Nanomaterials can be applied in car bodies as light weight constructions without compromising the stiffness and crashwortiness, which means less material and less fuel consumption. This paper outlines the progress of nanotechnology applications into the safety features of more recent vehicle models and fuel efficiency, but also emphasis the importance of sustainable development on the application of these technologies and life cycle analysis of the considered materials, in order to meet the society trends and customers demands to improve ecology, safety and comfort.

  6. Cancer Research UK | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. Cancer Research UK. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative funds innovative fiscal policy research supporting tobacco control in low and middle-income countries. View more. The Economics ...

  7. Nanotechnology in health care

    CERN Document Server

    Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine: Emerging Field of Nanotechnology to Human HealthNanomedicines: Impacts in Ocular Delivery and TargetingImmuno-Nanosystems to CNS Pathologies: State of the Art PEGylated Zinc Protoporphyrin: A Micelle-Forming Polymeric Drug for Cancer TherapyORMOSIL Nanoparticles: Nanomedicine Approach for Drug/Gene Delivery to the BrainMagnetic Nanoparticles: A Versatile System for Therapeutic and Imaging SystemNanobiotechnology: A New Generation of Biomedicine Application of Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery and Targeting to LungsAptamers and Nanomedicine in C

  8. Nanotechnology Applications for Glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduom, Edjah; Bouras, Alexandros; Kaluzova, Milota; Hadjipanayis, Costas G.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Glioblastoma remains one of the most difficult cancers to treat and represents the most common primary malignancy of the brain. While conventional treatments have found modest success in reducing the initial tumor burden, infiltrating cancer cells beyond the main mass are responsible for tumor recurrence and ultimate patient demise. Targeting the residual infiltrating cancer cells requires the development of new treatment strategies. The emerging field of cancer nanotechnology holds much promise in the use of multifunctional nanoparticles for the imaging and targeted therapy of GBM.. Nanoparticles have emerged as potential “theranostic” agents that can permit the diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of GBM tumors. A recent human clinical trial with magnetic nanoparticles has provided feasibility and efficacy data for potential treatment of GBM patients with thermotherapy. Here we examine the current state of nanotechnology in the treatment of glioblastoma and interesting directions of further study. PMID:22748656

  9. Lipid Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsje Koenderink

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and diagnosis of pathologies at early stages. In these applications, nano-devices typically interface with the plasma membrane of cells. On the other hand, naturally occurring nanostructures in biology have been a source of inspiration for new nanotechnological designs and hybrid nanostructures made of biological and non-biological, organic and inorganic building blocks. Lipids, with their amphiphilicity, diversity of head and tail chemistry, and antifouling properties that block nonspecific binding to lipid-coated surfaces, provide a powerful toolbox for nanotechnology. This review discusses the progress in the emerging field of lipid nanotechnology.

  10. Nanotechnology Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter discusses various nanotechnologies for water sustainability. Detailed information on catalysis as an advanced oxidation process, nanofiltration, adsorption, water disinfection, and groundwater remediation is provided for water treatment. These nanomaterials effe...

  11. Determining the efficacy of a nanotechnology media product in enhancing children’s engagement with nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldron, Anna M.; Batt, Carl A.; Lui, Clarissa S.

    2011-01-01

    Public engagement in nanotechnology media products can lead to a greater interest in understanding of nanotechnology. A study was undertaken to determine middle school student engagement in Nanooze, a magazine featuring nanotechnology research that has been developed for a young adult audience. Teachers at 116 Detroit middle schools distributed two issues of the magazine to their students, and surveys were collected from 870 students after reading the magazines. Results suggest that the majority of students liked reading the magazine and learned something about nanotechnology. Engagement in nanotechnology led to understanding of nanotechnology. The Nanooze magazine was an effective medium for engaging middle school students in learning about nanotechnology.

  12. Fairness and nanotechnology concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A; Besley, John C

    2011-11-01

    Research suggests that fairness perceptions matter to people who are asked to evaluate the acceptability of risks or risk management. Two separate national random surveys (n = 305 and n = 529) addressed Americans' concerns about and acceptance of nanotechnology risk management in the context of the degree to which they view scientists and risk managers as fair. The first survey investigated general views about scientists across four proposed dimensions of fairness (distributional, procedural, interpersonal, and informational). The results show that respondents who believe that the outcomes of scientific research tend to result in unequal benefits (distributional fairness) and that the procedures meant to protect the public from scientific research are biased (procedural fairness) were more concerned about nanotechnology. Believing scientists would treat them with respect (interpersonal fairness) and ensure access to information (informational fairness) were not significant predictors of concern. The second study also looked at these four dimensions of fairness but focused on perceptions of risk managers working for government, universities, and major companies. In addition to concern, it also examined acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Study 2 results were similar to those of study 1 for concern; however, only perceived informational fairness consistently predicted acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Overall, the study points to the value of considering fairness perceptions in the study of public perceptions of nanotechnology. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Nanotechnology in the Security

    CERN Document Server

    Kruchinin, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    The topics discussed at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop "Nanotechnology in the Security Systems" included nanophysics,   nanotechnology,  nanomaterials, sensors, biosensors security systems, explosive  detection . There have been many significant advances in the past two years and some entirely new directions of research are just opening up. Recent advances in nanoscience have demonstrated that fundamentally new physical phenomena  are found when systems are reduced in size with  dimensions, comparable to the fundamental microscopic  length scales of the investigated material. Recent developments in nanotechnology and measurement techniques now allow experimental investigation of transport properties of nanodevices. This work will be of interest to researchers working in spintronics, molecular electronics and quantum information processing.

  14. Developing nanotechnology in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, Luciano; Shapira, Philip

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the development of nanotechnology in Latin America with a particular focus on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Based on data for nanotechnology research publications and patents and suggesting a framework for analyzing the development of R and D networks, we identify three potential strategies of nanotechnology research collaboration. Then, we seek to identify the balance of emphasis upon each of the three strategies by mapping the current research profile of those four countries. In general, we find that they are implementing policies and programs to develop nanotechnologies but differ in their collaboration strategies, institutional involvement, and level of development. On the other hand, we find that they coincide in having a modest industry participation in research and a low level of commercialization of nanotechnologies.

  15. Workshop on Cancer Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermorken, A.; Durieux, L.

    1991-01-01

    On April, 22-24 April 1991, the Hungarian National Institute of Oncology and the Commission of the European Communities have organized a workshop on Cancer Research. The aim of the meeting was to provide the participants information on the ongoing research in Hungary and in Member States. The topic is of importance for Hungary and it was also considered that the meeting could contribute to identify subjects of possible collaboration between Hungarian and Member State laboratories in the case financial support would become available. Three papers about new therapies under development were presented proton therapy and Boron neutron capture therapy

  16. Hearts and minds and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumey, Chris

    2009-03-01

    New research by social scientists is presenting a clearer picture of the factors that influence the public perception of nanotechnology and, as Chris Toumey reports, the results present challenges for those working to increase public acceptance of nanoscience and technology.See focus on public perceptions of nanotechnology.

  17. How nanotechnology works in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Arshpreet Kaur; Ms. Amandeep Kaur; Ms. Nitika Shahi

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology. Current problems for nanomedicine involve understanding the issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials. Nanomedicine seeks to deliver a valuable set of research tools and clinically useful devices in the near future. The National Nanotechnol...

  18. Nanotechnologies in Latvia: Commercialisation Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geipele I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the possibilities to apply the nanotechnology products of manufacturing industries in Latvia for further commercialisation. The purpose of the research is to find out the preliminary criteria for the system of engineering economic indicators for multifunctional nanocoating technologies. The article provides new findings and calculations for the local nanotechnology market research characterising the development of nanotechnology industry. The authors outline a scope of issues as to low activities rankings in Latvia on application of locally produced nanotechnologies towards efficiency of the resource use for nanocoating technologies. For the first time in Latvia, the authors make the case study research and summarise the latest performance indicators of the Latvian companies operating in the nanotechnology industry.

  19. Nanotechnology: Fundamental Principles and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Koodali T.; Klabunde, Kenneth J.

    Nanotechnology research is based primarily on molecular manufacturing. Although several definitions have been widely used in the past to describe the field of nanotechnology, it is worthwhile to point out that the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), a federal research and development scheme approved by the congress in 2001 defines nanotechnology only if the following three aspects are involved: (1) research and technology development at the atomic, molecular, or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1-100 nanometer range, (2) creating and using structures, devices, and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size, and (3) ability to control or manipulate on the atomic scale. Nanotechnology in essence is the technology based on the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules to build complex structures that have atomic specifications.

  20. Refining search terms for nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Alan L.; Youtie, Jan; Shapira, Philip; Schoeneck, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to delineate the boundaries of an emerging technology is central to obtaining an understanding of the technology's research paths and commercialization prospects. Nowhere is this more relevant than in the case of nanotechnology (hereafter identified as 'nano') given its current rapid growth and multidisciplinary nature. (Under the rubric of nanotechnology, we also include nanoscience and nanoengineering.) Past efforts have utilized several strategies, including simple term search for the prefix nano, complex lexical and citation-based approaches, and bootstrapping techniques. This research introduces a modularized Boolean approach to defining nanotechnology which has been applied to several research and patenting databases. We explain our approach to downloading and cleaning data, and report initial results. Comparisons of this approach with other nanotechnology search formulations are presented. Implications for search strategy development and profiling of the nanotechnology field are discussed

  1. Refining search terms for nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Alan L. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Youtie, Jan [Georgia Institute of Technology, Enterprise Innovation Institute (United States)], E-mail: jan.youtie@innovate.gatech.edu; Shapira, Philip [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Schoeneck, David J. [Search Technology, Inc. (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The ability to delineate the boundaries of an emerging technology is central to obtaining an understanding of the technology's research paths and commercialization prospects. Nowhere is this more relevant than in the case of nanotechnology (hereafter identified as 'nano') given its current rapid growth and multidisciplinary nature. (Under the rubric of nanotechnology, we also include nanoscience and nanoengineering.) Past efforts have utilized several strategies, including simple term search for the prefix nano, complex lexical and citation-based approaches, and bootstrapping techniques. This research introduces a modularized Boolean approach to defining nanotechnology which has been applied to several research and patenting databases. We explain our approach to downloading and cleaning data, and report initial results. Comparisons of this approach with other nanotechnology search formulations are presented. Implications for search strategy development and profiling of the nanotechnology field are discussed.

  2. A Nanotechnology-based Strategy to Increase the Efficiency of Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy: Folate-conjugated Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beik, Jaber; Khademi, Sara; Attaran, Neda; Sarkar, Saeed; Shakeri-Zadeh, Ali; Ghaznavi, Habib; Ghadiri, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), owing to their elegant physicochemical properties, have recently been introduced as promising theranostic nanoparticles. Folic acid is a necessary vitamin for cell proliferation. Accordingly, the surface functionalization of AuNP with folic acid may offer a great potential for the development of a strategy to increase the efficiency of cancer diagnosis and therapy based on the new nanotechnology. In this study, we have reviewed the recent progress made in the design and the biomedical application of various folate-conjugated gold nanoparticles (FAuNPs). We performed a structured search in bibliographic databases and made a comprehensive list of relevant papers. The main subjects considered in this review included (1) methods for the preparation of F-AuNPs, (2) applications of F-AuNPs in computed tomography (CT), and (3) the use of F-AuNPs in targeted cancer therapy. As many as 96 papers were selected for the review. Accordingly, we explained the noncovalent and the covalent methods of fabricating the various types of F-AuNPs. Particular applications of F-AuNP in cancer diagnosis using the CT scan modality were described. In addition, the applications of F-AuNPs in targeted radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia were elucidated in depth. In the hyperthermia section, we presented certain extra explanations on F-AuNP-based laser, radiofrequency, and ultrasoundbased hyperthermia methods. This review identifies the important roles of F-AuNPs in current cancer studies that are being undertaken worldwide. The findings of this review confirm that F-AuNP is a new theranostic agent, which has a great potential for simultaneous cancer therapy and diagnosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. [New sector of employment--a review of data on nanoproduction, research and development in the field of nanotechnology in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popławska, Magdalena; Mikołajczyk, Urszula; Bujak-Pietrek, Stella

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is currently one of the fastest developing areas of science, focusing on the design, manufacture and use of nanomaterials. The term "nanomaterial" means any product made of nanometer-size (1-100 nm) structures. Due to the small size and unique properties of the applied nanomaterials there is a growing interest in their aplication in various fields of industry and science. In Poland, there are very few companies that carry on nanotechnology activities. Research institutes, universities and research units of the Polish Academy of Sciences predominate in these activities. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. Determining the Scope of Collection Development and Research Assistance for Cross-Disciplinary Areas: A Case Study of Two Contrasting Areas, Nanotechnology and Transportation Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jeanine M.; Han, Lee D.; Colon-Aguirre, Monica

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the extent of cross-disciplinarity in nanotechnology and transportation engineering research. Researchers in these two fields were determined from the web sites of the U.S. News and World Report top 100 schools in civil engineering and materials science. Web of Science searches for 2006 and 2007 articles were obtained and the…

  5. Fostering Cooperation in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursday, June 25, 2015 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between US National Cancer Institute and three agencies of the Indian government - the Department of Biotechnology, the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Indian National Cancer Institute, a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences to foster cooperation in cancer research.

  6. Lipid Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashaghi, Samaneh; Jadidi, Tayebeh; Koenderink, Gijsje; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and

  7. Nanotechnology in Dermatology*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, João Roberto; Antônio, Carlos Roberto; Cardeal, Izabela Lídia Soares; Ballavenuto, Julia Maria Avelino; Oliveira, João Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The scientific community and general public have been exposed to a series of achievements attributed to a new area of knowledge: Nanotechnology. Both abroad and in Brazil, funding agencies have launched programs aimed at encouraging this type of research. Indeed, for many who come into contact with this subject it will be clear the key role that chemical knowledge will play in the evolution of this subject. And even more, will see that it is a science in which the basic structure is formed by distilling different areas of inter-and multidisciplinary knowledge along the lines of new paradigms. In this article, we attempt to clarify the foundations of nanotechnology, and demonstrate their contribution to new advances in dermatology as well as medicine in general. Nanotechnology is clearly the future. PMID:24626657

  8. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  9. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  10. Nanotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Salaheldeen Elnashaie, Said; Hashemipour Rafsanjani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic principles of transforming nano-technology into nano-engineering with a particular focus on chemical engineering fundamentals. This book provides vital information about differences between descriptive technology and quantitative engineering for students as well as working professionals in various fields of nanotechnology. Besides chemical engineering principles, the fundamentals of nanotechnology are also covered along with detailed explanation of several specific nanoscale processes from chemical engineering point of view. This information is presented in form of practical examples and case studies that help the engineers and researchers to integrate the processes which can meet the commercial production. It is worth mentioning here that, the main challenge in nanostructure and nanodevices production is nowadays related to the economic point of view. The uniqueness of this book is a balance between important insights into the synthetic methods of nano-structures and nanomaterial...

  11. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. (topical review)

  12. Why I Do Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Cancer Research Day is recognized on September 24, 2017. This day presents an opportunity for all of us to remind the world of the critically important roles research and cancer researchers play in reducing the global burden of cancer. Together with ten other global partners, NCI participated in the planning and launch of this initiative, highlighting the amplified impact of international cooperation in the clinical research arena.

  13. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-05-29

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  14. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazaro Garcia, A.; Yu, Q.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Khatib, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been gaining popularity among the industrial sector and researchers in the last decades. The number of products containing nanomaterials that enter the market has also increased rapidly, and this trend is going to be even more pronounced in the coming years. The total value of

  15. Nanotechnology - An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, D.

    2007-01-01

    The science of nanotechnology is still in its infancy. However, progress is being made in research and development of potential beneficial properties of nanomaterials that could play an integral part in the development of new and changing uses for mineral commodities. Nanotechnology is a kind of toolbox that allows industry to make nanomaterials and nanostructures with special properties. New nanotechnology applications of mineral commodities in their nanoscale form are being discovered, researched and developed. At the same time, there is continued research into environmental, human health and safety concerns that inherently arise from the development of a new technology. Except for a few nanomaterials (CNTs, copper, silver and zinc oxide), widespread applications are hampered by processing and suitable commercial-scale production techniques, high manufacturing costs, product price, and environmental, and human health and safety concerns. Whether nanotechnology causes a tidal wave of change or is a long-term evolutionary process of technology, new applications of familiar mineral commodities will be created. As research and development continues, the ability to manipulate matter at the nanoscale into increasingly sophisticated nanomaterials will improve and open up new possibilities for industry that will change the flow and use of mineral commodities and the materials and products that are used.

  16. The National Nanotechnology Initiative. Strategic Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... Realizing these possibilities requires continued research and accelerated innovation. The United States has been and is now the recognized leader in nanotechnology research and development (R&D...

  17. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  18. INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH «DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN MARKET OF NANOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS IN CONSTRUCTION UNTIL 2020». PART 2. ANALYSIS OF THE WORLD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSEV Boris Vladimirovich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Some results of the industrial research «Development of Russian market of nanotechnological products in construction until 2020» have been published. Authors invite all interested specialists and specialized organization to take part in the broad public discussion.

  19. Research in Danish cancer rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane

    2008-01-01

    rate at baseline was 86% (n = 1876). Most participants were younger women with breast cancer. They were generally well educated and working. The cancer survivors reported having comprehensive social networks and being physically active. Several cancer-related symptoms were reported by women...... site, sex, age, family, working status and social position. These challenges might be addressed optimally in multi-dimensional rehabilitation programmes....... of the cancer survivors with respect to cancer site, sociodemographic variables, social network, lifestyle, self-rated health and the prevalence of cancer-related late effects. The study is part of the FOCARE research project, in which the long-term effects of the rehabilitation programme are evaluated...

  20. DNA nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Nadrian C.; Sleiman, Hanadi F.

    2018-01-01

    DNA is the molecule that stores and transmits genetic information in biological systems. The field of DNA nanotechnology takes this molecule out of its biological context and uses its information to assemble structural motifs and then to connect them together. This field has had a remarkable impact on nanoscience and nanotechnology, and has been revolutionary in our ability to control molecular self-assembly. In this Review, we summarize the approaches used to assemble DNA nanostructures and examine their emerging applications in areas such as biophysics, diagnostics, nanoparticle and protein assembly, biomolecule structure determination, drug delivery and synthetic biology. The introduction of orthogonal interactions into DNA nanostructures is discussed, and finally, a perspective on the future directions of this field is presented.

  1. Nanotechnology in dentistry: prevention, diagnosis, and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou Neel EA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ensanya Ali Abou Neel,1–3 Laurent Bozec,3 Roman A Perez,4,5 Hae-Won Kim,4–6 Jonathan C Knowles3,5 1Division of Biomaterials, Operative Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Biomaterials Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt; 3UCL Eastman Dental Institute, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, London, UK; 4Institute of Tissue Regenerative Engineering (ITREN, 5Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 Plus NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, 6Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea Abstract: Nanotechnology has rapidly expanded into all areas of science; it offers significant alternative ways to solve scientific and medical questions and problems. In dentistry, nanotechnology has been exploited in the development of restorative materials with some significant success. This review discusses nanointerfaces that could compromise the longevity of dental restorations, and how nanotechnolgy has been employed to modify them for providing long-term successful restorations. It also focuses on some challenging areas in dentistry, eg, oral biofilm and cancers, and how nanotechnology overcomes these challenges. The recent advances in nanodentistry and innovations in oral health-related diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic methods required to maintain and obtain perfect oral health, have been discussed. The recent advances in nanotechnology could hold promise in bringing a paradigm shift in dental field. Although there are numerous complex therapies being developed to treat many diseases, their clinical use requires careful consideration of the expense of synthesis and implementation. Keywords: nanotechnology, nanointerfaces, biofilm-related oral diseases, tissue engineering, drug delivery, toxicity

  2. Nanotechnology in electrocatalysis for energy

    CERN Document Server

    Lavacchi, Alessandro; Vizza, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Accessible to researchers in a wide range of disciplines, this book examines the energy applications of using nanotechnology in electrocatalysis. It covers their use in numerous contexts including low-temperature fuel cells and electrochemical valorization.

  3. Identification and visualization of the intellectual structure and the main research lines in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the worldwide level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz-Écija, Teresa; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín; Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to make manifest the intellectual and cognitive structure of nanoscience and nanotechnology (NST) by means of visualization techniques. To this end, we used data from the Web of Science (WoS), delimiting the data to the category NST during the period of 2000–2013, retrieving a total of 198,275 documents. Through direct author citation of these works, we identified their origins and the seminal papers, and through word co-occurrence extracted from the titles and abstracts, the main lines of research were identified. In view of both structures, we may affirm that NST is a young scientific discipline in constant expansion, needing time to establish its foundations but showing a strongly interdisciplinary character; its development is furthermore dependent upon knowledge from other disciplines, such as physics, chemistry, or material sciences. We believe that this information may be very useful for the NST scientific community, as it reflects a large-scale analysis of the research lines of NST and how research has changed over time in the diverse areas of NST. This study is moreover intended to offer a useful tool for the NST scientific community, revealing at a glance the main research lines and landmark papers. Finally, the methodology used in this study can be replicated in any other field of science to explore its intellectual and cognitive structure.

  4. Identification and visualization of the intellectual structure and the main research lines in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the worldwide level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz-Écija, Teresa, E-mail: teresamunyozecija@gmail.com; Vargas-Quesada, Benjamín, E-mail: benjamin@ugr.es [University of Granada, Department of Information and Communication, Faculty of Communication and Documentation, SCImago Research Group (Spain); Chinchilla-Rodríguez, Zaida, E-mail: zaida.chinchilla@csic.es [CSIC, Institute of Public Goods and Policies (IPP), SCImago Research Group (Spain)

    2017-02-15

    The aim of this paper is to make manifest the intellectual and cognitive structure of nanoscience and nanotechnology (NST) by means of visualization techniques. To this end, we used data from the Web of Science (WoS), delimiting the data to the category NST during the period of 2000–2013, retrieving a total of 198,275 documents. Through direct author citation of these works, we identified their origins and the seminal papers, and through word co-occurrence extracted from the titles and abstracts, the main lines of research were identified. In view of both structures, we may affirm that NST is a young scientific discipline in constant expansion, needing time to establish its foundations but showing a strongly interdisciplinary character; its development is furthermore dependent upon knowledge from other disciplines, such as physics, chemistry, or material sciences. We believe that this information may be very useful for the NST scientific community, as it reflects a large-scale analysis of the research lines of NST and how research has changed over time in the diverse areas of NST. This study is moreover intended to offer a useful tool for the NST scientific community, revealing at a glance the main research lines and landmark papers. Finally, the methodology used in this study can be replicated in any other field of science to explore its intellectual and cognitive structure.

  5. Implementation of proteomics for cancer research: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Parisa; Shahrokni, Armin; Ranjbar, Mohammad R Nezami

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of the death, accounts for about 13% of all annual deaths worldwide. Many different fields of science are collaborating together studying cancer to improve our knowledge of this lethal disease, and find better solutions for diagnosis and treatment. Proteomics is one of the most recent and rapidly growing areas in molecular biology that helps understanding cancer from an omics data analysis point of view. The human proteome project was officially initiated in 2008. Proteomics enables the scientists to interrogate a variety of biospecimens for their protein contents and measure the concentrations of these proteins. Current necessary equipment and technologies for cancer proteomics are mass spectrometry, protein microarrays, nanotechnology and bioinformatics. In this paper, we provide a brief review on proteomics and its application in cancer research. After a brief introduction including its definition, we summarize the history of major previous work conducted by researchers, followed by an overview on the role of proteomics in cancer studies. We also provide a list of different utilities in cancer proteomics and investigate their advantages and shortcomings from theoretical and practical angles. Finally, we explore some of the main challenges and conclude the paper with future directions in this field.

  6. Advanced Environment Friendly Nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figovsky, O.; Beilin, D.; Blank, N.

    The economic, security, military and environmental implications of molecular manufacturing are extreme. Unfortunately, conflicting definitions of nanotechnology and blurry distinctions between significantly different fields have complicated the effort to understand those differences and to develop sensible, effective policy for each. The risks of today's nanoscale technologies cannot be treated the same as the risks of longer-term molecular manufacturing. It is a mistake to put them together in one basket for policy consideration — each is important to address, but they offer different problems and will require far different solutions. As used today, the term nanotechnology usually refers to a broad collection of mostly disconnected fields. Essentially, anything sufficiently small and interesting can be called nanotechnology. Much of it is harmless. For the rest, much of the harm is of familiar and limited quality. Molecular manufacturing, by contrast, will bring unfamiliar risks and new classes of problems. The advanced environment friendly nanotechnologies elaborated by Israel Company Polymate Ltd. — International Research Center are illustrated.

  7. How interdisciplinary is nanotechnology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Alan L.; Youtie, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Facilitating cross-disciplinary research has attracted much attention in recent years, with special concerns in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Although policy discourse has emphasized that nanotechnology is substantively integrative, some analysts have countered that it is really a loose amalgam of relatively traditional pockets of physics, chemistry, and other disciplines that interrelate only weakly. We are developing empirical measures to gauge and visualize the extent and nature of interdisciplinary interchange. Such results speak to research organization, funding, and mechanisms to bolster knowledge transfer. In this study, we address the nature of cross-disciplinary linkages using 'science overlay maps' of articles, and their references, that have been categorized into subject categories. We find signs that the rate of increase in nano research is slowing, and that its composition is changing (for one, increasing chemistry-related activity). Our results suggest that nanotechnology research encompasses multiple disciplines that draw knowledge from disciplinarily diverse knowledge sources. Nano research is highly, and increasingly, integrative-but so is much of science these days. Tabulating and mapping nano research activity show a dominant core in materials sciences, broadly defined. Additional analyses and maps show that nano research draws extensively upon knowledge presented in other areas; it is not constricted within narrow silos.

  8. How interdisciplinary is nanotechnology?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Alan L., E-mail: aporter@isye.gatech.ed [Georgia Institute of Technology, Technology Policy and Assessment Center, School of Public Policy (United States); Youtie, Jan, E-mail: jan.youtie@innovate.gatech.ed [Georgia Institute of Technology Enterprise Innovation Institute (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Facilitating cross-disciplinary research has attracted much attention in recent years, with special concerns in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Although policy discourse has emphasized that nanotechnology is substantively integrative, some analysts have countered that it is really a loose amalgam of relatively traditional pockets of physics, chemistry, and other disciplines that interrelate only weakly. We are developing empirical measures to gauge and visualize the extent and nature of interdisciplinary interchange. Such results speak to research organization, funding, and mechanisms to bolster knowledge transfer. In this study, we address the nature of cross-disciplinary linkages using 'science overlay maps' of articles, and their references, that have been categorized into subject categories. We find signs that the rate of increase in nano research is slowing, and that its composition is changing (for one, increasing chemistry-related activity). Our results suggest that nanotechnology research encompasses multiple disciplines that draw knowledge from disciplinarily diverse knowledge sources. Nano research is highly, and increasingly, integrative-but so is much of science these days. Tabulating and mapping nano research activity show a dominant core in materials sciences, broadly defined. Additional analyses and maps show that nano research draws extensively upon knowledge presented in other areas; it is not constricted within narrow silos.

  9. Fiscal 2000 pioneering research report on the 3D nanotechnology; 2000 nendo 3D nano technology sendo kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A survey was conducted of the 3D nanotechnology which is a technology that aims to create novel functions and to enhance functions in mechanical engineering through the control of large-area 3-dimensional nano-scale structures. In this fiscal year, trends of research and development and technological tasks were surveyed from the viewpoint of nanomanufacturing technology. Basic processing technologies were surveyed, which included the laser-aided or light-aided micromachining technology, chemomechanical processing technology, and nanoparticle beam-aided processing technology. In the research of mass production technologies, the nanostructure transfer technology superior in capability to the conventional photolithography was taken up. Nanomanipulation technologies were also surveyed, such as atomic/molecular-level observation, assessment, processing, fixation, and the like. Technologies involving machine elements and structures were surveyed, when microactuators and micromechanisms were studied, such as nano-scale functional films. Lastly, a proposition was made about research and development tasks for the future and about how to work on such tasks. (NEDO)

  10. Visual framing of nanotechnology in newspapers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    discourse, very little research into to the visual communication of science in public has been carried out. Nanotechnology is an emerging scientific discipline that just recently has entered the public sphere. Surveys show that most Europeans and most Americans have very little knowledge about...... nanotechnology. Even so, there is a marked difference between Europeans who generally are cautious, it not skeptical about nanotechnology, and American who seem to have a much more positive attitude towards nanotechnology. Objective This paper surveys visual images used to communicate nanotechnology (and...... nanotechnology-related issues) in the printed press in Denmark from 1993 to 2006. Based on a representative sample of newspaper articles referring to nanotechnology, the survey categorizes and analyzes the images used. Studies have shown that to a high degree newspaper readers use images to navigate...

