WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer mortality maps

  1. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening...... from other factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical...

  2. Geostatistical analysis of disease data: accounting for spatial support and population density in the isopleth mapping of cancer mortality risk using area-to-point Poisson kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goovaerts Pierre

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geostatistical techniques that account for spatially varying population sizes and spatial patterns in the filtering of choropleth maps of cancer mortality were recently developed. Their implementation was facilitated by the initial assumption that all geographical units are the same size and shape, which allowed the use of geographic centroids in semivariogram estimation and kriging. Another implicit assumption was that the population at risk is uniformly distributed within each unit. This paper presents a generalization of Poisson kriging whereby the size and shape of administrative units, as well as the population density, is incorporated into the filtering of noisy mortality rates and the creation of isopleth risk maps. An innovative procedure to infer the point-support semivariogram of the risk from aggregated rates (i.e. areal data is also proposed. Results The novel methodology is applied to age-adjusted lung and cervix cancer mortality rates recorded for white females in two contrasted county geographies: 1 state of Indiana that consists of 92 counties of fairly similar size and shape, and 2 four states in the Western US (Arizona, California, Nevada and Utah forming a set of 118 counties that are vastly different geographical units. Area-to-point (ATP Poisson kriging produces risk surfaces that are less smooth than the maps created by a naïve point kriging of empirical Bayesian smoothed rates. The coherence constraint of ATP kriging also ensures that the population-weighted average of risk estimates within each geographical unit equals the areal data for this unit. Simulation studies showed that the new approach yields more accurate predictions and confidence intervals than point kriging of areal data where all counties are simply collapsed into their respective polygon centroids. Its benefit over point kriging increases as the county geography becomes more heterogeneous. Conclusion A major limitation of choropleth

  3. Efficient Mapping and Geographic Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality at the County-level by Race and Age in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Yu, Hwa-Lung; Schootman, Mario

    2013-01-01

    This study identified geographic disparities in breast cancer mortality across the U.S. using kriging to overcome unavailability of data because of confidentiality and reliability concerns. A structured additive regression model was used to detect where breast cancer mortality rates were elevated across nine divisions with 3109 U.S. counties during 1982-2004. Our analysis identified at least 25.8% of counties where breast cancer mortality rates were elevated. High-risk counties compared to lo...

  4. Cancer mortality in male hairdressers.

    OpenAIRE

    Alderson, M

    1980-01-01

    Although hair dyes have been shown to be highly mutagenic the literature on possible human cancer risk is confused. A variety of studies using different methods in different countries have provided a range of positive and negative findings. In the present study the observed and expected mortality among a sample of hairdressers identified in the 1961 census was examined and followed until 1978; attention was focused on five malignancies reported to have increased in male hairdressers in the ot...

  5. Antigua/Barbuda Cancer Mortality Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the cancer mortality rates in Antigua and Barbuda in an effort to enhance the profile of the country’s cancer burden. Method: Available data for 2001 to 2005 were analysed to obtain cancer mortality rates. Analysis was also made of the mortality/incidence ratios. Results: There were 354 cancer deaths – 208 males (age standardized rates (ASR 111.9 and 146 females (ASR 66.3. The main causes were prostate (ASR 53 and breast (ASR 22. The mortality rates for cancers of the lung (ASR 5.09 males, 2.49 females and brain/nervous system (ASR 0.45 males, 1.7 females were significantly lower than those in the Caribbean. Conclusion: Mortality rates were highest for sex-specific cancers, accounting for more than 50% of cancer deaths.

  6. Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Dipamoy; Aftabuddin, Md; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Prosenjit

    2016-01-01

    Human prostate cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease that mainly affects elder male population of the western world with a high rate of mortality. Acquisitions of diverse sets of hallmark capabilities along with an aberrant functioning of androgen receptor signaling are the central driving forces behind prostatic tumorigenesis and its transition into metastatic castration resistant disease. These hallmark capabilities arise due to an intense orchestration of several crucial factors, including deregulation of vital cell physiological processes, inactivation of tumor suppressive activity and disruption of prostate gland specific cellular homeostasis. The molecular complexity and redundancy of oncoproteins signaling in prostate cancer demands for concurrent inhibition of multiple hallmark associated pathways. By an extensive manual curation of the published biomedical literature, we have developed Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map (HPCHM), an onco-functional atlas of human prostate cancer associated signaling and events. It explores molecular architecture of prostate cancer signaling at various levels, namely key protein components, molecular connectivity map, oncogenic signaling pathway map, pathway based functional connectivity map etc. Here, we briefly represent the systems level understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with prostate tumorigenesis by considering each and individual molecular and cell biological events of this disease process. PMID:27476486

  7. Recent trends in cancer mortality in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze trends in cancer mortality in Uruguay in the period 1989-2008. Methodology: The National Cancer Registry (NCR) collects information from cancer mortality from the death certificates: 147 631 deaths were identified in the period from cancer, which was recorded topography, sex and age. They were calculated for each year mortality rates adjusted for age (TMAE) using as standard the world population. Trends were assessed using the method and calculated the joinpoint Estimated Annual Percent Change (ESPP). Results: The TMAE presents downward trend in both sexes (ESPP = significant -0.60 in men and -0.49 In women). In the period studied, mortality presented decreasing trend when it comes to cancer breast cancer in women (ESPP -0.79, significant), and increased for prostate cancer (ESPP = 0.70) and kidney (ESPP = 1.82 and 1.71 in men and women respectively). As regards the digestive system decreased mortality observed for esophageal cancer (ESPP in = -1.93 men and women = -1.78) and stomach (ESPP = -2.22 men and women -2.24 ). Mortality for cancer of colorectum is stable in men (ESPP = 0.35 No significant (NS)) and shows a decline slight but steady in women (ESPP -0.5). As for cancers that show strong association with smoking, decreased mortality observed lung and laryngeal cancer in men (ESPP = -1.11 and -2.05 respectively), confirming the trend found between 1990 and 2001; in women there is increased mortality from lung cancer (ESPP = 2.76) that is not accompanied by increased mortality from laryngeal cancer (-0.1 ESPP = NS). Mortality from cancers oral cavity and pharynx is stable, but in women a significant increase (ESPP = 1.84) is observed when the oral cavity is analyzed in isolation (lip, tongue, gums, palate). As cervical cancer, mortality trends in 20 years is to increase (ESPP = 1.14), however, if consider only the past decade, mortality appears stabilized (ESPP = 0.57 NS). Conclusions: The overall trend of cancer mortality (all sites

  8. Cancer mortality in Ireland, 1976-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume brings together in easily accessible form up-to-date mortality statistics for cancer for the Republic of Ireland. Because of small numbers in many of the malignant neoplasms studied rates and standardised mortality ratios have been calculated for the 11 year period 1976-86. Basic data only is presented, based on cancer type, location, sex and age group

  9. Liver cancer mortality rate model in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwattanapongse, Wattanavadee; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon

    2013-09-01

    Liver Cancer has been a leading cause of death in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to model and forecast liver cancer mortality rate in Thailand using death certificate reports. A retrospective analysis of the liver cancer mortality rate was conducted. Numbering of 123,280 liver cancer causes of death cases were obtained from the national vital registration database for the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, provided by the Ministry of Interior and coded as cause-of-death using ICD-10 by the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate regression model was used for modeling and forecasting age-specific liver cancer mortality rates in Thailand. Liver cancer mortality increased with increasing age for each sex and was also higher in the North East provinces. The trends of liver cancer mortality remained stable in most age groups with increases during ten-year period (2000 to 2009) in the Northern and Southern. Liver cancer mortality was higher in males and increase with increasing age. There is need of liver cancer control measures to remain on a sustained and long-term basis for the high liver cancer burden rate of Thailand.

  10. Ovarian cancer mortality and industrial pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated whether there might be excess ovarian cancer mortality among women residing near Spanish industries, according to different categories of industrial groups and toxic substances. An ecologic study was designed to examine ovarian cancer mortality at a municipal level (period 1997–2006). Population exposure to pollution was estimated by means of distance from town to facility. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed the relative risk of dying from ovarian cancer in zones around installations, and analyzed the effect of industrial groups and pollutant substances. Excess ovarian cancer mortality was detected in the vicinity of all sectors combined, and, principally, near refineries, fertilizers plants, glass production, paper production, food/beverage sector, waste treatment plants, pharmaceutical industry and ceramic. Insofar as substances were concerned, statistically significant associations were observed for installations releasing metals and polycyclic aromatic chemicals. These results support that residing near industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality. - Highlights: • We studied excess mortality due to ovarian cancer near Spanish industries. • Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. • We found excess ovarian cancer mortality near all industrial groups as a whole. • Risk also was found in towns near industries releasing carcinogens and metals. • Risk was associated with plants releasing polycyclic aromatic chemicals and POPs. - Our results support that residing in the vicinity of pollutant industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality

  11. Cancer mortality in cerebral palsy in California

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Steven,; Brooks, Jordan; Strauss, David; Shumway, Sharon; Shavelle, Robert; Kush, Scott; Sasco, Annie

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to lifestyle, occupational, and environmental risk factors for cancer are undoubtedly different in cerebral palsy (CP) than in the general population, and these differences and others may result in a specific pattern of cancer mortality in CP. Objective: To study the cancer mortality of CP in California. Study group: 40,482 CP cases (contributing 357,928 person-years) among 210,155 persons having received annual evaluations from the California Department of Developmental Services ove...

  12. Ovarian cancer mortality and industrial pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Javier; Lope, Virginia; López-Abente, Gonzalo; González-Sánchez, Mario; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    We investigated whether there might be excess ovarian cancer mortality among women residing near Spanish industries, according to different categories of industrial groups and toxic substances. An ecologic study was designed to examine ovarian cancer mortality at a municipal level (period 1997-2006). Population exposure to pollution was estimated by means of distance from town to facility. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed the relative risk of dying from ovarian cancer in zones around installations, and analyzed the effect of industrial groups and pollutant substances. Excess ovarian cancer mortality was detected in the vicinity of all sectors combined, and, principally, near refineries, fertilizers plants, glass production, paper production, food/beverage sector, waste treatment plants, pharmaceutical industry and ceramic. Insofar as substances were concerned, statistically significant associations were observed for installations releasing metals and polycyclic aromatic chemicals. These results support that residing near industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality. PMID:26046426

  13. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-qing Chen; Hong-mei Zeng; Rong-shou Zheng; Si-wei Zhang; Jie He

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Cancer incidence and mortality data collected from population-based cancer registries were analyzed to present the overall cancer statistics in Chinese registration areas by age,sex and geographic area in 2007.Methods:In 2010,48 cancer registries reported cancer incidence and mortality data of 2007 to National Central Cancer Registry of China.Of them,38 registries' data met the national criteria.Incidence and mortality were calculated by cancer sites,age,gender,and area.Age-standardized rates were described by China and World population.Results:The crude incidence rate for all cancers was 276.16/100,000 (305.22/100,000 for male and 246.46/100,000 for female; 284.71/100,000 in urban and 251.07/100,000 in rural).Age-standardized incidence rates by China and World population were 145.39/100,000 and 189.46/100,000 respectively.The crude mortality rate for all cancers was 177.09/100,000 (219.15/100,000 for male and 134.10/100,000 for female; 173.55/100,000 in urban and 187.49/100,000 in rural).Age-standardized mortality rates by China and World population were 86.06/100,000 and 116.46/100,000,respectively.The top 10 most frequently common cancer sites were the lung,stomach,colon and rectum,liver,breast,esophagus,pancreas,bladder,brain and lymphoma,accounting for 76.12% of the total cancer cases.The top 10 causes of cancer death were cancers of the lung,liver,stomach,esophagus,colon and rectum,pancreas,breast,leukemia,brain and lymphoma,accounting for 84.37% of the total cancer deaths.Conclusion:Cancer remains a major disease threatening people's health in China.Prevention and control should be enhanced,especially for the main cancers.

