WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer nanotechnology research

  1. Highlights of recent developments and trends in cancer nanotechnology research--view from NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, L C; Farrell, D; Grodzinski, P

    2014-01-01

    Although the incidence of cancer and cancer related deaths in the United States has decreased over the past two decades due to improvements in early detection and treatment, cancer still is responsible for a quarter of the deaths in this country. There is much room for improvement on the standard treatments currently available and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has recognized the potential for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in this area. The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer was formed in 2004 to support multidisciplinary researchers in the application of nanotechnology to cancer diagnosis and treatment. The researchers in the Alliance have been productive in generating innovative solutions to some of the central issues of cancer treatment including how to detect tumors earlier, how to target cancer cells specifically, and how to improve the therapeutic index of existing chemotherapies and radiotherapy treatments. Highly creative ideas are being pursued where novelty in nanomaterial development enables new modalities of detection or therapy. This review highlights some of the innovative materials approaches being pursued by researchers funded by the NCI Alliance. Their discoveries to improve the functionality of nanoparticles for medical applications includes the generation of new platforms, improvements in the manufacturing of nanoparticles and determining the underlying reasons for the movement of nanoparticles in the blood.

  2. Nanotechnology for cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Gmeiner, William H.; Ghosh, Supratim

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential to increase the selectivity and potency of chemical, physical, and biological approaches for eliciting cancer cell death while minimizing collateral toxicity to nonmalignant cells. Materials on the nanoscale are increasingly being targeted to cancer cells with great specificity through both active and passive targeting. In this review, we summarize recent literature that has broken new ground in the use of nanotechnology for cancer treatment with an emphasis o...

  3. From nanotechnology to nanomedicine: applications to cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seigneuric, R; Markey, L; Nuyten, D S A; Dubernet, C; Evelo, C T A; Finot, E; Garrido, C

    2010-10-01

    Scientific advances have significantly improved the practice of medicine by providing objective and quantitative means for exploring the human body and disease states. These innovative technologies have already profoundly improved disease detection, imaging, treatment and patient follow-up. Today's analytical limits are at the nanoscale level (one-billionth of a meter) enabling a detailed exploration at the level of DNA, RNA, proteins and metabolites which are in fact nano-objects. This translational review aims at integrating some recent advances from micro- and nano-technologies with high potential for improving daily oncology practice.

  4. Strategic Workshops on Cancer Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Nagahara, Larry A.; Lee, Jerry S.H.; Molnar, Linda K.; Panaro, Nicholas J.; Farrell, Dorothy; Ptak, Krzysztof; Alper, Joseph; Grodzinski, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers the potential for new approaches to detecting, treating and preventing cancer. To determine the current status of the cancer nanotechnology field and the optimal path forward, the National Cancer Institute’s Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer held three strategic workshops, covering the areas of in-vitro diagnostics and prevention, therapy and post-treatment, and in-vivo diagnosis and imaging. At each of these meetings, a wide range of experts from academia, industry,...

  5. Nanotechnology-based approaches in anticancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabir, Nasimudeen R; Tabrez, Shams; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Shakil, Shazi; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a highly complex disease to understand, because it entails multiple cellular physiological systems. The most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. Moreover, the early recognition and treatment of cancer remains a technological bottleneck. There is an urgent need to develop new and innovative technologies that could help to delineate tumor margins, identify residual tumor cells and micrometastases, and determine whether a tumor has been completely removed or not. Nanotechnology has witnessed significant progress in the past few decades, and its effect is widespread nowadays in every field. Nanoparticles can be modified in numerous ways to prolong circulation, enhance drug localization, increase drug efficacy, and potentially decrease chances of multidrug resistance by the use of nanotechnology. Recently, research in the field of cancer nanotechnology has made remarkable advances. The present review summarizes the application of various nanotechnology-based approaches towards the diagnostics and therapeutics of cancer.

  6. Nanotechnology for breast cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takemi; Decuzzi, Paolo; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Sakamoto, Jason H; Tasciotti, Ennio; Robertson, Fredika M; Ferrari, Mauro

    2009-02-01

    Breast cancer is the field of medicine with the greatest presence of nanotechnological therapeutic agents in the clinic. A pegylated form of liposomally encapsulated doxorubicin is routinely used for treatment against metastatic cancer, and albumin nanoparticulate chaperones of paclitaxel were approved for locally recurrent and metastatic disease in 2005. These drugs have yielded substantial clinical benefit, and are steadily gathering greater beneficial impact. Clinical trials currently employing these drugs in combination with chemo and biological therapeutics exceed 150 worldwide. Despite these advancements, breast cancer morbidity and mortality is unacceptably high. Nanotechnology offers potential solutions to the historical challenge that has rendered breast cancer so difficult to contain and eradicate: the extreme biological diversity of the disease presentation in the patient population and in the evolutionary changes of any individual disease, the multiple pathways that drive disease progression, the onset of 'resistance' to established therapeutic cocktails, and the gravity of the side effects to treatment, which result from generally very poor distribution of the injected therapeutic agents in the body. A fundamental requirement for success in the development of new therapeutic strategies is that breast cancer specialists-in the clinic, the pharmaceutical and the basic biological laboratory-and nanotechnologists-engineers, physicists, chemists and mathematicians-optimize their ability to work in close collaboration. This further requires a mutual openness across cultural and language barriers, academic reward systems, and many other 'environmental' divides. This paper is respectfully submitted to the community to help foster the mutual interactions of the breast cancer world with micro- and nano-technology, and in particular to encourage the latter community to direct ever increasing attention to breast cancer, where an extraordinary beneficial impact may

  7. Emerging nanotechnologies for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Sourabh; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2016-05-01

    Founded on the growing insight into the complex cancer-immune system interactions, adjuvant immunotherapies are rapidly emerging and being adapted for the treatment of various human malignancies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, for example, have already shown clinical success. Nevertheless, many approaches are not optimized, require frequent administration, are associated with systemic toxicities and only show modest efficacy as monotherapies. Nanotechnology can potentially enhance the efficacy of such immunotherapies by improving the delivery, retention and release of immunostimulatory agents and biologicals in targeted cell populations and tissues. This review presents the current status and emerging trends in such nanotechnology-based cancer immunotherapies including the role of nanoparticles as carriers of immunomodulators, nanoparticles-based cancer vaccines, and depots for sustained immunostimulation. Also highlighted are key translational challenges and opportunities in this rapidly growing field.

  8. Astronomy and Cancer Research: X-Rays and Nanotechnology from Black Holes to Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Anil K.; Nahar, Sultana N.

    It seems highly unlikely that any connection is to be found between astronomy and medicine. But then it also appears to be obvious: X-rays. However, that is quite superficial because the nature of X-rays in the two disciplines is quite different. Nevertheless, we describe recent research on exactly that kind of link. Furthermore, the linkage lies in atomic physics, and via spectroscopy which is a vital tool in astronomy and may also be equally valuable in biomedical research. This review begins with the physics of black hole environments as viewed through X-ray spectroscopy. It is then shown that similar physics can be applied to spectroscopic imaging and therapeutics using heavy-element (high-Z) moieties designed to target cancerous tumors. X-ray irradiation of high-Z nanomaterials as radiosensitizing agents should be extremely efficient for therapy and diagnostics (theranostics). However, broadband radiation from conventional X-ray sources (such as CT scanners) results in vast and unnecessary radiation exposure. Monochromatic X-ray sources are expected to be considerably more efficient. We have developed a new and comprehensive methodology—Resonant Nano-Plasma Theranostics (RNPT)—that encompasses the use of monochromatic X-ray sources and high-Z nanoparticles. Ongoing research entails theoretical computations, numerical simulations, and in vitro and in vivo biomedical experiments. Stemming from basic theoretical studies of Kα resonant photoabsorption and fluorescence in all elements of the Periodic Table, we have established a comprehensive multi-disciplinary program involving researchers from physics, chemistry, astronomy, pathology, radiation oncology and radiology. Large-scale calculations necessary for theory and modeling are done at a variety of computational platforms at the Ohio Supercomputer Center. The final goal is the implementation of RNPT for clinical applications.

  9. Nanotechnology for Early Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Won Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast numbers of studies and developments in the nanotechnology area have been conducted and many nanomaterials have been utilized to detect cancers at early stages. Nanomaterials have unique physical, optical and electrical properties that have proven to be very useful in sensing. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires and many other materials have been developed over the years, alongside the discovery of a wide range of biomarkers to lower the detection limit of cancer biomarkers. Proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments are the base of cancer biomarkers and have been used as targets in cancer detection and monitoring. It is highly anticipated that in the near future, we might be able to detect cancer at a very early stage, providing a much higher chance of treatment.

  10. NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer - Tutorials and Seminar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    View details about tutorials and seminars hosted by Alliance members and members of the cancer research community. These events provide a forum for sharing innovative perspectives on research and development efforts in the field of nanotechnology and their application to cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Also visit the Event Listing section to find scientific meetings and events where NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer leaders and members are participating.

  11. International strategy for Nanotechnology Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The worldwide nanotechnology research and development (R and D) investment reported by government organizations has increased by a factor of 3.5 between 1997 and 2001, and the highest rate of 90% is in 2001. At least 30 countries have initiated or are beginning national activities in this field. Scientists have opened a broad net of discoveries that does not leave any major research area untouched in physical, biological, and engineering sciences. Industry has gained confidence that nanotechnology will bring competitive advantages. The worldwide annual industrial production is estimated to exceed $1 trillion in 10-15 years from now, which would require about 2 million nanotechnology workers. U.S. has initiated a multidisciplinary strategy for development of science and engineering fundamentals through the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Japan and Europe have broad programs, and their current plans look ahead to four to five years. Other countries have encouraged their own areas of strength, several of them focusing on fields of the potential markets. Differences among countries are observed in the research domain they are aiming for, the level of program integration into various industrial sectors, and in the time scale of their R and D targets. Nanotechnology is growing in an environment where international interactions accelerate in science, education and industrial R and D. A global strategy of mutual interest is envisioned by connecting individual programs of contributing countries, professional communities, and international organizations

  12. Best practices in cancer nanotechnology: perspective from NCI nanotechnology alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, William C; Torchilin, Vladimir; Patri, Anil K; Hrkach, Jeff; Stern, Stephen; Lee, Robert; Nel, Andre; Panaro, Nicholas J; Grodzinski, Piotr

    2012-06-15

    Historically, treatment of patients with cancer using chemotherapeutic agents has been associated with debilitating and systemic toxicities, poor bioavailability, and unfavorable pharmacokinetics. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, on the other hand, can specifically target cancer cells while avoiding their healthy neighbors, avoid rapid clearance from the body, and be administered without toxic solvents. They hold immense potential in addressing all of these issues, which has hampered further development of chemotherapeutics. Furthermore, such drug delivery systems will lead to cancer therapeutic modalities that are not only less toxic to the patient but also significantly more efficacious. In addition to established therapeutic modes of action, nanomaterials are opening up entirely new modalities of cancer therapy, such as photodynamic and hyperthermia treatments. Furthermore, nanoparticle carriers are also capable of addressing several drug delivery problems that could not be effectively solved in the past and include overcoming formulation issues, multidrug-resistance phenomenon, and penetrating cellular barriers that may limit device accessibility to intended targets, such as the blood-brain barrier. The challenges in optimizing design of nanoparticles tailored to specific tumor indications still remain; however, it is clear that nanoscale devices carry a significant promise toward new ways of diagnosing and treating cancer. This review focuses on future prospects of using nanotechnology in cancer applications and discusses practices and methodologies used in the development and translation of nanotechnology-based therapeutics. PMID:22669131

  13. Nanotechnology research for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, Forrest J.; Lozano, Karen; Gutierrez, Jose M.; Chipara, Mircea; Thapa, Ram; Chow, Alice

    2009-04-01

    Nanotechnology is impacting the future of the military and aerospace. The increasing demands for high performance and property-specific applications are forcing the scientific world to take novel approaches in developing programs and accelerating output. CONTACT or Consortium for Nanomaterials for Aerospace Commerce and Technology is a cooperative nanotechnology research program in Texas building on an infrastructure that promotes collaboration between universities and transitioning to industry. The participants of the program include the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), five campuses of the University of Texas (Brownsville, Pan American, Arlington, Austin, and Dallas), the University of Houston, and Rice University. Through the various partnerships between the intellectual centers and the interactions with AFRL and CONTACT's industrial associates, the program represents a model that addresses the needs of the changing and competitive technological world. Into the second year, CONTACT has expanded to twelve projects that cover four areas of research: Adaptive Coatings and Surface Engineering, Nano Energetics, Electromagnetic Sensors, and Power Generation and Storage. This paper provides an overview of the CONTACT program and its projects including the research and development of new electrorheological fluids with nanoladen suspensions and composites and the potential applications.

  14. Diagnosis of prostate cancer via nanotechnological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang BJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Benedict J Kang,1,2,* Minhong Jeun,1,2,* Gun Hyuk Jang,1,2 Sang Hoon Song,3 In Gab Jeong,3 Choung-Soo Kim,3 Peter C Searson,4 Kwan Hyi Lee1,2 1KIST Biomedical Research Institute, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST, 3Department of Urology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 4Institute for Nanobiotechnology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among the Caucasian adult males in Europe and the USA. Currently available diagnostic strategies for patients with prostate cancer are invasive and unpleasant and have poor accuracy. Many patients have been overly or underly treated resulting in a controversy regarding the reliability of current conventional diagnostic approaches. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research in the development of novel noninvasive prostate cancer diagnostics using nanotechnology coupled with suggested diagnostic strategies for their clinical implication.Keywords: bioassay, nanomaterial, nanodevice, PSA, non-PSA biomarker, bodily fluid

  15. Engaging Undergraduates through Interdisciplinary Research in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, Anura U.; Offutt, Christine; Whitling, Jacqueline; Woodhouse, Donald

    2012-01-01

    To recruit and retain more students in all science disciplines at our small (5,000 student) public university, we implemented an interdisciplinary strategy focusing on nanotechnology and enhanced undergraduate research. Inherently interdisciplinary, the novelty of nanotechnology and its growing career potential appeal to students. To engage…

  16. DNA Nanotechnology for Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Vinit; Palazzolo, Stefano; Bayda, Samer; Corona, Giuseppe; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Rizzolio, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    DNA nanotechnology is an emerging and exciting field, and represents a forefront frontier for the biomedical field. The specificity of the interactions between complementary base pairs makes DNA an incredible building material for programmable and very versatile two- and three-dimensional nanostructures called DNA origami. Here, we analyze the DNA origami and DNA-based nanostructures as a drug delivery system. Besides their physical-chemical nature, we dissect the critical factors such as sta...

  17. Review of "Cancer Nanotechnology: Methods and Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology" by Stephen R. Grobmyer (Editor, Brij M. Moudgil (Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmetz Nicole F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer remains one of the leading causes of death. Research and resulting technologies have contributed to rising numbers of cancer survivors. Cancer nanotechnology is a novel and burgeoning field with the promise to open the door for the development of improved cancer therapies and detection methods. Cancer nanotechnology has the potential to become clinical reality.

  18. Carbon nanotubes for in vivo cancer nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The latest progress of using carbon nanotubes(CNTs) for in vivo cancer nanotechnology is reviewed.CNTs can be functionalized by either covalent or non-covalent chemistry to produce functional bioconjugates for many in vivo applications.In vivo behaviors and toxicology studies of CNTs are summarized,suggesting no significant toxicity of well functionalized CNTs to the treated mice.Owing to their unique chemical and physical properties,CNTs,especially single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs),have been widely used for various modalities of in vivo cancer treatment and imaging.Future development of CNT-based nanomedicine may bring novel opportunities to cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  19. Micro- and nanotechnologies in plankton research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Javeed Shaikh

    2015-05-01

    A better understanding of the vast range of plankton and their interactions with the marine environment would allow prediction of their large-scale impact on the marine ecosystem, and provide in-depth knowledge on pollution and climate change. Numerous technologies, especially lab-on-a-chip microsystems, are being used to this end. Marine biofouling is a global issue with significant economic consequences. Ecofriendly polymer nanotechnologies are being developed to combat marine biofouling. Furthermore, nanomaterials hold great potential for bioremediation and biofuel production. Excellent reviews covering focused topics in plankton research exist, with only a handful discussing both micro- and nanotechnologies. This work reviews both micro- and nanotechnologies applied to broad-ranging plankton research topics including flow cytometry, chemotaxis/toxicity assays, biofilm formation, marine antifouling/fouling-release surfaces and coatings, green energy, green nanomaterials, microalgae immobilization, and bioremediation. It is anticipated that developments in plankton research will see engineered exploitation of micro- and nanotechnologies. The current review is therefore intended to promote micro-/nanotechnology researchers to team up with limnologists/oceanographers, and develop novel strategies for understanding and green exploitation of the complex marine ecosystem.

  20. Nanotechnology for the delivery of phytochemicals in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Yang, Zhaogang; Zhou, Chenguang; Zhu, Jing; Lee, Robert J; Teng, Lesheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize advances that have been made in the delivery of phytochemicals for cancer therapy by the use of nanotechnology. Over recent decades, much research effort has been invested in developing phytochemicals as cancer therapeutic agents. However, several impediments to their wide spread use as drugs still have to be overcome. Among these are low solubility, poor penetration into cells, high hepatic disposition, and narrow therapeutic index. Rapid clearance or uptake by normal tissues and wide tissue distribution result in low drug accumulation in the target tumor sites can result in undesired drug exposure in normal tissues. Association with or encapsulation in nanoscale drug carriers is a potential strategy to address these problems. This review discussed lessons learned on the use of nanotechnology for delivery of phytochemicals that been tested in clinical trials or are moving towards the clinic. PMID:27071534

  1. Application of nanotechnology in cancers prevention, early detection and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha P Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of nanotechnology in medical science is a rapidly developing area. New opportunities of diagnosis, imaging and therapy have developed due to recent rapid advancement by nanotechnology. The most common areas to be affected are diagnostic, imaging and targeted drug delivery in gastroenterology, oncology, cardiovascular medicine, obstetrics and gynecology. Mass screening with inexpensive imaging might be possible in the near future with the help of nanotechnology. This review paper provides an overview of causes of cancer and the application of nanotechnology in cancer prevention, detection and treatment.

  2. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN THE TREATMENT AND DETECTION OF INTRAOCULAR CANCERS

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Ashwin; Thevenot, Paul; Hu, Wenjing; Tang, Liping

    2008-01-01

    Tremendous progress in nanotechnology has lead to the development of nanometer-sized objects as medical implants or devices. Many of these nanodevices have recently been tested in many cancer diagnostic and therapeutic applications, such as leukemia, melanoma, breast tumor, prostate tumor, and brain cancer. Despite the increasing importance of nanotechnology in cancer, the potential of these nanodevices in diagnosing and treating intraocular cancers has not been systematically evaluated. This...

  3. Applications of gold nanoparticles in cancer nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibo Cai

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Weibo Cai1,2, Ting Gao3, Hao Hong1, Jiangtao Sun11Departments of Radiology and Medical Physics, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin – Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; 2University of Wisconsin Paul P. Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin, USA; 3Tyco Electronics Corporation, 306 Constitution Drive, Menlo Park, California, USAAbstract: It has been almost 4 decades since the “war on cancer” was declared. It is now generally believed that personalized medicine is the future for cancer patient management. Possessing unprecedented potential for early detection, accurate diagnosis, and personalized treatment of cancer, nanoparticles have been extensively studied over the last decade. In this review, we will summarize the current state-of-the-art of gold nanoparticles in biomedical applications targeting cancer. Gold nanospheres, nanorods, nanoshells, nanocages, and surface enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles will be discussed in detail regarding their uses in in vitro assays, ex vivo and in vivo imaging, cancer therapy, and drug delivery. Multifunctionality is the key feature of nanoparticle-based agents. Targeting ligands, imaging labels, therapeutic drugs, and other functionalities can all be integrated to allow for targeted molecular imaging and molecular therapy of cancer. Big strides have been made and many proof-of-principle studies have been successfully performed. The future looks brighter than ever yet many hurdles remain to be conquered. A multifunctional platform based on gold nanoparticles, with multiple receptor targeting, multimodality imaging, and multiple therapeutic entities, holds the promise for a “magic gold bullet” against cancer.Keywords: gold nanoparticles, cancer, nanotechnology, optical imaging, nanomedicine, molecular therapy

  4. Integrative filtration research and sustainable nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Wang; Drew Thompson; David Y.H.Pui

    2013-01-01

    With the wide applications of nanomaterials in an array of industries,more concerns are being raised about the occupational health and safety of nanoparticles in the workplace,and implications of nanotechnology on the environment and living systems.Studies on environmental,health and safety (EHS) issues of nanomaterials play a significant role in public acceptance,and eventual sustainability,of nanotechnology.We present research results on three aspects of the EHS studies:characterization and measurement of nanoparticles,nanoparticle emission and exposure at workplaces,and control and abatement of nanoparticle release using filtration technology.Measurement of nanoparticle agglomerates using a newly developed instrument,the Universal Nanoparticle Analyzer,is discussed.Nanoparticle emission and exposure measurement results for carbon nanotubes in the manufacture of nanocomposites and for silicon nanoparticles in their production at a pilot scale facility are presented.Filtration of nanoparticles and nanoparticle agglomerates are also studied.

  5. Factors affecting the perceptions of Iranian agricultural researchers towards nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mahmood; Rezaei, Rohollah

    2011-07-01

    This descriptive survey research was undertaken to design appropriate programs for the creation of a positive perception of nanotechnology among their intended beneficiaries. In order to do that, the factors affecting positive perceptions were defined. A stratified random sample of 278 science board members was selected out of 984 researchers who were working in 22 National Agricultural Research Institutions (NARIs). Data were collected by using a mailed questionnaire. The descriptive results revealed that more than half of the respondents had "low" or "very low" familiarity with nanotechnology. Regression analysis indicated that the perceptions of Iranian NARI Science Board Members towards nanotechnology were explained by three variables: the level of their familiarity with emerging applications of nanotechnology in agriculture, the level of their familiarity with nanotechnology and their work experiences. The findings of this study can contribute to a better understanding of the present situation of the development of nanotechnology and the planning of appropriate programs for creating a positive perception of nanotechnology.

  6. The role of nanotechnology in cancer treatment and diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Vanessa Micaela dos Santos; Silva, Ana Catarina; Lopes, Carla Martins

    2010-01-01

    Cancer treatment is one of the major challenges of modern medicine. Several attempts have been made, in order to find more successful treatments. Nanotechnology can be applied to target drugs to the surface or to the interior of specific cells. In addition, it can also be used in diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. Therefore, nanotechnology opened a new vast exploiting area for cancer treatment. The studies must go on to obtain tailor-made therapies, with low adverse side effe...

  7. Research trends in nanotechnology studies across geo-economic areas

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Coccia; Ugo Finardi; Diego Margon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current temporal and spatial research trajectories in nanoscience and nanotechnology studies in order to display the worldwide patterns of research fields across main economic players. The results show the leadership of Europe and North America in nanotechnology research, although the role of China has been growing over time. Current nanotechnology studies have been growing in chemistry and medicine because of applications of nanomaterials mainly in...

  8. Overcoming multidrug resistance(MDR) in cancer by nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The emerging nanotechnology-based drug delivery holds tremendous potential to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs for treatment of multidrug resistance(MDR) cancer.This drug delivery system could improve the pharmacokinetic behavior of antitumor drugs,deliver chemotherapeutic drugs to target sites,control release of drugs,and reduce the systemic toxicity of drugs in MDR cancer.This review addresses the use of nanotechnology to overcome MDR classified on the bases of the fundamental mechanisms of MDR and various approaches to deliver drugs for treatment of MDR cancer.

  9. Best Practices in Cancer Nanotechnology – Perspective from NCI Nanotechnology Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, William C.; Torchilin, Vladimir; Patri, Anil; Hrkach, Jeff; Stern, Stephen; Lee, Robert; Nel, Andre; Panaro, Nicholas J.; Grodzinski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Historically, treatment of patients with cancer using chemotherapeutic agents has been associated with debilitating and systemic toxicities, poor bioavailability, and unfavorable pharmacokinetics. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, on the other hand, can specifically target cancer cells while avoiding their healthy neighbors, avoid rapid clearance from the body, and be administered without toxic solvents. They hold immense potential in addressing all of these issues which has hampered further development of chemotherapeutics. Furthermore, such drug delivery systems will lead to cancer therapeutic modalities which are not only less toxic to the patient but also significantly more efficacious. In addition to established therapeutic modes of action, nanomaterials are opening up entirely new modalities of cancer therapy, such as photodynamic and hyperthermia treatments. Furthermore, nanoparticle carriers are also capable of addressing several drug delivery problems which could not be effectively solved in the past and include overcoming formulation issues, multi-drug-resistance phenomenon and penetrating cellular barriers that may limit device accessibility to intended targets such as the blood-brain-barrier. The challenges in optimizing design of nanoparticles tailored to specific tumor indications still remain; however, it is clear that nanoscale devices carry a significant promise towards new ways of diagnosing and treating cancer. This review focuses on future prospects of using nanotechnology in cancer applications and discusses practices and methodologies used in the development and translation of nanotechnology-based therapeutics. PMID:22669131

  10. Convergence of nanotechnology and cancer prevention: are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menter, David G; Patterson, Sherri L; Logsdon, Craig D; Kopetz, Scott; Sood, Anil K; Hawk, Ernest T

    2014-10-01

    Nanotechnology is emerging as a promising modality for cancer treatment; however, in the realm of cancer prevention, its full utility has yet to be determined. Here, we discuss the potential of integrating nanotechnology in cancer prevention to augment early diagnosis, precision targeting, and controlled release of chemopreventive agents, reduced toxicity, risk/response assessment, and personalized point-of-care monitoring. Cancer is a multistep, progressive disease; the functional and acquired characteristics of the early precancer phenotype are intrinsically different from those of a more advanced anaplastic or invasive malignancy. Therefore, applying nanotechnology to precancers is likely to be far more challenging than applying it to established disease. Frank cancers are more readily identifiable through imaging and biomarker and histopathologic assessment than their precancerous precursors. In addition, prevention subjects routinely have more rigorous intervention criteria than therapy subjects. Any nanopreventive agent developed to prevent sporadic cancers found in the general population must exhibit a very low risk of serious side effects. In contrast, a greater risk of side effects might be more acceptable in subjects at high risk for cancer. Using nanotechnology to prevent cancer is an aspirational goal, but clearly identifying the intermediate objectives and potential barriers is an essential first step in this exciting journey.

  11. DETECTION OF CANCER BIOMARKERS WITH NANOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of cancer biomarkers with high precision is critically important for cancer therapy. A variety of sensors based on different nanostructured materials have attracted intensive research interest due to their potential for highly sensitive and selective detection of cancer biomarkers. This review covers the use of a variety of nanostructured materials, including carbon nanotubes, silicon nanowires, gold nanoparticles and quantum dots, in the fabrication of sensors. Emphases are placed on how the detection systems work and what detection limits can be achieved. Some assays described in this review outperform established methods for cancer biomarker detection. It is highly promising that these sensors would soon move into commercial-scale production and find routine use in hospitals.

  12. The Extraordinary Progress in Very Early Cancer Diagnosis and Personalized Therapy: The Role of Oncomarkers and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Marialuigina Fruscella; Antonio Ponzetto; Annalisa Crema; Guido Carloni

    2016-01-01

    The impact of nanotechnology on oncology is revolutionizing cancer diagnosis and therapy and largely improving prognosis. This is mainly due to clinical translation of the most recent findings in cancer research, that is, the application of bio- and nanotechnologies. Cancer genomics and early diagnostics are increasingly playing a key role in developing more precise targeted therapies for most human tumors. In the last decade, accumulation of basic knowledge has resulted in a tremendous break...

  13. Cancer Nanotechnology Startup Challenge: a new way to realize the fruits of innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Currell, Fred; Bellringer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A significant new innovation-development model is being launched in the field of cancer and nanotechnology. A significant new innovation-development model is being launched in the field of cancer and nanotechnology.

  14. Unique roles of nanotechnology in medicine and cancer-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Applications of nanotechnology in medicine and cancer are becoming increasingly popular. Common nanomaterials and devices applicable in cancer medicine are classifiable as liposomes, polymeric-micelles, dendrimers, nano-cantilevers, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, magnetic-nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and certain miscellaneous nanoparticles. Here, we present review of the structure, function and utilities of the various approved, under trial and pretrial nanodevices applicable in the cancer care and medicine. The liposomes are phospholipid-vesicles made use in carrying drugs to the target site minimizing the bio-distribution toxicity and a number of such theranostics have been approved for clinical practice. Newly worked out liposomes and polymeric micelles are under the trail phases for nano-therapeutic utility. A multifunctional dendrimer conjugate with imaging, targeting and drug molecules of paclitaxel has been recently synthesized for cancer theranostic applications. Nano-cantilever based assays are likely going to replace the conventions methods of chemical pathological investigations. Carbon nanotubes are emerging for utility in regenerative and cancer medicine. Quantum dots hold great promise for the micro-metastasis and intra-operative tumor imaging. Important applications of magnetic nanoparticles are in the cardiac stents, photodynamic therapy and liver metastasis imaging. The AuNPs have been employed for cell imaging, computed tomography and cancer therapy. Besides these categories, miscellaneous other nanoparticles are being discovered for utility in the cancer diagnosis and disease management. However, the use of nanoparticles should be cautious since the toxic effects of nanoparticles are not well-known. The use of nanoparticles in the clinical practice and their toxicity profile require further extensive research.

  15. Application of nanotechnology in the treatment and diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancers: review of recent patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, Jose; Melguizo, Consolacion; Perazzoli, Gloria; Cabeza, Laura; Carrasco, Esther; Oliver, Jaime; Jiménez-Luna, Cristina; Leiva, Maria C; Ortiz, Raúl; Álvarez, Pablo J; Aranega, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cancers remain one of the main causes of death in developed countries. The main obstacles to combating these diseases are the limitations of current diagnostic techniques and the low stability, availability, and/or specificity of pharmacological treatment. In recent years, nanotechnology has revolutionized many fields of medicine, including oncology. The association of chemotherapeutic agents with nanoparticles offers improvement in the solubility and stability of antitumor agents, avoidance of drug degradation, and reductions in therapeutic dose and toxicity, increasing drug levels in tumor tissue and decreasing them in healthy tissue. The use of specific molecules that drive nanoparticles to the tumor tissue represents a major advance in therapeutic specificity. In addition, the use of nanotechnology in contrast agents has yielded improvements in the diagnosis and the follow-up of tumors. These nanotechnologies have all been applied in gastrointestinal cancer treatment, first in vitro, and subsequently in vivo, with promising results reported in some clinical trials. A large number of patents have been generated by nanotechnology research over recent years. The objective of this paper is to review patents on the clinical use of nanoparticles for gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis and therapy and to offer an overview of the impact of nanotechnology on the management of this disease.

  16. Recent insights in nanotechnology-based drugs and formulations designed for effective anti-cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piktel, Ewelina; Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Wątek, Marzena; Wollny, Tomasz; Deptuła, Piotr; Bucki, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of nanotechnology provides alternative approaches to overcome several limitations of conventional anti-cancer therapy. Drug targeting using functionalized nanoparticles to advance their transport to the dedicated site, became a new standard in novel anti-cancer methods. In effect, the employment of nanoparticles during design of antineoplastic drugs helps to improve pharmacokinetic properties, with subsequent development of high specific, non-toxic and biocompatible anti-cancer agents. However, the physicochemical and biological diversity of nanomaterials and a broad spectrum of unique features influencing their biological action requires continuous research to assess their activity. Among numerous nanosystems designed to eradicate cancer cells, only a limited number of them entered the clinical trials. It is anticipated that progress in development of nanotechnology-based anti-cancer materials will provide modern, individualized anti-cancer therapies assuring decrease in morbidity and mortality from cancer diseases. In this review we discussed the implication of nanomaterials in design of new drugs for effective antineoplastic therapy and describe a variety of mechanisms and challenges for selective tumor targeting. We emphasized the recent advantages in the field of nanotechnology-based strategies to fight cancer and discussed their part in effective anti-cancer therapy and successful drug delivery. PMID:27229857

  17. Impact of nanotechnology on the delivery of natural products for cancer prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; Sanna, Vanna

    2016-06-01

    Chemoprevention of human cancer by dietary products is a practical approach of cancer control, especially when chemoprevention is involved during the early stages of the carcinogenesis process. Research over the last few decades has clearly demonstrated the efficacy of dietary products for chemoprevention in cell culture and preclinical animal model systems. However, these in vitro and in vivo effects have not been able to be translated to bedside for clinical use. Among many reasons, inefficient systemic delivery and bioavailability of promising chemopreventive agents are considered to significantly contribute to such a disconnection. Since its advent in the field of cancer, nanotechnology has provided researchers with expertise to explore new avenues for diagnosis, prevention, and therapy of the disease. In a similar trait, we introduced a novel concept in which nanotechnology was utilized for enhancing the outcome of chemoprevention (Cancer Res. 2009; 69:1712-1716). This idea, which we termed as 'nanochemoprevention', was exploited by several laboratories and has now become an advancing field in chemoprevention research. This review summarizes some of these applications of nanotechnology in medicine, particularly focused on controlled and sustained release of bioactive compounds with emphasis on current and future utilization of nanochemoprevention for prevention and therapy of cancer. PMID:26935239

  18. Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences12

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas, Pothur R.; Philbert, Martin; Vu, Tania Q.; Huang, Qingrong; Kokini, Josef L.; Saos, Etta; Chen, Hongda; Peterson, Charles M.; Friedl, Karl E.; McDade-Ngutter, Crystal; Hubbard, Van; Starke-Reed, Pamela; Miller, Nancy; Betz, Joseph M.; Dwyer, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    The tantalizing potential of nanotechnology is to fabricate and combine nanoscale approaches and building blocks to make useful tools and, ultimately, interventions for medical science, including nutritional science, at the scale of ∼1–100 nm. In the past few years, tools and techniques that facilitate studies and interventions in the nanoscale range have become widely available and have drawn widespread attention. Recently, investigators in the food and nutrition sciences have been applying ...

  19. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for treatment of oral cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calixto G

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Giovana Calixto, Jéssica Bernegossi, Bruno Fonseca-Santos, Marlus Chorilli School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Drugs and Pharmaceuticals, São Paulo State University (UNESP, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Oral cancer (oral cavity and oropharynx is a common and aggressive cancer that invades local tissue, can cause metastasis, and has a high mortality rate. Conventional treatment strategies, such as surgery and chemoradiotherapy, have improved over the past few decades; however, they remain far from optimal. Currently, cancer research is focused on improving cancer diagnosis and treatment methods (oral cavity and oropharynx nanotechnology, which involves the design, characterization, production, and application of nanoscale drug delivery systems. In medicine, nanotechnologies, such as polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, gold nanoparticles, hydrogels, cyclodextrin complexes, and liquid crystals, are promising tools for diagnostic probes and therapeutic devices. The objective of this study is to present a systematic review of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for oral cancers. Keywords: targeted delivery, oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral cancer treatment

  20. Cancer nanotechnology: a new commercialization pipeline for diagnostics, imaging agents, and therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, Krzysztof; Farrell, Dorothy; Hinkal, George; Panaro, Nicholas J.; Hook, Sara; Grodzinski, Piotr

    2011-06-01

    Nanotechnology - the science and engineering of manipulating matter at the molecular scale to create devices with novel chemical, physical and biological properties - has the potential to radically change oncology. Research sponsored by the NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer has led to the development of nanomaterials as platforms of increasing complexity and devices of superior sensitivity, speed and multiplexing capability. Input from clinicians has guided researchers in the design of technologies to address specific needs in the areas of cancer therapy and therapeutic monitoring, in vivo imaging, and in vitro diagnostics. The promising output from the Alliance has led to many new companies being founded to commercialize their nanomedical product line. Furthermore, several of these technologies, which are discussed in this paper, have advanced to clinically testing.

  1. Therapeutic Potential of Delivering Arsenic Trioxide into HPV-Infected Cervical Cancer Cells Using Liposomal Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, Dong; Ghali, Lucy; Xia, Ruidong; Munoz, Leonardo P.; Garelick, Hemda; Bell, Celia M.; Wen, Xuesong

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been used successfully to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia, and since this discovery, it has also been researched as a possible treatment for other haematological and solid cancers. Even though many positive results have been found in the laboratory, wider clinical use of ATO has been compromised by its toxicity at higher concentrations. The aim of this study was to explore an improved method for delivering ATO using liposomal nanotechnology to evaluate whether t...

  2. Nanotechnology-based intelligent drug design for cancer metastasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Xie, Jingjing; Chen, Haijun; Gu, Songen; Zhao, Rongli; Shao, Jingwei; Jia, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Traditional chemotherapy used today at clinics is mainly inherited from the thinking and designs made four decades ago when the Cancer War was declared. The potency of those chemotherapy drugs on in-vitro cancer cells is clearly demonstrated at even nanomolar levels. However, due to their non-specific effects in the body on normal tissues, these drugs cause toxicity, deteriorate patient's life quality, weaken the host immunosurveillance system, and result in an irreversible damage to human's own recovery power. Owing to their unique physical and biological properties, nanotechnology-based chemotherapies seem to have an ability to specifically and safely reach tumor foci with enhanced efficacy and low toxicity. Herein, we comprehensively examine the current nanotechnology-based pharmaceutical platforms and strategies for intelligent design of new nanomedicines based on targeted drug delivery system (TDDS) for cancer metastasis treatment, analyze the pros and cons of nanomedicines versus traditional chemotherapy, and evaluate the importance that nanomaterials can bring in to significantly improve cancer metastasis treatment.

  3. Recent insights into nanotechnology development for detection and treatment of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Buddolla; Kim, Sanghyo; Lee, Kiyoung

    2016-01-01

    The global incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is 1.3 million cases. It is the third most frequent cancer in males and females. Most CRCs are adenocarcinomas and often begin as a polyp on the inner wall of the rectum or colon. Some of these polyps become malignant, eventually. Detecting and removing these polyps in time can prevent CRC. Therefore, early diagnosis of CRC is advantageous for preventive and instant action interventions to decrease the mortality rates. Nanotechnology has been enhancing different methods for the detection and treatment of CRCs, and the research has provided hope within the scientific community for the development of new therapeutic strategies. This review presents the recent development of nanotechnology for the detection and treatment of CRC. PMID:27330292

  4. The state of research after 25 years of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-01

    In 1990 the transistor was big—not just hugely prevalent in day-to-day devices but literally large in size compared with present day counterparts. Still, as Christoph Gerber describes in our latest Nanotechnology Discussions podcast [1], with transistor footprints decreasing every two years as described in Moore's law, by 1990 the electronics industry saw itself broaching new territory: nanotechnology. Atoms had made their debut as real-world observables with the first scanning probe microscopes only a few years previously, prompted by efforts to understand how physical systems behave at this scale. And in this heady climate of burgeoning nanoscale innovations Nanotechnology published its first issue, the world's first academic journal dedicated to nanoscale science and technology. This year the journal publishes its 25th volume and to celebrate we have commissioned a special issue presenting a snapshot of developments leading some of the most active areas in the field today [2]. As nanotechnology has matured both device-focused and fundamental research have placed high demands on improving fabrication processes to generate structures cheaply, efficiently and reliably. Since its discovery graphene has been under close scrutiny for the potential to exploit its optical transparency, mechanical flexibility and high carrier mobility. 'However', point out Ho Cho, Jong-Hyun Ahn and colleagues in Korea, 'it is still significantly challenging to develop clean and simple fabrication procedures'. They demonstrate how photo-curable ion gel gate dielectrics can be used to produce self-aligned flexible graphene transistors and inverters [3] simply without extra graphene-patterning steps. Sang Ouk Kim and colleagues at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology demonstrate another method for avoiding complex fabrication techniques, creating highly aligned graphene nanoribbon with their mussel-inspired block copolymer lithography and directed self-assembly [4

  5. Nanotechnology; its significance in cancer and photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Gaeeni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, developments in nanotechnology have provided a new field in medicine called “Nanomedicine”. Nanomedicine has provided new tools for photodynamic therapy. Quantum dots (QDs are approximately spherical nanoparticles that have attracted broad attention and have been used in nanomedicine applications. QDs have high molar extinction coefficients and photoluminescence quantum yield, narrow emission spectra, broad absorption, large effective stokes shifts. QDs are more photostable and resistant to metabolic degradation. These photosensitizing properties can be used as photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy (PDT. PDT has been recommended for its unique characteristic, such as low side effect and more efficiency. Therefore, nanomedicine leads a promising future for targeted therapy in cancer tumor. Furthermore, QDs have recently been applied in PDT, which will be addressed in this review letter. Also this review letter evaluates key aspects of nano-particulate design and engineering, including the advantage of the nanometer scale size range, biological behavior, and safety profile.

  6. Gazelles, unicorns, and dragons battle cancer through the Nanotechnology Startup Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Truman, Rosemarie; Locke, Cody J.

    2016-01-01

    On March 4th, 2016, Springer’s Cancer Nanotechnology office promoted the launch of the Nanotechnology Startup Challenge in Cancer (NSC 2 ). This innovation-development model is a partnership among our company, the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI), MedImmune, the global biologics arm of AstraZeneca, and multiple institutes at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). NSC 2 “crowdsources” talent from around the world to launch startups with near-term, commercially viable cancer nanotechnolo...

  7. The state of research after 25 years of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-01

    In 1990 the transistor was big—not just hugely prevalent in day-to-day devices but literally large in size compared with present day counterparts. Still, as Christoph Gerber describes in our latest Nanotechnology Discussions podcast [1], with transistor footprints decreasing every two years as described in Moore's law, by 1990 the electronics industry saw itself broaching new territory: nanotechnology. Atoms had made their debut as real-world observables with the first scanning probe microscopes only a few years previously, prompted by efforts to understand how physical systems behave at this scale. And in this heady climate of burgeoning nanoscale innovations Nanotechnology published its first issue, the world's first academic journal dedicated to nanoscale science and technology. This year the journal publishes its 25th volume and to celebrate we have commissioned a special issue presenting a snapshot of developments leading some of the most active areas in the field today [2]. As nanotechnology has matured both device-focused and fundamental research have placed high demands on improving fabrication processes to generate structures cheaply, efficiently and reliably. Since its discovery graphene has been under close scrutiny for the potential to exploit its optical transparency, mechanical flexibility and high carrier mobility. 'However', point out Ho Cho, Jong-Hyun Ahn and colleagues in Korea, 'it is still significantly challenging to develop clean and simple fabrication procedures'. They demonstrate how photo-curable ion gel gate dielectrics can be used to produce self-aligned flexible graphene transistors and inverters [3] simply without extra graphene-patterning steps. Sang Ouk Kim and colleagues at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology demonstrate another method for avoiding complex fabrication techniques, creating highly aligned graphene nanoribbon with their mussel-inspired block copolymer lithography and directed self-assembly [4

  8. Nanotechnological carriers for cancer chemotherapy: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estanqueiro, Marilene; Amaral, Maria Helena; Conceição, Jaime; Sousa Lobo, José Manuel

    2015-02-01

    Cancer is a term used for a heterogeneous group of malignant diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and are able to invade other tissues, resulting in metastasis. According to the last data of World Health Organization the incidence and mortality rates of cancer are high and tend to increase. Chemotherapy is usually used in cancer treatments, but due to the lack of specificity of drugs, is associated to various and damaging side effects that have a severe impact on patients quality of life. Nanotechnology is actually an important area of interest in science and technology, which has been extensively explored during the last decade, particularly in the development of carriers for cytotoxic drugs. These carriers include vesicular and particulate systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, micelles, dendrimers, and polymeric, protein and lipid nanoparticles. Polymer-drug conjugates and antibody-drug conjugates have also been studied. The present review is an attempt to contemplate the studied nanocarriers in the field of anticancer drugs delivery, their advantages and disadvantages and future perspectives. PMID:25591851

  9. Application of nanotechnology in cancers prevention, early detection and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Shraddha P Patel; Parshottambhai B Patel; Parekh, Bhavesh B.

    2014-01-01

    Use of nanotechnology in medical science is a rapidly developing area. New opportunities of diagnosis, imaging and therapy have developed due to recent rapid advancement by nanotechnology. The most common areas to be affected are diagnostic, imaging and targeted drug delivery in gastroenterology, oncology, cardiovascular medicine, obstetrics and gynecology. Mass screening with inexpensive imaging might be possible in the near future with the help of nanotechnology. This review paper provides ...

  10. Nanotechnology-based inhalation treatments for lung cancer: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Javed Ahmad,1,* Sohail Akhter,2,3,* Md Rizwanullah,1 Saima Amin,1 Mahfoozur Rahman,4 Mohammad Zaki Ahmad,5 Moshahid Alam Rizvi,6 Mohammad A Kamal,7 Farhan Jalees Ahmad1,21Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Nanomedicine Research Lab, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India; 3Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire(CBM-CNRS UPR4301, University of Orléans, Orléans Cedex 2, France; 4Department of Pharmaceutics, Abhilashi College of Pharmacy, Mandi, HP, India; 5Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Najran University, Saudi Arabia; 6Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India; 7Metabolomics and Enzymology Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Considering the challenges associated with conventional chemotherapy, targeted and local delivery of chemotherapeutics via nanoparticle (NP carriers to the lungs is an emerging area of interest. Recent studies and growing clinical application in cancer nanotechnology showed the huge potential of NPs as drug carriers in cancer therapy, including in lung carcinoma for diagnosis, imaging, and theranostics. Researchers have confirmed that nanotechnology-based inhalation chemotherapy is viable and more effective than conventional chemotherapy, with lesser side effects. Recently, many nanocarriers have been investigated, including liposomes, polymeric micelles, polymeric NPs, solid lipid NPs, and inorganic NPs for inhalation treatments of lung cancer. Yet, the toxicity of such nanomaterials to the lungs tissues and further distribution to other organs due to systemic absorption on inhalation delivery is a debatable concern. Here, prospect of NPs-based local lung cancer targeting through inhalation route as well as its associated challenges are discussed.Keywords: nanoparticles, lung cancer, inhalational chemotherapy, drug targeting, nanotoxicity

  11. Review on early technology assessments of nanotechnologies in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retèl, Valesca P.; Hummel, Marjan J.M.; Harten, van Wim

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is expected to play an increasingly important role in the diagnostics, prognostics, and management of targeted cancer treatments. While papers have described promising results for nanotechnology in experimental settings, the translation of fundamental research into clinical applicatio

  12. Scientists' Ethical Obligations and Social Responsibility for Nanotechnology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Elizabeth A; Kim, Youngjae; Scheufele, Dietram A

    2016-02-01

    Scientists' sense of social responsibility is particularly relevant for emerging technologies. Since a regulatory vacuum can sometimes occur in the early stages of these technologies, individual scientists' social responsibility might be one of the most significant checks on the risks and negative consequences of this scientific research. In this article, we analyze data from a 2011 mail survey of leading U.S. nanoscientists to explore their perceptions the regarding social and ethical responsibilities for their nanotechnology research. Our analyses show that leading U.S. nanoscientists express a moderate level of social responsibility about their research. Yet, they have a strong sense of ethical obligation to protect laboratory workers (in both universities and industry) from unhealthy exposure to nanomaterials. We also find that there are significant differences in scientists' sense of social and ethical responsibility depending on their demographic characteristics, job affiliation, attention to media content, risk perceptions and benefit perceptions. We conclude with some implications for future research.

  13. Scientists' Ethical Obligations and Social Responsibility for Nanotechnology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Elizabeth A; Kim, Youngjae; Scheufele, Dietram A

    2016-02-01

    Scientists' sense of social responsibility is particularly relevant for emerging technologies. Since a regulatory vacuum can sometimes occur in the early stages of these technologies, individual scientists' social responsibility might be one of the most significant checks on the risks and negative consequences of this scientific research. In this article, we analyze data from a 2011 mail survey of leading U.S. nanoscientists to explore their perceptions the regarding social and ethical responsibilities for their nanotechnology research. Our analyses show that leading U.S. nanoscientists express a moderate level of social responsibility about their research. Yet, they have a strong sense of ethical obligation to protect laboratory workers (in both universities and industry) from unhealthy exposure to nanomaterials. We also find that there are significant differences in scientists' sense of social and ethical responsibility depending on their demographic characteristics, job affiliation, attention to media content, risk perceptions and benefit perceptions. We conclude with some implications for future research. PMID:25721444

  14. Evaluating the performance of Russia in the research in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article analyzes the development of nano research in Russia during the years 1990–2010. To identify the contribution of Russia in nanoscience and to compare it with the contribution of other countries, we used the international multidisciplinary database Science Citation Index Expanded. Scientific performance is measured based on the growth rate of nano publications by countries and in the world, authorship patterns, indexes of international collaboration, etc. The indicators used are the national publication output, the total citations and the average citation per nano publication, the number and subject profile of highly cited nano publications; contribution and impact of Russian institutions. The article describes the current state and trends of nano research in Russia, their key players and the existing “centers of excellence.” It also discusses some inconsistencies of Russia’s science policy in the field of nanotechnology in light of the performed bibliometric study.