  11. Complement-mediated tumour growth: implications for cancer nanotechnology and nanomedicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S. M.; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2009-01-01

    The recent unexpected observation that complement activation helps turnout growth and progression has an important bearing on the future development of cancer nanomedicines for site-specific tumour targeting as these entities are capable of triggering complement. These issues are discussed and su...

  12. Nanotechnologies. Proceedings of Kharkiv Nanotechnology Congress-2008. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Shulaeva, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    The materials of Kharkiv Nanotechnology Congress-2008 held in Kharkiv of 26-30 May, 2008 are presented here. The scientific and practical research aspects as well as development of ion-plasma nanotechnologies, current problems of thin film physics in optics and electronics, as well as the issues of creation of new type of vacuum technological equipment are considered in papers to be published.

  13. National Nanotechnology Initiative. Research and Development Supporting the Next Industrial Revolution. Supplement to the President's 2004 Budget

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... Advances in nanoscience and nanoengineering are already ushering in new applications or nanotechnologies that are leading to improved products across a broad realm of sectors, from textiles to electronics...

  14. Nanoparticles, nanotechnology and pulmonary nanotoxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, AJ; Cemlyn-Jones, J; Robalo-Cordeiro, C

    2012-01-01

    The recently emergent field of Nanotechnology involves the production and use of structures at the nanoscale. Research at atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, has led to new materials, systems and structures on a scale consisting of particles less than 100 nm and showing unique and unusual physical, chemical and biological properties, which has enabled new applications in diverse fields, creating a multimillion-dollar high-tech industry. Nanotechnologies have a wide variety of uses fro...

  15. 76 FR 12361 - Request for Information: Update of NIOSH Nanotechnology Strategic Plan for Research and Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... Control and Prevention (CDC) has pioneered research on the toxicological properties and characteristics of nanoparticles. This research has involved characterizing occupationally relevant nanoparticles for predicting... explosion safety, (8) recommendations and guidance, (9) communication and information, and (10) applications...

  16. Nanotechnology, nanotoxicology, and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Won Hyuk; Suslick, Kenneth S; Stucky, Galen D; Suh, Yoo-Hun

    2009-02-01

    Nanotechnology, which deals with features as small as a 1 billionth of a meter, began to enter into mainstream physical sciences and engineering some 20 years ago. Recent applications of nanoscience include the use of nanoscale materials in electronics, catalysis, and biomedical research. Among these applications, strong interest has been shown to biological processes such as blood coagulation control and multimodal bioimaging, which has brought about a new and exciting research field called nanobiotechnology. Biotechnology, which itself also dates back approximately 30 years, involves the manipulation of macroscopic biological systems such as cells and mice in order to understand why and how molecular level mechanisms affect specific biological functions, e.g., the role of APP (amyloid precursor protein) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This review aims (1) to introduce key concepts and materials from nanotechnology to a non-physical sciences community; (2) to introduce several state-of-the-art examples of current nanotechnology that were either constructed for use in biological systems or that can, in time, be utilized for biomedical research; (3) to provide recent excerpts in nanotoxicology and multifunctional nanoparticle systems (MFNPSs); and (4) to propose areas in neuroscience that may benefit from research at the interface of neurobiologically important systems and nanostructured materials.

  17. Global trends in nanomedicine research on triple negative breast cancer: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Ramon Handerson Gomes; Moralles, Herick Fernando; Cominetti, Márcia Regina

    2018-01-01

    Nanotechnology has emerged as a promising tool in the clinic to combat several difficult-to-manage diseases, such as cancer, which is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Chemotherapeutic drugs present several limitations such as undesired side effects, low specificity, resistance, and high relapse rates. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is caused by cells that lack specific receptors in their membrane, such as estrogen (ER+) and progesterone (PR+) receptors, or by cells that do not express the amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2+). This cancer type has poor prognosis, high relapse rates, and no targeted therapies. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the trends of nanotechnology research in TNBC and compare the contribution of research from different regions, institutions, and authors. A search of the studies published between 2012 and 2017, related to nanotechnology and TNBC, with different keyword combinations, was performed in the Scopus database. The keywords found in this search were grouped into four clusters, in which "breast cancer" was the most mentioned (1,133 times) and the word "MCF-7 cell line" is one of the latest hotspots that appeared in the year 2016. A total of 1,932 articles, which were cited 26,450 times, were identified. The USA accounted for 28.36% of the articles and 27.61% of the citations; however, none of its centers appeared in the list of 10 most productive ones in terms of publications. The journals Biomaterials and International Journal of Nanomedicine had the highest number of publications. The USA and China had the highest number of articles produced and cited; however, the highest average citation per article was from Singapore. The studies focused on the research of antineoplastic agents in animal models and cell culture, and these were the most used topics in research with nanotechnology and TNBC.

  18. The effect of nanotechnology on education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyavejakul, Chantana

    2008-04-01

    The research objective was to study 1) the situation and readiness of the Thai education for the integration of nanotechnology and 2) to propose the plans, the strategies and guidelines for educational reform to adapt nanotechnology to the system. The data collection was done by 4 methods: 1) documentary study, 2) observation, 3) informal interviews, and 4) group discussion. The findings revealed that: 1. William Wresch's Theory (1997) was used in this research to study of the situation and readiness of the Thai education for the integration of nanotechnology. 1) Getting connected to nanotechnology by search engine websites, libraries, magazines, books, and discussions with experts. 2) Curriculum integration: nanotechnology should be integrated in many branches of engineering, such as industrial, computer, civil, chemical, electrical, mechanical, etc. 3) Resources for educators: nanotechnology knowledge should be spread in academic circles by publications and the Internet websites. 4) Training and professional resources for teachers: Teachers should be trained by experts in nanotechnology and researchers from the National Nanotechnology Center. This will help trainees get correct knowledge, comprehension, and awareness in order to apply to their professions and businesses in the future. 2. As for the plans, the strategies, and guidelines for educational reform to adapt nanotechnology to the present system, I analyzed the world nanotechnology situation that might have an effect on Thai society. The study is based on the National Plan to Develop Nanotechnology. The goal of this plan is to develop nanotechnology to be the national strategy within 10 years (2004-2013) and have it integrated into the Thai system. There are 4 parts in this plan: 1) nanomaterials, 2) nanoelectronics, 3) nanobiotechnology, and 4) human resources development. Data for human resource development should be worked with the present technology and use the country's resources to produce many

  19. Research Associate | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Basic Science Program (BSP) pursues independent, multidisciplinary research in basic and applied molecular biology, immunology, retrovirology, cancer biology, and human genetics. Research efforts and support are an integral part of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR). KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES - Research Associate III Dr. Zbigniew Dauter is the head investigator of the Synchrotron Radiation Research Section (SRRS) of CCR’s Macromolecular Crystallography Laboratory. The Synchrotron Radiation Research Section is located at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; this is the site of the largest U.S. synchrotron facility. The SRRS uses X-ray diffraction technique to solve crystal structures of various proteins and nucleic acids of biological and medical relevance. The section is also specializing in analyzing crystal structures at extremely high resolution and accuracy and in developing methods of effective diffraction data collection and in using weak anomalous dispersion effects to solve structures of macromolecules. The areas of expertise are: Structural and molecular biology Macromolecular crystallography Diffraction data collection Dr. Dauter requires research support in these areas, and the individual will engage in the purification and preparation of samples, crystallize proteins using various techniques, and derivatize them with heavy atoms/anomalous scatterers, and establish conditions for cryogenic freezing. Individual will also participate in diffraction data collection at the Advanced Photon Source. In addition, the candidate will perform spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses of protein and nucleic acid samples in the context of their purity, oligomeric state and photophysical properties.

  20. Defense University Research Initiative on Nanotechnology: Microstructure, Processing and Mechanical Performance of Polymeric Nanocomposites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boyce, Mary C; Thomas, Edwin L

    2006-01-01

    This research was directed towards the development of fundamental understanding of the connections amongst the microstructure, processing and macroscopic properties of polymeric based nanocomposites...

  1. Nanotechnology and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi Tanır

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a new revolution in technology; being used in different parts of life such as self-cleaning paints, dirt repellent fabrics, the destruction of cancer cells without harming the person, biosensors that can detect even a single bacterium, odorless socks due to the destruction of bacteria, germ-free refrigerators, disinfection etc. In this article, we consider in the perspective of public health the possible risks of this new technology, which is starting to appear in all areas of our daily lives. 

  2. Nanotechnology: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Due to continuing advances in the development of structures, devices, and systems with a length of about 1 to 100 nanometres (nm) (1 nm is one billionth of a metre), the Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a horizon scanning appraisal of nanotechnologies as new and emerging technologies, including an assessment of the possibly disruptive impact of future nanotechnologies. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) in the United States proclaimed a 2015 challenge goal of eliminating suffering and death from cancer. To help meet this goal, the NCI is engaged in a concerted effort to introduce nanotechnology "to radically change the way we diagnose, treat and prevent cancer." It is the NCI's position that "melding nanotechnology and cancer research and development efforts will have a profound, disruptive effect on how we diagnose, treat, and prevent cancer." Thus, this appraisal sought to determine the systemic effects of nanotechnologies that target, image and deliver drugs, for example, with respect to health human resources, training, and new specialties; and to assess the current status of these nanotechnologies and their projected timeline to clinical utilization. TARGET POPULATION AND CONDITION Cancer is a heterogeneous set of many malignant diseases. In each sex, 3 sites account for over one-half of all cancers. In women, these are the breast (28%), colorectum (13%) and lungs (12%). In men, these are the prostate (28%), lungs (15%), and the colorectum (13%). It is estimated that 246,000 people in Ontario (2% of the population) have been diagnosed with cancer within the past 10 years and are still alive. Most were diagnosed with cancer of the breast (21%), prostate (20%), or colon or rectum (13%). The number of new cancer cases diagnosed each year in Ontario is expected to increase from about 53,000 in 2001 to 80,000 in 2015. This represents more than a 50% increase in new cases over this period. An aging population, population growth, and rising cancer risk are

  3. Current concepts in cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Kok Seng Yap; Ammu Kutty Radhakrishnan; Chee Onn Leong

    2013-01-01

    Cancer research is an extremely broadtopic covering many scientific disciplines includingbiology (e.g. biochemistry and signal transduction),chemistry (e.g. drug discover and development),physics (e.g. diagnostic devices) and even computerscience (e.g. bioinformatics). Some would argue thatcancer research will continue in much the same wayas it is by adding further layers of complexity to thescientific knowledge that is already complex and almostbeyond measure. But we anticipate that cancer r...

  4. 3rd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology (IMRMPT) and 1st Symposium on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions of the participants of the 3rd International Meeting for Researchers in Materials and Plasma Technology (3rd IMRMPT) and the 1st Symposium on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology which was held from 4 to May 9, 2015 at the Dann Carlton Hotel Bucaramanga, Colombia, organized by the faculty of science of the Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS) and the basic science department of the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana. This was the third version of biennial meetings that began in 2011. The five-day scientific program of the 3rd IMRMPT consisted of 24 Magisterial Conferences, 70 Oral Presentations, 185 Poster Presentations, 3 Courses and 1 Discussion Panel with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, researchers and entrepreneurs from Colombia, Russia, Germany, France, Spain, England, United States, Mexico, Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil, Venezuela, among others. Moreover, the objective of IMRMPT was to bring together national and international researchers in order to establish a network of scientific cooperation with a global impact in the area of the science and the technology of materials; to promote the exchange of creative ideas and the effective transfer of scientific knowledge, from fundamental research to innovation applied to industrial solutions and to advances in the development of new research allowing to increase the lifetime of the materials used in the industry by means of efficient transference of the knowledge between sectors academia and industry. The topics covered in the 3rd IMRMPT include New Materials, Surface Physics, Structural Integrity, Renewable Energy, Online Process Control, Non Destructive Evaluation, Characterization of Materials, Laser and Hybrid Processes, Thin Films and Nanomaterials, Surface Hardening Processes, Wear and Corrosion/Oxidation, Plasma Applications and Technologies, Modelling, Simulation and Diagnostics, Biomedical Coatings, Surface Treatments

  5. Nanotechnology and bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Edward J; Henderson, Janet E; Vengallatore, Srikar T

    2010-03-01

    Nanotechnology and its attendant techniques have yet to make a significant impact on the science of bone healing. However, the potential benefits are immediately obvious with the result that hundreds of researchers and firms are performing the basic research needed to mature this nascent, yet soon to be fruitful niche. Together with genomics and proteomics, and combined with tissue engineering, this is the new face of orthopaedic technology. The concepts that orthopaedic surgeons recognize are fabrication processes that have resulted in porous implant substrates as bone defect augmentation and medication-carrier devices. However, there are dozens of applications in orthopaedic traumatology and bone healing for nanometer-sized entities, structures, surfaces, and devices with characteristic lengths ranging from 10s of nanometers to a few micrometers. Examples include scaffolds, delivery mechanisms, controlled modification of surface topography and composition, and biomicroelectromechanical systems. We review the basic science, clinical implications, and early applications of the nanotechnology revolution and emphasize the rich possibilities that exist at the crossover region between micro- and nanotechnology for developing new treatments for bone healing.

  6. Path-Breaking Directions of Nanotechnology-Based Chemotherapy and Molecular Cancer Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coccia, M.; Wang, L.

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental question in the field of technological forecasting and foresight is how to detect likely fruitful technological trajectories in new research fields, such as nanomedicine. We confront this question by developing an approach based on trends and networks of vital variables, analyzed by

  7. Renaissance of nuclear medicine through green nanotechnology. Functionalized radioactive gold nanoparticles in cancer therapy - my journey from chemistry to saving human lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katti, K.V.

    2016-01-01

    First of all, I take great pleasure in thanking the international jury of subject experts who have selected me to receive the 2015 Hevesy Medal Award. It is a great honor for me and my institution, the University of Missouri, Columbia, USA, to join the illustrious list of former awardees of this internationally reputed Hevesy Medal Award being conferred to me today. I also take this opportunity to thank my teachers, mentors from India, Germany, Canada and the United States, who have trained and mentored me over the years. I also thank various faculty collaborators, post-doctoral fellows, graduate and undergraduate students who have contributed immensely to my research enterprise over the last 30 years - without whom achievements such as the Hevesy Medal Award - wouldn't have been a reality. I also express my heartfelt gratitude to my wife and co-worker, Kavita, who is among the audience here today, our children, my parents and my late in-laws and various relatives for all their support over the years. In this Hevesy Medal Award lecture, I will discuss brief details of a plethora of discoveries made in my laboratories in the general field of nuclear medicine especially as it relates to the creation of a scientifically sound rationale toward the development of 'nano-sized radiopharmaceuticals' through novel green nanotechnology approaches. In this lecture, I have planned to discuss Critical needs and importance of thinking 'Out of the Box' in discovering new and more effective approaches for cancer therapy; The role of radioactive gold nanoparticles in bringing about a paradigm shift toward the development of a new generation of nano Radiopharmaceuticals for applications in diagnostics and therapy; Details on the production of radioactive gold-198 nanoparticles with extensive preclinical investigations in tumor bearing mice and dogs and, finally Oncological implications as the emerging field of nano radiopharmaceuticals has the potential to

  8. Nanophotonics: The link between nanotechnology and photonics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sinha Ray, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available and importance ? CSIR 2012 www.csir.co.za/nano Slide 2 ? Birth and definition of nanotechnology ? Benefits of nanotechnology ? The link between nanotechnology and photonics: Nanophotonics ? Importance and future of nanophotonics... ? Conclusions ? Our on-going research on nanophotonics ? CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.zaSlide 3 MISSION: The DST/CSIR NATIONAL CENTRE FOR NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS coordinates, facilitates, disseminates new knowledge, and expedites...

  9. The National Nanotechnology Initiative: Research and Development Leading to a Revolution in Technology and Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    dual-use deliveries to entice commercial interest at the earliest stages. NRO transition goals aim to create commercial “ pull ” to enable rapid... GOALI ), Partnerships for Innovation (PFI) , and Industry-University Cooperative Research Centers (IUCRC) • Partnership with small businesses and large

  10. Results of research in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements in construction the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. Within the investigation «Obtaining and research of physical and chemical properties of nanosized system nickel–copper» experimentally proved model of synthesis of nanosized powders of system nickel–copper based on the method of reduction of metal salts from water solution has been offered; optimal conditions for obtaining radiographic pure powders have been determined. The paper also deals with conditions for obtaining and phase composition of mixed nickel and copper hydroxides including those which are stable when stored in wet conditions. The copper hydroxide stabilization method has been proposed. The practical value of performed investigation «Research of electron structure functionalized carbon nanotubes by spectographic methods with synchronous radiation» is that it developed one of the areas of physical chemistry: complex research of electron structure of carbon nanotubes including functionalized ones was carried out by the method of experimental (spectographic with synchrotron radiation of different energies and theoretical methods; the general methods of the modern applied plasmonics aimed at identification of characteristics of defects formation in carbon nanosystems of low dimension have been developed.

  11. Nanotechnology and cancer: improving real-time monitoring and staging of bladder cancer with multimodal mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Sean K; Luo, Yi; O'Donnell, Michael A; Assouline, Jose

    Despite being one of the most common cancers, bladder cancer is largely inefficiently and inaccurately staged and monitored. Current imaging methods detect cancer only when it has reached "visible" size and has significantly disrupted the structure of the organ. By that time, thousands of cells will have proliferated and perhaps metastasized. Repeated biopsies and scans are necessary to determine the effect of therapy on cancer growth. In this report, we describe a novel approach based on multimodal nanoparticle contrast agent technology and its application to a preclinical animal model of bladder cancer. The innovation relies on the engineering core of mesoporous silica with specific scanning contrast properties and surface modification that include fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast. The overall dimensions of the nano-device are preset at 80-180 nm, depending on composition with a pore size of 2 nm. To facilitate and expedite discoveries, we combined a well-known model of bladder cancer and our novel technology. We exposed nanoparticles to MB49 murine bladder cancer cells in vitro and found that 70 % of the cells were labeled by nanoparticles as measured by flow cytometry. The in vivo mouse model for bladder cancer is particularly well suited for T1- and T2-weighted MRI. Under our experimental conditions, we demonstrate that the nanoparticles considerably improve tumor definition in terms of volumetric, intensity and structural characteristics. Important bladder tumor parameters can be ascertained, non-invasively, repetitively, and with great accuracy. Furthermore, since the particles are not biodegradable, repetitive injection is not required. This feature allows follow-up diagnostic evaluations during cancer treatment. Changes in MRI signals show that in situ uptake of free particles has predilection to tumor cells relative to normal bladder epithelium. The particle distribution within the tumors was corroborated by fluorescent

  12. Cancer Trends: Influencing Care and Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of the trends being seen in cancer are changing how we view cancer and how we address it, from prompting research to identify the underlying causes of cancers increasing in incidence to informing research on treatment and prevention.

  13. Computational Nanotechnology Molecular Electronics, Materials and Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation covers research being performed on computational nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes at the NASA Ames Research Center. Topics cover include: nanomechanics of nanomaterials, nanotubes and composite materials, molecular electronics with nanotube junctions, kinky chemistry, and nanotechnology for solid-state quantum computers using fullerenes.

  14. Results of research in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements in construction the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. These are main results of the research «Polymer construction nanocomposites based on polyvinylchloride»: technological recommendations on the use of multilayer carbon nanotubes, silicagel functionalized with the sulfur and silica sol in receipts of shape-moulded PVC-products for construction industry which allow increasing strength by 12–25%, thermal stability by 35–50% and decreasing melt viscosity (the factor increases 2–5 times; receipts and technology for production of high-filled construction composites based on PVC functionalized with silica sol and wood flour with population up to 68 mass.% when molding index is increased 12 times and thermal stability is increased by 60%. The specialists may be interested in the results of the following research: – I.S. Maeva «Modification of anhydride compositions with ultra- and nanodispersed additives»; – E.G. Chebotareva «Nanomodified composites of construction purpose with the use of epoxy resin»; – A.A. Volodchenko «Non-autoclave silicate materials with the use of natural nanodispersed raw materials»; – O.V. Popkova «Production and properties of metal-containing nanoparticles (Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Ce, Cd, Pd, Ag, Mo, stabilized by nanodiamond of denotational synthesis and high pressure polyethylene»; – M.A. Fronya «Complex study of mechanical properties and structure of polymer composite materials with carbon modification fillers: nanotubes and ultradispersed diamonds»; – M.S. Babaeva «Production and study of nanoparticles of polymer-colloid complexes based on polymers of N,N-diallyl-N,N-chloride dimethylammonium and natrium dodecylsulfate». Published materials can be used by the specialists in their scientific and practical activities in construction, housing and communal services as well as in the joint economical

  15. Nanotechnology: Development and challenges in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joni, I. Made; Muthukannan, Vanitha; Hermawan, Wawan; Panatarani, Camellia

    2018-02-01

    Nanotechnology today is regarded as a revolutionary technology that can help to address the key needs related to energy, environment, health and agriculture in developing countries. This paper is a short review on the development and challenges of nanotechnology in Indonesia. Nanotechnology offers great potential benefits, there is emerging concerns arising from its novel physicochemical properties. The main applications of nanotechnology in the different sectors which is vital and its economic impact in Indonesia is also discussed. The achievment and development of nanotechnology including synthesis and dispersion of nanoparticles (NPs) and its applications in various fields is briefly addressed in Nanotehcnology and Graphene Research Center, Universitas Padjadjaran (Unpad). Despite significant progress in developmental goals, many challenges in the development of nanotechnology proccesing need to be resolved such as support infrastructure and evolution of new form of collaborative arrangements between various sectors and policies which is emerged as an important factor enabling development.

  16. Results of research in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements in construction the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The result of research «Cement composites with additives of multi-layer carbon nanotubes (MLCN» is a new production technology and optimal compositions for complex nanomodified additives (CNMA. Introduction of such additives in the quantity of 12 mass.% of cement mass provides within 8–12 hours early stripping strength more than 15–40 Mpa, water impermeability more than W20 and frost resistance F60–F700. The technology provides double increase of work performance and metalriging turnover. The difference between the new production technology and the traditional one is that the line of production of chemical additives contains a new unit designed for manufacture of CNMA based on MLCN. The unit consists of precision feeder (the size of dose is 5 g., ultrasound dispersant with power 4 kW and frequency of operation 22 kHz and turbulent mixer with power 7,5 kW. The developed technology provides precise dose and even distribution of CNMA in mixture. The author developed technical conditions № 5745-111-02069622-2013 for manufacture of CNMA based on MLCN of different refinement purity and dispersiveness for high strength reinforced-concrete blocks used as finishing materials in subway tunnels. The specialists may be also interested in results of the research «Nanostructured perlite binder and foam concrete based on it» by Miroshnikov E.V., «Constructional steel fiber concretes modified with complex carbon micro- and nanosize additives» by Alatorceva U.V., «Physical and chemical study of nanocomposite template-assembled materials produced with the controlled sol-gel synthesis» by Krekoten' A.V., «Production and study of nanoparticles of polymer-colloid complexes based on polymers of chloride N,N-diallyl-N,N-dimethylammonio and dodecylsulfate sodium» by Babaeva M.S.,

  17. Senior Computational Scientist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Basic Science Program (BSP) pursues independent, multidisciplinary research in basic and applied molecular biology, immunology, retrovirology, cancer biology, and human genetics. Research efforts and support are an integral part of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR). The Cancer & Inflammation Program (CIP),

  18. National Nanotechnology Initiative. Research and Development Supporting the Next Industrial Revolution. Supplement to the President’s 2004 Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    and Development Supporting the Next Industrial Revolution Supplement to the President’s FY 2004 Budget National Science and Technology Council...potential to profoundly change our economy, to improve our standard of living, and to bring about the next industrial revolution . Nanotechnology: From

  19. Proceedings of the international conference on nanoscience and nanotechnology: abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In recent years nanoscience has started to enter every field of science and technology. Recent research has shown that the development towards the nanotechnology domains are tremendous and without doubt, the major themes of the conference like nanomaterials - synthesis and characterization, nanotubes, nanowires and nanorods, bio-nanotechnology, nanotechnology for energy, quantum computing etc. will trigger the researchers and scientists and make them to do innovative work in the area of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  20. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-10-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative "Nanotechnologie erobert Märkte" (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society.

  1. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-01-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative 'Nanotechnologie erobert Maerkte' (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society

  2. PREFACE: Rusnanotech 2010 International Forum on Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazaryan, Konstantin

    2011-03-01

    Deputy Director, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, RussiaProf Vladimir Kvardakov, Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of SciencesExecutive Director, Kurchatov Center of Synchrotron Radiation and Nanotechnology, RussiaProf Edward Son, Corresponding member of Russian Academy of SciencesScientific Deputy Director, Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, RussiaProf Andrey GudkovSenior Vice President, Basic Science Chairman, Department of Cell Stress Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, USAProf Robert NemanichChair, Department of Physics, Arizona State University, USAProf Kandlikar SatishProfessor, Rochester Institute of Technology, USAProf Xiang ZhangUC Berkeley, Director of NSF Nano-scale Science and Engineering Center (NSEC), USAProf Andrei ZvyaginProfessor, Macquarie University, AustraliaProf Sergey KalyuzhnyDirector of the Scientific and Technological Expertise Department, RUSNANO, RussiaKonstantin Kazaryan, PhDExpert of the Scientific and Technological Expertise Department, RUSNANO, Russia, Program Committee SecretarySimeon ZhavoronkovHead of Nanotechnology Programs Development Office, Rusnanotech Forum Fund for the Nanotechnology Development, Russia Editors of the proceedings: Section "Nanoelectronics" - Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Anatoly Dvurechenskii (Institute of Semiconductor Physics, RAS).Section "Nanophotonics" - Professor Vasily Klimov (Institute of Physics, RAS).Section "Nanodiagnostics" - Professor P Kashkarov (Russian Scientific Center, Kurchatov Institute).Section "Nanotechnology for power engineering" - Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Eduard Son (Joint Institute for High Temperatures, RAS).Section "Catalysis and chemical industry" - Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Valentin Parmon (Institute of Catalysis SB RAS).Section "Nanomaterials" - E Obraztsova, PhD (Institute of Physics, RAS), Marat Gallamov Ph

  3. Potentials of nanotechnology application in forest protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadong Qi; K. Lian; Q. Wu; Y. Li; M. Danzy; R. Menard; K.L. Chin; D. Collins; F. Oliveria; Kier Klepzig

    2013-01-01

    This joint research project formed by Southern University, Louisiana State University, and the USDA Forest Service focuses on applying nanotechnology in forest health and natural resource management. The targeted nanotechnology is derived from a new generation of renewable composite nano-material called Copper-Carbon Core-Shell Nanoparticles (CCCSNs), which have...

  4. Nanotechnology Education: Contemporary Content and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field of research and development identified as a major priority in the United States. Progress in science and engineering at the nanoscale is critical for national security, prosperity of the economy, and enhancement of the quality of life. It is anticipated that nanotechnology will be a major transitional…

  5. Nanotechnology for membranes, filters and sieves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert

    2006-01-01

    This mini-review is dedicated to the use of nanotechnology for membranes, filters and sieves. With the advent of nanotechnology researchers have acquired an unprecedented freedom to sculpt device geometry almost down to the molecular scale. Such structures can now replace the gels, membranes and

  6. Consumer attitudes towards nanotechnology in food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Fischer, Arnout R.H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Nanotechnology is a technology that holds much promise for food production. It is, however not clear to what extent consumers will accept different types of nanotechnologies in food products. The purpose of this paper is to research consumer attitudes towards differing applications of

  7. Introduction | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction In order to meet increasing demands from both NIH intramural and extramural communities for access to a small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) resource, the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) under the leadership of Jeffrey Strathern and Bob Wiltrout established a partnership user program (PUP) with the Argonne National Laboratory Photon Source in October 2008.

  8. caNanoLab: data sharing to expedite the use of nanotechnology in biomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaheen, Sharon; Hinkal, George W; Morris, Stephanie A; Lijowski, Michal; Heiskanen, Mervi; Klemm, Juli D

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology in biomedicine involves the engineering of nanomaterials to act as therapeutic carriers, targeting agents and diagnostic imaging devices. The application of nanotechnology in cancer aims to transform early detection, targeted therapeutics and cancer prevention and control. To assist in expediting and validating the use of nanomaterials in biomedicine, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology, in collaboration with the NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer (Alliance), has developed a data sharing portal called caNanoLab. caNanoLab provides access to experimental and literature curated data from the NCI Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory, the Alliance and the greater cancer nanotechnology community. (paper)

  9. NANOTECHNOLOGY, NANOMEDICINE; ETHICAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    G?K?AY, Banu; ARDA, Berna

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a field that we often hear of its name nowadays. Altough what we know about it is soo poor, we admire this field of technlogy, moreover some societies even argues that nanotechnology will cause second endustrial revolution. In addition, nanotechnology makes our basic scientific knowledge upside down and is soo powerfull that it is potent in nearly every scientific field. Thereby, it is imposible to say that nanotechnology; which is soo effective on human and human life; will...