  14. MAPS of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Lincoln

    1998-01-01

    Our goal was to produce an interactive visualization from a mathematical model that successfully predicts metastases from head and neck cancer. We met this goal early in the project. The visualization is available for the public to view. Our work appears to fill a need for more information about this deadly disease. The idea of this project was to make an easily interpretable visualization based on what we call "functional maps" of disease. A functional map is a graphic summary of medical data, where distances between parts of the body are determined by the probability of disease, not by anatomical distances. Functional maps often beat little resemblance to anatomical maps, but they can be used to predict the spread of disease. The idea of modeling the spread of disease in an abstract multidimensional space is difficult for many people. Our goal was to make the important predictions easy to see. NASA must face this problem frequently: how to help laypersons and professionals see important trends in abstract, complex data. We took advantage of concepts perfected in NASA's graphics libraries. As an analogy, consider a functional map of early America. Suppose we choose travel times, rather than miles, as our measures of inter-city distances. For Abraham Lincoln, travel times would have been the more meaningful measure of separation between cities. In such a map New Orleans would be close to Memphis because of the Mississippi River. St. Louis would be close to Portland because of the Oregon Trail. Oklahoma City would be far from Little Rock because of the Cheyenne. Such a map would look puzzling to those of us who have always seen physical maps, but the functional map would be more useful in predicting the probabilities of inter-site transit. Continuing the analogy, we could predict the spread of social diseases such as gambling along the rivers and cattle rustling along the trails. We could simply print the functional map of America, but it would be more interesting

  15. Racial disparities in lung cancer mortality in U.S. congressional districts, 1990–2001

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Goovaerts, Pierre; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Hao, Yongping; Jemal, Ahmedin; Jaymie R. Meliker

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to detect statistically significant racial disparities in lung cancer mortality at the U.S. congressional district level. We applied absolute disparity statistics to mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) for 1990–2001, mapped significant lung cancer mortality disparities by race and gender within U.S. congressional districts, and uncovered previously unreported disparities. The disparity statistics comparing black and white female...

  16. Diagnostic interval and mortality in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Frydenberg, Morten; Hamilton, William;

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the theory of a U-shaped association between time from the first presentation of symptoms in primary care to the diagnosis (the diagnostic interval) and mortality after diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Study Design and Setting Three population-based studies in Denmark and the...

  17. Low dose irradiation reduces cancer mortality rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low doses of ionizing radiation stimulate development, growth, memory, sensual acuity, fecundity, and immunity (Luckey, T.D., ''Radiation Hormesis'', CRC Press, 1991). Increased immune competence reduces cancer mortality rates and provides increased average lifespan in animals. Decreased cancer mortality rates in atom bomb victims who received low dose irradiation makes it desirable to examine populations exposed to low dose irradiation. Studies with over 300,000 workers and 7 million person-years provide a valid comparison of radiation exposed and control unclear workers (Luckey, T.D., Nurture with Ionizing Radiation, Nutrition and Cancer, 34:1-11, 1999). Careful selection of controls eliminated any ''healthy worker effect''. The person-year corrected average indicated the cancer mortality rate of exposed workers was only 51% that of control workers. Lung cancer mortality rates showed a highly significant negative correlation with radon concentrations in 272,000 U.S. homes (Cohen, B.L., Health Physics 68:157-174, 1995). In contrast, radon concentrations showed no effect on lung cancer rates in miners from different countries (Lubin, J.H. Am. J. Epidemiology 140:323-332, 1994). This provides evidence that excessive lung cancer in miners is caused by particulates (the major factor) or toxic gases. The relative risk for cancer mortality was 3.7% in 10,000 Taiwanese exposed to low level of radiation from 60Co in their steel supported homes (Luan, Y.C. et al., Am. Nuclear Soc. Trans. Boston, 1999). This remarkable finding needs further study. A major mechanism for reduced cancer mortality rates is increased immune competence; this includes both cell and humoral components. Low dose irradiation increases circulating lymphocytes. Macrophage and ''natural killer'' cells can destroy altered (cancer) cells before the mass becomes too large. Low dose irradiation also kills suppressor T-cells; this allows helper T-cells to activate killer cells and antibody producing cells

  18. Low dose irradiation reduces cancer mortality rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckey, T.D.

    2000-05-01

    Low doses of ionizing radiation stimulate development, growth, memory, sensual acuity, fecundity, and immunity (Luckey, T.D., ''Radiation Hormesis'', CRC Press, 1991). Increased immune competence reduces cancer mortality rates and provides increased average lifespan in animals. Decreased cancer mortality rates in atom bomb victims who received low dose irradiation makes it desirable to examine populations exposed to low dose irradiation. Studies with over 300,000 workers and 7 million person-years provide a valid comparison of radiation exposed and control unclear workers (Luckey, T.D., Nurture with Ionizing Radiation, Nutrition and Cancer, 34:1-11, 1999). Careful selection of controls eliminated any ''healthy worker effect''. The person-year corrected average indicated the cancer mortality rate of exposed workers was only 51% that of control workers. Lung cancer mortality rates showed a highly significant negative correlation with radon concentrations in 272,000 U.S. homes (Cohen, B.L., Health Physics 68:157-174, 1995). In contrast, radon concentrations showed no effect on hlumg cancer rates in miners from different countries (Lubin, J.H. Am. J. Epidemiology 140:323-332, 1994). This provides evidence that excessive lung cancer in miners is caused by particulates (the major factor) or toxic gases. The relative risk for cancer mortality was 3.7% in 10,000 Taiwanese exposed to low level of radiation from {sup 60}Co in their steel supported homes (Luan, Y.C. et al., Am. Nuclear Soc. Trans. Boston, 1999). This remarkable finding needs further study. A major mechanism for reduced cancer mortality rates is increased immune competence; this includes both cell and humoral components. Low dose irradiation increases circulating lymphocytes. Macrophage and ''natural killer'' cells can destroy altered (cancer) cells before the mass becomes too large. Low dose irradiation also kills suppressor T-cells; this allows

  19. Breast cancer mortality in mammographic screening in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Nyström, Lennarth; Moss, Sue;

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the impact of service mammography screening on breast cancer mortality using European incidence-based mortality (IBM) studies (or refined mortality studies). IBM studies include only breast cancer deaths occurring in women with breast cancer diagnosed after their first invitation to...... screening....

  20. Demographic factors and cancer mortality. A mathematical model for cancer mortality in Denmark 1943-78

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, K

    1983-01-01

    young adult life into old age. One-year age-specific mortality rates between 30 and 79 years of age were computed for 14 different cancer sites among both males and females, in five ten-year birth cohorts and for the capital and provinces. The number of deaths at a particular age were found to follow a...... Poisson distribution and the mortality rate could be expressed by the function lx = bxk, where lx is the mortality rate at age x, and b and k are parameters to be estimated. With this model a straight line is obtained, when mortality and age are plotted on a double logarithmic scale. The maximum...

  1. Cancer mortality in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The now completed dosimetry revision as well as continued medical monitoring of the A-bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki have led to a change in conclusions drawn in regard to cancer mortality. A major result of the dosimetry revision is that neutron doses have been much lower than previously assumed. Preston and Pierce (1987) have made cancer mortality risk estimates on the basis of the new dosimetry system. Concerning the accumulated occurrence of solid tumors, the main result is that the new dosimetry system brings relatively little change. As to leukemia induction, new reduced dose estimates lead to risk estimates that are by a factor of 2 above those made with the former dosimetry system. (orig./MG)

  2. Prediction of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Korea, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Hyunsoon; Lee, Jong-Keun; Lee, Duk Hyoung; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate of Korea’s current cancer burden, this study aimed to report on projected cancer incidence and mortality rates for the year 2016. Materials and Methods: Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2013 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and cancer mortality data from 1993 to 2014 were acquired from Statistics Korea. Cancer incidence in 2016 was projected by fitting a linear regression model to observed age-specific cancer incidence rates against obser...

  3. Prostate cancer in Denmark. Incidence, morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Iversen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates in Denmark are reviewed for a 50-year period from 1943 to 1992. The prostate cancer incidence rate nearly tripled and prostate cancer mortality rate increased during this period. Until recently in Denmark the routine management of prostate cancer has...... been by deferred hormonal therapy. Morbidity and mortality associated with prostate cancer are analysed in a group of 1459 patients aged 55-74 years, who were diagnosed as having clinically localized prostate cancer in the 5-year period 1983 to 1987. In this group of patients prostate cancer is...

  4. Ionizing radiation decreases human cancer mortality rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information from nine studies with exposed nuclear workers and military observers of atmospheric bomb explosions confirms the results from animal studies which showed that low doses of ionizing radiation are beneficial. The usual ''healthy worker effect'' was eliminated by using carefully selected control populations. The results from 13 million person-years show the cancer mortality rate of exposed persons is only 65.6% that of carefully selected unexposed controls. This overwhelming evidence makes it politically untenable and morally wrong to withhold public health benefits of low dose irradiation. Safe supplementation of ionizing radiation should become a public health service. (author)

  5. Lung Cancer Mortality and Topography: A Xuanwei Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hongyan Ren; Wei Cao; Gongbo Chen; Junxing Yang; Liqun Liu; Xia Wan; Gonghuan Yang

    2016-01-01

    The epidemic of lung cancer in Xuanwei City, China, remains serious despite the reduction of the risk of indoor air pollution through citywide stove improvement. The main objective of this study was to characterize the influences of topography on the spatiotemporal variations of lung cancer mortality in Xuanwei during 1990–2013. Using the spatially empirical Bayes method, the smoothed mortality rate of lung cancer was obtained according to the mortality data and population data collected from...

  6. Metformin Associated With Lower Cancer Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Landman, Gijs W.D.; Kleefstra, Nanne; van Hateren, Kornelis J.J.; Groenier, Klaas H; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Several studies have suggested an association between specific diabetes treatment and cancer mortality. We studied the association between metformin use and cancer mortality in a prospectively followed cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In 1998 and 1999, 1,353 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the Zwolle Outpatient Diabetes project Integrating Available Care (ZODIAC) study in the Netherlands. Vital status was assessed in January 2009. Cancer mortality rate was evaluate...

  7. Smoking-attributable cancer mortality in California, 1979–2005

    OpenAIRE

    Cowling, David W; Yang, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Background The adult smoking prevalence has declined more in California than the rest of the US in the past 2 decades. Further, California has faster declines in cancer mortality, lung cancer incidence and heart disease mortality. However, no study has examined smoking-related cancer mortality between California and the rest of the US. Methods The smoking-attributable cancer mortality rate (SACMR) from 1979 to 2005 in California and the rest of the US are calculated among men and women 35 yea...