  15. Some applications of nanotechnologies in stem cells research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem cell based tissue engineering therapies involve the administration of ex vivo manipulated stem cell populations with the purpose of repairing and regenerating damaged or diseased tissue. Currently available methods of monitoring transplanted cells are quite limited. To monitor the outcomes of stem cell therapy longitudinally requires the development of non-destructive strategies that are capable of identifying the location, magnitude, and duration of cellular survival and fate. The recent development of imaging techniques offers great potential to address these critical issues by non-invasively tracking the fate of the transplanted cells. This review offers a focused presentation of some examples of the use of imaging techniques connected to the nanotechnological world in research areas related to stem cells. In particular investigations will be considered concerning tissue-engineered bone, treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration, treatment by human stem cells of muscular dystrophy of Duchenne in small animal models and the repair of spinal cord injuries.

  16. Some applications of nanotechnologies in stem cells research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belicchi, M. [Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico di Milano, Via Francesco Sforza, Milano 20122 (Italy); Cancedda, R. [Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro and Dipartimento di Oncologia Biologia e Genetica - Universita di Genova, Largo R. Benzi 10, Genova 16132 (Italy); Cedola, A. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie - CNR, Via Cinto Romano 42, Roma 00156 (Italy); Fiori, F. [Dipartimento S.A.I.F.E.T. Sezione di Scienze Fisiche - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona 60131 (Italy); INBB - Istituto Nazionale Biostrutture e Biosistemi (Italy); CNISM - Matec (Ancona) (Italy); Gavina, M. [Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico di Milano, Via Francesco Sforza, Milano 20122 (Italy); Giuliani, A. [Dipartimento S.A.I.F.E.T. Sezione di Scienze Fisiche - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona 60131 (Italy); CNISM - Matec (Ancona) (Italy); Komlev, V.S. [Dipartimento S.A.I.F.E.T. Sezione di Scienze Fisiche - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona 60131 (Italy); Institute for Physical Chemistry of Ceramics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ozernaya 48, 119361 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lagomarsino, S. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie - CNR, Via Cinto Romano 42, Roma 00156 (Italy); Mastrogiacomo, M. [Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro and Dipartimento di Oncologia Biologia e Genetica - Universita di Genova, Largo R. Benzi 10, Genova 16132 (Italy); Renghini, C. [Dipartimento S.A.I.F.E.T. Sezione di Scienze Fisiche - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona 60131 (Italy); INBB - Istituto Nazionale Biostrutture e Biosistemi (Italy); CNISM - Matec (Ancona) (Italy); Rustichelli, F., E-mail: f.rustichelli@univpm.i [Dipartimento S.A.I.F.E.T. Sezione di Scienze Fisiche - Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, Ancona 60131 (Italy); INBB - Istituto Nazionale Biostrutture e Biosistemi (Italy); CNISM - Matec (Ancona) (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    Stem cell based tissue engineering therapies involve the administration of ex vivo manipulated stem cell populations with the purpose of repairing and regenerating damaged or diseased tissue. Currently available methods of monitoring transplanted cells are quite limited. To monitor the outcomes of stem cell therapy longitudinally requires the development of non-destructive strategies that are capable of identifying the location, magnitude, and duration of cellular survival and fate. The recent development of imaging techniques offers great potential to address these critical issues by non-invasively tracking the fate of the transplanted cells. This review offers a focused presentation of some examples of the use of imaging techniques connected to the nanotechnological world in research areas related to stem cells. In particular investigations will be considered concerning tissue-engineered bone, treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration, treatment by human stem cells of muscular dystrophy of Duchenne in small animal models and the repair of spinal cord injuries.

  17. Center of nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and treatment launched in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On 24 August, a center of nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and treatment was officially inaugurated in Tianjin. The center was jointly established by the CAS Institute of High-energy Physics, the CAS affiliated National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, and the Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital.

  18. 76 FR 66932 - The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Announces the Initiation of a Public Private Industry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Initiation of a Public Private Industry Partnership on Translation of Nanotechnology in Cancer (TONIC) To Promote Translational Research and Development Opportunities of Nanotechnology-Based Cancer Solutions... industry partnership called TONIC (Translation Of Nanotechnology In Cancer) to promote...

  19. 78 FR 4150 - Update of NIOSH Nanotechnology Strategic Plan for Research and Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Update of NIOSH Nanotechnology Strategic Plan...: Request for Information: Update of NIOSH Nanotechnology Strategic Plan for Research and Guidance. SUMMARY... and Prevention (CDC) seeks comment on the types of hazard identification and risk management...

  20. The EU code of concuct for nanosciences and nanotechnologies research (NanoTrust Dossier No. 036en – December 2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberger, Iris; Nentwich, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The code of conduct for responsible nanosciences and nanotechnologies research (code of conduct) is the Annex to the first nanotechnology-specific legal measure by the EU (2008), a Commission recommendation that is legally non-binding. The nanotechnologies code of conduct contains principles and guidelines for integrated, safe and responsible (ethical) nanoscience and nanotechnologies (N&N) research. The central control mechanisms are research prioritisation, technology assessment, ethical an...

  1. Ethics of conducting qualitative social science research in the emerging field of nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Yawson, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    In educational research, qualitative studies have varied meanings. This short paper reviews the conceptual underpinnings of ethics in qualitative social science research and its importance to the emerging field of nanotechnology. The paper is aimed at showing a pathway by which the researcher might tackle ethics in a more effective way to achieve the desired results and whether different ethical values are needed in qualitative social science research of nanotechnology.

  2. Nanotechnology research and development for military and industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Paul B.; Brantley, Christina L.; Edwards, Eugene; Roberts, J. Keith; Chew, William; Warren, Larry C.; Ashley, Paul R.; Everitt, Henry O.; Webster, Eric; Foreman, John V.; Sanghadasa, Mohan; Crutcher, Sihon H.; Temmen, Mark G.; Varadan, Vijay; Hayduke, Devlin; Wu, Pae C.; Khoury, Christopher G.; Yang, Yang; Kim, Tong-Ho; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Brown, April S.; Callahan, John

    2011-04-01

    Researchers at the Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) have initiated multidiscipline efforts to develop nano-based structures and components for insertion into advanced missile, aviation, and autonomous air and ground systems. The objective of the research is to exploit unique phenomena for the development of novel technology to enhance warfighter capabilities and produce precision weapons. The key technology areas that the authors are exploring include nano-based microsensors, nano-energetics, nano-batteries, nano-composites, and nano-plasmonics. By integrating nano-based devices, structures, and materials into weaponry, the Army can revolutionize existing (and future) missile systems by significantly reducing the size, weight and cost. The major research thrust areas include the development of chemical sensors to detect rocket motor off-gassing and toxic industrial chemicals; the development of highly sensitive/selective, self-powered miniaturized acoustic sensors for battlefield surveillance and reconnaissance; the development of a minimum signature solid propellant with increased ballistic and physical properties that meet insensitive munitions requirements; the development of nano-structured material for higher voltage thermal batteries and higher energy density storage; the development of advanced composite materials that provide high frequency damping for inertial measurement units' packaging; and the development of metallic nanostructures for ultraviolet surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The current status of the overall AMRDEC Nanotechnology research efforts is disclosed in this paper. Critical technical challenges, for the various technologies, are presented. The authors' approach for overcoming technical barriers and achieving required performance is also discussed. Finally, the roadmap for each technology, as well as the overall program, is presented.

  3. Early phase Technology Assessment of nanotechnology in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retèl, Valesca P.; Hummel, Marjan J.M.; Harten, van Willem H.

    2008-01-01

    To perform early Technology Assessment (TA) of nanotechnology in oncology. The possibilities of nanotechnology for detection (imaging), diagnosis and treatment of cancer are subject of different research programs where major investments are concerned. As a range of bio- nanotechnologies is expected

  4. Potential Applications of Nanotechnology for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua eMcCarroll

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in our understanding of pancreatic cancer and the emerging concept of personalized medicine for the treatment of this disease, it is still the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the western world. It is established that pancreatic cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease with a complex tumor microenvironment. Indeed the extensive stroma surrounding the cancer cells has been shown to be important in promoting tumor growth and metastases, as well as sequestering chemotherapeutic agents consequently decreasing delivery to the tumor cells. Nanotechnology has come to the forefront in the areas of medical diagnostics, imaging, and therapeutic drug delivery. This review will focus on the potential applications of nanotechnology for diagnosis, imaging, and delivery of therapeutic agents for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  5. Disciplinary Identity of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research- A Study of Postgraduate Researchers’ Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Chari, Deepa Nathamuni; Howard, Robert; Bowe, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Nanoscience and Nanotechnology research although growing at very fast rate, its disciplinary identity remains ‘ill-defined’. It is often viewed as multidisciplinary; and/or interdisciplinary science or even as a unique discipline on its own way. As a consequence, whether this growing research area requires researchers that have studied specialised undergraduate or postgraduate nanoscience and nanotechnology programmes; or traditional science and engineering disciplines is still less understoo...

  6. Researcher views about funding sources and conflicts of interest in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A

    2012-12-01

    Dependence in nanotechnology on external funding and academic-industry relationships has led to questions concerning its influence on research directions, as well as the potential for conflicts of interest to arise and impact scientific integrity and public trust. This study uses a survey of 193 nanotechnology industry and academic researchers to explore whether they share similar concerns. Although these concerns are not unique to nanotechnology, its emerging nature and the prominence of industry funding lend credence to understanding its researchers' views, as these researchers are shaping the norms and direction of the field. The results of the survey show general agreement that funding sources are influencing research directions in nanotechnology; many respondents saw this influence in their own work as well as other researchers' work. Respondents also agreed that funding considerations were likely to influence whether researchers shared their results. Irrespective of their institutional affiliation or funding status, twice as many researchers as not considered financial conflicts of interest a cause for concern, and three times as many respondents as not disagreed financial conflicts of interest in nanotechnology were uncommon. Only a third was satisfied with the way that conflicts of interest are currently managed and believed current procedures would protect the integrity of nanotechnology research. The results also found differences in views depending on researchers' institutional affiliation and funding status.

  7. 76 FR 8788 - National Nanotechnology Coordination Office; Bridging NanoEHS Research Efforts: A Joint US-EU...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY National Nanotechnology Coordination Office; Bridging NanoEHS Research Efforts: A Joint US-EU Workshop: Public Meeting AGENCY: National Nanotechnology Coordination Office, STPO. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The National Nanotechnology Coordination Office (NNCO), on behalf of...

  8. Recent insights in nanotechnology-based drugs and formulations designed for effective anti-cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Piktel, Ewelina; Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Wątek, Marzena; Wollny, Tomasz; Deptuła, Piotr; Bucki, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of nanotechnology provides alternative approaches to overcome several limitations of conventional anti-cancer therapy. Drug targeting using functionalized nanoparticles to advance their transport to the dedicated site, became a new standard in novel anti-cancer methods. In effect, the employment of nanoparticles during design of antineoplastic drugs helps to improve pharmacokinetic properties, with subsequent development of high specific, non-toxic and biocompatible anti...

  9. Nanotechnology in hyperthermia cancer therapy: From fundamental principles to advanced applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beik, Jaber; Abed, Ziaeddin; Ghoreishi, Fatemeh S; Hosseini-Nami, Samira; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Shakeri-Zadeh, Ali; Kamrava, S Kamran

    2016-08-10

    In this work, we present an in-depth review of recent breakthroughs in nanotechnology for hyperthermia cancer therapy. Conventional hyperthermia methods do not thermally discriminate between the target and the surrounding normal tissues, and this non-selective tissue heating can lead to serious side effects. Nanotechnology is expected to have great potential to revolutionize current hyperthermia methods. To find an appropriate place in cancer treatment, all nanotechnology-based hyperthermia methods and their risks/benefits must be thoroughly understood. In this review paper, we extensively examine and compare four modern nanotechnology-based hyperthermia methods. For each method, the possible physical mechanisms of heat generation and enhancement due to the presence of nanoparticles are explained, and recent in vitro and in vivo studies are reviewed and discussed. Nano-Photo-Thermal Therapy (NPTT) and Nano-Magnetic Hyperthermia (NMH) are reviewed as the two first exciting approaches for targeted hyperthermia. The third novel hyperthermia method, Nano-Radio-Frequency Ablation (NaRFA) is discussed together with the thermal effects of novel nanoparticles in the presence of radiofrequency waves. Finally, Nano-Ultrasound Hyperthermia (NUH) is described as the fourth modern method for cancer hyperthermia. PMID:27264551

  10. Prospects of Bacteriotherapy with Nanotechnology in Nanoparticledrug Conjugation Approach for Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Ritu; Das, Surajit

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriotherapy and nanotechnology have shown remarkable potential in diagnostic and therapeutic applications for various diseases. Individual impacts of these micro-nano systems over different aspects of human health are well studied; however, an integrated system of bacteria-nanoparticle (NP) conjugation is less explored. The untamed potential of bacteria-NP conjugation could be a new tool for diagnosis and treatment of invasive diseases like malaria, tuberculosis and cancer. Mammalian cells exhibit cytosis as their defense mechanism when they encounter foreign elements such as bacteria. In these mammalian cells, during phagocytosis, bacteria are ruptured and lysed by lysozymes. A bacterium carrying the drug-tagged NP would be engulfed in the same manner and ultimately reaches the target cells. Rapid and continuous cell divisions in the cancer tissues lead to defective vessels, underdeveloped cellcell interconnects, development of hypoxic areas and heterogeneous population of tumor cells. This unorganized and poorly developed angiogenesis in tumor cells makes it difficult for conventional chemotherapeutic drugs to localize the tumors selectively. In the present scenario of diagnosis and treatment of cancer/tumor cells, it could be expected that the existing bacteriotherapy with the advanced nanotechnology would be a way further in the targeted drug delivery for cancer therapy. This review emphasizes the potential applications of bacteriotherapy with nanotechnology for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. PMID:27048378

  11. [Contribution of research to the responsible and sustainable development of nanotechnologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavicoli, S; Boccuni, F

    2008-01-01

    The newly-fledged nanotechnologies offer opportunities for social development but uncertainties prevail about their impact on human and environmental health. Right now there is still a huge gap between technological progress and research into the health and safety aspects of nanomaterials. This is clear from the quantity of nano-products already on the market--more than 600--and the public and private funds dedicated to the development of nanotechnologies, which are almost a hundred times those available for research into their effects on health and safety. Estimates have it that by 2014 nanotechnologies will be widely used in our society, and ten million new jobs will be created. Therefore it becomes essential to plan an integrated approach to specific risk analysis at work. The following gaps and needs come to light: limited information; difficulties in relating nanotechnologies and production of nanomaterials to specific areas of application; efforts required to assess the hazards posed by nanomaterials in realistic exposure conditions; ethical issues about nanotechnology in the workplace likely to arise from today's knowledge about the hazards of nanomaterials and the risks they may pose to workers. An integrated approach to research, cooperation and communication strategies is essential if we are to direct our efforts towards responsible and sustainable growth of nanotechnologies. PMID:19288800

  12. Bio-Nanotechnology: Challenges for Trainees in a Multidisciplinary Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica Erin

    2009-01-01

    The recent developments in the field of nanotechnology have provided scientists with a new set of nanoscale materials, tools and devices in which to investigate the biological science thus creating the mulitdisciplinary field of bio-nanotechnology. Bio-nanotechnology merges the biological sciences with other scientific disciplines ranging from chemistry to engineering. Todays students must have a working knowledge of a variety of scientific disciplines in order to be successful in this new field of study. This talk will provide insight into the issue of multidisciplinary education from the perspective of a graduate student working in the field of bio-nanotechnology. From the classes we take to the research we perform, how does the modern graduate student attain the training required to succeed in this field?

  13. Nanotechnology: Future of Oncotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gharpure, Kshipra M.; Wu, Sherry Y.; Li, Chun; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have established its importance in several areas including medicine. The myriad of applications in oncology range from detection and diagnosis to drug delivery and treatment. Although nanotechnology has attracted a lot of attention, the practical application of nanotechnology to clinical cancer care is still in its infancy. This review summarizes the role that nanotechnology has played in improving cancer therapy, its potential for affecting all aspects of ca...

  14. Nanotechnology-Based Detection and Targeted Therapy in Cancer: Nano-Bio Paradigms and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousa, Shaker A., E-mail: shaker.mosua@acphs.edu [The Pharmaceutical Research Institute at Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, 1 Discovery Drive, Rensselaer, NY 12144 (United States); College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Bharali, Dhruba J. [The Pharmaceutical Research Institute at Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, 1 Discovery Drive, Rensselaer, NY 12144 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    The application of nanotechnology to biomedicine, particularly in cancer diagnosis and treatment, promises to have a profound impact on healthcare. The exploitation of the unique properties of nano-sized particles for cancer therapeutics is most popularly known as nanomedicine. The goals of this review are to discuss the current state of nanomedicine in the field of cancer detection and the subsequent application of nanotechnology to treatment. Current cancer detection methods rely on the patient contacting their provider when they feel ill, or relying on non-specific screening methods, which unfortunately often result in cancers being detected only after it is too late for effective treatment. Cancer treatment paradigms mainly rely on whole body treatment with chemotherapy agents, exposing the patient to medications that non-specifically kill rapidly dividing cells, leading to debilitating side effects. In addition, the use of toxic organic solvents/excipients can hamper the further effectiveness of the anticancer drug. Nanomedicine has the potential to increase the specificity of treatment of cancer cells while leaving healthy cells intact through the use of novel nanoparticles. This review discusses the use of nanoparticles such as quantum dots, nanoshells, nanocrystals, nanocells, and dendrimers for the detection and treatment of cancer. Future directions and perspectives of this cutting-edge technology are also discussed.

  15. Nanotechnology-Based Detection and Targeted Therapy in Cancer: Nano-Bio Paradigms and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of nanotechnology to biomedicine, particularly in cancer diagnosis and treatment, promises to have a profound impact on healthcare. The exploitation of the unique properties of nano-sized particles for cancer therapeutics is most popularly known as nanomedicine. The goals of this review are to discuss the current state of nanomedicine in the field of cancer detection and the subsequent application of nanotechnology to treatment. Current cancer detection methods rely on the patient contacting their provider when they feel ill, or relying on non-specific screening methods, which unfortunately often result in cancers being detected only after it is too late for effective treatment. Cancer treatment paradigms mainly rely on whole body treatment with chemotherapy agents, exposing the patient to medications that non-specifically kill rapidly dividing cells, leading to debilitating side effects. In addition, the use of toxic organic solvents/excipients can hamper the further effectiveness of the anticancer drug. Nanomedicine has the potential to increase the specificity of treatment of cancer cells while leaving healthy cells intact through the use of novel nanoparticles. This review discusses the use of nanoparticles such as quantum dots, nanoshells, nanocrystals, nanocells, and dendrimers for the detection and treatment of cancer. Future directions and perspectives of this cutting-edge technology are also discussed

  16. Perspectives of Nanotechnology in Minimally Invasive Therapy of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer, the most common type of cancer among women in the western world, affects approximately one out of every eight women over their lifetime. In recognition of the high invasiveness of surgical excision and severe side effects of chemical and radiation therapies, increasing efforts are made to seek minimally invasive modalities with fewer side effects. Nanoparticles (<100 nm in size have shown promising capabilities for delivering targeted therapeutic drugs to cancer cells and confining the treatment mainly within tumors. Additionally, some nanoparticles exhibit distinct properties, such as conversion of photonic energy into heat, and these properties enable eradication of cancer cells. In this review, current utilization of nanostructures for cancer therapy, especially in minimally invasive therapy, is summarized with a particular interest in breast cancer.

  17. Types of Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  18. Just a Cog in the Machine? The Individual Responsibility of Researchers in Nanotechnology is a Duty to Collectivize

    OpenAIRE

    Spruit, S.L.; Hoople, G.D.; Rolfe, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) provides a framework for judging the ethical qualities of innovation processes, however guidance for researchers on how to implement such practices is limited. Exploring RRI in the context of nanotechnology, this paper examines how the dispersed and interdisciplinary nature of the nanotechnology field somewhat hampers the abilities of individual researchers to control the innovation process. The ad-hoc nature of the field of nanotechnology, with its f...

  19. Societal response to nanotechnology: converging technologies–converging societal response research?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology particularly vulnerable to societal unrest, which may hinder its further development. With the increasing convergence of several technological domains in the field of nanotechnology, so too could convergence of social science methods help to anticipate societal response. This paper systematically reviews the current state of convergence in societal response research by first sketching the predominant approaches to previous new technologies, followed by an analysis of current research into societal response to nanotechnology. A set of 107 papers on previous new technologies shows that rational actor models have played an important role in the study of societal response to technology, in particular in the field of information technology and the geographic region of Asia. Biotechnology and nuclear power have, in contrast, more often been investigated through risk perception and other affective determinants, particularly in Europe and the USA. A set of 42 papers on societal response to nanotechnology shows similarities to research in biotechnology, as it also builds on affective variables such as risk perception. Although there is a tendency to extend the rational models with affective variables, convergence in social science approaches to response to new technologies still has a long way to go. The challenge for researchers of societal response to technologies is to converge to some shared principles by taking up the best parts from the rational actor models dominant in information technology, whilst integrating non-rational constructs from biotechnology research. The introduction of nanotechnology gives a unique opportunity to do so.

  20. EDITORIAL: Nanopores—the 'Holey Grail' in nanotechnology research Nanopores—the 'Holey Grail' in nanotechnology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-06-01

    'Negative space' may be as important in the development of nanomaterials as it is in creating works of art. The term refers to the space around and between objects, an important aspect in artistic composition. In nanotechnology, while nanoposts and nanowires have been assiduously studied and exploited for enhancing the performance of solar cells [1], real-time chemical sensors [2], UV emitters [3] and many other applications, nanopore structures have also yielded important advances in a wide range of fields. In this issue Melnikov, Leburton and Gracheva report on the electrostatic properties of nanopores in a layered semiconductor, and show how they allow a more accurate characterization of DNA than pores in other membranes [4]. Nanoporous materials have been applied to a diverse range of technological challenges. In recognition of its potential in high-efficiency solar cells, Prakasam and colleagues in the US reported the first ever synthesis of self-aligned nanoporous haematite [5]. Haematite is abundant, stable, non-toxic and has a band gap in the visible region and, as their work demonstrates, the photoresponse of nanoporous haematite is very promising for energy harvesting applications. Nanoporous aluminum oxide has also proved to be a particularly valuable material in applications ranging from liquid display panels to biosensor microchips. A collaboration of researchers in Taiwan demonstrated that porous aluminum oxide on an indium tin oxide surface could act as an alignment layer in liquid crystal display panels that have a transmittance of 60-80%, and switch from black to bright with a response time of 62.5 ms [6]. In Korea, Chung, Son and Min investigated the effect of nanostructural parameters of porous aluminum oxide on cell adhesion and proliferation for cell-based microchips [7]. While aluminum oxide without any modifications is not favourable for adherent cell culture, the proliferation of cells dramatically increased in porous aluminum oxide

  1. 2nd FP7 Conference and International Summer School Nanotechnology : From Fundamental Research to Innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsenko, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    This book presents some of the latest achievements in nanotechnology and nanomaterials from leading researchers in Ukraine, Europe, and beyond. It features contributions from participants in the 2nd International Summer School “Nanotechnology: From Fundamental Research to Innovations” and International Research and Practice Conference “Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials”, NANO-2013, which were held in Bukovel, Ukraine on August 25-September 1, 2013. These events took place within the framework of the European Commission FP7 project Nanotwinning, and were organized jointly by the Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, University of Tartu (Estonia), University of Turin (Italy), and Pierre and Marie Curie University (France). Internationally recognized experts from a wide range of universities and research institutions share their knowledge and key results on topics ranging from nanooptics, nanoplasmonics, and interface studies to energy storage and biomedical applications. Pr...

  2. Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems for Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Bernegossi, Jéssica; de Freitas, Laura Marise; Fontana, Carla Raquel; Chorilli, Marlus

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative approach for improved cancer treatment. In PDT, a photosensitizer (PS) is administered that can be activated by light of a specific wavelength, which causes selective damage to the tumor and its surrounding vasculature. The success of PDT is limited by the difficulty in administering photosensitizers (PSs) with low water solubility, which compromises the clinical use of several molecules. Incorporation of PSs in nanostructured drug delivery systems, such as polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs), solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), hydrogels, liposomes, liquid crystals, dendrimers, and cyclodextrin is a potential strategy to overcome this difficulty. Additionally, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems may improve the transcytosis of a PS across epithelial and endothelial barriers and afford the simultaneous co-delivery of two or more drugs. Based on this, the application of nanotechnology in medicine may offer numerous exciting possibilities in cancer treatment and improve the efficacy of available therapeutics. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for photodynamic therapy of cancer.

  3. Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems for Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Giovana Maria Fioramonti; Bernegossi, Jéssica; de Freitas, Laura Marise; Fontana, Carla Raquel; Chorilli, Marlus

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative approach for improved cancer treatment. In PDT, a photosensitizer (PS) is administered that can be activated by light of a specific wavelength, which causes selective damage to the tumor and its surrounding vasculature. The success of PDT is limited by the difficulty in administering photosensitizers (PSs) with low water solubility, which compromises the clinical use of several molecules. Incorporation of PSs in nanostructured drug delivery systems, such as polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs), solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), hydrogels, liposomes, liquid crystals, dendrimers, and cyclodextrin is a potential strategy to overcome this difficulty. Additionally, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems may improve the transcytosis of a PS across epithelial and endothelial barriers and afford the simultaneous co-delivery of two or more drugs. Based on this, the application of nanotechnology in medicine may offer numerous exciting possibilities in cancer treatment and improve the efficacy of available therapeutics. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for photodynamic therapy of cancer. PMID:26978341

  4. Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems for Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Maria Fioramonti Calixto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a promising alternative approach for improved cancer treatment. In PDT, a photosensitizer (PS is administered that can be activated by light of a specific wavelength, which causes selective damage to the tumor and its surrounding vasculature. The success of PDT is limited by the difficulty in administering photosensitizers (PSs with low water solubility, which compromises the clinical use of several molecules. Incorporation of PSs in nanostructured drug delivery systems, such as polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, hydrogels, liposomes, liquid crystals, dendrimers, and cyclodextrin is a potential strategy to overcome this difficulty. Additionally, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems may improve the transcytosis of a PS across epithelial and endothelial barriers and afford the simultaneous co-delivery of two or more drugs. Based on this, the application of nanotechnology in medicine may offer numerous exciting possibilities in cancer treatment and improve the efficacy of available therapeutics. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for photodynamic therapy of cancer.

  5. Nanotechnology research and regulation: A plan to ensure human and environmental safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Anitha

    The influence of nanotechnology spans numerous fields and is increasing rapidly due to the financial and research contributions to the field. The impact of nanotechnologybased products on human health and the environment is far from being understood. Research output related to environmental, health, and safety issues is too slow and far behind developments to address the vast number of types of nanoparticles and new uses being discovered. This thesis summarizes nanotechnology related regulations, applications, and current research related to environmental and human toxicity in order to put into perspective the gaping holes existing in the safe production, use, and disposal of nanotechnology. There were a number of conclusions that were determined following the literature survey of this thesis. There is currently a lack of international cooperation between regulatory agencies and research institutions who are involved with nanotechnology. The only entities that have made regulatory progress include the United States, European Union, and Australia. The toxicological impacts of nanotechnology are not fully understood due to the dearth of research, as well as the absence of testing and measuring infrastructure. Chapter 6 of this thesis proposes an effective and specific research strategy to expedite the creation of enforceable regulations in order to protect the environment, workers, and general public based on the conclusions described in the paragraph above. The strategy outlines the need for the development of an interagency committee, precationary limits, nanomaterial tracer system, nanomaterial data gathering, priority list, funds for toxicity research, and open database to information and materials. The aspects of the outline strategy will ensure the successful and efficient regulation of nanotechnology.

  6. Exploiting Nanotechnology for the Development of MicroRNA-Based Cancer Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Nikhil; Arora, Sumit; Deshmukh, Sachin K; Singh, Seema; Marimuthu, Saravanakumar; Singh, Ajay P

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) represent a novel class of small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by base pairing with complementary sequences in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of target mRNAs. Functional studies suggest that miRNAs control almost every biological process, and their aberrant expression leads to a disease state, such as cancer. Differential expression of miRNAs in cancerous versus normal cells have generated enormous interest for the development of miRNA-based cancer cell-targeted therapeutics. Depending on the miRNA function and expression in cancer, two types of miRNA-based therapeutic strategies can be utilized that either restore or inhibit miRNA function through exogenous delivery of miRNAs mimics or inhibitors (anti-miRs). However, hydrophilic nature of miRNA mimics/anti-miRs, sensitivity to nuclease degradation in serum, poor penetration and reduced uptake by the tumor cells are chief hurdles in accomplishing their efficient in vivo delivery. To overcome these barriers, several nanotechnology-based systems are being developed and tested for delivery efficacy. This review summarizes the importance of miRNAs-based therapeutics in cancer, associated translational challenges and novel nanotechnology-assisted delivery systems that hold potential for next-generation miRNA-based cancer therapeutics. PMID:27301170

  7. Bridging cancer biology and the patients' needs with nanotechnology-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Nuno A; Gregório, Ana C; Valério-Fernandes, Angela; Simões, Sérgio; Moreira, João N

    2014-06-01

    Cancer remains as stressful condition and a leading cause of death in the western world. Actual cornerstone treatments of cancer disease rest as an elusive alternative, offering limited efficacy with extensive secondary effects as a result of severe cytotoxic effects in healthy tissues. The advent of nanotechnology brought the promise to revolutionize many fields including oncology, proposing advanced systems for cancer treatment. Drug delivery systems rest among the most successful examples of nanotechnology. Throughout time they have been able to evolve as a function of an increased understanding from cancer biology and the tumor microenvironment. Marketing of Doxil® unleashed a remarkable impulse in the development of drug delivery systems. Since then, several nanocarriers have been introduced, with aspirations to overrule previous technologies, demonstrating increased therapeutic efficacy besides decreased toxicity. Spatial and temporal targeting to cancer cells has been explored, as well as the use of drug combinations co-encapsulated in the same particle as a mean to take advantage of synergistic interactions in vivo. Importantly, targeted delivery of siRNA for gene silencing therapy has made its way to the clinic for a "first in man" trial using lipid-polymeric-based particles. Focusing in state-of-the-art technology, this review will provide an insightful vision on nanotechnology-based strategies for cancer treatment, approaching them from a tumor biology-driven perspective, since their early EPR-based dawn to the ones that have truly the potential to address unmet medical needs in the field of oncology, upon targeting key cell subpopulations from the tumor microenvironment. PMID:24613464

  8. Therapeutic Potential of Delivering Arsenic Trioxide into HPV-Infected Cervical Cancer Cells Using Liposomal Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, Dong; Ghali, Lucy; Xia, Ruidong; Munoz, Leonardo P; Garelick, Hemda; Bell, Celia; Wen, Xuesong

    2016-12-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been used successfully to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia, and since this discovery, it has also been researched as a possible treatment for other haematological and solid cancers. Even though many positive results have been found in the laboratory, wider clinical use of ATO has been compromised by its toxicity at higher concentrations. The aim of this study was to explore an improved method for delivering ATO using liposomal nanotechnology to evaluate whether this could reduce drug toxicity and improve the efficacy of ATO in treating human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers. HeLa, C33a, and human keratinocytes were exposed to 5 μm of ATO in both free and liposomal forms for 48 h. The stability of the prepared samples was tested using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) to measure the intracellular arsenic concentrations after treatment. Fluorescent double-immunocytochemical staining was carried out to evaluate the protein expression levels of HPV-E6 oncogene and caspase-3. Cell apoptosis was analysed by flow cytometry. Results showed that liposomal ATO was more effective than free ATO in reducing protein levels of HPV-E6 and inducing cell apoptosis in HeLa cells. Moreover, lower toxicity was observed when liposomal-delivered ATO was used. This could be explained by lower intracellular concentrations of arsenic. The slowly accumulated intracellular ATO through liposomal delivery might act as a reservoir which releases ATO gradually to maintain its anti-HPV effects. To conclude, liposome-delivered ATO could protect cells from the direct toxic effects induced by higher concentrations of intracellular ATO. Different pathways may be involved in this process, depending on local architecture of the tissues and HPV status. PMID:26887578

  9. Therapeutic Potential of Delivering Arsenic Trioxide into HPV-Infected Cervical Cancer Cells Using Liposomal Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, Dong; Ghali, Lucy; Xia, Ruidong; Munoz, Leonardo P.; Garelick, Hemda; Bell, Celia; Wen, Xuesong

    2016-02-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been used successfully to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia, and since this discovery, it has also been researched as a possible treatment for other haematological and solid cancers. Even though many positive results have been found in the laboratory, wider clinical use of ATO has been compromised by its toxicity at higher concentrations. The aim of this study was to explore an improved method for delivering ATO using liposomal nanotechnology to evaluate whether this could reduce drug toxicity and improve the efficacy of ATO in treating human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers. HeLa, C33a, and human keratinocytes were exposed to 5 μm of ATO in both free and liposomal forms for 48 h. The stability of the prepared samples was tested using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) to measure the intracellular arsenic concentrations after treatment. Fluorescent double-immunocytochemical staining was carried out to evaluate the protein expression levels of HPV-E6 oncogene and caspase-3. Cell apoptosis was analysed by flow cytometry. Results showed that liposomal ATO was more effective than free ATO in reducing protein levels of HPV-E6 and inducing cell apoptosis in HeLa cells. Moreover, lower toxicity was observed when liposomal-delivered ATO was used. This could be explained by lower intracellular concentrations of arsenic. The slowly accumulated intracellular ATO through liposomal delivery might act as a reservoir which releases ATO gradually to maintain its anti-HPV effects. To conclude, liposome-delivered ATO could protect cells from the direct toxic effects induced by higher concentrations of intracellular ATO. Different pathways may be involved in this process, depending on local architecture of the tissues and HPV status.

  10. Nanotechnology and Ethics: The Role of Regulation Versus Self-Commitment in Shaping Researchers' Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, M.; Harms, R.; Hatak, I.

    2012-01-01

    The governance of nanotechnology seeks to limit its risks, without constraining opportunities. The literature on the effectiveness of approaches to governance has neglected approaches that impact directly on the behavior of a researcher. We analyze the effectiveness of legal regulations versus regul

  11. NanoSTAIR: A new strategic proposal to impulse standardization in nanotechnology research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ipiña, J.M.L. de; Salvi, O.; Hazebrouck, B.; Jovanovic, A.; Carre, F.; Saamanen, A.; Brouwer, D.; Schmitt, M.; Martin, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21st century within Europe and a Key-Enabling Technology (KET) by Horizon 2020. Standardization has been identified in H2020 as one of the innovation-support measures by bridging the gap between research and the market, and helping the

  12. Nanotechnology-based treatment for chemotherapy-resistant breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzeid, Abraham H.; Patel, Niravkumar R.; Rachman, Ilya M.; Senn, Sean; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2014-08-01

    Background: Treatment of metastatic cancer remains a formidable clinical challenge. Better therapeutic options with improved tissue penetration and tumor cell uptake are urgently needed. Targeted nanotherapy, for improved delivery, and combinatory drug administration aimed at inhibiting chemo-resistance may be the solution. Purpose: The study was performed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of polymeric PEG-PE micelles, co-loaded with curcumin (CUR) and doxorubicin (DOX), and targeted with anti-GLUT1 antibody (GLUT1) against MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. Methods: MDA-MB-231 DOX-resistant cells were treated with non-targeted and GLUT1-targeted CUR and DOX micelles as a single agent or in combination. Tumor cells were also inoculated in female nude mice. Established tumors were treated with the micellar formulations at a dose of 6 mg/kg CUR and 1 mg/kg DOX every 2 d for a total of 7 injections. Results: CUR+DOX-loaded micelles decorated with GLUT1 had a robust killing effect even at low doses of DOX in vitro. At the doses chosen, non-targeted CUR and CUR+DOX micelles did not exhibit significant tumor inhibition versus control. However, GLUT1-CUR and GLUT1-CUR+DOX micelles showed a significant tumor inhibition effect with an improvement in survival. Conclusion: We showed a dramatic improvement in efficacy between the non-targeted and GLUT1-targeted formulations both in vitro and in vivo. Also, importantly, the addition of CUR to the micelle, has restored sensitivity to DOX, with resultant tumor growth inhibition. Hence, we confirmed that GLUT1-CUR+DOX micelles are effective in vitro and in vivo and deserve further investigation.

  13. nanoSTAIR: a new strategic proposal to impulse standardization in nanotechnology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Ipiña, J. M.; Salvi, O.; Hazebrouck, B.; Jovanovic, A.; Carre, F.; Saamanen, A.; Brouwer, D.; Schmitt, M.; Martin, S.

    2015-05-01

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21st century within Europe and a Key-Enabling Technology (KET) by Horizon 2020. Standardization has been identified in H2020 as one of the innovation-support measures by bridging the gap between research and the market, and helping the fast and easy transfer of research results to the European and international market. The development of new and improved standards requires high quality technical information, creating a fundamental interdependency between the standardization and research communities. In the frame of project nanoSTAIR (GA 319092), the present paper describes the European scenario on research and standardization in nanotechnology and presents a proposal of a European strategy (nanoSTAIR) to impulse direct “pipelines” between research and standardization. In addition, strategic actions focused on integration of standardization in the R&D projects, from the early stages of the design of a future business (Project Proposal), are also described.

  14. Nanotechnology: Future of Oncotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharpure, Kshipra M; Wu, Sherry Y; Li, Chun; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K

    2015-07-15

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have established its importance in several areas including medicine. The myriad of applications in oncology range from detection and diagnosis to drug delivery and treatment. Although nanotechnology has attracted a lot of attention, the practical application of nanotechnology to clinical cancer care is still in its infancy. This review summarizes the role that nanotechnology has played in improving cancer therapy, its potential for affecting all aspects of cancer care, and the challenges that must be overcome to realize its full promise.

  15. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnological selection Nanotechnological selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-01

    across the channel. The aim of achieving selectivity encompasses a huge range of fields in nanotechnology research, from sensing and medicine to nanoelectronics and self-assembly. As our understanding of how nanosystems behave deepens, so too does the hunger to improve our capabilities, allowing greater precision and control in manipulating these systems. Selectivity is far from trivial when shrinking to systems of nanoscale dimensions, but the range of opportunities it brings just keeps on growing. References [1] Gong X, Li J, Guo C, Xu K and Hui Y 2012 Molecular switch for tuning ions across nanopores by an external electric field Nanotechnology 24 025502 [2] Brannon-Peppas L and Blanchette J O 2004 Nanoparticle and targeted systems for cancer therapy Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev 56 1649-59 [3] Lukianova-Hleb E Y, Hanna E Y, Hafner J H and Lapotko D O 2010 Tunable plasmonic nanobubbles for cell theranostics Nanotechnology 21 085102 [4] Zhang T, Mubeen S, Myung N V and Deshusses M A 2008 Recent progress in carbon nanotube-based gas sensors Nanotechnology 19 332001 [5] Mangu R, Rajaputra S and Singh V P 2011 MWCNT-polymer composites as highly sensitive and selective room temperature gas sensors Nanotechnology 22 215502 [6]Meller A, Nivon L, Brandin E, Golovchenko J and Branton D 2000 Rapid nanopore discrimination between single polynucleotide molecules Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 97 1079-84 [7] Asghar W, Ilyas A, Deshmukh R R, Sumitsawan S, Timmons R B and Iqbal S M 2011 Pulsed plasma polymerization for controlling shrinkage and surface composition of nanopores Nanotechnology 22 285304

  16. Nanotechnology Research Directions for Societal Needs in 2020 Retrospective and Outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Roco, Mihail C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2011-01-01

    This volume presents a comprehensive perspective on the global scientific, technological, and societal impact of nanotechnology since 2000, and explores the opportunities and research directions in the next decade to 2020.  The vision for the future of nanotechnology presented here draws on scientific insights from U.S. experts in the field, examinations of lessons learned, and international perspectives shared by participants from 35 countries in a series of high-level workshops organized by Mike Roco of the National Science Foundation (NSF), along with a team of American co-hosts that includes Chad Mirkin, Mark Hersam, Evelyn Hu, and several other eminent U.S. scientists.  The study performed in support of the U.S. National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) aims to redefine the R&D goals for nanoscale science and engineering integration and to establish nanotechnology as a general-purpose technology in the next decade. It intends to provide decision makers in academia, industry, and government with a n...

  17. 纳米技术在肿瘤治疗中的应用%Nanotechnology applications in cancer therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于小丽; 徐维平; 马旖旎; 王艳萍; 张莉

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology, as a leading technology,is recently developed after the information and biotechnology. It has been widely ap plied in the area of cancer diagnosis and treatment. As nanotechnology has a lot of theoretical significance and broad application pros pects,this paper reviews and discusses the studies on the nano drug delivery systems and its application in cancer treatment.%纳米技术(nanotechnology)是继信息、生物技术后的主导技术之一,在肿瘤的诊断及治疗领域取得了大量具有理论意义和应用价值的成果,有着广阔的应用前景.该文将对纳米载药体系及其在肿瘤治疗方面的应用等内容作简要综述.

  18. Selected proceedings of the FP7 International Summer School Nanotechnology: From Fundamental Research to Innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsenko, Leonid; Brodin, Mikhaylo; Nanomaterials imaging techniques, surface studies, and applications

    2013-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge research on a wide range of nanotechnology techniques and applications.  It features contributions from scientists who participated in the International Summer School “Nanotechnology: From Fundamental Research to Innovations” in Bukovel, Ukraine on August 26 – September 2, 2012 funded by the European Commission FP7 project Nanotwinning implemented by the Institute of Physics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and partner institutions: University of Tartu (Estonia), European Profiles A.E. (Greece), University of Turin (Italy) and Université Pierre et Marie Curie (France).  Worldwide experts present the latest results on such key topics as microscopy of nanostructures; nanocomposites; nanostructured interfaces and surfaces; nanooptics; nanoplasmonics; and enhanced vibrational spectroscopy.  Imaging technique coverage ranges from atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy, multiphoton imagery, and laser diagnostics of nanomaterials and nanostructures, to resonance ...

  19. Research on Vibration Isolation Systems Used in Laser and Nanotechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justinas Kuncė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the efficiency of a vibration isolation system made of the optical table and two negative-stiffness tables and considers excitation referring to harmonic and nonharmonic methods in the frequency range of 0,2–110 Hz. The article reviews the types and sources of vibrations and types of vibration isolation systems, including those of negative-stiffness. The paper also presents the methodology of experimental tests and proposes research on vibration transmissibility. A composite system consisting of two vibration isolation table having negative stiffness and an air table has been tested. The results and conclusions of experimental analysis are suggested at the end of the article.Article in Lithuanian

  20. What Is the Role of Nanotechnology in Diagnosis and Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer? Promising Scenarios for the Near Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truffi Marta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic breast cancer represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to tumor heterogeneity and to various physiological barriers that hinder drug delivery to the metastatic sites. To overcome these limitations, nanoformulated drugs have been developed and tested in preclinical studies, and few of them have been successfully translated into clinical practice. In particular, liposomal anthracyclines and nanoformulated albumin-bound paclitaxel have revealed an improved therapeutic index when compared to conventional chemotherapy, with significant reduction of drugs toxicity. Several strategies for nanoparticles engineering have more recently been explored to increase selectivity for tumor cells and to reach poorly accessible metastatic districts. Targeted nanoparticles, directed toward tumor markers and tissue-specific metastases, may provide effective devices in case of low-vascularized and small-sized metastases, thus paving the way for a real change in the natural history of metastatic disease. A number of targets have been identified and exploited for surface functionalization of different types of nanoparticles, which are currently undergoing preclinical studies. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of current nanotechnology applied to metastatic breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. Promising results encourage an upcoming translation of this research into clinical practice for an effective management of the disease in the near future.

  1. Visible Nano Applications China leads the world in nanotechnology research and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the buzzword among international scientific researchers.However,desp te the fancy label,nanoscience isn't something for the future;it's already been used in dozens of products.Products using this technology are now available on ordinary supermarket shelves across China.“Nanoscience and technology has stepped out of the lab and into the society to bring more convenience to people's everyday life,” said Bai Chunlin,President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)and chief scientist of the National Center for Nanoscience and Technology.Most people,however,still struggle to identify nano materials.

  2. A Comparative Study of Two Folate-Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles for Cancer Nanotechnology Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoori, G. Ali, E-mail: mansoori@uic.edu; Brandenburg, Kenneth S. [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, 851 S. Morgan St. (MC 063), Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Shakeri-Zadeh, Ali [Department of Medical Physics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-11-18

    We report a comparative study of synthesis, characteristics and in vitro tests of two folate-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNP) differing in linkers and AuNP sizes for selective targeting of folate-receptor positive cancerous cells. The linkers chosen were 4-aminothiophenol (4Atp) and 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (MH) with nanoconjugate products named Folate-4Atp-AuNP and Folate-MH-AuNP. We report the folate-receptor tissue distribution and its endocytosis for targeted nanotechnology. Comparison of the two nanoconjugates’ syntheses and characterization is also reported, including materials and methods of synthesis, UV-visible absorption spectroscopic measurements, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) measurements, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and size distributions, X-ray diffraction data, elemental analyses and chemical stability comparison. In addition to the analytical characterization of the nanoconjugates, the cell lethality was measured in HeLa (high level of folate receptor expression) and MCF-7 (low level of folate receptor expression) cells. The nanoconjugates themselves, as well as the intense pulsed light (IPL) were not harmful to cell viability. However, upon stimulation of the folate targeted nanoconjugates with the IPL, ~98% cell killing was found in HeLa cells and only ~9% in MCF-7 cells after four hours incubation with the nanoconjugate. This demonstrates that folate targeting is effective in selecting for specific cell populations. Considering the various comparisons made, we conclude that Folate-4Atp-AuNP is superior to Folate-MH-AuNP for cancer therapy.

  3. 75 FR 24972 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Nanotechnology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ...--Nanotechnology Enterprise Consortium Notice is hereby given that, on April 1, 2010, pursuant to Section 6(a) of... venture are: Nanotechnology Enterprise, Inc. Columbia, MO; The Boeing Company, Chicago, IL; CertTech, LLC... collaborate on applying nanotechnology to create innovation products for commercial and military...

  4. EDITORIAL: Multitasking in nanotechnology Multitasking in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Nanostructures are smart. Like phones, where making calls is now just one of a long list of handy functions, researchers are increasingly developing nanostructures that seem a 'Jack of all trades' and a master of several. In this issue researchers at the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Northeastern University describe a nanoscale sensing device that not only detects oxygen, water vapour and H2S—at levels of H2S as low as 100 ppm—but powers itself at the same time [1]. With energy high on the agenda in research and commerce the work is likely to prove a valuable contribution in nanoscale technology research, where systems are famed not just for exhibiting rare and highly functional properties, but lots of them. In nanomedicine multifunctionality is particularly topical [2]. Twenty years ago it may have seemed hard to improve on the development of iron oxide nanoparticles capable of targeting proteins so that diseased tissues could be located in the living body through magnetic resonance imaging signals [3]. More recently researchers have demonstrated nanoparticles that not only target and trace the disease, but treat it too. Therapeutic and diagnostic functions are now combined in nanoparticles so often that researchers in the field have adopted a new term—theranostics. At Cornell University in the US, researchers reported the synthesis of gold and iron oxide hybrid nanoparticles that bind to an antigen present in colorectal cancer [4]. The nanoparticles could be traced using magnetic resonance or two-photon photoluminescence imaging, and they could also treat cancerous cells hyperthermally as a result of their high photothermal absorption. At the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid in Spain, researchers have investigated the effect of functionalizing nanoparticles on their biocompatibility and internalization [5]. Their results emphasize how charge is an important factor, with cationic magnetic nanoparticles proving best suited to cell tracking by magnetic

  5. Expansions of Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    van Lente, Harro; Coenen, Christopher; Fleischer, Torsten [Hrsg.; Konrad, Kornelia; Krabbenborg, Lotte; Milburn, Colin; Thoreau, François; Zülsdorf, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Little by little, nanotechnology has emerged amid enormous anticipations and fantastic promises of new materials, aspiring to manipulate our world “atom by atom.” While these grand visions continue to capture the imaginations of various audiences—and continue to be contested, as well—nanotechnology has developed into more than that. During the last two decades, many research programs and industrial R&D expenditures have resulted in actual products and tangible innovations. Nanotechnology, it ...