  10. Responsible nanotechnology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forloni, Gianluigi

    2012-08-01

    Nanotechnologies have an increasing relevance in our life, numerous products already on the market are associated with this new technology. Although the chemical constituents of nanomaterials are often well known, the properties at the nano level are completely different from the bulk materials. Independently from the specific application the knowledge in this field involves different type of scientific competence. The accountability of the nanomaterial research imply the parallel development of innovative methodological approaches to assess and manage the risks associated to the exposure for humans and environmental to the nanomaterials for their entire life-cycle: production, application, use and waste discharge. The vast numbers of applications and the enormous amount of variables influencing the characteristics of the nanomaterials make particularly difficult the elaboration of appropriate nanotoxicological protocols. According to the official declarations exist an awareness of the public institutions in charge of the regulatory system, about the environmental, health and safety implications of nanotechnology, but the scientific information is insufficient to support appropriate mandatory rules. Public research programmers must play an important role in providing greater incentives and encouragement for nanotechnologies that support sustainable development to avoid endangering humanity's well being in the long-term. The existing imbalance in funds allocated to nanotech research needs to be corrected so that impact assessment and minimization and not only application come high in the agenda. Research funding should consider as a priority the elimination of knowledge gaps instead of promoting technological application only. With the creation of a public register collecting nanomaterials and new applications it is possible, starting from the information available, initiate a sustainable route, allowing the gradual development of a rational and informed approach to

  11. Nanotechnologies in regenerative medicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubinová, Šárka; Syková, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, 3-4 (2010), s. 144-156 ISSN 1364-5706 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500390902; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR KAN201110651 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) 1M0538; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/1242; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200520804; EC FP6 project ENIMET(XE) LSHM-CT-2005-019063 Program:1M; GA; KA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : Nanotechnology * regenerative medicine * nanofibers Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.051, year: 2010

  12. Biomedical engineering and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.H.; Khyalappa, R.J.; Yakhmi, J.V.

    2009-01-01

    This book is predominantly a compilation of papers presented in the conference which is focused on the development in biomedical materials, biomedical devises and instrumentation, biomedical effects of electromagnetic radiation, electrotherapy, radiotherapy, biosensors, biotechnology, bioengineering, tissue engineering, clinical engineering and surgical planning, medical imaging, hospital system management, biomedical education, biomedical industry and society, bioinformatics, structured nanomaterial for biomedical application, nano-composites, nano-medicine, synthesis of nanomaterial, nano science and technology development. The papers presented herein contain the scientific substance to suffice the academic directivity of the researchers from the field of biomedicine, biomedical engineering, material science and nanotechnology. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  13. Responsible nanotechnology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forloni, Gianluigi

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnologies have an increasing relevance in our life, numerous products already on the market are associated with this new technology. Although the chemical constituents of nanomaterials are often well known, the properties at the nano level are completely different from the bulk materials. Independently from the specific application the knowledge in this field involves different type of scientific competence. The accountability of the nanomaterial research imply the parallel development of innovative methodological approaches to assess and manage the risks associated to the exposure for humans and environmental to the nanomaterials for their entire life-cycle: production, application, use and waste discharge. The vast numbers of applications and the enormous amount of variables influencing the characteristics of the nanomaterials make particularly difficult the elaboration of appropriate nanotoxicological protocols. According to the official declarations exist an awareness of the public institutions in charge of the regulatory system, about the environmental, health and safety implications of nanotechnology, but the scientific information is insufficient to support appropriate mandatory rules. Public research programmers must play an important role in providing greater incentives and encouragement for nanotechnologies that support sustainable development to avoid endangering humanity’s well being in the long-term. The existing imbalance in funds allocated to nanotech research needs to be corrected so that impact assessment and minimization and not only application come high in the agenda. Research funding should consider as a priority the elimination of knowledge gaps instead of promoting technological application only. With the creation of a public register collecting nanomaterials and new applications it is possible, starting from the information available, initiate a sustainable route, allowing the gradual development of a rational and informed approach

  14. Public perception of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burri, Regula Valerie; Bellucci, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    While several studies on the public opinion of nanotechnology have pointed to a rather enthusiastic U.S. public, the public uptake of nanotechnology in Europe is more contained. The results of the Swiss publifocus on nanotechnology reveal a pragmatic attitude of citizens toward the emerging technologies, thus confirming what has been identified as a 'balanced approach' in the NanoJury UK

  15. Research Associate | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Basic Science Program (BSP) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) pursues independent, multidisciplinary research programs in basic or applied molecular biology, immunology, retrovirology, cancer biology or human genetics. As part of the BSP, the Microbiome and Genetics Core (the Core) characterizes microbiomes by next-generation sequencing to determine their composition and variation, as influenced by immune, genetic, and host health factors. The Core provides support across a spectrum of processes, from nucleic acid isolation through bioinformatics and statistical analysis. KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES The Research Associate II will provide support in the areas of automated isolation, preparation, PCR and sequencing of DNA on next generation platforms (Illumina MiSeq and NextSeq). An opportunity exists to join the Core’s team of highly trained experimentalists and bioinformaticians working to characterize microbiome samples. The following represent requirements of the position: A minimum of five (5) years related of biomedical experience. Experience with high-throughput nucleic acid (DNA/RNA) extraction. Experience in performing PCR amplification (including quantitative real-time PCR). Experience or familiarity with robotic liquid handling protocols (especially on the Eppendorf epMotion 5073 or 5075 platforms). Experience in operating and maintaining benchtop Illumina sequencers (MiSeq and NextSeq). Ability to evaluate experimental quality and to troubleshoot molecular biology protocols. Experience with sample tracking, inventory management and biobanking. Ability to operate and communicate effectively in a team-oriented work environment.

  16. Using a Deliberative Exercise to Foster Public Engagement in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela R.; Anderson, Ashley A.; Yeo, Sara K.; Greenberg, Andrew E.; Brossard, Dominique; Moore, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology poised to benefit society both technically and socially, but as with any new advance, there is potential risk. This paper describes a novel deliberative exercise involving nanotechnology that engages the public in debate regarding the funding of nanotechnology-related research while also discussing…

  17. Effect of Nanotechnology Instructions on Senior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chow-Chin; Sung, Chia-Chi

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we cooperate with senior high school teachers to understand current nanotechnology model of senior high school nanotechnology curriculum in Taiwan. Then design senior high school nanotechnology (nano-tech) curriculum to teach 503 senior high school students. After teaching the nano-tech curriculum we use the "Nanotechnology…

  18. Nanotechnology in paper electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Österbacka, Professor Ronald; Han, Jin-Woo, Dr

    2014-03-01

    devices. If 'writing is thinking on paper' [15], it seems researchers are finding yet more powerful means of putting their ideas on paper. References [1] Barquinha P, Martins R, Pereira L and Fortunato E 2012 Transparent Oxide Electronics: From Materials to Devices (Chichester: Wiley) [2] Zocco A T, You H, Hagen J A and Steckl A J 2014 Pentacene organic thin film transistors on flexible paper and glass substrates Nanotechnology 25 094005 [3] Pereira L, Gaspar D, Guerin D, Delattre A, Fortunato E and Martins R 2014 The influence of fibril composition and dimension on the performance of paper gated oxide transistors Nanotechnology 25 094007 [4] Wu G, Wan C, Zhou J, Zhu L and Wan Q 2014 Low-voltage protonic/electronic hybrid indium-zinc-oxide synaptic transistors on paper substrates Nanotechnology 25 094001 [5] Shin H, Yoon B, Park I S and Kim J-M 2014 An electrothermochromic paper display based on colorimetrically reversible polydiacetylenes Nanotechnology 25 094011 [6] Ihalainen P, Pettersson F, Pesonen M, Viitala T, Määttänen A, Österbacka R and Peltonen J 2014 An impedimetric study of DNA hybridization on paper supported inkjet-printed gold electrodes Nanotechnology 25 094009 [7] Wang Y, Shi Y, Zhao C X, Wong J I, Sun X W and Yang H Y 2014 Printed all-solid flexible microsupercapacitors: towards the general route for high energy storage device Nanotechnology 25 094010 [8] Andersson H A, Manuilskiy A, Haller S, Hummelgård M, Sidén J, Hummelgård C, Olin H and Nilsson H-E 2014 Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board Nanotechnology 25 094002 [9] Gaspar D, Fernandes S N, de Oliveira A G, Fernandes J G, Grey P, Pontes R V, Pereira L, Martins R, Godinho M H and Fortunato E 2014 Nanocrystalline cellulose applied simultaneously as gate dielectric and substrate on flexible field effect transistors Nanotechnology 25 094008 [10] Männl U, van den Berg C, Magunje B, Härting M, Britton D T, Jones S, Mvan Staden M J and Scriba M

  19. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in motion Nanotechnology in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-02-01

    development of the electron microscope, which aimed to exceed the resolving power of diffraction-limited optical microscopes. Since the diffraction limit is proportional to the incident wavelength, the shorter wavelength electron beam allows smaller features to be resolved than optical light. Ernst Ruska shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1986 for his work in developing the transmission electron microscope [5]. The technique continues to provide an invaluable tool in nanotechnology studies, as demonstrated recently by a collaboration of researchers in the US, Singapore and Korea used electron and atomic force microscopy in their investigation of the deposition of gold nanoparticles on graphene and the enhanced conductivity of the doped film [6]. The other half of the 1986 Nobel Prize was awarded jointly to Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer 'for their design of the scanning tunnelling microscope'. The scanning tunnelling microscope offered the first glimpses of atomic scale features, galvanizing research in nanoscale science and technology into a burst of fruitful activity that persists to this day. Instead of using the diffraction and scattering of beams to 'see' nanoscale structures, the atomic force microscope developed by Binnig, Quate and Gerber in the 1980s [1] determines the surface topology 'by touch'. The device uses nanoscale changes in the forces exerted on a tip as it scans the sample surface to generate an image. As might be expected, innovations on the original atomic force microscope have now been developed achieving ever greater sensitivities for imaging soft matter without destroying it. Recent work by collaborators at the University of Bristol and the University of Glasgow used a cigar-shaped nanoparticle held in optical tweezers as the scanning tip. The technique is not diffraction limited, imparts less force on samples than contact scanning probe microscopy techniques, and allows highly curved and strongly scattering samples to be imaged [7]. In this issue

  20. Nanotechnology policy in Korea for sustainable growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Dae Sup; Kim, Chang Woo; Chung, Pil Seung; Jhon, Myung S.

    2012-01-01

    Korea has become one of the leading countries in nanotechnology along with the U.S., Japan, and Germany. Since 2001, the Korean Government established the “Nanotechnology Development Plan.” Since then, the trend in nanotechnology is steadily changing from fundamental research to application-driven technologies. In this paper, we examine the nanotechnology development and policy during the past decade, which includes the investments in R and D, infrastructure, and education. The Third Phase (2011–2020) on clean nanotechnology convergence and integration in information, energy, and the environmental sector is also given. Furthermore, the program on long-term strategy dealing with sustainability in resolving future societal demand and plans for sustainable energy and environmental activities will be discussed in depth. The outcomes and national evaluations of research and education are also given.

  1. Nanotechnology: The new perspective in precision agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joginder Singh Duhan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary research field. In recent past efforts have been made to improve agricultural yield through exhaustive research in nanotechnology. The green revolution resulted in blind usage of pesticides and chemical fertilizers which caused loss of soil biodiversity and developed resistance against pathogens and pests as well. Nanoparticle-mediated material delivery to plants and advanced biosensors for precision farming are possible only by nanoparticles or nanochips. Nanoencapsulated conventional fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides helps in slow and sustained release of nutrients and agrochemicals resulting in precise dosage to the plants. Nanotechnology based plant viral disease detection kits are also becoming popular and are useful in speedy and early detection of viral diseases. In this article, the potential uses and benefits of nanotechnology in precision agriculture are discussed. The modern nanotechnology based tools and techniques have the potential to address the various problems of conventional agriculture and can revolutionize this sector.

  2. Intellectual property rights in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastani, Behfar; Fernandez, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    Intellectual property (IP) rights are essential in today's technology-driven age. Building a strategic IP portfolio is economically important from both an offensive and defensive standpoint. After an introduction to intellectual property rights and acquisitions, we provide an overview of current efforts in nanotechnology. Research into nano-scale materials and devices and requirements for their efficient mass production are outlined, with focus on the applicable IP rights and strategies. We present current and future applications of nanotechnology to such fields as electronics, sensors, aerospace, medicine, environment and sanitation, together with the IP rights that can be brought to bear in each. Finally, some challenging issues surrounding the acquisition of intellectual property rights in nanotechnology are presented

  3. Nanotechnology in medicine emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koprowski, Gene

    2014-01-01

    This book will describe some of the most recent breakthroughs and promising developments in the search for improved diagnostics and therapies at the very small scales of living biological systems. While still very much a technology in the research and development stage, nanotechnology is already transforming today's medicine. This book, written by a general science author, provides a general overview of medical treatment potentials of nanotechnology in new, more effective drug delivery systems, in less invasive, ultra-small scale medical tools, and in new materials that can mimic or enhance natural materials like living tissue.

  4. DNA nanotechnology and fluorescence applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichthaerle, Thomas; Strauss, Maximilian T; Schueder, Florian; Woehrstein, Johannes B; Jungmann, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Structural DNA nanotechnology allow researchers to use the unique molecular recognition properties of DNA strands to construct nanoscale objects with almost arbitrary complexity in two and three dimensions. Abstracted as molecular breadboards, DNA nanostructures enable nanometer-precise placement of guest molecules such as proteins, fluorophores, or nanoparticles. These assemblies can be used to study biological phenomena with unprecedented control over number, spacing, and molecular identity. Here, we give a general introduction to structural DNA nanotechnology and more specifically discuss applications of DNA nanostructures in the field of fluorescence and plasmonics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Grand Challenges of Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, Neal

    2001-01-01

    Amazing breakthroughs and advances continue to be made in nanoscale science and engineering and the rapidly emerging field of nanotechnology, including near-commercial applications in biomedicine, computing and environmental protection. The National Nanotechnology Initiative, begun by the Clinton Administration has placed nanoscale research on a new funding trajectory. But, many 'grand challenges' must be overcome, technical ones as well as those related to funding, science and technology workforce, and the need for stronger collaboration across discipline, organizations, government agencies and with other countries

  6. The Formation of Data on Nanotechnological Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleynik Olga Stepanovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the statistical monitoring of the main trends of nanotechnology development in Russia, as well as the review of the modern programs and documents devoted to urgent issues of nanotechnology development. The formation of system of statistical monitoring of nanotechnologies development in the Russian Federation includes the development of methodology and tools of statistical supervision over creation, commercialization, the use of nanotechnologies, and also the nanotechnological production. The authors carry out the analysis of the main directions and structure of co-funding of “The Program of nanotech industry development in the Russian Federation till 2015”. The sources of official statistical data on nanotechnologies in Russia are considered. The purpose of forming this essentially new direction of statistics consists in the creation of system of collecting, processing and submission of the regular, systematized and complex data which are adequately reflecting the state, the level of development and the prospects of nanotechnological sphere capacity which provide informational support to state policy and adoption of reasonable administrative decisions. The authors describe the system of statistical observations in the sphere of nanotechnologies. Today the statistics of nanotechnologies in Russia remains at the stage of formation and modernization according to the international standards, being supplemented every year with the new indicators which allow investigating different sides and tendencies of nanotech industry development. Nowadays the following aspects of the activity connected with nanotechnologies have already being studied by means of statistical methods: scientific research and developments; creation and use of nanotechnologies; demand for staff; production, including the innovative one.

  7. Using DNA nanotechnology to produce a drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyen La, Thi; Thu Thuy Nguyen, Thi; Phuc Pham, Van; Huyen Nguyen, Thi Minh; Huan Le, Quang

    2013-03-01

    Drug delivery to cancer cells in chemotherapy is one of the most advanced research topics. The effectiveness of the current cancer treatment drugs is limited because they are not capable of distinguishing between cancer cells and normal cells so that they kill not only cancer cells but also normal ones. To overcome this disadvantage by profiting from the differences in physical and chemical properties between cancer and normal cells, nanoparticles (NPs) delivering a drug are designed in a specific manner such that they can distinguish the cancer cells from the normal ones and are targeted only to the cancer cells. Currently, there are various drug delivery systems with many advantages, but sharing some common disadvantages such as difficulty with controlling the size, low encapsulation capacity and low stability. With the development and success of DNA nanotechnology, DNA strands are used to create effective drug delivery NPs with precisely controlled size and structure, safety and high stability. This article presents our study on drug encapsulation in DNA nanostructure which loaded docetaxel and curcumin in a desire to create a new and effective drug delivery system with high biological compatibility. Invited talk at the 6th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology, 30 October-2 November, 2012, Ha Long, Vietnam.

  8. Nanovate commercializing disruptive nanotechnologies

    CERN Document Server

    Anis, Mohab; Sarhan, Wesam; Elsemary, Mona

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers from diverse backgrounds to the principles underlying nanotechnology, from devices to systems, while also describing in detail how businesses can use nanotechnology to redesign their products and processes, in order to have a clear edge over their competition. The authors include 75 case studies, describing in a highly-accessible manner, real nanotechnology innovations from 15 different industrial sectors. For each case study, the technology or business challenges faced by the company are highlighted, the type of nanotechnology adopted is defined, and the eventual economic and social impact is described. Introduces fundamentals of nanotechnology and its applications in a highly-accessible manner Includes 75 case studies of commercializing nanotechnology from 15 industrial sectors, including Automotive, Consumer Electronics, and Renewable Energy Enables nanotechnology experts to learn simple and important business concepts to facilitate the transfer of science to the market Introdu...

  9. Broader Societal Issues of Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Nanoscale science and engineering are providing unprecedented understanding and control over the basic building blocks of matter, leading to increased coherence in knowledge, technology, and education. The main reason for developing nanotechnology is to advance broad societal goals such as improved comprehension of nature, increased productivity, better healthcare, and extending the limits of sustainable development and of human potential. This paper outlines societal implication activities in nanotechnology R and D programs. The US National Nanotechnology Initiative annual investment in research with educational and societal implications is estimated at about $30 million (of which National Science Foundation (NSF) awards about $23 million including contributions to student fellowships), and in nanoscale research with relevance to environment at about $50 million (of which NSF awards about $30 million and EPA about $6 million). An appeal is made to researchers and funding organizations worldwide to take timely and responsible advantage of the new technology for economic and sustainable development, to initiate societal implications studies from the beginning of the nanotechnology programs, and to communicate effectively the goals and potential risks with research users and the public

  10. Broader Societal Issues of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, M. C.

    2003-08-01

    Nanoscale science and engineering are providing unprecedented understanding and control over the basic building blocks of matter, leading to increased coherence in knowledge, technology, and education. The main reason for developing nanotechnology is to advance broad societal goals such as improved comprehension of nature, increased productivity, better healthcare, and extending the limits of sustainable development and of human potential. This paper outlines societal implication activities in nanotechnology R&D programs. The US National Nanotechnology Initiative annual investment in research with educational and societal implications is estimated at about 30 million (of which National Science Foundation (NSF) awards about 23 million including contributions to student fellowships), and in nanoscale research with relevance to environment at about 50 million (of which NSF awards about 30 million and EPA about 6 million). An appeal is made to researchers and funding organizations worldwide to take timely and responsible advantage of the new technology for economic and sustainable development, to initiate societal implications studies from the beginning of the nanotechnology programs, and to communicate effectively the goals and potential risks with research users and the public.

  11. Broader Societal Issues of Nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roco, M.C. [National Science Foundation (NSF) (United States)], E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov

    2003-08-15

    Nanoscale science and engineering are providing unprecedented understanding and control over the basic building blocks of matter, leading to increased coherence in knowledge, technology, and education. The main reason for developing nanotechnology is to advance broad societal goals such as improved comprehension of nature, increased productivity, better healthcare, and extending the limits of sustainable development and of human potential. This paper outlines societal implication activities in nanotechnology R and D programs. The US National Nanotechnology Initiative annual investment in research with educational and societal implications is estimated at about $30 million (of which National Science Foundation (NSF) awards about $23 million including contributions to student fellowships), and in nanoscale research with relevance to environment at about $50 million (of which NSF awards about $30 million and EPA about $6 million). An appeal is made to researchers and funding organizations worldwide to take timely and responsible advantage of the new technology for economic and sustainable development, to initiate societal implications studies from the beginning of the nanotechnology programs, and to communicate effectively the goals and potential risks with research users and the public.

  12. Nanotechnology applications in medicine and dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jyoti

    2011-05-01

    Nanotechnology, or nanoscience, refers to the research and development of an applied science at the atomic, molecular, or macromolecular levels (i.e. molecular engineering, manufacturing). The prefix "nano" is defined as a unit of measurement in which the characteristic dimension is one billionth of a unit. Although the nanoscale is small in size, its potential is vast. As nanotechnology expands in other fields, clinicians, scientists, and manufacturers are working to discover the uses and advances in biomedical sciences. Applications of nanotechnology in medical and dental fields have only approached the horizon with opportunities and possibilities for the future that can only be limited by our imagination. This paper provides an early glimpse of nanotechnology applications in medicine and dentistry to illustrate their potentially far-reaching impacts on clinical practice. It also narrates the safety issues concerning nanotechnology applications. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Nanotechnology and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Kenneth H.

    2007-01-01

    Past experience has shown that the successful introduction of a new technology requires careful attention to the interactions between the technology and society. These interactions are bi-directional: on the one hand, technology changes and challenges social patterns and, on the other hand, the governance structures and values of the society affect progress in developing the technology. Nanotechnology is likely to be particularly affected by these kinds of interactions because of its great promise and the unusually early public attention it has received. Moreover, it represents a new kind of experiment in packaging a rather wide range of fundamental research activities under a single 'mission-like' umbrella. Although this gives it more impetus as a field, it sets a higher bar for showing successful applications early on and because it links disparate fields, regulatory regimes reasonable for one kind of nanotechnology development may be inappropriately extended to others. There are a number of lessons to be gleaned from experience with the introduction of other technologies, which offer guidance with respect to what pitfalls to avoid and what issues to be sensitive to as we move forward with the development of nanotechnology applications. The problems encountered by nuclear power point out the dangers of over-promising and the role the need for the technology plays in ameliorating fears of risk. The public reaction to biomedical engineering and biotechnology highlights, in addition, the cultural factors that come into play when technologies raise questions about what is 'natural' and what is 'foreign' and what conceptions are involved in defining 'personhood'. In all cases, it has been clear that a main task for those introducing new technology is building public trust-in the safety of the technologies and the integrity of those introducing it. The advocates of nanotechnology have already shown that they are generally aware of the need to consider the public

  14. Prostate Cancer Stem-Like Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among men, killing an estimated 27,000 men each year in the United States. Men with advanced prostate cancer often become resistant to conventional therapies. Many researchers speculate that the emergence of resistance is due to the presence of cancer stem cells, which are believed to be a small subpopulation

  15. (Updated) Nanotechnology: Understanding the Tiny Particles That May Save a Life | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nathalie Walker, Guest Writer Could nanotechnology—the study of tiny matter ranging in size from 1 to 200 nanometers—be the future of cancer treatment? Although it is a relatively new field in cancer research, nanotechnology is not new to everyday life. Have you ever thought about the tennis ball you’ve thrown with your dog at the park and wondered what it is made of?

  16. From Diagnosis to Treatment: Clinical Applications of Nanotechnology in Thoracic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digesu, Christopher S; Hofferberth, Sophie C; Grinstaff, Mark W; Colson, Yolonda L

    2016-05-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging field with potential as an adjunct to cancer therapy, particularly thoracic surgery. Therapy can be delivered to tumors in a more targeted fashion, with less systemic toxicity. Nanoparticles may aid in diagnosis, preoperative characterization, and intraoperative localization of thoracic tumors and their lymphatics. Focused research into nanotechnology's ability to deliver both diagnostics and therapeutics has led to the development of nanotheranostics, which promises to improve the treatment of thoracic malignancies through enhanced tumor targeting, controlled drug delivery, and therapeutic monitoring. This article reviews nanoplatforms, their unique properties, and the potential for clinical application in thoracic surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanotechnology in biorobotics: opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricotti, Leonardo; Menciassi, Arianna

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology recently opened a series of unexpected technological opportunities that drove the emergence of novel scientific and technological fields, which have the potential to dramatically change the lives of millions of citizens. Some of these opportunities have been already caught by researchers working in the different fields related to biorobotics, while other exciting possibilities still lie on the horizon. This article highlights how nanotechnology applications recently impacted the development of advanced solutions for actuation and sensing and the achievement of microrobots, nanorobots, and non-conventional larger robotic systems. The open challenges are described, together with the most promising research avenues involving nanotechnology

  18. Techniques in cancer research: a laboratory manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, M.G.; Seshadri, R.; Mulherkar, R.; Mukhopadhyaya, R.

    1995-01-01

    Cancer Research Institute (CRI) works on all facets of cancer using the latest biomedical tools. For this purpose, it has established modern laboratories in different branches of cancer biology such as cell and molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology, chemical and viral oncogenesis, genetics of cancer including genetic engineering, tissue culture, cancer chemotherapy, neurooncology and comparative oncology. This manual describes the protocols used in these laboratories. There is also a chapter on handling and care of laboratory animals, an essential component of any modern cancer biology laboratory. It is hoped that the manual will be useful to biomedical laboratories, specially those interested in cancer research. refs., tabs., figs

  19. Nanotechnology in dentistry: prevention, diagnosis, and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Bozec, Laurent; Perez, Roman A; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has rapidly expanded into all areas of science; it offers significant alternative ways to solve scientific and medical questions and problems. In dentistry, nanotechnology has been exploited in the development of restorative materials with some significant success. This review discusses nanointerfaces that could compromise the longevity of dental restorations, and how nanotechnolgy has been employed to modify them for providing long-term successful restorations. It also focuses on some challenging areas in dentistry, eg, oral biofilm and cancers, and how nanotechnology overcomes these challenges. The recent advances in nanodentistry and innovations in oral health-related diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic methods required to maintain and obtain perfect oral health, have been discussed. The recent advances in nanotechnology could hold promise in bringing a paradigm shift in dental field. Although there are numerous complex therapies being developed to treat many diseases, their clinical use requires careful consideration of the expense of synthesis and implementation.

  20. Nanotechnology in dentistry: prevention, diagnosis, and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Bozec, Laurent; Perez, Roman A; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has rapidly expanded into all areas of science; it offers significant alternative ways to solve scientific and medical questions and problems. In dentistry, nanotechnology has been exploited in the development of restorative materials with some significant success. This review discusses nanointerfaces that could compromise the longevity of dental restorations, and how nanotechnolgy has been employed to modify them for providing long-term successful restorations. It also focuses on some challenging areas in dentistry, eg, oral biofilm and cancers, and how nanotechnology overcomes these challenges. The recent advances in nanodentistry and innovations in oral health-related diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic methods required to maintain and obtain perfect oral health, have been discussed. The recent advances in nanotechnology could hold promise in bringing a paradigm shift in dental field. Although there are numerous complex therapies being developed to treat many diseases, their clinical use requires careful consideration of the expense of synthesis and implementation. PMID:26504385

  1. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition

  2. Circulating Tumor Cells: From Theory to Nanotechnology-Based Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yue; Li, Yuanyuan; Xing, Haiyan; Luo, Minghe; Li, Ziwei; Chen, Jianhong; Mo, Jingxin; Shi, Sanjun

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells with stem-cell properties are regarded as tumor initiating cells. Sharing stem-cell properties, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are responsible for the development of metastasis, which significant affects CTC analysis in clinical practice. Due to their extremely low occurrence in blood, however, it is challenging to enumerate and analyze CTCs. Nanotechnology is able to address the problems of insufficient capture efficiency and low purity of CTCs owing to the unique structural and functional properties of nanomaterials, showing strong promise for CTC isolation and detection. In this review, we discuss the role of stem-like CTCs in metastases, provide insight into recent progress in CTC isolation and detection approaches using various nanoplatforms, and highlight the role of nanotechnology in the advancement of CTC research. PMID:28203204

  3. Nanotechnology applications in hematological malignancies (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAMIR, AHMED; ELGAMAL, BASMA M; GABR, HALA; SABAAWY, HATEM E

    2015-01-01

    A major limitation to current cancer therapies is the development of therapy-related side-effects and dose limiting complications. Moreover, a better understanding of the biology of cancer cells and the mechanisms of resistance to therapy is rapidly developing. The translation of advanced knowledge and discoveries achieved at the molecular level must be supported by advanced diagnostic, therapeutic and delivery technologies to translate these discoveries into useful tools that are essential in achieving progress in the war against cancer. Nanotechnology can play an essential role in this aspect providing a transforming technology that can translate the basic and clinical findings into novel diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive tools useful in different types of cancer. Hematological malignancies represent a specific class of cancer, which attracts special attention in the applications of nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and treatment. The aim of the present review is to elucidate the emerging applications of nanotechnology in cancer management and describe the potentials of nanotechnology in changing the key fundamental aspects of hematological malignancy diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. PMID:26134389

  4. Nanoscience Nanotechnologies and Nanophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Dupas, Claire; Lahmani, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnologies and nanosciences are a fast-developing field of research, which sit at the point of convergence of several disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology, mechanics, etc.). This practically-oriented overview is designed to provide students and researchers with essential information on both the tools of manufacture and specific features of the nanometric scale, as well as applications within the most active fields (electronics, magnetism, information storage, biology). Specific applications and techniques covered include nanolithography, STM and AFM, nanowires and supramolecules, molecular electronics, optronics, and simulation. Each section of the book devotes considerable space to industrial applications and prospective developments. The carefully edited contributions are written by reserach workers and unirveisty instructors who are experts in their own fields and full up-to-date with the latest developments. Their uniform and self-contained nature permit users to access the most relevant chapter...