  8. Disparities in cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Reis Girianelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil according to socioeconomic and welfare indicators. METHODS Data on breast and cervical cancer mortality covering a 30-year period (1980-2010 were analyzed. The data were obtained from the National Mortality Database, population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database, and socioeconomic and welfare information from the Institute of Applied Economic Research. Moving averages were calculated, disaggregated by capital city and municipality. The annual percent change in mortality rates was estimated by segmented linear regression using the joinpoint method. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were conducted between average mortality rate at the end of the three-year period and selected indicators in the state capital and each Brazilian state. RESULTS There was a decline in cervical cancer mortality rates throughout the period studied, except in municipalities outside of the capitals in the North and Northeast. There was a decrease in breast cancer mortality in the capitals from the end of the 1990s onwards. Favorable socioeconomic indicators were inversely correlated with cervical cancer mortality. A strong direct correlation was found with favorable indicators and an inverse correlation with fertility rate and breast cancer mortality in inner cities. CONCLUSIONS There is an ongoing dynamic process of increased risk of cervical and breast cancer and attenuation of mortality because of increased, albeit unequal, access to and provision of screening, diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Cancer mortality differences among urban and rural residents in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailyte, Giedre; Kurtinaitis, Juozas

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to describe and to compare the cancer mortality rates in urban and rural residents in Lithuania. Methods Cancer mortality has been studied using the materials of the Lithuanian cancer registry. For the period 1993–2004 age-standardized urban and rural population mortality rates (World standard) were calculated for all malignant neoplasm's and for stomach, colorectal, lung, prostate, breast and cervical cancers. The annual percentage change (APC) was calculated using log-linear regression model, two-sided Mantel-Haenzel test was used to evaluate differences in cancer mortality among rural and urban populations. Results For males in rural population cancer mortality was higher than in urban (212.2 and 197.0 cases per 100000) and for females cancer mortality was higher in urban population (103.5 and 94.2 cases per 100000, p < 0.05). During the study period the age-standardized mortality rates decreased in both sexes in urban residents. The decreasing mortality trend in urban population was contributed by decline of the rates of lung and stomach cancer in male and breast, stomach and colorectal cancer in female. Mortality rates in both urban and rural population were increasing for prostate and cervical cancers. Conclusion This study shows that large rural and urban inequalities in cancer mortality exist in Lithuania. The contrast between the health of residents in urban and rural areas invites researchers for research projects to develop, implement, and enhance cancer prevention and early detection intervention strategies for rural populations. PMID:18267035

  10. Classification of treatment-related mortality in children with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Sarah; Pole, Jason D; Gibson, Paul;

    2015-01-01

    Treatment-related mortality is an important outcome in paediatric cancer clinical trials. An international group of experts in supportive care in paediatric cancer developed a consensus-based definition of treatment-related mortality and a cause-of-death attribution system. The reliability and va...

  11. Investigation on circular asymmetry of geographical distribution in cancer mortality of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors based on risk maps: analysis of spatial survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Sato, Yuya; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi; Tashiro, Satoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ohtaki, Megu

    2012-05-01

    While there is a considerable number of studies on the relationship between the risk of disease or death and direct exposure from the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, the risk for indirect exposure caused by residual radioactivity has not yet been fully evaluated. One of the reasons is that risk assessments have utilized estimated radiation doses, but that it is difficult to estimate indirect exposure. To evaluate risks for other causes, including indirect radiation exposure, as well as direct exposure, a statistical method is described here that evaluates risk with respect to individual location at the time of atomic bomb exposure instead of radiation dose. In addition, it is also considered to split the risks into separate risks due to direct exposure and other causes using radiation dose. The proposed method is applied to a cohort study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. The resultant contour map suggests that the region west to the hypocenter has a higher risk compared to other areas. This in turn suggests that there exists an impact on risk that cannot be explained by direct exposure. PMID:22302183

  12. Disparities in cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vania Reis Girianelli; Carmen Justina Gamarra; Gulnar Azevedo e Silva

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze cervical and breast cancer mortality in Brazil according to socioeconomic and welfare indicators. METHODS Data on breast and cervical cancer mortality covering a 30-year period (1980-2010) were analyzed. The data were obtained from the National Mortality Database, population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database, and socioeconomic and welfare information from the Institute of Applied Economic Research. Moving averages were calculated, ...

  13. Educational Inequality in Female Cancer Mortality in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Kim, Hyoeun; Song, Yun-Mi

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of socioeconomic factors on female cancer mortality using death data from the Cause of Death Statistics and the Korean Population and Housing Census databases collected in 2001, 2006, and 2011. We estimated Relative Index of Inequality (RII) of female cancer mortality using Poisson regression analysis. RII greater than 1 indicates increased mortality risk for women at the lowest educational level compared with women at the highest educational level. The RII for cerv...

  14. Mapping cancer origins

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbertson, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer comprises a bewildering assortment of diseases that kill 7.5 million people each year. Poor understanding of cancer’s diversity currently thwarts our goal of a cure for every patient, but recent integration of genomic and stem cell technologies promises a route through this impasse.

  15. Incidence and mortality of liver cancer in China, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuang-Rong Wei; Xia Yu; Rong-Shou Zheng; Xia-Biao Peng; Si-Wei Zhang; Ming-Fang Ji; Zhi-Heng Liang; Zhi-Xiong Ou; Wan-Qing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Liver cancer is a common malignant tumor in China and a major health concern. We aimed to estimate the liver cancer incidence and mortality in China in 2010 using liver cancer data from some Chinese cancer registries and provide reference for liver cancer prevention and treatment. We col ected and evaluated the incidence and mortality data of liver cancer in 2010 from 145 cancer registries, which were included in the 2013 Chinese Cancer Registry Annual Report, calculated crude, standardized, and truncated incidences and mortalities, and estimated new liver cancer cases and deaths from liver cancer throughout China and in different regions in 2010 from Chinese practical population. The estimates of new liver cancer cases and deaths were 358,840 and 312,432, respectively, in China in 2010. The crude incidence, age-standardized rate by Chinese standard population (ASR China), and age-standardized rate by world standard population (ASR world) were 27.29/100,000, 21.35/100,000, and 20.87/100,000, respectively;the crude, ASR China, and ASR world mortalities were 23.76/100,000, 18.43/100,000, and 18.04/100,000, respectively. The incidence and mortality were the highest in western regions, higher in rural areas than in urban areas, and higher in males than in females. The age-specific incidence and mortality of liver cancer showed a rapid increase from age 30 and peaked at age 80-84 or 85+. Our results indicated that the 2010 incidence and mortality of liver cancer in China, especial y in undeveloped rural areas and western regions, were among high levels worldwide. The strategy for liver cancer prevention and treatment should be strengthened.

  16. Aging and Cancer Mortality: Dynamics of Change and Sex Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yang; Li, Ting; Nielsen, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    Age-related changes in cancer mortality risk are important for understanding the processes of disease and aging interaction. The extent to which these age changes differ by sex further contributes to this understanding but has not been well studied to date. We conducted a systematic examination of dynamics and heterogeneity of age changes in cancer mortality rates for the top 14 cancer sites using vital statistics from the NCHS and SEER between 1969 and 2007. We assessed patterns of age chang...

  17. Postoperative Mortality in Cancer Patients With Preexisting Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Barone, Bethany B.; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Snyder, Claire F.; Peairs, Kimberly S.; Stein, Kelly B.; Derr, Rachel L.; Wolff, Antonio C.; Brancati, Frederick L.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diabetes appears to increase risk for some cancers, but the association between preexisting diabetes and postoperative mortality in cancer patients is less clear. Our objective was to systematically review postoperative mortality in cancer patients with and without preexisting diabetes and summarize results using meta-analysis. RSEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We searched the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) and Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE) for articl...

  18. PRESSING MORTALITY RATE THROUGH SCREENING oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Widnyani Wulan Laksmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Based on World Health Organization (WHO data, oral cancer is one of malignancy with the highest mortality. In USA, there are more than 30.000 new cases every year. We can find many risk factors of oral cancer in our daily living. Moreover, it’s easy to find the main risk factors in our society, they are smoking, alcohol consumption, tobacco consumtion, viral infection, and bad oral hygiene. For the early stadium, Five-years survival rate is about 82% and 61% for all stadium. But, more than 50% of oral cancer has been distributed (metastatic regionally and also into the other organ far away from the oral itself when it’s detected. It will decrease 5-years survival rate to be less than 50%. So that, it’s really important to detect the oral cancer at the earlier stadium. Screening is the way to find the earlier stadium. Screening is done by some methods, start from the anamnesis, physical examination, toluidine blue staining, endoscopy, cytology, telomerase examination, and also PET-scan if it’s possible (because of the financial reasons. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  19. Calculation of background lifetime risk of cancer mortality in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to calculate the background lifetime risk of cancer mortality in Japan. The mortality and population data obtained from national surveys for the vital statistics and population census in 2010 are stratified at 5-year age intervals of 0-4, 5-9, ..., 80-84, with a final open interval of 85+ for use in a life table. It was found that the gender-averaged background lifetime risk of cancer mortality ranges from 23.7% to 28.3% among 47 prefectures, and the arithmetic mean was calculated to be 25.4%. It is important to consider the incremental risk of cancer mortality posed by exposure to ionizing radiation (e.g., an additive lifetime risk of 0.5% at the effective dose of 100 mSv) in the context of the level of the background lifetime risk of cancer mortality of the exposed population. (author)

  20. Report of incidence and mortality in China cancer registries, 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanqing Chen; Rongshou Zheng; Siwei Zhang; Ping Zhao; Guanglin Li; Lingyou Wu; Jie He

    2013-01-01

    The National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) collected cancer registration data in 2009 from local cancer registries in 2012,and analyzed to describe cancer incidence and mortality in China.Methods.:On basis of the criteria of data quality from NCCR,data subrnitted from 104 registries were checked and evaluated.There were 72 registries' data qualified and accepted for cancer registry annual report in 2012.Descriptive analysis included incidence and mortality stratified by area (urban/rural),sex,age group and cancer site.The top 10 common cancers in different groups,proportion and cumulative rates were also calculated.Chinese population census in 1982 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates.Results:All 72 cancer registries covered a total of 85,470,522 population (57,489,009 in urban and 27,981,513 in rural areas).The total new cancer incident cases and cancer deaths were 244,366 and 154,310,respectively.The morphology verified cases accounted for 67.23%,and 3.14% of incident cases only had information from death certifications.The crude incidence rate in Chinese cancer registration areas was 285.91/100,000(males 317.97/100,000,females 253.09/100,000),age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population (ASIRW) were 146.87/100,000 and 191.72/100,000 with the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 22.08%.The cancer incidence and ASIRC were 303.39/100,000 and 150.31/100,000 in urban areas whereas in rural areas,they were 249.98/100,000 and 139.68/100,000,respectively.The cancer mortality in Chinese cancer regist-ation areas was 180.54/100,000 (224.20/100,000 in males and 135.85/100,000 in females),age-standardized umortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population (ASMRW) were 85.06/100,000 and 115.65/100,000,and the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 12.94%.The cancer mortality and ASMRC were 181

  1. The Relative Contribution of Genetic and Environmental Factors to Cancer Risk and Cancer Mortality in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Leuven, Edwin; Plug, Erik; Rønning, Marte

    2014-01-01

    Using Norwegian cancer registry data we study twin and non-twin siblings to decompose variation in cancer at most common sites and cancer mortality into a genetic, shared environment and individual (unshared environmental) component. Regardless the source of sibling variation, our findings indicate that genes dominate over shared environment in explaining relatively more of the variation in cancer at most common cancer sites (but lung and skin cancer) and cancer mortality. The vast majority o...