  6. Nanotechnology, No Free Lunch

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the new science and technology of the super small. Particles at the nano-scale, from one to one hundred billionths of a metre, exhibit novel properties. Nanotechnology is an active area of research and rapid commercialization. The food industry has been targeted as a potential recipient of this new technology and engineered nanoparticles are reportedly already in some super-market products. Nanotechnology is currently unregulated, and there are no requirements for mandatory ...

  7. Nanotechnology: thinking small.

    OpenAIRE

    May, M.

    1999-01-01

    Nanotechnology--building devices on the atomic scale--may unleash some big scientific advances early in the new millennium. Last January in Arlington, Virginia, nearly 100 representatives from academia, industry, and government laid out the general goals for the next decade of nanotechnology research by U.S. government agencies. Some predict that the potentially rich opportunities in this field may trigger a nanotechnology initiative in the federal budget request for Fiscal Year 2001. In the ...

  8. Nanotechnology at KT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Hassager, Ole; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil;

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide the reader an overview of the research activities at the Department of Chemical Engineering in the area of "nanotechnology"......The objective of this report is to provide the reader an overview of the research activities at the Department of Chemical Engineering in the area of "nanotechnology"...

  9. 3rd International Summer School Nanotechnology : From Fundamental Research to Innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsenko, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    This book highlights the most recent advances in nanoscience from leading researchers in Ukraine, Europe, and beyond.  It features contributions from participants of the 3rd International Summer School “Nanotechnology: From Fundamental Research to Innovations,” held in Yaremche, Ukraine on August 23-26, 2014 and of the 2nd International NANO-2014 Conference, held in Lviv, Ukraine on August 27-30, 2014.  These events took place within the framework of the European Commission FP7 project Nanotwinning, and were organized jointly by the Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, University of Tartu (Estonia), University of Turin (Italy), and Pierre and Marie Curie University (France).  Internationally recognized experts from a wide range of universities and research institutions share their knowledge and key results in the areas of nanocomposites and nanomaterials, nanostructured surfaces, microscopy of nano-objects, nano-optics and nanophotonics, nanoplasmonics, nanochemistry, na...

  10. Just a Cog in the Machine? The Individual Responsibility of Researchers in Nanotechnology is a Duty to Collectivize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruit, Shannon L; Hoople, Gordon D; Rolfe, David A

    2016-06-01

    Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) provides a framework for judging the ethical qualities of innovation processes, however guidance for researchers on how to implement such practices is limited. Exploring RRI in the context of nanotechnology, this paper examines how the dispersed and interdisciplinary nature of the nanotechnology field somewhat hampers the abilities of individual researchers to control the innovation process. The ad-hoc nature of the field of nanotechnology, with its fluid boundaries and elusive membership, has thus far failed to establish a strong collective agent, such as a professional organization, through which researchers could collectively steer technological development in light of social and environmental needs. In this case, individual researchers cannot innovate responsibly purely by themselves, but there is also no structural framework to ensure that responsible development of nanotechnologies takes place. We argue that, in such a case, individual researchers have a duty to collectivize. In short, researchers in situations where it is challenging for individual agents to achieve the goals of RRI are compelled to develop organizations to facilitate RRI. In this paper we establish and discuss the criteria under which individual researchers have this duty to collectivize. PMID:26538353

  11. Microfluidics & nanotechnology: Towards fully integrated analytical devices for the detection of cancer biomarkers

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an innovative modular microfluidic platform allowing filtering, concentration and analysis of peptides from a complex mixture. The platform is composed of a microfluidic filtering device and a superhydrophobic surface integrating surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors. The microfluidic device was used to filter specific peptides (MW 1553.73 D) derived from the BRCA1 protein, a tumor-suppressor molecule which plays a pivotal role in the development of breast cancers, from albumin (66.5 KD), the most represented protein in human plasma. The filtering process consisted of driving the complex mixture through a porous membrane having a cut-off of 12-14 kD by hydrodynamic flow. The filtered samples coming out of the microfluidic device were subsequently deposited on a superhydrophobic surface formed by micro pillars on top of which nanograins were fabricated. The nanograins coupled to a Raman spectroscopy instrument acted as a SERS sensor and allowed analysis of the filtered sample on top of the surface once it evaporated. By using the presented platform, we demonstrate being able to sort small peptides from bigger proteins and to detect them by using a label-free technique at a resolution down to 0.1 ng μL-1. The combination of microfluidics and nanotechnology to develop the presented microfluidic platform may give rise to a new generation of biosensors capable of detecting low concentration samples from complex mixtures without the need for any sample pretreatment or labelling. The developed devices could have future applications in the field of early diagnosis of severe illnesses, e.g. early cancer detection. This journal is

  12. A Comparative Study of Two Folate-Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles for Cancer Nanotechnology Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shakeri-Zadeh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a comparative study of synthesis, characteristics and in vitro tests of two folate-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNP differing in linkers and AuNP sizes for selective targeting of folate-receptor positive cancerous cells. The linkers chosen were 4-aminothiophenol (4Atp and 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (MH with nanoconjugate products named Folate-4Atp-AuNP and Folate-MH-AuNP. We report the folate-receptor tissue distribution and its endocytosis for targeted nanotechnology. Comparison of the two nanoconjugates’ syntheses and characterization is also reported, including materials and methods of synthesis, UV-visible absorption spectroscopic measurements, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR measurements, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM images and size distributions, X-ray diffraction data, elemental analyses and chemical stability comparison. In addition to the analytical characterization of the nanoconjugates, the cell lethality was measured in HeLa (high level of folate receptor expression and MCF-7 (low level of folate receptor expression cells. The nanoconjugates themselves, as well as the intense pulsed light (IPL were not harmful to cell viability. However, upon stimulation of the folate targeted nanoconjugates with the IPL, ~98% cell killing was found in HeLa cells and only ~9% in MCF-7 cells after four hours incubation with the nanoconjugate. This demonstrates that folate targeting is effective in selecting for specific cell populations. Considering the various comparisons made, we conclude that Folate-4Atp-AuNP is superior to Folate-MH-AuNP for cancer therapy.

  13. EDITORIAL: Terahertz nanotechnology Terahertz nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Reno, John L.

    2013-05-01

    A useful synergy is being established between terahertz research and nanotechnology. High power sources [1-3] and detectors [4] in what was once considered the terahertz 'frequency gap' [5] in the electromagnetic spectrum have stimulated research with huge potential benefits in a range of industries including food, medicine and security, as well as fundamental physics and astrophysics. This special section, with guest editors Masayoshi Tonouchi and John Reno, gives a glimpse of the new horizons nanotechnology is broaching in terahertz research. While the wavelengths relevant to the terahertz domain range from hundreds of micrometres to millimetres, structures at the nanoscale reveal interesting low energy dynamics in this region. As a result terahertz spectroscopy techniques are becoming increasingly important in nanomaterial characterization, as demonstrated in this special section by colleagues at the University of Oxford in the UK and the Australian National University. They use terahertz spectroscopy to identify the best nanostructure parameters for specific applications [6]. The low energy dynamics in nanostructures also makes them valuable tools for terahertz detection [7]. In addition the much sought after terahertz detection over broadband frequency ranges has been demonstrated, providing versatility that has been greatly in demand, particularly in spectroscopy applications [8, 9]. Also in this special section, researchers in Germany and China tackle some of the coupling issues in terahertz time domain spectroscopy with an emitter specifically well suited for systems operated with an amplified fibre [3]. 'In medical imaging, the advantage of THz radiation is safety, because its energy is much lower than the ionization energy of biological molecules, in contrast to hazardous x-ray radiation,' explains Joo-Hiuk Son from the University of Seoul in Korea in his review [10]. As he also points out, the rotational and vibrational energies of water molecules are

  14. Systemic Delivery of Anti-miRNA for Suppression of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Utilizing RNA Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Dan; Li, Hui; Shu, Yi; Xiong, Gaofeng; Carson, William E; Haque, Farzin; Xu, Ren; Guo, Peixuan

    2015-10-27

    MicroRNAs play important roles in regulating the gene expression and life cycle of cancer cells. In particular, miR-21, an oncogenic miRNA is a major player involved in tumor initiation, progression, invasion and metastasis in several cancers, including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, delivery of therapeutic miRNA or anti-miRNA specifically into cancer cells in vivo without collateral damage to healthy cells remains challenging. We report here the application of RNA nanotechnology for specific and efficient delivery of anti-miR-21 to block the growth of TNBC in orthotopic mouse models. The 15 nm therapeutic RNA nanoparticles contains the 58-nucleotide (nt) phi29 pRNA-3WJ as a core, a 8-nt sequence complementary to the seed region of miR-21, and a 39-nt epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting aptamer for internalizing RNA nanoparticles into cancer cells via receptor mediated endocytosis. The RNase resistant and thermodynamically stable RNA nanoparticles remained intact after systemic injection into mice and strongly bound to tumors with little or no accumulation in healthy organs 8 h postinjection, and subsequently repressed tumor growth at low doses. The observed specific cancer targeting and tumor regression is a result of several key attributes of RNA nanoparticles: anionic charge which disallows nonspecific passage across negatively charged cell membrane; "active" targeting using RNA aptamers which increases the homing of RNA nanoparticles to cancer cells; nanoscale size and shape which avoids rapid renal clearance and engulfment by lung macrophages and liver Kupffer cells; favorable biodistribution profiles with little accumulation in healthy organs, which minimizes nonspecific side effects; and favorable pharmacokinetic profiles with extended in vivo half-life. The results demonstrate the clinical potentials of RNA nanotechnology based platform to deliver miRNA based therapeutics for cancer treatment.

  15. The Nanotechnology R(evolution)

    OpenAIRE

    Tahan, Charles

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology as a social concept and investment focal point has drawn much attention. Here we consider the place of nanotechnology in the second great technological revolution of mankind that began some 200 years ago. The so-called nanotechnology revolution represents both a continuation of prior science and technology trends and a re-awakening to the benefits of significant investment in fundamental research. We consider the role the military might play in the development of nanotechnology...

  16. Nanotechnology for missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Paul B.

    2004-07-01

    Nanotechnology development is progressing very rapidly. Several billions of dollars have been invested in nanoscience research since 2000. Pioneering nanotechnology research efforts have been primarily conducted at research institutions and centers. This paper identifies developments in nanoscience and technology that could provide significant advances in missile systems applications. Nanotechnology offers opportunities in the areas of advanced materials for coatings, including thin-film optical coatings, light-weight, strong armor and missile structural components, embedded computing, and "smart" structures; nano-particles for explosives, warheads, turbine engine systems, and propellants to enhance missile propulsion; nano-sensors for autonomous chemical detection; and nano-tube arrays for fuel storage and power generation. The Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) is actively collaborating with academia, industry, and other Government agencies to accelerate the development and transition of nanotechnology to favorably impact Army Transformation. Currently, we are identifying near-term applications and quantifying requirements for nanotechnology use in Army missile systems, as well as monitoring and screening research and developmental efforts in the industrial community for military applications. Combining MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and nanotechnology is the next step toward providing technical solutions for the Army"s transformation. Several research and development projects that are currently underway at AMRDEC in this technology area are discussed. A top-level roadmap of MEMS/nanotechnology development projects for aviation and missile applications is presented at the end.

  17. Nanotechnology Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malroy, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is rapidly affecting all engineering disciplines as new products and applications are being found and brought to market. This session will present an overview of nanotechnology and let you learn about the advances in the field and how it could impact you. Some of the areas touched upon will be nanomaterials with their multifunctional capabilities, nanotechnology impact on energy systems, nanobiotechnology including nanomedicine, and nanotechnology relevant to space systems with a focus on ECLSS. Also, some important advances related to thermal systems will be presented as well as future predictions on nanotechnology.

  18. Nanotechnology in corneal neovascularization therapy--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Lilian; Loza, Raymond J; Han, Kyu-Yeon; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Cunningham, Christy; Purta, Patryk; Drake, James; Jain, Sandeep; Hong, Seungpyo; Chang, Jin-Hong

    2013-03-01

    Nanotechnology is an up-and-coming branch of science that studies and designs materials with at least one dimension sized from 1-100 nm. These nanomaterials have unique functions at the cellular, atomic, and molecular levels. The term "nanotechnology" was first coined in 1974. Since then, it has evolved dramatically and now consists of distinct and independent scientific fields. Nanotechnology is a highly studied topic of interest, as nanoparticles can be applied to various fields ranging from medicine and pharmacology, to chemistry and agriculture, to environmental science and consumer goods. The rapidly evolving field of nanomedicine incorporates nanotechnology with medical applications, seeking to give rise to new diagnostic means, treatments, and tools. Over the past two decades, numerous studies that underscore the successful fusion of nanotechnology with novel medical applications have emerged. This has given rise to promising new therapies for a variety of diseases, especially cancer. It is becoming abundantly clear that nanotechnology has found a place in the medical field by providing new and more efficient ways to deliver treatment. Ophthalmology can also stand to benefit significantly from the advances in nanotechnology research. As it relates to the eye, research in the nanomedicine field has been particularly focused on developing various treatments to prevent and/or reduce corneal neovascularization among other ophthalmologic disorders. This review article aims to provide an overview of corneal neovascularization, currently available treatments, and where nanotechnology comes into play.

  19. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Blog: How to make kid-friendly, tasty fruit leather with 4 ingredients Study: Now is the Lowest Weight You’ll Be All Year Cancer Research Our Cancer Research Cancer Sites Research Conference ...

  20. Nanotechnology for social needs: contributions from Latin American research in the areas of health, energy and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Invernizzi, Noela, E-mail: noela@ufpr.br; Foladori, Guillermo; Robles-Belmont, Eduardo; Záyago Lau, Edgar; Figueroa, Edgar Arteaga; Bagattolli, Carolina; Carrozza, Tomás Javier; Chiancone, Adriana; Urquijo, William [Universidade Federal do Paraná, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Políticas Públicas (Brazil)

    2015-05-15

    This paper reviews, based on data from scientific publications and research groups, the state of the art of nanotechnology research applied to the areas of medicine, energy and water in Latin America. Such areas have been considered as particularly relevant in order to meet the social needs of the developing countries. It is shown that the countries in the region have incorporated these areas to their nanotechnology agendas and several countries have increasing research capacities. However, such capacities are concentrated in Brazil and Mexico, while the regional cooperation networks are still weak. Although the research topics tend to align with relevant social issues, there are still a number of challenges so as the results of such investigations may be effectively reflected in quality of life improvements; one of them is that many publications and research topics are on basic science, which makes it difficult to evaluate their potential application field.

  1. Nanotechnology for social needs: contributions from Latin American research in the areas of health, energy and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews, based on data from scientific publications and research groups, the state of the art of nanotechnology research applied to the areas of medicine, energy and water in Latin America. Such areas have been considered as particularly relevant in order to meet the social needs of the developing countries. It is shown that the countries in the region have incorporated these areas to their nanotechnology agendas and several countries have increasing research capacities. However, such capacities are concentrated in Brazil and Mexico, while the regional cooperation networks are still weak. Although the research topics tend to align with relevant social issues, there are still a number of challenges so as the results of such investigations may be effectively reflected in quality of life improvements; one of them is that many publications and research topics are on basic science, which makes it difficult to evaluate their potential application field

  2. 纳米技术在肿瘤诊断与治疗中的应用%Application of nanotechnology in cancer diagnosis and therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玫; 陈继营; 卢世璧

    2009-01-01

    纳米技术最近的发展为医学领域提供了新的有效手段,形成了纳米医学的新领域.在肿瘤的诊断与治疗方面,由于纳米颗粒的体积是肿瘤细胞的1/100~1/1000,它可从肿瘤区血管漏出,并通过与肿瘤细胞的靶位连接,进入肿瘤细胞的表面或胞质及核内,从而成为肿瘤细胞的特异载体而被应用于肿瘤的诊断和治疗.%Recent developments in nanotechnology have provided researchers with new tools for cancer diagnosis and therapy.Since these nanoparticals are 100-1000-fold smaller than cancer cells,they can be easily transferred through leaky blood vessels and interact with targeted tumor-specific proteins both on the surface of and inside cancer cells.Therefore,their application as cancer cell-specific delivery vehicles will be a significant addition to currently available armory for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  3. Global cancer research initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R Love

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Richard R LoveThe Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Cancer is an increasing problem for low- and middle-income countries undergoing an epidemiologic transition from dominantly acute communicable disease to more frequent chronic disease with increased public health successes in the former domain. Progress against cancer in high-income countries has been modest and has come at enormous expense. There are several well-conceived global policy and planning initiatives which, with adequate political will, can favorably impact the growing global cancer challenges. Most financial resources for cancer, however, are spent on diagnosis and management of patients with disease in circumstances where specific knowledge about effective approaches is significantly limited, and the majority of interventions, other than surgery, are not cost-effective in resource-limited countries by global standards. In summary, how to intervene effectively on a global scale for the majority of citizens who develop cancer is poorly defined. In contrast to technology-transfer approaches, markedly increased clinical research activities are more likely to benefit cancer sufferers. In these contexts, a global cancer research initiative is proposed, and mechanisms for realizing such an effort are suggested.Keywords: breast cancer, research, global, international, low-income, middle-income

  4. Potential applications of curcumin and its novel synthetic analogs and nanotechnology-based formulations in cancer prevention and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Surinder K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Curcumin has attracted great attention in the therapeutic arsenal in clinical oncology due to its chemopreventive, antitumoral, radiosensibilizing and chemosensibilizing activities against various types of aggressive and recurrent cancers. These malignancies include leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma, brain cancer, melanoma and skin, lung, prostate, breast, ovarian, liver, gastrointestinal, pancreatic and colorectal epithelial cancers. Curcumin mediates its anti-proliferative, anti-invasive and apoptotic effects on cancer cells, including cancer stem/progenitor cells and their progenies, through multiple molecular mechanisms. The oncogenic pathways inhibited by curcumin encompass the members of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR and erbB2, sonic hedgehog (SHH/GLIs and Wnt/β-catenin and downstream signaling elements such as Akt, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs. In counterbalance, the high metabolic instability and poor systemic bioavailability of curcumin limit its therapeutic efficacy in human. Of great therapeutic interest, the selective delivery of synthetic analogs or nanotechnology-based formulations of curcumin to tumors, alone or in combination with other anticancer drugs, may improve their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic efficacies against cancer progression and relapse. Novel curcumin formulations may also be used to reverse drug resistance, eradicate the total cancer cell mass and improve the anticarcinogenic efficacy of the current anti-hormonal and chemotherapeutic treatments for patients with various aggressive and lethal cancers.

  5. Nanotechnology in the marketplace: how the nanotechnology industry views risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Sean, E-mail: seanlouisbecker@gmail.com [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Despite uncertainty about the potential human health and environmental risks of nanotechnology, major stakeholders such as regulatory agencies and the nanotechnology industry are already negotiating the emerging regulatory framework for nanotechnology. Because of a relative lack of nano-specific regulations, the future of nanotechnology development will depend greatly on the views held by the nanotechnology industry. This study fills the research gap in understanding how the nanotechnology industry perceives the risks of nanotechnology. This is the first interview-based study of the nanotechnology industry in the United States. Semi-structured, open-ended phone interviews were conducted with 17 individuals involved in the commercialization of nanotechnology in the United States. Results indicate that while the industry acknowledges uncertainty about the potential risks of nanotechnology and takes significant precaution in ensuring the safety of their products, they do not see nanotechnology as novel or risky. They do not believe that uncertainty over risk ought to delay the further development of nanotechnology. The industry sees itself as the primary agent in ensuring consumer safety and believes that consumers are adequately protected. They are also largely benefit-centric and view product labeling as inefficacious.

  6. Longitudinal study on patent citations to academic research articles in nanotechnology (1976-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Academic nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) research provides a foundation for nanotechnology innovation reflected in patents. About 60% or about 50,000 of the NSE-related patents identified by 'full-text' keyword searching between 1976 and 2004 at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) have an average of approximately 18 academic citations. The most cited academic journals, individual researchers, and research articles have been evaluated as sources of technology innovation in the NSE area over the 28-year period. Each of the most influential articles was cited about 90 times on the average, while the most influential author was cited more than 700 times by the NSE-related patents. Thirteen mainstream journals accounted for about 20% of all citations. Science, Nature and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) have consistently been the top three most cited journals, with each article being cited three times on average. There is another kind of influential journals, represented by Biosystems and Origin of Life, which have very few articles cited but with exceptionally high frequencies. The number of academic citations per year from ten most cited journals has increased by over 17 times in the interval (1990-1999) as compared to (1976-1989), and again over 3 times in the interval (2000-2004) as compared to (1990-1999). This is an indication of increased used of academic knowledge creation in the NSE-related patents

  7. Ethical issues in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florczyk, Stephen J; Saha, Subrata

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing area in science involved with manipulating matter at the atomic or molecular level. Nanotechnology is typically defined at a scale on the order of less than approximately 100 nm. Matter possesses unique properties at these size levels that are neither Newtonian nor quantum, but between the two regimes.These unique properties have created significant interest and excitement, sparking numerous research investigations. Nanotechnology is a very broad field with many current and potential applications. Some important examples of applications include battlefield activated dynamic armor clothing for soldiers, additives to sunscreens, and diagnostic laboratories on a chip to monitor general personal health. Groundbreaking capabilities often raise new questions. Any new scientific or technological development has the usual concomitant associated ethical issues, specifically regarding containment and regulation. These ethical issues are more pronounced with nanotechnology due to the sharp divide between those who see its great potential and opponents who express fears. Nanotechnology supporters believe that it has the potential to transform our lives dramatically, while opponents of nanotechnology fear that self-replicating "nanobots" could escape from laboratories and reduce all life on earth to "gray goo. "These fears have swayed generally uninformed public opinions via the media and sensational entertainment. A critical discussion of ethical issues surrounding nanotechnology, including the interaction of nanotechnology with the body and the environment--nanobiotechnology--and regulation of nanotechnology, is presented. We advocate strong, uniform regulations for nanotechnology, but only the use of regulations as needed. The limited use of regulations prevents the regulations from becoming burdensome and inhibiting research in the field.

  8. Profiles in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    These articles put a face to some of the thousands of individuals who contribute to NCI’s cancer research efforts. The profiles highlight the work of scientists and clinicians and describe the circumstances and motivation behind their work.

  9. Nanotechnology applications in thoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferberth, Sophie C; Grinstaff, Mark W; Colson, Yolonda L

    2016-07-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging, rapidly evolving field with the potential to significantly impact care across the full spectrum of cancer therapy. Of note, several recent nanotechnological advances show particular promise to improve outcomes for thoracic surgical patients. A variety of nanotechnologies are described that offer possible solutions to existing challenges encountered in the detection, diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Nanotechnology-based imaging platforms have the ability to improve the surgical care of patients with thoracic malignancies through technological advances in intraoperative tumour localization, lymph node mapping and accuracy of tumour resection. Moreover, nanotechnology is poised to revolutionize adjuvant lung cancer therapy. Common chemotherapeutic drugs, such as paclitaxel, docetaxel and doxorubicin, are being formulated using various nanotechnologies to improve drug delivery, whereas nanoparticle (NP)-based imaging technologies can monitor the tumour microenvironment and facilitate molecularly targeted lung cancer therapy. Although early nanotechnology-based delivery systems show promise, the next frontier in lung cancer therapy is the development of 'theranostic' multifunctional NPs capable of integrating diagnosis, drug monitoring, tumour targeting and controlled drug release into various unifying platforms. This article provides an overview of key existing and emerging nanotechnology platforms that may find clinical application in thoracic surgery in the near future. PMID:26843431

  10. Proceedings of a Workshop on "Nanotechnology for the agricultural sector: from research to the field"

    OpenAIRE

    PARISI CLAUDIA; VIGANI MAURO; Rodriguez Cerezo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Innovation is at the centre of the EU's growth strategy for the coming decade (EU2020). New technologies and their adoption by EU farmers are essential in maintaining European agriculture competitive in a global world. Within this context, nanotechnology represents an innovative technology with great potentials in many areas of applications as diverse as medicine, biotechnology, electronics, materials science and energy technologies. Furthermore, nanotechnology is showing a great potential in...

  11. Science system path-dependencies and their influences: nanotechnology research in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Karaulova, Maria; Gök, Abdullah; Shackleton, Oliver; Shapira, Philip

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of path dependencies on the development of an emerging technology in a transitional economy. Our focus is the development of nanotechnology in Russia in the period between 1990 and 2012. By examining outputs, publication paths and collaboration patterns, we identify a series of factors that help to explain Russia’s limited success in leveraging its ambitious national nanotechnology initiative. The analysis highlights four path-dependent tendencies of Russ...

  12. EDITORIAL: Terahertz nanotechnology Terahertz nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Reno, John L.

    2013-05-01

    A useful synergy is being established between terahertz research and nanotechnology. High power sources [1-3] and detectors [4] in what was once considered the terahertz 'frequency gap' [5] in the electromagnetic spectrum have stimulated research with huge potential benefits in a range of industries including food, medicine and security, as well as fundamental physics and astrophysics. This special section, with guest editors Masayoshi Tonouchi and John Reno, gives a glimpse of the new horizons nanotechnology is broaching in terahertz research. While the wavelengths relevant to the terahertz domain range from hundreds of micrometres to millimetres, structures at the nanoscale reveal interesting low energy dynamics in this region. As a result terahertz spectroscopy techniques are becoming increasingly important in nanomaterial characterization, as demonstrated in this special section by colleagues at the University of Oxford in the UK and the Australian National University. They use terahertz spectroscopy to identify the best nanostructure parameters for specific applications [6]. The low energy dynamics in nanostructures also makes them valuable tools for terahertz detection [7]. In addition the much sought after terahertz detection over broadband frequency ranges has been demonstrated, providing versatility that has been greatly in demand, particularly in spectroscopy applications [8, 9]. Also in this special section, researchers in Germany and China tackle some of the coupling issues in terahertz time domain spectroscopy with an emitter specifically well suited for systems operated with an amplified fibre [3]. 'In medical imaging, the advantage of THz radiation is safety, because its energy is much lower than the ionization energy of biological molecules, in contrast to hazardous x-ray radiation,' explains Joo-Hiuk Son from the University of Seoul in Korea in his review [10]. As he also points out, the rotational and vibrational energies of water molecules are

  13. Developing nanotechnology in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Luciano; Shapira, Philip

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the development of nanotechnology in Latin America with a particular focus on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Based on data for nanotechnology research publications and patents and suggesting a framework for analyzing the development of R&D networks, we identify three potential strategies of nanotechnology research collaboration. Then, we seek to identify the balance of emphasis upon each of the three strategies by mapping the current research profile of those...

  14. Current situation and industrialization of Taiwan nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnology is projected to be a very promising field, and the impact of nanotechnology on society is increasingly significant as the research funding and manufactured goods increase exponentially. A clearer picture of Taiwan's current and future nanotechnology industry is an essential component for future planning. Therefore, this investigation studies the progress of industrializing nanotechnology in Taiwan by surveying 150 companies. Along with understanding Taiwan's current nanotechnology industrialization, this paper also suggests ways to promote Taiwan's nanotechnology. The survey results are summarized and serve as the basis for planning a nanotechnology industrialization strategy

  15. INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH «DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN MARKET OF NANOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS IN CONSTRUCTION UNTIL 2020». PART 2. ANALYSIS OF THE WORLD MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    GUSEV Boris Vladimirovich; FALIKMAN Vyacheslav Ruvimovich; Steffen LEISTNER; Benny YOSHPA; PETUSHKOV Alexander Vladimirovich

    2013-01-01

    Some results of the industrial research «Development of Russian market of nanotechnological products in construction until 2020» have been published. Authors invite all interested specialists and specialized organization to take part in the broad public discussion.

  16. Is there a relationship between research sponsorship and publication impact? An analysis of funding acknowledgments in nanotechnology papers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Wang

    Full Text Available This study analyzes funding acknowledgments in scientific papers to investigate relationships between research sponsorship and publication impacts. We identify acknowledgments to research sponsors for nanotechnology papers published in the Web of Science during a one-year sample period. We examine the citations accrued by these papers and the journal impact factors of their publication titles. The results show that publications from grant sponsored research exhibit higher impacts in terms of both journal ranking and citation counts than research that is not grant sponsored. We discuss the method and models used, and the insights provided by this approach as well as it limitations.

  17. Nanotechnology in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravana, Kumar R; Vijayalakshmi, R

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology is manipulating matter at nanometer level and the application of the same to medicine is called nanomedicine. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors. In the long-term, medical nanorobots will allow instant pathogen diagnosis and extermination, individual cell surgery in vivo, and improvement of natural physiological function. Current research is focusing on fabrication of nanostructures, nanoactuators, and nanomotors, along with means to assemble them into larger systems, economically and in great numbers.

  18. Nanotechnology in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Saravana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is manipulating matter at nanometer level and the application of the same to medicine is called nanomedicine. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diagnostics, targeted drug delivery, and biosensors. In the long-term, medical nanorobots will allow instant pathogen diagnosis and extermination, individual cell surgery in vivo, and improvement of natural physiological function. Current research is focusing on fabrication of nanostructures, nanoactuators, and nanomotors, along with means to assemble them into larger systems, economically and in great numbers.

  19. Nanotechnologies in Latvia: Commercialisation Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Geipele I.; Staube T.; Ciemleja G.; Ekmanis J.; Zeltins N.

    2014-01-01

    The authors consider the possibilities to apply the nanotechnology products of manufacturing industries in Latvia for further commercialisation. The purpose of the research is to find out the preliminary criteria for the system of engineering economic indicators for multifunctional nanocoating technologies. The article provides new findings and calculations for the local nanotechnology market research characterising the development of nanotechnology industry. The authors outline a scope of is...

  20. What Students and Researchers in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Should Know about PUS and STS: A Look at Fages and Albe's Viewpoint on Social Issues in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Master's Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, in order to pursue the conversation begun by Fages and Albe ("Cult Stud Sci Educ" 2014), I highlight three conceptual contributions that could be made by familiarizing nanoscience and nanotechnology researchers and engineers with the work being carried out in science and technology studies and public understanding of…

  1. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology under the skin Nanotechnology under the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-07-01

    Concerns over health and ecological implications as living organisms are increasingly exposed to nanoparticles are constantly raised. Yet the use of nanoscale structures in technology and medicine has already infiltrated daily life in countless ways. from cosmetics and sun cream to mobile phones. The potential of nanotechnology in medicine is particularly difficult to ignore and ranges from cancer treatment to immune system activation [1]. The reduced dimensions of nanostructures lend them to targeted diagnostic and therapeutic practices that enable treatment with greater accuracy and less discomfort. Striking a balance between over caution and recklessness can be tricky, and provides an additional drive to investigate and learn more about the science of the nanoscale. Alongside investigations to exploit nanoparticles in medicine and technology, there have been a substantial number of studies to investigate the possible effects on our health, as well as some studies on the environmental ramifications. Researchers in the US have investigated the effects on aquatic life of ZnO nanoparticles, which may pollute lakes and rivers through accidental release during fabrication or as wash out from consumer materials [2]. The study is focused on zebrafish during early development. Zhu et al observe that while there may be evidence that Zn2+ ions and ZnO nanoparticles have toxic effects on zebrafish embryos, these effects are apparently mitigated by a type of sediment formulated from the nanoparticles. The positive contribution of nanotechnology in cancer treatment is an area of particularly high research activity at present. Although traditional chemotherapeutic agents can be effective against the growth of cancerous cells, they can have a detrimental effect on the immune system, which is critical in combating cancer. Researchers in China studied the behaviour of C60(OH)20 nanoparticles in vivo and found that they play important roles in the anti-tumour process by activating

  2. (Updated) Nanotechnology: Understanding the Tiny Particles That May Save a Life | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nathalie Walker, Guest Writer Could nanotechnology—the study of tiny matter ranging in size from 1 to 200 nanometers—be the future of cancer treatment? Although it is a relatively new field in cancer research, nanotechnology is not new to everyday life. Have you ever thought about the tennis ball you’ve thrown with your dog at the park and wondered what it is made of? Nanotechnology is used to make the tennis ball stronger.

  3. Nanotechnology in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Sadono Djamil

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Technology has continuously improved along with the complexity of devices. Nowadays, it is widely accepted that micro-technology, which is defined as a further reduction in the size of interconnections and components, is achieved by a conventional “top-down” method. We have now moved to a new concept and approach for fabrication from small to bigger building-block elements, which is called nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is the fabrication technology of tiny parts that is achieved by a “bottom-up” method. Nanotechnology has been developed in many areas of life sciences, such as in dentistry. This presentation provides some examples that illustrate the progress in technological growth, especially in the nanoscale. In the developments of nanotechnology, we are also concerned in many ways about its ethics and the laws of physics. The expansion in nanotechnology shows that much multidisciplinary research is being done in the nanoscale area. In dentistry, one of the examples is research in dental materials such as nanoleakage types in the use of various adhesives with resin composition. Nanodiagnostics are nanotechnology in applied molecular diagnostics. All these fields have applications in diagnostics and in point-of-care hand-held devices.

  4. Targeted anticancer therapy: overexpressed receptors and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Ahamed, Maqusood; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Alrokayan, Salman A; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-09-25

    Targeted delivery of anticancer drugs to cancer cells and tissues is a promising field due to its potential to spare unaffected cells and tissues, but it has been a major challenge to achieve success in these therapeutic approaches. Several innovative approaches to targeted drug delivery have been devised based on available knowledge in cancer biology and on technological advancements. To achieve the desired selectivity of drug delivery, nanotechnology has enabled researchers to design nanoparticles (NPs) to incorporate anticancer drugs and act as nanocarriers. Recently, many receptor molecules known to be overexpressed in cancer have been explored as docking sites for the targeting of anticancer drugs. In principle, anticancer drugs can be concentrated specifically in cancer cells and tissues by conjugating drug-containing nanocarriers with ligands against these receptors. Several mechanisms can be employed to induce triggered drug release in response to either endogenous trigger or exogenous trigger so that the anticancer drug is only released upon reaching and preferentially accumulating in the tumor tissue. This review focuses on overexpressed receptors exploited in targeting drugs to cancerous tissues and the tumor microenvironment. We briefly evaluate the structure and function of these receptor molecules, emphasizing the elegant mechanisms by which certain characteristics of cancer can be exploited in cancer treatment. After this discussion of receptors, we review their respective ligands and then the anticancer drugs delivered by nanotechnology in preclinical models of cancer. Ligand-functionalized nanocarriers have delivered significantly higher amounts of anticancer drugs in many in vitro and in vivo models of cancer compared to cancer models lacking such receptors or drug carrying nanocarriers devoid of ligand. This increased concentration of anticancer drug in the tumor site enabled by nanotechnology could have a major impact on the efficiency of cancer

  5. Nanotechnology in health care

    CERN Document Server

    Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine: Emerging Field of Nanotechnology to Human HealthNanomedicines: Impacts in Ocular Delivery and TargetingImmuno-Nanosystems to CNS Pathologies: State of the Art PEGylated Zinc Protoporphyrin: A Micelle-Forming Polymeric Drug for Cancer TherapyORMOSIL Nanoparticles: Nanomedicine Approach for Drug/Gene Delivery to the BrainMagnetic Nanoparticles: A Versatile System for Therapeutic and Imaging SystemNanobiotechnology: A New Generation of Biomedicine Application of Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery and Targeting to LungsAptamers and Nanomedicine in C

  6. Lipid nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaghi, Samaneh; Jadidi, Tayebeh; Koenderink, Gijsje; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and diagnosis of pathologies at early stages. In these applications, nano-devices typically interface with the plasma membrane of cells. On the other hand, naturally occurring nanostructures in biology have been a source of inspiration for new nanotechnological designs and hybrid nanostructures made of biological and non-biological, organic and inorganic building blocks. Lipids, with their amphiphilicity, diversity of head and tail chemistry, and antifouling properties that block nonspecific binding to lipid-coated surfaces, provide a powerful toolbox for nanotechnology. This review discusses the progress in the emerging field of lipid nanotechnology. PMID:23429269

  7. Lipid Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsje Koenderink

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and diagnosis of pathologies at early stages. In these applications, nano-devices typically interface with the plasma membrane of cells. On the other hand, naturally occurring nanostructures in biology have been a source of inspiration for new nanotechnological designs and hybrid nanostructures made of biological and non-biological, organic and inorganic building blocks. Lipids, with their amphiphilicity, diversity of head and tail chemistry, and antifouling properties that block nonspecific binding to lipid-coated surfaces, provide a powerful toolbox for nanotechnology. This review discusses the progress in the emerging field of lipid nanotechnology.

  8. Thinking on the Application of Nanotechnology in the Mechanism Research on the Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnology is an advanced scientific technique in the 21st century and diabetes mellitus (DM) is a commonly seen chronic disease, which seriously threatens the health of human beings. By analyzing the relationship between nanotechnology and biological medicine, nanotechnology and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the advances and the existing problems of TCM diagnosing and treating DM, the application of nanotechnological methods for the mechanism research on TCM diagnosis and treatment of DM was discussed. It is indicated that nanotechnology is one of the fastest developmental, the most potential and the far-reaching high and new technologies in current world, and it greatly promotes the development of biological medicine and TCM. With the application of nanotechnology of medical diagnostics and medical materials, it will make the development of TCM possess an unprecedented field, which consequently could integrate the macroscopical and microscopical syndrome differentiation. It's pointed out that breakthrough will be achieved from the research of the administration route, the improvement of medical biological availability and the selection of the acupoint prescriptions on mechanism research on TCM for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  9. Thinking on the Application of Nanotechnology in the Mechanism Research on the Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yunxiang; Zhang Li; Chen Pengdian [Acupuncture and Massage College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510405 (China); Chen Guizhen, E-mail: cgzhen2000@163.com [Second Clinical Medical College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510405 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Nanotechnology is an advanced scientific technique in the 21st century and diabetes mellitus (DM) is a commonly seen chronic disease, which seriously threatens the health of human beings. By analyzing the relationship between nanotechnology and biological medicine, nanotechnology and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the advances and the existing problems of TCM diagnosing and treating DM, the application of nanotechnological methods for the mechanism research on TCM diagnosis and treatment of DM was discussed. It is indicated that nanotechnology is one of the fastest developmental, the most potential and the far-reaching high and new technologies in current world, and it greatly promotes the development of biological medicine and TCM. With the application of nanotechnology of medical diagnostics and medical materials, it will make the development of TCM possess an unprecedented field, which consequently could integrate the macroscopical and microscopical syndrome differentiation. It's pointed out that breakthrough will be achieved from the research of the administration route, the improvement of medical biological availability and the selection of the acupoint prescriptions on mechanism research on TCM for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  10. Analysis of Co-Authorship Indicators, Betweenness Centrality and Structural Holes of the Iranian Nanotechnology Researchers in Science Citation Index (1991-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassanzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate Iranian papers on nanotechnology area against some scientometrics indicators such as most prolific, most cited and so on. The statistical population were all papers have been published by Iranian researchers on nanotechnology in the Science Citation Index (SCI from 1991 to 7 August 2011 (4605 records that has been done with the aim of identifying, the most prolific, most cited and most effect of Iranian nanotechnology scientists. The results showed that the collaborative index in per-document was 3.39. The highest collaborative index was in 1997 with six authors by per-document. Iranian nanotechnology researchers' degree of collaboration was 0.96 this indicates, greater tendency of nanotechnology authors towards co-authorship. Considering total collaboration coefficient (0.64, nanotechnology authors have shown tendency to production of scientific collaborative document. The highest collaboration coefficient (0.83 And the lowest collaboration coefficient (0.5 have been allocated to the 1997 and 1991 respectively.

  11. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ... Read More "Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ...

  12. Nanotechnology in automotive industry: research strategy and trends for the future-small objects, big impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Margarida C; Torrão, Guilhermina; Emami, Nazanin; Grácio, José

    2012-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to emphasize and present briefly the nanotechnology science and its potential impact on the automotive industry in order to improve the production of recent models with an optimization of the safety performance and a reduction in the environmental impacts. Nanomaterials can be applied in car bodies as light weight constructions without compromising the stiffness and crashwortiness, which means less material and less fuel consumption. This paper outlines the progress of nanotechnology applications into the safety features of more recent vehicle models and fuel efficiency, but also emphasis the importance of sustainable development on the application of these technologies and life cycle analysis of the considered materials, in order to meet the society trends and customers demands to improve ecology, safety and comfort.

  13. Nanotechnology in automotive industry: research strategy and trends for the future-small objects, big impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Margarida C; Torrão, Guilhermina; Emami, Nazanin; Grácio, José

    2012-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to emphasize and present briefly the nanotechnology science and its potential impact on the automotive industry in order to improve the production of recent models with an optimization of the safety performance and a reduction in the environmental impacts. Nanomaterials can be applied in car bodies as light weight constructions without compromising the stiffness and crashwortiness, which means less material and less fuel consumption. This paper outlines the progress of nanotechnology applications into the safety features of more recent vehicle models and fuel efficiency, but also emphasis the importance of sustainable development on the application of these technologies and life cycle analysis of the considered materials, in order to meet the society trends and customers demands to improve ecology, safety and comfort. PMID:22962798

  14. An Analysis of the Function and of CAS In National Nanotechnology Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Zilong; MENG Wei; LIU Peihua

    2005-01-01

    @@ NBIC, namely nanoscience & nano-technology, biotechnology & biomedicine (including genetic engineering), information technology (including computing and communications) and cognitive science (including cognitive neuroscience) are universally regarded as four R&D disciplines to critically influence human life in the near future. Providing technological groundwork for the latter three's healthy development, nanoscience and related technologies now become the most active S&T frontiers in the world today.

  15. The Role and Future of Nanotechnology in Research, Industry and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, David

    2006-01-01

    Major developments in Nanotechnology have taken place across the worldover the last few years. From a humble beginning, Ireland inc. became a leader in the Microelectronics industry and now has to face the challenge of developing a strategic plan to maintain its lead position in the nano field which in most cases will supersede the micro phase. Most countries are taking a similar path of development all be it alone or in collaboration with other countries. This process is expensive and requir...

  16. Nanotechnology in the Security

    CERN Document Server

    Kruchinin, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    The topics discussed at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop "Nanotechnology in the Security Systems" included nanophysics,   nanotechnology,  nanomaterials, sensors, biosensors security systems, explosive  detection . There have been many significant advances in the past two years and some entirely new directions of research are just opening up. Recent advances in nanoscience have demonstrated that fundamentally new physical phenomena  are found when systems are reduced in size with  dimensions, comparable to the fundamental microscopic  length scales of the investigated material. Recent developments in nanotechnology and measurement techniques now allow experimental investigation of transport properties of nanodevices. This work will be of interest to researchers working in spintronics, molecular electronics and quantum information processing.

  17. Workshop on Cancer Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April, 22-24 April 1991, the Hungarian National Institute of Oncology and the Commission of the European Communities have organized a workshop on Cancer Research. The aim of the meeting was to provide the participants information on the ongoing research in Hungary and in Member States. The topic is of importance for Hungary and it was also considered that the meeting could contribute to identify subjects of possible collaboration between Hungarian and Member State laboratories in the case financial support would become available. Three papers about new therapies under development were presented proton therapy and Boron neutron capture therapy

  18. How nanotechnology works in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Arshpreet Kaur; Ms. Amandeep Kaur; Ms. Nitika Shahi

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology. Current problems for nanomedicine involve understanding the issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials. Nanomedicine seeks to deliver a valuable set of research tools and clinically useful devices in the near future. The National Nanotechnol...

  19. Nanotechnologies in Latvia: Commercialisation Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geipele I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the possibilities to apply the nanotechnology products of manufacturing industries in Latvia for further commercialisation. The purpose of the research is to find out the preliminary criteria for the system of engineering economic indicators for multifunctional nanocoating technologies. The article provides new findings and calculations for the local nanotechnology market research characterising the development of nanotechnology industry. The authors outline a scope of issues as to low activities rankings in Latvia on application of locally produced nanotechnologies towards efficiency of the resource use for nanocoating technologies. For the first time in Latvia, the authors make the case study research and summarise the latest performance indicators of the Latvian companies operating in the nanotechnology industry.

  20. Refining search terms for nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to delineate the boundaries of an emerging technology is central to obtaining an understanding of the technology's research paths and commercialization prospects. Nowhere is this more relevant than in the case of nanotechnology (hereafter identified as 'nano') given its current rapid growth and multidisciplinary nature. (Under the rubric of nanotechnology, we also include nanoscience and nanoengineering.) Past efforts have utilized several strategies, including simple term search for the prefix nano, complex lexical and citation-based approaches, and bootstrapping techniques. This research introduces a modularized Boolean approach to defining nanotechnology which has been applied to several research and patenting databases. We explain our approach to downloading and cleaning data, and report initial results. Comparisons of this approach with other nanotechnology search formulations are presented. Implications for search strategy development and profiling of the nanotechnology field are discussed

  1. Nanotechnologies in Latvia: Commercialisation Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geipele, I.; Staube, T.; Ciemleja, G.; Ekmanis, J.; Zeltins, N.

    2014-12-01

    The authors consider the possibilities to apply the nanotechnology products of manufacturing industries in Latvia for further commercialisation. The purpose of the research is to find out the preliminary criteria for the system of engineering economic indicators for multifunctional nanocoating technologies. The article provides new findings and calculations for the local nanotechnology market research characterising the development of nanotechnology industry. The authors outline a scope of issues as to low activities rankings in Latvia on application of locally produced nanotechnologies towards efficiency of the resource use for nanocoating technologies. For the first time in Latvia, the authors make the case study research and summarise the latest performance indicators of the Latvian companies operating in the nanotechnology industry.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF NANOTECHNOLOGY: BLESSING OR A DANGER?

    OpenAIRE

    Yakovlev Anatoly Romanovich

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the negative aspects of nanotechnology development on the global and national scales. Possible economic, environmental and social risks and latent threats to the formation of nanoindustry and nanoproducts consumption are discussed. Based on the analysis of foreign and Russian researchers is made SWOT-analysis of nanotechnology, in which all the key features development of nanotechnology. Under article attempts to analyze the basic regulations in the field of nanotechnolog...

  3. Lipid Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mashaghi, Samaneh; Jadidi, Tayebeh; Koenderink, Gijsje; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and

  4. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G M; Varona, P

    2013-11-15

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  5. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines. (topical review)

  6. Nanotechnology for chemical engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Salaheldeen Elnashaie, Said; Hashemipour Rafsanjani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic principles of transforming nano-technology into nano-engineering with a particular focus on chemical engineering fundamentals. This book provides vital information about differences between descriptive technology and quantitative engineering for students as well as working professionals in various fields of nanotechnology. Besides chemical engineering principles, the fundamentals of nanotechnology are also covered along with detailed explanation of several specific nanoscale processes from chemical engineering point of view. This information is presented in form of practical examples and case studies that help the engineers and researchers to integrate the processes which can meet the commercial production. It is worth mentioning here that, the main challenge in nanostructure and nanodevices production is nowadays related to the economic point of view. The uniqueness of this book is a balance between important insights into the synthetic methods of nano-structures and nanomaterial...

  7. Artificial intelligence in nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, G. M.; Varona, P.

    2013-11-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing use of artificial intelligence tools in nanotechnology research. In this paper we review some of these efforts in the context of interpreting scanning probe microscopy, the study of biological nanosystems, the classification of material properties at the nanoscale, theoretical approaches and simulations in nanoscience, and generally in the design of nanodevices. Current trends and future perspectives in the development of nanocomputing hardware that can boost artificial-intelligence-based applications are also discussed. Convergence between artificial intelligence and nanotechnology can shape the path for many technological developments in the field of information sciences that will rely on new computer architectures and data representations, hybrid technologies that use biological entities and nanotechnological devices, bioengineering, neuroscience and a large variety of related disciplines.