  5. CCR 20th Anniversary Commentary: Prospects and Challenges of Therapeutic Nanoparticles in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Aminur; Shin, Dong M

    2015-10-15

    In their review article published in the March 1, 2008, issue of Clinical Cancer Research, Cho and colleagues presented the strong potential of nanotechnology in cancer. This commentary discusses the latest advances in nanotechnology, which provide novel approaches for cancer diagnosis, imaging, drug delivery, and personalized therapy; highlights the perspectives for therapeutic nanoparticles; and describes the advantages and challenges of their multifunctionalities. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Nanotechnology and accounting issues

    OpenAIRE

    Abedalqader Rababah

    2017-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a new advanced technology used in the industry. This study conducted an investigation on the literature and highlighted the accounting issues which related to the implement of nanotechnology, especially the change of cost structure and expected solutions for the increasing of indirect costs which need more accurate allocation to the unit of products. Also, this study investigated on the future expected accounting risks for using nanotechnology. Finally, this study will open ...

  7. Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    savings in the United States of 24 million barrels of oil.4 • Universal access to clean water. Nanotechnology water desalination and filtration...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Nanotechnology : A Policy Primer John F. Sargent Jr. Specialist...COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nanotechnology : A Policy Primer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  8. Nanotechnology in Military Development

    OpenAIRE

    Andrus Pedai; Igor Astrov

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the new cyber, according to several major leaders in this field. Just as cyber is entrenched across global society now, nano is poised to be major capabilities enabler of the next decades. Expert members from the National Nanotechnology Initiative (in U.S.) representing government and science disciplines say nano has great significance for the military and the general public. It is predicted that after next 15 years nanotechnology will replace information technology as the m...

  9. Nanotechnology in reproductive medicine: emerging applications of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkalina, Natalia; Charalambous, Charis; Jones, Celine; Coward, Kevin

    2014-07-01

    In the last decade, nanotechnology has been extensively introduced for biomedical applications, including bio-detection, drug delivery and diagnostic imaging, particularly in the field of cancer diagnostics and treatment. However, there is a growing trend towards the expansion of nanobiotechnological tools in a number of non-cancer applications. In this review, we discuss the emerging uses of nanotechnology in reproductive medicine and reproductive biology. For the first time, we summarise the available evidence regarding the use of nanomaterials as experimental tools for the detection and treatment of malignant and benign reproductive conditions. We also present an overview of potential applications for nanomaterials in reproductive biology, discuss the benefits and concerns associated with their use in a highly delicate system of reproductive tissues and gametes, and address the feasibility of this innovative and potentially controversial approach in the clinical setting and for investigative research into the mechanisms underlying reproductive diseases. This unique review paper focuses on the emerging use of nanotechnology in reproductive medicine and reproductive biology, highlighting the role of nanomaterials in the detection and treatment of various reproductive conditions, keeping in mind the benefits and potential concerns associated with nanomaterial use in the delicate system of reproductive tissue and gametes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. EDITORIAL: Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Twenty years ago the Institute of Physics launched the journal Nanotechnology from its publishing house based in the home town of Paul Dirac, a legendary figure in the development of quantum mechanics at the turn of the last century. At the beginning of the 20th century, the adoption of quantum mechanical descriptions of events transformed the existing deterministic world view. But in many ways it also revolutionised the progress of research itself. For the first time since the 17th century when Francis Bacon established inductive reasoning as the means of advancing science from fact to axiom to law, theory was progressing ahead of experiments instead of providing explanations for observations that had already been made. Dirac's postulation of antimatter through purely theoretical investigation before its observation is the archetypal example of theory leading the way for experiment. The progress of nanotechnology and the development of tools and techniques that enabled the investigation of systems at the nanoscale brought with them many fascinating observations of phenomena that could only be explained through quantum mechanics, first theoretically deduced decades previously. At the nanoscale, quantum confinement effects dominate the electrical and optical properties of systems. They also render new opportunities for manipulating the response of systems. For example, a better understanding of these systems has enabled the rapid development of quantum dots with precisely determined properties, which can be exploited in a range of applications from medical imaging and photovoltaic solar cells to quantum computation, a radically new information technology being currently developed in many labs worldwide. As the first ever academic journal in nanotechnology, {\\it Nanotechnology} has been the forum for papers detailing progress of the science through extremely exciting times. In the early years of the journal, the investigation of electron spin led to the formulation

  11. Nanotechnology in Aerospace Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyyappan, M

    2007-01-01

    The aerospace applications for nanotechnology include high strength, low weight composites, improved electronics and displays with low power consumption, variety of physical sensors, multifunctional...

  12. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Phytochemicals in your food Red and processed meat Sugar and cancer risk Alcohol and cancer risk Physical Activity Are ... Updates: Diabetes Rates are High and Rising, That Links with Cancer Apples and Oranges, What Americans are Eating and ...

  13. Biomedical nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the roles of nanomaterials in biomedical applications, focusing on those highlighted in this volume. A brief history of nanoscience and technology and a general introduction to the field are presented. Then, the chemical and physical properties of nanostructures that make them ideal for use in biomedical applications are highlighted. Examples of common applications, including sensing, imaging, and therapeutics, are given. Finally, the challenges associated with translating this field from the research laboratory to the clinic setting, in terms of the larger societal implications, are discussed.

  14. Dr. Ted Trimble: Why I Do Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a video, Dr. Ted Trimble talks about the importance of cancer research. World Cancer Research Day commemorates the important role research and cancer researchers play in reducing the global burden of cancer.

  15. CCR Magazines | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Cancer Research (CCR) has two magazines, MILESTONES and LANDMARKS, that highlight our annual advances and top contributions to the understanding, detection, treatment and prevention of cancer over the years.

  16. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... in women, the cause of the majority of cervical cancers. Photo courtesy of Judy Folkenberg, NLM Writer By ...

  17. Nanotechnology impact on the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kaufui V; Paddon, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been implemented widely in the automotive industry. This technology is particularly useful in coatings, fabrics, structural materials, fluids, lubricants, tires, and preliminary applications in smart glass/windows and video display systems. A special sub-class of improved materials, alternative energy, has also seen a boost from advances in nanotechnology, and continues to be an active research area. A correlation exists in the automotive industry between the areas with increased nanotechnology incorporation and those with increased profit margins via improvements and customer demands.

  18. Materials and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the Materials and Nanotechnology Program is technology development related to processing, analysis, testing and characterization of materials in general. These are achieved through execution of R&D projects in engineering and materials science, cooperative projects with private and public sector companies, universities and other research institutes. Besides technology development, this Program also fosters training and human resource development in association with the University of São Paulo and many industrial sectors. This Program is divided into sub-programs in broad areas such as ceramic, composite and metallic materials as well as characterization of physical and chemical properties of materials. The sub-programs are further divided into general topics and within each topic, R&D projects. A brief description of progress in each topic during the last three years follows. (author)

  19. Recent progress in the therapeutic applications of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Melani; D'Souza, Gerard G M

    2011-04-01

    The field of pharmaceutical and medical nanotechnology has grown rapidly in recent decades and offers much promise for therapeutic advances. This review is intended to serve as a quick summary of the major areas in the therapeutic application of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology for therapeutic application falls into two broad categories of particulate systems and nanoengineered devices. Recent studies appear to focus on the development of multifunctional particles for drug delivery and imaging and the development of nanotechnology-based biosensors for diagnostic applications. Cancer treatment and diagnosis appears to be the principal focus of many of these applications, but nanotechnology is also finding application in tissue engineering and surface engineering of medical implants. Particulate drug delivery systems in general appear to be poised for increased use in the clinic, whereas nanoengineered implants and diagnostic sensors might well be the next major wave in the medical use of nanotechnology.

  20. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...

  1. The risks of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David

    2005-11-01

    Nanotechnology is extremely fashionable, especially in the medical products sector, but questions are now being asked about the potential for new health risks that are introduced with the products and processes associated with nanotechnology. This article discusses some of the principal findings of a new report on this subject.

  2. Nanotechnology - A path forward for developing nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S. Ismat; Powers, Thomas M.

    2015-10-01

    One of the major issues with technology in general, and nanotechnology in particular, is that it could exacerbate the divide between developed and developing nations. If the benefits of the research do not flow beyond the national and geographical borders of the traditional major bastions of R&D, these benefits will not be equally and globally available. The consequence is that the technological divide becomes wider at the expense of mutual reliance. As much as developed nations need to rethink the strategy and the policy to bring nanotechnology products to market with the goal of global prosperity, developing nations cannot afford to simply wait for the lead from the developed nations. In the spirit of collaboration and collegiality, we describe issues with the current practices in nanotechnology R&D in the developing world and suggest a path for nanotechnology research in energy, water and the environment that developing nations could follow in order to become contributors rather than simply consumers.

  3. Machine Phase Fullerene Nanotechnology: 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA has used exotic materials for spacecraft and experimental aircraft to good effect for many decades. In spite of many advances, transportation to space still costs about $10,000 per pound. Drexler has proposed a hypothetical nanotechnology based on diamond and investigated the properties of such molecular systems. These studies and others suggest enormous potential for aerospace systems. Unfortunately, methods to realize diamonoid nanotechnology are at best highly speculative. Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically relatively accessible and of great aerospace interest. Machine phase materials are (hypothetical) materials consisting entirely or in large part of microscopic machines. In a sense, most living matter fits this definition. To begin investigation of fullerene nanotechnology, we used molecular dynamics to study the properties of carbon nanotube based gears and gear/shaft configurations. Experiments on C60 and quantum calculations suggest that benzyne may react with carbon nanotubes to form gear teeth. Han has computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Results suggest that rotation can be converted to rotating or linear motion, and linear motion may be converted into rotation. Preliminary results suggest that these mechanical systems can be cooled by a helium atmosphere. Furthermore, Deepak has successfully simulated using helical electric fields generated by a laser to power fullerene gears once a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. Even with mechanical motion, cooling, and power; creating a viable nanotechnology requires support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and some approach to manufacture. Additional

  4. Department of Defense Era of Hope Scholar Award Nanotechnology-Enabled Optical Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    detection, and management of breast cancer today. A variety of imaging methods including screening and diagnostic x- ray mammography and resonance...profile of a tumor. In addition, techniques such as x- ray imaging and MRI are not able to detect small early cancers or pre-cancerous breast...227 (2007). 18. S. Oldenburg , J. Jackson, S. Westcott, and N. Halas, “Infrared extinction properties of gold nanoshells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2897

  5. [Nanotechnology future of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlega, Katarzyna; Latocha, Małgorzata

    2012-10-01

    Nanotechnology enables to produce products with new, exactly specified, unique properties. Those products are finding application in various branches of electronic, chemical, food and textile industry as well as in medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, architectural engineering, aviation and in defense. In this paper structures used in nanomedicine were characterized. Possibilities and first effort of application of nanotechnology in diagnostics and therapy were also described. Nanotechnology provides tools which allow to identifying changes and taking repair operations on cellular and molecular level and applying therapy oriented for specific structures in cell. Great hope are being associated with entering nanotechnology into the regenerative medicine. It requires astute recognition bases of tissue regeneration biology--initiating signals as well as the intricate control system of the progress of this process. However application of nanotechnology in tissue engineering allows to avoiding problems associated with loss properties of implants what is frequent cause of performing another surgical procedure at present.

  6. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed

  7. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.

  8. Current cancer research. Reports from the German Cancer Research Center 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Topics from the Contents: The Fight against Cancer in Germany - A Critical Review. Conditions and Structures in Research. Familial Breast Cancer - A Critical Assessment. Research without Animal Experiments. Cancer Prevention. New Approaches for Tumor Therapy. Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. Therapy of Brain Tumors with Laser Neurosurgery. The Genome Project. (orig.) [de

  9. Biopsychosocial Research Training in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antoni, Michael

    1998-01-01

    .... Three others successfully defended their Master's theses. Training throughout YR 4 was closely coordinated with ongoing ACS-funded and NCI-funded biopsychosocial breast cancer research projects...

  10. Development of Taiwan's strategies for regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals harmonized with international considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiun-Wen; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Huang, Hsiau-Wen; Tzou, Mei-Chyun; Wang, Ying-Jan; Tsai, Jui-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers potential in pharmaceuticals and biomedical developments for improving drug delivery systems, medical imaging, diagnosis, cancer therapy, and regenerative medicine. Although there is no international regulation or legislation specifically for nanomedicine, it is agreed worldwide that considerably more attention should be paid to the quality, safety, and efficacy of nanotechnology-based drugs. The US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency have provided several draft regulatory guidance and reflection papers to assist the development of nanomedicines. To cope with the impact of nanotechnology and to foster its pharmaceutical applications and development in Taiwan, this article reviews the trends of regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals in the international community and proposes strategies for Taiwan's regulation harmonized with international considerations. The draft regulatory measures include a chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) review checklist and guidance for CMC review of liposomal products. These have been submitted for discussion among an expert committee, with membership comprised of multidisciplinary academia, research institutions, the pharmaceutical industry, and regulators, and are currently approaching final consensus. Once a consensus is reached, these mechanisms will be recommended to the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration for jurisdiction and may be initiated as the starting point for regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals in Taiwan.

  11. Lysyl oxidase in cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perryman, Lara; Erler, Janine Terra

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is the main reason for cancer-associated deaths and therapies are desperately needed to target the progression of cancer. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, including metastasis, and is therefore is an attractive therapeutic target. In this review we...

  12. Nanotechnology Safety Self-Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogin, Phillip W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-03-29

    Nanoparticles are near-atomic scale structures between 1 and 100 nanometers (one billionth of a meter). Engineered nanoparticles are intentionally created and are used in research and development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This course, Nanotechnology Safety Self-Study, presents an overview of the hazards, controls, and uncertainties associated with the use of unbound engineered nanoscale particles (UNP) in a laboratory environment.

  13. Institutional profile: the London Centre for Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, David; Bontoux, Thierry

    2009-12-01

    Located in the London neighborhoods of Bloomsbury and South Kensington, the London Centre for Nanotechnology is a UK-based multidisciplinary research center that operates at the forefront of science and technology. It is a joint venture between two of the world's leading institutions, UCL and Imperial College London, uniting their strong capabilities in the disciplines that underpin nanotechnology: engineering, the physical sciences and biomedicine. The London Centre for Nanotechnology has a unique operating model that accesses and focuses the combined skills of the Departments of Chemistry, Physics, Materials, Medicine, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering and Earth Sciences across the two universities. It aims to provide the nanoscience and nanotechnology required to solve major problems in healthcare, information processing, energy and the environment.

  14. Advances in Nanotechnology for Restorative Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad; Qasim, Saad; Shahab, Sana; Naseem, Mustafa; AbuReqaiba, Ammar

    2015-01-01

    Rationalizing has become a new trend in the world of science and technology. Nanotechnology has ascended to become one of the most favorable technologies, and one which will change the application of materials in different fields. The quality of dental biomaterials has been improved by the emergence of nanotechnology. This technology manufactures materials with much better properties or by improving the properties of existing materials. The science of nanotechnology has become the most popular area of research, currently covering a broad range of applications in dentistry. This review describes the basic concept of nanomaterials, recent innovations in nanomaterials and their applications in restorative dentistry. Advances in nanotechnologies are paving the future of dentistry, and there are a plenty of hopes placed on nanomaterials in terms of improving the health care of dental patients. PMID:28787967

  15. Nanotechnology in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Graham G; McArdle, Adrian; Tevlin, Ruth; Momeni, Arash; Atashroo, David; Hu, Michael S; Feroze, Abdullah H; Wong, Victor W; Lorenz, Peter H; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C

    2015-07-01

    Nanotechnology represents a major frontier with potential to significantly advance the field of bone tissue engineering. Current limitations in regenerative strategies include impaired cellular proliferation and differentiation, insufficient mechanical strength of scaffolds, and inadequate production of extrinsic factors necessary for efficient osteogenesis. Here we review several major areas of research in nanotechnology with potential implications in bone regeneration: 1) nanoparticle-based methods for delivery of bioactive molecules, growth factors, and genetic material, 2) nanoparticle-mediated cell labeling and targeting, and 3) nano-based scaffold construction and modification to enhance physicochemical interactions, biocompatibility, mechanical stability, and cellular attachment/survival. As these technologies continue to evolve, ultimate translation to the clinical environment may allow for improved therapeutic outcomes in patients with large bone deficits and osteodegenerative diseases. Traditionally, the reconstruction of bony defects has relied on the use of bone grafts. With advances in nanotechnology, there has been significant development of synthetic biomaterials. In this article, the authors provided a comprehensive review on current research in nanoparticle-based therapies for bone tissue engineering, which should be useful reading for clinicians as well as researchers in this field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cancer Biotechnology | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology advances continue to underscore the need to educate NCI fellows in new methodologies. The Cancer Biotechnology course will be held on the NCI-Frederick campus on January 29, 2016 (Bldg. 549, Main Auditorium) and the course will be repeated on the Bethesda campus on February 9, 2016 (Natcher Balcony C). The latest advances in DNA, protein and image analysis will

  17. Vectors for Inhaled Gene Therapy in Lung Cancer. Application for Nano Oncology and Safety of Bio Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarogouldis, Paul; Karamanos, Nikos K.; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Domvri, Kalliopi; Huang, Haidong; Hohenforst-Schimdt, Wolfgang; Goldberg, Eugene P.; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Novel aerosol therapeutic modalities have been investigated for lung cancer. Inhaled gene therapy has presented safety and effectiveness previously in cystic fibrosis. However, safety concerns have been raised regarding the safety of non-viral vectors for inhaled gene therapy in lung cancer, and therefore small steps have been made towards this multifunctional treatment modality. During the last decade, numerous new nanocomplexes have been created and investigated as a safe gene delivery nano-vehicle. These formulations are multifunctional; they can be used as either local therapy or carrier for an effective inhaled gene therapy for lung cancer. Herein, we present current and future perspectives of nanocomplexes for inhaled gene therapy treatment in lung cancer. PMID:23109824

  18. Setting Research Priorities for Kidney Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer M; Bhatt, Jaimin; Avery, Jonathan; Laupacis, Andreas; Cowan, Katherine; Basappa, Naveen S; Basiuk, Joan; Canil, Christina; Al-Asaaed, Sohaib; Heng, Daniel Y C; Wood, Lori; Stacey, Dawn; Kollmannsberger, Christian; Jewett, Michael A S

    2017-12-01

    Defining disease-specific research priorities in cancer can facilitate better allocation of limited resources. Involving patients and caregivers as well as expert clinicians in this process is of value. We undertook this approach for kidney cancer as an example. The Kidney Cancer Research Network of Canada sponsored a collaborative consensus-based priority-setting partnership that identified ten research priorities in the management of kidney cancer. These are discussed in the context of current initiatives and gaps in knowledge. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. National nanotechnology partnership to protect workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir

    2009-10-01

    Nanotechnology is predicted to improve many aspects of human life. By 2015, it is estimated to represent 3.1 trillion in manufactured goods. Data is emerging that exposure to nanomaterials may pose a health risk to workers. If the economic promise of nanotechnology is to be achieved, ways need to be found to protect nanotechnology workers now. The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHAct) gave the responsibility to protect workers to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) through research, standards adoption, and standards enforcement. Since 1980, adopting new occupational health standards has grown more complex. The increased complexity has greatly slowed efforts to adopt protective standards for toxic agents that are well-known to pose significant risks. The likelihood of rapidly adopting standards to protect workers from nanomaterials, whose risks are just emerging, seems even more unlikely. Use of the OSHAct's general duty clause to protect workers also seems uncertain at this time. In the interim, a national partnership led by NIOSH involving nanotech manufacturers and downstream users, workers, academic researchers, safety, and health practitioners is proposed. A National Nanotechnology Partnership would generate knowledge about the nature and the extent of worker risk, utilize that knowledge to develop risk control strategies to protect nanotechnology workers now, and provide an evidence base for NIOSH recommendations to OSHA for a nanotechnology program standard at a future date.

  20. ACCELERATING NANO-TECHNOLOGICAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    By viewing the construction industry as a technological innovation system (TIS) this paper discusses possible initiatives to accelerate nanotechnological innovations. The point of departure is a recent report on the application of nano-technology in the Danish construction industry, which concludes...... of the system are furthermore poorly equipped at identifying potentials within high-tech areas. In order to exploit the potentials of nano-technology it is thus argued that an alternative TIS needs to be established. Initiatives should identify and support “incubation rooms” or marked niches in order...

  1. [Nanotechnology, nanomedicine and nanopharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Pedro Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    Based on Nanotechnology methods, Nanomedicine and Nanotecnology will obtain significant advances in areas such as Diagnostic, Regenerative Medicine and pharmacological Therapeutics. With nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems,important improvement on pharmacokinetics of drugs will take place, due to increased solubility, protection against decrease in drug effects due to excessive metabolism and subsequent increase of bioavailability. Improvement on pharmacodynamic parameters will occur also due to increased drug concentration in target tissues. Also the use of Nanotechnology in the modern pharmacology will serve for a more accurate control of doses, which will decrease significantly drug toxicity.

  2. Laboratory Animal Technician | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP) provides exceptional quality animal care and technical support services for animal research performed at the National Cancer Institute at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research. LASP executes this mission by providing a broad spectrum of state-of-the-art technologies and services that are focused

  3. Communications Specialist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be part of our mission to support research against cancer. We have an exciting opportunity for a talented communicator to join our team and be part of the effort to find cures for cancer. We are looking for a creative, team-oriented communications professional, with strong writing skills to publicize our research advances, employment and training opportunities and clinical

  4. [Nanotechnology--possibilities and hazards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snopczyński, Tomasz; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Czaja, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Hernik, Agnieszka; Korcz, Wojciech; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles are the objects with at least one demension smaller than 100 nm. Nanoparticles exist in nature or can be produced by human activities, intentionally or unintentionally. Nanotechnology is an emerging science involving manipulation of matter at nanometer scale. Nanoparticles find numerous applications in many fields, starting with electronics, throught medicine, cosmetology, and ending with automotive industry and construction industry. Depending on the use of nanoparticles, the routes of exposure may be inhalation, dermal, oral or parenteral. Nanoparticles have a greater active surface area per unit mass than larger particles. Together with an increase of surface area, toxicity and potential health effects may also increase. Toxicity of nanoparticles depend on many factors, for example: size, shape, chemical composition, solubility, surface area and surface charge. Risk assessment related to human health, should be integrated at all stages of the life cycle of the nanotechnology, starting at the point of conception and including research and development, manufacturing, distribution, use and disposal or recycling.

  5. Application of Radiation in Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, D.K.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Michalik, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Nanotechnology is one of the fastest growing new areas in science and engineering. The subject arises from the convergence of electronics, physics, chemistry, biology and materials science to create new functional systems of nano-scale dimensions. Nanotechnology deals with science and technology associated with dimensions in the range of 0.1 to 100 nm. The ability to fabricate structures with nano-metric precision is of fundamental importance to any exploitation of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is predicted to have a major impact on the manufacturing technology in 20 to 30 years from now. The ability to fabricate structures with nano-metric precision is of fundamental importance to any exploitation of nanotechnology. The potential of combining radiation effects with nano-materials has been recognized from the very early stages of nano-science research. In the many uses of nano- structures, and nano-particles in particular, from catalysis, bio-sensing, nano-electronics, magnetic applications including separations, mechano-chemical conversion, and to molecular computing, radiation can play a significant role. The use of radiation, UV beam, electron-beam, or focused ion-beam is clearly central to the fabrication of the nanostructured systems. The relative advantages and deficiencies of each of them are still to be clarified as the technology advances. Whether UV or electron beam will lead to the highest resolution is still debated but it is clear that these techniques offer unmatched reproducibility and very narrow size distribution. Other studies concern formation and synthesis of nano-particles and nano-composites. Radiation synthesis of copper, silver and other metals' nanoparticles is studied. Metal and salt-polymer composites are synthesized by this method. Metal sulphide semiconductors of nano-metric matrices are prepared using gamma irradiation of a suitable solution of monomer, sulphur and metal sources. These products find application in photoluminescent

  6. Inequality gaps in nanotechnology development in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Foladori

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been spurred by science, technology and innovation policies in most Latin American countries since the last decade. Public policies and funding have been accompanied by a common rhetoric, highlighting the potential of nanotechnology for increasing competitiveness and growth and providing the region with more efficient and innovative products. Based on an assessment of nanotechnology policies and capabilities in nine countries this article highlights three characteristics of nanotechnology in Latin America that might hinder its contribution to an equitable development within the region. The first characteristic is the conspicuous trend towards an intra-regional gap in capacity building as a result of the unequal historical development of science and technology among these countries and the large differences in equipment and financial resources devoted to nanotechnology.  The second characteristic is the strength of “international signals” vis-à-vis the national needs in the orientation of nanotechnology. On the one hand, nanotechnology is main and foremost oriented to achieve international competitiveness, which may lead its development to international market demands. On the other hand, nanotechnology research in Latin American countries has been configured within internationalized academic networks, which may influence local research agendas towards foreign research priorities. The third characteristic is the absence of research on potential impacts of nanotechnology on human health and the environment, as well as other societal implications, which may generate new forms of unequal distribution of benefits and risks.

  7. Nanotechnology, ethics and nanoethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishatkina, T.V.; Vishnevskaya, Yu.A.

    2014-01-01

    The necessity of creating a new field of applied Ethics – Nanoethics - is justified by specificity and magnitude of potential hazards and risks associated with the development and use of nanotechnology. (authors)

  8. Carbon Based Nanotechnology: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews publicly available information related to carbon based nanotechnology. Topics covered include nanomechanics, carbon based electronics, nanodevice/materials applications, nanotube motors, nano-lithography and H2O storage in nanotubes.

  9. Future of Computing. Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Frant

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a field of applied science and technology covering a broad range of topics. The impetus for nanotechnology has stemmed from a renewed interest in colloidal science, coupled with a new generation of analytical tools such as the atomic force microscope (AFM and the scanning tunneling microscope (STM. Combined with refined processes such as electron beam lithography, these instruments allow the deliberate manipulation of nanostructures, and in turn led to the observation of novel phenomena.

  10. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...... technological field which covers many aspects. The chapter therefore seeks to provide a framework for addressing relevant issues of green nanoconstruction and to bring an overview and illustrative examples of current early developments....

  11. Effect of Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    D.Baswaraj; Vasanthi,; Sareddy Deepthi; Mohammad Zainuddin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we will put forward the vast effect on nanotechnology in various fields. A basic definition of Nanotechnology is the study manipulation and manufacture of extremely minute machines or devices. The future of technology at times becomes easier to predict. Computers will compute faster, materials will become stronger and medicine will cure more diseases .the technology that works at the nanometer scale of molecules and atoms will be a large part of this future, enabling great impr...

  12. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Sacha, Gómez Moñivas; Varona, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Nanotechnology. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Nanotechnology 24.45 (2013): 452002 During the last decade there has been an incre...