  2. The incidences and mortalities of major cancers in China, 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanqing Chen; Rongshou Zheng; Siwei Zhang; Ping Zhao; Guanglin Li; Lingyou Wu; Jie He

    2013-01-01

    In 2012,the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China collected cancer registration information for the year 2009 from local cancer registries and analyzed it to describe the incidences and mortalities of cancers in China.Based on the data quality criteria from NCCR,data from 104 registries covering 85,470,522 people (57,489,009 in urban areas and 27,981,513 in rural areas) were checked and evaluated.The data from 72 registries were qualified and accepted for the cancer registry annual report in 2012.The total cancer incident cases and cancer deaths were 244,366 and 154,310,respectively.The morphologically verified cases accounted for 67.23% and 3.14% of the incident cases only had information from death certifications.The crude incidence in the Chinese cancer registration areas was 285.91/100,000 (317.97/100,000 in males and 253.09/100,000 in females).The age-standardized rates for incidences based on the Chinese standard population (ASRIC) and the world standard population (ASRIW) were 146.87/100,000 and 191.72/100,000,respectively,with a cumulative incidence of 22.08%.The cancer mortality in the Chinese cancer registration areas was 180.54/100,000 (224.20/100,000 in males and 135.85/100,000 in females).The age-standardized rates for mortalities based on the Chinese standard population (ASRMC) and the world standard population (ASRMW) were 85.06/100,000 and 115.65/100,000,respectively,and the cumulative mortality was 12.94%.Lung cancer,gastric cancer,colorectal cancer,liver cancer,esophageal cancer,pancreatic cancer,encephaloma,lymphoma,female breast cancer,and cervical cancer were the most common cancers,accounting for 75% of all cancer cases.Lung cancer,gastric cancer,liver cancer,esophageal cancer,colorectal cancer,pancreatic cancer,breast cancer,encephaloma,leukemia,and lymphoma accounted for 80% of all cancer deaths.The cancer registration's population coverage has been increasing,and its data quality is improving.As the basis of the

  3. Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling of tobacco-related cancer mortality in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Jürgens

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is a main cause of disease in Switzerland; lung cancer being the most common cancer mortality in men and the second most common in women. Although disease-specific mortality is decreasing in men, it is steadily increasing in women. The four language regions in this country might play a role in this context as they are influenced in different ways by the cultural and social behaviour of neighbouring countries. Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal, negative binomial models were fitted on subgroup-specific death rates indirectly standardized by national references to explore age- and gender-specific spatio-temporal patterns of mortality due to lung cancer and other tobacco-related cancers in Switzerland for the time period 1969-2002. Differences influenced by linguistic region and life in rural or urban areas were also accounted for. Male lung cancer mortality was found to be rather homogeneous in space, whereas women were confirmed to be more affected in urban regions. Compared to the German-speaking part, female mortality was higher in the French-speaking part of the country, a result contradicting other reports of similar comparisons between France and Germany. The spatio-temporal patterns of mortality were similar for lung cancer and other tobacco-related cancers. The estimated mortality maps can support the planning in health care services and evaluation of a national tobacco control programme. Better understanding of spatial and temporal variation of cancer of the lung and other tobacco-related cancers may help in allocating resources for more effective screening, diagnosis and therapy. The methodology can be applied to similar studies in other settings.

  4. Report of Incidence and Mortality in China Cancer Registries, 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-qing Chen; Rong-shou Zheng; Si-wei Zhang; Ni Li; Ping Zhao; Guang-lin Li; Liang-you Wu; Jie He

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Annual cancer incidence and mortality in 2008 were provided by National Central Cancer Registry in China,which data were collected from population-based cancer registries in 2011.Methods:There were 56 registries submitted their data in 2008.After checking and evaluating the data quality,total 41 registries' data were accepted and pooled for analysis.Incidence and mortality rates by area (urban or rural areas) were assessed,as well as the age-and sex-specific rates,age-standardized rates,proportions and cumulative rate.Results:The coverage population of the 41 registries was 66,138,784 with 52,158,495 in urban areas and 13,980,289 in rural areas.There were 197,833 new cancer cases and 122,136 deaths in cancer with mortality to incidence ratio of 0.62.The morphological verified rate was 69.33%,and 2.23% of cases were identified by death certificate only.The crude cancer incidence rate in all areas was 299.12/100,000 (330.16/100,000 in male and 267.56/100,000 in female) and the age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and world standard population (ASIRW) were 148.75/100,000 and 194.99/100,000,respectively.The cumulative incidence rate (0-74 years old) was of 22.27%.The crude incidence rate in urban areas was higher than that in rural areas.However,after adjusted by age,the incidence rate in urban was lower than that in rural.The crude cancer mortality was 184.67/100,000 (228.14/100,000 in male and 140.48/100,000 in female),and the age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world population were 84.36/100,000 and 114.32/100,000,respectively.The cumulative mortality rate (0-74 years old) was of 12.89%.Age-adjusted mortality rates in urban areas were lower than that in rural areas.The most common cancer sites were lung,stomach,colon-rectum,liver,esophagus,pancreas,brain,lymphoma,breast and cervix which accounted for 75% of all cancer incidence.Lung cancer was the leading cause of

  5. Cancer Mortality Projections in Korea up to 2032.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mia; Yun, Jae-Won

    2016-06-01

    Predicting cancer mortality is important to estimate the needs of cancer-related services and to prevent cancer. Despite its significance, a long-term future projection of cancer mortality has not been conducted; therefore, our objective was to estimate future cancer mortality in Korea by cancer site through 2032. The specially designed Nordpred software was used to estimate cancer mortality. The cancer death data from 1983 to 2012 and the population projection data from 1983 to 2032 were obtained from the Korean National Statistics Office. Based on our analysis, age-standardized rates with the world standard population of all cancer deaths were estimated to decline from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (men: -39.8%, women: -33.1%). However, the crude rates are predicted to rise (men: 29.8%, women: 24.4%), and the overall number of the cancer deaths is also estimated to increase (men: 35.5%, women: 32.3%). Several cancer deaths are projected to increase (lung, liver and gallbladder, colon and rectum, pancreas and leukemia in both sexes; prostate cancer in men; and breast and ovarian cancer in women), whereas other cancer deaths are expected to decrease (stomach, esophagus and larynx in both sexes and cervical cancer in women). The largest contribution to increasing cancer deaths is due to the aging of the Korean population. In conclusion, a strategy for primary prevention, early detection, and early treatment to cope with the rapidly increasing death of cancer due to population aging is urgently required. PMID:27247498

  6. Breast Cancer Biology and Ethnic Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality in New Zealand: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Seneviratne, Sanjeewa; Lawrenson, Ross; Scott, Nina; Kim, Boa; Shirley, Rachel; Campbell, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Indigenous Māori women have a 60% higher breast cancer mortality rate compared with European women in New Zealand. We investigated differences in cancer biological characteristics and their impact on breast cancer mortality disparity between Māori and NZ European women. Materials and Methods Data on 2849 women with primary invasive breast cancers diagnosed between 1999 and 2012 were extracted from the Waikato Breast Cancer Register. Differences in distribution of cancer biologica...

  7. Pesticide sales and adult male cancer mortality in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisman, Juliana de Rezende; Koifman, Sérgio; de Novaes Sarcinelli, Paula; Moreira, Josino Costa; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Meyer, Armando

    2009-05-01

    In Brazil, where the use of pesticide grows rapidly, studies that evaluate the impact of pesticide exposure on cancer incidence and mortality are very scarce. In this study, we evaluated the degree of correlation between pesticide sales in 1985 in eleven Brazilian states and cancer mortality rates during 1996-1998. Information of all cancer deaths occurred in men 30-69 years old from 1996 to 1998 were collected from National Mortality System. Single and multiple linear regression coefficients were obtained to assess the relationship between per capita sales of pesticides in 1985, specific-site cancer mortality rates (prostate, soft tissue, larynx, leukemia, lip, esophagus, lung, pancreas, bladder, liver, testis, stomach, brain, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma) during 1996-1998, and several covariates. In addition, states were stratified into three groups according to tertiles of pesticides sales and cancer mortality rate ratios (MRR) were then calculated using first tertile as reference. Finally, a factor analysis was performed to reveal unapparent relationships between pesticide use and cancer mortality. Pesticide sales showed statistically significant correlation with the mortality rates for the cancers of prostate (r=0.69; p=0.019), soft tissue (r=0.71; p=0.015), leukemia (r=0.68; p=0.021), lip (r=0.73; p=0.010), esophagus (r=0.61; p=0.046), and pancreas (r=0.63; p=0.040). Moderate to weak correlations were observed for the cancers of larynx, lung, testis, bladder, liver, stomach, brain, and NHL and multiple myeloma. In addition, correlation between pesticide sales and specific-site cancer mortality rates was reinforced by multiple regression analysis. For all specific-sites, cancer mortality rates were significantly higher in the states of moderate (2nd tertile) and high (3rd tertile) pesticide sales, with MRR ranging from 1.11 to 5.61. Exploring hidden relationships between pesticide sales and cancer mortality in Brazil, through a factor analysis

  8. Liver cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Qing Chen; Rong-Shou Zheng; Si-Wei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Liver cancer is a common cancer and a leading cause of cancer deaths in China.To aid the government in establishing a control plan for this disease,we provided real-time surveillance information by analyzing liver cancer incidence and mortality in China in 2009 reported by the National Central Cancer Registry.Liver cancer incidence and cases of death were retrieved from the national database using the ICD-10 topography code "C22".Crude incidence and mortality were calculated and stratified by sex,age,and location (urban/rural).China's population in 1982 and Segi (world) population structures were used for age-standardized rates.In cancer registration areas in 2009,the crude incidence of liver cancer was 28.71/100,000,making it the fourth most common cancer in China,third most common in males,and fifth most common in females.The crude mortality of liver cancer was 26.04/100,000,making it the second leading cause of cancer death in China and urban areas and the third leading cause in rural areas.Incidence and mortality were higher in males than in females and were higher in rural areas than in urban areas.The age-specific incidence and mortality were relatively low among age groups under 30years but dramatically increased and peaked in the 80-84 years old group.These findings confirm that liver cancer is a common and fatal cancer in China.Primary and secondary prevention such as health education,hepatitis B virus vaccination,and early detection should be carried out both in males and females,in urban and rural areas.

  9. Correlation between natural radiation exposure and cancer mortality, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the previous studies, using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient, we found that in most cases of cancers, statistically significant positive correlations were observed between natural background radiation exposure rate and crude cancer mortality rate over the period 1950 - 1978. Furthermore, we found that the statistical significance of correlation between natural background radiation exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate in the same period mostly disappeared. We studied the cause of this apparent correlation and found that the prefecture with a higher natural background radiation exposure rate had a greater component ratio of older people. In Japan, a number of prefectures with a higher natural background exposure rate are located in relatively thinly populated districts which have been experiencing an outflow of the younger generation to more highly industrialized and urbanized areas. Therefore, statistically significant positive correlations were observed for almost all cancers between natural background radiation exposure rate and crude cancer mortality rate. In the present investigation, we statistically tested the frequency distributions of natural background radiation exposure rate and age-adjusted cancer mortality rate, and calculated Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between natural background radiation exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate. The frequency distribution of the natural background radiation exposure rate and that of the age-adjusted mortality rate appeared normal in most cases of cancer, and the statistical significance of correlation between natural background exposure rate and the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate did not differ much on the whole, even though we used Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between them. (author)

  10. Risk factors for cancer mortality in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease with many possible causes and is currently a major public health problem in the world. Cancer can occur in individuals of all ages; however the risk of cancer increases with age. It has been estimated that 90-95% of all types of cancer can be attributed to environmental and lifestyle risk factors, and hereditary cancers account for approximately 5-10% of all cancer cases. This thesis describes several potential risk factors for mortality due to most common types of...