  8. Recent insights into nanotechnology development for detection and treatment of colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanath B; Kim S.; Lee K

    2016-01-01

    Buddolla Viswanath,1 Sanghyo Kim,1 Kiyoung Lee2 1Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi-Do, 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon, Republic of Korea Abstract: The global incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is 1.3 million cases. It is the third most frequent cancer in males and females. Most CRCs are adenocarcinomas and often begin as a polyp on the inner wall of the rectum or colon. Some of these polyps become malignant, ev...

  9. Determining the Scope of Collection Development and Research Assistance for Cross-Disciplinary Areas: A Case Study of Two Contrasting Areas, Nanotechnology and Transportation Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jeanine M.; Han, Lee D.; Colon-Aguirre, Monica

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the extent of cross-disciplinarity in nanotechnology and transportation engineering research. Researchers in these two fields were determined from the web sites of the U.S. News and World Report top 100 schools in civil engineering and materials science. Web of Science searches for 2006 and 2007 articles were obtained and the…

  10. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-01-01

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task. PMID:26021823

  11. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-05-29

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  12. Cancer research and therapy: Where are we today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampada Sawant

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Till date scientists are struggling to understand the complete mechanism of carcinogenesis. In future, the real time detection of cancer may help scientists to identify some of the complicated biological mechanisms. Certain special features of cancer cells enable researchers to deliver the drug or to develop the right drug therapy. These cell properties include over expression or over activity in uptake of certain nutrients e.g. folic acid and increased permeability. Listed properties might vary depending upon the type of cancer and can be fully exploited by using nanoparticles either to detect the site of cancer or to direct the drug at the affected site. Product approach like drug conjugates, complexes serves as a good platform to solve issues like solubility, toxicity, poor penetration and stability related to cancer drugs. Beside this, several drug delivery platforms are under development by researchers in academia as well as in industry to deliver therapeutic molecules and new chemical entities to the targeted site in body. Amongst them, nanotechnology both at molecular and supramolecular level is a leading platform and can help to image, detect and treat cancer. Surface modification of nanoparticles by coating or anchoring their surface with special markers, materials, peptide, proteins, antibodies or antigens add extra feature and thereby can enhance the effectiveness. These treatments can be used individually or in combined form. In this review, advances on nanotechnological platform are discussed together with some assisting techniques like magnetic field, photo or light field, sonic rays are touched upon. New biological therapies that are advancing in this direction include the antisense therapy, cell therapy, gene therapy, radiation therapy and SiRNA interfaces which are discussed in brief in this article. This article gives short overview on use of complementary and alternative medicine for treatment of cancer such as traditional

  13. Materials and Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Materials and Nanotechnology Program is divided into subprograms in the following areas: Ceramic Materials, Composite Materials, Metallic Materials, Physical / Chemical Characterization and Nanomaterials. The subprograms are further divided in to broad topics in research, development and innovations. Within each topic, several R and D projects are carried out

  14. Nanotechnology - An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, D.

    2007-01-01

    The science of nanotechnology is still in its infancy. However, progress is being made in research and development of potential beneficial properties of nanomaterials that could play an integral part in the development of new and changing uses for mineral commodities. Nanotechnology is a kind of toolbox that allows industry to make nanomaterials and nanostructures with special properties. New nanotechnology applications of mineral commodities in their nanoscale form are being discovered, researched and developed. At the same time, there is continued research into environmental, human health and safety concerns that inherently arise from the development of a new technology. Except for a few nanomaterials (CNTs, copper, silver and zinc oxide), widespread applications are hampered by processing and suitable commercial-scale production techniques, high manufacturing costs, product price, and environmental, and human health and safety concerns. Whether nanotechnology causes a tidal wave of change or is a long-term evolutionary process of technology, new applications of familiar mineral commodities will be created. As research and development continues, the ability to manipulate matter at the nanoscale into increasingly sophisticated nanomaterials will improve and open up new possibilities for industry that will change the flow and use of mineral commodities and the materials and products that are used.

  15. Interfaces e organização da pesquisa no Brasil: da Química à Nanotecnologia Research organization in Brazil: from chemistry to Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique E. Toma

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology can be viewed as a powerful tool, capable of shaping the chemistry of atoms and molecules, converting them into exciting nanosized and nanostructured materials, devices and machines. However, in pursuing this task, an exceptional ability is required to deal with complex inter- and multidisciplinary approaches, as imposed by the nanoscale. A new research organization framework, capable of promoting cooperative interactions in many complementary areas, including the industries, is demanded. In this sense, an interesting example are the nanotechnology networks and millenium institutes recently created in Brazil. The highlights and weakness of such cooperative research networks are discussed, in addition to relevant nanotechnology themes focusing on the special needs and resources from the developing nations.

  16. Nanotechnology and cancer: improving real-time monitoring and staging of bladder cancer with multimodal mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Sean K; Luo, Yi; Michael A. O’Donnell; Assouline, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite being one of the most common cancers, bladder cancer is largely inefficiently and inaccurately staged and monitored. Current imaging methods detect cancer only when it has reached “visible” size and has significantly disrupted the structure of the organ. By that time, thousands of cells will have proliferated and perhaps metastasized. Repeated biopsies and scans are necessary to determine the effect of therapy on cancer growth. In this report, we describe a novel approach b...

  17. Nanotechnology researchers' collaboration relationships: a gender analysis of access to scientific information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Felez, Africa; Woolley, Richard; Cañibano, Carolina

    2015-02-01

    Women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields, particularly at higher levels of organizations. This article investigates the impact of this underrepresentation on the processes of interpersonal collaboration in nanotechnology. Analyses are conducted to assess: (I) the comparative tie strength of women's and men's collaborations, (2) whether women and men gain equal access to scientific information through collaborators, (3) which tie characteristics are associated with access to information for women and men, and (4) whether women and men acquire equivalent amounts of information by strengthening ties. Our results show that the overall tie strength is less for women's collaborations and that women acquire less strategic information through collaborators. Women and men rely on different tie characteristics in accessing information, but are equally effective in acquiring additional information resources by strengthening ties. This article demonstrates that the underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics has an impact on the interpersonal processes of scientific collaboration, to the disadvantage of women scientists.

  18. Research in Danish cancer rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane;

    2008-01-01

    of the cancer survivors with respect to cancer site, sociodemographic variables, social network, lifestyle, self-rated health and the prevalence of cancer-related late effects. The study is part of the FOCARE research project, in which the long-term effects of the rehabilitation programme are evaluated...... systematically. The study is based on data from a self-administered baseline questionnaire filled in by 2 174 cancer survivors who registered for a 1-week, publicly paid rehabilitation retreat and were invited to participate in the FOCARE study in the period 25 November 2002 to 31 December 2005. The response...... experience considerably reduced physical health, possibly as late physical effects of treatment. The problems reported by the cancer survivors suggest that cancer rehabilitation should include these aspects of living after cancer and take account of differences among cancer survivors with regard to cancer...

  19. Complement-mediated tumour growth: implications for cancer nanotechnology and nanomedicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S. M.; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2009-01-01

    The recent unexpected observation that complement activation helps turnout growth and progression has an important bearing on the future development of cancer nanomedicines for site-specific tumour targeting as these entities are capable of triggering complement. These issues are discussed and su...

  20. The Potential Role of Nanotechnology in Therapeutic Approaches for Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras G. Lacko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Triple Negative Breast Cancer, TNBC, a highly aggressive and metastatic type of breast cancer, is characterized by loss of expression of the estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and a lack of overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2. It is a heterogeneous group of tumors with diverse histology, molecular uniqueness and response to treatment. Unfortunately, TNBC patients do not benefit from current anti-HER2 or hormone positive targeted breast cancer treatments; consequently, these patients rely primarily on chemotherapy. However, the 5-year survival rate for woman with metastatic TNBC is less than 30%. As a result of ineffective treatments, TNBC tumors often progress to metastatic lesions in the brain and lung. Brain metastases of invasive breast cancer are associated with 1 and 2 year survival rate of 20% and <2% respectively. Because the only current systemic treatment for TNBC is chemotherapy, alternative targeted therapies are urgently needed to improve the prognosis for TNBC patients. This review is focused on opportunities for developing new approaches for filling the current void in an effective treatment for TNBC patients.

  1. Lipid Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Gijsje Koenderink; Samaneh Mashaghi; Tayebeh Jadidi; Alireza Mashaghi

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices and machines derived from engineering, physics, materials science, chemistry and biology. These devices have found applications in biomedical sciences, such as targeted drug delivery, bio-imaging, sensing and diagnosis of pathologies at early stages. In these applications, nano-devices typically interface with the plasma membrane of cells. On the other hand, naturally occurring nanostructures in biolog...

  2. Evaluation of a nanotechnology based carrier for delivery of curcumin in prostate cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Thangapazham, Rajesh L.; Puri, Anu; Tele, Shrikant; Blumenthal, Robert; Maheshwari, Radha K.

    2008-01-01

    We have initiated studies to enhance targeted delivery of an anticancer agent, curcumin, for prostate cancer treatment by incorporating this agent into the liposomes (nanodelivery vehicles primarily composed of phospholipids) coated with prostate membrane specific antigen specific antibodies. We prepared curcumin-loaded liposomes of various lipid compositions by sonication at an average size of 100–150 nm. Un-entrapped curcumin was removed by size exclusion chromatography. Data show that curc...

  3. Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems for Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Giovana Maria Fioramonti Calixto; Jéssica Bernegossi; Laura Marise de Freitas; Carla Raquel Fontana; Marlus Chorilli

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising alternative approach for improved cancer treatment. In PDT, a photosensitizer (PS) is administered that can be activated by light of a specific wavelength, which causes selective damage to the tumor and its surrounding vasculature. The success of PDT is limited by the difficulty in administering photosensitizers (PSs) with low water solubility, which compromises the clinical use of several molecules. Incorporation of PSs in nanostructured drug deliver...

  4. Nanotechnology in dentistry: prevention, diagnosis, and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou Neel EA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ensanya Ali Abou Neel,1–3 Laurent Bozec,3 Roman A Perez,4,5 Hae-Won Kim,4–6 Jonathan C Knowles3,5 1Division of Biomaterials, Operative Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Biomaterials Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt; 3UCL Eastman Dental Institute, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, London, UK; 4Institute of Tissue Regenerative Engineering (ITREN, 5Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 Plus NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, 6Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea Abstract: Nanotechnology has rapidly expanded into all areas of science; it offers significant alternative ways to solve scientific and medical questions and problems. In dentistry, nanotechnology has been exploited in the development of restorative materials with some significant success. This review discusses nanointerfaces that could compromise the longevity of dental restorations, and how nanotechnolgy has been employed to modify them for providing long-term successful restorations. It also focuses on some challenging areas in dentistry, eg, oral biofilm and cancers, and how nanotechnology overcomes these challenges. The recent advances in nanodentistry and innovations in oral health-related diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic methods required to maintain and obtain perfect oral health, have been discussed. The recent advances in nanotechnology could hold promise in bringing a paradigm shift in dental field. Although there are numerous complex therapies being developed to treat many diseases, their clinical use requires careful consideration of the expense of synthesis and implementation. Keywords: nanotechnology, nanointerfaces, biofilm-related oral diseases, tissue engineering, drug delivery, toxicity

  5. Implementation of proteomics for cancer research: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Parisa; Shahrokni, Armin; Ranjbar, Mohammad R Nezami

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of the death, accounts for about 13% of all annual deaths worldwide. Many different fields of science are collaborating together studying cancer to improve our knowledge of this lethal disease, and find better solutions for diagnosis and treatment. Proteomics is one of the most recent and rapidly growing areas in molecular biology that helps understanding cancer from an omics data analysis point of view. The human proteome project was officially initiated in 2008. Proteomics enables the scientists to interrogate a variety of biospecimens for their protein contents and measure the concentrations of these proteins. Current necessary equipment and technologies for cancer proteomics are mass spectrometry, protein microarrays, nanotechnology and bioinformatics. In this paper, we provide a brief review on proteomics and its application in cancer research. After a brief introduction including its definition, we summarize the history of major previous work conducted by researchers, followed by an overview on the role of proteomics in cancer studies. We also provide a list of different utilities in cancer proteomics and investigate their advantages and shortcomings from theoretical and practical angles. Finally, we explore some of the main challenges and conclude the paper with future directions in this field. PMID:24761843

  6. Research Advances of Nanotechnology in Ovarian Carcinoma%纳米技术在卵巢癌中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘思思(综述); 周英琼(审校)

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in the female reproductive sys-tem,with concealed early onset,late stage diagnosis and high mortality.Because of the small diameter,uni-form distribution, better tissue compatibility and target localization ability after surface modification , nano material has become one of the hot topics in the research of diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer .Here is to make a review of the most recent advances of the characteristics of different nano carriers and nanotechnol-ogy in ovarian cancer cell specific capture,ultrasound,computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis,chemotherapy,radiotherapy and gene therapy.%卵巢癌是女性生殖系统最常见的恶性肿瘤之一,早期起病隐匿,确诊多为中期晚,致死率高。纳米材料因其直径小、分布均匀,经表面修饰后的纳米粒子具有较好的组织相容性以及靶向定位能力,日益成为卵巢癌诊断和治疗的研究热点之一。该文综述了纳米药物不同载体的特性、纳米技术在卵巢癌肿瘤细胞特异捕获及超声、计算机断层扫描、磁共振成像等在化疗、放疗和基因治疗中的最新研究进展。

  7. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  8. INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH «DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN MARKET OF NANOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS IN CONSTRUCTION UNTIL 2020». PART 2. ANALYSIS OF THE WORLD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSEV Boris Vladimirovich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Some results of the industrial research «Development of Russian market of nanotechnological products in construction until 2020» have been published. Authors invite all interested specialists and specialized organization to take part in the broad public discussion.

  9. Nanotechnology, nanotoxicology, and neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Won Hyuk; Suslick, Kenneth S.; Stucky, Galen D.; Suh, Yoo-hun

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology, which deals with features as small as a 1 billionth of a meter, began to enter into mainstream physical sciences and engineering some 20 years ago. Recent applications of nanoscience include the use of nanoscale materials in electronics, catalysis, and biomedical research. Among these applications, strong interest has been shown to biological processes such as blood coagulation control and multimodal bioimaging, which has brought about a new and exciting research field called ...

  10. Evaluation of a nanotechnology-based carrier for delivery of curcumin in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangapazham, Rajesh L; Puri, Anu; Tele, Shrikant; Blumenthal, Robert; Maheshwari, Radha K

    2008-05-01

    We have initiated studies to enhance targeted delivery of an anticancer agent, curcumin, for prostate cancer treatment by incorporating this agent into the liposomes (nanodelivery vehicles primarily composed of phospholipids) coated with prostate membrane specific antigen specific antibodies. We prepared curcumin-loaded liposomes of various lipid compositions by sonication at an average size of 100-150 nm. Un-entrapped curcumin was removed by size exclusion chromatography. Data show that curcumin preferentially partitioned into liposomes prepared from dimyristoyl phosphatidyl choline (DMPC) and cholesterol among the various compositions tested. The anti-proliferative activity of liposomal curcumin was studied using two human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP and C4-2B) by a tetrazolium dye-based (MTT) assay. Treatment of cells with liposomal curcumin (5-10 microM) for 24-48 h at 37 degrees C resulted in at least 70-80% inhibition of cellular proliferation without affecting their viability. On the other hand, free curcumin exhibited similar inhibition only at 10-fold higher doses (>50 microM). We also observed that LNCaP cells were relatively more sensitive to liposomal curcumin mediated block of cellular proliferation than C4-2B cells. We are currently developing liposome formulations with targeting ability to further improve the efficacy of curcumin in vivo.

  11. Overcoming drug efflux-based multidrug resistance in cancer with nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Xue; Xing-Jie Liang

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR),which significantly decreases the efficacy of anticancer drugs and causes tumor recurrence,has been a major challenge in clinical cancer treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs for decades.Several mechanisms of overcoming drug resistance have been postulated.Well known Pglycoprotein (P-gp) and other drug efflux transporters are considered to be critical in pumping anticancer drugs out of cells and causing chemotherapy failure.Innovative theranostic (therapeutic and diagnostic)strategies with nanoparticles are rapidly evolving and are anticipated to offer opportunities to overcome these limits.In this review,we discuss the mechanisms of drug efflux-mediated resistance and the application of multiple nanoparticle-based platforms to overcome chemoresistance and improve therapeutic outcome.

  12. How nanotechnology works in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshpreet Kaur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology. Current problems for nanomedicine involve understanding the issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials. Nanomedicine seeks to deliver a valuable set of research tools and clinically useful devices in the near future. The National Nanotechnology Initiative expects new commercial applications in the pharmaceutical industry that may include advanced drug delivery systems, new therapies, and in vivo imaging. At present international hospitals are working on projects to develop new medical devices with the help of nanotechnology to better serve the world. Neuro-electronic interfaces and other nanoelectronics-based sensors are another active goal of research. Nanosensors are used mainly include various medicinal purposes and as gateways to building other nanoproducts, such as computer chips that work at the nanoscale and nanorobots

  13. Nanotechnology for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Elena [Molecular Nanotechnology Laboratory, University of Alicante, Carretera Alicante-San Vicente s/n, E-03690 Alicante (Spain); Rus, Guillermo; Garcia-Martinez, Javier [Dpt. Structural Mechanics, University of Granada, Politecnico de Fuentenueva, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    Nanotechnology is generating a lot of attention these days and therefore building great expectations not only in the academic community but also among investors, the governments, and industry. Its unique capability to fabricate new structures at atomic scale has already produced novel materials and devices with great potential applications in a wide number of fields. Among them, significant breakthroughs are especially required in the energy sector that will allow us to maintain our increasing appetite for energy, which increases both with the number of people that join the developed economies and with our demand per capita. This needs to be done in a way that includes the environment in the wealth production equation as we gather more evidences of the human impact on the climate, biodiversity and quality of the air, water and soil. This review article does not cover in detail all the specific contributions from nanotechnology to the various sustainable energies, but in a broader way, it collects the most recent advances of nanotechnology to sustainable energy production, storage and use. For this review paper, solar, hydrogen and new generation batteries and supercapacitors are described as the most significant examples of the contributions of nanotechnology in the energy sector. The aim of this review article is to present some significant contributions from many research groups who are mainly unconnected and are working from different viewpoints, to find solutions to one of the great challenges of our time, i.e., the production and use of energy, without compromising our environment, from one of the most exciting and multidisciplinary fields, nanotechnology. (author)

  14. Path-Breaking Directions of Nanotechnology-Based Chemotherapy and Molecular Cancer Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coccia, M.; Wang, L.

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental question in the field of technological forecasting and foresight is how to detect likely fruitful technological trajectories in new research fields, such as nanomedicine. We confront this question by developing an approach based on trends and networks of vital variables, analyzed by bi

  15. 纳米技术在循环肿瘤细胞中的研究进展%Research progress of nanotechnology in circulating tumor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高洋; 袁周

    2015-01-01

    循环肿瘤细胞(CTC)对于监测肿瘤复发及判断预后具有重要意义.纳米技术为检测CTC提供了良好的平台,使CTC的应用具有广阔的发展前景.同时,利用纳米技术设计杀灭CTC的纳米装置在清除CTC方面有广阔的应用前景,为肿瘤治疗提供了新的研究方向.%Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play pivotal roles for monitoring the tumor metastasis and prognosis.The nanotechnology provides a favourable platform for CTCs detection,and enables CTCs to be more promising for practical application.Meanwhile,the nanoscale device by virtue of nanotechnology has broad application prospects in eliminating CTCs and offers a new direction in the field of anti-cancer.

  16. Researchers Identify Early Sign of Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pancreatic cancer Researchers identify early sign of pancreatic cancer September 28, 2014 Tags: PancreaticCancer Brian Wolpin, MD ... discovered a sign of the early development of pancreatic cancer – an upsurge in certain amino acids that occurs ...

  17. Nanomedicine, Nanotechnology in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Boisseau, Patrick; Loubaton, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    Nanomedicine is a relatively new field of science and technology. It looks sometimes ill defined and interpretations of that term may vary, especially between Europe and the United States. By interacting with biological molecules, therefore at nanoscale, nanotechnology opens up a vast field of research and application. Interactions between artificial molecular assemblies or nanodevices and biomolecules can be understood both in the extracellular medium and inside the human cells. Operating at...

  18. Mouse models for cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Lynette Moore; Ping Ji

    2011-01-01

    Mouse models of cancer enable researchers to leamn about tumor biology in complicated and dynamic physiological systems. Since the development of gene targeting in mice, cancer biologists have been among the most frequent users of transgenic mouse models, which have dramatically increased knowledge about how cancers form and grow. The Chinese Joumnal of Cancer will publish a series of papers reporting the use of mouse models in studying genetic events in cancer cases. This editorial is an overview of the development and applications of mouse models of cancer and directs the reader to upcoming papers describing the use of these models to be published in coming issues, beginning with three articles in the current issue.

  19. The effect of nanotechnology on education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyavejakul, Chantana

    2008-04-01

    The research objective was to study 1) the situation and readiness of the Thai education for the integration of nanotechnology and 2) to propose the plans, the strategies and guidelines for educational reform to adapt nanotechnology to the system. The data collection was done by 4 methods: 1) documentary study, 2) observation, 3) informal interviews, and 4) group discussion. The findings revealed that: 1. William Wresch's Theory (1997) was used in this research to study of the situation and readiness of the Thai education for the integration of nanotechnology. 1) Getting connected to nanotechnology by search engine websites, libraries, magazines, books, and discussions with experts. 2) Curriculum integration: nanotechnology should be integrated in many branches of engineering, such as industrial, computer, civil, chemical, electrical, mechanical, etc. 3) Resources for educators: nanotechnology knowledge should be spread in academic circles by publications and the Internet websites. 4) Training and professional resources for teachers: Teachers should be trained by experts in nanotechnology and researchers from the National Nanotechnology Center. This will help trainees get correct knowledge, comprehension, and awareness in order to apply to their professions and businesses in the future. 2. As for the plans, the strategies, and guidelines for educational reform to adapt nanotechnology to the present system, I analyzed the world nanotechnology situation that might have an effect on Thai society. The study is based on the National Plan to Develop Nanotechnology. The goal of this plan is to develop nanotechnology to be the national strategy within 10 years (2004-2013) and have it integrated into the Thai system. There are 4 parts in this plan: 1) nanomaterials, 2) nanoelectronics, 3) nanobiotechnology, and 4) human resources development. Data for human resource development should be worked with the present technology and use the country's resources to produce many

  20. NANOTECHNOLOGY: A BOON OR BANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology deals with the physical and chemical attributes of molecular scale structures, and they can be combined to form larger structures for human use. Because of this dimensional range, nanoparticles and structure get some unusual and novel properties. Nanotechnology deals with the study and analysis of these properties also. Indeed it is an emerging area of applied science and technology whose theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale generally 100nm or smaller. The impact of nanotechnology is expanding and nothing will remain untouched. Applications are enormous and limitless. Nanotechnology enables doing things better than in the conventional technology viz.•Economic development•Improving food security•Health Diagnosis, Monitoring and Scanning•Safe Drinking Water•Environmental pollution•Agriculture•Energy Storage, Production and ConservationAs a coin has two sides, nanotechnology also has a flip side. No doubt, nanotechnology will be incorporated into every facet of our lives, making things easier, faster and longer lasting. Potential dangers of technology that are being discussed in various forms includes•Possible increased inflammatory response in the body due to small size•Potential terrorist use•Social disruption from new products/ lifestyles•Risks of a “Grey Goo” (hypothetical end of the worldNow there is a critical need to fund researchers and engineers across disciplines and institutional boundaries in order to advance in the arena of nanotechnologies. There must be innovative partnerships that integrate research and education, accelerate applications and fully explore the implications of nanotechnology on our health, wealth and lives.

  1. 纳米药物载体抗肿瘤多药耐药机制的研究进展%Research Progress of the Mechanisms of Nanotechnology in the Treatment of Multidrug Resistant Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金香; 李耀华

    2015-01-01

    肿瘤细胞对化疗药物产生多药耐药(multidrug resistance,MDR)是临床化疗失败的一个重要原因,而纳米技术的发展为肿瘤药物的靶向输送提供了新的研究机遇。纳米载体可以通过避免和降低MDR肿瘤细胞的药物外排泵,靶向肿瘤干细胞(cancer stem cells,CSC)克服其复发性,阻断肿瘤细胞的互调及其作用的微环境,以及改变免疫反应等增强细胞对化疗药物的敏感性。本文综述了肿瘤多药耐药的机制,纳米药物载体抗肿瘤多药耐药的机制研究的新进展。%Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a main reason for the failure of tumor chemotherapy, the development of nanotechnology sheds light on targeted delivery of antitumor drugs. Nanocarriers can not only enhance the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemothera-peutic drugs but also downregulate the invasion and metastasis of tumor. The mechanisms of nanocarriers' anti-tumor effect involve in targeting cancer stem cells to overcome MDR and prevent recurrence, preventing the cross talk between cancer cells and their micro-environment, and modifying the immune response to improve the treatment of MDR cancers. In this review, new research progresses of the mechanisms of multidrug resistance and anti-tumor effects of nanotechnology are reviewed.

  2. Patent Landscape for Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey Streletskiy; Vladimir Zabavnikov; Emil Aslanov; Dmitriy Kotlov

    2015-01-01

    A methodological approach to patent landscaping for nanotechnology is considered in this paper. In the opinion of the authors, nanotechnologies have precedence over other technology trends that are confirmed by evaluation of the present and future market size of nanotechnology productions. An analysis of patent activity in Russia and the world is performed using patent landscape for nanotechnology as well as for metallurgy in the field of nanotechnology. A new metho...

  3. Nanotechnology: The Next Challenge for Organics

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John; Lyons, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the fast growing science of the ultra small; it is creating engineered particles in the size range 1 to 100 nanometres. At this size, materials exhibit novel behaviours. Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding multibillion dollar industry, with research being heavily promoted by governments, and especially the US. Nanoscale materials are already incorporated into more than 580 consumer products, including food, packaging, cosmetics, clothing and paint. Nanotechnology has been ...

  4. Computational Nanotechnology Molecular Electronics, Materials and Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation covers research being performed on computational nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes at the NASA Ames Research Center. Topics cover include: nanomechanics of nanomaterials, nanotubes and composite materials, molecular electronics with nanotube junctions, kinky chemistry, and nanotechnology for solid-state quantum computers using fullerenes.

  5. Application of Nanotechnology in Therapy of Prostate Cancer%纳米技术在前列腺癌诊疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄星华; 谭国斌; 李冠奕; 吴上超; 周建华

    2016-01-01

    The application of nanotechnology in medicine is offering many exciting possibilities in healthcare, partic-ularly by targeted delivery of anticancer drugs and imaging contrast agents. Prostate cancer is the cause of the most com-mon malignant tumours and is the second leading cause of cancer death among American and European men. The inci-dence of prostate cancer increases in our country,because of the change of diet structure and life style.The nanoparticles could overcome the lack of specificity of conventional chemotherapeutic agents and the low of sensitivity of the early detection of precancerous. In this paper, the Application of nanotechnology in therapy of prostate cancer will be reviewed.%纳米技术在医学上的应用具有较好的发展前景,特别是在抗肿瘤药物的靶向给药和影像增强剂方面。前列腺癌是欧美男性最常见的恶性肿瘤,位于男性肿瘤死亡率的第二位。随着人口寿命延长、饮食结构和生活方式改变,我国前列腺癌发病率不断升高。纳米技术的发展有利于克服传统化疗药物特异性低和癌前病变早期检测低灵敏度等难题。本文主要对纳米技术在前列腺癌治疗中的应用进行综述。

  6. 78 FR 27974 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: National Cancer Institute (NCI) Alliance for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... projects to be submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval. Written... for Strategic Scientific Initiatives, Office of Cancer Nanotechnology Research, National Cancer... Nanotechnology Research (OCNR), part of the Center for Strategic Scientific Initiatives within NCI. OMB...

  7. Green nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoff B.

    2011-10-01

    Nanotechnology, in particular nanophotonics, is proving essential to achieving green outcomes of sustainability and renewable energy at the scales needed. Coatings, composites and polymeric structures used in windows, roof and wall coatings, energy storage, insulation and other components in energy efficient buildings will increasingly involve nanostructure, as will solar cells. Nanostructures have the potential to revolutionize thermoelectric power and may one day provide efficient refrigerant free cooling. Nanomaterials enable optimization of optical, opto-electrical and thermal responses to this urgent task. Optical harmonization of material responses to environmental energy flows involves (i) large changes in spectral response over limited wavelength bands (ii) tailoring to environmental dynamics. The latter includes engineering angle of incidence dependencies and switchable (or chromogenic) responses. Nanomaterials can be made at sufficient scale and low enough cost to be both economic and to have a high impact on a short time scale. Issues to be addressed include human safety and property changes induced during manufacture, handling and outdoor use. Unexpected bonuses have arisen in this work, for example the savings and environmental benefits of cool roofs extend beyond the more obvious benefit of reduced heat flows from the roof into the building.

  8. NDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH «DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN MARKET OF NANOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS IN CONSTRUCTION UNTIL 2020». PART 1. A STATEMENT OF THE TASK AND AN APPROACH TO REALIZE THE PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    GUSEV Boris Vladimirovich; FALIKMAN Vyacheslav Ruvimovich; Steffen LEISTNER; Benny YOSHPA; PETUSHKOV Alexander Vladimirovich

    2013-01-01

    Some results of the industrial research «Development of Russian market of nanotechnological products in construction until 2020» have been published. Authors invite all interested specialists and specialized organization to take part in the broad public discussion.

  9. Results of research in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements in construction the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. Within the investigation «Obtaining and research of physical and chemical properties of nanosized system nickel–copper» experimentally proved model of synthesis of nanosized powders of system nickel–copper based on the method of reduction of metal salts from water solution has been offered; optimal conditions for obtaining radiographic pure powders have been determined. The paper also deals with conditions for obtaining and phase composition of mixed nickel and copper hydroxides including those which are stable when stored in wet conditions. The copper hydroxide stabilization method has been proposed. The practical value of performed investigation «Research of electron structure functionalized carbon nanotubes by spectographic methods with synchronous radiation» is that it developed one of the areas of physical chemistry: complex research of electron structure of carbon nanotubes including functionalized ones was carried out by the method of experimental (spectographic with synchrotron radiation of different energies and theoretical methods; the general methods of the modern applied plasmonics aimed at identification of characteristics of defects formation in carbon nanosystems of low dimension have been developed.

  10. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative 'Nanotechnologie erobert Maerkte' (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society

  11. Results of research in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements in construction the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. Within the frame of the research «Nanocomposite cabel elastrons based on polyvinylchloride and aluminum silicate» new nanocomposite materials based on polyvinylchloride elastron with organomodified montmorillonite and combinations of it with non-halogen fire flame retardant have been developed. The experiment shows that carbamide-containing organoclay is the efficient filler of polyvinylchloride elastron. The receipts and production method for new polymer nanocomposites based on PVC elastron and organomodified montmorillonite have been designed. The paper provides information on the methods to obtain nanodimensional natural fillers; principles for choosing organomodifiers and their influence on the quality of nanodimensional flaked silicate fillers; application efficiency of organoclays when modifying properties of polymer materials. All that makes the results of the research to be very useful for specialists engaged into the area of filler manufacture, creation and processing of polymer composite material and designing products of them. Specialists can use published materials in their scientific and practical activities.

  12. Results of research in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements in construction the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. These are main results of the research «Polymer construction nanocomposites based on polyvinylchloride»: technological recommendations on the use of multilayer carbon nanotubes, silicagel functionalized with the sulfur and silica sol in receipts of shape-moulded PVC-products for construction industry which allow increasing strength by 12–25%, thermal stability by 35–50% and decreasing melt viscosity (the factor increases 2–5 times; receipts and technology for production of high-filled construction composites based on PVC functionalized with silica sol and wood flour with population up to 68 mass.% when molding index is increased 12 times and thermal stability is increased by 60%. The specialists may be interested in the results of the following research: – I.S. Maeva «Modification of anhydride compositions with ultra- and nanodispersed additives»; – E.G. Chebotareva «Nanomodified composites of construction purpose with the use of epoxy resin»; – A.A. Volodchenko «Non-autoclave silicate materials with the use of natural nanodispersed raw materials»; – O.V. Popkova «Production and properties of metal-containing nanoparticles (Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Ce, Cd, Pd, Ag, Mo, stabilized by nanodiamond of denotational synthesis and high pressure polyethylene»; – M.A. Fronya «Complex study of mechanical properties and structure of polymer composite materials with carbon modification fillers: nanotubes and ultradispersed diamonds»; – M.S. Babaeva «Production and study of nanoparticles of polymer-colloid complexes based on polymers of N,N-diallyl-N,N-chloride dimethylammonium and natrium dodecylsulfate». Published materials can be used by the specialists in their scientific and practical activities in construction, housing and communal services as well as in the joint economical

  13. Nanomedicine, nanotechnology in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisseau, Patrick; Loubaton, Bertrand

    2011-09-01

    Nanomedicine is a relatively new field of science and technology. It looks sometimes ill defined and interpretations of that term may vary, especially between Europe and the United States. By interacting with biological molecules, therefore at nanoscale, nanotechnology opens up a vast field of research and application. Interactions between artificial molecular assemblies or nanodevices and biomolecules can be understood both in the extracellular medium and inside the human cells. Operating at nanoscale allows to exploit physical properties different from those observed at microscale such as the volume/surface ratio. The investigated diagnostic applications can be considered for in vitro as well as for in vivo diagnosis. In vitro, the synthesised particles and manipulation or detection devices allow for the recognition, capture, and concentration of biomolecules. In vivo, the synthetic molecular assemblies are mainly designed as a contrast agent for imaging. A second area exhibiting a strong development is "nanodrugs" where nanoparticles are designed for targeted drug delivery. The use of such carriers improves the drug biodistribution, targeting active molecules to diseased tissues while protecting healthy tissue. A third area of application is regenerative medicine where nanotechnology allows developing biocompatible materials which support growth of cells used in cell therapy. The application of nanotechnology to medicine raises new issues because of new uses they allow, for instance: Is the power of these new diagnostics manageable by the medical profession? What means treating a patient without any clinical signs? Nanomedicine can contribute to the development of a personalised medicine both for diagnosis and therapy. There exists in many countries existing regulatory frameworks addressing the basic rules of safety and effectiveness of nanotechnology based medicine, whether molecular assemblies or medical devices. However, there is a need to clarify or to

  14. PREFACE: Rusnanotech 2010 International Forum on Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazaryan, Konstantin

    2011-03-01

    Deputy Director, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, RussiaProf Vladimir Kvardakov, Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of SciencesExecutive Director, Kurchatov Center of Synchrotron Radiation and Nanotechnology, RussiaProf Edward Son, Corresponding member of Russian Academy of SciencesScientific Deputy Director, Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, RussiaProf Andrey GudkovSenior Vice President, Basic Science Chairman, Department of Cell Stress Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, USAProf Robert NemanichChair, Department of Physics, Arizona State University, USAProf Kandlikar SatishProfessor, Rochester Institute of Technology, USAProf Xiang ZhangUC Berkeley, Director of NSF Nano-scale Science and Engineering Center (NSEC), USAProf Andrei ZvyaginProfessor, Macquarie University, AustraliaProf Sergey KalyuzhnyDirector of the Scientific and Technological Expertise Department, RUSNANO, RussiaKonstantin Kazaryan, PhDExpert of the Scientific and Technological Expertise Department, RUSNANO, Russia, Program Committee SecretarySimeon ZhavoronkovHead of Nanotechnology Programs Development Office, Rusnanotech Forum Fund for the Nanotechnology Development, Russia Editors of the proceedings: Section "Nanoelectronics" - Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Anatoly Dvurechenskii (Institute of Semiconductor Physics, RAS).Section "Nanophotonics" - Professor Vasily Klimov (Institute of Physics, RAS).Section "Nanodiagnostics" - Professor P Kashkarov (Russian Scientific Center, Kurchatov Institute).Section "Nanotechnology for power engineering" - Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Eduard Son (Joint Institute for High Temperatures, RAS).Section "Catalysis and chemical industry" - Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Valentin Parmon (Institute of Catalysis SB RAS).Section "Nanomaterials" - E Obraztsova, PhD (Institute of Physics, RAS), Marat Gallamov Ph

  15. Results of research in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements in construction the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The result of research «Cement composites with additives of multi-layer carbon nanotubes (MLCN» is a new production technology and optimal compositions for complex nanomodified additives (CNMA. Introduction of such additives in the quantity of 12 mass.% of cement mass provides within 8–12 hours early stripping strength more than 15–40 Mpa, water impermeability more than W20 and frost resistance F60–F700. The technology provides double increase of work performance and metalriging turnover. The difference between the new production technology and the traditional one is that the line of production of chemical additives contains a new unit designed for manufacture of CNMA based on MLCN. The unit consists of precision feeder (the size of dose is 5 g., ultrasound dispersant with power 4 kW and frequency of operation 22 kHz and turbulent mixer with power 7,5 kW. The developed technology provides precise dose and even distribution of CNMA in mixture. The author developed technical conditions № 5745-111-02069622-2013 for manufacture of CNMA based on MLCN of different refinement purity and dispersiveness for high strength reinforced-concrete blocks used as finishing materials in subway tunnels. The specialists may be also interested in results of the research «Nanostructured perlite binder and foam concrete based on it» by Miroshnikov E.V., «Constructional steel fiber concretes modified with complex carbon micro- and nanosize additives» by Alatorceva U.V., «Physical and chemical study of nanocomposite template-assembled materials produced with the controlled sol-gel synthesis» by Krekoten' A.V., «Production and study of nanoparticles of polymer-colloid complexes based on polymers of chloride N,N-diallyl-N,N-dimethylammonio and dodecylsulfate sodium» by Babaeva M.S.,

  16. Nanotechnology Education: Contemporary Content and Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field of research and development identified as a major priority in the United States. Progress in science and engineering at the nanoscale is critical for national security, prosperity of the economy, and enhancement of the quality of life. It is anticipated that nanotechnology will be a major transitional…

  17. Responsible nanotechnology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forloni, Gianluigi, E-mail: forloni@marionegri.it [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche ' Mario Negri' , Department of Neuroscience (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    Nanotechnologies have an increasing relevance in our life, numerous products already on the market are associated with this new technology. Although the chemical constituents of nanomaterials are often well known, the properties at the nano level are completely different from the bulk materials. Independently from the specific application the knowledge in this field involves different type of scientific competence. The accountability of the nanomaterial research imply the parallel development of innovative methodological approaches to assess and manage the risks associated to the exposure for humans and environmental to the nanomaterials for their entire life-cycle: production, application, use and waste discharge. The vast numbers of applications and the enormous amount of variables influencing the characteristics of the nanomaterials make particularly difficult the elaboration of appropriate nanotoxicological protocols. According to the official declarations exist an awareness of the public institutions in charge of the regulatory system, about the environmental, health and safety implications of nanotechnology, but the scientific information is insufficient to support appropriate mandatory rules. Public research programmers must play an important role in providing greater incentives and encouragement for nanotechnologies that support sustainable development to avoid endangering humanity's well being in the long-term. The existing imbalance in funds allocated to nanotech research needs to be corrected so that impact assessment and minimization and not only application come high in the agenda. Research funding should consider as a priority the elimination of knowledge gaps instead of promoting technological application only. With the creation of a public register collecting nanomaterials and new applications it is possible, starting from the information available, initiate a sustainable route, allowing the gradual development of a rational and informed

  18. Responsible nanotechnology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnologies have an increasing relevance in our life, numerous products already on the market are associated with this new technology. Although the chemical constituents of nanomaterials are often well known, the properties at the nano level are completely different from the bulk materials. Independently from the specific application the knowledge in this field involves different type of scientific competence. The accountability of the nanomaterial research imply the parallel development of innovative methodological approaches to assess and manage the risks associated to the exposure for humans and environmental to the nanomaterials for their entire life-cycle: production, application, use and waste discharge. The vast numbers of applications and the enormous amount of variables influencing the characteristics of the nanomaterials make particularly difficult the elaboration of appropriate nanotoxicological protocols. According to the official declarations exist an awareness of the public institutions in charge of the regulatory system, about the environmental, health and safety implications of nanotechnology, but the scientific information is insufficient to support appropriate mandatory rules. Public research programmers must play an important role in providing greater incentives and encouragement for nanotechnologies that support sustainable development to avoid endangering humanity’s well being in the long-term. The existing imbalance in funds allocated to nanotech research needs to be corrected so that impact assessment and minimization and not only application come high in the agenda. Research funding should consider as a priority the elimination of knowledge gaps instead of promoting technological application only. With the creation of a public register collecting nanomaterials and new applications it is possible, starting from the information available, initiate a sustainable route, allowing the gradual development of a rational and informed approach

  19. Bioengineered riboflavin in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beztsinna, N; Solé, M; Taib, N; Bestel, I

    2016-02-01

    Riboflavin (RF) is an essential water-soluble vitamin with unique biological and physicochemical properties such as transporterspecific cell internalization, implication in redox reactions, fluorescence and photosensitizing. Due to these features RF attracted researchers in various fields from targeted drug delivery and tissue engineering to optoelectronics and biosensors. In this review we will give a brief reminder of RF chemistry, its optical, photosensitizing properties, RF transporter systems and its role in pathologies. We will point a special attention on the recent findings concerning RF applications in nanotechnologies such as RF functionalized nanoparticles, polymers, biomolecules, carbon nanotubes, hydrogels and implants for tissue engineering.

  20. Nanotechnology and human health

    CERN Document Server

    Malsch, Ineke

    2013-01-01

    Addressing medium- and long-term expectations for human health, this book reviews current scientific and technical developments in nanotechnology for biomedical, agrofood, and environmental applications. This collection of perspectives on the ethical, legal, and societal implications of bionanotechnology provides unique insight into contemporary technological developments. Readers with a technical background will benefit from the overview of the state-of-the-art research in their field, while readers with a social science background will benefit from the discussion of realistic prospects of na

  1. Biomedical engineering and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is predominantly a compilation of papers presented in the conference which is focused on the development in biomedical materials, biomedical devises and instrumentation, biomedical effects of electromagnetic radiation, electrotherapy, radiotherapy, biosensors, biotechnology, bioengineering, tissue engineering, clinical engineering and surgical planning, medical imaging, hospital system management, biomedical education, biomedical industry and society, bioinformatics, structured nanomaterial for biomedical application, nano-composites, nano-medicine, synthesis of nanomaterial, nano science and technology development. The papers presented herein contain the scientific substance to suffice the academic directivity of the researchers from the field of biomedicine, biomedical engineering, material science and nanotechnology. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  2. Bioengineered riboflavin in nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beztsinna, N; Solé, M; Taib, N; Bestel, I

    2016-02-01

    Riboflavin (RF) is an essential water-soluble vitamin with unique biological and physicochemical properties such as transporterspecific cell internalization, implication in redox reactions, fluorescence and photosensitizing. Due to these features RF attracted researchers in various fields from targeted drug delivery and tissue engineering to optoelectronics and biosensors. In this review we will give a brief reminder of RF chemistry, its optical, photosensitizing properties, RF transporter systems and its role in pathologies. We will point a special attention on the recent findings concerning RF applications in nanotechnologies such as RF functionalized nanoparticles, polymers, biomolecules, carbon nanotubes, hydrogels and implants for tissue engineering. PMID:26708089

  3. Nanotechnology in paper electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Österbacka, Professor Ronald; Han, Jin-Woo, Dr

    2014-03-01

    devices. If 'writing is thinking on paper' [15], it seems researchers are finding yet more powerful means of putting their ideas on paper. References [1] Barquinha P, Martins R, Pereira L and Fortunato E 2012 Transparent Oxide Electronics: From Materials to Devices (Chichester: Wiley) [2] Zocco A T, You H, Hagen J A and Steckl A J 2014 Pentacene organic thin film transistors on flexible paper and glass substrates Nanotechnology 25 094005 [3] Pereira L, Gaspar D, Guerin D, Delattre A, Fortunato E and Martins R 2014 The influence of fibril composition and dimension on the performance of paper gated oxide transistors Nanotechnology 25 094007 [4] Wu G, Wan C, Zhou J, Zhu L and Wan Q 2014 Low-voltage protonic/electronic hybrid indium-zinc-oxide synaptic transistors on paper substrates Nanotechnology 25 094001 [5] Shin H, Yoon B, Park I S and Kim J-M 2014 An electrothermochromic paper display based on colorimetrically reversible polydiacetylenes Nanotechnology 25 094011 [6] Ihalainen P, Pettersson F, Pesonen M, Viitala T, Määttänen A, Österbacka R and Peltonen J 2014 An impedimetric study of DNA hybridization on paper supported inkjet-printed gold electrodes Nanotechnology 25 094009 [7] Wang Y, Shi Y, Zhao C X, Wong J I, Sun X W and Yang H Y 2014 Printed all-solid flexible microsupercapacitors: towards the general route for high energy storage device Nanotechnology 25 094010 [8] Andersson H A, Manuilskiy A, Haller S, Hummelgård M, Sidén J, Hummelgård C, Olin H and Nilsson H-E 2014 Assembling surface mounted components on ink-jet printed double sided paper circuit board Nanotechnology 25 094002 [9] Gaspar D, Fernandes S N, de Oliveira A G, Fernandes J G, Grey P, Pontes R V, Pereira L, Martins R, Godinho M H and Fortunato E 2014 Nanocrystalline cellulose applied simultaneously as gate dielectric and substrate on flexible field effect transistors Nanotechnology 25 094008 [10] Männl U, van den Berg C, Magunje B, Härting M, Britton D T, Jones S, Mvan Staden M J and Scriba M

  4. Center for Herbal Research on Colorectal Cancer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research Area: Herbs Program:Centers of Excellence for Research on CAM Description:Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of...

  5. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Among the many cancer research laboratories operated by NCI, the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research(FNLCR) is unique in that it is a Federally Funded...

  6. Gene-Environment Research and Cancer Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program supports extramural research that investigates both genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the etiology of cancer and/or impact cancer outcomes.

  7. Nanotechnology and Public Interest Dialogue: Some International Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Diana M.; Hodge, Graeme A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines nanotechnology within the context of the public interest. It notes that though nanotechnology research and development investment totalled US$9.6 billion in 2005, the public presently understands neither the implications nor how it might be best governed. The article maps a range of nanotechnology dialogue activities under…

  8. Using a Deliberative Exercise to Foster Public Engagement in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Angela R.; Anderson, Ashley A.; Yeo, Sara K.; Greenberg, Andrew E.; Brossard, Dominique; Moore, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging technology poised to benefit society both technically and socially, but as with any new advance, there is potential risk. This paper describes a novel deliberative exercise involving nanotechnology that engages the public in debate regarding the funding of nanotechnology-related research while also discussing…

  9. Effect of Nanotechnology Instructions on Senior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chow-Chin; Sung, Chia-Chi

    2011-01-01

    In this research, we cooperate with senior high school teachers to understand current nanotechnology model of senior high school nanotechnology curriculum in Taiwan. Then design senior high school nanotechnology (nano-tech) curriculum to teach 503 senior high school students. After teaching the nano-tech curriculum we use the "Nanotechnology…

  10. Nanotechnology in medicine and relevance to dermatology: Present concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Basavaraj, K. H.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology and nanomedicine are complementary disciplines aimed at the betterment of human life. Nanotechnology is an emerging branch of science for designing tools and devices of size 1–100 nm, with unique functions at the cellular, atomic and molecular levels. The concept of using nanotechnology in medical research and clinical practice is known as nanomedicine. Today, nanotechnology and nanoscience approaches to particle design and formulations are beginning to expand the market for ma...

  11. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN OUR CENTURY AND ITS EFFECTS ON BUILDING MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    PERKER, Z. Sevgen

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the study and control of matter at dimensions nanometers. Nanotechnology is also design, fabrication and application of nanostructures and nanomaterials. The research on nanotechnology is evolving and expanding very rapidly every discipline of science. One of them is material science. Nanoscale science and technology gives us unique opportunities to develop revolutionary building materials. This study focuses primarily on nanotechnology and its effects on building materials.