  13. Nanotechnology for telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Anwar, Sohail; Qazi, Salahuddin; Ilyas, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    With its unique promise to revolutionize science, engineering, technology, and other fields, nanotechnology continues to profoundly impact associated materials, components, and systems, particularly those used in telecommunications. These developments are leading to easier convergence of related technologies, massive storage data, compact storage devices, and higher-performance computing. Nanotechnology for Telecommunications presents vital technical scientific information to help readers grasp issues and challenges associated with nanoscale telecommunication system development and commerciali

  14. Taking nanotechnology to schools

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2005-01-01

    After a primer on nanotechnology and a review of current educational practices in secondary schools, the concept of just-in-time education is proposed to integrate technosciences and humanities so that both future technoscientists and non-technoscientists develop a common understanding, possibly even a common language, to deal with social, ethical, legal, and political issues that arise from the development of nanotechnology and its convergence with other technoscientific developments.

  15. The governance of nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Whitman

    2007-01-01

    Despite the promises made for nanotechology, its direction and momentum as it has developed to date already pose very considerable problems of regulation and control in quite fundamental ways. This article will review these difficulties under four themes. First, the principal agents for framing governance agreements (states) are also the principal proponents of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Second, the speed of new advances in nanotechnology and the reach of their implications are already o...

  16. Commercialization of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, David W

    2009-01-01

    The emerging and potential commercial applications of nanotechnologies clearly have great potential to significantly advance and even potentially revolutionize various aspects of medical practice and medical product development. Nanotechnology is already touching upon many aspects of medicine, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, clinical diagnostics, nanomedicines, and the use of nanomaterials in medical devices. This technology is already having an impact; many products are on the market and a growing number is in the pipeline. Momentum is steadily building for the successful development of additional nanotech products to diagnose and treat disease; the most active areas of product development are drug delivery and in vivo imaging. Nanotechnology is also addressing many unmet needs in the pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their bioavailability or toxicity profiles. The advancement of medical nanotechnology is expected to advance over at least three different generations or phases, beginning with the introduction of simple nanoparticulate and nanostructural improvements to current product and process types, then eventually moving on to nanoproducts and nanodevices that are limited only by the imagination and limits of the technology itself. This review looks at some recent developments in the commercialization of nanotechnology for various medical applications as well as general trends in the industry, and explores the nanotechnology industry that is involved in developing medical products and procedures with a view toward technology commercialization. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Uncertainties of nanotechnology: environmental and health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado Ramos, Giancarlo

    2007-01-01

    The nanotechnology, as any leading edge technology, develops in the border of the unknown thing and, as such, it provokes a degree of uncertainty. On having manipulated the matter to a nanometric scale (thousand millionth of a meter), the potential risks suggest to be not only relatively unpredictable, but also imperceptible to our senses. In such a tenor, evaluating the eventual implications of the nanotechnological progress is a very complex task. And even more if we take into consideration all ethic, legal, socioeconomic, environmental and health issues. The present article evaluates studies and discourses related to promises about the use of nanostructures and their environmental impact. It also treats health impact by evaluating nanotechnology to medicine application, nano make-up and new cancer treatment.

  18. Cancer Genetics and Signaling | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer, Genetics, and Signaling (CGS) Group at the National Cancer Institute at Frederick  offers a competitive postdoctoral training and mentoring program focusing on molecular and genetic aspects of cancer. The CGS Fellows Program is designed to attract and train exceptional postdoctoral fellows interested in pursuing independent research career tracks. CGS Fellows participate in a structured mentoring program designed for scientific and career development and transition to independent positions.

  19. Researching the experience of kidney cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K

    2002-09-01

    The author's personal experience as a kidney cancer patient, researcher and founder of a kidney cancer support group forms the basis for consideration of the challenges involved in researching patients' experiences. The researcher needs to understand the variability of those experiences in both clinical and psychological-emotional terms, and in relation to the personal, familial and social contexts of the patient. It is also essential to define the purpose of the research and to show how an understanding of personal experiences of cancer can be used to enhance the quality of care for cancer patients. The research encounter with a patient is also in some respects a therapeutic encounter requiring a considerable degree of sensitivity on the part of the researcher. The person-centred approach of Carl Rogers is of value in supporting such an encounter.

  20. The National Nanotechnology Initiative. Research and Development Leading to a Revolution in Technology and Industry. Supplement to the President's 2006 Budget

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) is a multi-agency U.S. Government program aimed at accelerating the discovery, development, and deployment of nanoscale science, engineering, and technology...

  1. Application of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissokov, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: In the present report, we give a brief description of the present state, development, and application of nanotechnologies (NT) and nanomaterials (NM) in some key industries, such as chemical industry and power industry (nanocatalysts, and nanocatalysis, hydrogen storage and fuel cells, artificial photosynthesis and Gratzel's cell, energy efficiency, energy storage); fabrication of consolidated nanostructures (ceramic nano-materials, nanostructured coatings, production of low-combustibility plastics, nanostructured hard materials, nanostructures with colossal magnetoresistance); fabrication of ultra-high strength carbon fibres; nano-technologies for environmental protection (adsorption of heavy metals by self-ordered self-organized nano-structure ensembles, photocatalyric purification of liquids, fabrication of mesoporous materials, application of nanoporous polymers for water purification, nanoparticles and environment); medical applications; military applications and fight against terrorism; household applications; energetic and some other [1-7].; In 2010, the European Union and the governments of the USA and Japan each invested over $ 2 billion in nanoscience, which is ample evidence to substantiate the claim that the 21 st century will be the century of nanotechnologies. Some of the optimistic forecasts predict that in 2014 the total revenues from NT will exceed those brought by the information technologies and telecommunications combined. At present, more than 800 companies are involved in R&TD in this field (including giants such as Intel, IBM, Samsung, and Mitsubishi) while more than ten Nobel prizes were awarded for research in nanoscience

  2. Quality Control Specialist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the Leidos Biomedical Research Inc.’s Clinical Research Directorate, the Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides high-quality comprehensive and strategic operational support to the high-profile domestic and international clinical research initiatives of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID),

  3. 78 FR 60319 - Request for Information: NNI Nanotechnology for Sensors and Sensors for Nanotechnology Signature...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY NATIONAL NANOTECHNOLOGY COORDINATION OFFICE Request for Information: NNI Nanotechnology for Sensors and Sensors for Nanotechnology Signature Initiative ACTION: Notice... the value of the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) and of the Nanotechnology Signature...

  4. Research Areas: Causes of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the exposures and risk factors that cause cancer, as well as the genetic abnormalities associated with the disease, has helped us to reduce certain exposures and to ameliorate their harmful effects.

  5. NCI Cancer Research Data Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic explaining NCI’s present and future efforts to promote a culture of sharing data—clinical, genomic, proteomic, imaging, patient histories, and outcomes data—among stakeholders to impact cancer care.

  6. Retractions in cancer research: a systematic survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzo, Anthony; Bali, Kamal; Evaniew, Nathan; Ghert, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Background The annual number of retracted publications in the scientific literature is rapidly increasing. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and reason for retraction of cancer publications and to determine how journals in the cancer field handle retracted articles. Methods We searched three online databases (MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library) from database inception until 2015 for retracted journal publications related to cancer research. For each article, the re...

  7. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    kinase inhibition on ERK activity in breast cancer cells, the role of the calpain proteolytic pathway in breast cancer-induced cachexia , and the...research training; breast cancer; fatty acids and prevention; nutrition and prevention; alternative prevention 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...growth. In in vivo experiments, mice were fed diets that were rich in either omega-3 (fish oil) or omega-6 (corn oil) fatty acids. Three weeks after

  8. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    pathways underlying pathological cell proliferation in the setting of cancer. Current efforts are focused on selecting RNA aptamers to antigens...of restaurants ranging from fast food to fine dining. Application to the Program - Application forms, distributed with this brochure...pathological cell proliferation in the setting of cancer. Current efforts are focused on selecting RNA aptamers to antigens expressed on the surface of target

  9. Nanotechnology between the lab and the shop floor: what are the effects on labor?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Invernizzi, Noela, E-mail: noela.invernizzi@gmail.com [Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Science and Technology Innovation Program (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Nanotechnology's effects on labor and employment have received little attention within research and debates on the social implications of nanotechnology. This article shows that, in spite of its incipient development, nanotechnology is unquestionably moving toward manufacturing, involving a still very small but increasing component of the labor force. Based on secondary data and the literature review, I compose a picture of the emerging jobs in nanotechnology and highlight four emerging trends in nanotechnology workers' skills requirements. I show that, in addition to job creation, nanotechnology diffusion is likely to pose labor market changes that may be disruptive for some categories of workers.

  10. The future of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Visions of self-replicating nanomachines that could devour the Earth in a 'grey goo' are probably wide of the mark, but 'radical nanotechnology' could still deliver great benefits to society. The question is how best to achieve this goal. What we could call 'incremental nanotechnology' involves improving the properties of many materials by controlling their nano-scale structure. Plastics, for example, can be reinforced using nano-scale clay particles, making them stronger, stiffer and more chemically resistant. Cosmetics can be formulated such that the oil phase is much more finely dispersed, thereby improving the feel of the product on the skin. These are the sorts of commercially available products that are said to be based on nanotechnology. The science underlying them is sophisticated and the products are often big improvements on what has gone before. However, they do not really represent a decisive break from the past. In 'evolutionary nanotechnology' we move beyond simple materials that have been redesigned at the nano-scale to actual nano-scale devices that do something interesting. Such devices can, for example, sense the environment, process information or convert energy from one form to another. They include nano-scale sensors, which exploit the huge surface area of carbon nanotubes and other nano-structured materials to detect environmental contaminants or biochemicals. Other products of evolutionary nanotechnology are semiconductor nanostructures - such as quantum dots and quantum wells - that are being used to build better solid-state lasers. Scientists are also developing ever more sophisticated ways of encapsulating molecules and delivering them on demand for targeted drug delivery. Taken together, incremental and evolutionary nanotechnology are driving the current excitement in industry and academia for all things nano-scale. The biggest steps are currently being made in evolutionary nanotechnology, more and more products of which should appear on

  11. Staff Clinician | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Neuro-Oncology Branch (NOB), Center for Cancer Research (CCR), National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH) is seeking staff clinicians to provide high-quality patient care for individuals with primary central nervous system (CNS) malignancies.  The NOB is comprised of a multidisciplinary team of physicians, healthcare providers, and scientists who

  12. Researchers studying alternative to bladder removal for bladder cancer patients | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new phase I clinical trial conducted by researchers at the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) is evaluating the safety and tolerability, or the degree to which any side effects can be tolerated by patients, of a two-drug combination as a potential alternative to bladder removal for bladder cancer patients. The trial targets patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) whose cancers have stopped responding to traditional therapies. Read more...

  13. NANOTECHNOLOGY WHITE PAPER | Science Inventory | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating materials at the atomic and molecular level to develop new or enhanced materials and products. In December 2004, EPA’s Science Policy Council created a cross-Agency workgroup to identify and describe the issues EPA must address to ensure protection of human health and the environment as this new technology is developed. The draft white paper on nanotechnology is the product of the workgroup. The draft white paper describes the technology, and provides a discussion of the potential environmental benefits of nanotechnology and its applications that can foster sustainable use of resources. Risk management issues and the Agency’s statutory mandates are outlined, followed by an extensive discussion of risk assessment issues. The paper identifies research needs for both environmental applications and implications of nanotechnology and concludes with recommendations on next steps for addressing science policy issues and research needs. Supplemental information is provided in a number of appendices. The Agency will use the white paper to address research needs and risk assessment issues concerning nanotechnology. The draft white paper will undergo independent expert review, which will be conducted in the February time frame. All public comments received by January 31, 2006 will be submitted to the external review panel for their consideration. Comments received beyond that time will be considered by EPA. Follo

  14. Colloid and interface chemistry for nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Kralchevsky, Peter; Ravera, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Colloid and interface science dealt with nanoscale objects for nearly a century before the term nanotechnology was coined. An interdisciplinary field, it bridges the macroscopic world and the small world of atoms and molecules. Colloid and Interface Chemistry for Nanotechnology is a collection of manuscripts reflecting the activities of research teams that have been involved in the networking project Colloid and Interface Chemistry for Nanotechnology (2006-2011), Action D43, the European Science Foundation. The project was a part of the intergovernmental framework for Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST), allowing the coordination of nationally funded research across Europe. With contributions by leading experts, this book covers a wide range of topics. Chapters are grouped into three sections: "Nanoparticle Synthesis and Characterization," "New Experimental Tools and Interpretation," and "Nanocolloidal Dispersions and Interfaces." The topics covered belong to six basic research areas: (1) The synthes...

  15. Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies in nuclear energy chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, W.Q.; Yuan, L.Y.; Li, Z.J.; Lan, J.H.; Zhao, Y.L.; Chai, Z.F.

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid growth of human demands for nuclear energy and in response to the challenges of nuclear energy development, the world's major nuclear countries have started research and development work on advanced nuclear energy systems in which new materials and new technologies are considered to play important roles. Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies, which have gained extensive attention in recent years, have shown a wide range of application potentials in future nuclear energy system. In this review, the basic research progress in nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for advanced nuclear fuel fabrication, spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, nuclear waste disposal and nuclear environmental remediation is selectively highlighted, with the emphasis on Chinese research achievements. In addition, the challenges and opportunities of nanomaterials and nanotechnologies in future advanced nuclear energy system are also discussed. (orig.)

  16. Flow Cytometry Technician | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Basic Science Program (BSP) pursues independent, multidisciplinary research in basic and applied molecular biology, immunology, retrovirology, cancer biology, and human genetics. Research efforts and support are an integral part of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR). KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES The Flow Cytometry Core (Flow Core) of the Cancer and Inflammation Program (CIP) is a service core which supports the research efforts of the CCR by providing expertise in the field of flow cytometry (using analyzers and sorters) with the goal of gaining a more thorough understanding of the biology of cancer and cancer cells. The Flow Core provides service to 12-15 CIP laboratories and more than 22 non-CIP laboratories. Flow core staff provide technical advice on the experimental design of applications, which include immunological phenotyping, cell function assays, and cell cycle analysis. Work is performed per customer requirements, and no independent research is involved. The Flow Cytometry Technician will be responsible for: Monitor performance of and maintain high dimensional flow cytometer analyzers and cell sorters Operate high dimensional flow cytometer analyzers and cell sorters Monitoring lab supply levels and order lab supplies, perform various record keeping responsibilities Assist in the training of scientific end users on the use of flow cytometry in their research, as well as how to operate and troubleshoot the bench-top analyzer instruments Experience with sterile technique and tissue culture

  17. Location | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research campus is located 50 miles northwest of Washington, D.C., and 50 miles west of Baltimore, Maryland, in Frederick, Maryland. Satellite locations include leased and government facilities extending s

  18. DCB - Cancer Immunology, Hematology, and Etiology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology’s research portfolio, studies supported include the characterization of basic mechanisms relevant to anti-tumor immune responses and hematologic malignancies.

  19. Statistical Tutorial | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in cancer biology have resulted in the need for increased statistical analysis of research data.  ST is designed as a follow up to Statistical Analysis of Research Data (SARD) held in April 2018.  The tutorial will apply the general principles of statistical analysis of research data including descriptive statistics, z- and t-tests of means and mean

  20. CCR Interns | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Research Interns (CRI) Summer Program was inaugurated in 2004 to provide an open door for students looking for an initial training opportunity. The goal is to enhance diversity within the CCR (Center for Cancer Research) training program and we have placed 338 students from 2004 to 2017, in labs and branches across the division.  The CCR and the Center for Cancer Training’s Office of Training and Education provide stipend support, some Service & Supply funds, and travel support for those students who meet the financial eligibility criteria (

  1. Nanotechnology and Life Cycle Assessment. A systems approach to Nanotechnology and the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klöpffer, Walter; Curran, Mary Ann; Frankl, Paolo

    This report summarizes the results of “Nanotechnology and Life Cycle Assessment,” a twoday workshop jointly convened by the Woodrow Wilson Center Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies; the United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development; and the European Commission......, RTD.G4 “Nano S&T: Converging Science and Technologies.” Held in October 2006, the workshop involved international experts from the fields of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and nanotechnology. The main program of the workshop consisted of introductory lectures, group discussions and a final plenary...... identified and discussed by the groups. The purpose of the workshop was to determine whether existing LCA tools and methods are adequate to use on a new technology. This document provides an overview of LCA and nanotechnology, discusses the current state of the art, identifies current knowledge gaps that may...

  2. Consumer attitudes towards nanotechnologies applied to food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Gupta, N.; George, S.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Giles, E.L.; Coles, D.G.

    2014-01-01

    The literature on public perceptions of, and attitudes towards, nanotechnology used in the agrifood sector is reviewed. Research into consumer perceptions and attitudes has focused on general applications of nanotechnology, rather than within the agrifood sector. Perceptions of risk and benefit

  3. Nanotechnology: An Untapped Resource for Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Dhiman, Romika; Rokana, Namita; Panwar, Harsh

    2017-01-01

    Food commodities are packaged and hygienically transported to protect and preserve them from any un-acceptable alteration in quality, before reaching the end-consumer. Food packaging continues to evolve along-with the innovations in material science and technology, as well as in light of consumer's demand. Presently, the modern consumers of competitive economies demands for food with natural quality, assured safety, minimal processing, extended shelf-life and ready-to-eat concept. Innovative packaging systems, not only ascertains transit preservation and effective distribution, but also facilitates communication at the consumer levels. The technological advances in the domain of food packaging in twenty-first century are mainly chaired by nanotechnology, the science of nano-materials. Nanotechnology manipulates and creates nanometer scale materials, of commercial and scientific relevance. Introduction of nanotechnology in food packaging sector has significantly addressed the food quality, safety and stability concerns. Besides, nanotechnology based packaging intimate's consumers about the real time quality of food product. Additionally, nanotechnology has been explored for controlled release of preservatives/antimicrobials, extending the product shelf life within the package. The promising reports for nanotechnology interventions in food packaging have established this as an independent priority research area. Nanoparticles based food packages offer improved barrier and mechanical properties, along with food preservation and have gained welcoming response from market and end users. In contrary, recent advances and up-liftment in this area have raised various ethical, environmental and safety concerns. Policies and regulation regarding nanoparticles incorporation in food packaging are being reviewed. This review presents the existing knowledge, recent advances, concerns and future applications of nanotechnology in food packaging sector.

  4. Electron Microscopist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Cancer Research Technology Program (CRTP) develops and implements emerging technology, cancer biology expertise and research capabilities to accomplish NCI research objectives. The CRTP is an outward-facing, multi-disciplinary hub purposed to enable the external cancer research community and provides dedicated support to NCI’s intramural Center for Cancer Research (CCR). The dedicated units provide electron microscopy, protein characterization, protein expression, optical microscopy and genetics. These research efforts are an integral part of CCR at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR). CRTP scientists also work collaboratively with intramural NCI investigators to provide research technologies and expertise. KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES - THIS POSITION IS CONTINGENT UPON FUNDING APPROVAL The Electron Microscopist will: Operate ultramicrotomes (Leica) and other instrumentation related to the preparation of embedded samples for EM (TEM and SEM) Operate TEM microscopes, (specifically Hitachi, FEI T20 and FEI T12) as well as SEM microscopes (Hitachi); task will include loading samples, screening, and performing data collection for a variety of samples: from cells to proteins Manage maintenance for the TEM and SEM microscopes Provide technical advice to investigators on sample preparation and data collection

  5. JRCAT - A Nanotechnology Center in Tsukuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kazunobu

    2000-01-01

    Joint Research Center for Atom Technology (JRCAT) and its Atom Technology Project are described. The project covers a wide range of research subjects; manipulation of atoms and molecules, formation of nanostructures of semiconductors, spin electronics and first-principles calculation of dynamic processes of atoms and molecules on solid-state surfaces. Several recent achievements on nanotechnology and nanoscience are roughly sketched

  6. Broadening nanotechnology's impact on development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, K.

    2016-01-01

    Discussions about nanotechnology and development focus on applications that directly address the needs of the world’s poor. Nanotechnology can certainly make an impact in the fight against global poverty, but we need to broaden our imagination.

  7. Nanotechnology in Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetisen, Ali K; Qu, Hang; Manbachi, Amir; Butt, Haider; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Hinestroza, Juan P; Skorobogatiy, Maksim; Khademhosseini, Ali; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-03-22

    Increasing customer demand for durable and functional apparel manufactured in a sustainable manner has created an opportunity for nanomaterials to be integrated into textile substrates. Nanomoieties can induce stain repellence, wrinkle-freeness, static elimination, and electrical conductivity to fibers without compromising their comfort and flexibility. Nanomaterials also offer a wider application potential to create connected garments that can sense and respond to external stimuli via electrical, color, or physiological signals. This review discusses electronic and photonic nanotechnologies that are integrated with textiles and shows their applications in displays, sensing, and drug release within the context of performance, durability, and connectivity. Risk factors including nanotoxicity, nanomaterial release during washing, and environmental impact of nanotextiles based on life cycle assessments have been evaluated. This review also provides an analysis of nanotechnology consolidation in the textiles market to evaluate global trends and patent coverage, supplemented by case studies of commercial products. Perceived limitations of nanotechnology in the textile industry and future directions are identified.

  8. Nanotechnology in Radiation Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrew Z.; Tepper, Joel E.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on atomic and molecular scales, is a relatively new branch of science. It has already made a significant impact on clinical medicine, especially in oncology. Nanomaterial has several characteristics that are ideal for oncology applications, including preferential accumulation in tumors, low distribution in normal tissues, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and clearance, that differ from those of small molecules. Because these properties are also well suited for applications in radiation oncology, nanomaterials have been used in many different areas of radiation oncology for imaging and treatment planning, as well as for radiosensitization to improve the therapeutic ratio. In this article, we review the unique properties of nanomaterials that are favorable for oncology applications and examine the various applications of nanotechnology in radiation oncology. We also discuss the future directions of nanotechnology within the context of radiation oncology. PMID:25113769

  9. The track nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, A.; Forsyth, D.; Watts, A.; Saad, A.F.; Mitchell, G.R.; Farmer, M.; Harris, P.J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The discipline now called Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) dates back to 1958 and has its roots in the United Kingdom. Its strength stems chiefly from factors such as its simplicity, small geometry, permanent maintenance of the nuclear record and other diversified applications. A very important field with exciting applications reported recently in conjuction with the nuclear track technique is nanotechnology, which has applications in biology, chemistry, industry, medicare and health, information technology, biotechnology, and metallurgical and chemical technologies. Nanotechnology requires material design followed by the study of the quantum effects for final produced applications in sensors, medical diagnosis, information technology to name a few. We, in this article, present a review of past and present applications of SSNTD suggesting ways to apply the technique in nanotechnology, with special reference to development of nanostructure for applications utilising nanowires, nanofilters and sensors.

  10. The track nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, A. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom); Forsyth, D., E-mail: dforsyth@bite.ac.u [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Watts, A. [Department of Physics, UCL, London Centre of Nanotechnology (LCN), 17-19 Gordon Street, London WC1H OAH (United Kingdom); Saad, A.F. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Garyounis University, Benghazi (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Mitchell, G.R. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom); Farmer, M. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Harris, P.J.F. [Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    The discipline now called Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) dates back to 1958 and has its roots in the United Kingdom. Its strength stems chiefly from factors such as its simplicity, small geometry, permanent maintenance of the nuclear record and other diversified applications. A very important field with exciting applications reported recently in conjuction with the nuclear track technique is nanotechnology, which has applications in biology, chemistry, industry, medicare and health, information technology, biotechnology, and metallurgical and chemical technologies. Nanotechnology requires material design followed by the study of the quantum effects for final produced applications in sensors, medical diagnosis, information technology to name a few. We, in this article, present a review of past and present applications of SSNTD suggesting ways to apply the technique in nanotechnology, with special reference to development of nanostructure for applications utilising nanowires, nanofilters and sensors.

  11. NANOTECHNOLOGY AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Mašić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We can say that sports are continuously evolving. To improve the quality of this work, changes are being made in all of these segments: development and selection of athletes, the improvement of technology for preparation and performance tactics, training methods for relaxation. On the other hand these are followed by rule changes, modern sports facilities, as well as legal regulations. One direction in the improvement of sports results is an attempt at rational spending of existing resources for athletes, regardless of whether in team or individual sports. Nanotechnology is also contributioning toward this direction. This paper points out the appearance of nanotechnology, its essence, i.e., the way it may effect the development of sports. Of course, it also points to the potential risk of applying nanotechnology to sports.

  12. The industrial relevance of nanotechnology and nanomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porcari, Andrea; Mantovani, Elvio

    2015-01-01

    The article consists of four parts: a brief summary of the EU policy for nanotechnology and for Key Enabling Technologies; a general information framework, including definitions, fields of application, on production and market data; a general examination of the actors and of the application areas in Italy; conclusions. Nanotechnology, along with five other Key Enabling Technologies (Kets), have been identified as the engine for industrial growth in Europe within the Horizon 2020 program and other EU initiatives. These technologies promise to have a growing impact on materials, tools and processes through a great variety of industries important to the Italian economy and the European one. Nanotechnology is still largely a phase of research and development and other challenges are still to be solved for their full value. The Innovation and Research Manager are among those challenges, and are critical to their success [it

  13. The long view of nanotechnology development: the National Nanotechnology Initiative at 10 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, Mihail C.

    2011-01-01

    A global scientific and societal endeavor was set in motion by the nanotechnology vision formulated in 1999 that inspired the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) and other national and international R and D programs. Establishing foundational knowledge at the nanoscale has been the main focus of the nanotechnology research community in the first decade. As of 2009, this new knowledge underpinned about a quarter of a trillion dollars worldwide market, of which about $91 billion was in US products that incorporate nanoscale components. Nanotechnology is already evolving toward becoming a general-purpose technology by 2020, encompassing four generations of products with increasing structural and dynamic complexity: (1) passive nanostructures, (2) active nanostructures, (3) nanosystems, and (4) molecular nanosystems. By 2020, the increasing integration of nanoscale science and engineering knowledge and of nanosystems promises mass applications of nanotechnology in industry, medicine, and computing, and in better comprehension and conservation of nature. Nanotechnology’s rapid development worldwide is a testimony to the transformative power of identifying a concept or trend and laying out a vision at the synergistic confluence of diverse scientific research areas. This chapter provides a brief perspective on the development of the NNI since 2000 in the international context, the main outcomes of the R and D programs after 10 years, the governance aspects specific to this emerging field, lessons learned, and most importantly, how the nanotechnology community should prepare for the future.

  14. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology impact on sensors Nanotechnology impact on sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Jürgen

    2009-10-01

    A sensor is a device that responds to a stimulus by generating a functional output induced by a change in some intrinsic properties. We are surrounded by sensors and sensing networks that monitor a multitude of parameters in view of enhancing our safety and quality of life. Sensors assist us in health care and diagnostics, they monitor our environment, our aeroplanes and automobiles, our mobile phones, game consoles and watches, and last but not least, many of our human body functions. Modern sensing systems have greatly benefited in recent decades from advances in microelectronics and microengineering, mainly in view of making sensors smaller, cheaper, more sensitive, more selective, and with a better signal-to-noise ratio, following classical scaling rules. So how about nanotechnology-enabled sensing? Nanoscale features have a great impact on many (though not all) sensing systems, in particular where the surface-to-volume ratio plays a fundamental role, such as in certain chemical and gas sensors. The high surface-to-volume ratios of nanoporous and nanostructured materials have led to their implementation in sensing systems since sensing research first began to engage with the nanotechnology. The surface plasmon resonances of nanostructures have also enriched the scope for developing novel sensing devices. On the other hand, sensors where bulk properties dominate, such as inertial sensors, are less likely to benefit from extreme scaling. Advances in thin film techniques and chemical synthesis have allowed material properties to be tailored to sensing requirements for enhanced performance. These bottom-up fabrication techniques enable parallel fabrication of ordered nanostructures, often in domain-like areas with molecular precision. At the same time the progress in top-down methods such as scanning probe lithography, nanoimprint lithography, soft-lithography and stencil lithography have also facilitated research into sensing and actuating nanotechnology. Although

  15. Nanotechnologies in oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alieva, M.K; Kazimov, F.K.; Ismailov, E.

    2010-01-01

    Extraction of remaining, laboriously developed oil reserves at the last stage of development of deposits require drastically improved methods of oil recovery. From this point of view it is more expedient to apply high-tech nanotechnologies. Application of metal nanoparticles in solutions consisting of conventional reagents (deemulgators, SAA and etc.) allows to improve their rheology considerably to increase permaibility and washing of highly viscous components from the smallest pores. Thus, nanofluids influence layer system on atomic-molecular-ionic level which will lead to a complex synergetic effect from the application of nanotechnologies in oil and gas production.