  11. Incidence and mortality of gastric cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Yang

    2006-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in the world; almost two-thirds of gastric cancer cases and deaths occur in less developed regions. In China,based on two national mortality surveys conducted in 1970s and 1990s, there is an obvious clustering of geographical distribution of gastric cancer in the country, with the high mortality being mostly located in rural areas, especially in Gansu, Henan, Hebei, Shanxi and Shaanxi Provinces in the middle-western part of China. Despite a slight increase from the 1970s to early 1990s, remarkable declines in gastric cancer mortality were noticed in almost the entire population during the last decade in China. These declines were largely due to the dramatic improvements in the social-economic environment, lifestyle, nutrition, education and health care system after economic reforms started two decades ago. Nevertheless, gastric cancer will remain a significant cancer burden currently and be one of the key issues in cancer prevention and control strategy in China. It was predicted that, in 2005, 0.3 million deaths and 0.4 million new cases from gastric cancer would rank the third most common cancer. The essential package of the prevention and control strategy for gastric cancer in China would focus on controlling Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection, improving educational levels, advocating healthy diet and anti-tobacco campaign, searching for cost-effective early detection, diagnosis and treatment programs including approaches for curable management and palliative care.

  12. The incidences and mortalities of major cancers in China, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Qing Chen; Rong-Shou Zheng; Si-Wei Zhang; Hong-Mei Zeng; Xiao-Nong Zou

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the cancer incidences and mortalities in China in 2010, the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China evaluated data for the year of 2010 from 145 qualified cancer registries covering 158,403,248 people (92,433,739 in urban areas and 65,969,509 in rural areas). The estimates of new cancer cases and cancer deaths were 3,093,039 and 1,956,622 in 2010, respectively. The percentage of morphologically verified cases were 67.11%; 2.99% of incident cases were identified through death certification only, with the mortality to incidence ratio of 0.61. The crude incidence was 235.23/100,000 (268.65/100,000 in males and 200.21/100,000 in females). The age-standardized rates by Chinese standard population (ASR China) and by world standard population (ASR world) were 184.58/100,000 and 181.49/100,000, respectively, with a cumulative incidence (0-74 years old) of 21.11%. The crude cancer mortality was 148.81/100,000 (186.37/100,000 in males and 109.42/100,000 in females). The ASR China and ASR world were 113.92/100,000 and 112.86/100,000, respectively, with a cumulative mortality of 12.78%. Lung, breast, gastric, liver, esophageal, colorectal, and cervical cancers were the most common cancers. Lung, liver, gastric, esophageal, colorectal, breast, and pancreatic cancers were the leading causes of cancer deaths. The coverage of cancer registration has rapidly increased in China in recent years and may reflect more accurate cancer burdens among populations living in different areas. Given the increasing cancer burden in the past decades, China should strengthen its cancer prevention and control.

  13. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology: Incidence, Mortality, Survival, and Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Haggar, Fatima A.; Boushey, Robin P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the incidence, mortality, and survival rates for colorectal cancer are reviewed, with attention paid to regional variations and changes over time. A concise overview of known risk factors associated with colorectal cancer is provided, including familial and hereditary factors, as well as environmental lifestyle-related risk factors such as physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

  14. Increased cancer mortality in type 2 diabetes (ZODIAC-3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubink-Veltmaat, L. J.; Kleefstra, N.; Kollen, B. J.; Bilo, H. J. G.; Landman, G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether there is a relationship between type two diabetes and cancer mortality. It also is unclear whether obesity and body mass index (BMI) are associated with cancer in type 2 diabetes patients. Patients and Methods: In 1998, 1,145 patients with type two diabetes mellitus

  15. Health Disparities and Cancer: Racial Disparities in Cancer Mortality in the United States, 2000–2010

    OpenAIRE

    O’Keefe, Eileen B.; Meltzer, Jeremy P.; Bethea, Traci N.

    2015-01-01

    Declining cancer incidence and mortality rates in the United States (U.S.) have continued through the first decade of the twenty-first century. Reductions in tobacco use, greater uptake of prevention measures, adoption of early detection methods, and improved treatments have resulted in improved outcomes for both men and women. However, Black Americans continue to have the higher cancer mortality rates and shorter survival times. This review discusses and compares the cancer mortality rates a...

  16. Mortality from lung cancer in Ontario uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortality from lung cancer was greater in Ontario uranium miners than in the general male population (observed = 152, expected = 67.6, standardised mortality ratio 225, 95% confidence interval 191-264). Part of the excess of lung cancer may be because the proportion of men who are smokers or have smoked is greater in uranium miners than in Ontario men. Smoking does not explain the whole excess. The excess relative risk of lung cancer from the same degree of exposure to short lived radon progeny is greatest five to 14 years after exposure and less subsequently. It is greater in men under the age of 55 years and less in older men. Part of the excess of lung cancer mortality in Ontario uranium miners is probably also due to exposure to arsenic that occurred earlier in gold mines. (Author)

  17. Childhood height increases the risk of prostate cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult body size is positively associated with aggressive and fatal prostate cancers. It is unknown whether these associations originate in early life. Therefore, we investigated if childhood height, body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and growth are associated with prostate cancer......-specific mortality and survival. METHODS: Subjects were 125,208 men from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born 1930-1969 with height and weight measurements at ages 7-13years. Linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry and the Register of Causes of Death enabled identification of incident and fatal prostate...... cancers. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: 630 men had prostate cancer recorded as the underlying cause of death. Childhood height at age 13years was positively associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR]per z-score=1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1...

  18. Geographic autocorrelation analysis of the lung cancer mortality in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the geographical distribution of mortality from lung cancer in Uruguay, using spatial autocorrelation indicators, in order to identify regions of high and low risk in the period 1989-2008. Methodology: 1989-2008 interval was analyzed by grouping the data in the following periods: 1989-1991,1992-1994,1995-1997,1998-2000,2001-2003 and 2004-2008. As indicator risk S MR (Standardized Mortality Ratio) was used, with reference to the country as a entirety. The analysis was performed by calculating the index I and correlation plots space (both methods according Mo ran) for each period and the corresponding maps. The significance was determined by permutations, considering level 0.05 significance. Results: The results of the correlation coefficients for different periods were, in Men: 1989 -1991 (R = 0.29, p <0.05), 1992 -1994 (I = 0.11, N S), 1995 -1997 (R = 0.31, p <0.05); 1998 - 2000 (R = 0.24, p <0.05); 2000 - 2003 (R = 0.19, p <0.05); 2004 -2008 (R = 0.24, N S). In women: 1989 -1991 (R = -0.18, N S), 1992 -1994 (R = -0.16, N S), 1995-1997 (I = 0.18, N S); 1998 - 2000 (R = 0.06, N S); 2001-2003 (R = -0.16, N S), 2004 -2008 (I = 0.02, N S), 1989-2003 (R = -0.03, N S). Men in those departments where they met more risks Artigas were low (SM R = 0.52; 0.57; 0.61; 0.61; 0.60; 0.69), Salto (SM R = 0.52; 0.57; 0.58; 0.68; 0.76; 0.75), Black River (SM R = 0.69; 0.73; 0.76; 0.93; 0.73; 1.29) and Paysandu (SMR = 0.87; 0.85; 0.96; 0.79; 0.89; 0.92) in the respective periods. In women the 0.55; 0.78) Also, in the respective periods. Given the low number of cases in women the period 1989-2003 was also considered together to obtain one SMR Black River = 0.63 and jumped SMR = 0.68. Conclusions: In men, the existence of spatial autocorrelation was identified statistically significant, with stable results in the last 2 decades analyzed. This was not observed in women. The results found in males suggest the existence a region of lower mortality from lung cancer

  19. Lung Cancer Mortality and Topography: A Xuanwei Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongyan; Cao, Wei; Chen, Gongbo; Yang, Junxing; Liu, Liqun; Wan, Xia; Yang, Gonghuan

    2016-01-01

    The epidemic of lung cancer in Xuanwei City, China, remains serious despite the reduction of the risk of indoor air pollution through citywide stove improvement. The main objective of this study was to characterize the influences of topography on the spatiotemporal variations of lung cancer mortality in Xuanwei during 1990–2013. Using the spatially empirical Bayes method, the smoothed mortality rate of lung cancer was obtained according to the mortality data and population data collected from the retrospective survey (1990–2005) and online registration data (2011–2013). Spatial variations of the village-level mortality rate and topographic factors, including the relief degree of land surface (RDLS) and dwelling conditions (VDC), were characterized through spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analysis. The relationship between topographic factors and the epidemic of lung cancer was explored using correlation analysis and geographically weighted regression (GWR). There is a pocket-like area (PLA) in Xuanwei, covering the clustered villages with lower RDLS and higher VDC. Although the villages with higher mortality rate (>80 per 105) geographically expanded from the center to the northeast of Xuanwei during 1990–2013, the village-level mortality rate was spatially clustered, which yielded a persistent hotspot area in the upward part of the PLA. In particular, the epidemic of lung cancer was closely correlated with both RDLS and VDC at the village scale, and its spatial heterogeneity could be greatly explained by the village-level VDC in the GWR model. Spatiotemporally featured lung cancer mortality in Xuanwei was potentially influenced by topographic conditions at the village scale. PMID:27164122

  20. Blood Epigenetic Age may Predict Cancer Incidence and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinan Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological measures of aging are important for understanding the health of an aging population, with epigenetics particularly promising. Previous studies found that tumor tissue is epigenetically older than its donors are chronologically. We examined whether blood Δage (the discrepancy between epigenetic and chronological ages can predict cancer incidence or mortality, thus assessing its potential as a cancer biomarker. In a prospective cohort, Δage and its rate of change over time were calculated in 834 blood leukocyte samples collected from 442 participants free of cancer at blood draw. About 3–5 years before cancer onset or death, Δage was associated with cancer risks in a dose-responsive manner (P = 0.02 and a one-year increase in Δage was associated with cancer incidence (HR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02–1.10 and mortality (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07–1.28. Participants with smaller Δage and decelerated epigenetic aging over time had the lowest risks of cancer incidence (P = 0.003 and mortality (P = 0.02. Δage was associated with cancer incidence in a ‘J-shaped’ manner for subjects examined pre-2003, and with cancer mortality in a time-varying manner. We conclude that blood epigenetic age may mirror epigenetic abnormalities related to cancer development, potentially serving as a minimally invasive biomarker for cancer early detection.