  12. Nanotechnology policy in Korea for sustainable growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korea has become one of the leading countries in nanotechnology along with the U.S., Japan, and Germany. Since 2001, the Korean Government established the “Nanotechnology Development Plan.” Since then, the trend in nanotechnology is steadily changing from fundamental research to application-driven technologies. In this paper, we examine the nanotechnology development and policy during the past decade, which includes the investments in R and D, infrastructure, and education. The Third Phase (2011–2020) on clean nanotechnology convergence and integration in information, energy, and the environmental sector is also given. Furthermore, the program on long-term strategy dealing with sustainability in resolving future societal demand and plans for sustainable energy and environmental activities will be discussed in depth. The outcomes and national evaluations of research and education are also given.

  13. Phosphoproteomics and Lung Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. S. Cho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Massive evidence suggests that genetic abnormalities contribute to the development of lung cancer. These molecular abnormalities may serve as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers for this deadly disease. It is imperative to search these biomarkers in different tumorigenesis pathways so as to provide the most appropriate therapy for each individual patient with lung malignancy. Phosphoproteomics is a promising technology for the identification of biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets for cancer. Thousands of proteins interact via physical and chemical association. Moreover, some proteins can covalently modify other proteins post-translationally. These post-translational modifications ultimately give rise to the emergent functions of cells in sequence, space and time. Phosphoproteomics clinical researches imply the comprehensive analysis of the proteins that are expressed in cells or tissues and can be employed at different stages. In addition, understanding the functions of phosphorylated proteins requires the study of proteomes as linked systems rather than collections of individual protein molecules. In fact, proteomics approaches coupled with affinity chromatography strategies followed by mass spectrometry have been used to elucidate relevant biological questions. This article will discuss the relevant clues of post-translational modifications, phosphorylated proteins, and useful proteomics approaches to identify molecular cancer signatures. The recent progress in phosphoproteomics research in lung cancer will be also discussed.

  14. Nanotechnology in medicine emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koprowski, Gene

    2012-01-01

    This book will describe some of the most recent breakthroughs and promising developments in the search for improved diagnostics and therapies at the very small scales of living biological systems. While still very much a technology in the research and development stage, nanotechnology is already transforming today's medicine. This book, written by a general science author, provides a general overview of medical treatment potentials of nanotechnology in new, more effective drug delivery systems, in less invasive, ultra-small scale medical tools, and in new materials that can mimic or enhance na

  15. DNA nanotechnology and fluorescence applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichthaerle, Thomas; Strauss, Maximilian T; Schueder, Florian; Woehrstein, Johannes B; Jungmann, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Structural DNA nanotechnology allow researchers to use the unique molecular recognition properties of DNA strands to construct nanoscale objects with almost arbitrary complexity in two and three dimensions. Abstracted as molecular breadboards, DNA nanostructures enable nanometer-precise placement of guest molecules such as proteins, fluorophores, or nanoparticles. These assemblies can be used to study biological phenomena with unprecedented control over number, spacing, and molecular identity. Here, we give a general introduction to structural DNA nanotechnology and more specifically discuss applications of DNA nanostructures in the field of fluorescence and plasmonics. PMID:26773303

  16. Can nanotechnology potentiate photodynamic therapy?

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Dai, Tianhong; Chung, Hoon; Yaroslavsky, Anastasia; Garcia-Diaz, Maria; Chang, Julie; Long Y. Chiang; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses the combination of non-toxic dyes and harmless visible light to produce reactive oxygen species that can kill cancer cells and infectious microorganisms. Due to the tendency of most photosensitizers (PS) to be poorly soluble and to form nonphotoactive aggregates, drug-delivery vehicles have become of high importance. The nanotechnology revolution has provided many examples of nanoscale drug-delivery platforms that have been applied to PDT. These include liposom...

  17. The Formation of Data on Nanotechnological Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleynik Olga Stepanovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the statistical monitoring of the main trends of nanotechnology development in Russia, as well as the review of the modern programs and documents devoted to urgent issues of nanotechnology development. The formation of system of statistical monitoring of nanotechnologies development in the Russian Federation includes the development of methodology and tools of statistical supervision over creation, commercialization, the use of nanotechnologies, and also the nanotechnological production. The authors carry out the analysis of the main directions and structure of co-funding of “The Program of nanotech industry development in the Russian Federation till 2015”. The sources of official statistical data on nanotechnologies in Russia are considered. The purpose of forming this essentially new direction of statistics consists in the creation of system of collecting, processing and submission of the regular, systematized and complex data which are adequately reflecting the state, the level of development and the prospects of nanotechnological sphere capacity which provide informational support to state policy and adoption of reasonable administrative decisions. The authors describe the system of statistical observations in the sphere of nanotechnologies. Today the statistics of nanotechnologies in Russia remains at the stage of formation and modernization according to the international standards, being supplemented every year with the new indicators which allow investigating different sides and tendencies of nanotech industry development. Nowadays the following aspects of the activity connected with nanotechnologies have already being studied by means of statistical methods: scientific research and developments; creation and use of nanotechnologies; demand for staff; production, including the innovative one.

  18. Broader Societal Issues of Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoscale science and engineering are providing unprecedented understanding and control over the basic building blocks of matter, leading to increased coherence in knowledge, technology, and education. The main reason for developing nanotechnology is to advance broad societal goals such as improved comprehension of nature, increased productivity, better healthcare, and extending the limits of sustainable development and of human potential. This paper outlines societal implication activities in nanotechnology R and D programs. The US National Nanotechnology Initiative annual investment in research with educational and societal implications is estimated at about $30 million (of which National Science Foundation (NSF) awards about $23 million including contributions to student fellowships), and in nanoscale research with relevance to environment at about $50 million (of which NSF awards about $30 million and EPA about $6 million). An appeal is made to researchers and funding organizations worldwide to take timely and responsible advantage of the new technology for economic and sustainable development, to initiate societal implications studies from the beginning of the nanotechnology programs, and to communicate effectively the goals and potential risks with research users and the public

  19. Nanotechnology and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past experience has shown that the successful introduction of a new technology requires careful attention to the interactions between the technology and society. These interactions are bi-directional: on the one hand, technology changes and challenges social patterns and, on the other hand, the governance structures and values of the society affect progress in developing the technology. Nanotechnology is likely to be particularly affected by these kinds of interactions because of its great promise and the unusually early public attention it has received. Moreover, it represents a new kind of experiment in packaging a rather wide range of fundamental research activities under a single 'mission-like' umbrella. Although this gives it more impetus as a field, it sets a higher bar for showing successful applications early on and because it links disparate fields, regulatory regimes reasonable for one kind of nanotechnology development may be inappropriately extended to others. There are a number of lessons to be gleaned from experience with the introduction of other technologies, which offer guidance with respect to what pitfalls to avoid and what issues to be sensitive to as we move forward with the development of nanotechnology applications. The problems encountered by nuclear power point out the dangers of over-promising and the role the need for the technology plays in ameliorating fears of risk. The public reaction to biomedical engineering and biotechnology highlights, in addition, the cultural factors that come into play when technologies raise questions about what is 'natural' and what is 'foreign' and what conceptions are involved in defining 'personhood'. In all cases, it has been clear that a main task for those introducing new technology is building public trust-in the safety of the technologies and the integrity of those introducing it. The advocates of nanotechnology have already shown that they are generally aware of the need to consider the public

  20. Taking a precautionary approach to nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dónal P. O’Mathúna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is developing at a rapid pace. Concerns have been raised about the risks nanotechnology may carry for human health and the environment. The precautionary principle has developed within environmental ethics as a way to reduce the risk of harm with emerging technologies. It has been incorporated into a number of documents addressing nanotechnology risks, including the European Commission’s Code of Conduct for Responsible Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies Research. The central features of the precautionary principle are reviewed here. These include addressing situations of scientific uncertainty and serious or irreversible harm, developing a proportionate response, and having reasonable grounds for concern. These factors will be applied to carbon nanotubes to demonstrate how the precautionary principle can lead to practical guidelines during the development of nanotechnology.

  1. Nanotechnology applications in medicine and dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jyoti

    2011-05-01

    Nanotechnology, or nanoscience, refers to the research and development of an applied science at the atomic, molecular, or macromolecular levels (i.e. molecular engineering, manufacturing). The prefix "nano" is defined as a unit of measurement in which the characteristic dimension is one billionth of a unit. Although the nanoscale is small in size, its potential is vast. As nanotechnology expands in other fields, clinicians, scientists, and manufacturers are working to discover the uses and advances in biomedical sciences. Applications of nanotechnology in medical and dental fields have only approached the horizon with opportunities and possibilities for the future that can only be limited by our imagination. This paper provides an early glimpse of nanotechnology applications in medicine and dentistry to illustrate their potentially far-reaching impacts on clinical practice. It also narrates the safety issues concerning nanotechnology applications.

  2. 纳米技术在乳腺癌治疗研究中的进展%Progress of nanotechnology on the treatment of breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李想; 周晓倩; 金慧; 郑淼; 刘俊

    2015-01-01

    近年来,纳米技术作为一项新的技术开拓了医学的新领域,为治疗很多疾病提供了新的方法。在乳腺癌治疗的研究中,发现纳米载体能很好地携带乳腺癌常用化疗药物,并能稳定释放药物。纳米材料在乳腺癌治疗方面有很好的靶向作用。在被动靶向方面,纳米载体能利用肿瘤微环境的改变提高增强渗透滞留效应,增加肿瘤局部药物浓度,进而提高抗乳腺癌效果;在主动靶向方面,乳腺癌分子靶向及磁性纳米微粒介导的靶向可提高乳腺癌细胞对抗癌药物的摄入。此外,纳米载体利用靶向效应部分逆转乳腺癌多药耐药,利用沉默相关耐药基因达到加强逆转的效果的作用。对于乳腺癌转移方面,纳米药物载体可以降低乳腺癌转移的风险,提高治疗乳腺癌骨转移的效果,对乳腺癌相关骨质疏松有一定的治疗效果。纳米技术在乳腺癌治疗中的应用前景越来越广阔。%In recent years, nanotechnology as a new technology expands the field of medicine, and provides a new method for the treatment of many diseases. For breast cancer, some studies found that nanoparticles used as carriers could well carry conventional chemotherapy drugs and release drugs stably. Targeted therapy is an important application of nanomaterials in the treatment of breast cancer, including active and passive targeting. On passive targeting, nanoparticles can improve the enhanced permeability and retention effect and increase local drug concentration in tumor cells by changing the tumor microenvironments, so as to improve the effect of anti-breast cancer therapy. On active targeting, molecular targeting and magnetic nanoparticles mediated targeting can increase the uptake of anticancer drugs in breast cancer cells. In addition, nanoparticles can reverse the multi-drug resistance of breast cancer based on targeting effect and silencing related resistant genes. For the

  3. Nanotechnologies in food and meat processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Ozimek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the evolution of nanoscience and nanotechnologies from the global perspective and their potential application in food systems including meat processing. Nanotechnology has its roots in a talk delivered in 1959 by physicist Richard Feynman to the American Physical Society. Nanoscience refers to components properties at nanoscale and nanotechnology refers to process or processes used in the manufacture and/or biofabrication of new materials measured at nanoscale. Nanotechnology offers a wide range of opportunities for the development of innovative products and applications in food system. Functional foods, nutraceuticals, bioactives, farmafoods, etc. are very recent example of it. Nanotechnology and nanomaterials are a natural part of food processing and conventional foods, because the characteristic properties of many foods rely on nanometer sized components. Some of the areas where nanotechnologies are set to make a difference in meat processing in near future relate to intelligent packaging of meat and meat products, meat derived bioactive peptides, pro- and pre-biotics inclusion in processed meat products, fat based nanoemulsions for antioxidant delivery, nanosensors and nanotracers for meat biosecurity tracing and nanostructured meat products with defined functions. New horizons for nanotechnology in meat science may be achieved by further research on nanoscale structures and methods to control interactions between single molecules. However, it shall be mentioned that nanotechnologies and nanomaterials are calling for their regulations and safety assessment as some of the materials are new and their safety never tested before.

  4. From Diagnosis to Treatment: Clinical Applications of Nanotechnology in Thoracic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digesu, Christopher S; Hofferberth, Sophie C; Grinstaff, Mark W; Colson, Yolonda L

    2016-05-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging field with potential as an adjunct to cancer therapy, particularly thoracic surgery. Therapy can be delivered to tumors in a more targeted fashion, with less systemic toxicity. Nanoparticles may aid in diagnosis, preoperative characterization, and intraoperative localization of thoracic tumors and their lymphatics. Focused research into nanotechnology's ability to deliver both diagnostics and therapeutics has led to the development of nanotheranostics, which promises to improve the treatment of thoracic malignancies through enhanced tumor targeting, controlled drug delivery, and therapeutic monitoring. This article reviews nanoplatforms, their unique properties, and the potential for clinical application in thoracic surgery. PMID:27112260

  5. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Harris, MD, MPH, MBA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network is a national network recently established to focus on developing new interventions and disseminating and translating proven interventions into practice to reduce cancer burden and disparities, especially among minority and medically underserved populations. Jointly funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network consists of sites administered through Prevention Research Centers funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The five sites are located in Kentucky, Massachusetts, South Carolina, Texas, Washington State, and West Virginia. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network’s intervention areas include primary prevention of cancer through healthy eating, physical activity, sun avoidance, tobacco control, and early detection of cancer through screening. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network uses the methods of community-based participatory research and seeks to build on the cancer-relevant systematic reviews of the Guide to Community Preventive Services. Initial foci for the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network’s research work groups include projects to increase screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers; to promote informed decision making for prostate cancer screening; and to validate educational materials developed for low-literacy populations.

  6. Nanotechnology in biorobotics: opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricotti, Leonardo, E-mail: l.ricotti@sssup.it; Menciassi, Arianna [Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, The BioRobotics Institute (Italy)

    2015-02-15

    Nanotechnology recently opened a series of unexpected technological opportunities that drove the emergence of novel scientific and technological fields, which have the potential to dramatically change the lives of millions of citizens. Some of these opportunities have been already caught by researchers working in the different fields related to biorobotics, while other exciting possibilities still lie on the horizon. This article highlights how nanotechnology applications recently impacted the development of advanced solutions for actuation and sensing and the achievement of microrobots, nanorobots, and non-conventional larger robotic systems. The open challenges are described, together with the most promising research avenues involving nanotechnology.

  7. Nanoscience Nanotechnologies and Nanophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Dupas, Claire; Lahmani, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Nanotechnologies and nanosciences are a fast-developing field of research, which sit at the point of convergence of several disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology, mechanics, etc.). This practically-oriented overview is designed to provide students and researchers with essential information on both the tools of manufacture and specific features of the nanometric scale, as well as applications within the most active fields (electronics, magnetism, information storage, biology). Specific applications and techniques covered include nanolithography, STM and AFM, nanowires and supramolecules, molecular electronics, optronics, and simulation. Each section of the book devotes considerable space to industrial applications and prospective developments. The carefully edited contributions are written by reserach workers and unirveisty instructors who are experts in their own fields and full up-to-date with the latest developments. Their uniform and self-contained nature permit users to access the most relevant chapter...

  8. Prostate cancer research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Cheng Ren; Rui Chen; Ying-Hao Sun

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) research in China has been on a rocketing trend in recent years.The first genome-wide association study (GWAS)in China identified two new PCa risk associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).Next generation sequencing is beginning to be used,yielding novel findings:gene fusions,long non-coding RNAs and other variations.Mechanisms of PCa progression have been illustrated while various diagnosis biomarkers have been investigated extensively.Personalized therapy based on genetic factors,nano-medicine and traditional Chinese medicine has been the focus of experimental therapeutic research for PCa.This review intends to shed light upon the recent progress in PCa research in China and points out the possible breakthroughs in the future.

  9. Nanotechnology in dentistry: prevention, diagnosis, and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Neel, Ensanya Ali; Bozec, Laurent; Perez, Roman A; Kim, Hae-Won; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has rapidly expanded into all areas of science; it offers significant alternative ways to solve scientific and medical questions and problems. In dentistry, nanotechnology has been exploited in the development of restorative materials with some significant success. This review discusses nanointerfaces that could compromise the longevity of dental restorations, and how nanotechnolgy has been employed to modify them for providing long-term successful restorations. It also focuses on some challenging areas in dentistry, eg, oral biofilm and cancers, and how nanotechnology overcomes these challenges. The recent advances in nanodentistry and innovations in oral health-related diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic methods required to maintain and obtain perfect oral health, have been discussed. The recent advances in nanotechnology could hold promise in bringing a paradigm shift in dental field. Although there are numerous complex therapies being developed to treat many diseases, their clinical use requires careful consideration of the expense of synthesis and implementation. PMID:26504385

  10. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  11. Engineers explore environmental concerns of nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2010-01-01

    As researchers around the world hasten to employ nanotechnology to improve production methods for its various applications that range from manufacturing materials to creating new pharmaceutical drugs, a separate but equally compelling challenge exists.

  12. EDITORIAL: Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Twenty years ago the Institute of Physics launched the journal Nanotechnology from its publishing house based in the home town of Paul Dirac, a legendary figure in the development of quantum mechanics at the turn of the last century. At the beginning of the 20th century, the adoption of quantum mechanical descriptions of events transformed the existing deterministic world view. But in many ways it also revolutionised the progress of research itself. For the first time since the 17th century when Francis Bacon established inductive reasoning as the means of advancing science from fact to axiom to law, theory was progressing ahead of experiments instead of providing explanations for observations that had already been made. Dirac's postulation of antimatter through purely theoretical investigation before its observation is the archetypal example of theory leading the way for experiment. The progress of nanotechnology and the development of tools and techniques that enabled the investigation of systems at the nanoscale brought with them many fascinating observations of phenomena that could only be explained through quantum mechanics, first theoretically deduced decades previously. At the nanoscale, quantum confinement effects dominate the electrical and optical properties of systems. They also render new opportunities for manipulating the response of systems. For example, a better understanding of these systems has enabled the rapid development of quantum dots with precisely determined properties, which can be exploited in a range of applications from medical imaging and photovoltaic solar cells to quantum computation, a radically new information technology being currently developed in many labs worldwide. As the first ever academic journal in nanotechnology, {\\it Nanotechnology} has been the forum for papers detailing progress of the science through extremely exciting times. In the early years of the journal, the investigation of electron spin led to the formulation

  13. Collaborations in Proteomics Research - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR), has signed two Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) in the sharing of proteomics reagents and protocols

  14. Applications of nanotechnology in biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Chirilă

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanobiotechnology is a new field in research, constituting the interface between the life sciences and nanotechnology. In this field, the size of the working range is between 1 nm and 100 nm. This new domain it proposes the exploitation of quality biomolecules and processes involved in the development of materials or devices with definite activity in medicine. Therapeutic nanotechnology seeks to provide specific features that can reduce morbidity and mortality in humans and animals, of which the most important are: a minimal invasive therapy, high density functions and the concentration in very small volumes. The first origins of the concept of nano-medicine are from Feynman's, who had the visionary idea of the nanorobots and similar mechanisms that could be designed, constructed, and placed in the body to perform cellular repairs at the molecular level. With the priorities crystallization in the medicine domain of XX and especially of the XXI’s century, also nanomedicine gained the momentum. In this respect the review proposes to introduce the reader to this fascinating field. There are provided information about cancer’s nanotherapy, examples of systems, applications of DNA, magnetic separation and manipulation of cells and biomolecules, nanotechnology applications in tissue engineering and many more. Also there are presented applications of nanotechnology in tissue engineering and about nano-robots.

  15. Materials and nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of the Materials and Nanotechnology Program is technology development related to processing, analysis, testing and characterization of materials in general. These are achieved through execution of R&D projects in engineering and materials science, cooperative projects with private and public sector companies, universities and other research institutes. Besides technology development, this Program also fosters training and human resource development in association with the University of São Paulo and many industrial sectors. This Program is divided into sub-programs in broad areas such as ceramic, composite and metallic materials as well as characterization of physical and chemical properties of materials. The sub-programs are further divided into general topics and within each topic, R&D projects. A brief description of progress in each topic during the last three years follows. (author)

  16. Nanotechnology impact on the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kaufui V; Paddon, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been implemented widely in the automotive industry. This technology is particularly useful in coatings, fabrics, structural materials, fluids, lubricants, tires, and preliminary applications in smart glass/windows and video display systems. A special sub-class of improved materials, alternative energy, has also seen a boost from advances in nanotechnology, and continues to be an active research area. A correlation exists in the automotive industry between the areas with increased nanotechnology incorporation and those with increased profit margins via improvements and customer demands. PMID:25360613

  17. Colloid and interface chemistry for nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Kralchevsky, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Colloid and interface science dealt with nanoscale objects for nearly a century before the term nanotechnology was coined. An interdisciplinary field, it bridges the macroscopic world and the small world of atoms and molecules. Colloid and Interface Chemistry for Nanotechnology is a collection of manuscripts reflecting the activities of research teams that have been involved in the networking project Colloid and Interface Chemistry for Nanotechnology (2006-2011), Action D43, the European Science Foundation. The project was a part of the intergovernmental framework for Cooperation in Science an

  18. Vectors for Inhaled Gene Therapy in Lung Cancer. Application for Nano Oncology and Safety of Bio Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Zarogoulidis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel aerosol therapeutic modalities have been investigated for lung cancer. Inhaled gene therapy has presented safety and effectiveness previously in cystic fibrosis. However, safety concerns have been raised regarding the safety of non-viral vectors for inhaled gene therapy in lung cancer, and therefore small steps have been made towards this multifunctional treatment modality. During the last decade, numerous new nanocomplexes have been created and investigated as a safe gene delivery nano-vehicle. These formulations are multifunctional; they can be used as either local therapy or carrier for an effective inhaled gene therapy for lung cancer. Herein, we present current and future perspectives of nanocomplexes for inhaled gene therapy treatment in lung cancer.

  19. Vectors for Inhaled Gene Therapy in Lung Cancer. Application for Nano Oncology and Safety of Bio Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Zarogoulidis; Goldberg, Eugene P.; Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schimdt; Haidong Huang; Kalliopi Domvri; Konstantinos Porpodis; Karamanos, Nikos K.; Paul Zarogouldis

    2012-01-01

    Novel aerosol therapeutic modalities have been investigated for lung cancer. Inhaled gene therapy has presented safety and effectiveness previously in cystic fibrosis. However, safety concerns have been raised regarding the safety of non-viral vectors for inhaled gene therapy in lung cancer, and therefore small steps have been made towards this multifunctional treatment modality. During the last decade, numerous new nanocomplexes have been created and investigated as a safe gene delivery nano...

  20. EDITORIAL: Trends in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Antonio; Serena, Pedro A.; Saenz, Juan Jose; Welland, Mark; Reifenberger, Ron

    2004-04-01

    With effect from August 2004 the journal Nanotechnology will discontinue the `Letters to the Editor' section. The increase in publication speed achieved for all articles now means that letters have no advantage. Fully electronic publication processes including electronic submission, refereeing and proofing, ensure that all papers are processed with minimum delay and are published as soon as they are ready. The journal will continue to publish high-quality original research papers, reviews and tutorials, as well as papers on the ethical and societal implications of nanotechnology at the discretion of the Editorial Board. All submitted papers will undergo a pre-selection procedure for suitability by the Editors of the journal. If a paper is accepted for consideration by the journal it will be sent to independent experts in the field for peer review. To speed up the publication process, we encourage authors to suggest five independent experts in their field as potential referees and supply their title, name, affiliation and e-mail address. The Editors of the journal may use these names at their discretion. Authors may also request that certain people are not to be used as referees. Papers of special interest will be given the utmost priority and on acceptance will be publicized further through worldwide press releases and reviews on the Institute of Physics website and on nanotechweb.org. As a service to authors and to the international physics community, and as part of our commitment to give authors' work as much visibility as possible, all papers are freely available online for 30 days from their electronic publication date. This means open access for citations to everyone in the world. We will also send an electronic offprint of your published paper to ten colleagues of your choice, giving your article an increased chance of being cited quickly. In the meantime, we are pleased to announce an increase in the Impact Factor of the journal in 2003 to 2.304, which means

  1. 78 FR 60319 - Request for Information: NNI Nanotechnology for Sensors and Sensors for Nanotechnology Signature...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY NATIONAL NANOTECHNOLOGY COORDINATION OFFICE Request for Information: NNI Nanotechnology for Sensors and Sensors for Nanotechnology Signature Initiative ACTION: Notice of request for information... Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) and of the Nanotechnology Signature Initiative (NSI) entitled Nanotechnology...

  2. Nanotechnology, Society, and Freshman, Oh My!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahan, Charles; Crone, Wendy; Ellison, Karin; Leung, Ricky; Miller, Clark; Zenner, Greta

    2005-03-01

    Nanotechnology has emerged as a broad and exciting, yet ill-defined, field of scientific research and technological innovation. Important questions have arisen about the technology's potential economic, social, and environmental implications by prominent technology leaders, nanotechnology boosters, science fiction authors, policy officials, and environmental organizations. We have developed a freshman-level seminar course that offers an opportunity for students from a wide range of disciplines, including the natural and social sciences, humanities, and engineering, to learn about nanoscience and nanotechnology and to explore these questions and reflect on the broader place of technology in modern societies. The course is built around active learning methods and seeks to develop the students' critical thinking and research skills, written and verbal communication abilities, and general knowledge of nanotech. Continuous assessment is used to gain information about how effective the class discussions are and how well the overall course enhances students' understanding of the interaction between nanotechnology and society.

  3. Nanotechnology - A path forward for developing nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S. Ismat; Powers, Thomas M.

    2015-10-01

    One of the major issues with technology in general, and nanotechnology in particular, is that it could exacerbate the divide between developed and developing nations. If the benefits of the research do not flow beyond the national and geographical borders of the traditional major bastions of R&D, these benefits will not be equally and globally available. The consequence is that the technological divide becomes wider at the expense of mutual reliance. As much as developed nations need to rethink the strategy and the policy to bring nanotechnology products to market with the goal of global prosperity, developing nations cannot afford to simply wait for the lead from the developed nations. In the spirit of collaboration and collegiality, we describe issues with the current practices in nanotechnology R&D in the developing world and suggest a path for nanotechnology research in energy, water and the environment that developing nations could follow in order to become contributors rather than simply consumers.

  4. Nanotechnology and Social Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The central claims defended in this article are the following: (a) The social and ethical challenges of nanotechnology can be fully identified only if both the characteristic features of nanotechnologies and the social contexts into which they are emerging are considered. (b) When this is done, a host of significant social context issues, or…

  5. Nanotechnologies for sustainable construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Andersen, Maj Munch

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to highlight key aspects and recent trends in the development and application of nanotechnology to facilitate sustainable construction, use and demolition of buildings and infrastructure structures, ‘nanoconstruction’. Nanotechnology is not a technology but a very diverse...

  6. Metagenomics: A new horizon in cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Joyita Banerjee; Neetu Mishra; Yogita Dhas

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics has broadened the scope of targeting microbes responsible for inducing various types of cancers. About 16.1% of cancers are associated with microbial infection. Metagenomics is an equitable way of identifying and studying micro-organisms within their habitat. In cancer research, this approach has revolutionized the way of identifying, analyzing and targeting the microbial diversity present in the tissue specimens of cancer patients. The genomic analyses of these micro-organisms t...

  7. Nanotechnology in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbin, Marco A; Montemagno, Carlo; Leary, James F; Ritch, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Nanotechnology involves the creation and use of materials and devices at the size scale of intracellular structures and molecules, and involves systems and constructs in the order of nanotechnology as applied to nanomedicine (e.g., biomimicry and pseudointelligence). Some applications of nanotechnology to ophthalmology are described (including treatment of oxidative stress; measurement of intraocular pressure; theragnostics; use of nanoparticles to treat choroidal new vessels, prevent scarring after glaucoma surgery, and treat retinal degenerative disease with gene therapy; prosthetics; and regenerative nanomedicine). Nanotechnology will revolutionize our approach to current therapeutic challenges (e.g., drug delivery, postoperative scarring) and will enable us to address currently unsolvable problems (e.g., sight-restoring therapy for patients with retinal degenerative disease). Obstacles to the incorporation of nanotechnology remain, such as safe manufacturing techniques and unintended biological consequences of nanomaterial use. These obstacles are not insurmountable, and revolutionary treatments for ophthalmic diseases are expected to result from this burgeoning field.

  8. Scientometrics Analysis of Nanotechnology in MEDLINE

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Asgharzadeh; Fatemeh Eskandari; Mohammad-Hossein Biglu

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Nanotechnology is the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering. An alternative method for considering the trend of research activities in countries is quantitative analysis of scientific output. The objective of current study is to analyze and visualize the trend of scientific output in the field of nanotechnology in MEDLINE during a period of 10 ye...

  9. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed

  10. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.

  11. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. This one-week intense learning session provides specialized instruction in the role of diet and bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer incidence and tumor behavior. |

  12. Novel translational strategies in colorectal cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Defining translational research is still a complex task. In oncology, translational research implies using our basic knowledge learnt from in vitro and in vivo experiments to directly improve diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches in cancer patients. Moreover, the better understanding of human cancer and its use to design more reliable tumor models and more accurate experimental systems also has to be considered a good example of translational research. The identification and characterization of new molecular markers and the discovery of novel targeted therapies are two main goals in colorectal cancer translational research. However, the straightforward translation of basic research findings, specifically into colorectal cancer treatment and vice versa is still underway. In the present paper, a summarized view of some of the new available approaches on colorectal cancer translational research is provided. Pros and cons are discussed for every approach exposed.

  13. Genomic Datasets for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of datasets from genome-wide association studies of cancer and other genotype-phenotype studies, including sequencing and molecular diagnostic assays, are available to approved investigators through the Extramural National Cancer Institute Data Access Committee.

  14. Nanotechnology Safety Self-Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogin, Phillip W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-03-29

    Nanoparticles are near-atomic scale structures between 1 and 100 nanometers (one billionth of a meter). Engineered nanoparticles are intentionally created and are used in research and development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This course, Nanotechnology Safety Self-Study, presents an overview of the hazards, controls, and uncertainties associated with the use of unbound engineered nanoscale particles (UNP) in a laboratory environment.

  15. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH researchers Drs. Douglas Lowy (left) and John Schiller developed the vaccine to prevent HPV infection in ... But thanks to Drs. Douglas Lowy and John Schiller, senior research scientists at NIH's National Cancer Institute, ...

  16. Lysyl oxidase in cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perryman, Lara; Erler, Janine Terra

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is the main reason for cancer-associated deaths and therapies are desperately needed to target the progression of cancer. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, including metastasis, and is therefore is an attractive therapeutic target. In this review we will...

  17. Research Networks Map | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.  Five Major Programs' sites are shown on this map. | The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.

  18. Advances in Nanotechnology for Restorative Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohaib Khurshid

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rationalizing has become a new trend in the world of science and technology. Nanotechnology has ascended to become one of the most favorable technologies, and one which will change the application of materials in different fields. The quality of dental biomaterials has been improved by the emergence of nanotechnology. This technology manufactures materials with much better properties or by improving the properties of existing materials. The science of nanotechnology has become the most popular area of research, currently covering a broad range of applications in dentistry. This review describes the basic concept of nanomaterials, recent innovations in nanomaterials and their applications in restorative dentistry. Advances in nanotechnologies are paving the future of dentistry, and there are a plenty of hopes placed on nanomaterials in terms of improving the health care of dental patients.

  19. NDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH «DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN MARKET OF NANOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS IN CONSTRUCTION UNTIL 2020». PART 1. A STATEMENT OF THE TASK AND AN APPROACH TO REALIZE THE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSEV Boris Vladimirovich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Some results of the industrial research «Development of Russian market of nanotechnological products in construction until 2020» have been published. Authors invite all interested specialists and specialized organization to take part in the broad public discussion.

  20. What Is the Role of Nanotechnology in Diagnosis and Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer? Promising Scenarios for the Near Future

    OpenAIRE

    Marta, Truffi; Luca, Sorrentino; Serena, Mazzucchelli; Luisa, Fiandra; Fabio, Corsi

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to tumor heterogeneity and to various physiological barriers that hinder drug delivery to the metastatic sites. To overcome these limitations, nanoformulated drugs have been developed and tested in preclinical studies, and few of them have been successfully translated into clinical practice. In particular, liposomal anthracyclines and nanoformulated albumin-bound paclitaxel have revealed an improved therapeutic ind...

  1. 纳米技术在医学领域的研究应用%Research and Application of Nanotechnology in Medical Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦云; 司丽芳; 李健; 郭建军; 李会芳

    2014-01-01

    纳米是长度的度量单位,又称毫微米,即百万分之一毫米。目前,纳米技术已在多个行业得到了应用,如纳米物理学、纳米电子学、纳米生物学、纳米化学、纳米计量学和纳米加工学等。应用于药物学领域的纳米技术称为纳米药物学。纳米粒在药物学上的应用主要有纳米药物载体和纳米药物制剂2种。纳米药物的生产成本低、效率高、自动化程度高、规模大,而药物的作用也实现了器官靶向、高效和低毒等革命性的突破,并具有稳定性好、对胃肠刺激性小等优点。因此,纳米药物在国际工业领域以及医药领域均具有广阔的发展前景。阐述了纳米技术在医学领域的研究及应用。%Nanometer is a measurement unit of length, also named as millimicron (one millionth of a millimeter). Nowadays, nanotechnology has been applied in many industries, such as nanophysics, nanoelectronics, nanobiology, nanochemistry, nanometrology, nano-machining. The nanotechnology applied in pharmacology field was named as nanopharmics. The nano-particles applied in pharmacology included nano-drug carrier and nano-medicine preparation. The nano-drugs had low production cost, high efficiency, high automation degree and large scale. And the nano-drugs realized organ targeting, high efficiency, low toxicity and other revolutionary breakthrough. The nano-drugs had advantages of good stability, small stimulation to stomach and intestines, etc. Therefore, nano-drugs had a broad development foreground in industry field and medical field in the world. The research and application of nanotechnology in medical field were reviewed.

  2. 结构DN A纳米新技术的研究现状与应用%Research status and application of structural DNA nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春; 侯贺伟; 叶盟盟; 李萌萌; 崔光照; 王延峰

    2014-01-01

    Structural DNA nanotechnology was systematic summarized,including the research status of DNA self-assembly,DNA origami and SST self-assembly.In the design of Zhengzhou University of Light Industry badge for instance,DNA origami and SST self-assembly were introduced to devise and establish DNA struc-tural model of school badge with hollow structure.With this example,structural DNA nanotechnology was valued and investigated.The main application of the technique was in the aspects of the assembly of guiding inorganic nanoparticles with precision,the equipment of nano-bio-chip,as well as the combination with micro-machining technology.In view of this it was proposed that structural DNA nanotechnology would play a more active role in the application field of nano-electronic circuits and devices,nano-optoelectronics,bio-sensors of high sensitivity and high specificity,molecular robotics,materials science and nano-medicine etc.in future development.%综述了结构DNA纳米技术---DNA自组装、DNA折纸术和SST自组装的研究现状,并以郑州轻工业学院校徽设计中引入DNA折纸术构建校徽DNA结构模型、利用SST自组装方法设计构造镂空结构的校徽图形为例,对结构DNA纳米技术予以评析与探讨;鉴于该技术目前主要应用于引导无机纳米粒子精确装配、装备纳米生物芯片以及与微加工技术相结合等方面,提出:纳米电子电路及器件、纳米光电子学、高灵敏度高特异性生物传感器、分子机器人、材料学和纳米医学等领域,将是结构DNA纳米技术应用未来的发展方向。

  3. The Implementation of Innovation and Resource Allocation with Nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    All natural and living systems are governed by atomic and molecular behavior at the nanoscale. Research is now seeking systematic approaches to create revolutionary new products and technologies by control of matter at the same scale.Nanotechnology is expected to have a profound impact on our society.The vision,research and development strategy,and timeline of the nanotechnology initiative are presented by using several recent scientific discoveries, innovations and results from industry. This article demonstrates the implications of innovation for nanotechnology development. To deal with the innovation, a theory of nanotechnology development must come to terms with the developmental, organisational, and strategic dimensions of innovative resource allocation.

  4. Application of Radiation in Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nanotechnology is one of the fastest growing new areas in science and engineering. The subject arises from the convergence of electronics, physics, chemistry, biology and materials science to create new functional systems of nano-scale dimensions. Nanotechnology deals with science and technology associated with dimensions in the range of 0.1 to 100 nm. The ability to fabricate structures with nano-metric precision is of fundamental importance to any exploitation of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is predicted to have a major impact on the manufacturing technology in 20 to 30 years from now. The ability to fabricate structures with nano-metric precision is of fundamental importance to any exploitation of nanotechnology. The potential of combining radiation effects with nano-materials has been recognized from the very early stages of nano-science research. In the many uses of nano- structures, and nano-particles in particular, from catalysis, bio-sensing, nano-electronics, magnetic applications including separations, mechano-chemical conversion, and to molecular computing, radiation can play a significant role. The use of radiation, UV beam, electron-beam, or focused ion-beam is clearly central to the fabrication of the nanostructured systems. The relative advantages and deficiencies of each of them are still to be clarified as the technology advances. Whether UV or electron beam will lead to the highest resolution is still debated but it is clear that these techniques offer unmatched reproducibility and very narrow size distribution. Other studies concern formation and synthesis of nano-particles and nano-composites. Radiation synthesis of copper, silver and other metals' nanoparticles is studied. Metal and salt-polymer composites are synthesized by this method. Metal sulphide semiconductors of nano-metric matrices are prepared using gamma irradiation of a suitable solution of monomer, sulphur and metal sources. These products find application in photoluminescent

  5. Nanotechnology - The New Frontier of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, R; Jaitawat, S S

    2006-07-01

    Molecular nanotechnology is destined to become the core technology in 21(st) century medicine. Nanotechnology mean, controlling biologically relevant structures with molecular precision. Nanomedicine is exploring how to use carbon buckyballs, dendrimers and other cleverly engineered nanoparticles in novel drugs to combat viruses, bacteria, cancer and delivery of drugs. Medical nanorobots will be of the size of a microbe, capable of self-replication, containing onboard sensors, computers, manipulators, pumps, pressure tanks and power supplies. Building such sophisticated molecular machine systems will require molecular manufacturing to using massively parallel assembly lines in nanofactories.

  6. Inequality gaps in nanotechnology development in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Foladori

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been spurred by science, technology and innovation policies in most Latin American countries since the last decade. Public policies and funding have been accompanied by a common rhetoric, highlighting the potential of nanotechnology for increasing competitiveness and growth and providing the region with more efficient and innovative products. Based on an assessment of nanotechnology policies and capabilities in nine countries this article highlights three characteristics of nanotechnology in Latin America that might hinder its contribution to an equitable development within the region. The first characteristic is the conspicuous trend towards an intra-regional gap in capacity building as a result of the unequal historical development of science and technology among these countries and the large differences in equipment and financial resources devoted to nanotechnology.  The second characteristic is the strength of “international signals” vis-à-vis the national needs in the orientation of nanotechnology. On the one hand, nanotechnology is main and foremost oriented to achieve international competitiveness, which may lead its development to international market demands. On the other hand, nanotechnology research in Latin American countries has been configured within internationalized academic networks, which may influence local research agendas towards foreign research priorities. The third characteristic is the absence of research on potential impacts of nanotechnology on human health and the environment, as well as other societal implications, which may generate new forms of unequal distribution of benefits and risks.

  7. Novel translational strategies in colorectal cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Bazo, Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    Defining translational research is still a complex task. In oncology, translational research implies using our basic knowledge learnt from in vitro and in vivo experiments to directly improve diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches in cancer patients. Moreover, the better understanding of human cancer and its use to design more reliable tumor models and more accurate experimental systems also has to be considered a good example of translational research. The identification and characteriz...

  8. Nanotechnology: The future medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Saini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is an exciting new area in science, with many possible applications in medicine. This article seeks to outline the role of different areas such as diagnosis of diseases, drug delivery, imaging, and so on.

  9. Applications of electrochemistry and nanotechnology in biology and medicine II

    CERN Document Server

    Eliaz, Noam

    2011-01-01

    The study of electrochemical nanotechnology has emerged as researchers apply electrochemistry to nanoscience and nanotechnology. These two related volumes in the Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry Series review recent developments and breakthroughs in the specific application of electrochemistry and nanotechnology to biology and medicine. Internationally renowned experts contribute chapters that address both fundamental and practical aspects of several key emerging technologies in biomedicine, such as the processing of new biomaterials, biofunctionalization of surfaces, characterization of bio

  10. Chiral Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Dibyendu S. Bag; T.C. Shami; K.U. Bhasker Rao

    2008-01-01

    The paper reviews nanoscale science and technology of chiral molecules/macromolecules-under twosubtopics-chiral nanotechnology and nano-chiral technology. Chiral nanotechnology discusses thenanotechnology, where molecular chirality plays a role in the properties of materials, including molecularswitches, molecular motors, and other molecular devices; chiral supramolecules and self-assembled nanotubesand their functions are also highlighted. Nano-chiral technology  describes the nanoscale appr...

  11. Nanotechnology and Technomoral Change

    OpenAIRE

    Swierstra, Tsjalling

    2013-01-01

    If nanotechnology lives up to its revolutionary promises, do we then need a ‘new’ type of ethics to guide this technological development? After distinguishing different senses in which ethics could be ‘new’, I focus on the phenomenon of TechnoMoral Change. Emerging technologies like nanotechnology have the potential to destabilize established moral norms and values. This is relevant because those norms and values are needed to discuss whether technological developments are desirable or not. I...

  12. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Saeli, .

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology, which has a vast number of possibilities in construction, ranging from energy conservation and coatings to structural enhancement and stress monitoring, has not yet made an important difference in construction compared to other major industries even when there has been a big progress in awareness and investigation in the last years. Nanotechnology has the potential to extend the limits of construction bringing new and enhanced products that can foster the construction activity...

  13. Taking nanotechnology to schools

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhtakia, A

    2006-01-01

    After a primer on nanotechnology and a review of current educational practices in secondary schools, the concept of just-in-time education is proposed to integrate technosciences and humanities so that both future technoscientists and non-technoscientists develop a common understanding, possibly even a common language, to deal with social, ethical, legal, and political issues that arise from the development of nanotechnology and its convergence with other technoscientific developments.

  14. Nanotechnology and dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Ozak, Sule Tugba; Ozkan, Pelin

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology deals with the physical, chemical, and biological properties of structures and their components at nanoscale dimensions. Nanotechnology is based on the concept of creating functional structures by controlling atoms and molecules on a one-by-one basis. The use of this technology will allow many developments in the health sciences as well as in materials science, bio-technology, electronic and computer technology, aviation, and space exploration. With developments in materials sc...

  15. Effect of Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    D. Baswaraj; Vasanthi; Sareddy Deepthi; Mohammad Zainuddin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we will put forward the vast effect on nanotechnology in various fields. A basic definition of Nanotechnology is the study manipulation and manufacture of extremely minute machines or devices. The future of technology at times becomes easier to predict. Computers will compute faster, materials will become stronger and medicine will cure more diseases .the technology that works at the nanometer scale of molecules and atoms will be a large part of this future, enabling great impr...

  16. Future of Computing. Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Frant

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a field of applied science and technology covering a broad range of topics. The impetus for nanotechnology has stemmed from a renewed interest in colloidal science, coupled with a new generation of analytical tools such as the atomic force microscope (AFM and the scanning tunneling microscope (STM. Combined with refined processes such as electron beam lithography, these instruments allow the deliberate manipulation of nanostructures, and in turn led to the observation of novel phenomena.

  17. Nanotechnology for telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Anwar, Sohail; Qazi, Salahuddin; Ilyas, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    With its unique promise to revolutionize science, engineering, technology, and other fields, nanotechnology continues to profoundly impact associated materials, components, and systems, particularly those used in telecommunications. These developments are leading to easier convergence of related technologies, massive storage data, compact storage devices, and higher-performance computing. Nanotechnology for Telecommunications presents vital technical scientific information to help readers grasp issues and challenges associated with nanoscale telecommunication system development and commerciali

  18. Data mining in cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo J G Lisboa; Vellido Alcacena, Alfredo; Tagliaferri, Roberto; Napolitano, Francesco; Ceccarelli, Michelle; Martín Guerrero, José D.; Biganzoli, Elia

    2010-01-01

    This article is not intended as a comprehensive survey of data mining applications in cancer. Rather, it provides starting points for further, more targeted, literature searches, by embarking on a guided tour of computational intelligence applications in cancer medicine, structured in increasing order of the physical scales of biological processes.

  19. Nanotechnology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerich, Dwaine F; Thanos, Christopher G

    2003-07-01

    Nanotechnology, or systems/device manufacture at the molecular level, is a multidisciplinary scientific field undergoing explosive development. The genesis of nanotechnology can be traced to the promise of revolutionary advances across medicine, communications, genomics and robotics. On the surface, miniaturisation provides cost effective and more rapidly functioning mechanical, chemical and biological components. Less obvious though is the fact that nanometre sized objects also possess remarkable self-ordering and assembly behaviours under the control of forces quite different from macro objects. These unique behaviours are what make nanotechnology possible, and by increasing our understanding of these processes, new approaches to enhancing the quality of human life will surely be developed. A complete list of the potential applications of nanotechnology is too vast and diverse to discuss in detail, but without doubt one of the greatest values of nanotechnology will be in the development of new and effective medical treatments (i.e., nanomedicine). This review focuses on the potential of nanotechnology in medicine, including the development of nanoparticles for diagnostic and screening purposes, artificial receptors, DNA sequencing using nanopores, manufacture of unique drug delivery systems, gene therapy applications and the enablement of tissue engineering. PMID:12831370

  20. Databases and QSAR for Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Malik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we take a survey of bioinformatics databases and quantitative structure-activity relationship studies reported in published literature. Databases from the most general to special cancer-related ones have been included. Most commonly used methods of structure-based analysis of molecules have been reviewed, along with some case studies where they have been used in cancer research. This article is expected to be of use for general bioinformatics researchers interested in cancer and will also provide an update to those who have been actively pursuing this field of research.

  1. Milestones in Cancer Research and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past 250 years, we have witnessed many landmark discoveries in our efforts to make progress against cancer, an affliction known to humanity for thousands of years. This timeline shows a few key milestones in the history of cancer research.

  2. Research Areas: Causes of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the exposures and risk factors that cause cancer, as well as the genetic abnormalities associated with the disease, has helped us to reduce certain exposures and to ameliorate their harmful effects.

  3. DCB - Cancer Immunology, Hematology, and Etiology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology’s research portfolio, studies supported include the characterization of basic mechanisms relevant to anti-tumor immune responses and hematologic malignancies.

  4. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olli Yli-Harja; Antti Ylip(a)(a); Matti Nykter; Wei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts.

  5. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Harja, Olli; Ylipää, Antti; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei

    2011-04-01

    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts.

  6. Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series highlights emerging and cutting-edge research related to infection-associated cancers, shares scientific knowledge about technologies and methods, and fosters cross-disciplinary discussions on infectious agents and cancer epidemiology.

  7. TCGA researchers identify 4 subtypes of stomach cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach cancers fall into four distinct molecular subtypes, researchers with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network have found. Scientists report that this discovery could change how researchers think about developing treatments for stomach cancer, also c

  8. Consumer attitudes towards nanotechnologies applied to food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Gupta, N.; George, S.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Giles, E.L.; Coles, D.G.

    2014-01-01

    The literature on public perceptions of, and attitudes towards, nanotechnology used in the agrifood sector is reviewed. Research into consumer perceptions and attitudes has focused on general applications of nanotechnology, rather than within the agrifood sector. Perceptions of risk and benefit asso

  9. Nanotechnology Based Materials and Devices for Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepaka; Cho, K.; Brenner, Don; Menon, Madhu; Andriotis, Antonis; Sagman, Uri; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on trends in NASA nanotechnology research and development, and future biotechnological applications for that nanotechnology. The presentation covers nanoelectronics, nanosensors, and nanomaterials, biomimetics, devices and materials for health care, carbon nanotubes, biosensors for astrobiology, solid-state nanopores for DNA sequencing, and protein nanotubes.

  10. ACCELERATING NANO-TECHNOLOGICAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    By viewing the construction industry as a technological innovation system (TIS) this paper discusses possible initiatives to accelerate nanotechnological innovations. The point of departure is a recent report on the application of nano-technology in the Danish construction industry, which concludes...... of the system are furthermore poorly equipped at identifying potentials within high-tech areas. In order to exploit the potentials of nano-technology it is thus argued that an alternative TIS needs to be established. Initiatives should identify and support “incubation rooms” or marked niches in order...... for the different elements of the TIS to evolve. This could involve nano-visioning including scenarios of future technological applications and industrial dynamics....