  16. Radiation related basic cancer research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Yoo, Young Do; Hong, Seok Il

    2000-04-01

    We studied the mechanism of radiation-induced apoptosis, the factors involved signaling, and the establishment of radiation-resistant cell lines in this study. During the TGF beta-stimulated epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT), actin rearrangement occurred first and fibronectin matrix assembly followed. These two events were considered independent since cytochalasin-D did not inhibit TGF stimulated matrix assembly and fibronectin supplementation did not induce EMT. During EMT, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and alpha v integrin have increased but MMP activation was not accompanied, which suggest that induction of extracellular matrix and activation of integrins may be main contributor for the EMT. Serum depriving induced apoptosis of HUVECs was prevented by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and PMA. The apoptosis prevention by VEGF and PMA were conformed by DNA fragmentation assay. The p53 expression level was down regulated by VEGF and PMA compared with serum deprived HUVECs. However, VEGF and PMA induces c-Myc expression level on these cells. We made the 5 radiation-resistant clones from breast, lung and cervical cancer cells. More than 70%, 100% and 50% increased resistance was detected in breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, and cervical cells, respectively. We carried out differential display-PCR to clone the radiation-resistant genes. 9 out of 10 genes were analyzed their sequence

  17. Radiation related basic cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Yoo, Young Do; Hong, Seok Il [and others

    2000-04-01

    We studied the mechanism of radiation-induced apoptosis, the factors involved signaling, and the establishment of radiation-resistant cell lines in this study. During the TGF beta-stimulated epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT), actin rearrangement occurred first and fibronectin matrix assembly followed. These two events were considered independent since cytochalasin-D did not inhibit TGF stimulated matrix assembly and fibronectin supplementation did not induce EMT. During EMT, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and alpha v integrin have increased but MMP activation was not accompanied, which suggest that induction of extracellular matrix and activation of integrins may be main contributor for the EMT. Serum depriving induced apoptosis of HUVECs was prevented by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and PMA. The apoptosis prevention by VEGF and PMA were conformed by DNA fragmentation assay. The p53 expression level was down regulated by VEGF and PMA compared with serum deprived HUVECs. However, VEGF and PMA induces c-Myc expression level on these cells. We made the 5 radiation-resistant clones from breast, lung and cervical cancer cells. More than 70%, 100% and 50% increased resistance was detected in breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, and cervical cells, respectively. We carried out differential display-PCR to clone the radiation-resistant genes. 9 out of 10 genes were analyzed their sequence.

  18. Nanotechnology tools for antibacterial materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Loris; Cingolani, Roberto; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2013-05-01

    The understanding of the interactions between biological systems and nanoengineered devices is crucial in several research fields, including tissue engineering, biomechanics, synthetic biology and biomedical devices. This review discusses the current knowledge of the interactions between bacteria and abiotic nanostructured substrates. First, the effects of randomly organized nanoscale topography on bacterial adhesion and persistence are described. Second, the interactions between microorganisms and highly organized/ordered micro- and nano-patterns are discussed. Finally, we survey the most promising approaches for the fabrication of silver polymeric nanocomposites, which have important applications as antimicrobial materials. The advantages, drawbacks and limitations of such nanotechnologies are critically discussed in view of potential future applications.

  19. Bladder tissue engineering through nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Daniel A; Sharma, Arun K; Erickson, Bradley A; Cheng, Earl Y

    2008-08-01

    The field of tissue engineering has developed in phases: initially researchers searched for "inert" biomaterials to act solely as replacement structures in the body. Then, they explored biodegradable scaffolds--both naturally derived and synthetic--for the temporary support of growing tissues. Now, a third phase of tissue engineering has developed, through the subcategory of "regenerative medicine." This renewed focus toward control over tissue morphology and cell phenotype requires proportional advances in scaffold design. Discoveries in nanotechnology have driven both our understanding of cell-substrate interactions, and our ability to influence them. By operating at the size regime of proteins themselves, nanotechnology gives us the opportunity to directly speak the language of cells, through reliable, repeatable creation of nanoscale features. Understanding the synthesis of nanoscale materials, via "top-down" and "bottom-up" strategies, allows researchers to assess the capabilities and limits inherent in both techniques. Urology research as a whole, and bladder regeneration in particular, are well-positioned to benefit from such advances, since our present technology has yet to reach the end goal of functional bladder restoration. In this article, we discuss the current applications of nanoscale materials to bladder tissue engineering, and encourage researchers to explore these interdisciplinary technologies now, or risk playing catch-up in the future.

  20. National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Manufactured Nanomaterials, supported by NIST staff in important leadership roles and coordinated with other agencies through the Global Issues in...groups are Global Issues in Nanotechnology (GIN); Nanotechnology Environmental and Health Implications (NEHI); Nanomanufacturing, Industry Liaison...existing or new working groups in terms of focus, intended participation, and scope, as reflected in the groups’ charters. Global Issues in Nanotechnology

  1. Nanotechnology as a Novel Tool in Fisheries and Aquaculture Development: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Ashraf; Md. Aklakur; Rupam Sharma; Shabir Ahmad; Mujhid Khan

    2011-01-01

    Application of nanotechnology has revolutionized many frontier areas; it is paving a way for the researchers for possible application in all sectors. Nanotechnology holds promise for various aspects of fisheries and aquaculture development, like fish health management, fish breeding, aquatic environment management and other areas. Nanotechnological intervention will help to meet the global challenges associated with aquatic organism production, including environmental sustainability, human he...

  2. Using DNA nanotechnology to produce a drug delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La, Thi Huyen; Nguyen, Thi Thu Thuy; Pham, Van Phuc; Nguyen, Thi Minh Huyen; Le, Quang Huan

    2013-01-01

    Drug delivery to cancer cells in chemotherapy is one of the most advanced research topics. The effectiveness of the current cancer treatment drugs is limited because they are not capable of distinguishing between cancer cells and normal cells so that they kill not only cancer cells but also normal ones. To overcome this disadvantage by profiting from the differences in physical and chemical properties between cancer and normal cells, nanoparticles (NPs) delivering a drug are designed in a specific manner such that they can distinguish the cancer cells from the normal ones and are targeted only to the cancer cells. Currently, there are various drug delivery systems with many advantages, but sharing some common disadvantages such as difficulty with controlling the size, low encapsulation capacity and low stability. With the development and success of DNA nanotechnology, DNA strands are used to create effective drug delivery NPs with precisely controlled size and structure, safety and high stability. This article presents our study on drug encapsulation in DNA nanostructure which loaded docetaxel and curcumin in a desire to create a new and effective drug delivery system with high biological compatibility. (paper)

  3. Cancer research priorities and gaps in Iran: the influence of cancer burden on cancer research outputs between 1997 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, A; Salimzadeh, H; Beiki, O; Delavari, F; Majidi, S; Delavari, A; Malekzadeh, R

    2017-03-01

    As a developing country, Iran is experiencing the increasing burden of cancers, which are currently the third leading cause of mortality in Iran. This study aims to demonstrate that cancer research in Iran concentrates on the cancer research priorities based on the global burden of disease (GBD) reports. Descriptive evaluation of all cancers disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) was performed using GBD data. Also a comprehensive search was conducted using cancer-associated keywords to obtain all cancer-related publications from Iran, indexed in Web of Science. Multiple regression analysis and correlation coefficients (R 2 ) were used to evaluate the possible associations between cancer research publications and GBD. During 1996-2014, the majority of cancer-related publications in Iran focused on breast cancer, leukaemia and stomach cancer, respectively. This study found hypothetical correlations between cancer publications in Iran in line with the burden of cancer as reported by GBD. Particularly, correlations between years lived with disability (YLD) and cancer-related publications were more obvious. This study introduces a new outline in setting cancer research priorities in the region. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nanofluid two-phase flow and thermal physics: a new research frontier of nanotechnology and its challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lixin; Bandarra Filho, Enio P; Thome, John R

    2008-07-01

    Nanofluids are a new class of fluids engineered by dispersing nanometer-size solid particles in base fluids. As a new research frontier, nanofluid two-phase flow and thermal physics have the potential to improve heat transfer and energy efficiency in thermal management systems for many applications, such as microelectronics, power electronics, transportation, nuclear engineering, heat pipes, refrigeration, air-conditioning and heat pump systems. So far, the study of nanofluid two-phase flow and thermal physics is still in its infancy. This field of research provides many opportunities to study new frontiers but also poses great challenges. To summarize the current status of research in this newly developing interdisciplinary field and to identify the future research needs as well, this paper focuses on presenting a comprehensive review of nucleate pool boiling, flow boiling, critical heat flux, condensation and two-phase flow of nanofluids. Even for the limited studies done so far, there are some controversies. Conclusions and contradictions on the available nanofluid studies on physical properties, two-phase flow, heat transfer and critical heat flux (CHF) are presented. Based on a comprehensive analysis, it has been realized that the physical properties of nanofluids such as surface tension, liquid thermal conductivity, viscosity and density have significant effects on the nanofluid two-phase flow and heat transfer characteristics but the lack of the accurate knowledge of these physical properties has greatly limited the study in this interdisciplinary field. Therefore, effort should be made to contribute to the physical property database of nanofluids as a first priority. Secondly, in particular, research on nanofluid two-phase flow and heat transfer in microchannels should be emphasized in the future.

  5. Nanotechnology for sustainable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Ali, A.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology and its applications have captured a worldwide market. Nanomaterials that have been developed using this technology can be incorporated into the devices so that renewable energy can be converted or generated more efficiently. Nanomaterials have the potential to change the way we generate, deliver and use energy. Hydrogen cells are used in auto industry as a viable power source. Compressed hydrogen tanks are used to supply Hydrogen, and Oxygen is used from the air directly. There is no pollution caused by hydrogen fuel cell autos since the only emission is water. Organic dyes (dye sensitizers), which are sensitive to light, can absorb a broader range of the sun's spectrum. A dye-sensitized solar cell has three primary parts. On top is a transparent anode made of fluoride-doped tin dioxide (SnO/sub 2/: F) deposited on the back typically of a glass plate. On the back of this conductive plate is a thin layer of titanium dioxide (TiO/sub 2/), which forms into a highly nanoporous structure with an extremely large surface-area. After soaking the film in the dye solution, a thin layer of the dye is left covalently bonded to the surface of the TiO/sub 2/ . Computational material science and nanoscience can play many critical roles in renewable energy research. These include: finding the right materials for hydrogen storage; finding the most reliable and efficient catalyst for water dissociation in hydrogen production; finding a cheap, environmentally benign, and stable material for efficient solar cell applications; and understanding the photo-electron process in a nanosystem, and hence helping design efficient nanostructure solar cells. (author)

  6. caNanoLab: data sharing to expedite the use of nanotechnology in biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaheen, Sharon; Hinkal, George W.; Morris, Stephanie A.; Lijowski, Michal; Heiskanen, Mervi

    2014-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology in biomedicine involves the engineering of nanomaterials to act as therapeutic carriers, targeting agents and diagnostic imaging devices. The application of nanotechnology in cancer aims to transform early detection, targeted therapeutics and cancer prevention and control. To assist in expediting and validating the use of nanomaterials in biomedicine, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology, in collaboration with the NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer (Alliance), has developed a data sharing portal called caNanoLab. caNanoLab provides access to experimental and literature curated data from the NCI Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory, the Alliance and the greater cancer nanotechnology community. PMID:25364375

  7. NCI investment in nanotechnology: achievements and challenges for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickherber, Anthony; Morris, Stephanie A; Grodzinski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers an exceptional and unique opportunity for developing a new generation of tools addressing persistent challenges to progress in cancer research and clinical care. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) recognizes this potential, which is why it invests roughly $150 M per year in nanobiotechnology training, research and development. By exploiting the various capacities of nanomaterials, the range of nanoscale vectors and probes potentially available suggests much is possible for precisely investigating, manipulating, and targeting the mechanisms of cancer across the full spectrum of research and clinical care. NCI has played a key role among federal R&D agencies in recognizing early the value of nanobiotechnology in medicine and committing to its development as well as providing training support for new investigators in the field. These investments have allowed many in the research community to pursue breakthrough capabilities that have already yielded broad benefits. Presented here is an overview of how NCI has made these investments with some consideration of how it will continue to work with this research community to pursue paradigm-changing innovations that offer relief from the burdens of cancer. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Introduction to Nanotechnology for Defense Environment, Health & Safety (EHS) and Research Professionals in Support of the Acquisition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    www.denix.osd.mil/MERIT Ultra fine particles ~50 1713- Ramazzini described black 197 4- First GMO lung disease mouse created by Jaenisch Diesel...exhaust Engineered NP _____ _,.? • GMO Technology 1985- Oberdorster described inhalation toxicity of Ti02 2003-lssue recognized by EPA, NIOSH...other agencies 2004- California pass broad ban on GMO products Growing Body of EHS Research Far-reaching implications or singular exceptions

  9. Antiproton radiation found effective in cancer research

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "An international collaboration of scientists has completed the first ever antiproton beam experiments designed to reveal the biological effectiveness of antiproton radiation in terminating cells used for cancer research...PBar Labs assembled the collaboration at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva) to perform the measurements" (1 page).

  10. Nanotechnology in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, Zoraida P.; Xu, Hengyi; Al Ogaidi, Israa; Wu, Nianqiang

    2015-01-01

    promises to bring the next wave of industrial production in various industries. Based on global market research, nanotechnology is expected to reach $1 trillion in 2015 according to the National Science Foundation in the USA. Nanotech is growing strong in the USA with the help of universities, startups and local government. This presentation will focus on various areas of nanotechnology that could benefit the academic, technology, and economic situation in the Philippines. The status of nanotechnology worldwide will be compared with that of the Philippines. (author)

  11. Perceptions and attitude effects on nanotechnology acceptance: an exploratory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh Pillai, Rajani; Bezbaruah, Achintya N.

    2017-01-01

    Existing literature in people’s attitude toward nanotechnology and acceptance of nanotechnology applications has generally investigated the impact of factors at the individual or context levels. While this vast body of research is very informative, a comprehensive understanding of how attitude toward nanotechnology are formed and factors influencing the acceptance of nanotechnology are elusive. This paper proposes an exploratory nanotechnology perception-attitude-acceptance framework (Nano-PAAF) to build a systematic understanding of the phenomenon. The framework proposes that perceptions of risks and benefits of nanotechnology are influenced by cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors. The sociodemographic factors of consumers and contextual factors mitigate the influence of cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors on the perception of risks and benefits. The perceived risks and benefits in turn influence people’s attitude toward nanotechnology, which then influences acceptance of nanotechnology products. This framework will need further development over time to incorporate emerging knowledge and is expected to be useful for researchers, decision and policy makers, industry, and business entities.

  12. Perceptions and attitude effects on nanotechnology acceptance: an exploratory framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh Pillai, Rajani, E-mail: rajani.pillai@ndsu.edu [North Dakota State University, Department of Management and Marketing, College of Business (United States); Bezbaruah, Achintya N., E-mail: a.bezbaruah@ndsu.edu [North Dakota State University, Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Existing literature in people’s attitude toward nanotechnology and acceptance of nanotechnology applications has generally investigated the impact of factors at the individual or context levels. While this vast body of research is very informative, a comprehensive understanding of how attitude toward nanotechnology are formed and factors influencing the acceptance of nanotechnology are elusive. This paper proposes an exploratory nanotechnology perception-attitude-acceptance framework (Nano-PAAF) to build a systematic understanding of the phenomenon. The framework proposes that perceptions of risks and benefits of nanotechnology are influenced by cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors. The sociodemographic factors of consumers and contextual factors mitigate the influence of cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors on the perception of risks and benefits. The perceived risks and benefits in turn influence people’s attitude toward nanotechnology, which then influences acceptance of nanotechnology products. This framework will need further development over time to incorporate emerging knowledge and is expected to be useful for researchers, decision and policy makers, industry, and business entities.

  13. Nanotechnology and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmoulin-Canselier, Sonia; Lacour, Stéphanie

    Law and nanotechnology form a vast subject. The aim here will be to examine them from the societal standpoint of nanoethics, if necessary without due reference to the work that has been undertaken. For while law differs from ethics, as we shall attempt to explain throughout this reflection, it must also be studied in its relationship with social realities.

  14. Nanotechnology in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview is given of the application of nanotechnology to agriculture. This is an active field of R&D, where a large number of findings and innovations have been reported. For example, in soil management, applications reported include nanofertilizers, soil binders, water retention aids, and nut...

  15. Nutritional and nanotechnological modulators of microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusica Maysinger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are the essential responders to alimentary, pharmacological and nanotechnological immunomodulators. These neural cells play multiple roles as surveyors, sculptors, and guardians of essential parts of complex neural circuitries. Microglia can play dual roles in the central nervous system; they can be deleterious and/or protective. The immunomodulatory effects of alimentary components, gut microbiota and nanotechnological products have been investigated in microglia at the single cell level and in vivo using intravital imaging approaches, and different biochemical assays. This review highlights some of the emerging questions and topics from studies involving alimentation, microbiota, nanotechnological products, and associated problems in this area of research. Some of the advantages and limitations of in vitro and in vivo models used to study the neuromodulatory effects of these factors, as well as the merits and pitfalls of intravital imaging modalities employed are presented.

  16. Nanotechnology: emerging tools for biology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ian Y; Bhatia, Sangeeta N; Toner, Mehmet

    2013-11-15

    Historically, biomedical research has been based on two paradigms. First, measurements of biological behaviors have been based on bulk assays that average over large populations. Second, these behaviors have then been crudely perturbed by systemic administration of therapeutic treatments. Nanotechnology has the potential to transform these paradigms by enabling exquisite structures comparable in size with biomolecules as well as unprecedented chemical and physical functionality at small length scales. Here, we review nanotechnology-based approaches for precisely measuring and perturbing living systems. Remarkably, nanotechnology can be used to characterize single molecules or cells at extraordinarily high throughput and deliver therapeutic payloads to specific locations as well as exhibit dynamic biomimetic behavior. These advances enable multimodal interfaces that may yield unexpected insights into systems biology as well as new therapeutic strategies for personalized medicine.

  17. Nanotechnology Review: Molecular Electronics to Molecular Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Reviewing the status of current approaches and future projections, as already published in scientific journals and books, the talk will summarize the direction in which computational and experimental nanotechnologies are progressing. Examples of nanotechnological approaches to the concepts of design and simulation of carbon nanotube based molecular electronic and mechanical devices will be presented. The concepts of nanotube based gears and motors will be discussed. The above is a non-technical review talk which covers long term precompetitive basic research in already published material that has been presented before many US scientific meeting audiences.

  18. An overview of the results of dissertation research in the field of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The result of the research «Nanomodified sulphurous binders for construction materials of general and special purpose» is the new methodological principles for development nanomodified sulphurous binders which are based on the consistent decomposition of quality criteria system of such materials, identification of elementary controlling receipt and technological factors through classification properties by phenomena, processes and components, scientific justification of material components choice, and then definition of experiment and statistic dependencies of influence of controlling factors on the material properties and performance of multicriterion optimization of receipt and technology for production of the material. The decomposition of quality criteria system of nanomodified sulphurous binders is based on the data about the possible application areas (chemically resistant concretes, capsulating of high toxic and radioactive wastes, seal of joints in chemically resistant coatings, etc. and requirements of GOST 4.200-78 «Quality criteria system for products. Construction. Basic regulations». Decomposition of a property (or a set of the properties by phenomena, processes and phases with identification of elementary factors is the base for identification of and ranking of controlling receipt and technological factors. Dispersed phase of nanomodified sulphurous binders has been grounded. It was shown thatit’s necessary to consider the possibility of formation of sulfide in the structure of obtained material and perform selection of raw mix taking into account the properties of forming sulfides and operation conditions of these construction materials and structures (first of all such as humidity, temperature and presence of any aggressive environments. The specialists may be also interested in the

  19. Nanotechnology: Principles and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetidis, S.

    Nanotechnology is one of the leading scientific fields today since it combines knowledge from the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Medicine, Informatics, and Engineering. It is an emerging technological field with great potential to lead in great breakthroughs that can be applied in real life. Novel nano- and biomaterials, and nanodevices are fabricated and controlled by nanotechnology tools and techniques, which investigate and tune the properties, responses, and functions of living and non-living matter, at sizes below 100 nm. The application and use of nanomaterials in electronic and mechanical devices, in optical and magnetic components, quantum computing, tissue engineering, and other biotechnologies, with smallest features, widths well below 100 nm, are the economically most important parts of the nanotechnology nowadays and presumably in the near future. The number of nanoproducts is rapidly growing since more and more nanoengineered materials are reaching the global market The continuous revolution in nanotechnology will result in the fabrication of nanomaterials with properties and functionalities which are going to have positive changes in the lives of our citizens, be it in health, environment, electronics or any other field. In the energy generation challenge where the conventional fuel resources cannot remain the dominant energy source, taking into account the increasing consumption demand and the CO2 emissions alternative renewable energy sources based on new technologies have to be promoted. Innovative solar cell technologies that utilize nanostructured materials and composite systems such as organic photovoltaics offer great technological potential due to their attractive properties such as the potential of large-scale and low-cost roll-to-roll manufacturing processes The advances in nanomaterials necessitate parallel progress of the nanometrology tools and techniques to characterize and manipulate nanostructures. Revolutionary new approaches

  20. An overview of the results of dissertation research in the field of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Part 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The research «Materials of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier based on magnetic rock of acid content» set the theory and experimentally proves the opportunity to use magma rock of acid composition for production of nanostructured modifier of the materials of autoclave hardening. Activity of nanostructured modifier is provided by its composition and production technology: high specific surface with formation of nanodispersed polymineral; surface amorphization of rock-forming minerals; processes of mechanical and chemical dissolution of quartz and feldspar components with formation of active silica and alumina silica acids. The research has determined the character of the influence of nanostructured modifier in the sand blend on the gas formation, expansion of concrete mix and finally on the structure formation of the materials during preautoclave period. The authors proposed the compositions for the materials of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier made of granite to produce: pressed articles (silicate brick of density 1835–1950 kg/m², ultimate compressive strength – 17,8–23,3 МPа, thermal conductivity – 0,56–0,6 W/m°С., frost resistance – 40–55 cycles, water absorption – 11,4–12,2%. The developed articles meet the requirements of the existing codes: strength grade М150–М200 and frost resistance grade F35–F50. The specialists may be also interested in the following research: «Physical and chemical properties and structure of monomeric and polymer acetylenecarboxylated metals and nanocomposites based on them», «Nanomodified sulphuric binders for the construction materials of general and specific purpose», «Synthesis and catalytic properties of mesoporous nanomaterials based on СеО₂», «Synthesis and properties of

  1. An intelligent approach to nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Control counts for little without a guiding principle. Whether manipulating atoms with a scanning probe or controlling carrier concentration in thin film deposition, intelligent intervention is required to steer the process from aimless precision towards a finely optimized design. In this issue G M Sacha and P Varona describe how artificial intelligence approaches can help towards modelling and simulating nanosystems, increasing our grasp of the nuances of these systems and how to optimize them for specific applications [1]. More than a labour-saving technique their review also suggests how genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks can supersede existing capabilities to tackle some of the challenges in moving a range of nanotechnologies forward. Research has made giant strides in determining not just what system parameters enhance performance but how. Nanoparticle synthesis is a typical example, where the field has shifted from simple synthesis and observation to unearthing insights as to dominating factors that can be identified and enlisted to control the morphological and chemical properties of synthesized products. One example is the neat study on reaction media viscosity for silver nanocrystal synthesis, where Park, Im and Park in Korea demonstrated a level of size control that had previously proved hard to achieve [2]. Silver nanoparticles have many potential applications including catalysis [3], sensing [4] and surface enhanced Raman scattering [5]. In their study, Park and colleagues obtain size-controlled 30 nm silver nanocrystals in a viscosity controlled medium of 1,5-pentanediol and demonstrate their use as sacrificial cores for the fabrication of a low-refractive filler. Another nanomaterial that has barely seen an ebb in research activity over the past two decades is ZnO, with a legion of reports detailing how to produce ZnO in different nanoscale forms from rods [6], belts [7] and flowers [8] to highly ordered arrays of vertically aligned

  2. An overview of the results of dissertation research in the field of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The research «Aerated concrete of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier» has the following results: 1. The practicability of the use of the additives based on melamine-formaldehyde for plasticization of nanostructured silica modifier was proved. The optimal content of plasticizer is 0,1%. 2. The compositions of aerated concrete of autoclave hardening for construction and thermal insulation with quality classes D350–D500 and durability classes ВО,75; В2,5–В5 were proposed. 3. The technology for production of aerated concrete of autoclave hardening which comprises the use of nanostructured modifier. The specialists may be also interested in the research held by Vindizheva A.S. «Nanocomposite cabel elastrons based on polyvinylchloride and aluminum silicates », Ashrapov A.Kh. «Polymer construction nanocomposites based on polyvinylchloride », Dyatlov A.K. «Fine-grained self-compacting concrete with complex nanocontaining additive», Khuzin A.F. «Cement composites with additives of multilayer carbon nanotubes», Ermolin M.S. «Rectification of nano- and microparticles in rotating spiral columns for the analysis of polydispersed samples», Yukhaeva G.R. «Nanocomposite materials based on polyethylene and graphite nanoplates: synthesis, structure, properties», Shepelev D.S. «Energy exchange and localization of energy in carbon nanotubes», Nelyubova V.V. «Compressed silicate autoclave materials with the use of nanostructured modifier», Mironova A.S. «Nanofilled plaster compositions to increase durability of building facades», Goncharova M.A. «Structure formation and technology of construction and special composites based on little used metallurgy wastes», Maiorova L.A. «Controlled self-organization of azaporphyrins into 2D and 3D-nanostructures in Langmuir layers and

  3. Nanotechnology R and D Policy of Japan and Nanotechnology Support Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Teruo

    2004-01-01

    In the 2nd Science and Technology Basic Plan (2001-2005), the area of nanotechnology and materials is designated one of the four prioritized areas in funding. Following this plan, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) and Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industries (METI), the main funding ministries, and their organizations, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), RIKEN, New Energy and Industrial Technology Organization (NEDO), and National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) promotes their research programs. Besides, in order to promote interdisciplinary, interorganizational, and international collaboration of researchers, Nanotechnology Support Project (NSP) was started by MEXT in 2002. The project has two missions: informational support and common use facility support. Nanotechnology Researchers Network Center of Japan is responsible for informational support, and 14 universities and national research institutes are responsible for common use facility support

  4. Cancer Research in the Arab World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadeh, Randah R.; Borgan, Saif M.; Sibai, Abla M.

    2017-01-01

    This review aimed to examine trends in cancer research in the Arab world and identify existing research gaps. A search of the MEDLINE® database (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA) was undertaken for all cancer-related publications published between January 2000 and December 2013 from seven countries, including Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine and Sudan. A total of 1,773 articles were identified, with a significant increase in yearly publications over time (P social and structural determinants of health (27.1%), followed by behavioural risk factors (14.1%), particularly tobacco use. Overall, more cancer research is needed in the Arab world, particularly analytical studies with high-quality evidence and those focusing on older age groups and associations with physical activity and diet. PMID:28690885

  5. An overview of the results of dissertation research in the field of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The research «Increasing of concrete strength with carbon nanotubes by means of hydrodynamic cavitation» contains the calculation of prime cost of the main raw components which are necessary to produce fine-grained concrete with strength class B55, that demonstrates the economic efficiency of application of CNT as modifying additive for cement composites. Modification of concrete matrix with CNT leads to higher breaking point of compressive strength and that makes it possible to reduce discharge intensity of cement by the strength unit of the material. In this case introduction of 0,05% initial CNT of binder mass into concrete led to 1,5 times increased strength-to-weight ratio. The amount of saved resources was determined as the cost difference between amount of raw materials which are necessary to produce concrete B55 class of traditional composition and the concrete similar by the class obtained due to introduction of carbon nanomodifier into it. The choice of the cost of 1 gram of multilayer CNT was based on the analysis of commercial offers of Russian and foreign companies that are specilized in manufacture and realization of carbon nanomaterials. The specialists may be also interested in the research held by Podgorny I.I. «Materials of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier based on magnetic rock of acid content», Satjukov А.B. «Nanomodified composite binder for special construction mortars», Hammadi Mustafa Abdul Madzhid Hamid «The method to nanomodify cement concretes with nanomortar», Altynnik N.I. «Aeroconcrete of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier», Volkov D.S. «Complex approaches to characterization of nanodiamonds of detonation synthesis and their colloid solutions», Ermolin М.S. «Rectification of nano- and microparticles in rotating

  6. Automation of Technology for Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, Wietske; Veneman, Wouter J; Groenewoud, Arwin; Chen, Lanpeng; Tulotta, Claudia; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Spaink, Herman P; Snaar-Jagalska, B Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos can be obtained for research purposes in large numbers at low cost and embryos develop externally in limited space, making them highly suitable for high-throughput cancer studies and drug screens. Non-invasive live imaging of various processes within the larvae is possible due to their transparency during development, and a multitude of available fluorescent transgenic reporter lines.To perform high-throughput studies, handling large amounts of embryos and larvae is required. With such high number of individuals, even minute tasks may become time-consuming and arduous. In this chapter, an overview is given of the developments in the automation of various steps of large scale zebrafish cancer research for discovering important cancer pathways and drugs for the treatment of human disease. The focus lies on various tools developed for cancer cell implantation, embryo handling and sorting, microfluidic systems for imaging and drug treatment, and image acquisition and analysis. Examples will be given of employment of these technologies within the fields of toxicology research and cancer research.