  1. FACTORS ASSOCIATED IN BREAST CANCER MORTALITY IN NORTHWEST PARANAENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Augusto Melo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a disease process that begins when an abnormal cell is transformed by genetic mutation of cellular DNA, and breast cancer usually painless. The objective was to analyze the behavior of mortality from breast cancer in women living in Maringá-PR in the period 2000 to 2009. We used the Information System of the Unified Health System (DATASUS for variables related to race/ethnicity, marital status, education, age, place of occurrence of death. Data were analyzed descriptively and by chi-square Yates Fixed considering a confidence interval of 95% with a significance level of 5%. There were 216 deaths from breast cancer with a higher prevalence in women 60-80 years (58.4%, race white (90.2% and married (53.8%. Women over 60 with low education were more likely to breast cancer mortality was statistically significant (OR95% = 4.45, p = <0.0001

  2. Mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis; Green, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background In the 1990s outcomes in Danish lung cancer patients were poor compared with the other Nordic countries. The five-year survival was only about 5%, only 10% of patients were operated on and less than 60% received active surgical or oncologic treatment. This paper describes trends in...... mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark from 2000 to 2012. Methods The study population comprised 52 435 patients with a diagnosis of cancer of the trachea and the lung, primarily ascertained from the Danish Lung Cancer Register and grouped into three cohorts by year of diagnosis. The outcome...... all strata by gender, comorbidity, stage and surgery status and was accompanied by corresponding improvements in both absolute and relative survival. Conclusions The mortality has been significantly declining and the prognosis correspondingly improving in lung cancer in Denmark since the turn of the...

  3. Comorbidity in elderly cancer patients in relation to overall and cancer-specific mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T L; Hallas, Jesper; Friis, S; Herrstedt, J

    2012-01-01

    Aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of comorbidity in newly diagnosed elderly cancer cases compared with the background population and to describe its influence on overall and cancer mortality.......Aims of this study were to describe the prevalence of comorbidity in newly diagnosed elderly cancer cases compared with the background population and to describe its influence on overall and cancer mortality....

  4. College athletics, body size, and cancer mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polednak, A.P.

    1976-07-01

    Data are presented on mortality from neoplasms as determined from death certificates in a cohort of 8393 college men, according to athletic status in college. Major athletes (lettermen) died significantly more often from neoplasms than nonathletes. Mean age at death from neoplasms (underlying cause) was significantly lower in major athletes than in both minor athletes and nonathletes. After matching major athletes with nonathletes of comparable body size (height and weight), differences in proportional mortality and mean age at death from neoplasms persisted, although not statistically significant for the smaller samples. Correlation coefficients (Pearson r) and partial r's between weight in college and age at death from neoplasms were negative but of low magnitude. Some possible explanations for the differences between major athletes and nonathletes are discussed.

  5. COPD in primary lung cancer patients: prevalence and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ytterstad E

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elinor Ytterstad,1 Per C Moe,2 Audhild Hjalmarsen3 1Department of Mathematics and Statistics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, 2Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, 3Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway Background: Previous studies have relied on international spirometry criteria to diagnose COPD in patients with lung cancer without considering the effect lung cancer might have on spirometric results. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of COPD and emphysema at the time of primary lung cancer diagnosis and to examine factors associated with survival.  Materials and methods: Medical records, pulmonary function tests, and computed tomography scans were used to determine the presence of COPD and emphysema in patients diagnosed with primary lung cancer at the University Hospital of North Norway in 2008–2010.  Results: Among the 174 lung cancer patients, 69% had COPD or emphysema (39% with COPD, 59% with emphysema; male:female ratio 101:73. Neither COPD nor emphysema were significantly associated with lung cancer mortality, whereas patients with non-small-cell lung cancer other than adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma had a risk of lung cancer mortality that was more than four times higher than that of patients with small-cell lung cancer (hazard ratio [HR] 4.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56–11.25. Females had a lower risk of lung cancer mortality than males (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.94, and patients aged ≥75 years had a risk that was twice that of patients aged <75 years (HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.59–3.87. Low partial arterial oxygen pressure (4.0–8.4 kPa increased the risk of lung cancer mortality (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.29–3.96. So did low partial arterial carbon dioxide pressure (3.0–4.9 kPa among stage IV lung cancer patients (HR 2.23, 95% CI 1.29–3.85. Several patients with respiratory failure had previously been diagnosed

  6. Attributable causes of esophageal cancer incidence and mortality in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Bing Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To estimate the contribution of tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake to esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We calculated the proportion of esophageal cancer attributable to four known modifiable risk factors [population attributable fraction (PAF]. Exposure data was taken from meta-analyses and large-scale national surveys of representative samples of the Chinese population. Data on relative risks were also from meta-analyses and large-scale prospective studies. Esophageal cancer mortality and incidence came from the 3(rd national death cause survey and population-based cancer registries in China. We estimated that 87,065 esophageal cancer deaths (men 67,686; women: 19,379 and 108,206 cases (men: 83,968, women: 24,238 were attributable to tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake in China in 2005. About 17.9% of esophageal cancer deaths among men and 1.9% among women were attributable to tobacco smoking. About 15.2% of esophageal cancer deaths in men and 1.3% in women were caused by alcohol drinking. Low vegetable intake was responsible for 4.3% esophageal cancer deaths in men and 4.1% in women. The fraction of esophageal cancer deaths attributable to low fruit intake was 27.1% in men and 28.0% in women. Overall, 46% of esophageal cancers (51% in men and 33% in women were attributable to these four modifiable risk factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, low vegetable intake and low fruit intake were responsible for 46% of esophageal cancer mortality and incidence in China in 2005. These findings provide useful data for developing guidelines for esophageal cancer prevention and control in China.

  7. Cancer Mortality in Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Survivors with Epilation

    OpenAIRE

    Yokota, Ken-Ichi; Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Tomonaga, Masao

    2005-01-01

    To elucidate the association between epilation and cancer mortality in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, cancer mortality was determined for a total of 9,356 survivors (3,591 males and 5,765 females) from 1 January 1970 to 31 December 1997. The subjects included individuals other than those in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of ABCC-RERF. Information on acute injury was obtained from a survey that was conducted at the time of application for a health handbook. The association between epilation...

  8. Cancer mortality in a northern Italian cohort of rubber workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, E; Piolatto, G; Pira, E; Decarli, A; Kaldor, J; La Vecchia, C

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of the mortality of a cohort of 6629 workers employed from 1906 to 1981 in a rubber tyre factory in northern Italy (978 deaths and over 133,000 man-years at risk) showed that the all cause mortality ratio was slightly lower than expected (0.91). Overall cancer mortality was close to expected (275 v 259.4) but there were significant excess rates for two cancer sites: pleura (9 observed v 0.8 expected, which may be due to the use of fibre containing talc) and bladder (16 observed v 8.8 expected). Death rates were not raised for other sites previously associated with employment in the rubber industry, such as cancers of the lung and brain, leukaemias, or lymphomas. The substantially reduced relative risk of pleural cancer among workers first employed after 1940 (RR = 0.05 compared with before 1940) probably reflected improvements in working conditions over more recent periods. For cancer of the bladder, the relative risk was also lower for workers first engaged after 1940. Thus no appreciable risk for any disease was apparent for workers employed over the past four decades. Analysis for each of the 27 job categories showed a substantial excess for cancer of the pleura in the mechanical maintenance workers (4 observed v 0.17 expected); an excess of cancer of the lung (21 v 13.48) was also present in this job category. PMID:2789965

  9. Cancer mortality and radioactive fallout in southwestern Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer mortality was compared between a three-county region in southwestern Utah and the remainder of Utah in an investigation of reported excess cancer risks associated with residence in southwestern Utah during the period of above-ground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Because most of the fallout in southwestern Utah was deposited during 1953-1957, comparisons were limited to persons born before 1958, and deaths from leukemia and bone cancer during 1955-1980 and from other cancers during 1964-1980. There was no excess risk of cancer mortality in southwestern Utah, for single or grouped sites, with the single exception of leukemia which showed statistically significant odds ratios of 1.45 based on 62 deaths at all ages, and 2.84 based on nine deaths at ages 0-14. The finding for childhood leukemia was based on different time periods and geographic comparisons from those of two earlier studies in which no such excess was found. Mortality from all cancer sites combined was significantly lower in southwestern Utah than in the remainder of the state, even after adjustment for the higher proportion of (lower risk) Mormons in southwestern Utah. The present results, including the positive association for leukemia, are inconsistent with the high excess risks reported by Johnson (JAMA 1984;251:230-6) based on an interview survey of cancer incidence among long-term Mormon residents of southwestern Utah

  10. Cancer mortality and radioactive fallout in southwestern Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, S.G.; Land, C.E.; McKay, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    Cancer mortality was compared between a three-county region in southwestern Utah and the remainder of Utah in an investigation of reported excess cancer risks associated with residence in southwestern Utah during the period of above-ground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Because most of the fallout in southwestern Utah was deposited during 1953-1957, comparisons were limited to persons born before 1958, and deaths from leukemia and bone cancer during 1955-1980 and from other cancers during 1964-1980. There was no excess risk of cancer mortality in southwestern Utah, for single or grouped sites, with the single exception of leukemia which showed statistically significant odds ratios of 1.45 based on 62 deaths at all ages, and 2.84 based on nine deaths at ages 0-14. The finding for childhood leukemia was based on different time periods and geographic comparisons from those of two earlier studies in which no such excess was found. Mortality from all cancer sites combined was significantly lower in southwestern Utah than in the remainder of the state, even after adjustment for the higher proportion of (lower risk) Mormons in southwestern Utah. The present results, including the positive association for leukemia, are inconsistent with the high excess risks reported by Johnson (JAMA 1984;251:230-6) based on an interview survey of cancer incidence among long-term Mormon residents of southwestern Utah.

  11. Studies of the mortality of A-bomb survivors. 8. Cancer mortality, 1950-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study extends an earlier one by 4 years (1979-1982) and includes mortality data on 11,393 additional Nagasaki survivors. Significant dose responses are observed for leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the lung, female breast, stomach, colon, esophagus, and urinary tract. Due to diagnostic difficulties, results for liver and ovarian cancers, while suggestive of significant dose responses, do not provide convincing evidence for radiogenic effects. No significant dose responses are seen for cancers of the gallbladder, prostate, rectum, pancreas, or uterus, or for lymphoma. For solid tumors, largely due to sex-specific differences in the background rates, the relative risk of radiation-induced mortality is greater for women than for men. For nonleukemic cancers the relative risk seen in those who were young when exposed has decreased with time, while the smaller risks for those who were older at exposure have tended to increase. While the absolute excess risks of radiation-induced mortality due to nonleukemic cancer have increased with time for all age-at-exposure groups, both excess and relative risks of leukemia have generally decreased with time. For leukemia, the rate of decrease in risk and the initial level of risk are inversely related to age at exposure

  12. Cancer mortality among coke oven workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Redmond, C K

    1983-01-01

    The OSHA standard for coke oven emissions, which went into effect in January 1977, sets a permissible exposure limit to coke oven emissions of 150 micrograms/m3 benzene-soluble fraction of total particulate matter (BSFTPM). Review of the epidemiologic evidence for the standard indicates an excess relative risk for lung cancer as high as 16-fold in topside coke oven workers with 15 years of exposure or more. There is also evidence for a consistent dose-response relationship in lung cancer mort...

  13. Depression as a prognostic factor for breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerl, Karen; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Keiding, Niels;

    2003-01-01

    affective and anxiety disorders were divided and categorized into five ordinal diagnostic groups. Early-stage (N=10382) and late-stage (N=10211) breast cancer patients were analyzed separately with Cox's regression adjusted for well-documented somatic prognostic variables. The authors used survival analysis......It is unclear if depression or depressive symptoms have an effect on mortality in breast cancer patients. In this population-based, nationwide, retrospective cohort study in Denmark, depression was defined as affective or anxiety disorders that necessitated psychiatric hospital admission. All the...... of data from three central registers and found that breast cancer patients with depression had a modestly but significantly higher risk of mortality depending on stage of breast cancer and time of depression. The same result was found after censoring unnatural causes of death such as accident...