  11. The track nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discipline now called Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) dates back to 1958 and has its roots in the United Kingdom. Its strength stems chiefly from factors such as its simplicity, small geometry, permanent maintenance of the nuclear record and other diversified applications. A very important field with exciting applications reported recently in conjuction with the nuclear track technique is nanotechnology, which has applications in biology, chemistry, industry, medicare and health, information technology, biotechnology, and metallurgical and chemical technologies. Nanotechnology requires material design followed by the study of the quantum effects for final produced applications in sensors, medical diagnosis, information technology to name a few. We, in this article, present a review of past and present applications of SSNTD suggesting ways to apply the technique in nanotechnology, with special reference to development of nanostructure for applications utilising nanowires, nanofilters and sensors.

  12. Nanotechnology in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrew Z; Tepper, Joel E

    2014-09-10

    Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on atomic and molecular scales, is a relatively new branch of science. It has already made a significant impact on clinical medicine, especially in oncology. Nanomaterial has several characteristics that are ideal for oncology applications, including preferential accumulation in tumors, low distribution in normal tissues, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and clearance, that differ from those of small molecules. Because these properties are also well suited for applications in radiation oncology, nanomaterials have been used in many different areas of radiation oncology for imaging and treatment planning, as well as for radiosensitization to improve the therapeutic ratio. In this article, we review the unique properties of nanomaterials that are favorable for oncology applications and examine the various applications of nanotechnology in radiation oncology. We also discuss the future directions of nanotechnology within the context of radiation oncology.

  13. The track nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waheed, A. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom); Forsyth, D., E-mail: dforsyth@bite.ac.u [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Watts, A. [Department of Physics, UCL, London Centre of Nanotechnology (LCN), 17-19 Gordon Street, London WC1H OAH (United Kingdom); Saad, A.F. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Garyounis University, Benghazi (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Mitchell, G.R. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom); Farmer, M. [British Institute of Technology and E-Commerce, London E7 9HZ (United Kingdom); Harris, P.J.F. [Physics Department, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AF (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    The discipline now called Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) dates back to 1958 and has its roots in the United Kingdom. Its strength stems chiefly from factors such as its simplicity, small geometry, permanent maintenance of the nuclear record and other diversified applications. A very important field with exciting applications reported recently in conjuction with the nuclear track technique is nanotechnology, which has applications in biology, chemistry, industry, medicare and health, information technology, biotechnology, and metallurgical and chemical technologies. Nanotechnology requires material design followed by the study of the quantum effects for final produced applications in sensors, medical diagnosis, information technology to name a few. We, in this article, present a review of past and present applications of SSNTD suggesting ways to apply the technique in nanotechnology, with special reference to development of nanostructure for applications utilising nanowires, nanofilters and sensors.

  14. The industrial relevance of nanotechnology and nanomaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article consists of four parts: a brief summary of the EU policy for nanotechnology and for Key Enabling Technologies; a general information framework, including definitions, fields of application, on production and market data; a general examination of the actors and of the application areas in Italy; conclusions. Nanotechnology, along with five other Key Enabling Technologies (Kets), have been identified as the engine for industrial growth in Europe within the Horizon 2020 program and other EU initiatives. These technologies promise to have a growing impact on materials, tools and processes through a great variety of industries important to the Italian economy and the European one. Nanotechnology is still largely a phase of research and development and other challenges are still to be solved for their full value. The Innovation and Research Manager are among those challenges, and are critical to their success

  15. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology impact on sensors Nanotechnology impact on sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Jürgen

    2009-10-01

    A sensor is a device that responds to a stimulus by generating a functional output induced by a change in some intrinsic properties. We are surrounded by sensors and sensing networks that monitor a multitude of parameters in view of enhancing our safety and quality of life. Sensors assist us in health care and diagnostics, they monitor our environment, our aeroplanes and automobiles, our mobile phones, game consoles and watches, and last but not least, many of our human body functions. Modern sensing systems have greatly benefited in recent decades from advances in microelectronics and microengineering, mainly in view of making sensors smaller, cheaper, more sensitive, more selective, and with a better signal-to-noise ratio, following classical scaling rules. So how about nanotechnology-enabled sensing? Nanoscale features have a great impact on many (though not all) sensing systems, in particular where the surface-to-volume ratio plays a fundamental role, such as in certain chemical and gas sensors. The high surface-to-volume ratios of nanoporous and nanostructured materials have led to their implementation in sensing systems since sensing research first began to engage with the nanotechnology. The surface plasmon resonances of nanostructures have also enriched the scope for developing novel sensing devices. On the other hand, sensors where bulk properties dominate, such as inertial sensors, are less likely to benefit from extreme scaling. Advances in thin film techniques and chemical synthesis have allowed material properties to be tailored to sensing requirements for enhanced performance. These bottom-up fabrication techniques enable parallel fabrication of ordered nanostructures, often in domain-like areas with molecular precision. At the same time the progress in top-down methods such as scanning probe lithography, nanoimprint lithography, soft-lithography and stencil lithography have also facilitated research into sensing and actuating nanotechnology. Although

  16. Broadening nanotechnology's impact on development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beumer, Koen

    2016-05-01

    Discussions about nanotechnology and development focus on applications that directly address the needs of the world's poor. Nanotechnology can certainly make an impact in the fight against global poverty, but we need to broaden our imagination.

  17. Nanotechnology in electrocatalysis for energy

    CERN Document Server

    Lavacchi, Alessandro; Vizza, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on nanotechnology in electrocatalysis for energy applications. In particular the book covers nanostructured electrocatalysts for low temperature fuel cells, low temperature electrolyzers and electrochemical valorization. The function of this book is to provide an introduction to basic principles of electrocatalysis, together with a review of the main classes of materials and electrode architectures. This book will illustrate the basic ideas behind material design and provide an introductory sketch of current research focuses. The easy-to-follow three part book focuses on majo

  18. EDITORIAL: New developments for Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welland, Mark

    2007-01-01

    relevance and impact of nanotechnology in general. With all this growth and change there are always some constant factors that specifically concern authors. Prominent amongst these is the speed of publication. Remarkably, our current publication times are among the most competitive internationally with current receipt to publication times of less than three months. Although this time will be shortened by weekly publication, it will be further reduced by the introduction of an article numbering system as opposed to page numbering. Here, an accepted article is assigned a number and published immediately; there is no need to wait for other articles to form a complete issue. Articles will be published on the web as soon as they are available. The number of nano-related journals continues to grow, making for a highly congested and competitive market. The fact that Nanotechnology, the longest established journal in the field, continues to grow in size, is able to dynamically change in response to authors and readers alike, and can draw on the renowned academic publishing capabilities of IOP Publishing, means that we look forward to an exciting and productive future. As we strive to deliver the best possible service to our authors and readers we aim to attract the very best of international nanoscience and nanotechnology so that Nanotechnology becomes the pre-eminent journal for reporting research in the field.

  19. Understanding the nanotechnology revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Edward L

    2012-01-01

    This is a unique introduction for general readers to the underlying concepts of nanotechnology, covering a wide spectrum ranging from biology to quantum computing. The material is presented in the simplest possible way, including a few mathematical equations, but not mathematical derivations. It also outlines as simply as possible the major contributions to modern technology of physics-based nanophysical devices, such as the atomic clock, global positioning systems, and magnetic resonance imaging. As a result, readers are able to establish a connection between nanotechnology and day-to-day

  20. Contextualising Nanotechnology in Chemistry Education

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Christine; Hayden, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    This paper will give an example of a pedagogical approach taken in integrating nanotechnology into a chemistry degree course. In recent years nanotechnology has widely become part of the course content for undergraduate chemistry and physics degree curriculum. How contextualised the delivery of the subject matter may vary. The role of contextualisation of nanotechnology in the delivery of the content is the main focus of this paper, as to date in Ireland and many other countries nanotechnolog...

  1. Antiproton radiation found effective in cancer research

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "An international collaboration of scientists has completed the first ever antiproton beam experiments designed to reveal the biological effectiveness of antiproton radiation in terminating cells used for cancer research...PBar Labs assembled the collaboration at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva) to perform the measurements" (1 page).

  2. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology in vivo Nanotechnology in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-04-01

    Since the development of x-rays the ability to image inside our bodies has provided medicine with a potent diagnostic tool, as well as fascinating us with the eerie evidence of our mechanistic mortality. In December 2008 Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y Tsien received a Nobel Prize for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein. The award recognised a new discovery that further facilitated our abilities to follow cellular activities and delve deeper into the workings of living organisms. Since the first observation of green fluorescent protein in jelly fish over thirty years ago, quantum dots have emerged as a potential alternative tool for imaging [1]. The advantages of quantum dots over organic dyes and fluorescent proteins include intense luminescence, high molar extinction coefficient, resistance to photobleaching, and broad excitation with narrow emission bands. However, one drawback for biological applications has been the layer of hydrophobic organic ligands often present at the surface as a result of the synthesis procedures. One solution to improve the solubility of quantum dots has been to conjugate them with a hydrophilic substance, as reported by Nie et al [2]. Chitosan is a hydrophilic, non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable substance and has been conjugated with quantum dots such as CdSe-ZnS [2] for bioassays and intracellular labelling. As well as luminescence, different nanoparticles present a variety of exceptional properties that render them useful in a range of bio applications, including MRI, drug delivery and cancer hyperthermia therapy. The ability to harness these various attributes in one system was reported by researchers in China, who incorporated magnetic nanoparticles, fluorescent quantum dots and pharmaceutical drugs into chitosan nanoparticles for multifunctional smart drug delivery systems [3]. More recently silicon quantum dots have emerged as a less cytotoxic alternative to CdSe for bio

  3. Radiation related basic cancer research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the mechanism of radiation-induced apoptosis, the factors involved signaling, and the establishment of radiation-resistant cell lines in this study. During the TGF beta-stimulated epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT), actin rearrangement occurred first and fibronectin matrix assembly followed. These two events were considered independent since cytochalasin-D did not inhibit TGF stimulated matrix assembly and fibronectin supplementation did not induce EMT. During EMT, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and alpha v integrin have increased but MMP activation was not accompanied, which suggest that induction of extracellular matrix and activation of integrins may be main contributor for the EMT. Serum depriving induced apoptosis of HUVECs was prevented by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and PMA. The apoptosis prevention by VEGF and PMA were conformed by DNA fragmentation assay. The p53 expression level was down regulated by VEGF and PMA compared with serum deprived HUVECs. However, VEGF and PMA induces c-Myc expression level on these cells. We made the 5 radiation-resistant clones from breast, lung and cervical cancer cells. More than 70%, 100% and 50% increased resistance was detected in breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, and cervical cells, respectively. We carried out differential display-PCR to clone the radiation-resistant genes. 9 out of 10 genes were analyzed their sequence

  4. Radiation related basic cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Yoo, Young Do; Hong, Seok Il [and others

    2000-04-01

    We studied the mechanism of radiation-induced apoptosis, the factors involved signaling, and the establishment of radiation-resistant cell lines in this study. During the TGF beta-stimulated epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT), actin rearrangement occurred first and fibronectin matrix assembly followed. These two events were considered independent since cytochalasin-D did not inhibit TGF stimulated matrix assembly and fibronectin supplementation did not induce EMT. During EMT, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and alpha v integrin have increased but MMP activation was not accompanied, which suggest that induction of extracellular matrix and activation of integrins may be main contributor for the EMT. Serum depriving induced apoptosis of HUVECs was prevented by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and PMA. The apoptosis prevention by VEGF and PMA were conformed by DNA fragmentation assay. The p53 expression level was down regulated by VEGF and PMA compared with serum deprived HUVECs. However, VEGF and PMA induces c-Myc expression level on these cells. We made the 5 radiation-resistant clones from breast, lung and cervical cancer cells. More than 70%, 100% and 50% increased resistance was detected in breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, and cervical cells, respectively. We carried out differential display-PCR to clone the radiation-resistant genes. 9 out of 10 genes were analyzed their sequence.

  5. Contextualising Nanotechnology in Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Christine; Hayden, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    In recent years nanotechnology has become part of the content of many undergraduate chemistry and physics degree courses. This paper deals with the role of contextualisation of nanotechnology in the delivery of the content, as nanotechnology is only now being slowly integrated into many chemistry degree courses in Ireland and elsewhere. An…

  6. Nanotechnology: From Feynman to Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, K. Eric

    2004-01-01

    The revolutionary Feynman vision of a powerful and general nanotechnology, based on nanomachines that build with atom-by-atom control, promises great opportunities and, if abused, great dangers. This vision made nanotechnology a buzzword and launched the global nanotechnology race. Along the way, however, the meaning of the word has shifted. A…

  7. Exploiting developments in nanotechnology for the preferential delivery of platinum-based anti-cancer agents to tumours: targeting some of the hallmarks of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, James P; Ude, Ziga; Marmion, Celine J

    2016-01-01

    Platinum drugs as anti-cancer therapeutics are held in extremely high regard. Despite their success, there are drawbacks associated with their use; their dose-limiting toxicity, their limited activity against an array of common cancers and patient resistance to Pt-based therapeutic regimes. Current investigations in medicinal inorganic chemistry strive to offset these shortcomings through selective targeting of Pt drugs and/or the development of Pt drugs with new or multiple modes of action. A comprehensive overview showcasing how liposomes, nanocapsules, polymers, dendrimers, nanoparticles and nanotubes may be employed as vehicles to selectively deliver cytotoxic Pt payloads to tumour cells is provided.

  8. Integrative computational biology for cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Fortney, Kristen; Jurisica, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, high-throughput (HTP) technologies such as microarrays and mass spectrometry have fundamentally changed clinical cancer research. They have revealed novel molecular markers of cancer subtypes, metastasis, and drug sensitivity and resistance. Some have been translated into the clinic as tools for early disease diagnosis, prognosis, and individualized treatment and response monitoring. Despite these successes, many challenges remain: HTP platforms are often noisy and ...

  9. Stromal response to prostate cancer: nanotechnology-based detection of thioredoxin-interacting protein partners distinguishes prostate cancer associated stroma from that of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Singer

    Full Text Available Histological staining of reactive stroma has been shown to be a predictor of biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer, however, molecular markers of the stromal response to prostate cancer have not yet been fully delineated. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not the stromal biomarkers detected with a thioredoxin-targeted nanodevice could be used to distinguish the stroma associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia from that associated with PCA. In this regard, we recently demonstrated that a thioredoxin-targeted nanodevice selectively binds to reactive stroma in frozen prostate tumor tissue sections. To accomplish this, random frozen prostate tissue sections from each of 35 patients who underwent resection were incubated with the nanodevice and graded for fluorescent intensity. An adjacent section from each case was stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin to confirm the diagnosis. Select cases were stained with Masson's Trichrome or immunohistochemically using antibodies to thioredoxin reductase 1, thioredoxin reductase 2 or peroxiredoxin 1. Our results demonstrate that the graded intensity of nanodevice binding to the stroma associated with PCA was significantly higher (p = 0.0127 than that of benign prostatic hyperplasia using the t-test. Immunohistochemical staining of adjacent sections in representative cases showed that none of the two commonly studied thioredoxin interacting protein partners mirrored the fluorescence pattern seen with the nanodevice. However, thioredoxin reductase 2 protein was clearly shown to be a biomarker of prostate cancer-associated reactive stroma whose presence distinguishes the stroma associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia from that associated with prostate cancer. We conclude that the signal detected by the nanodevice, in contrast to individual targets detected with antibodies used in this study, originates from multiple thioredoxin interacting protein partners that distinguish the M2

  10. Materials and Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of the Materials and Nanotechnology Program is technology development related to processing, analysis, testing and characterization of materials in general. The Program is divided into subprograms in broad areas such as ceramic, composite and metallic materials as well as characterization of physical and chemical properties of materials

  11. Nanotechnology in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview is given of the application of nanotechnology to agriculture. This is an active field of R&D, where a large number of findings and innovations have been reported. For example, in soil management, applications reported include nanofertilizers, soil binders, water retention aids, and nut...

  12. Nutritional and Nanotechnological Modulators of Microglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maysinger, Dusica; Zhang, Issan

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are the essential responders to alimentary, pharmacological, and nanotechnological immunomodulators. These neural cells play multiple roles as surveyors, sculptors, and guardians of essential parts of complex neural circuitries. Microglia can play dual roles in the central nervous system; they can be deleterious and/or protective. The immunomodulatory effects of alimentary components, gut microbiota, and nanotechnological products have been investigated in microglia at the single-cell level and in vivo using intravital imaging approaches, and different biochemical assays. This review highlights some of the emerging questions and topics from studies involving alimentation, microbiota, nanotechnological products, and associated problems in this area of research. Some of the advantages and limitations of in vitro and in vivo models used to study the neuromodulatory effects of these factors, as well as the merits and pitfalls of intravital imaging modalities employed are presented. PMID:27471505

  13. Nutritional and Nanotechnological Modulators of Microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maysinger, Dusica; Zhang, Issan

    2016-01-01

    Microglia are the essential responders to alimentary, pharmacological, and nanotechnological immunomodulators. These neural cells play multiple roles as surveyors, sculptors, and guardians of essential parts of complex neural circuitries. Microglia can play dual roles in the central nervous system; they can be deleterious and/or protective. The immunomodulatory effects of alimentary components, gut microbiota, and nanotechnological products have been investigated in microglia at the single-cell level and in vivo using intravital imaging approaches, and different biochemical assays. This review highlights some of the emerging questions and topics from studies involving alimentation, microbiota, nanotechnological products, and associated problems in this area of research. Some of the advantages and limitations of in vitro and in vivo models used to study the neuromodulatory effects of these factors, as well as the merits and pitfalls of intravital imaging modalities employed are presented. PMID:27471505

  14. Nanotechnology in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    promises to bring the next wave of industrial production in various industries. Based on global market research, nanotechnology is expected to reach $1 trillion in 2015 according to the National Science Foundation in the USA. Nanotech is growing strong in the USA with the help of universities, startups and local government. This presentation will focus on various areas of nanotechnology that could benefit the academic, technology, and economic situation in the Philippines. The status of nanotechnology worldwide will be compared with that of the Philippines. (author)

  15. 纳米技术在胃癌诊断和治疗中的应用%Application of nanotechnology in the diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国斌

    2010-01-01

    @@ 纳米技术研究结构尺寸为0.1~100 nm范围内的材料的组成、性质和特殊功能.在这个范围的微粒具有高反应性、高表面积、高扩散性、奇特磁性和强荧光效应等,并且其光学、电学和磁性等特性均可调控[1-2].直径<50 nm的微粒很容易进入大部分细胞内,<20 nm的微粒能穿过血管壁进入组织间隙.磁性纳米微粒与肿瘤特异的抗体结合可构成肿瘤特异性对比剂.%Gastric cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality. The determination of early diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer is an important issue for medical researchers.Although there are many methods to help clinicians detect gastric cancer, the early diagnosis rate is still unsatisfactory. As a newlydeveloped field, nanomedicine provides the potential for the diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer. Nanomaterials have functional and structural properties that are not available from either discrete or bulk materials. Nanoparticles can be modified to target cancer cells, and when carrying fluorescent agents,they can delineate the focus clearly. Nanoparticles can also kill tumor cells without injuring normal cells when they serve as the drug loader. Fluorescent nanoparticles can also guide surgeons to resect lesions completely and clear the metastatic lymph nodes completely.

  16. Nanotechnology: Principles and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logothetidis, S.

    Nanotechnology is one of the leading scientific fields today since it combines knowledge from the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Medicine, Informatics, and Engineering. It is an emerging technological field with great potential to lead in great breakthroughs that can be applied in real life. Novel nano- and biomaterials, and nanodevices are fabricated and controlled by nanotechnology tools and techniques, which investigate and tune the properties, responses, and functions of living and non-living matter, at sizes below 100 nm. The application and use of nanomaterials in electronic and mechanical devices, in optical and magnetic components, quantum computing, tissue engineering, and other biotechnologies, with smallest features, widths well below 100 nm, are the economically most important parts of the nanotechnology nowadays and presumably in the near future. The number of nanoproducts is rapidly growing since more and more nanoengineered materials are reaching the global market The continuous revolution in nanotechnology will result in the fabrication of nanomaterials with properties and functionalities which are going to have positive changes in the lives of our citizens, be it in health, environment, electronics or any other field. In the energy generation challenge where the conventional fuel resources cannot remain the dominant energy source, taking into account the increasing consumption demand and the CO2 emissions alternative renewable energy sources based on new technologies have to be promoted. Innovative solar cell technologies that utilize nanostructured materials and composite systems such as organic photovoltaics offer great technological potential due to their attractive properties such as the potential of large-scale and low-cost roll-to-roll manufacturing processes The advances in nanomaterials necessitate parallel progress of the nanometrology tools and techniques to characterize and manipulate nanostructures. Revolutionary new approaches

  17. Nanotechnology R and D Policy of Japan and Nanotechnology Support Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 2nd Science and Technology Basic Plan (2001-2005), the area of nanotechnology and materials is designated one of the four prioritized areas in funding. Following this plan, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) and Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industries (METI), the main funding ministries, and their organizations, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), RIKEN, New Energy and Industrial Technology Organization (NEDO), and National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) promotes their research programs. Besides, in order to promote interdisciplinary, interorganizational, and international collaboration of researchers, Nanotechnology Support Project (NSP) was started by MEXT in 2002. The project has two missions: informational support and common use facility support. Nanotechnology Researchers Network Center of Japan is responsible for informational support, and 14 universities and national research institutes are responsible for common use facility support

  18. Interdisciplinarity in Biotechnology, Genomics and Nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimeriks, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study developments in biotechnology, genomics and nanotechnology in the period 1998–2008. The fields show changing interdisciplinary characteristics in relation to distinct co-evolutionary dynamics in research, science and society. Biotechnology emerged as a discipline in publicatio

  19. Articulation: how societal goals matter in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.

    2016-01-01

    Science policies try to steer scientists to conduct societally relevant research. This societal relevance is often expressed in large societal goals, such as addressing sustainability or helping with the problems that an ageing society might bring. Emerging technologies, like nanotechnology, are oft

  20. Nanotechnology and Nanoscale Science: Educational challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Blonder, Ron; Gardner, Grant E.; Albe, Virginie; Falvo, Michael; Chevrier, Joel

    2013-06-01

    Nanotechnology has been touted as the next 'industrial revolution' of our modern age. In order for successful research, development, and social discourses to take place in this field, education research is needed to inform the development of standards, course development, and workforce preparation. In addition, there is a growing need to educate citizens and students about risks, benefits, and social and ethical issues related to nanotechnology. This position paper describes the advancements that have been made in nanoscale science and nanotechnology, and the challenges that exist to educate students and the public about critical nanoscience concepts. This paper reviews the current research on nanotechnology education including curricula, educational programs, informal education, and teacher education. Furthermore, the unique risks, benefits and ethics of these unusual technological applications are described in relation to nanoeducation goals. Finally, we outline needed future research in the areas of nanoscience content, standards and curricula, nanoscience pedagogy, teacher education, and the risks, benefits, and social and ethical dimensions for education in this emerging field.

  1. A longitudinal analysis of nanotechnology literature: 1976-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnology research and applications have experienced rapid growth in recent years. We assessed the status of nanotechnology research worldwide by applying bibliographic, content map, and citation network analysis to a data set of about 200,000 nanotechnology papers published in the Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded database (SCI) from 1976 to 2004. This longitudinal study shows a quasi-exponential growth of nanotechnology articles with an average annual growth rate of 20.7% after 1991. The United States had the largest contribution of nanotechnology research and China and Korea had the fastest growth rates. The largest institutional contributions were from the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Sciences. The high-impact papers generally described tools, theories, technologies, perspectives, and overviews of nanotechnology. From the top 20 institutions, based on the average number of paper citations in 1976-2004, 17 were in the Unites States, 2 in France and 1 in Germany. Content map analysis identified the evolution of the major topics researched from 1976 to 2004, including investigative tools, physical phenomena, and experiment environments. Both the country citation network and the institution citation network had relatively high clustering, indicating the existence of citation communities in the two networks, and specific patterns in forming citation communities. The United States, Germany, Japan, and China were major citation centers in nanotechnology research with close inter-citation relationships.

  2. Nanomedicines as cancer therapeutics: Current status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhter, S.; Ahmad, M; Ramzani, F.; Singh, A..; Ahmad, I.; Rahman, Z.; Ahmad, F.J.; Storm, G.; Kok, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    As of 21st century, cancer is arguably the most complex and challenging disease known to mankind and an inevitable public health concern of this millennium. Nanotechnology, suitably amalgamated with cancer research, has ushered an era of highly personalized and safer medicines which can improve canc

  3. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization

  4. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part I: imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

  5. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part I: imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2011-04-01

    Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

  6. Toward the responsible innovation with nanotechnology in Japan: our scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The societal impacts of nanotechnology have attracted growing attention in the United States and Europe in recent years. In Japan, the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Technology Information Department) has played a central role in promoting discussions on this topic by collecting information from Japan and overseas, creating a network of the interested parties, and providing a forum for discussion. This paper presents a summary of recent activities in Japan relating to the societal impacts of nanotechnology, fro the launch of the 'Nanotechnology and Society' open forum (August 2004) until the 'Nanotechnology Debate' discussion forum (February 2007), and outlines the policy recommendations that came out of a project entitled 'Research on Facilitation of Public Acceptance of Nanotechnology' (March 2006)

  7. Nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics in plastic surgery: The next frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aaron; Chawla, Reema; G, Natasha; Mahdibeiraghdar, Sara; Jeyaraj, Rebecca; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Hamblin, Michael R; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2016-01-01

    The rapid ascent of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics as applied to medicine and surgery has seen an exponential rise in the scale of research generated in this field. This is evidenced not only by the sheer volume of papers dedicated to nanotechnology but also in a large number of new journals dedicated to nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics specifically to medicine and surgery. Aspects of nanotechnology that have already brought benefits to these areas include advanced drug delivery platforms, molecular imaging and materials engineering for surgical implants. Particular areas of interest include nerve regeneration, burns and wound care, artificial skin with nanoelectronic sensors and head and neck surgery. This study presents a review of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics, with focus on its applications and implications in plastic surgery.

  8. Nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics in plastic surgery: The next frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aaron; Chawla, Reema; G, Natasha; Mahdibeiraghdar, Sara; Jeyaraj, Rebecca; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Hamblin, Michael R; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2016-01-01

    The rapid ascent of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics as applied to medicine and surgery has seen an exponential rise in the scale of research generated in this field. This is evidenced not only by the sheer volume of papers dedicated to nanotechnology but also in a large number of new journals dedicated to nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics specifically to medicine and surgery. Aspects of nanotechnology that have already brought benefits to these areas include advanced drug delivery platforms, molecular imaging and materials engineering for surgical implants. Particular areas of interest include nerve regeneration, burns and wound care, artificial skin with nanoelectronic sensors and head and neck surgery. This study presents a review of nanotechnology and regenerative therapeutics, with focus on its applications and implications in plastic surgery. PMID:26422652

  9. Green Chemistry for Nanotechnology: Opportunities and Future Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnology is a paradigm for emerging technologies and much talked about area of science. It is the technology of future and has revolutionized all fields of medicine, agriculture, environmental and electronics by providing abilities that would never have previously dreamt of. It is a unique platform of multidisciplinary approaches integrating diverse fields of engineering, biology, physics and chemistry. In recent years, nanotechnology has seen the fastest pace in its all aspects of synthesis methodologies and wide applications in all areas of medicine, agricultural, environmental, and electronics. It is the impact of nanotechnology approaches that new fields of nanomedicine, cancer nanotechnology, nanorobotics and nanoelectronics have been emerged and are flourishing with the advances in this expanding field. Nanotechnology holds the potential for pervasive and promising applications and getting significant attention and financial aids also. Although there are different definitions of nanotechnology, in broad prospective, nanotechnology can be described as designing or exploiting materials at nanometer dimensions (i.e., one dimension less than 100 nanometers). At nanoscale, substances have a larger surface area to volume ratio than conventional materials which is the prime reason behind their increased level of reactivity, improved and size tunable magnetic, optical and electrical properties and more toxicity also

  10. Green Chemistry for Nanotechnology: Opportunities and Future Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preeti Nigam, Joshi, E-mail: ph.joshi@ncl.res.in [Combichem Bioresource Center, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune (India)

    2016-01-26

    Nanotechnology is a paradigm for emerging technologies and much talked about area of science. It is the technology of future and has revolutionized all fields of medicine, agriculture, environmental and electronics by providing abilities that would never have previously dreamt of. It is a unique platform of multidisciplinary approaches integrating diverse fields of engineering, biology, physics and chemistry. In recent years, nanotechnology has seen the fastest pace in its all aspects of synthesis methodologies and wide applications in all areas of medicine, agricultural, environmental, and electronics. It is the impact of nanotechnology approaches that new fields of nanomedicine, cancer nanotechnology, nanorobotics and nanoelectronics have been emerged and are flourishing with the advances in this expanding field. Nanotechnology holds the potential for pervasive and promising applications and getting significant attention and financial aids also. Although there are different definitions of nanotechnology, in broad prospective, nanotechnology can be described as designing or exploiting materials at nanometer dimensions (i.e., one dimension less than 100 nanometers). At nanoscale, substances have a larger surface area to volume ratio than conventional materials which is the prime reason behind their increased level of reactivity, improved and size tunable magnetic, optical and electrical properties and more toxicity also.

  11. An overview of the results of dissertation research in the field of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The result of the research «Nanomodified sulphurous binders for construction materials of general and special purpose» is the new methodological principles for development nanomodified sulphurous binders which are based on the consistent decomposition of quality criteria system of such materials, identification of elementary controlling receipt and technological factors through classification properties by phenomena, processes and components, scientific justification of material components choice, and then definition of experiment and statistic dependencies of influence of controlling factors on the material properties and performance of multicriterion optimization of receipt and technology for production of the material. The decomposition of quality criteria system of nanomodified sulphurous binders is based on the data about the possible application areas (chemically resistant concretes, capsulating of high toxic and radioactive wastes, seal of joints in chemically resistant coatings, etc. and requirements of GOST 4.200-78 «Quality criteria system for products. Construction. Basic regulations». Decomposition of a property (or a set of the properties by phenomena, processes and phases with identification of elementary factors is the base for identification of and ranking of controlling receipt and technological factors. Dispersed phase of nanomodified sulphurous binders has been grounded. It was shown thatit’s necessary to consider the possibility of formation of sulfide in the structure of obtained material and perform selection of raw mix taking into account the properties of forming sulfides and operation conditions of these construction materials and structures (first of all such as humidity, temperature and presence of any aggressive environments. The specialists may be also interested in the

  12. An overview of the results of dissertation research in the field of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Part 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The research «Materials of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier based on magnetic rock of acid content» set the theory and experimentally proves the opportunity to use magma rock of acid composition for production of nanostructured modifier of the materials of autoclave hardening. Activity of nanostructured modifier is provided by its composition and production technology: high specific surface with formation of nanodispersed polymineral; surface amorphization of rock-forming minerals; processes of mechanical and chemical dissolution of quartz and feldspar components with formation of active silica and alumina silica acids. The research has determined the character of the influence of nanostructured modifier in the sand blend on the gas formation, expansion of concrete mix and finally on the structure formation of the materials during preautoclave period. The authors proposed the compositions for the materials of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier made of granite to produce: pressed articles (silicate brick of density 1835–1950 kg/m², ultimate compressive strength – 17,8–23,3 МPа, thermal conductivity – 0,56–0,6 W/m°С., frost resistance – 40–55 cycles, water absorption – 11,4–12,2%. The developed articles meet the requirements of the existing codes: strength grade М150–М200 and frost resistance grade F35–F50. The specialists may be also interested in the following research: «Physical and chemical properties and structure of monomeric and polymer acetylenecarboxylated metals and nanocomposites based on them», «Nanomodified sulphuric binders for the construction materials of general and specific purpose», «Synthesis and catalytic properties of mesoporous nanomaterials based on СеО₂», «Synthesis and properties of

  13. Motivating Subjects: Data Sharing in Cancer Research

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores motivation in decision-making and action in science and technology, through the lens of a case study: scientific data sharing in cancer research. The research begins with the premise that motivation and emotion are key elements of what it means to be human, and consequently, are important variables in how individuals make decisions and take action. At the same time, institutional controls and social messaging send a variety of signals intended to motivate specific ...

  14. Material Binding Peptides for Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urartu Ozgur Safak Seker

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Remarkable progress has been made to date in the discovery of material binding peptides and their utilization in nanotechnology, which has brought new challenges and opportunities. Nowadays phage display is a versatile tool, important for the selection of ligands for proteins and peptides. This combinatorial approach has also been adapted over the past decade to select material-specific peptides. Screening and selection of such phage displayed material binding peptides has attracted great interest, in particular because of their use in nanotechnology. Phage display selected peptides are either synthesized independently or expressed on phage coat protein. Selected phage particles are subsequently utilized in the synthesis of nanoparticles, in the assembly of nanostructures on inorganic surfaces, and oriented protein immobilization as fusion partners of proteins. In this paper, we present an overview on the research conducted on this area. In this review we not only focus on the selection process, but also on molecular binding characterization and utilization of peptides as molecular linkers, molecular assemblers and material synthesizers.

  15. An overview of the results of dissertation research in the field of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The research «Aerated concrete of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier» has the following results: 1. The practicability of the use of the additives based on melamine-formaldehyde for plasticization of nanostructured silica modifier was proved. The optimal content of plasticizer is 0,1%. 2. The compositions of aerated concrete of autoclave hardening for construction and thermal insulation with quality classes D350–D500 and durability classes ВО,75; В2,5–В5 were proposed. 3. The technology for production of aerated concrete of autoclave hardening which comprises the use of nanostructured modifier. The specialists may be also interested in the research held by Vindizheva A.S. «Nanocomposite cabel elastrons based on polyvinylchloride and aluminum silicates », Ashrapov A.Kh. «Polymer construction nanocomposites based on polyvinylchloride », Dyatlov A.K. «Fine-grained self-compacting concrete with complex nanocontaining additive», Khuzin A.F. «Cement composites with additives of multilayer carbon nanotubes», Ermolin M.S. «Rectification of nano- and microparticles in rotating spiral columns for the analysis of polydispersed samples», Yukhaeva G.R. «Nanocomposite materials based on polyethylene and graphite nanoplates: synthesis, structure, properties», Shepelev D.S. «Energy exchange and localization of energy in carbon nanotubes», Nelyubova V.V. «Compressed silicate autoclave materials with the use of nanostructured modifier», Mironova A.S. «Nanofilled plaster compositions to increase durability of building facades», Goncharova M.A. «Structure formation and technology of construction and special composites based on little used metallurgy wastes», Maiorova L.A. «Controlled self-organization of azaporphyrins into 2D and 3D-nanostructures in Langmuir layers and

  16. Why is Physics Important to Cancer Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Anna D.

    Cancer is increasingly described as a ''disease of the genes'', and while the genome (in fact all of the ``omes'') are important information molecules that drive aspects of the initiation and progression of cancer, they are far from the whole story. Cancer is an extraordinarily complex system (in fact a complex of systems) that occurs in three-dimensional space, across multiple scales - and often over extended periods of time. The most challenging issues that plague the cancer field such as metastasis, cellular heterogeneity and resistance to therapy are in large part more rationally explained in the context of the physics of these systems vs. genomics. For example, the biology of metastasis has been studied extensively for decades with little progress. Metastatic disease depends on cells acquiring (or expressing innate information) new properties that enable and sustain their ability to migrate to distant sites. Developing a fundamental understanding of key cancer processes ranging from metastasis to immunotherapeutic responses requires that physicists (and mathematicians and engineers) be integrated into a new generation of cancer research - period! The presentation will focus on those areas where physics is essential - and the how's and whose of achieving the integration required.

  17. Risk of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louda, Petr; Bakalova, Totka

    2014-05-01

    Nano-this and nano-that. These days it seems you need the prefix "nano" for products or applications if you want to be either very trendy or incredibly scary. This "nano-trend" has assumed "mega" proportions. Vague promises of a better life are met by equally vague, generalized fears about a worse future. These debates have some aspects in common: the subject is complex and not easy to explain; there is no consensus on risks and benefits. - A particular problem with nanotechnology lies in the huge gap between the public perception of what the hype promises and the scientific and commercial reality of what the technology actually delivers today and in the near future. There is nanoscience, which is the study of phenomena and manipulation of material at the nanoscale, in essence an extension of existing sciences into the nanoscale. Then there is nanotechnology, which is the design, characterization, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at the nanoscale. Nanotechnology should really be called nanotechnologies: There is no single field of nanotechnology. The term broadly refers to such fields as biology, physics or chemistry, any scientific field really, or a combination thereof, that deals with the deliberate and controlled manufacturing of nanostructures. In addressing the health and environmental impact of nanotechnology we need to differentiate two types of nanostructures: (1) Nanocomposites, nanostructured surfaces and nanocomponents (electronic, optical, sensors etc.), where nanoscale particles are incorporated into a substance, material or device ("fixed" nanoparticles); and (2) "free" nanoparticles, where at some stage in production or use individual nanoparticles of a substance are present. There are four entry routes for nanoparticles into the body: they can be inhaled, swallowed, absorbed through skin or be deliberately injected during medical procedures. Once within the body they are highly mobile and

  18. Nanotechnology Applications for Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinel, Sibel; Montemagno, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, and the antiglaucoma treatments currently available suffer from various complications. Nanotechnology-based treatments show a great deal of promise in overcoming these complications and form the basis for next-generation glaucoma treatment strategies, with the help of applications such as controlled release, targeted delivery, increased bioavailability, diffusion limitations, and biocompatibility. Significant progress has been made in nanomedicine in the efficiency of antiglaucoma medications, nanofabrication systems such as microelectromechanical systems that remove the limitations of nanodevices, and tissue regeneration vesicles for developing glaucoma treatments not based on intraocular pressure. With the use of these advanced technologies, the prevention of glaucoma-induced blindness will be possible in the near future. Herein, we reviewed the recent advances in nanotechnology-based treatment strategies for glaucoma. PMID:26693592

  19. Nanotechnologies a general introduction

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Ferrari, M; Li Bassi, A

    2007-01-01

    After a brief description of what is nanotechnology (a triple definition will be attempted) and of its importance for the society, this first lecture manly aims at showing how nanoscience makes various nanotechnologies possible. The surprising story of direct imaging and manipulation of atoms (scanning probe microscopies will be the specific subject of the third lecture by prof. Andrea Li Bassi) is told to naturally introduce the crucial role of quantum confinement and surface defects. The electronic and vibrational properties of nanostructures are then discussed to understand the connection between the deeply modified (with respect to the bulk) quantum spectra and the physico-chemical properties of nanoscopic objects. In this context the concept of superatom (and its generalizations) is stressed. The essential role of both size and size control is finally emphasized discussing some significant applications in the fields of materials, devices and medicine. To this last argument (nanomedicine) the second lectu...

  20. Nanostructures and Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natelson, Douglas

    2015-06-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction and overview; 2. Solid state physics in a nutshell; 3. Bulk materials; 4. Fabrication and characterization at the nanoscale; 5. Real solids: defects, interactions, confinement; 6. Charge transport and nanoelectronics; 7. Magnetism and magnetoelectronics; 8. Photonics; 9. Micro and nanomechanics; 10. Micro and nanofluidics; 11. Bionanotechnology: a very brief overview; 12. Nanotechnology and the future; Appendix: common quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics results; References; Index.

  1. Nanotechnology-Based Cosmeceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Alka Lohani; Anurag Verma; Himanshi Joshi; Niti Yadav; Neha Karki

    2014-01-01

    Cosmeceuticals are the fastest growing segment of the personal care industry, and a number of topical cosmeceutical treatments for conditions such as photoaging, hyperpigmentation, wrinkles, and hair damage have come into widespread use. In the cosmeceutical arena nanotechnology has played an important role. Using new techniques to manipulate matter at an atomic or molecular level, they have been at the root of numerous innovations, opening up new perspectives for the future of cosmeceutical ...

  2. An overview of the results of dissertation research in the field of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The research «Increasing of concrete strength with carbon nanotubes by means of hydrodynamic cavitation» contains the calculation of prime cost of the main raw components which are necessary to produce fine-grained concrete with strength class B55, that demonstrates the economic efficiency of application of CNT as modifying additive for cement composites. Modification of concrete matrix with CNT leads to higher breaking point of compressive strength and that makes it possible to reduce discharge intensity of cement by the strength unit of the material. In this case introduction of 0,05% initial CNT of binder mass into concrete led to 1,5 times increased strength-to-weight ratio. The amount of saved resources was determined as the cost difference between amount of raw materials which are necessary to produce concrete B55 class of traditional composition and the concrete similar by the class obtained due to introduction of carbon nanomodifier into it. The choice of the cost of 1 gram of multilayer CNT was based on the analysis of commercial offers of Russian and foreign companies that are specilized in manufacture and realization of carbon nanomaterials. The specialists may be also interested in the research held by Podgorny I.I. «Materials of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier based on magnetic rock of acid content», Satjukov А.B. «Nanomodified composite binder for special construction mortars», Hammadi Mustafa Abdul Madzhid Hamid «The method to nanomodify cement concretes with nanomortar», Altynnik N.I. «Aeroconcrete of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier», Volkov D.S. «Complex approaches to characterization of nanodiamonds of detonation synthesis and their colloid solutions», Ermolin М.S. «Rectification of nano- and microparticles in rotating

  3. Nanotechnology in Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetisen, Ali K; Qu, Hang; Manbachi, Amir; Butt, Haider; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Hinestroza, Juan P; Skorobogatiy, Maksim; Khademhosseini, Ali; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2016-03-22

    Increasing customer demand for durable and functional apparel manufactured in a sustainable manner has created an opportunity for nanomaterials to be integrated into textile substrates. Nanomoieties can induce stain repellence, wrinkle-freeness, static elimination, and electrical conductivity to fibers without compromising their comfort and flexibility. Nanomaterials also offer a wider application potential to create connected garments that can sense and respond to external stimuli via electrical, color, or physiological signals. This review discusses electronic and photonic nanotechnologies that are integrated with textiles and shows their applications in displays, sensing, and drug release within the context of performance, durability, and connectivity. Risk factors including nanotoxicity, nanomaterial release during washing, and environmental impact of nanotextiles based on life cycle assessments have been evaluated. This review also provides an analysis of nanotechnology consolidation in the textiles market to evaluate global trends and patent coverage, supplemented by case studies of commercial products. Perceived limitations of nanotechnology in the textile industry and future directions are identified. PMID:26918485

  4. Nanotechnology and vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Gyeong Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progress of conventional vaccines, improvements are clearly required due to concerns about the weak immunogenicity of these vaccines, intrinsic instability in vivo, toxicity, and the need for multiple administrations. To overcome such problems, nanotechnology platforms have recently been incorporated into vaccine development. Nanocarrier-based delivery systems offer an opportunity to enhance the humoral and cellular immune responses. This advantage is attributable to the nanoscale particle size, which facilitates uptake by phagocytic cells, the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, leading to efficient antigen recognition and presentation. Modifying the surfaces of nanocarriers with a variety of targeting moieties permits the delivery of antigens to specific cell surface receptors, thereby stimulating specific and selective immune responses. In this review, we introduce recent advances in nanocarrier-based vaccine delivery systems, with a focus on the types of carriers, including liposomes, emulsions, polymer-based particles, and carbon-based nanomaterials. We describe the remaining challenges and possible breakthroughs, including the development of needle-free nanotechnologies and a fundamental understanding of the in vivo behavior and stability of the nanocarriers in nanotechnology-based delivery systems.

  5. INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH «DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN MARKET OF NANOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS IN CONSTRUCTION UNTIL 2020». PART 3. ANALYSIS OF THE RUSSIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSEV Boris Vladimirovich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The previous publications [1, 2] dealt with the analysis of the main indicators to the world market of nanotechnological construction materials. Today this market is estimated at 12 milliard of dollars, and its rapid growth is expected soon. The present paper analyses the Russian market.

  6. Nanotechnology based devices and applications in medicine: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis A Martis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been the most explored and extensively studied area in recent times. Many devices which were earlier impossible to imagine, are being developed at a lightning speed with the application of nanotechnology. To overcome the challenges offered by the most dreaded diseases, such as cancer or any disease involving the central nervous system or other inaccessible areas of the human body, nanotechnology has been proved to be a boon in making the treatment more target specific and minimizing the toxicities. This review describes a handful of important devices and applications based on nanotechnology in medicine made in recent times. This article also describes in brief the regulatory concerns and the ethical issues pertaining to nanomedical devices.

  7. Inequality gaps in nanotechnology development in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Foladori

    2013-06-01

    The third characteristic is the absence of research on potential impacts of nanotechnology on human health and the environment, as well as other societal implications, which may generate new forms of unequal distribution of benefits and risks.

  8. Introduction to the Field of Nanotechnology Ethics and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linton, J.D.; Walsh, S.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnologies and nanoscience have generated an unprecedented global research and development race involving dozens of countries. The understanding of associated environmental, ethical, and societal implications lags far behind the science and technology. Consequently, it is critical to consider

  9. Nanotechnology in neurology: Genesis, current status, and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambesh, Paurush; Angeli, Daniel Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a promising, novel field of technological development. There is great potential in research and clinical applications for neurological diseases. Here we chronicle the inception of nanotechnology, discuss its integration with neurology, and highlight the challenges in current application. Some of the problems involving practical use of neuronanotechnology are direct biological toxicity, visualization of the nanodevice, and the short life expectancy of nanomachinery. Neuron cell therapy is an upcoming field for the treatment of challenging problems in neurology. Peptide nanofibers based on amphiphilic molecules have been developed that can autoregulate their structure depending on the conditions of the surrounding milieu. Such frameworks are promising for serving as drug delivery systems or communication bridges between damaged neurons. For common disabling diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and multiple sclerosis (MS), recent developments have seen revolutionary nanotech-based novelties, which are discussed here in detail. Bioimaging integrated with nanoneuromedicine has opened up new doors for cancer and infection therapeutics. PMID:26713006

  10. Nanotechnology in neurology: Genesis, current status, and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paurush Ambesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a promising, novel field of technological development. There is great potential in research and clinical applications for neurological diseases. Here we chronicle the inception of nanotechnology, discuss its integration with neurology, and highlight the challenges in current application. Some of the problems involving practical use of neuronanotechnology are direct biological toxicity, visualization of the nanodevice, and the short life expectancy of nanomachinery. Neuron cell therapy is an upcoming field for the treatment of challenging problems in neurology. Peptide nanofibers based on amphiphilic molecules have been developed that can autoregulate their structure depending on the conditions of the surrounding milieu. Such frameworks are promising for serving as drug delivery systems or communication bridges between damaged neurons. For common disabling diseases such as Alzheimer′s disease (AD, Parkinson′s disease (PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and multiple sclerosis (MS, recent developments have seen revolutionary nanotech-based novelties, which are discussed here in detail. Bioimaging integrated with nanoneuromedicine has opened up new doors for cancer and infection therapeutics.