  7. Articulation: how societal goals matter in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338018387

    2016-01-01

    Science policies try to steer scientists to conduct societally relevant research. This societal relevance is often expressed in large societal goals, such as addressing sustainability or helping with the problems that an ageing society might bring. Emerging technologies, like nanotechnology, are

  8. Biomedical Applications of Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay Bhardwaj; Ajeet Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    The spurring growth and clinical adoption of nanomaterials and nanotechnology in medicine, i.e. “nanomedicine”, to shape global health care system is a collective effort that comprises academia research, industrial drive, and political and financial support from government.[...

  9. A longitudinal analysis of nanotechnology literature: 1976-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Chen Hsinchun; Dang Yan; Lin Yiling; Larson, Catherine A.; Roco, Mihail C.

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology research and applications have experienced rapid growth in recent years. We assessed the status of nanotechnology research worldwide by applying bibliographic, content map, and citation network analysis to a data set of about 200,000 nanotechnology papers published in the Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded database (SCI) from 1976 to 2004. This longitudinal study shows a quasi-exponential growth of nanotechnology articles with an average annual growth rate of 20.7% after 1991. The United States had the largest contribution of nanotechnology research and China and Korea had the fastest growth rates. The largest institutional contributions were from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Sciences. The high-impact papers generally described tools, theories, technologies, perspectives, and overviews of nanotechnology. From the top 20 institutions, based on the average number of paper citations in 1976-2004, 17 were in the Unites States, 2 in France and 1 in Germany. Content map analysis identified the evolution of the major topics researched from 1976 to 2004, including investigative tools, physical phenomena, and experiment environments. Both the country citation network and the institution citation network had relatively high clustering, indicating the existence of citation communities in the two networks, and specific patterns in forming citation communities. The United States, Germany, Japan, and China were major citation centers in nanotechnology research with close inter-citation relationships.

  10. Toward the responsible innovation with nanotechnology in Japan: our scope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizu, Saori, E-mail: ishizu-saori@aist.go.jp; Sekiya, Mizuki [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Technology Information Department (Japan); Ishibashi, Ken-ichi [Sony Corporation (Japan); Negami, Yumi [Trade and Industry (METI), Ministry of Economy (Japan); Ata, Masafumi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Technology Information Department (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    The societal impacts of nanotechnology have attracted growing attention in the United States and Europe in recent years. In Japan, the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Technology Information Department) has played a central role in promoting discussions on this topic by collecting information from Japan and overseas, creating a network of the interested parties, and providing a forum for discussion. This paper presents a summary of recent activities in Japan relating to the societal impacts of nanotechnology, fro the launch of the 'Nanotechnology and Society' open forum (August 2004) until the 'Nanotechnology Debate' discussion forum (February 2007), and outlines the policy recommendations that came out of a project entitled 'Research on Facilitation of Public Acceptance of Nanotechnology' (March 2006)

  11. Nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics in plastic surgery: The next frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aaron; Chawla, Reema; Natasha, G; Mahdibeiraghdar, Sara; Jeyaraj, Rebecca; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Hamblin, Michael R.; Seifalian, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The rapid ascent of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics as applied to medicine and surgery has seen an exponential rise in the scale of research generated in this field. This is evidenced not only by the sheer volume of papers dedicated to nanotechnology but also in a large number of new journals dedicated to nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics specifically to medicine and surgery. Aspects of nanotechnology that have already brought benefits to these areas include advanced drug delivery platforms, molecular imaging and materials engineering for surgical implants. Particular areas of interest include nerve regeneration, burns and wound care, artificial skin with nanoelectronic sensors and head and neck surgery. This study presents a review of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics, with focus on its applications and implications in plastic surgery. PMID:26422652

  12. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part I: imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2011-04-01

    Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

  13. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part I: imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

  14. Nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics in plastic surgery: The next frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aaron; Chawla, Reema; G, Natasha; Mahdibeiraghdar, Sara; Jeyaraj, Rebecca; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Hamblin, Michael R; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2016-01-01

    The rapid ascent of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics as applied to medicine and surgery has seen an exponential rise in the scale of research generated in this field. This is evidenced not only by the sheer volume of papers dedicated to nanotechnology but also in a large number of new journals dedicated to nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics specifically to medicine and surgery. Aspects of nanotechnology that have already brought benefits to these areas include advanced drug delivery platforms, molecular imaging and materials engineering for surgical implants. Particular areas of interest include nerve regeneration, burns and wound care, artificial skin with nanoelectronic sensors and head and neck surgery. This study presents a review of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics, with focus on its applications and implications in plastic surgery. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  15. Toward the responsible innovation with nanotechnology in Japan: our scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizu, Saori; Sekiya, Mizuki; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Negami, Yumi; Ata, Masafumi

    2008-01-01

    The societal impacts of nanotechnology have attracted growing attention in the United States and Europe in recent years. In Japan, the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Technology Information Department) has played a central role in promoting discussions on this topic by collecting information from Japan and overseas, creating a network of the interested parties, and providing a forum for discussion. This paper presents a summary of recent activities in Japan relating to the societal impacts of nanotechnology, fro the launch of the 'Nanotechnology and Society' open forum (August 2004) until the 'Nanotechnology Debate' discussion forum (February 2007), and outlines the policy recommendations that came out of a project entitled 'Research on Facilitation of Public Acceptance of Nanotechnology' (March 2006)

  16. Nanotechnology and its Relationship to Interventional Radiology. Part I: Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, Sarah; Slattery, Michael M.; Lee, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

  17. Nanotechnology and nanomedicine: going small means aiming big.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teli, Mahesh Kumar; Mutalik, Srinivas; Rajanikant, G K

    2010-06-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging branch of science for designing tools and devices of size 1 to 100 nm with specific function at the cellular, atomic and molecular levels. The concept of employing nanotechnology in biomedical research and clinical practice is best known as nanomedicine. Nanomedicine is an upcoming field that could potentially make a major impact to human health. Nanomaterials are increasingly used in diagnostics, imaging and targeted drug delivery. Nanotechnology will assist the integration of diagnostics/imaging with therapeutics and facilitates the development of personalized medicine, i.e. prescription of specific medications best suited for an individual. This review provides an integrated overview of application of nanotechnology based molecular diagnostics and drug delivery in the development of nanomedicine and ultimately personalized medicine. Finally, we identify critical gaps in our knowledge of nanoparticle toxicity and how these gaps need to be evaluated to enable nanotechnology to transit safely from bench to bedside.

  18. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer ... because of timely detection and treatment of his prostate cancer. He participated in an NIH-sponsored clinical trial. ...

  19. Green Chemistry for Nanotechnology: Opportunities and Future Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preeti Nigam, Joshi, E-mail: ph.joshi@ncl.res.in [Combichem Bioresource Center, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune (India)

    2016-01-26

    Nanotechnology is a paradigm for emerging technologies and much talked about area of science. It is the technology of future and has revolutionized all fields of medicine, agriculture, environmental and electronics by providing abilities that would never have previously dreamt of. It is a unique platform of multidisciplinary approaches integrating diverse fields of engineering, biology, physics and chemistry. In recent years, nanotechnology has seen the fastest pace in its all aspects of synthesis methodologies and wide applications in all areas of medicine, agricultural, environmental, and electronics. It is the impact of nanotechnology approaches that new fields of nanomedicine, cancer nanotechnology, nanorobotics and nanoelectronics have been emerged and are flourishing with the advances in this expanding field. Nanotechnology holds the potential for pervasive and promising applications and getting significant attention and financial aids also. Although there are different definitions of nanotechnology, in broad prospective, nanotechnology can be described as designing or exploiting materials at nanometer dimensions (i.e., one dimension less than 100 nanometers). At nanoscale, substances have a larger surface area to volume ratio than conventional materials which is the prime reason behind their increased level of reactivity, improved and size tunable magnetic, optical and electrical properties and more toxicity also.

  20. Green Chemistry for Nanotechnology: Opportunities and Future Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preeti Nigam, Joshi

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a paradigm for emerging technologies and much talked about area of science. It is the technology of future and has revolutionized all fields of medicine, agriculture, environmental and electronics by providing abilities that would never have previously dreamt of. It is a unique platform of multidisciplinary approaches integrating diverse fields of engineering, biology, physics and chemistry. In recent years, nanotechnology has seen the fastest pace in its all aspects of synthesis methodologies and wide applications in all areas of medicine, agricultural, environmental, and electronics. It is the impact of nanotechnology approaches that new fields of nanomedicine, cancer nanotechnology, nanorobotics and nanoelectronics have been emerged and are flourishing with the advances in this expanding field. Nanotechnology holds the potential for pervasive and promising applications and getting significant attention and financial aids also. Although there are different definitions of nanotechnology, in broad prospective, nanotechnology can be described as designing or exploiting materials at nanometer dimensions (i.e., one dimension less than 100 nanometers). At nanoscale, substances have a larger surface area to volume ratio than conventional materials which is the prime reason behind their increased level of reactivity, improved and size tunable magnetic, optical and electrical properties and more toxicity also

  1. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    STUDENT ENGAGEMENT Welcome 2 UNMC 3 Omaha 4 Arrival 5-6 Living 7 Events 8...Graduates 9-11 Channing Bunch, M.B.A Director of Recruitment and Student Engagement channing.bunch...Program, Eppley Institute, Office of Research and Development, and Recruitment and Student Engagement Responses to Nebraska Prostate

  2. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    chemotherapy can cure the disease, in many cases it will spread and kill the patient. Better basic scientific understanding of this disease is needed...Dixon Patent Development at UNEMED 10:30 T. Wasmoen Vaccine Research/Development at Intervet/Schering- Plough July 19 UNMC...cytokines and has been shown to inhibit the secretion of TNF-α by activated macrophages and thereby reduce the tumor killing activity of macrophages

  3. Material Binding Peptides for Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urartu Ozgur Safak Seker

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Remarkable progress has been made to date in the discovery of material binding peptides and their utilization in nanotechnology, which has brought new challenges and opportunities. Nowadays phage display is a versatile tool, important for the selection of ligands for proteins and peptides. This combinatorial approach has also been adapted over the past decade to select material-specific peptides. Screening and selection of such phage displayed material binding peptides has attracted great interest, in particular because of their use in nanotechnology. Phage display selected peptides are either synthesized independently or expressed on phage coat protein. Selected phage particles are subsequently utilized in the synthesis of nanoparticles, in the assembly of nanostructures on inorganic surfaces, and oriented protein immobilization as fusion partners of proteins. In this paper, we present an overview on the research conducted on this area. In this review we not only focus on the selection process, but also on molecular binding characterization and utilization of peptides as molecular linkers, molecular assemblers and material synthesizers.

  4. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization

  5. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Paolo

    2009-06-29

    The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology.In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization supporting clinical trial recruitment

  6. Risk of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louda, Petr; Bakalova, Totka

    2014-05-01

    Nano-this and nano-that. These days it seems you need the prefix "nano" for products or applications if you want to be either very trendy or incredibly scary. This "nano-trend" has assumed "mega" proportions. Vague promises of a better life are met by equally vague, generalized fears about a worse future. These debates have some aspects in common: the subject is complex and not easy to explain; there is no consensus on risks and benefits. - A particular problem with nanotechnology lies in the huge gap between the public perception of what the hype promises and the scientific and commercial reality of what the technology actually delivers today and in the near future. There is nanoscience, which is the study of phenomena and manipulation of material at the nanoscale, in essence an extension of existing sciences into the nanoscale. Then there is nanotechnology, which is the design, characterization, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at the nanoscale. Nanotechnology should really be called nanotechnologies: There is no single field of nanotechnology. The term broadly refers to such fields as biology, physics or chemistry, any scientific field really, or a combination thereof, that deals with the deliberate and controlled manufacturing of nanostructures. In addressing the health and environmental impact of nanotechnology we need to differentiate two types of nanostructures: (1) Nanocomposites, nanostructured surfaces and nanocomponents (electronic, optical, sensors etc.), where nanoscale particles are incorporated into a substance, material or device ("fixed" nanoparticles); and (2) "free" nanoparticles, where at some stage in production or use individual nanoparticles of a substance are present. There are four entry routes for nanoparticles into the body: they can be inhaled, swallowed, absorbed through skin or be deliberately injected during medical procedures. Once within the body they are highly mobile and

  7. Springer handbook of nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This comprehensive handbook has become the definitive reference work in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology, and this 4th edition incorporates a number of recent new developments. It integrates nanofabrication, nanomaterials, nanodevices, nanomechanics, nanotribology, materials science, and reliability engineering knowledge in just one volume. Furthermore, it discusses various nanostructures; micro/nanofabrication; micro/nanodevices and biomicro/nanodevices, as well as scanning probe microscopy; nanotribology and nanomechanics; molecularly thick films; industrial applications and nanodevice reliability; societal, environmental, health and safety issues; and nanotechnology education. In this new edition, written by an international team of over 140 distinguished experts and put together by an experienced editor with a comprehensive understanding of the field, almost all the chapters are either new or substantially revised and expanded, with new topics of interest added. It is an essential resource for ...

  8. Nanotechnology Applications for Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinel, Sibel; Montemagno, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, and the antiglaucoma treatments currently available suffer from various complications. Nanotechnology-based treatments show a great deal of promise in overcoming these complications and form the basis for next-generation glaucoma treatment strategies, with the help of applications such as controlled release, targeted delivery, increased bioavailability, diffusion limitations, and biocompatibility. Significant progress has been made in nanomedicine in the efficiency of antiglaucoma medications, nanofabrication systems such as microelectromechanical systems that remove the limitations of nanodevices, and tissue regeneration vesicles for developing glaucoma treatments not based on intraocular pressure. With the use of these advanced technologies, the prevention of glaucoma-induced blindness will be possible in the near future. Herein, we reviewed the recent advances in nanotechnology-based treatment strategies for glaucoma.

  9. Nanotechnologies a general introduction

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferrari, M; Li Bassi, A

    2007-01-01

    After a brief description of what is nanotechnology (a triple definition will be attempted) and of its importance for the society, this first lecture manly aims at showing how nanoscience makes various nanotechnologies possible. The surprising story of direct imaging and manipulation of atoms (scanning probe microscopies will be the specific subject of the third lecture by prof. Andrea Li Bassi) is told to naturally introduce the crucial role of quantum confinement and surface defects. The electronic and vibrational properties of nanostructures are then discussed to understand the connection between the deeply modified (with respect to the bulk) quantum spectra and the physico-chemical properties of nanoscopic objects. In this context the concept of superatom (and its generalizations) is stressed. The essential role of both size and size control is finally emphasized discussing some significant applications in the fields of materials, devices and medicine. To this last argument (nanomedicine) the second lectu...

  10. Nanotechnology and animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Kumar

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology, although still in the early stages of its development, is beginning to equip scientists, engineers and biologists to work at the cellular and molecular levels for significant benefits in healthcare and animal medicine. It is reasonable to presume over the next couple of decades that nanobiotechnology industries and unique developments will be revolutionising animal health and medicine. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(12.000: 567-569

  11. Food nanoscience and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscience and nanotechnology have had a great impact on the food industry. They have increased the nutritional and functional properties of a number of food products and have aided in food preservation through the addition of antimicrobials or the reduction of water activity. These and many other applications have emerged in recent years to transform food science and technology. This book proposes to look at some of these applications and their effect on food production and innovation.

  12. Nanoparticles and cancer therapy: A concise review with emphasis on dendrimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhruba J Bharali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dhruba J Bharali, Marianne Khalil, Mujgan Gurbuz, Tessa M Simone, Shaker A MousaPharmaceutical Research Institute at Albany College of Pharmacy, Rensselaer, NY, USAAbstract: The emergence of nanotechnology has had a profound effect on many areas of healthcare and scientific research. Having grown exponentially, the focus of nanotechnology has been on engineering diversified novel applications that even go beyond therapeutic activity; nanotechnology also offers the ability to detect diseases, such as cancer, much earlier than ever imaginable. Often, patients diagnosed with breast, lung, colon, prostate, and ovarian cancer have hidden or overt metastatic colonies. With the advent of diagnostic nanotechnology, these numbers are expected to greatly diminish. This review provides a brief description of nanoparticle (liposome, quantum dot, and dendrimer-mediated cancer therapy in the last decade with an emphasis on the development and use of dendrimers in cancer therapeutics.Keywords: nanoparticles, dendrimer, quantum dots, liposome

  13. Nanotechnology based devices and applications in medicine: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis A Martis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been the most explored and extensively studied area in recent times. Many devices which were earlier impossible to imagine, are being developed at a lightning speed with the application of nanotechnology. To overcome the challenges offered by the most dreaded diseases, such as cancer or any disease involving the central nervous system or other inaccessible areas of the human body, nanotechnology has been proved to be a boon in making the treatment more target specific and minimizing the toxicities. This review describes a handful of important devices and applications based on nanotechnology in medicine made in recent times. This article also describes in brief the regulatory concerns and the ethical issues pertaining to nanomedical devices.

  14. Impact of proteomics on bladder cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromova, Irina; Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Detecting bladder cancer at an early stage and predicting how a tumor will behave and act in response to therapy, as well as the identification of new targets for therapeutic intervention, are among the main areas of research that will benefit from the current explosion in the number of powerful ...

  15. Nanotechnology: A Vast Field for the Creative Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Jeannette

    2003-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing field worldwide. Nanotechnology is the development of smart systems for many different applications by building from the molecular level up. Current research, sponsored by The National Nanotechnology Alliance in the US will be described. Future needs in manpower of different disciplines will be discussed. Nanotechnology is a field of research that could allow developing countries to establish a technological infrastructure. The nature of nanotechnology requires professionals in many areas, such as engineers, chemists, physicists, mathematicians, computer scientists, materials scientists, etc. One of the materials that provide unique properties for nanotechnology is carbon nanotubes. At Goddard we have develop a process to produce nanotubes at lower costs and without metal catalysts which will be of great importance for the development of new materials for space applications and others outside NASA. Nanotechnology in general is a very broad and exciting field that will provide the technologies of tomorrow including biomedical applications for the betterment of mankind. There is room in this area for many researchers all over the world. The key is collaboration, nationally and internationally.

  16. Nanoscience, nanotechnology and spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Freddy C.; Barbante, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscience has outgrown its infancy, and nanotechnology has found important applications in our daily life — with many more to come. Although the central concepts of the nano world, namely the changes of particular physical properties on the length scale of individual atoms and molecules, have been known and developed for quite some time already, experimental advances since the 1980s and recognition of the potential of nanomaterials led to a genuine breakthrough of the inherently multidisciplinary nanoscience field. Analytical nanoscience and nanotechnology and especially the use of micro and nano electro mechanical systems, of the quantum dots and of mass spectrometry, currently provide one of the most promising avenues for developments in analytical science, derived from their two main fields of action, namely (a) the analysis of nano-structured materials and (b) their use as new tools for analysis. An overview is given of recent developments and trends in the field, highlighting the importance and point out future directions, while also touching drawbacks, such as emerging concerns about health and environmental issues. - Highlights: • We review the analysis of nano-structured materials. • Nano-structured materials can be used as new tools for analysis. • Use of nano electro mechanical systems, of quantum dots and of mass spectrometry • Nanotechnologies are among the most promising tools in analytical science

  17. Nanoscience, nanotechnology and spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Freddy C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Barbante, Carlo, E-mail: barbante@unive.it [Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes — CNR, Venice (Italy); Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, Ca' Foscari University, Venice (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nanoscience has outgrown its infancy, and nanotechnology has found important applications in our daily life — with many more to come. Although the central concepts of the nano world, namely the changes of particular physical properties on the length scale of individual atoms and molecules, have been known and developed for quite some time already, experimental advances since the 1980s and recognition of the potential of nanomaterials led to a genuine breakthrough of the inherently multidisciplinary nanoscience field. Analytical nanoscience and nanotechnology and especially the use of micro and nano electro mechanical systems, of the quantum dots and of mass spectrometry, currently provide one of the most promising avenues for developments in analytical science, derived from their two main fields of action, namely (a) the analysis of nano-structured materials and (b) their use as new tools for analysis. An overview is given of recent developments and trends in the field, highlighting the importance and point out future directions, while also touching drawbacks, such as emerging concerns about health and environmental issues. - Highlights: • We review the analysis of nano-structured materials. • Nano-structured materials can be used as new tools for analysis. • Use of nano electro mechanical systems, of quantum dots and of mass spectrometry • Nanotechnologies are among the most promising tools in analytical science.

  18. Nanotechnology and vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Gyeong Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progress of conventional vaccines, improvements are clearly required due to concerns about the weak immunogenicity of these vaccines, intrinsic instability in vivo, toxicity, and the need for multiple administrations. To overcome such problems, nanotechnology platforms have recently been incorporated into vaccine development. Nanocarrier-based delivery systems offer an opportunity to enhance the humoral and cellular immune responses. This advantage is attributable to the nanoscale particle size, which facilitates uptake by phagocytic cells, the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, leading to efficient antigen recognition and presentation. Modifying the surfaces of nanocarriers with a variety of targeting moieties permits the delivery of antigens to specific cell surface receptors, thereby stimulating specific and selective immune responses. In this review, we introduce recent advances in nanocarrier-based vaccine delivery systems, with a focus on the types of carriers, including liposomes, emulsions, polymer-based particles, and carbon-based nanomaterials. We describe the remaining challenges and possible breakthroughs, including the development of needle-free nanotechnologies and a fundamental understanding of the in vivo behavior and stability of the nanocarriers in nanotechnology-based delivery systems.

  19. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. St. Croix’s laboratory at the Mouse Cancer Genetics Program (MCGP), National Cancer Institute, USA has an open postdoctoral position. We seek a highly motivated, creative and bright individual to participate in a collaborative project that involves the targeting of tumor-associated stroma using T-cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). The laboratory focuses on the characterization and exploitation of molecules associated with tumor angiogenesis. The successful candidate would be involved in developing, producing and characterizing new therapeutic antibodies and CARs that recognize cancer cells or its associated stroma, and preclinical testing of these agents using mouse tumor models. The tumor angiogenesis lab is located at the National Cancer Institute in Frederick with access to state-of-the-art facilities for antibody engineering, genomic analysis, pathology, and small animal imaging, among others. Detailed information about Dr. St. Croix’s research and publications can be accessed at https://ccr.cancer.gov/Mouse-Cancer-Genetics-Program/brad-st-croix.

  20. Testicular Cancer Survivorship: Research Strategies and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of life. This success, however, is offset by the emergence of considerable long-term morbidity, including second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, pulmonary toxicity, hypogonadism, decreased fertility, and psychosocial problems. Data on underlying genetic or molecular factors that might identify those patients at highest risk for late sequelae are sparse. Genome-wide association studies and other translational molecular approaches now provide opportunities to identify testicular cancer survivors at greatest risk for therapy-related complications to develop evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventional strategies. We review research priorities identified during an international workshop devoted to testicular cancer survivors. Recommendations include 1) institution of lifelong follow-up of testicular cancer survivors within a large cohort setting to ascertain risks of emerging toxicities and the evolution of known late sequelae, 2) development of comprehensive risk prediction models that include treatment factors and genetic modifiers of late sequelae, 3) elucidation of the effect(s) of decades-long exposure to low serum levels of platinum, 4) assessment of the overall burden of medical and psychosocial morbidity, and 5) the eventual formulation of evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventions. Just as testicular cancer once served as the paradigm of a curable malignancy, comprehensive follow-up studies of testicular cancer survivors can pioneer new methodologies in survivorship research for all adult-onset cancer. PMID:20585105

  1. Nanotechnology between the lab and the shop floor: what are the effects on labor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invernizzi, Noela

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology’s effects on labor and employment have received little attention within research and debates on the social implications of nanotechnology. This article shows that, in spite of its incipient development, nanotechnology is unquestionably moving toward manufacturing, involving a still very small but increasing component of the labor force. Based on secondary data and the literature review, I compose a picture of the emerging jobs in nanotechnology and highlight four emerging trends in nanotechnology workers’ skills requirements. I show that, in addition to job creation, nanotechnology diffusion is likely to pose labor market changes that may be disruptive for some categories of workers.

  2. Nanotechnology applications in hematological malignancies (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samir, Ahmed; Elgamal, Basma M; Gabr, Hala; Sabaawy, Hatem E

    2015-09-01

    A major limitation to current cancer therapies is the development of therapy-related side-effects and dose limiting complications. Moreover, a better understanding of the biology of cancer cells and the mechanisms of resistance to therapy is rapidly developing. The translation of advanced knowledge and discoveries achieved at the molecular level must be supported by advanced diagnostic, therapeutic and delivery technologies to translate these discoveries into useful tools that are essential in achieving progress in the war against cancer. Nanotechnology can play an essential role in this aspect providing a transforming technology that can translate the basic and clinical findings into novel diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive tools useful in different types of cancer. Hematological malignancies represent a specific class of cancer, which attracts special attention in the applications of nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and treatment. The aim of the present review is to elucidate the emerging applications of nanotechnology in cancer management and describe the potentials of nanotechnology in changing the key fundamental aspects of hematological malignancy diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

  3. Introduction to the Field of Nanotechnology Ethics and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linton, J.D.; Linton, Jonathan; Walsh, Steven Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnologies and nanoscience have generated an unprecedented global research and development race involving dozens of countries. The understanding of associated environmental, ethical, and societal implications lags far behind the science and technology. Consequently, it is critical to consider

  4. Inequality gaps in nanotechnology development in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Foladori

    2013-06-01

    The third characteristic is the absence of research on potential impacts of nanotechnology on human health and the environment, as well as other societal implications, which may generate new forms of unequal distribution of benefits and risks.

  5. The social and economic challenges of nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Stephen; Jones, Richard; Geldart, Alison

    2003-07-01

    . While there is some debate about whether this vision is realisable, amongst those who accept it the discussion focuses on rather extreme outcomes, both utopian and dystopian. There is also an emerging debate amongst those more focused on short-term outcomes. This pits those who believe that the rapid growth of nanotechnotogy will have strongly positive economic benefits, and those who on the grounds of environmentalism and social equity seek to slow or halt its development. One immediate issue that is growing in prominence is whether existing regulatory regimes are robust enough to deal with any special qualities that nanostructured materials may have, or whether new solutions are required. These diverging views on nanotechnotogy and the increasingly public debate, involving civil society, non-governmental organisations and the media, have led to concerns that there will be a backlash against nanotechnology akin to that over genetic modification. In response the call is for social science to take a role focused on promoting social awareness and acceptance of nanotechnology. The agenda for the social sciences needs to be broader than the public-science interface. Three themes stand out as important: the governance of technological change; social learning and the evaluation of risk and opportunity under uncertainty; the role of new technology in ameliorating or accentuating inequity and economic divides. Tackling these themes will involve a range of social science issues, many of which are topical independently of nanotechnology, for instance technology transfer, ageing, the commercialisation of science, and change management. Nonetheless there may well be issues unique to nanotechnology, arising from its inherent interdisciplinarity and its capacity to affect the human-machine-nature interface. A programme of research designed to address the diverse social science issues should thus both build on existing research and develop fresh avenues, particularly through

  6. The social and economic challenges of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Stephen; Jones, Richard; Geldart, Alison

    2003-01-01

    . While there is some debate about whether this vision is realisable, amongst those who accept it the discussion focuses on rather extreme outcomes, both utopian and dystopian. There is also an emerging debate amongst those more focused on short-term outcomes. This pits those who believe that the rapid growth of nanotechnotogy will have strongly positive economic benefits, and those who on the grounds of environmentalism and social equity seek to slow or halt its development. One immediate issue that is growing in prominence is whether existing regulatory regimes are robust enough to deal with any special qualities that nanostructured materials may have, or whether new solutions are required. These diverging views on nanotechnotogy and the increasingly public debate, involving civil society, non-governmental organisations and the media, have led to concerns that there will be a backlash against nanotechnology akin to that over genetic modification. In response the call is for social science to take a role focused on promoting social awareness and acceptance of nanotechnology. The agenda for the social sciences needs to be broader than the public-science interface. Three themes stand out as important: the governance of technological change; social learning and the evaluation of risk and opportunity under uncertainty; the role of new technology in ameliorating or accentuating inequity and economic divides. Tackling these themes will involve a range of social science issues, many of which are topical independently of nanotechnology, for instance technology transfer, ageing, the commercialisation of science, and change management. Nonetheless there may well be issues unique to nanotechnology, arising from its inherent interdisciplinarity and its capacity to affect the human-machine-nature interface. A programme of research designed to address the diverse social science issues should thus both build on existing research and develop fresh avenues, particularly through

  7. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highly motivated postdoctoral fellows sought to work on tumor immunology with a strong background in biology preferentially cellular immunology. The tumor immunology group in the laboratory is exploring mechanisms of improving vaccines and immunotherapy for cancer, especially by discovering new principles to enhance and steer T cell immune responses. The group is focusing on negative immunoregulatory mechanisms used for immune evasion by cancer cells. The postdoctoral fellow will work on a project to understand the negative regulatory mechanisms of tumor immunity especially the mechanisms initiated by NKT cells. Group members also have an opportunity to gain knowledge of HIV/mucosal immunology by interacting with the HIV research group in the lab.