  14. Calculated lung cancer mortality due to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From studies of miners, it is clear that an exposure to high concentrations of radon daughters leads to an increased incidence of lung cancer. In this Chapter the authors discuss how the experience for miners is used to estimate the incidence of radon-induced lung cancer among the general population. Such estimates cannot be very precise, in part because the miners studies do not lead to a well-determined relationship between the rate of cancer induction and the exposure levels. In particular, there are disparities in the results of studies for different groups of miners. These disparities may arise from the difficulties in obtaining accurate crucial data, such as the year-by-year exposure history over the working lifetime of the individual miners. Other differences may arise from differences in the smoking patterns in different groups and in details of the handling of the data. In any event, there remain substantial uncertainties in the conclusions for the miners themselves, both as to the ''average'' rate of cancer induction per WLM and as to the variation of this rate with the magnitude of the total exposure. Further, there are problems in using results obtained for miners at relatively high radon exposure levels for the prediction of the effects of radon at the much lower levels encountered in the normal indoor environment. Here one faces the problem of extrapolating from large dose levels to small dose levels. The generally adopted solution is to assume linearity

  15. Mortality from endometrial cancer in female population of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantović Vesna R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Data about mortality from malignant tumors of endometrium were analyzed in the Belgrade area during the period 1975-2000. The obtained results showed that the average percentage of endometrial cancer in mortality structure from all the cancers of female population was 2.65%. During the observed 26-years period, malignant tumors of endometrium constituted 17.38% of all the tumors of gynecological localization. The standardized mortality rate in 1975 (population worldwide used as a standard 7.06/100 000 population while in 2000 it was 1.78/100 000 population, respectively, which showed almost fourfold mortality decline during the observed period (y=4.72-0.16x. A trend of declining risk of dying from endometrial cancer was present in all the age groups. The obtained results indicated that in the observed period the average mortality rates ranged from 0.14/100 000 population in females aged up to 34 years (y=0.30-0.01x, and reached the highest value in females aged 65-74 years (14.57/100 000; y=23.43-0.66x, and 75 years of age and over (19.62/100 000; y=31.17-0.85x.

  16. Pancreatic cancer mortality in China (1991-2000)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang; Gong-Huan Yang; Xing-Hua Lu; Zheng-Jing Huang; Hui Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To describe the mortality rate of pancreatic cancer and its distribution in China during the period of 1991-2000.METHODS: Based on the data of demography and death collected through China′s Disease Surveillance Point System (DSPS) over the period of 1991-2000, the distribution of death rate of pancreatic cancer was described in terms of age group, gender, calendar year, rural/urban residence and administrative district.RESULTS: A total of 1 619 death cases attributed to pancreatic cancer (975 men and 644 women) were reported by DSPS during 1991-2000. The reported, adjusted and agestandardized mortality rates increased from 1.46, 1.75, and 2.18 per 100 000 populations in 1991 to 2.38, 3.06, and 3.26per 100 000 populations in 2000. The majority (69.62 %) of the deaths of pancreatic cancer were seen in the age group of 60 years and older. The mortality rate was higher in men than in women, but the male to female death rate ratios decreased during the 10 years. Our data also showed that the death rate of pancreatic cancer in urban areas was about 2-4 fold higher than that in rural areas, and in Northeast and East China, the death rates were higher than those in the other 5 administrative districts.CONCLUSION: The death rate due to pancreatic cancer was rising during the period of 1991-2000 and the peak mortality of pancreatic cancer might arrive in China.

  17. Breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Canadian fluoroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the formation of the National Cancer Incidence Reporting System in a data base format suitable for computerized record linkage, and the linkage of the data from the Canadian study of cancer following multiple fluoroscopies to that database and to the Canadian National Mortality Data Base between 1940 and 1987. A comprehensive statistical analysis of the breast cancer mortality data occurring among female members of the cohort between 1950 and 1987 with respect to exposure to low-LET radiation is reported, together with a parallel analysis of the breast cancer incidence data between 1975 and 1983. The Canadian fluoroscopy study is a cohort study of tuberculosis patients first treated in Canadian institutions between 1930 and 1952. The present mortality analysis relates to the breast cancer mortality experience between 1950 and 1987. A total of 677 deaths from breast cancer was observed in this period. The most appropriate dose-response relationship appears to be a simple linear one. There is a strong modifying influence of age at first exposure; women first exposed past the age of 30 have little excess risk due to radiation exposure. The breast cancer incidence analysis is based upon 628 cases observed between 1975 and 1983. Again a simple linear model appears to provide an adequate fit to the data. There is a suggestion of time dependency under the additive model, but this is not statistically significant. The results from this latest analysis continue to be reassuring in terms of radiation risk from mammography. (L.L.) 15 refs., figs., tabs

  18. The influence of the CHIEF pathway on colorectal cancer-specific mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L Slattery

    Full Text Available Many components of the CHIEF (Convergence of Hormones, Inflammation, and Energy Related Factors pathway could influence survival given their involvement in cell growth, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and tumor invasion stimulation. We used ARTP (Adaptive Rank Truncation Product to test if genes in the pathway were associated with colorectal cancer-specific mortality. Colon cancer (n = 1555 and rectal cancer (n = 754 cases were followed over five years. Age, center, stage at diagnosis, and tumor molecular phenotype were considered when calculating ARTP p values. A polygenic risk score was used to summarize the magnitude of risk associated with this pathway. The JAK/STAT/SOC was significant for colon cancer survival (PARTP = 0.035. Fifteen genes (DUSP2, INFGR1, IL6, IRF2, JAK2, MAP3K10, MMP1, NFkB1A, NOS2A, PIK3CA, SEPX1, SMAD3, TLR2, TYK2, and VDR were associated with colon cancer mortality (PARTP < 0.05; JAK2 (PARTP  = 0.0086, PIK3CA (PARTP = 0.0098, and SMAD3 (PARTP = 0.0059 had the strongest associations. Over 40 SNPs were significantly associated with survival within the 15 significant genes (PARTP < 0.05. SMAD3 had the strongest association with survival (HRGG 2.46 95% CI 1.44,4.21 PTtrnd = 0.0002. Seven genes (IL2RA, IL8RA, IL8RB, IRF2, RAF1, RUNX3, and SEPX1 were significantly associated with rectal cancer (PARTP < 0.05. The HR for colorectal cancer-specific mortality among colon cancer cases in the upper at-risk alleles group was 11.81 (95% CI 7.07, 19. 74 and was 10.99 (95% CI 5.30, 22.78 for rectal cancer. These results suggest that several genes in the CHIEF pathway are important for colorectal cancer survival; the risk associated with the pathway merits validation in other studies.

  19. Racial disparities of pancreatic cancer in Georgia: a county‐wide comparison of incidence and mortality across the state, 2000–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Brotherton, Lindsay; Welton, Michael; Robb, Sara W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the geographic distribution of pancreatic cancer is important in assessing disease burden and identifying high‐risk populations. This study examined the geographic trends of pancreatic cancer incidence, mortality, and mortality‐to‐incidence ratios (MIRs) in Georgia, with a special focus on racial disparities of disease. Directly age‐adjusted pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality rates for Georgia counties (N = 159) were obtained for 2000–2011. Maps of county age‐adj...

  20. Municipal distribution of bladder cancer mortality in Spain: Possible role of mining and industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escolar-Pujolar Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spain shows the highest bladder cancer incidence rates in men among European countries. The most important risk factors are tobacco smoking and occupational exposure to a range of different chemical substances, such as aromatic amines. Methods This paper describes the municipal distribution of bladder cancer mortality and attempts to "adjust" this spatial pattern for the prevalence of smokers, using the autoregressive spatial model proposed by Besag, York and Molliè, with relative risk of lung cancer mortality as a surrogate. Results It has been possible to compile and ascertain the posterior distribution of relative risk for bladder cancer adjusted for lung cancer mortality, on the basis of a single Bayesian spatial model covering all of Spain's 8077 towns. Maps were plotted depicting smoothed relative risk (RR estimates, and the distribution of the posterior probability of RR>1 by sex. Towns that registered the highest relative risks for both sexes were mostly located in the Provinces of Cadiz, Seville, Huelva, Barcelona and Almería. The highest-risk area in Barcelona Province corresponded to very specific municipal areas in the Bages district, e.g., Suría, Sallent, Balsareny, Manresa and Cardona. Conclusion Mining/industrial pollution and the risk entailed in certain occupational exposures could in part be dictating the pattern of municipal bladder cancer mortality in Spain. Population exposure to arsenic is a matter that calls for attention. It would be of great interest if the relationship between the chemical quality of drinking water and the frequency of bladder cancer could be studied.

  1. Cancer mortality among male workers in the Polish rubber industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Wilczyńska, U; Kaczmarek, T; Szymczak, W

    1991-01-01

    The rubber industry, acknowledged by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to be a cancer risk technology is, because of difficulty in identifying causal factors, the subject of intensive epidemiological studies in many countries. In the presented study, cancer risk in the rubber industry was evaluated on the basis of long-term observation (1945-1985) of a cohort of 6978 male workers employed in a rubber goods factory, predominantly engaged in producing rubber footwear. The reference group was the general male population of Poland. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), calculated by means of the person-years method, were used in the evaluation of death risk. The observation of a whole cohort indicated an excess of cancer, in general (approx 12%), lung cancer (approx 40%) and gallbladder cancer (approx fourfold). In the subcohorts, distinguished according to peculiarities of individual production sections, cancer risk of the large intestine and larynx was significantly increased. The highest cancer risk was found in compounding, mixing, milling and vulcanizing sections. Hence, beta-naphthylamine, benzidine and solvents (benzene) were used in technological processes in the past, bladder cancer and leukemia were considered as most specific for the rubber industry. In the cohort observed, the risk of death from bladder cancer was significantly increased only in those who had been employed during the years 1945-1953, namely during the period when beta-naphthylamine was in use. No excess of deaths from leukemia was observed. PMID:1799640