  11. The social and economic challenges of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . While there is some debate about whether this vision is realisable, amongst those who accept it the discussion focuses on rather extreme outcomes, both utopian and dystopian. There is also an emerging debate amongst those more focused on short-term outcomes. This pits those who believe that the rapid growth of nanotechnotogy will have strongly positive economic benefits, and those who on the grounds of environmentalism and social equity seek to slow or halt its development. One immediate issue that is growing in prominence is whether existing regulatory regimes are robust enough to deal with any special qualities that nanostructured materials may have, or whether new solutions are required. These diverging views on nanotechnotogy and the increasingly public debate, involving civil society, non-governmental organisations and the media, have led to concerns that there will be a backlash against nanotechnology akin to that over genetic modification. In response the call is for social science to take a role focused on promoting social awareness and acceptance of nanotechnology. The agenda for the social sciences needs to be broader than the public-science interface. Three themes stand out as important: the governance of technological change; social learning and the evaluation of risk and opportunity under uncertainty; the role of new technology in ameliorating or accentuating inequity and economic divides. Tackling these themes will involve a range of social science issues, many of which are topical independently of nanotechnology, for instance technology transfer, ageing, the commercialisation of science, and change management. Nonetheless there may well be issues unique to nanotechnology, arising from its inherent interdisciplinarity and its capacity to affect the human-machine-nature interface. A programme of research designed to address the diverse social science issues should thus both build on existing research and develop fresh avenues, particularly through

  12. The social and economic challenges of nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Stephen; Jones, Richard; Geldart, Alison

    2003-07-01

    . While there is some debate about whether this vision is realisable, amongst those who accept it the discussion focuses on rather extreme outcomes, both utopian and dystopian. There is also an emerging debate amongst those more focused on short-term outcomes. This pits those who believe that the rapid growth of nanotechnotogy will have strongly positive economic benefits, and those who on the grounds of environmentalism and social equity seek to slow or halt its development. One immediate issue that is growing in prominence is whether existing regulatory regimes are robust enough to deal with any special qualities that nanostructured materials may have, or whether new solutions are required. These diverging views on nanotechnotogy and the increasingly public debate, involving civil society, non-governmental organisations and the media, have led to concerns that there will be a backlash against nanotechnology akin to that over genetic modification. In response the call is for social science to take a role focused on promoting social awareness and acceptance of nanotechnology. The agenda for the social sciences needs to be broader than the public-science interface. Three themes stand out as important: the governance of technological change; social learning and the evaluation of risk and opportunity under uncertainty; the role of new technology in ameliorating or accentuating inequity and economic divides. Tackling these themes will involve a range of social science issues, many of which are topical independently of nanotechnology, for instance technology transfer, ageing, the commercialisation of science, and change management. Nonetheless there may well be issues unique to nanotechnology, arising from its inherent interdisciplinarity and its capacity to affect the human-machine-nature interface. A programme of research designed to address the diverse social science issues should thus both build on existing research and develop fresh avenues, particularly through

  13. What's New in Colorectal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS ... in colorectal cancer research? Research is always going on in the area of colorectal cancer. Scientists are looking for causes and ways to prevent ...

  14. Translating basic research in cancer patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maugeri-Saccà

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of molecular targeted therapies and the development of high-throughput biotechnologies, it has become evident that progress in cancer research is largely due to the creation of multidisciplinary teams able to plan clinical trials supported by appropriate molecular hypotheses. These efforts have culminated in the identification and validation of biomarkers predictive of response, as well as in the generation of more accurate prognostic tools. The identification of cancer stem cells has provided further insights into mechanisms of cancer, and many studies have tried to translate this biological notion into prognostic and predictive information. In this regard, new agents targeting key stemness-related pathways have entered the clinical development, and preliminary data suggested an encouraging antitumor activity.

  15. Nanotechnology between the lab and the shop floor: what are the effects on labor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnology’s effects on labor and employment have received little attention within research and debates on the social implications of nanotechnology. This article shows that, in spite of its incipient development, nanotechnology is unquestionably moving toward manufacturing, involving a still very small but increasing component of the labor force. Based on secondary data and the literature review, I compose a picture of the emerging jobs in nanotechnology and highlight four emerging trends in nanotechnology workers’ skills requirements. I show that, in addition to job creation, nanotechnology diffusion is likely to pose labor market changes that may be disruptive for some categories of workers.

  16. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY [REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    RATIU Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering. Nanotechnology overcomes the limitation of applying conventional methods to impart certain properties to textile materials. There is no doubt that in the next few years nanotechnology will penetrate into every area of the textile industry. Nanotextiles are nanoscale fibrous materials...

  17. Application of Metabolomics in Thyroid Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wojakowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy with four major types distinguished on the basis of histopathological features: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic. Classification of thyroid cancer is the primary step in the assessment of prognosis and selection of the treatment. However, in some cases, cytological and histological patterns are inconclusive; hence, classification based on histopathology could be supported by molecular biomarkers, including markers identified with the use of high-throughput “omics” techniques. Beside genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, metabolomic approach emerges as the most downstream attitude reflecting phenotypic changes and alterations in pathophysiological states of biological systems. Metabolomics using mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques allows qualitative and quantitative profiling of small molecules present in biological systems. This approach can be applied to reveal metabolic differences between different types of thyroid cancer and to identify new potential candidates for molecular biomarkers. In this review, we consider current results concerning application of metabolomics in the field of thyroid cancer research. Recent studies show that metabolomics can provide significant information about the discrimination between different types of thyroid lesions. In the near future, one could expect a further progress in thyroid cancer metabolomics leading to development of molecular markers and improvement of the tumor types classification and diagnosis.

  18. The challenges of green nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel de la Guardia

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials have great impacts on life sciences; however, these advanced materials may induce inadvertant consequences. Thus, this editorial will highlight the futuristic challenges ingreen nanotechnology.

  19. Quantum Dots for Cancer Research: Current Status, Remaining Issues, and Future Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer is a major threat to public health in the 21st century because it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis, cancer invasion, and metastasis remain unclear. Thus, the development of a novel approach for cancer detection is urgent, and real-time monitoring is crucial in revealing its underlying biological mechanisms. With the optical and chemical advantages of quantum dots (QDs), QD-based nanotechnology is helpful in constructing a biomedical imaging platform for cancer behavior study. This review mainly focuses on the application of QD-based nanotechnology in cancer cell imaging and tumor microenvironment studies both in vivo and in vitro, as well as the remaining issues and future perspectives

  20. Knowledge transfer activities of scientists in nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Zalewska-Kurek, Kasia; Egedova, Klaudia; Geurts, Peter A.Th.M.; Roosendaal, Hans E.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theory of strategic positioning that explains scientists’ strategic behavior in knowledge transfer from university to industry. The theory is based on the drivers strategic interdependence and organizational autonomy and entails three modes of behavior of scientists: mode1, mode2, and mode3 (the research entrepreneur). The results of an empirical study conducted at a research institute for nanotechnology show that, to increase the likelihood of scientists engaging ...

  1. Nanotechnology for sustainable development: retrospective and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world is facing great challenges in meeting rising demands for basic commodities (e.g., food, water and energy), finished goods (e.g., cell phones, cars and airplanes) and services (e.g., shelter, healthcare and employment) while reducing and minimizing the impact of human activities on Earth’s global environment and climate. Nanotechnology has emerged as a versatile platform that could provide efficient, cost-effective and environmentally acceptable solutions to the global sustainability challenges facing society. This special issue of the Journal of Nanoparticle Research is devoted to the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve sustainable development. We highlight recent advances and discuss opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address global challenges in (1) water purification, (2) clean energy technologies, (3) greenhouse gases management, (4) materials supply and utilization, and (5) green manufacturing and chemistry. In addition to the technical challenges listed above, we also discuss societal perspectives and provide an outlook of the role of nanotechnology in the convergence of knowledge, technology and society for achieving sustainable development

  2. Nanotechnology for sustainable development: retrospective and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diallo, Mamadou S., E-mail: mdiallo@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Graduate School of Energy, Environment, Water and Sustainability (EEWS) (Korea, Republic of); Fromer, Neil A. [California Institute of Technology, Resnick Sustainability Institute (United States); Jhon, Myung S. [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The world is facing great challenges in meeting rising demands for basic commodities (e.g., food, water and energy), finished goods (e.g., cell phones, cars and airplanes) and services (e.g., shelter, healthcare and employment) while reducing and minimizing the impact of human activities on Earth’s global environment and climate. Nanotechnology has emerged as a versatile platform that could provide efficient, cost-effective and environmentally acceptable solutions to the global sustainability challenges facing society. This special issue of the Journal of Nanoparticle Research is devoted to the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve sustainable development. We highlight recent advances and discuss opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address global challenges in (1) water purification, (2) clean energy technologies, (3) greenhouse gases management, (4) materials supply and utilization, and (5) green manufacturing and chemistry. In addition to the technical challenges listed above, we also discuss societal perspectives and provide an outlook of the role of nanotechnology in the convergence of knowledge, technology and society for achieving sustainable development.

  3. Innovations in nanotechnology for water treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehrke I

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ilka Gehrke, Andreas Geiser, Annette Somborn-SchulzFraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology UMSICHT, Oberhausen, GermanyAbstract: Important challenges in the global water situation, mainly resulting from worldwide population growth and climate change, require novel innovative water technologies in order to ensure a supply of drinking water and reduce global water pollution. Against this background, the adaptation of highly advanced nanotechnology to traditional process engineering offers new opportunities in technological developments for advanced water and wastewater technology processes. Here, an overview of recent advances in nanotechnologies for water and wastewater treatment processes is provided, including nanobased materials, such as nanoadsorbents, nanometals, nanomembranes, and photocatalysts. The beneficial properties of these materials as well as technical barriers when compared with conventional processes are reported. The state of commercialization is presented and an outlook on further research opportunities is given for each type of nanobased material and process. In addition to the promising technological enhancements, the limitations of nanotechnology for water applications, such as laws and regulations as well as potential health risks, are summarized. The legal framework according to nanoengineered materials and processes that are used for water and wastewater treatment is considered for European countries and for the USA.Keywords: nanotechnology, water technology, nanoadsorbents, nanometals, nanomembranes, photocatalysis

  4. Development of Taiwan’s strategies for regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals harmonized with international considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo JW

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jiun-Wen Guo,1 Yu-Hsuan Lee,2 Hsiau-Wen Huang,3 Mei-Chyun Tzou,3 Ying-Jan Wang,2 Jui-Chen Tsai1,4 1Institute of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Chung Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; 2Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; 3Food and Drug Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taiwan; 4Center for Pharmaceutical Regulatory Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan Abstract: Nanotechnology offers potential in pharmaceuticals and biomedical developments for improving drug delivery systems, medical imaging, diagnosis, cancer therapy, and regenerative medicine. Although there is no international regulation or legislation specifically for nanomedicine, it is agreed worldwide that considerably more attention should be paid to the quality, safety, and efficacy of nanotechnology-based drugs. The US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency have provided several draft regulatory guidance and reflection papers to assist the development of nanomedicines. To cope with the impact of nanotechnology and to foster its pharmaceutical applications and development in Taiwan, this article reviews the trends of regulating nanotechnology-based pharmaceuticals in the international community and proposes strategies for Taiwan’s regulation harmonized with international considerations. The draft regulatory measures include a chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC review checklist and guidance for CMC review of liposomal products. These have been submitted for discussion among an expert committee, with membership comprised of multidisciplinary academia, research institutions, the pharmaceutical industry, and regulators, and are currently approaching final consensus. Once a consensus is reached, these mechanisms will be recommended to the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration for jurisdiction and may

  5. Introduction: Epidemiologic research and prevention of occupational cancer in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Boffetta, P.; Kogevinas, M.

    1999-01-01

    Research on occupational cancer epidemiology has been an important area of occupational health in Europe since the early studies were conducted in the United Kingdom in the 1950s and 1960s. During the last decade, occupational cancer research in Europe has gained an international dimension and become increasingly interdisciplinary in nature. At present, occupational exposures might be responsible for 13 to 18% of lung cancers, 2 to 10% of bladder cancers, and 2 to 8% of laryngeal cancers in E...

  6. PREFACE: TNT 2004: Trends in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Antonio; Serena, Pedro A.; Saenz, Juan Jose; Welland, Mark; Reifenberger, Ron

    2005-05-01

    This special issue of Nanotechnology presents representative contributions describing the main topics covered at the fifth `Trends in Nanotechnology' (TNT2004) international conference, held in Segovia, Spain, 13-17 September 2004. During the past few years many international or regional conferences have emerged in response to the growing awareness of the importance of nanotechnology as a key issue for the future of scientific and technological development. Among these, the conference series `Trends in Nanotechnology' (Toledo, Spain, 2000; Segovia, Spain, 2001; Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 2002; Salamanca, Spain, 2003; and Segovia, Spain, 2004) has become one of the most important meeting points in the nanotechnology field: it provides fresh ideas, brings together well-known speakers, and promotes a suitable environment for discussions, exchanging ideas, and enhancing scientific and personal relations among participants. TNT2004 was organized in a similar way to the four previous TNT conferences, with an impressive scientific programme, without parallel sessions, covering a wide spectrum of nanotechnology research. In 2004, more than 370 scientists worldwide attended this event and contributed more than 80 talks, 236 posters, and stimulating discussions about their most recent research. The aim of the conference was to focus on the applications of nanotechnology and to bring together, in a scientific forum, various worldwide groups belonging to industry, universities and government institutions. TNT2004 was particularly effective at transmitting information and establishing contacts among workers in this field. Graduate students attending such conferences understand the importance of interdisciplinary skills in facilitating their future lines of research. Sixty-four graduate students received a grant (from NASA, ONRIFO, IRC, iNANO, SME, NSERC/CRSNG, EU PHANTOMS Network or TNT) allowing them to present their work. During this event, 22 prizes for the best posters

  7. Computers, Nanotechnology and Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Bertil

    2008-10-01

    In 1958, two years after the Dartmouth conference, where the term artificial intelligence was coined, Herbert Simon and Allen Newell asserted the existence of "machines that think, that learn and create." They were further prophesying that the machines' capacity would increase and be on par with the human mind. Now, 50 years later, computers perform many more tasks than one could imagine in the 1950s but, virtually, no computer can do more than could the first digital computer, developed by John von Neumann in the 1940s. Computers still follow algorithms, they do not create them. However, the development of nanotechnology seems to have given rise to new hopes. With nanotechnology two things are supposed to happen. Firstly, due to the small scale it will be possible to construct huge computer memories which are supposed to be the precondition for building an artificial brain, secondly, nanotechnology will make it possible to scan the brain which in turn will make reverse engineering possible; the mind will be decoded by studying the brain. The consequence of such a belief is that the brain is no more than a calculator, i.e., all that the mind can do is in principle the results of arithmetical operations. Computers are equivalent to formal systems which in turn was an answer to an idea by Hilbert that proofs should contain ideal statements for which operations cannot be applied in a contentual way. The advocates of artificial intelligence will place content in a machine that is developed not only to be free of content but also cannot contain content. In this paper I argue that the hope for artificial intelligence is in vain.

  8. Multidisciplinary Cognitive Content of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Milojević, Staša

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the cognitive evolution and disciplinary diversity of nanotechnology as expressed through the terminology used in titles of nano journal articles. The analysis is based on the NanoBank bibliographic database of 287,106 nano articles published between 1981 and 2004. We perform multifaceted analyses of title words, focusing on 100 most frequent terms. Hierarchical clustering of title terms reveals three distinct time periods of cognitive development of nano research: formative (1981-1990), early (1991-1998), and current (after 1998). Early period is characterized by the introduction of thin film deposition techniques, while the current period is characterized by the increased focus on carbon nanotube and nanoparticle research. We introduce a method to identify disciplinary components of nanotechnology. It shows that the nano research is being carried out in a number of diverse parent disciplines. Currently only 5% of articles are published in dedicated nano-only journals. We find that some...

  9. Basic and technical research on lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In association with clinical study of carbon beam therapy for lung cancer, the basic research for lung cancer and the patients with this disease has been carried out for the past 10 years. With regard to lung damage by the carbon beams, firstly pulmonary function was measured and analyzed for the patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Force expiratory volume in 1 second (FVE 1.0) and TLC (total lung capacity) was found to be reduced significantly at 6 and 12 months after therapy but the reduction rate was a little, which can support the safety of this treatment modality. Secondly, the regional lung damage by the beams was investigated by using correct fusion of CT images with carbon beam dose distribution, diagnostic follow-up CT images and blood flow and ventilation spect images. It demonstrated the graded decrease blood flow by dose and the compensatory increase of blood flow in the adjacent lobe of lung unexposed to irradiation. On the other hand, the biological study of carbon beam effects on lung cancer cells and tumors line was conducted. Firstly, by using 7 or 4 human lung cancer cell line, the radiosensitivity of carbon beams was compared with that of photons by different histological patterns. It was found that there was no essential difference in the sensitivity pattern for lung cancer histology between the carbon beams and photons though the former doubled the later in power. Secondly, by using IA cell lines among them, the dynamic of clonogenic cells (clonogen) in a nude tumor and the changes in its morphology following irradiation was investigated, clarifying that the clonogen proliferating under anoxic or hypoxic conditions played a pivotal role for tumor regrowth and stemmed from the different clone which had been genetically selected and developed under these conditions. The finding of clonogen becomes one of the evidence supporting the superiority of a single-dose radiotherapy to fractionated radiotherapy. (author)

  10. Improving Cancer Care Through Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Deborah K

    2015-09-01

    Nursing research and nurse researchers have been an integral and significant part of the Oncology Nursing Society's (ONS's) history, as evidenced by the development of the Nursing Research Committee within a few years of ONS's establishment. Ruth McCorkle, PhD, RN, FAAN, was the committee's first chairperson in 1979. This was followed by the creation of the Advanced Nursing Research Special Interest Group in 1989 under the leadership of Jean Brown, PhD, RN, FAAN. ONS also began to recognize nurse researchers in 1994 by creating the annual ONS Distinguished Researcher Award to recognize the contributions of a member who has conducted or promoted research that has enhanced the science and practice of oncology nursing. The list of recipients and of their work is impressive and reflects the wide range of our practice areas (see http://bit.ly/1MTC5cp for the recipient list). In addition, the ONS Foundation began funding research in 1981 and has distributed more than $24 million in research grants, research fellowships, and other scholarships, lectures, public education projects, and career development awards (ONS Foundation, 2015). And, in 2006, the Putting Evidence Into Practice resource was unveiled, which provides evidence-based intervention reviews for the 20 most common problems experienced by patients with cancer and their caregivers (www.ons
.org/practice-resources/pep)
. PMID:26302272

  11. The cancer translational research informatics platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Kimberly

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the pressing need for the creation of applications that facilitate the aggregation of clinical and molecular data, most current applications are proprietary and lack the necessary compliance with standards that would allow for cross-institutional data exchange. In line with its mission of accelerating research discoveries and improving patient outcomes by linking networks of researchers, physicians, and patients focused on cancer research, caBIG (cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™ has sponsored the creation of the caTRIP (Cancer Translational Research Informatics Platform tool, with the purpose of aggregating clinical and molecular data in a repository that is user-friendly, easily accessible, as well as compliant with regulatory requirements of privacy and security. Results caTRIP has been developed as an N-tier architecture, with three primary tiers: domain services, the distributed query engine, and the graphical user interface, primarily making use of the caGrid infrastructure to ensure compatibility with other tools currently developed by caBIG. The application interface was designed so that users can construct queries using either the Simple Interface via drop-down menus or the Advanced Interface for more sophisticated searching strategies to using drag-and-drop. Furthermore, the application addresses the security concerns of authentication, authorization, and delegation, as well as an automated honest broker service for deidentifying data. Conclusion Currently being deployed at Duke University and a few other centers, we expect that caTRIP will make a significant contribution to further the development of translational research through the facilitation of its data exchange and storage processes.

  12. The social responsibility of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: an integral approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of social responsibility provides the ideal framework for raising awareness and arousing reflection on the social and environmental impact of nanoparticles in the range of 1–100 nm generated from research activities in nanoscience and production-related activities in nanotechnology. The model proposed here relates the essential aspects of these concepts by connecting the classical sequence Research–Development–Innovation (R and D and I) to nanoscience and nanotechnology (N and N) and social responsibility (SR). This paper identifies the stakeholders of the process and provides an extensive definition of Social Responsibility and related concepts. In addition, it describes the internal and external connotations of the implementation of SR at research centers and nanotechnological industries, and discusses the social implications of nanoscience and nanotechnology with provision for subjects such as nanoethics, nanotoxicity, and nanomedicine, which have emerged from the widespread use of nanomaterials by today’s society.

  13. Nanotechnology: The Incredible Invisible World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda S.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of nanotechnology was first introduced in 1959 by Richard Feynman at a meeting of the American Physical Society. Nanotechnology opens the door to an exciting new science/technology/engineering field. The possibilities for the uses of this technology should inspire the imagination to think big. Many are already pursuing such feats…

  14. Nanotechnology overview: Opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology can be defined as the science of manipulating matter at the nanometer scale in order to discover new properties and possibly produce new products. For the past 30 years, a considerable amount of scientific interest and R&D funding devoted to nanotechnology has led to rapid developmen...

  15. NANOTECHNOLOGY USE IN MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Reddy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology is shrinking quantity wise, increasing quality wise at a rather rapid rate. As a result, more and more advancements are taking place at the cellular, molecular and atomic level — at the nanoscale. NANOTECHNOLOGY: Is especially important to medicine because the medical field deals with things on the smallest of levels. Additionally, the small nano devices that are being developed right now can enter the body and treat and prevent diseases. NANOMEDICINE: Is the application of nanotechnology (the engineering of tiny machines for the prevention and treatment of disease in the human body. This evolving discipline has the potential to dramatically change medical science. NANOBOTS: Smallest of robots could be used to perform a number of functions inside the body and out. They could even be programmed to build other nanobots. NANOCOMPUTERS: To direct nanobots in their work, there are special computers. NANOTWEEZERS: devices are designed to manipulate nanostructures. Nanotweezers are usually constructed using nanotubes. NANOCHIP: Is an integrated circuit that is so small, in physical terms, that individual particles of matter play major roles

  16. NANOTECHNOLOGY: THE COMING REVOLUTION IN MODERN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Rupali; Mukhopadhyay Sayantan; Lakshmayya; Goswami Laxmi

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a wide field that covers a variety of devices derived from engineering, physics, chemistry, and biology. The promising new field of nanotechnology, created up by rapid advances in life science and technology, gained countless new opportunities for modern medical science and disease treatment in human health care. Among the various researches in delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents for the diagnosis and treatment of a number of diseases. The development of nanopharma...

  17. What Counts as a 'Social and Ethical Issue' in Nanotechnology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce V. Lewenstein

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available As 'social and ethical issues' becomes a recurring phrase in the community paying attention to nanotechnology research, a crucial question becomes: what counts as a social and ethical issue? A typical list includes privacy, environmental health and safety, media hype, and other apparently unrelated issues. This article surveys those issues and suggests that concerns about fundamental concepts of ethics, such as fairness, justice, equity, and especially power, unite the various issues identified as 'social and ethical issues' in nanotechnology.

  18. Nanoparticles, nanotechnology – potential environmental and occupational hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some information about current state of knowledge of the risk of engineered nanoparticles and nanotechnology for the environment and human health. The nanotechnology influences all industrial and public sectors including healthcare, agriculture, transport, energy, information and communication technologies. Both, the potential benefits and risks, associated with the application of engineered nanoparticles have been widely debated in recent years. The most important problem for the future research is the evaluation of the risk associated with nanomaterials exposure.

  19. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  20. 3rd International Conference Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsenko, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    This book presents some of the latest achievements in nanotechnology and nanomaterials from leading researchers in Ukraine, Europe, and beyond. It features contributions from participants in the 3rd International Science and Practice Conference Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials (NANO2015) held in Lviv, Ukraine on August 26-30, 2015. The International Conference was organized jointly by the Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, University of Tartu (Estonia), Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Ukraine), University of Turin (Italy), Pierre and Marie Curie University (France), and European Profiles A.E. (Greece). Internationally recognized experts from a wide range of universities and research institutions share their knowledge and key results on topics ranging from nanooptics, nanoplasmonics, and interface studies to energy storage and biomedical applications. Presents cutting-edge advances in nanocomposites and carbon and silicon-based nanomaterials for a wide range of engine...

  1. Evidence and research in rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main evidences of epidemiology, diagnostic imaging, pathology, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and follow-up are reviewed to optimize the routine treatment of rectal cancer according to a multidisciplinary approach. This paper reports on the knowledge shared between different specialists involved in the design and management of the multidisciplinary ESTRO Teaching Course on Rectal Cancer. The scenario of ongoing research is also addressed. In this time of changing treatments, it clearly appears that a common standard for large heterogeneous patient groups have to be substituted by more individualised therapies based on clinical-pathological features and very soon on molecular and genetic markers. Only trained multidisciplinary teams can face this new challenge and tailor the treatments according to the best scientific evidence for each patient

  2. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Bergkvist, Leif; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-06-01

    The World Cancer Research Fund/American Association for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) has published eight nutrition-related recommendations for the prevention of cancer. However, few prospective studies have examined these recommendations by breast cancer hormone receptor subtype and only one case-control study has included the dietary supplements recommendation in their evaluation. We investigated whether adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations was associated with breast cancer incidence, overall and by hormone receptor subtype, in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Among 31,514 primarily postmenopausal women diet and lifestyle factors were assessed with a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. A score was constructed based on adherence to the recommendations for body fatness, physical activity, energy density, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks and dietary supplements (score range 0-7). Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During 15 years of follow-up 1,388 cases of breast cancer were identified. Women who met six to seven recommendations had a 51% decreased risk of breast cancer compared to women meeting only zero to two recommendations (95% CI = 0.35-0.70). The association between each additional recommendation met and breast cancer risk was strongest for the ER-positive/PR-positive subtype (HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.79-0.94), while for the ER-negative/PR-negative subtype the individual recommendations regarding plant and animal foods were most strongly associated with reduced risk. Our findings support that adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations reduces breast cancer risk in a population of primarily postmenopausal women. Promoting these recommendations to the public could help reduce breast cancer incidence. PMID:26804371

  3. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Bergkvist, Leif; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-06-01

    The World Cancer Research Fund/American Association for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) has published eight nutrition-related recommendations for the prevention of cancer. However, few prospective studies have examined these recommendations by breast cancer hormone receptor subtype and only one case-control study has included the dietary supplements recommendation in their evaluation. We investigated whether adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations was associated with breast cancer incidence, overall and by hormone receptor subtype, in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Among 31,514 primarily postmenopausal women diet and lifestyle factors were assessed with a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. A score was constructed based on adherence to the recommendations for body fatness, physical activity, energy density, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks and dietary supplements (score range 0-7). Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During 15 years of follow-up 1,388 cases of breast cancer were identified. Women who met six to seven recommendations had a 51% decreased risk of breast cancer compared to women meeting only zero to two recommendations (95% CI = 0.35-0.70). The association between each additional recommendation met and breast cancer risk was strongest for the ER-positive/PR-positive subtype (HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.79-0.94), while for the ER-negative/PR-negative subtype the individual recommendations regarding plant and animal foods were most strongly associated with reduced risk. Our findings support that adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations reduces breast cancer risk in a population of primarily postmenopausal women. Promoting these recommendations to the public could help reduce breast cancer incidence.

  4. [Experience of stroke prevention-Enlightenment for cancer research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Weicheng

    2015-08-01

    Cancer, stroke and heart diseases are most common causes of death. This paper summarized the experience of stroke prevention, which is an enlightenment for cancer research. In addition, this paper also described the progress of cancer epidemiological research, particular the primary and second preventions in China. PMID:26733022

  5. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Approved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    On June 24, 2013, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Board of Scientific Advisors approved the creation of the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP). NCORP will bring state-of-the art cancer prevention, control, treatment and imaging clinical trials, cancer care delivery research, and disparities studies to individuals in their own communities. |

  6. Multidisciplinary Cognitive Content of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Milojević, Staša

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the cognitive evolution and disciplinary diversity of nanotechnology as expressed through the terminology used in titles of nano journal articles. The analysis is based on the NanoBank bibliographic database of 287,106 nano articles published between 1981 and 2004. We perform multifaceted analyses of title words, focusing on 100 most frequent terms. Hierarchical clustering of title terms reveals three distinct time periods of cognitive development of nano research: forma...

  7. Antimicrobial applications of nanotechnology: methods and literature

    OpenAIRE

    Seil JT; Webster TJ

    2012-01-01

    Justin T Seil, Thomas J WebsterLaboratory for Nanomedicine Research, School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: The need for novel antibiotics comes from the relatively high incidence of bacterial infection and the growing resistance of bacteria to conventional antibiotics. Consequently, new methods for reducing bacteria activity (and associated infections) are badly needed. Nanotechnology, the use of materials with dimensions on the atomic or molecular scale, has b...

  8. Articulation: how societal goals matter in nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, C.

    2016-01-01

    Science policies try to steer scientists to conduct societally relevant research. This societal relevance is often expressed in large societal goals, such as addressing sustainability or helping with the problems that an ageing society might bring. Emerging technologies, like nanotechnology, are often surrounded by large expectation on how they might contribute to societal progress. It is however unclear how such broad and unarticulated ambitions relate to the actual development of new techno...

  9. Cancer survivorship research: a review of the literature and summary of current NCI-designated cancer center projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, J Phil; Dean, Julie A; Paskett, Electra D

    2011-10-01

    The number of cancer survivors and the amount of cancer survivorship research have grown substantially during the past three decades. This article provides a review of interventional and observational cancer survivorship research efforts as well as a summary of current cancer survivorship research projects being conducted by National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers in an effort to identify areas that need further attention.

  10. China and the United States--Global partners, competitors and collaborators in nanotechnology development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Jin, Biyu; Shen, Weiyu; Sinko, Patrick J; Xie, Xiaodong; Zhang, Huijuan; Jia, Lee

    2016-01-01

    USA and China are two leading countries engaged in nanotechnology research and development. They compete with each other for fruits in this innovative area in a parallel and compatible manner. Understanding the status and developmental prospects of nanotechnology in USA and China is important for policy-makers to decide nanotechnology priorities and funding, and to explore new ways for global cooperation on key issues. We here present the nanoscience and nanomedicine research and the related productivity measured by publications, and patent applications, governmental funding, policies and regulations, institutional translational research, industrial and enterprise growth in nanotechnology-related fields across China and USA. The comparison reveals some marked asymmetries of nanotechnology development in China and USA, which may be helpful for future directions to strengthen nanotechnology collaboration for both countries, and for the world as a whole.

  11. China and the United States--Global partners, competitors and collaborators in nanotechnology development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Jin, Biyu; Shen, Weiyu; Sinko, Patrick J; Xie, Xiaodong; Zhang, Huijuan; Jia, Lee

    2016-01-01

    USA and China are two leading countries engaged in nanotechnology research and development. They compete with each other for fruits in this innovative area in a parallel and compatible manner. Understanding the status and developmental prospects of nanotechnology in USA and China is important for policy-makers to decide nanotechnology priorities and funding, and to explore new ways for global cooperation on key issues. We here present the nanoscience and nanomedicine research and the related productivity measured by publications, and patent applications, governmental funding, policies and regulations, institutional translational research, industrial and enterprise growth in nanotechnology-related fields across China and USA. The comparison reveals some marked asymmetries of nanotechnology development in China and USA, which may be helpful for future directions to strengthen nanotechnology collaboration for both countries, and for the world as a whole. PMID:26427355

  12. Cancer Research from Molecular Discovery to Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    A science writers' seminar to discuss the latest research in cancer genetics and global health efforts, including talks from leaders of NCI’s new centers of cancer genomics and global health will be held Dec. 13, 2011, at NCI.

  13. Progress through Collaboration - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR), has signed two Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) in the areas of sharing proteomics reagents and protocols and also in regulatory science.

  14. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Baljit

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanoparticles hold tremendous potential as an effective drug delivery system. In this review we discussed recent developments in nanotechnology for drug delivery. To overcome the problems of gene and drug delivery, nanotechnology has gained interest in recent years. Nanosystems with different compositions and biological properties have been extensively investigated for drug and gene delivery applications. To achieve efficient drug delivery it is important to understand the interactions of nanomaterials with the biological environment, targeting cell-surface receptors, drug release, multiple drug administration, stability of therapeutic agents and molecular mechanisms of cell signalling involved in pathobiology of the disease under consideration. Several anti-cancer drugs including paclitaxel, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and dexamethasone have been successfully formulated using nanomaterials. Quantom dots, chitosan, Polylactic/glycolic acid (PLGA and PLGA-based nanoparticles have also been used for in vitro RNAi delivery. Brain cancer is one of the most difficult malignancies to detect and treat mainly because of the difficulty in getting imaging and therapeutic agents past the blood-brain barrier and into the brain. Anti-cancer drugs such as loperamide and doxorubicin bound to nanomaterials have been shown to cross the intact blood-brain barrier and released at therapeutic concentrations in the brain. The use of nanomaterials including peptide-based nanotubes to target the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF receptor and cell adhesion molecules like integrins, cadherins and selectins, is a new approach to control disease progression.

  15. Research on cancer diagnosis in Malaysia: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, L M; Zubaidah, Z; Cheah, P L; Cheong, S K; Gudum, H R; Iekhsan, O; Ikram, S I; Jamal, R; Mak, J W; Othman, N H; Puteri, J N; Rosline, H; Sabariah, A R; Seow, H F; Sharifah, N A

    2004-06-01

    Cancer is a major morbidity and mortality concern in Malaysia. Based on National Cancer Registry data, the Malaysian population is estimated to bear a cancer burden of about 40,000 new cases per year, and a cumulative lifetime risk of about 1:4. Cancer research in Malaysia has to consider needs relevant to our population, and resources constraints. Hence, funding bodies prioritise cancers of high prevalence, unique to our community and posing specific clinical problems. Cancer diagnosis is crucial to cancer management. While cancer diagnosis research largely aims at improvements in diagnostic information towards more appropriate therapy, it also impacts upon policy development and other areas of cancer management. The scope of cancer diagnosis upon which this paper is based, and their possible impact on other R&D areas, has been broadly categorized into: (1) identification of aetiological agents and their linkages to the development of precancer and cancer (impact on policy development, cancer prevention and treatment), (2) cancer biology and pathogenesis (impact on cancer prevention, treatment strategies and product development), (3) improvements in accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in cancer detection, monitoring and classification (impact on technology development) and (4) prognostic and predictive parameters (impact on treatment strategies). This paper is based on data collected by the Working Group on Cancer Diagnosis Research for the First National Conference on Cancer Research Coordination in April 2004. Data was collated from the databases of Institutions/Universities where the authors are employed, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) and targeted survey feedback from key cancer researchers. Under the 7th Malaysia Plan, 76 cancer projects were funded through the Intensified Research in Priority Areas (IRPA) scheme of MOSTI, amounting to almost RM15 million of grant money. 47(61.8%) of these projects were substantially in cancer

  16. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  17. Impact of proteomics on bladder cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromova, Irina; Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso;

    2004-01-01

    Detecting bladder cancer at an early stage and predicting how a tumor will behave and act in response to therapy, as well as the identification of new targets for therapeutic intervention, are among the main areas of research that will benefit from the current explosion in the number of powerful...... technologies emerging within proteomics. The purpose of this article is to briefly review what has been achieved to date using proteomic technologies and to bring forward novel strategies - based on the analysis of clinically relevant samples - that promise to accelerate the translation of basic discoveries...

  18. The Frontiers of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine (SIG MED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Polin P.

    2000-01-01

    This abstract of a planned session on the future of medicine explains the use of nanotechnology in medicine to manipulate biomolecules that regulate life and death processes and to help improve health care delivery. Topics include nanodevices for drug delivery, cancer detection and cure, and repairing genes. (LRW)

  19. Pharmacoresistant epilepsy and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosillo-de la Torre, Argelia; Luna-Bárcenas, Gabriel; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra; Salgado-Ceballos, Hermelinda; García, Perla; Lazarowski, Alberto; Rocha, Luisa

    2014-06-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disorders. Furthermore, it is associated to diminished health-related quality of life and is thus considered a major public health problem. In spite of the large number of available and ongoing development of several new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), a high percentage of patients with epilepsy (35-40%) are resistant to pharmacotherapy. A hypothesis to explain pharmacoresistance in epilepsy suggests that overexpression of multidrug resistance proteins, such as P-glycoprotein, on the endothelium of the blood brain barrier represents a challenge for effective AED delivery and concentration levels in the brain. Proven therapeutic strategies to control pharmacoresistant epilepsy include epilepsy surgery and neuromodulation. Unfortunately, not all patients are candidates for these therapies. Nanotechnology represents an attractive strategy to overcome the limited brain access of AEDs in patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. This manuscript presents a review of evidences supporting this idea.

  20. Nanotechnology applications in osteodistraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E Singleton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most current strategies for bone regeneration have relatively satisfactory results. However, there are drawbacks and limitations associated with their use and availability, and even controversial reports about their efficacy and cost-effectiveness. The induction of new bone formation through distraction osteogenesis (DO is widespread clinical application in the treatment of bone defects, limb deformities, and fracture nonunions. However, a lengthy period of external fixation is usually needed to allow the new bone to consolidate, and complications such as refracture at the distraction gap often occur. Although various biomaterials have been used as injectable delivery systems in DO models, little has been reported on the use of nanobiomaterials as carrier materials for the sustained release of growth factors in bone regeneration. One area of focus in nanotechnology is the delivery of osteogenic factors in an attempt to modulate the formation of bone. This review article seeks to demonstrate the potential of nanobiomaterials to improve biological applications pertinent to osteodistraction.

  1. Nanostructures and nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Natelson, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the fundamental principles of nanoscience and nanotechnology, this carefully developed textbook will equip students with a deep understanding of the nanoscale. • Each new topic is introduced with a concise summary of the relevant physical principles, emphasising universal commonalities between seemingly disparate areas, and encouraging students to develop an intuitive understanding of this diverse area of study • Accessible introductions to condensed matter physics and materials systems provide students from a broad range of scientific disciplines with all the necessary background • Theoretical concepts are linked to real-world applications, allowing students to connect theory and practice • Chapters are packed with problems to help students develop and retain their understanding, as well as engaging colour illustrations, and are accompanied by suggestions for additional reading. Containing enough material for a one- or two-semester course, this is an excellent resource for senior undergra...

  2. DNA nanotechnology from the test tube to the cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Jyue; Groves, Benjamin; Muscat, Richard A.; Seelig, Georg

    2015-09-01

    The programmability of Watson-Crick base pairing, combined with a decrease in the cost of synthesis, has made DNA a widely used material for the assembly of molecular structures and dynamic molecular devices. Working in cell-free settings, researchers in DNA nanotechnology have been able to scale up system complexity and quantitatively characterize reaction mechanisms to an extent that is infeasible for engineered gene circuits or other cell-based technologies. However, the most intriguing applications of DNA nanotechnology -- applications that best take advantage of the small size, biocompatibility and programmability of DNA-based systems -- lie at the interface with biology. Here, we review recent progress in the transition of DNA nanotechnology from the test tube to the cell. We highlight key successes in the development of DNA-based imaging probes, prototypes of smart therapeutics and drug delivery systems, and explore the future challenges and opportunities for cellular DNA nanotechnology.

  3. Biomimetic Nanotechnology: A Powerful Means to address Global Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Gebeshuber, Ille C

    2010-01-01

    Biomimetic nanotechnology is a prominent research area at the meeting place of life sciences with engineering and physics: it is a continuously growing field that deals with knowledge transfer from biology to nanotechnology. Biomimetic nanotechnology is a field that has the potential to substantially support successful mastering of major global challenges. The Millennium Project was commissioned by the United Nations Secretary-General in 2002 to develop a concrete action plan for the world to reverse the grinding poverty, hunger and disease affecting billions of people. It states 15 Global Challenges: sustainable development, water, population and resources, democratization, long-term perspectives, information technology, the rich-poor gap, health, capacity to decide, peace and conflict, status of women, transnational crime, energy, science and technology and global ethics. The possible contributions to master these challenges with the help of biomimetic nanotechnology will be discussed in detail.

  4. Toward Sustainable Anticipatory Governance: Analyzing and Assessing Nanotechnology Innovation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Rider Williams

    Cities around the globe struggle with socio-economic disparities, resource inefficiency, environmental contamination, and quality-of-life challenges. Technological innovation, as one prominent approach to problem solving, promises to address these challenges; yet, introducing new technologies, such as nanotechnology, into society and cities has often resulted in negative consequences. Recent research has conceptually linked anticipatory governance and sustainability science: to understand the role of technology in complex problems our societies face; to anticipate negative consequences of technological innovation; and to promote long-term oriented and responsible governance of technologies. This dissertation advances this link conceptually and empirically, focusing on nanotechnology and urban sustainability challenges. The guiding question for this dissertation research is: How can nanotechnology be innovated and governed in responsible ways and with sustainable outcomes? The dissertation: analyzes the nanotechnology innovation process from an actor- and activities-oriented perspective (Chapter 2); assesses this innovation process from a comprehensive perspective on sustainable governance (Chapter 3); constructs a small set of future scenarios to consider future implications of different nanotechnology governance models (Chapter 4); and appraises the amenability of sustainability problems to nanotechnological interventions (Chapter 5). The four studies are based on data collected through literature review, document analysis, participant observation, interviews, workshops, and walking audits, as part of process analysis, scenario construction, and technology assessment. Research was conducted in collaboration with representatives from industry, government agencies, and civic organizations. The empirical parts of the four studies focus on Metropolitan Phoenix. Findings suggest that: predefined mandates and economic goals dominate the nanotechnology innovation process

  5. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Carolyn J.; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G.; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research. PMID:27197919

  6. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Carolyn J; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D; Wildes, Tanya M; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research. PMID:27197919

  7. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Carolyn J; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D; Wildes, Tanya M; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research.

  8. Working with the NCL - Evaluation Criteria for Candidate Nanomaterials - Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanostrategies proposed to the NCL for characterization will be ranked according to the measure of their projected impact on clinical cancer applications and/or furthering nanotechnology's compatibility with biological systems.

  9. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis and High Risk Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma

  10. Improving diversity in cancer research trials: the story of the Cancer Disparities Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Melissa A; de la Riva, Erika E; Bergan, Raymond; Norbeck, Carrie; McKoy, June M; Kulesza, Piotr; Dong, XinQi; Schink, Julian; Fleisher, Linda

    2014-06-01

    The participation of racial and ethnic minorities and underserved populations in clinical trials is a critical link between scientific innovation and improvements in health care delivery and health outcomes. However, these population groups continue to be underrepresented in research. We describe the development of the Cancer Disparities Research Network (CDRN) to improve minority and underserved populations' participation in biobanking research. Between February and October 2011, we conducted a regional assessment to identify challenges and opportunities for cancer trials and biobanking research across the CDRN. Representatives from ten CDRN biorepository facilities completed an online survey assessing their facilities' minority biospecimen collection, biobanking practices, and education/outreach initiatives. Representatives of eight facilities also participated in stakeholder interviews. The majority (70%) of facilities reported that specimens were available for research, although only one tenth of these specimens were from non-White patients. Most facilities collected a patient's age, gender, race, medical history, and ethnicity with samples; however, less than half also collected family health history, education level, household income, or primary language spoken. In addition, few institutions collected Asian or Hispanic subgroup information. Only a few reported biospecimen collection outreach programs specifically targeting minority and underserved populations. Biospecimen directors and administrators indicated that funding, biospecimen sharing procedures, and standardization barriers limited their facilities from collaborating in biospecimen collection programs, despite their great interest. These findings suggest that the CDRN can provide opportunities for collaboration, resource sharing, and fostering of research ideas to address cancer disparities in biospecimen research. PMID:24519744

  11. NASA Applications of Molecular Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Bailey, David; Han, Jie; Jaffe, Richard; Levit, Creon; Merkle, Ralph; Srivastava, Deepak

    1998-01-01

    Laboratories throughout the world are rapidly gaining atomically precise control over matter. As this control extends to an ever wider variety of materials, processes and devices, opportunities for applications relevant to NASA's missions will be created. This document surveys a number of future molecular nanotechnology capabilities of aerospace interest. Computer applications, launch vehicle improvements, and active materials appear to be of particular interest. We also list a number of applications for each of NASA's enterprises. If advanced molecular nanotechnology can be developed, almost all of NASA's endeavors will be radically improved. In particular, a sufficiently advanced molecular nanotechnology can arguably bring large scale space colonization within our grasp.

  12. Current Research and Management of Ovarian Cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUMeijiao; SHIWei

    2002-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is ne of the most lethal malignant tumors in China,represents the third most common cancer after cervical cancer and endometrial cancer,and the first leading cause of death from hynaecological cancers.Due to the lack of effective screening strategies and the absence of symptoms in early-stage of disease,over 70% of patients present at an advanced stage.Despite the advances in surgical techniques and conventional chemotheraphy,the prognosis of ovarian cancer has not been improved significantly,and indeed the long-term survival for patients with advanced disease does not exceed 20%.The aetiology of ovarian cancer temains poorly understood.In China,the major focus of research is to clarify the mechanism underlying ovarian cancer,develop more effective life-saving diagnostic and therapeutic measures,and undertake more population-based studies.This article summarizes current research,diagnosis and management of ovarian cancer in China.

  13. Nanotechnology: “Revolutionary Developments in Future”

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Introductory notes will be made on the definition, structures, phenomena, functions, synthesis, properties, and characterization at the nanoscale. Some indications on nanoMaterials research and markets in Europe will be given. The spectrum of structural and functional/smart nanomaterials: metallic and ceramic materials, coating, composites ….will be reviewed Key challenges for nanomaterials design and engineering will be highlighted. The range of applications for nanotechnologies will be sumarized: for nano-electronics (information and communication), health care, energy and transport, nuclear and accelerator technologies, security and safety etc NanoMaterials and Technologies are key in future accelerator engineering: construction, operation and experimentation. Nanotechnology in next generation industries is a must. Nanometrology and standardisation (materials and equipment) are also an important items. Environmental and health implications of nanomaterials science and technology: Some guidance and safe...

  14. Research Progress on Application of Nanotechnology in Food Science%纳米技术在食品科学中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅立; 孙中琦; 庞杰

    2014-01-01

    At present,nanotechnology is one of the most promising technologies in scientific,it has been widely used in chemical,material,medicine,food and energy fields. In this paper,the nanotechnology related policy of the government planning and development at home and abroad,its basic application status in the field of food science,and its development direction is prospected.%纳米技术是当今科学界最具前景的科学技术之一,目前已广泛应用于化工、材料、医药、食品以及能源等领域。该文概述了纳米技术的国内外相关政府计划和发展政策,以及其在食品科学领域的基本应用现状,并对其发展方向进行了展望。

  15. Cement and Concrete Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taijiro Sato

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Concrete science is a multidisciplinary area of research where nanotechnology potentially offers the opportunity to enhance the understanding of concrete behavior, to engineer its properties and to lower production and ecological cost of construction materials. Recent work at the National Research Council Canada in the area of concrete materials research has shown the potential of improving concrete properties by modifying the structure of cement hydrates, addition of nanoparticles and nanotubes and controlling the delivery of admixtures. This article will focus on a review of these innovative achievements.

  16. Nanosciences and nanotechnology evolution or revolution?

    CERN Document Server

    Lahmani, Marcel; Dupas-Haeberlin, Claire; Hesto, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    This book provides information to the state of art of research in nanotechnology and nano medicine and risks of nano technology. It covers an interdisciplinary and very wide scope of the latest fundamental research status and industrial applications of nano technologies ranging from nano physics, nano chemistry to biotechnology and toxicology. It provides information to last legislation of nano usage and potential social impact too. The book contains also a reference list of major European research centers and associated universities offering licences and master of nano matter. For clarity and attractivity, the book has many illustrations and specific inserts to complete the understanding of the scientific texts.

  17. Think small: nanotechnology for plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Amir R; Brenner, Sara A

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the topic of nanotechnology to plastic surgeons and to discuss its relevance to medicine in general and plastic surgery in particular. Nanotechnology will be defined, and some important historical milestones discussed. Common applications of nanotechnology in various medical and surgical subspecialties will be reviewed. Future applications of nanotechnology to plastic surgery will be examined. Finally, the critical field of nanotoxicology and the safe use of nanotechnology in medicine and plastic surgery will be addressed.

  18. Technology Transfer: The Case of Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Lewin, Peter Marius Etienne

    2014-01-01

    The thesis provides an in-depth discussion of technology transfer of innovations utilizing nanotechnology. Innovations that use nanotechnology as a component are controversial among governments, international organizations, NGOs, laypeople and the multinational corporation. Commercial barriers linked to nanotechnology include market acceptance and very high development costs. Nanotechnology start-ups may differ from established firms with respect to commercial strategy. Nanotechnology start-u...

  19. Nanoethics: Ethics For, From, or With Nanotechnologies?

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Nurock

    2010-01-01

    The concern for ethics is a leitmotiv when dealing with nanotechnologies. However, the target of this concern is far from being obvious, and the word 'nanoethics' itself has no clear-cut definition. Indeed, nanoethics is usually said to be 'the ethics of nanotechnologies', but it is never specified whether this 'ethics of nanotechnologies' is 'an ethics for nanotechnologies' or 'an ethics from nanotechnologies'. This paper aims to show that these two characterizations of nanoethics (for/from)...

  20. The challenges of green nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel de la Guardia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials have great impacts on life sciences; however,these advanced materials may induce inadvertant consequences.Thus, this editorial will highlight the futuristic challenges in green nanotechnology.