  8. Prostate Cancer: Improving the Flow of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Colleen A F

    2018-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common nonskin cancer diagnosed in U.S. men and kills over 27 000 men annually. Thus, improving the outcomes for patients diagnosed with this disease is imperative. There has been a considerable amount of research done over the past several decades resulting in more cures than ever, but the death rate is still unacceptable. This oration addresses the progress that we have made over the past several decades and outlines the work yet to be done, as well as some processes to make that work happen. © RSNA, 2018.

  9. Report on surveys in fiscal 2000 on the surveys and researches in relation to nano-technology; 2000 nendo nano technology ni kakawaru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In order to view over the situation surrounding the nano-technology as a whole, surveys and discussions were given by means of questionnaire and open discussion meetings. In the questionnaire, the answer that the products utilizing nano-scale structure have already been, or scheduled to be put on sale has exceeded half of the total answers. Experts view that the nano-technology is infiltrating steadily into the actual society. In view of the applicable fields, and in the opening discussion meetings, drastic innovation was expected in the industrial technologies in the future not too far away as a dream world, by using the 'nano-technology' that utilizes a principle completely different from the principles that have been practically used. In order to achieve that goal, a recognition was made clear that the braeakthrough in other fields is important, and the field crossing fusion such as coordination with academia, and exchanges between different businesses and different fields is important. In the comparison of competitive edges of Japan, America and Europe, Japan was recognized to possess sufficient competitive power, but the sense of crisis is felt toward the latent technological power of America of the future. (NEDO)

  10. Statistical Analysis of Research Data | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in cancer biology have resulted in the need for increased statistical analysis of research data. The Statistical Analysis of Research Data (SARD) course will be held on April 5-6, 2018 from 9 a.m.-5 p.m. at the National Institutes of Health's Natcher Conference Center, Balcony C on the Bethesda Campus. SARD is designed to provide an overview on the general principles of statistical analysis of research data.  The first day will feature univariate data analysis, including descriptive statistics, probability distributions, one- and two-sample inferential statistics.

  11. Nanotechnology in neurology: Genesis, current status, and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paurush Ambesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a promising, novel field of technological development. There is great potential in research and clinical applications for neurological diseases. Here we chronicle the inception of nanotechnology, discuss its integration with neurology, and highlight the challenges in current application. Some of the problems involving practical use of neuronanotechnology are direct biological toxicity, visualization of the nanodevice, and the short life expectancy of nanomachinery. Neuron cell therapy is an upcoming field for the treatment of challenging problems in neurology. Peptide nanofibers based on amphiphilic molecules have been developed that can autoregulate their structure depending on the conditions of the surrounding milieu. Such frameworks are promising for serving as drug delivery systems or communication bridges between damaged neurons. For common disabling diseases such as Alzheimer′s disease (AD, Parkinson′s disease (PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and multiple sclerosis (MS, recent developments have seen revolutionary nanotech-based novelties, which are discussed here in detail. Bioimaging integrated with nanoneuromedicine has opened up new doors for cancer and infection therapeutics.

  12. In silico cancer research towards 3R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Quartier, Claire; Jeanquartier, Fleur; Jurisica, Igor; Holzinger, Andreas

    2018-04-12

    Improving our understanding of cancer and other complex diseases requires integrating diverse data sets and algorithms. Intertwining in vivo and in vitro data and in silico models are paramount to overcome intrinsic difficulties given by data complexity. Importantly, this approach also helps to uncover underlying molecular mechanisms. Over the years, research has introduced multiple biochemical and computational methods to study the disease, many of which require animal experiments. However, modeling systems and the comparison of cellular processes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes help to understand specific aspects of uncontrolled cell growth, eventually leading to improved planning of future experiments. According to the principles for humane techniques milestones in alternative animal testing involve in vitro methods such as cell-based models and microfluidic chips, as well as clinical tests of microdosing and imaging. Up-to-date, the range of alternative methods has expanded towards computational approaches, based on the use of information from past in vitro and in vivo experiments. In fact, in silico techniques are often underrated but can be vital to understanding fundamental processes in cancer. They can rival accuracy of biological assays, and they can provide essential focus and direction to reduce experimental cost. We give an overview on in vivo, in vitro and in silico methods used in cancer research. Common models as cell-lines, xenografts, or genetically modified rodents reflect relevant pathological processes to a different degree, but can not replicate the full spectrum of human disease. There is an increasing importance of computational biology, advancing from the task of assisting biological analysis with network biology approaches as the basis for understanding a cell's functional organization up to model building for predictive systems. Underlining and extending the in silico approach with respect to the 3Rs for replacement, reduction and

  13. Nanotechnology for the Solid Waste Reduction of Military Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    WP-200816) Nanotechnology for the Solid Waste Reduction of Military Food Packaging June 2016 This document has been cleared for public release...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 01/06/2016 Cost and Performance Report 04/01/2008 - 01/01/2015 Nanotechnology for...Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center Robin Altmeyer - AmeriQual U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering

  14. Quantum Dots for Cancer Research: Current Status, Remaining Issues, and Future Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Min; Peng, Chun-wei; Pang, Dai-Wen; Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a major threat to public health in the 21st century because it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis, cancer invasion, and metastasis remain unclear. Thus, the development of a novel approach for cancer detection is urgent, and real-time monitoring is crucial in revealing its underlying biological mechanisms. With the optical and chemical advantages of quantum dots (QDs), QD-based nanotechnology is helpful in constructing a biomedical imaging platform for cancer behavior study. This review mainly focuses on the application of QD-based nanotechnology in cancer cell imaging and tumor microenvironment studies both in vivo and in vitro, as well as the remaining issues and future perspectives

  15. Applications of genetic programming in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worzel, William P; Yu, Jianjun; Almal, Arpit A; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2009-02-01

    The theory of Darwinian evolution is the fundamental keystones of modern biology. Late in the last century, computer scientists began adapting its principles, in particular natural selection, to complex computational challenges, leading to the emergence of evolutionary algorithms. The conceptual model of selective pressure and recombination in evolutionary algorithms allow scientists to efficiently search high dimensional space for solutions to complex problems. In the last decade, genetic programming has been developed and extensively applied for analysis of molecular data to classify cancer subtypes and characterize the mechanisms of cancer pathogenesis and development. This article reviews current successes using genetic programming and discusses its potential impact in cancer research and treatment in the near future.

  16. Translating basic research in cancer patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maugeri-Saccà

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of molecular targeted therapies and the development of high-throughput biotechnologies, it has become evident that progress in cancer research is largely due to the creation of multidisciplinary teams able to plan clinical trials supported by appropriate molecular hypotheses. These efforts have culminated in the identification and validation of biomarkers predictive of response, as well as in the generation of more accurate prognostic tools. The identification of cancer stem cells has provided further insights into mechanisms of cancer, and many studies have tried to translate this biological notion into prognostic and predictive information. In this regard, new agents targeting key stemness-related pathways have entered the clinical development, and preliminary data suggested an encouraging antitumor activity.

  17. Electron Microscopy-Data Analysis Specialist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Cancer Research Technology Program (CRTP) develops and implements emerging technology, cancer biology expertise and research capabilities to accomplish NCI research objectives.  The CRTP is an outward-facing, multi-disciplinary hub purposed to enable the external cancer research community and provides dedicated support to NCI’s intramural Center for

  18. Welcome to NNIN | National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network Serving Nanoscale Science, Engineering & Technology Search form Search Search Home facilities feature over 1100 modern nanotechnology instruments such as these Reactive Ion Etch systems at the

  19. Application of Metabolomics in Thyroid Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wojakowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy with four major types distinguished on the basis of histopathological features: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic. Classification of thyroid cancer is the primary step in the assessment of prognosis and selection of the treatment. However, in some cases, cytological and histological patterns are inconclusive; hence, classification based on histopathology could be supported by molecular biomarkers, including markers identified with the use of high-throughput “omics” techniques. Beside genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, metabolomic approach emerges as the most downstream attitude reflecting phenotypic changes and alterations in pathophysiological states of biological systems. Metabolomics using mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques allows qualitative and quantitative profiling of small molecules present in biological systems. This approach can be applied to reveal metabolic differences between different types of thyroid cancer and to identify new potential candidates for molecular biomarkers. In this review, we consider current results concerning application of metabolomics in the field of thyroid cancer research. Recent studies show that metabolomics can provide significant information about the discrimination between different types of thyroid lesions. In the near future, one could expect a further progress in thyroid cancer metabolomics leading to development of molecular markers and improvement of the tumor types classification and diagnosis.

  20. The social responsibility of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: an integral approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Díaz, Encarnación; Simonet, Bartolomé M.; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    The concept of social responsibility provides the ideal framework for raising awareness and arousing reflection on the social and environmental impact of nanoparticles in the range of 1-100 nm generated from research activities in nanoscience and production-related activities in nanotechnology. The model proposed here relates the essential aspects of these concepts by connecting the classical sequence Research-Development-Innovation (R&D&I) to nanoscience and nanotechnology (N&N) and social responsibility (SR). This paper identifies the stakeholders of the process and provides an extensive definition of Social Responsibility and related concepts. In addition, it describes the internal and external connotations of the implementation of SR at research centers and nanotechnological industries, and discusses the social implications of nanoscience and nanotechnology with provision for subjects such as nanoethics, nanotoxicity, and nanomedicine, which have emerged from the widespread use of nanomaterials by today's society.

  1. The social responsibility of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: an integral approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Diaz, Encarnacion; Simonet, Bartolome M.; Valcarcel, Miguel, E-mail: qa1vacam@uco.es [University of Cordoba, Department of Analytical Chemistry (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    The concept of social responsibility provides the ideal framework for raising awareness and arousing reflection on the social and environmental impact of nanoparticles in the range of 1-100 nm generated from research activities in nanoscience and production-related activities in nanotechnology. The model proposed here relates the essential aspects of these concepts by connecting the classical sequence Research-Development-Innovation (R and D and I) to nanoscience and nanotechnology (N and N) and social responsibility (SR). This paper identifies the stakeholders of the process and provides an extensive definition of Social Responsibility and related concepts. In addition, it describes the internal and external connotations of the implementation of SR at research centers and nanotechnological industries, and discusses the social implications of nanoscience and nanotechnology with provision for subjects such as nanoethics, nanotoxicity, and nanomedicine, which have emerged from the widespread use of nanomaterials by today's society.

  2. Development of Taiwan’s strategies for regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals harmonized with international considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo JW

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jiun-Wen Guo,1 Yu-Hsuan Lee,2 Hsiau-Wen Huang,3 Mei-Chyun Tzou,3 Ying-Jan Wang,2 Jui-Chen Tsai1,4 1Institute of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Chung Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; 2Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; 3Food and Drug Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taiwan; 4Center for Pharmaceutical Regulatory Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan Abstract: Nanotechnology offers potential in pharmaceuticals and biomedical developments for improving drug delivery systems, medical imaging, diagnosis, cancer therapy, and regenerative medicine. Although there is no international regulation or legislation specifically for nanomedicine, it is agreed worldwide that considerably more attention should be paid to the quality, safety, and efficacy of nanotechnology-based drugs. The US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency have provided several draft regulatory guidance and reflection papers to assist the development of nanomedicines. To cope with the impact of nanotechnology and to foster its pharmaceutical applications and development in Taiwan, this article reviews the trends of regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals in the international community and proposes strategies for Taiwan’s regulation harmonized with international considerations. The draft regulatory measures include a chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC review checklist and guidance for CMC review of liposomal products. These have been submitted for discussion among an expert committee, with membership comprised of multidisciplinary academia, research institutions, the pharmaceutical industry, and regulators, and are currently approaching final consensus. Once a consensus is reached, these mechanisms will be recommended to the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration for jurisdiction and may

  3. Nanotechnology for sustainable development: retrospective and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Mamadou S.; Fromer, Neil A.; Jhon, Myung S.

    2013-11-01

    The world is facing great challenges in meeting rising demands for basic commodities (e.g., food, water and energy), finished goods (e.g., cell phones, cars and airplanes) and services (e.g., shelter, healthcare and employment) while reducing and minimizing the impact of human activities on Earth's global environment and climate. Nanotechnology has emerged as a versatile platform that could provide efficient, cost-effective and environmentally acceptable solutions to the global sustainability challenges facing society. This special issue of the Journal of Nanoparticle Research is devoted to the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve sustainable development. We highlight recent advances and discuss opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address global challenges in (1) water purification, (2) clean energy technologies, (3) greenhouse gases management, (4) materials supply and utilization, and (5) green manufacturing and chemistry. In addition to the technical challenges listed above, we also discuss societal perspectives and provide an outlook of the role of nanotechnology in the convergence of knowledge, technology and society for achieving sustainable development.

  4. Nanotechnology for sustainable development: retrospective and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diallo, Mamadou S., E-mail: mdiallo@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Graduate School of Energy, Environment, Water and Sustainability (EEWS) (Korea, Republic of); Fromer, Neil A. [California Institute of Technology, Resnick Sustainability Institute (United States); Jhon, Myung S. [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The world is facing great challenges in meeting rising demands for basic commodities (e.g., food, water and energy), finished goods (e.g., cell phones, cars and airplanes) and services (e.g., shelter, healthcare and employment) while reducing and minimizing the impact of human activities on Earth’s global environment and climate. Nanotechnology has emerged as a versatile platform that could provide efficient, cost-effective and environmentally acceptable solutions to the global sustainability challenges facing society. This special issue of the Journal of Nanoparticle Research is devoted to the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve sustainable development. We highlight recent advances and discuss opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address global challenges in (1) water purification, (2) clean energy technologies, (3) greenhouse gases management, (4) materials supply and utilization, and (5) green manufacturing and chemistry. In addition to the technical challenges listed above, we also discuss societal perspectives and provide an outlook of the role of nanotechnology in the convergence of knowledge, technology and society for achieving sustainable development.

  5. Nanotechnology for sustainable development: retrospective and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diallo, Mamadou S.; Fromer, Neil A.; Jhon, Myung S.

    2013-01-01

    The world is facing great challenges in meeting rising demands for basic commodities (e.g., food, water and energy), finished goods (e.g., cell phones, cars and airplanes) and services (e.g., shelter, healthcare and employment) while reducing and minimizing the impact of human activities on Earth’s global environment and climate. Nanotechnology has emerged as a versatile platform that could provide efficient, cost-effective and environmentally acceptable solutions to the global sustainability challenges facing society. This special issue of the Journal of Nanoparticle Research is devoted to the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve sustainable development. We highlight recent advances and discuss opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address global challenges in (1) water purification, (2) clean energy technologies, (3) greenhouse gases management, (4) materials supply and utilization, and (5) green manufacturing and chemistry. In addition to the technical challenges listed above, we also discuss societal perspectives and provide an outlook of the role of nanotechnology in the convergence of knowledge, technology and society for achieving sustainable development

  6. Innovations in nanotechnology for water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehrke I

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ilka Gehrke, Andreas Geiser, Annette Somborn-SchulzFraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology UMSICHT, Oberhausen, GermanyAbstract: Important challenges in the global water situation, mainly resulting from worldwide population growth and climate change, require novel innovative water technologies in order to ensure a supply of drinking water and reduce global water pollution. Against this background, the adaptation of highly advanced nanotechnology to traditional process engineering offers new opportunities in technological developments for advanced water and wastewater technology processes. Here, an overview of recent advances in nanotechnologies for water and wastewater treatment processes is provided, including nanobased materials, such as nanoadsorbents, nanometals, nanomembranes, and photocatalysts. The beneficial properties of these materials as well as technical barriers when compared with conventional processes are reported. The state of commercialization is presented and an outlook on further research opportunities is given for each type of nanobased material and process. In addition to the promising technological enhancements, the limitations of nanotechnology for water applications, such as laws and regulations as well as potential health risks, are summarized. The legal framework according to nanoengineered materials and processes that are used for water and wastewater treatment is considered for European countries and for the USA.Keywords: nanotechnology, water technology, nanoadsorbents, nanometals, nanomembranes, photocatalysis

  7. Emerging applications of nanotechnology for diagnosis and therapy of disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayford, Richard; Rademacher, Tom; Roitt, Ivan; Wang, Scarlet Xiaoyan

    2017-07-24

    Nanotechnology is of increasing interest in the fields of medicine and physiology over recent years. Its application could considerably improve disease detection and therapy, and although the potential is considerable, there are still many challenges that need to be addressed before it is accepted in routine clinical use. This review focuses on emerging applications that nanotechnology could enhance or provide new approaches in diagnoses and therapy. The main focus of recent research centres on targeted therapies and enhancing imaging; however, the introduction of nanomaterial into the human body must be controlled, as there are many issues with possible toxicity and long-term effects. Despite these issues, the potential for nanotechnology to provide new methods of combating cancer and other disease conditions is considerable. There are still key challenges for researchers in this field, including the means of delivery and targeting in the body to provide effective treatment for specific disease conditions. Nanoparticles are difficult to measure due to their size and physical properties; hence there is still a great need to improve physiological measurement methods in the field to ascertain how effective their use is in the human subject. This review is a brief snapshot into the fast changing research field of measurement and physiological links to nanoparticle use and its potential in the future.

  8. Methodological bases of innovative training of specialists in nanotechnology field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIGOVSKY Oleg Lvovich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of innovative training system aimed at highly intellectual specialists in the area of nanotechnologies for Kazakhstan’s economy demands establishment and development of nanotechnological market in the country, teaching of innovative engineering combined with consistent research, integration of trained specialists with latest technologies and sciences at the international level. Methodological aspects of training competitive specialists for nanotechnological field are specific. The paper presents methodological principles of innovative training of specialists for science-intensive industry that were realized according to grant given by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

  9. The implications and applications of nanotechnology in dentistry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlKahtani, Rawan N

    2018-04-01

    The emerging science of nanotechnology, especially within the dental and medical fields, sparked a research interest in their potential applications and benefits in comparison to conventional materials used. Therefore, a better understanding of the science behind nanotechnology is essential to appreciate how these materials can be utilised in our daily practice. The present paper will help the reader understand nanoscience, and the benefits and limitations of nanotechnology by addressing its ethical, social, and health implications. Additionally, nano-applications in dental diagnostics, dental prevention, and in dental materials will be addressed, with examples of commercially available products and evidence on their clinical performance.

  10. Ultimate Atomic Bling: Nanotechnology of Diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Diamonds exist in all sizes, from the Hope Diamond to minuscule crystals only a few atoms across. The smallest of these diamonds are created naturally by the same processes that make petroleum. Recently, researchers discovered that these 'diamondoids' are formed in many different structural shapes, and that these shapes can be used like LEGO blocks for nanotechnology. This talk will discuss the discovery of these nano-size diamonds and highlight current SLAC/Stanford research into their applications in electronics and medicine.

  11. caNanoLab: data sharing to expedite the use of nanotechnology in biomedicine

    OpenAIRE

    Gaheen, Sharon; Hinkal, George W.; Morris, Stephanie A.; Lijowski, Michal; Heiskanen, Mervi; Klemm, Juli D.

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology in biomedicine involves the engineering of nanomaterials to act as therapeutic carriers, targeting agents and diagnostic imaging devices. The application of nanotechnology in cancer aims to transform early detection, targeted therapeutics and cancer prevention and control. To assist in expediting and validating the use of nanomaterials in biomedicine, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology, in collaboration wi...

  12. ULTRAFINE FLUORESCENT DIAMONDS IN NANOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyuk M. I.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to summarize the literature data concerning ultrafine diamonds, namely their industrial production, as well as considerable photostability and biocompatibility that promote their use in modern visualization techniques. It is shown that due to the unique physical properties, they are promising materials for using in nanotechnology in the near future. Possibility of diverse surface modification, small size and large absorption surface are the basis for their use in different approaches for drug and gene delivery into a cell. The changes in the properties of nanodiamond surface modification methods of their creation, stabilization and applications are described. It can be said that fluorescent surface-modified nanodiamonds are a promising target in various research methods that would be widely used for labeling of living cells, as well as in the processes of genes and drugs delivery into a cell.

  13. Immunotherapy: A breakthrough in cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2016-12-01

    test the effectiveness of the tuberculosis vaccine Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG in treating superficial bladder cancer. The BCG treatment, in which BCG bacilli are inserted directly into a patient’s bladder via a catheter, proved to be an effective form of immunotherapy and the groundbreaking technique is still used today. In general, studies on immunotherapy have presented researchers with two important conclusions: First and foremost, researchers were finally able to prove that the immune system is indeed capable of recognizing cancer cells as a ‘foreign entity’ although they originate from the body’s own tissues. Secondly, by boosting the immune response, researchers are able to enhance other cancer-killing agents at the same time, thus increasing the chances of a successful treatment via immunotherapy. Based on these conclusions, researchers all over the world now face the challenge of figuring out which therapy works best for a specific type of cancer and why some cancer patients respond better than others to the prescribed treatments.At the ESMO Asia 2016 congress, lead author Dr. Makoto Tahara presented his paper ‘Asian head and neck cancer patients live longer with immunotherapy than mixed race group’, in which his team of researchers reported the sub-analysis results on the safety and efficacy of pembrolizumab in 26 patients (of Asian Pacific origin who received a fixed dose of the humanized antibody for 24 months until the detection of disease progression or adverse events. They observed that both the median overall survival and the disease control rate were better in Asians than the overall population, i.e. 11.5 versus 8.4 months and 50.5% versus 37.9%, respectively.According to Dr. Tahara, “The fixed dose of pembrolizumab was well-tolerated in Asian Pacific patients with recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer. Although the Asian population was small, our findings suggest that they have better median overall survival with pembrolizumab than

  14. Computational nanomedicine and nanotechnology lectures with computer practicums

    CERN Document Server

    Letfullin, Renat R

    2016-01-01

    This textbook, aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students, introduces the basic knowledge required for nanomedicine and nanotechnology, and emphasizes how the combined use of chemistry and light with nanoparticles can serve as treatments and therapies for cancer. This includes nanodevices, nanophototherapies, nanodrug design, and laser heating of nanoparticles and cell organelles. In addition, the book covers the emerging fields of nanophotonics and nanoplasmonics, which deal with nanoscale confinement of radiation and optical interactions on a scale much smaller than the wavelength of the light. The applications of nanophotonics and nanoplasmonics to biomedical research discussed in the book range from optical biosensing to photodynamic therapies. Cutting-edge and reflective of the multidisciplinary nature of nanomedicine, this book effectively combines knowledge and modeling from nanoscience, medicine, biotechnology, physics, optics, engineering, and pharmacy in an easily digestible format. Among...

  15. Nanotechnology for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsia, Antoni P; Lee, Janice S; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Saiz, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of nanotechnology, an opportunity exists for the engineering of new dental implant materials. Metallic dental implants have been successfully used for decades, but they have shortcomings related to osseointegration and mechanical properties that do not match those of bone. Absent the development of an entirely new class of materials, faster osseointegration of currently available dental implants can be accomplished by various surface modifications. To date, there is no consensus regarding the preferred method(s) of implant surface modification, and further development will be required before the ideal implant surface can be created, let alone become available for clinical use. Current approaches can generally be categorized into three areas: ceramic coatings, surface functionalization, and patterning on the micro- to nanoscale. The distinctions among these are imprecise, as some or all of these approaches can be combined to improve in vivo implant performance. These surface improvements have resulted in durable implants with a high percentage of success and long-term function. Nanotechnology has provided another set of opportunities for the manipulation of implant surfaces in its capacity to mimic the surface topography formed by extracellular matrix components of natural tissue. The possibilities introduced by nanotechnology now permit the tailoring of implant chemistry and structure with an unprecedented degree of control. For the first time, tools are available that can be used to manipulate the physicochemical environment and monitor key cellular events at the molecular level. These new tools and capabilities will result in faster bone formation, reduced healing time, and rapid recovery to function.

  16. Computers, Nanotechnology and Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    2008-10-01

    In 1958, two years after the Dartmouth conference, where the term artificial intelligence was coined, Herbert Simon and Allen Newell asserted the existence of "machines that think, that learn and create." They were further prophesying that the machines' capacity would increase and be on par with the human mind. Now, 50 years later, computers perform many more tasks than one could imagine in the 1950s but, virtually, no computer can do more than could the first digital computer, developed by John von Neumann in the 1940s. Computers still follow algorithms, they do not create them. However, the development of nanotechnology seems to have given rise to new hopes. With nanotechnology two things are supposed to happen. Firstly, due to the small scale it will be possible to construct huge computer memories which are supposed to be the precondition for building an artificial brain, secondly, nanotechnology will make it possible to scan the brain which in turn will make reverse engineering possible; the mind will be decoded by studying the brain. The consequence of such a belief is that the brain is no more than a calculator, i.e., all that the mind can do is in principle the results of arithmetical operations. Computers are equivalent to formal systems which in turn was an answer to an idea by Hilbert that proofs should contain ideal statements for which operations cannot be applied in a contentual way. The advocates of artificial intelligence will place content in a machine that is developed not only to be free of content but also cannot contain content. In this paper I argue that the hope for artificial intelligence is in vain.

  17. Antibody Characterization Lab | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Antibody Characterization Lab (ACL), an intramural reference laboratory located at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research in Frederick, Maryland, thoroughly characterizes monoclonal antibodies or other renewable affinity binding reagents for use in cancer related research.

  18. A Seat at the Table: Culturally based cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI supports research to address cancer disparities among American Indian and Alaska Native populations. In this video, two researchers advocate for more culturally sensitive practices to help people who are most disproportionately affected by cancer disparities.

  19. Basic and technical research on lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Tadaaki

    2004-01-01

    In association with clinical study of carbon beam therapy for lung cancer, the basic research for lung cancer and the patients with this disease has been carried out for the past 10 years. With regard to lung damage by the carbon beams, firstly pulmonary function was measured and analyzed for the patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Force expiratory volume in 1 second (FVE 1.0) and TLC (total lung capacity) was found to be reduced significantly at 6 and 12 months after therapy but the reduction rate was a little, which can support the safety of this treatment modality. Secondly, the regional lung damage by the beams was investigated by using correct fusion of CT images with carbon beam dose distribution, diagnostic follow-up CT images and blood flow and ventilation spect images. It demonstrated the graded decrease blood flow by dose and the compensatory increase of blood flow in the adjacent lobe of lung unexposed to irradiation. On the other hand, the biological study of carbon beam effects on lung cancer cells and tumors line was conducted. Firstly, by using 7 or 4 human lung cancer cell line, the radiosensitivity of carbon beams was compared with that of photons by different histological patterns. It was found that there was no essential difference in the sensitivity pattern for lung cancer histology between the carbon beams and photons though the former doubled the later in power. Secondly, by using IA cell lines among them, the dynamic of clonogenic cells (clonogen) in a nude tumor and the changes in its morphology following irradiation was investigated, clarifying that the clonogen proliferating under anoxic or hypoxic conditions played a pivotal role for tumor regrowth and stemmed from the different clone which had been genetically selected and developed under these conditions. The finding of clonogen becomes one of the evidence supporting the superiority of a single-dose radiotherapy to fractionated radiotherapy. (author)

  20. Nanotechnology: The Incredible Invisible World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda S.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of nanotechnology was first introduced in 1959 by Richard Feynman at a meeting of the American Physical Society. Nanotechnology opens the door to an exciting new science/technology/engineering field. The possibilities for the uses of this technology should inspire the imagination to think big. Many are already pursuing such feats…