  1. EDITORIAL: Ensuring sustainability with green nanotechnology Ensuring sustainability with green nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stanislaus; Karn, Barbara

    2012-07-01

    Nanotechnology offers immense promise for developing new technologies that are more sustainable than current technologies. All major industrial sectors have felt nanotechnology's impact, mainly from the incorporation of nanomaterials into their products. For example, nanotechnology has improved the design and performance of products in areas as diverse as electronics, medicine and medical devices, food and agriculture, cosmetics, chemicals, materials, coatings, energy, as well as many others. Moreover, the revenues from nanotechnology-enabled products are not trivial. For instance, Lux Research maintains that commercial sales in both Europe and the USA will attain revenues of over 1 trillion from nano-enabled products by 2015. The manufacturing of the nanomaterials for these products uses many processes equivalent to chemical manufacturing processes. As a result, manufacturing nanomaterials can produce either harmful pollutants or adverse environmental impacts similar to those from chemical manufacturing. Unlike the chemical industry, however, those same processes are not ingrained in the manufacturing of nanomaterials, and the opportunity exists at the initial design stage to purposely account for and mitigate out potentially harmful environmental impacts. While prevention has not been a priority in current industries, it can become a main concern for the new and future industries that manufacture nanomaterials on a bulk commercial scale. This is where green nanotechnology comes in. Green nanotechnology involves deliberate efforts aimed at developing meaningful and reasonable protocols for generating products and their associated production processes in a benign fashion. The goal is a conscious minimization of risks associated with the products of nanoscience. The green products of nanotechnology are those that are used in either direct or indirect environmental applications. Direct environmental applications provide benefits such as monitoring using nano

  2. Food nanotechnology – an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupinder S Sekhon

    2010-01-01

    Bhupinder S SekhonInstitute of Pharmacy and Department of Biotechnology, Punjab College of Technical Education, Jhande, Ludhiana, IndiaAbstract: Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can del...

  3. Food nanotechnology – an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupinder S Sekhon

    2010-01-01

    Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packag...

  4. Global Governmental Investment in Nanotechnologies

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Lee

    2005-01-01

    Nanotechnologies seem to have huge potential to bring benefits in areas as diverse as drug development, water decontamination, information and communication infrastructures, and the production of stronger, lighter and perfect nanomaterials. This potential attracts global investment from governments and private sectors in nanotechnologies with the hopes that R&D and commercial applications of nanomaterials, nanodevices, nanoparticles and nanodrugs will provide new impetus, after the ebb-tides ...

  5. Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies Learning and Teaching in Secondary Education: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingant, Benedicte; Albe, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    This literature review provides an overview of recent studies on the introduction of nanosciences and nanotechnologies in secondary education. Four salient research topics have emerged: questions and reflections preceding curriculum development on nanosciences and nanotechnologies lessons; research on students' conceptualisations of nano-related…

  6. Nanotechnology in medicine and relevance to dermatology: Present concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K H Basavaraj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology and nanomedicine are complementary disciplines aimed at the betterment of human life. Nanotechnology is an emerging branch of science for designing tools and devices of size 1-100 nm, with unique functions at the cellular, atomic and molecular levels. The concept of using nanotechnology in medical research and clinical practice is known as nanomedicine. Today, nanotechnology and nanoscience approaches to particle design and formulations are beginning to expand the market for many drugs and forming the basis for a highly profitable niche within the industry, but some predicted benefits are hyped. Under many conditions, dermal penetration of nanoparticles may be limited for consumer products such as sunscreens, although additional studies are needed on potential photooxidation products, experimental methods and the effect of skin condition on penetration. Today, zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (20-30 nm are widely used in several topical skin care products such as sunscreens. Thus, in the present scenario, nanotechnology is spreading its wings to address the key problems in the field of medicine. The benefits of nanoparticles have been shown in several scientific fields, but very little is known about their potential to penetrate the skin. Hence, this review discusses in detail the applications of nanotechnology in medicine with more emphasis on the dermatologic aspects.

  7. Nanotechnology and health: From boundary object to bodily intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Karen-Marie Elah

    Nanotechnology is commonly understood to involve the manipulation of individual molecules and atoms. Increasingly, healthcare practices in British Columbia are articulated through the nanotechnological in relationship to the body. The hope for better treatment and diagnosis of disease is located in the specificity of nanotechnological applications -- the finely tuned targeting of cells and treatments geared towards individual molecular profiles. However, this same specificity also alarms regulators, activists and consumer groups in the potential for increased toxicity. Drawing from participant observation, ethnographic interviews, and theoretical orientations adopted by Susan Leigh Star and Jeffrey Bowker, this thesis explores three questions: 1) How can nanotechnology inhabit multiple contexts at once and have both local and shared meaning; 2) How can people who live in one community draw their meanings from people and objects situated there and communicate with those inhabiting another; and 3) What moral and political consequences attend each of these questions? Keywords: nanotechnology; medical anthropology; anthropology of the body; science studies; critical theory; feminist theory; ethnography; qualitative research; biomedicine; nanotoxicology; bionanotechnology; British Columbia; Canada; nanomedicine; medical nanotechnology.

  8. Mouse models for cancer stem cell research

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Le; Ramesh, Anirudh V.; Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Choi, Jinhyang; Nikitin, Alexander Yu.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer stem cell concept assumes that cancers are mainly sustained by a small pool of neoplastic cells, known as cancer stem cells or tumor initiating cells, which are able to reproduce themselves and produce phenotypically heterogeneous cells with lesser tumorigenic potential. Cancer stem cells represent an appealing target for development of more selective and efficient therapies. However, direct testing of the cancer stem cell concept and assessment of its therapeutic implications in human...

  9. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

    OpenAIRE

    Dagmara Jaworska; Wojciech Król; Ewelina Szliszka

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve th...

  10. Editorial: Trends in Nanotechnology (TNT2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Antonio; Serena, Pedro A.; José Saenz, Juan; Reifenberger, Ron; Ordejón, Pablo

    2006-05-01

    This special issue of physica status solidi (a) presents representative contributions describing the main topics covered at the sixth Trends in Nanotechnology (TNT2005) International Conference, held in Oviedo (Spain), 29 August-2 September 2005.During the last years many international or national conferences have emerged in response to the growing awareness of the importance of nanotechnology as key issue for the future scientific and technological development. Among these, the conference series Trends in Nanotechnology has become one of the most important meeting points in the nanotechnology field: it provides fresh organisation ideas, brings together well known speakers, and promotes a suitable environment for discussions, exchanging ideas, enhancing scientific and personal relations among participants. TNT2005 was organised in a similar way to the five prior TNT conferences, with an impressive scientific programme including 40 Keynote lectures and two Nobel prizes, without parallel sessions, covering a wide spectrum of Nanotechnology research. In 2005, more than 360 scientists worldwide attended this event and contributed with more than 60 oral contributions and 250 posters, stimulating discussions about their most recent research.The aim of the conference was to focus on the applications of Nanotechnology and to bring together, in a scientific forum, various worldwide groups belonging to industry, universities and government institutions. TNT2005 was particularly effective at transmitting information and establishing contacts among workers in this field. Graduate students attending such conferences have understood the importance of interdisciplinary skills to afford their future research lines. 76 graduate students received a grant allowing them to present their work. 28 prizes to the best posters were awarded during this event. We would like to thank all the participants for their assistance, as well as the authors for their written contributions.TNT2005 is

  11. Application and Thinking of Nanotechnology in the Research on Traditional Chinese Medicine%纳米技术在中药研究中的应用与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑娟; 王宪龄; 万焱; 李晓飞

    2011-01-01

    It is the progressing way for traditional Chinese medicine entering modern and international range that nanotechnology is applied in the research on Chinese medicine. And it has the great prospect and potential for nano- traditional Chinese medicine. The character, category, preparation, superiority and matter of nano- traditional Chinese medicine were reviewed in this article. Several meaningful research directions were also point out.%纳米技术应用于中药研究有着广阔前景和巨大潜力.本文系统阐述了纳米中药的类型、制备技术和优势,并对目前纳米中药研究面临的问题及相关研究方向进行了探讨与展望.

  12. Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems for Melanoma Antitumoral Therapy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Balansin Rigon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma (MEL is a less common type of skin cancer, but it is more aggressive with a high mortality rate. The World Cancer Research Fund International (GLOBOCAN 2012 estimates that there were 230,000 new cases of MEL in the world in 2012. Conventional MEL treatment includes surgery and chemotherapy, but many of the chemotherapeutic agents used present undesirable properties. Drug delivery systems are an alternative strategy by which to carry antineoplastic agents. Encapsulated drugs are advantageous due to such properties as high stability, better bioavailability, controlled drug release, a long blood circulation time, selective organ or tissue distribution, a lower total required dose, and minimal toxic side effects. This review of scientific research supports applying a nanotechnology-based drug delivery system for MEL therapy.

  13. Nanotechnology and medicine ? The upside and the downside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwatra Shubhika

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is the use of technology at the nano (10-9 level. Nanoscale devices differ from the conventional methods of diagnosing and treating diseases, and present certain advantages over them. Nanomedicine is a branch of the newly emerging field of nanotechnology. It is a rapidly developing discipline. By gaining access to many areas of the body which were thought to be unreachable, the nano devices possess the potential to not only detect diseases but also deliver treatment in ways unimagined before. The various nano devices used are nanowires, cantilevers, nanoparticles, nanoshells, dendrimers, fullerenes, micelles and vesicles. Nanotechnology can even be used in the future to treat lifethreatening diseases like cancer. However, it does have some drawbacks, for example, toxicity, environmental harm and organ damage caused by nanoparticles. There are some ethical issues concerned with the use of nanotechnology too. The purpose of the article is to discuss briefly both sides of the field of nanomedicine: to study the applications of nanotechnology in medicine and, also, to discuss its limitations.

  14. Nanotechnologies and global survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Veselin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of science and technology from the mid-20th century, on one hand, and increasing world population as well as decreasing of natural resources on the other has raised the risk of escalating social conflicts. Regarding this facts, it is inevitable to admit that the future of mankind lies in acceptable moral and social implementation of this technologies. Having that in mind, many questions have been generated about responsible applications of nanotechnologies: about the positive and negative effects of their usage, about patterns of their socio-spatial distribution both at global and national level, about economic development of states who use those technologies, and their possible effect of individual health and biosphere preservation. Regarding those questions, it is necessary to use knowledge of nature science as well as knowledge of philosophy, sociology, etc., in order to analyze the level of development and life conditions in human communities and differentiate between “mere”, “miserable”, “idealistic“, “irresponsible“ and “acceptable“ survival. Starting from sociological context and following Potter’s concepts, this article argues for the concept of consurvivality that is durable, acceptable, sustainable, realistic and global.

  15. Differential network analysis in human cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ryan; Datta, Somnath; Datta, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    A complex disease like cancer is hardly caused by one gene or one protein singly. It is usually caused by the perturbation of the network formed by several genes or proteins. In the last decade several research teams have attempted to construct interaction maps of genes and proteins either experimentally or reverse engineer interaction maps using computational techniques. These networks were usually created under a certain condition such as an environmental condition, a particular disease, or a specific tissue type. Lately, however, there has been greater emphasis on finding the differential structure of the existing network topology under a novel condition or disease status to elucidate the perturbation in a biological system. In this review/tutorial article we briefly mention some of the research done in this area; we mainly illustrate the computational/statistical methods developed by our team in recent years for differential network analysis using publicly available gene expression data collected from a well known cancer study. This data includes a group of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a group with acute myeloid leukemia. In particular, we describe the statistical tests to detect the change in the network topology based on connectivity scores which measure the association or interaction between pairs of genes. The tests under various scores are applied to this data set to perform a differential network analysis on gene expression for human leukemia. We believe that, in the future, differential network analysis will be a standard way to view the changes in gene expression and protein expression data globally and these types of tests could be useful in analyzing the complex differential signatures.

  16. Research Progress on Applications of Nanotechnology in Functional Food%新型纳米脂质功能食品研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洪; 赵元弟; 魏芳; 董绪燕; 马志亚

    2011-01-01

    With the economic development and improvement of living standards, life quality and health level has attracted the attention of the world. The functional foods bring flourishingly opportunity for food industries. Nanotechnology, with special properties, is regarded as one of the three most promising technologies of the 21st century. The United State, Japan and some European countries have strengthened the power in studying and developing nano-food. Application of nanotechnology in food industry is advancing rapidly, lipids, as important source of fatty acids, are considered to be an irreducible constituent of tissue and active substances and also carrier of biological junction. Therefore, lipids are one of the most important bases in food nanotechnology. This paper expounded the development trend and international policy of nanotechnology in worldwide foods. Current situation, technology distance and needs for nano-functional foods in our country were analyzed. Finally, developmental thought and key task for nano-functional foods was put forward.%随着我国经济的发展和生活水平的提高,人民对生活质量和健康有了前所未有的关注,健康食品和功能食品在食品产业中极具蓬勃的发展活力.由于纳米技术的独特性质,纳米技术成为21世纪三大支柱科学领域之一.美国、日本和欧洲等国家已加大了纳米食品的技术研究与产品开发力度,纳米技术在食品产业中的应用正在快速发展.脂质作为最重要的脂肪酸来源,不仅是人体细胞组织以及体内各种重要的生理活性物质的构成成分,也是各种生物功能的载体.因此脂质是食品纳米技术中最重要的基料之一.综述了纳米技术在世界食品范围内的发展趋势及国际相关政策;介绍了新型纳米脂质功能食品前沿技术的现状与发展方向.分析了我国纳米功能食品的现状、差距和技术需求;并提出了纳米脂质功能食品的发展思路和重点任务.

  17. Towards meeting the research needs of Australian cancer consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saunders Carla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing amount of literature to support the view that active involvement in research by consumers, especially informed and networked consumers, benefits the quality and direction of research itself, the research process and, most importantly, people affected by cancer. Our exploratory project focuses on identifying their priorities and developing a process to assess the research needs of Australian cancer consumers which may be useful beyond the cancer scenario. Methods This project was consumer initiated, developed and implemented, with the assistance of a leading Australian cancer consumer advocacy group, Cancer Voices NSW (CVN. Such direct involvement is unusual and ensures that the priorities identified, and the process itself, are not influenced by other interests, regardless how well-intentioned they may be. The processes established, and data collection via a workshop, followed by a questionnaire to confirm and prioritise findings, and comparison with a similar UK exercise, are detailed in this paper. Results Needs across five topic areas reflecting cancer control domains (prevention and risk; screening and diagnosis; treatment; survivorship; and end of life were identified. Cancer consumers high priority research needs were found to be: earlier diagnosis of metastatic cancers; the extent of use of best practice palliative care guidelines; identifying barriers to cancer risk behaviour change; and environmental, nutrition and lifestyle risk factors for people with cancer. A process for identifying consumers’ research priorities was developed and applied; this may be useful for further investigation in this under-studied area. Conclusion The findings provide a model for developing a consumer derived research agenda in Australia which can be used to inform the strategic direction of cancer research. Consumers have been seeking a workable method to achieve this and have worked in collaboration with a major

  18. Functionalized surfaces and nanostructures for nanotechnological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    1. Introduction Despite unprecedented government funding and public interest in nanotechnology, few can accurately define the scope, range or potential applications of this technology. One of the most pressing issues facing nanoscientists and technologists today is that of communicating with the non-scientific community. As a result of decades of speculation, a number of myths have grown up around the field, making it difficult for the general public, or indeed the business and financial communities, to understand what is a fundamental shift in the way we look at our interactions with the natural world. This article attempts to address some of these misconceptions, and explain why scientists, businesses and governments are spending large amounts of time and money on nanoscale research and development. 2. What is nanotechnology? Take a random selection of scientists, engineers, investors and the general public and ask them what nanotechnology is and you will receive a range of replies as broad as nanotechnology itself. For many scientists, it is nothing startlingly new; after all we have been working at the nanoscale for decades, through electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopies or simply growing and analysing thin films. For most other groups, however, nanotechnology means something far more ambitious, miniature submarines in the bloodstream, little cogs and gears made out of atoms, space elevators made of nanotubes, and the colonization of space. It is no wonder people often muddle up nanotechnology with science fiction. 3. What is the nanoscale? Although a metre is defined by the International Standards Organization as `the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second' and a nanometre is by definition 10- 9 of a metre, this does not help scientists to communicate the nanoscale to non-scientists. It is in human nature to relate sizes by reference to everyday objects, and the commonest definition of

  19. Soft matter nanotechnology from structure to function

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Using the well-honed tools of nanotechnology, this book presents breakthrough results in soft matter research, benefitting from the synergies between the chemistry, physics, biology, materials science, and engineering communities. The team of international authors delves beyond mere structure-making and places the emphasis firmly on imparting functionality to soft nanomaterials with a focus on devices and applications. Alongside reviewing the current level of knowledge, they also put forward novel ideas to foster research and development in such expanding fields as nanobiotechnology and nanom

  20. DNA nanotechnology: a future perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Muniza; Kim, Byeonghoon; Hussain, Rafaqat; Amin, Rashid; Park, Sung Ha

    2013-03-01

    In addition to its genetic function, DNA is one of the most distinct and smart self-assembling nanomaterials. DNA nanotechnology exploits the predictable self-assembly of DNA oligonucleotides to design and assemble innovative and highly discrete nanostructures. Highly ordered DNA motifs are capable of providing an ultra-fine framework for the next generation of nanofabrications. The majority of these applications are based upon the complementarity of DNA base pairing: adenine with thymine, and guanine with cytosine. DNA provides an intelligent route for the creation of nanoarchitectures with programmable and predictable patterns. DNA strands twist along one helix for a number of bases before switching to the other helix by passing through a crossover junction. The association of two crossovers keeps the helices parallel and holds them tightly together, allowing the assembly of bigger structures. Because of the DNA molecule's unique and novel characteristics, it can easily be applied in a vast variety of multidisciplinary research areas like biomedicine, computer science, nano/optoelectronics, and bionanotechnology.

  1. Research progress on the molecular classification of tumors by quantum dot-based nanotechnology%基于量子点标记探针技术的肿瘤分子分型研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方敏; 彭春伟; 陈创; 庞代文; 李雁

    2014-01-01

    Malignant tumors are highly heterogeneous in terms of molecular phenotypes such that personalized therapy will be-come the standard for tumor therapy. Molecular classifications of cancer based on differences in biological behavior are important for selecting treatment strategies and prognostication. The unique optical and chemical properties of quantum dots have been widely used in biomedical applications such as tumor diagnosis, monitoring, pathogenesis, treatment, molecular pathology, and heterogeneity based on biological markers. In this study, we discuss the application of quantum dot-based nanotechnology and the molecular classification of cancer in personalized oncology.%恶性肿瘤在分子水平上具有高度异质性,是个体化治疗的依据。发展同时显示肿瘤原位多分子指标的技术对研究肿瘤生物学行为至关重要。量子点标记探针技术因其具有独特的光学和化学特性,在肿瘤诊断、监测、治疗、发病机制、分子分型及异质性研究中均有广阔应用前景。本文总结该技术在肿瘤分子分型方面的应用进展。

  2. Cancer immunoinformatics: a new assistant tool for malignant disease research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Weijia; Zhang Rupeng; Liang Han; Zhang Hui; Li Fangxuan; Yu Jinpu; Li Hui

    2014-01-01

    Objective To introduce the recent developments in cancer immunoinformatics with an emphasis on the latest trends and future direction.Data sources All related articles in this review were searched from PubMed published in English from 1992 to 2013.The search terms were cancer,immunoinformatics,immunological databases,and computational vaccinology.Study selection Original articles and reviews those were related to application of cancer immunoinformatics about tumor basic and clinical research were selected.Results Cancer immunoinformatics has been widely researched and applied in a series of fields of cancer research,including computational tools for cancer,cancer immunological databases,computational vaccinology,and cancer diagnostic workflows.Furthermore,the improvement of its theory and technology brings an enlightening insight into understanding and researching cancer and helps expound more deep and complete mechanisms of tumorigenesis and progression.Conclusion Cancer immunoinformatics provides promising methods and novel strategies for the discovery and development of tumor basic and clinical research.

  3. Overview of the role of nanotechnological innovations in the detection and treatment of solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank D

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Derusha Frank,1 Charu Tyagi,1 Lomas Tomar,1 Yahya E Choonara,1 Lisa C du Toit,1 Pradeep Kumar,1 Clement Penny,2 Viness Pillay1 1Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 2Department of Medical Oncology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Abstract: Nanotechnology, although still in its infantile stages, has the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of disease progression and success of therapy for numerous diseases and conditions, not least of which is cancer. As it is a leading cause of mortality worldwide, early cancer detection, as well as safe and efficacious therapeutic intervention, will be indispensable in improving the prognosis related to cancers and overall survival rate, as well as health-related quality of life of patients diagnosed with cancer. The development of a relatively new field of nanomedicine, which combines various domains and technologies including nanotechnology, medicine, biology, pharmacology, mathematics, physics, and chemistry, has yielded different approaches to addressing these challenges. Of particular relevance in cancer, nanosystems have shown appreciable success in the realm of diagnosis and treatment. Characteristics attributable to these systems on account of the nanoscale size range allow for individualization of therapy, passive targeting, the attachment of targeting moieties for more specific targeting, minimally invasive procedures, and real-time imaging and monitoring of in vivo processes. Furthermore, incorporation into nanosystems may have the potential to reintroduce into clinical practice drugs that are no longer used because of various shortfalls, as well as aid in the registration of new, potent drugs with suboptimal pharmacokinetic profiles. Research into the development of nanosystems for cancer diagnosis and therapy is thus a rapidly emerging and viable field of study. Keywords: nanosystems, targeted drug delivery

  4. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATIU Mariana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering. Nanotechnology overcomes the limitation of applying conventional methods to impart certain properties to textile materials. There is no doubt that in the next few years nanotechnology will penetrate into every area of the textile industry. Nanotextiles are nanoscale fibrous materials that can be fictionalized with a vast array of novel properties, including antibiotic activity, self-cleaning and the ability to increase reaction rates by providing large surface areas to potential reactants. These materials are used not only as cloth fabric, but as filter materials, wound-healing gauzes and antibacterial food packaging agents in food industry. World demand for nano-materials will rise more than two-and-a-half times to $5.5 billion in 2016 driven by a combination of increased market penetration of existing materials, and ongoing development of new materials and applications. In recent years was demonstrated that nanotechnology can be used to enhance textile attributes, such as fabric softness, durability and breathability, water repellency, fire retardancy, antimicrobial properties in fibers, yarns and fabrics. The development of smart nanotextiles has the potential to revolutionize the production of fibers, fabrics or nonwovens and functionality of our clothing and all types of textile products and applications. Nanotechnology is considered one of the most promising technologies for the 21st century. Today is said that if the IT is the wave of the present, the nanotechnology is the wave of the present, the nanotechnology is the wave of the future.

  5. Lung Cancer:Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Lung Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research Past Issues / Winter 2013 ... lung cancer are given intravenously or by mouth. Lung Cancer Research The large-scale National Lung Screening Trial, ...

  6. Lung Cancer:Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Lung Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research Past Issues / Winter ... lung cancer are given intravenously or by mouth. Lung Cancer Research The large-scale National Lung Screening ...

  7. Educating Cancer Prevention Researchers in Emerging Biobehavioral Models: Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Davila, Marivel; Kamrudin, Samira A.; Li, Dennis H.; Noor, Syed W.; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Chang, Shine; Cameron, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    To increase the adoption of transdisciplinary research methods among future cancer prevention investigators, faculty members from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a graduate-level course in biobehavioral methods in cancer prevention research. Two instructors paired by topic and area of expertise offered an hour-long lecture-based seminar every week for 15 weeks during the spring semester of 2010. Students and presenters both evaluated the overall course content and ...

  8. Next generation sequencing in cancer research and clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    Shyr, Derek; Liu, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The wide application of next-generation sequencing (NGS), mainly through whole genome, exome and transcriptome sequencing, provides a high-resolution and global view of the cancer genome. Coupled with powerful bioinformatics tools, NGS promises to revolutionize cancer research, diagnosis and therapy. In this paper, we review the recent advances in NGS-based cancer genomic research as well as clinical application, summarize the current integrative oncogenomic projects, resources and computatio...

  9. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research lifestyle recommendations in colorectal cancer survivors : Results of the PROFILES registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, Renate M; van Lee, Linde; Beijer, Sandra; Bours, Martijn J; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Geelen, Anouk; Hoedjes, Meeke; Mols, F.; de Vries, Jeanne; Weijenberg, Matty P; Kampman, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    We examined adherence to the eight The World Cancer Research Foundation/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendations on diet, physical activity, and body weight among colorectal cancer survivors, and whether adherence was associated with intention to eat healthy and with the ne

  10. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one-week educational opportunity in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  11. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the US Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  12. Nanotechnology and its applications in Veterinary and Animal Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Patil

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has a tremendous potential to revolutionize agriculture and livestock sector. It can provide new tools for molecular and cellular biology, biotechnology, veterinary physiology, animal genetics, reproduction etc. which will allow researchers to handle biological materials such as DNA, proteins or cells in minute quantities usually nano-liters or pico-liters. Nanotechnology tools like microfluidics, nanomaterials, bioanalytical nanosensors, etc. has the potential to solve many more puzzles related to animal health, production, reproduction and prevention and treatment of diseases. It is reasonable to presume that in the upcoming year’s nanotechnology research will reform the science and technology of the animal health and will help to boost up the livestock production. Nanotechnology will have a profound impact, but not in the immediate future as it is in the early stages of its development and needs to equip scientists, engineers and biologists to work at the cellular and molecular levels for significant benefits in healthcare and animal medicine. But It is reasonable to presume that in the upcoming year’s nanotechnology research will revolutionize animal health and help to boost up livestock production. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 475-477

  13. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Dagmara; Król, Wojciech; Szliszka, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease.

  14. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Jaworska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease.

  15. Advanced research on separating prostate cancer stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is a common malignant tumor in male urinary system,and may easily develop into the hormone refractory prostate cancer which can hardly be cured. Recent studies had found that the prostate cancer stem cells may be the source of the prostate cancer's occurrence,development, metastasis and recurrence. The therapy targeting the prostate cancer stem cells may be the effective way to cure prostate cancer. But these cells is too low to be detected. The difficulty lies in the low separation efficiency of prostate cancer stem cell, so the effectively separating prostate cancer stem cells occupied the main position for the more in-depth research of prostate cancer stem cells. This paper reviews the research progress and existing problems on the several main separating methods of prostate cancer stem cells, includes the fluorescence activated cells sorting and magnetic activated cells sorting based on prostate cancer stem cell surface markers, the side-population sorting and serum-free medium sphere forming sorting based on prostate cancer stem cell's biology. (authors)

  16. Cancer complementary and alternative medicine research at the US National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Libin

    2012-05-01

    The United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) supports complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) research which includes different methods and practices (such as nutrition therapies) and other medical systems (such as Chinese medicine). In recent years, NCI has spent around $120 million each year on various CAM-related research projects on cancer prevention, treatment, symptom/side effect management and epidemiology. The categories of CAM research involved include nutritional therapeutics, pharmacological and biological treatments, mind-body interventions, manipulative and body based methods, alternative medical systems, exercise therapies, spiritual therapies and energy therapies on a range of types of cancer. The NCI Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM) supports various intramural and extramural cancer CAM research projects. Examples of these cancer CAM projects are presented and discussed. In addition, OCCAM also supports international research projects.

  17. The Legitimation of Novel Technologies: The Case of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroff, Anastasia E.

    Nanotechnology is the control, manipulation, and application of matter on an atomic and molecular level. The technology is complex and confusing to consumers, and its long-term safety and effect on the human body, as well as the environment, are unknown. However, for the past decade, nanotechnology has been used to develop consumer products and food with novel and attractive attributes. Since nanotechnology is still not well known, it is not legitimized; that is, it has not been deemed safe and accepted by society. However, the market for nanotechnology is in the legitimation process. It will take an entire network of key stakeholders playing a specific roles for nanotechnology to legitimize. Specifically, each key stakeholder will align with a certain cultural discourse to frame nanotechnology in a particular way that complements their values. In Essay 1, I follow previous market system dynamic's literature and combine Actor Network Theory (ANT), Foucault's Discourse on Power and Goffman's Frame analysis to theoretically explore what the actor network for nanotechnology looks like. Four dominate frames are identified: 1) Advancement (i.e., government), 2) Management (i.e., industry), 3) Development (i.e., academia/scientists), and 4) Informant (i.e., NGO). Essay 2 empirically explores each actor's perspective on the nanotechnology network through a total of 24 interviews. A hermeneutic approach is used to analyze the 208 page text and themes describing each actor's role from a self and other's perspective are discussed. Additionally, three overarching themes (i.e., contradiction, constance, and cutoff) emerge; these themes describe the degree of similarity in how actors view their role in the nanotechnology network compared to how other actor's view that actor's role. In Essay 3, I bring critical theory into market system's research to better contextualize market formation theories. Specifically, I discuss how critical theory can be used to supplement ANT. I

  18. Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekhon BS

    2014-05-01

    one of the keys to influencing consumer acceptance. On the basis of only a handful of toxicological studies, concerns have arisen regarding the safety of nanomaterials, and researchers and companies will need to prove that these nanotechnologies do not have more of a negative impact on the environment.Keywords: agriculture, food, nanotechnology, nanoparticle, nanopesticides, nanosensors, smart delivery systems

  19. Contributions to Cancer Research: Finding a Niche in Communication | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This past July, I started a journey into the fields of communications and cancer research when I joined the Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG) as a fellow in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Health Communications Internship Program (HCIP). Cancer genomics and working in an office were new and uncharted territory for me: before I came to OCG, I was finishing a Ph.D. in cell biology at Vanderbilt University in Dr. Matthew Tyska’s laboratory.

  20. Technical structure of the global nanoscience and nanotechnology literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostoff, Ronald N., E-mail: kostofr@onr.navy.mil; Koytcheff, Raymond G. [Office of Naval Research (United States); Lau, Clifford G. Y. [Institute for Defense Analyses (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Text mining was used to extract technical intelligence from the open source global nanotechnology and nanoscience research literature. An extensive nanotechnology/nanoscience-focused query was applied to the Science Citation Index/Social Science Citation Index (SCI/SSCI) databases. The nanotechnology/nanoscience research literature technical structure (taxonomy) was obtained using computational linguistics/document clustering and factor analysis. The infrastructure (prolific authors, key journals/institutions/countries, most cited authors/journals/documents) for each of the clusters generated by the document clustering algorithm was obtained using bibliometrics. Another novel addition was the use of phrase auto-correlation maps to show technical thrust areas based on phrase co-occurrence in Abstracts, and the use of phrase-phrase cross-correlation maps to show technical thrust areas based on phrase relations due to the sharing of common co-occurring phrases. The {approx}400 most cited nanotechnology papers since 1991 were grouped, and their characteristics generated. Whereas the main analysis provided technical thrusts of all nanotechnology papers retrieved, analysis of the most cited papers allowed their characteristics to be displayed. Finally, most cited papers from selected time periods were extracted, along with all publications from those time periods, and the institutions and countries were compared based on their representation in the most cited documents list relative to their representation in the most publications list.

  1. Nano Mapper: an Internet knowledge mapping system for nanotechnology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanotechnology research has experienced rapid growth in recent years. Advances in information technology enable efficient investigation of publications, their contents, and relationships for large sets of nanotechnology-related documents in order to assess the status of the field. This paper presents the development of a new knowledge mapping system, called Nano Mapper (http://nanomapper.eller.arizona.eduhttp://nanomapper.eller.arizona.edu), which integrates the analysis of nanotechnology patents and research grants into a Web-based platform. The Nano Mapper system currently contains nanotechnology-related patents for 1976-2006 from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), European Patent Office (EPO), and Japan Patent Office (JPO), as well as grant documents from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for the same time period. The system provides complex search functionalities, and makes available a set of analysis and visualization tools (statistics, trend graphs, citation networks, and content maps) that can be applied to different levels of analytical units (countries, institutions, technical fields) and for different time intervals. The paper shows important nanotechnology patenting activities at USPTO for 2005-2006 identified through the Nano Mapper system.

  2. Nanotechnology Based Treatments for Neurological Disorders from Genetics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas S. Kurek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechology involves the application, analysis and manipulation of nanomaterials. These materials have unique and medically useful properties due to their nanoscale parameters. Nanotechnology based treatments and diagnostics might eventually bring great relief to people suffering from neurological disorders including autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disorders. A large variety of nonmaterials such as viruses, carbon nanotubes, gold and silica nanoparticles, nanoshells, quantum dots, genetic material and proteins as well as hordes of other forms of nanotechnology have been researched in order to determine their potential in enhancing disease treatments and diagnostics. Nanotechnology has shown countless applications and might eventually be used in every biotech/health industry. Nevertheless, many nanomaterials may pose some safety risks and whether their benefits overweigh the risk is still being debated. Once the proper ethical and safety protocols are established and enough research is completed, nanotechnology is expected to benefit the mankind enormously. In this article, we will discuss and analyze many ways in which, nanotechnology based treatments and diagnostics will be used to help people with neurological disorders through the methods that we currently have at our disposal. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 12-32

  3. Technical structure of the global nanoscience and nanotechnology literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Text mining was used to extract technical intelligence from the open source global nanotechnology and nanoscience research literature. An extensive nanotechnology/nanoscience-focused query was applied to the Science Citation Index/Social Science Citation Index (SCI/SSCI) databases. The nanotechnology/nanoscience research literature technical structure (taxonomy) was obtained using computational linguistics/document clustering and factor analysis. The infrastructure (prolific authors, key journals/institutions/countries, most cited authors/journals/documents) for each of the clusters generated by the document clustering algorithm was obtained using bibliometrics. Another novel addition was the use of phrase auto-correlation maps to show technical thrust areas based on phrase co-occurrence in Abstracts, and the use of phrase-phrase cross-correlation maps to show technical thrust areas based on phrase relations due to the sharing of common co-occurring phrases. The ∼400 most cited nanotechnology papers since 1991 were grouped, and their characteristics generated. Whereas the main analysis provided technical thrusts of all nanotechnology papers retrieved, analysis of the most cited papers allowed their characteristics to be displayed. Finally, most cited papers from selected time periods were extracted, along with all publications from those time periods, and the institutions and countries were compared based on their representation in the most cited documents list relative to their representation in the most publications list

  4. Research on cancer diagnosis in Malaysia: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, L M; Zubaidah, Z; Cheah, P L; Cheong, S K; Gudum, H R; Iekhsan, O; Ikram, S I; Jamal, R; Mak, J W; Othman, N H; Puteri, J N; Rosline, H; Sabariah, A R; Seow, H F; Sharifah, N A

    2004-06-01

    Cancer is a major morbidity and mortality concern in Malaysia. Based on National Cancer Registry data, the Malaysian population is estimated to bear a cancer burden of about 40,000 new cases per year, and a cumulative lifetime risk of about 1:4. Cancer research in Malaysia has to consider needs relevant to our population, and resources constraints. Hence, funding bodies prioritise cancers of high prevalence, unique to our community and posing specific clinical problems. Cancer diagnosis is crucial to cancer management. While cancer diagnosis research largely aims at improvements in diagnostic information towards more appropriate therapy, it also impacts upon policy development and other areas of cancer management. The scope of cancer diagnosis upon which this paper is based, and their possible impact on other R&D areas, has been broadly categorized into: (1) identification of aetiological agents and their linkages to the development of precancer and cancer (impact on policy development, cancer prevention and treatment), (2) cancer biology and pathogenesis (impact on cancer prevention, treatment strategies and product development), (3) improvements in accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in cancer detection, monitoring and classification (impact on technology development) and (4) prognostic and predictive parameters (impact on treatment strategies). This paper is based on data collected by the Working Group on Cancer Diagnosis Research for the First National Conference on Cancer Research Coordination in April 2004. Data was collated from the databases of Institutions/Universities where the authors are employed, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) and targeted survey feedback from key cancer researchers. Under the 7th Malaysia Plan, 76 cancer projects were funded through the Intensified Research in Priority Areas (IRPA) scheme of MOSTI, amounting to almost RM15 million of grant money. 47(61.8%) of these projects were substantially in cancer

  5. On the Status and Trends of Research and Development of Nanotechnology in the EU%欧盟纳米技术的研发现状及趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志勤

    2014-01-01

    欧盟是现代工业制造业的发源地,长期保持着世界工业的领先水平。欧委会根据全球高新技术发展态势和欧盟的发展需求及相对竞争优势,确定了欧盟工业可持续发展的六大关键势能技术(KETs)领域。纳米技术作为其六大关键势能技术之一,欧盟已为之制定了具体的优惠政策和行动举措给予重点扶持,以提升欧盟先进制造业的世界竞争力,促进经济增长和扩大就业。通过研究分析欧盟纳米技术工业的发展现状、研发创新、面临的挑战和未来发展趋势,旨在为我国战略性新兴技术产业的可持续发展,提供有益的线索和经验借鉴。%As the cradle of the modern industry, EU plays a leading role in the global industry development for long. Based on the status of the global high-tech development and the industry demand and comparative advantage in the EU, the European Commission identified sixKeyEnablingTechnologies(KETs) for the sustainable development of the industries in the EU. As one of the KETs, nanotechnology has been highlighted and fully supported by the EU with policy incentives and action plans, aiming at enhancing the competitiveness of the EU’s advanced manufacture industry and improving its economic property and employment. This paper analyzed comprehensively the status of the nanotechnology industries, the progress of Research & Development& Innovation(RDI), as well as challenges and trends of nanotechnology in the future, which could be a reference for the development of the strategic emerging industries in China.

  6. Nanotechnology: Role in dental biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are surface- adherent populations of microorganisms consisting of cells, water and extracellular matrix material Nanotechnology is promising field of science which can guide our understanding of the role of interspecies interaction in the development of biofilm. Streptococcus mutans with other species of bacteria has been known to form dental biofilm. The correlation between genetically modified bacteria Streptococcus mutans and nanoscale morphology has been assessed using AFMi.e atomic force microscopy. Nanotechnology application includes 16 O/ 18 O reverse proteolytic labeling,use of quantum dots for labeling of bacterial cells, selective removal of cariogenic bacteria while preserving the normal oral flora and silver antimicrobial nanotechnology against pathogens associated with biofilms. The future comprises a mouthwash full of smart nanomachines which can allow the harmless flora of mouth to flourish in a healthy ecosystem

  7. Towards discovery-driven translational research in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Discovery-driven translational research in breast cancer is moving steadily from the study of cell lines to the analysis of clinically relevant samples that, together with the ever increasing number of novel and powerful technologies available within genomics, proteomics and functional genomics......, promise to have a major impact on the way breast cancer will be diagnosed, treated and monitored in the future. Here we present a brief report on long-term ongoing strategies at the Danish Centre for Translational Breast Cancer Research to search for markers for early detection and targets for therapeutic...... biology approach to fight breast cancer....

  8. Awareness on adverse effects of nanotechnology increases negative perception among public: survey study from Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As has been demonstrated by recent societal controversies associated with the introduction of novel technologies, societal acceptance of a technology and its applications is shaped by consumers’ perceived risks and benefits. The research reported here investigates public perceptions of nanotechnology in Singapore, where technological innovation is an established part of the economy, and it might be expected that consumer perceptions of risk are low, and those of benefit are high. The contribution of socio-demographic variables, knowledge level and exposure to risk information in shaping risk perception about nanotechnology applications within different application sectors were analysed. About ∼80 % of respondents have some understanding of nanotechnology, 60 % report having heard some negative information, and 39 % perceive nanotechnology as beneficial, while 27.5 % perceive it as risky. Nanotechnology application in food was reported to cause the most concern in the consumers included in the sample. Two-step cluster analysis of the data enabled grouping of respondents into those who expressed ‘less concern’ or ‘more concern’ based on their average scores for concern levels expressed with applications of nanotechnology in different sectors. Profiling of these clusters revealed that, apart from various socio-demographic factors, exposure to risk-related information, rather than awareness in nanotechnology itself, resulted in respondents expressing greater concern about nanotechnology applications. The results provide evidence upon which regulatory agencies and industries can base policies regarding informed risk–benefit communication and management associated with the introduction of commercial applications of nanotechnology

  9. Scope of nanotechnology in modern textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review article demonstrates the scope and applications of nanotechnology towards modification and development of advanced textile fibers, yarns and fabrics and their processing techniques. Basically, it summarizes the recent advances made in nanotechnology and its applications to cotton textil...

  10. Nanotechnologies in Cuba: Popularization and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Castellanos, Carlos

    In Cuba, as in other countries, activities in the field of nanotechnology emerged from the converging development of research in materials physics and chemistry, microelectronics, supramolecular physics, microbiology and molecular biology. During the 1990s, theoretical and experimental work on semiconductor nanostructures gained in importance. Cuban physicists organized the Red CYTED (Network CYTED) to "study fabrication and characterization of semiconductor nanostructures for micro and optoelectronics" which functioned between 1998 and 2003 with the participation of eight Spanish-American countries. The network organized various courses and scientific meetings, edited a book and supported the scientific collaboration among the participant institutions.

  11. Nanotechnology in the targeted drug delivery for bone diseases and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu W

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wenyi Gu,1,2 Chengtie Wu,3 Jiezhong Chen,1 Yin Xiao1 1Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People's Republic of China Abstract: Nanotechnology is a vigorous research area and one of its important applications is in biomedical sciences. Among biomedical applications, targeted drug delivery is one of the most extensively studied subjects. Nanostructured particles and scaffolds have been widely studied for increasing treatment efficacy and specificity of present treatment approaches. Similarly, this technique has been used for treating bone diseases including bone regeneration. In this review, we have summarized and highlighted the recent advancement of nanostructured particles and scaffolds for the treatment of cancer bone metastasis, osteosarcoma, bone infections and inflammatory diseases, osteoarthritis, as well as for bone regeneration. Nanoparticles used to deliver deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid molecules to specific bone sites for gene therapies are also included. The investigation of the implications of nanoparticles in bone diseases have just begun, and has already shown some promising potential. Further studies have to be conducted, aimed specifically at assessing targeted delivery and bioactive scaffolds to further improve their efficacy before they can be used clinically. Keywords: nanoparticles, nanostructured scaffold, cancer bone metastasis, bone diseases, target drug delivery, bone regeneration

  12. Next generation distributed computing for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pankaj; Owzar, Kouros

    2014-01-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have provided many new opportunities and angles for extending the scope of translational cancer research while creating tremendous challenges in data management and analysis. The resulting informatics challenge is invariably not amenable to the use of traditional computing models. Recent advances in scalable computing and associated infrastructure, particularly distributed computing for Big Data, can provide solutions for addressing these challenges. In this review, the next generation of distributed computing technologies that can address these informatics problems is described from the perspective of three key components of a computational platform, namely computing, data storage and management, and networking. A broad overview of scalable computing is provided to set the context for a detailed description of Hadoop, a technology that is being rapidly adopted for large-scale distributed computing. A proof-of-concept Hadoop cluster, set up for performance benchmarking of NGS read alignment, is described as an example of how to work with Hadoop. Finally, Hadoop is compared with a number of other current technologies for distributed computing. PMID:25983539

  13. Future possibilities in the prevention of breast cancer: Fat and fiber and breast cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Prentice, Ross L.

    2000-01-01

    The potential for a reduction in dietary fat or for an increase in dietary fiber to reduce breast cancer risk has been debated for some years. It is argued here that available research data, even though extensive, leave open hypotheses ranging from little or no potential to major public health potential for breast cancer prevention by means of these dietary maneuvers. Some elements of a research strategy for testing these and other dietary breast cancer prevention hypotheses are described.

  14. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, fourteen topics were selected as major research advances in gynecologic oncology. For ovarian cancer, high-level evidence for annual screening with multimodal strategy which could reduce ovarian cancer deaths was reported. The best preventive strategies with current status of evidence level were also summarized. Final report of chemotherapy or upfront surgery (CHORUS) trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced stage ovarian cancer and individualized therapy based on gene characteristics followed. There was no sign of abating in great interest in immunotherapy as well as targeted therapies in various gynecologic cancers. The fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference which was held in November 7–9 in Tokyo was briefly introduced. For cervical cancer, update of human papillomavirus vaccines regarding two-dose regimen, 9-valent vaccine, and therapeutic vaccine was reviewed. For corpus cancer, the safety concern of power morcellation in presumed fibroids was explored again with regard to age and prevalence of corpus malignancy. Hormone therapy and endometrial cancer risk, trabectedin as an option for leiomyosarcoma, endometrial cancer and Lynch syndrome, and the radiation therapy guidelines were also discussed. In addition, adjuvant therapy in vulvar cancer and the updated of targeted therapy in gynecologic cancer were addressed. For breast cancer, palbociclib in hormone-receptor-positive advanced disease, oncotype DX Recurrence Score in low-risk patients, regional nodal irradiation to internal mammary, supraclavicular, and axillary lymph nodes, and cavity shave margins were summarized as the last topics covered in this review. PMID:27775259

  15. MULTIMODAL EVALUATIONS OF JAPAN'S NANOTECHNOLOGY COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    DAISUKE KANAMA

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, there are great expectations for nanotechnology because it is expected not only to renovate existing markets but also create new, large, and wide-ranging markets. Japan is generally believed to be strong in nanotechnology. However, how should the competitiveness of nanotechnology be measured?Based on publications, patents, venture business, and other survey results, this paper intends to discuss Japan's nanotechnology competitiveness and changes in the competition areas of nanotechn...

  16. Nanotechnology in dentistry: Current achievements and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Ramandeep Singh Gambhir; G M Sogi; Ashutosh Nirola; Rajdeep Brar; Tegbir Sekhon; Heena Kakar

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology offers advances particularly in each and every field of human activity such as electronics, industry, telecommunications, environmental science, etc., The field of nanotechnology has got remarkable potential that can bring considerable improvements to the human health, enhanced use of natural resources, and reduced environmental pollution. Since 1990s, nanotechnology has been exploited for potential medical and dental applications. Nanotechnology holds promise for advanced diag...

  17. General Account Of Nanotechnology and Nano Toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K.B.Koteshwara

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology represents revolutionary changes in 21st century with its continuous advancements and progression with time and in knowledge. It has applications in each and every fields of science leaving any aspects untouched. Nanotechnology also embraces many advantages in medicines, diagnostics and drug delivery, thus can be termed as pharmaceutical nanotechnology. Whether, its established drug or new entity, from improving solubility to specific organ targeting, nanotechnology is a platfo...

  18. [Research progression of translational medicine in gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maoran; Zhao, Gang; Zhu, Chunchao

    2014-02-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors which is a great threat to human health. In recent years, the reform of surgical mordalities and the optimization of radiation and chemotherapy is still far from reducing morbidity and mortality of gastric cancer. As a new research pattern, translational medicine has emerged in various clinical subjects, which leads to remarkable effects. In this paper, the definition and development of translational medicine, molecular markers and drug treatment of gastric cancer will be discussed and the feasibility of translational medicine in the treatment of gastric cancer will be explained. In our opinion, the intervention of translational medicine could change the current situation that scientific researches is severely disconnected with clinical practice and increase the detection rate of gastric cancer and the effective rate of adjuvant therapy after surgery to improve the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer.

  19. The Changing Landscape of Lung Cancer Research and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Along with the Lung Cancer Social Media (#LCSM) community, the National Cancer Institute will be co-hosting a lively and interactive Google Hangout on Air about the changing landscape of lung cancer research and treatment. During the chat, viewers will have the opportunity to pose questions to a panel of lung cancer experts including NCI's Dr. Shakun Malik, the head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, Chief of Medical Oncology, Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven and David Tom Cooke MD FACS, Head, Section of General Thoracic Surgery University of California, Davis. You can also learn more and follow along on the #LCSM Chat page. The chat will be moderated by lung cancer advocate and #LCSM co-founder, Janet Freeman-Daily. To ask questions of our experts, simply use the #LCSM hashtag during the chat.

  20. Clinical perspectives of cancer stem cell research in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy has a proven potential to eradicate cancer stem cells which is reflected by its curative potential in many cancer types. Considerable progress has been made in identification and biological characterisation of cancer stem cells during the past years. Recent biological findings indicate significant inter- and intratumoural and functional heterogeneity of cancer stem cells and lead to more complex models which have potential implications for radiobiology and radiotherapy. Clinical evidence is emerging that biomarkers of cancer stem cells may be prognostic for the outcome of radiotherapy in some tumour entities. Perspectives of cancer stem cell based research for radiotherapy reviewed here include their radioresistance compared to the mass of non-cancer stem cells which form the bulk of all tumour cells, implications for image- and non-image based predictive bio-assays of the outcome of radiotherapy and a combination of novel systemic treatments with radiotherapy