  2. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part IV: Comparison of cancer incidence and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report compares cancer incidence and mortality among atomic bomb survivors in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study (LSS) cohort. Because the incidence data are derived from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, case ascertainment is limited to the time (1958-1987) and geographic restrictions (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) of the registries, whereas mortality data are available from 1950-1987 anywhere in Japan. With these conditions, there were 9,014 first primary incident cancer cases identified among LSS cohort members compared with 7,308 deaths for which cancer was listed as the underlying cause of death on death certificates. When deaths were limited to those occurring between 1958-1987 in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, there were 3,155 more incident cancer cases overall, and 1,262 more cancers of the digestive system. For cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, skin, breast, female and male genital organs, urinary system and thyroid, the incidence series was at least twice as large as the comparable mortality series. Although the incidence and mortality data are dissimilar in many ways, the overall conclusions regarding which solid cancers provide evidence of a significant dose response generally confirm the mortality findings. When either incidence or mortality data are evaluated, significant excess risks are observed for all solid cancers, stomach, colon, liver (when it is defined as primary liver cancer or liver cancer not otherwise specified on the death certificate), lung, breast, ovary and urinary bladder. No significant radiation effect is seen for cancers of the pharynx, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, nose, larynx, uterus, prostate or kidney in either series. There is evidence of a significant excess of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the incidence data, but not in the mortality series. 19 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  3. Dietary factors and cancer mortality among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary factors such as fruit and vegetables are thought to reduce the risk of cancer incidence and mortality. We investigated the effect of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables against the long-term effects of radiation exposure on the risk of cancer. A cohort of 36,228 atomic-bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, for whom radiation dose estimates were currently available, had their diet assessed in 1980. They were followed for a period of 20 years for cancer mortality. The joint-effect of fruit and vegetables intake and radiation exposure on risk of cancer death was examined, in additive (sum of effects of diet alone and radiation alone) and multiplicative (product of effects of diet alone and radiation alone) models. In the additive model, a daily intake of fruit and vegetables significantly reduced the risk of cancer deaths by 13%, compared to an intake of once or less per week. Radiation exposure of 1 Sievert (Sv) increased significantly the risk of cancer death by 48-49%. The additive joint-effects showed a lower risk of cancer among those exposed to 1 Sv who had a diet rich in vegetables (49%-13%=36%) or fruit (48%-13%=35%). The multiplicative model gave similar results. The cancer risk reduction by vegetables in exposed persons went from 52% (effect of radiation alone) to 32% (product of effect of vegetables and radiation), and cancer risk reduction by fruit was 52% (radiation alone) to 34% (product of effect of fruit and radiation). There was no significant evidence to reject either the additive or the multiplicative model. A daily intake of fruit and vegetables was beneficial to the persons exposed to radiation in reducing their risks of cancer death

  4. Local Breast Cancer Spatial Patterning: A Tool for Community Health Resource Allocation to Address Local Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Brantley-Sieders, Dana M.; Fan, Kang-Hsien; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L.; Shyr, Yu; Cook, Rebecca S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite available demographic data on the factors that contribute to breast cancer mortality in large population datasets, local patterns are often overlooked. Such local information could provide a valuable metric by which regional community health resources can be allocated to reduce breast cancer mortality. We used national and statewide datasets to assess geographical distribution of breast cancer mortality rates and known risk factors influencing breast cancer mortality in middle Tenness...

  5. The mortality after surgery in primary lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Anders; Hauge, Jacob; Iachina, Maria;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study has been performed to investigate the mortality within the first year after resection in patients with primary lung cancer, together with associated prognostic factors including gender, age, tumour stage, comorbidity, alcohol abuse, type of surgery and post-surgical complica......OBJECTIVES: The study has been performed to investigate the mortality within the first year after resection in patients with primary lung cancer, together with associated prognostic factors including gender, age, tumour stage, comorbidity, alcohol abuse, type of surgery and post......-surgical complications. METHODS: All patients (n = 3363) from the nationwide Danish Lung Cancer Registry with first resection performed between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011 were analysed by Kaplan-Meier techniques and Cox-regression analysis concerning death within the first year after resection. Covariates....... Low stage, female gender, young age, no comorbidity, no postoperative complications, no alcohol abuse and lobectomy as type of resection were favourable for survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that resection in primary lung cancer impacts mortality far beyond the initial 30 days after...

  6. Breast and prostate cancer mortality and industrial pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Javier; Pérez-Abad, Natalia; Lope, Virginia; Castelló, Adela; Pollán, Marina; González-Sánchez, Mario; Valencia, José Luis; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    We investigated whether there might be an excess of breast and prostate cancer mortality among the population residing near Spanish industries, according to different categories of industrial groups. An ecologic study was designed to examine breast and prostate cancer mortality at a municipal level (period 1997-2006). Population exposure to pollution was estimated by means of distance from town of residence to industrial facilities. Using Besag-York-Mollié regression models with Integrated Nested Laplace approximations for Bayesian inference, we assessed the relative risk of dying from these tumors in 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-km zones around installations, and analyzed the effect of category of industrial group. For all sectors combined, no excess risk was detected. However, excess risk of breast cancer mortality (relative risk, 95% credible interval) was detected near mines (1.10, 1.00-1.21 at 4 km), ceramic industries (1.05, 1.00-1.09 at 5 km), and ship building (1.12, 1.00-1.26 at 5 km), and excess risk of prostate cancer was detected near aquaculture for all distances analyzed (from 2.42, 1.53-3.63 at 2 km to 1.63, 1.07-2.36 at 5 km). Our findings do not support that residing in the vicinity of pollutant industries as a whole (all industrial sectors combined) is a risk factor for breast and prostate cancer mortality. However, isolated statistical associations found in our study with respect to specific industrial groups warrant further investigation. PMID:27108043

  7. The decline in stomach cancer mortality : exploration of future trends in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amiri, Masoud; Janssen, Fanny; Kunst, Anton E.

    2011-01-01

    Mortality from stomach cancer has fallen steadily during the past decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the implication of a possible continuation of the decline in stomach cancer mortality until the year 2030. Annual rates of decline in stomach cancer mortality from 1980 to 2005 were determin

  8. The decline in stomach cancer mortality: exploration of future trends in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Amiri; F. Janssen; A.E. Kunst

    2011-01-01

    Mortality from stomach cancer has fallen steadily during the past decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the implication of a possible continuation of the decline in stomach cancer mortality until the year 2030. Annual rates of decline in stomach cancer mortality from 1980 to 2005 were determin

  9. The decline in stomach cancer mortality: exploration of future trends in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Amiri (Masoud); F. Janssen (Fanny); A.E. Kunst (Anton)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMortality from stomach cancer has fallen steadily during the past decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the implication of a possible continuation of the decline in stomach cancer mortality until the year 2030. Annual rates of decline in stomach cancer mortality from 1980 to 2005 w

  10. Cancer mortality patterns among Turkish immigrants in four European countries and in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spallek, Jacob; Arnold, Melina; Razum, Oliver;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study on cancer mortality among Turkish immigrants, for the first time, traditional comparisons in migrant health research have been extended simultaneously in two ways. First, comparisons were made to cancer mortality from the immigrants' country of origin and second, cancer....... Relative differences in cancer mortality were examined by fitting country-specific Poisson regression models. Globocan data on cancer mortality in Turkey from 2008 were used in order to compare mortality rates of Turkish immigrants with those from their country of origin. Turkish immigrants had lower all...... of origin and in the host country can have an effect on the cancer mortality of immigrants. Despite limitations affecting any cross-country comparison of mortality, the innovative multi-comparison approach is a promising way to gain further insights into determinants of trends in cancer mortality...

  11. Regional variations in mortality rates of pancreatic cancer in China:Results from 1990-1992 national mortality survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Xin Chen; Peizhong Peter Wang; Si-Wei Zhang; Lian-Di Li; Feng-Zhu Lu; Xi-Shan Hao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To examine the regional variations in mortality rates of pancreatic cancer in China.METHODS: Aggregated mortality data of pancreatic cancer were extracted from the 1990-1992 national death of all causes and its mortality survey in China. Age specific and standardized mortality rates were calculated at both national and provincial levels with selected characteristics including sex and residence status.RESULTS: Mortality of pancreatic cancer ranked the ninth and accounted for 1.38 percent of the total malignancy deaths. The crude and age standardized mortality rates of pancreatic cancer in China in the period of 1990-1992 were 1.48/100 000 and 1.30/100 000, respectively. Substantial regional variations in mortality rates across China were observed with adjusted mortality rates ranging from 0.43/100 000 to 3.70/100 000 with an extremal value of 8.7.Urban residents had significant higher pancreatic mortality than rural residents.CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show different mortality rates of this disease and highlight the importance of further investigation on factors, which might contribute to the observed epidemiological patterns.

  12. Breast cancer biology and ethnic disparities in breast cancer mortality in new zealand: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeewa Seneviratne

    Full Text Available Indigenous Māori women have a 60% higher breast cancer mortality rate compared with European women in New Zealand. We investigated differences in cancer biological characteristics and their impact on breast cancer mortality disparity between Māori and NZ European women.Data on 2849 women with primary invasive breast cancers diagnosed between 1999 and 2012 were extracted from the Waikato Breast Cancer Register. Differences in distribution of cancer biological characteristics between Māori and NZ European women were explored adjusting for age and socioeconomic deprivation in logistic regression models. Impacts of socioeconomic deprivation, stage and cancer biological characteristics on breast cancer mortality disparity between Māori and NZ European women were explored in Cox regression models.Compared with NZ European women (n=2304, Māori women (n=429 had significantly higher rates of advanced and higher grade cancers. Māori women also had non-significantly higher rates of ER/PR negative and HER-2 positive breast cancers. Higher odds of advanced stage and higher grade remained significant for Māori after adjusting for age and deprivation. Māori women had almost a 100% higher age and deprivation adjusted breast cancer mortality hazard compared with NZ European women (HR=1.98, 1.55-2.54. Advanced stage and lower proportion of screen detected cancer in Māori explained a greater portion of the excess breast cancer mortality (HR reduction from 1.98 to 1.38, while the additional contribution through biological differences were minimal (HR reduction from 1.38 to 1.35.More advanced cancer stage at diagnosis has the greatest impact while differences in biological characteristics appear to be a minor contributor for inequities in breast cancer mortality between Māori and NZ European women. Strategies aimed at reducing breast cancer mortality in Māori should focus on earlier diagnosis, which will likely have a greater impact on reducing breast

  13. Spatial confidentiality and GIS: re-engineering mortality locations from published maps about Hurricane Katrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitner Michael

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographic Information Systems (GIS can provide valuable insight into patterns of human activity. Online spatial display applications, such as Google Earth, can democratise this information by disseminating it to the general public. Although this is a generally positive advance for society, there is a legitimate concern involving the disclosure of confidential information through spatial display. Although guidelines exist for aggregated data, little has been written concerning the display of point level information. The concern is that a map containing points representing cases of cancer or an infectious disease, could be re-engineered back to identify an actual residence. This risk is investigated using point mortality locations from Hurricane Katrina re-engineered from a map published in the Baton Rouge Advocate newspaper, and a field team validating these residences using search and rescue building markings. Results We show that the residence of an individual, visualized as a generalized point covering approximately one and half city blocks on a map, can be re-engineered back to identify the actual house location, or at least a close neighbour, even if the map contains little spatial reference information. The degree of re-engineering success is also shown to depend on the urban characteristic of the neighborhood. Conclusion The results in this paper suggest a need to re-evaluate current guidelines for the display of point (address level data. Examples of other point maps displaying health data extracted from the academic literature are presented where a similar re-engineering approach might cause concern with respect to violating confidentiality. More research is also needed into the role urban structure plays in the accuracy of re-engineering. We suggest that health and spatial scientists should be proactive and suggest a series of point level spatial confidentiality guidelines before governmental decisions are made

  14. Cancer mortality in a cohort of asbestos textile workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, E; Pelucchi, C; Buffoni, L; Palmas, A; Turbiglio, M; Negri, E; Piolatto, P G; La Vecchia, C

    2005-02-14

    A cohort of 889 men and 1077 women employed for at least 1 month between 1946 and 1984 by a former Italian leading asbestos (mainly textile) company, characterised by extremely heavy exposures often for short durations, was followed up to 1996, for a total of 53,024 person-years of observation. Employment data were obtained from factory personnel records, while vital status and causes of death were ascertained through municipality registers and local health units. We observed 222 cancer deaths compared with 116.4 expected (standardized mortality ratio, SMR=191). The highest ratios were found for pleural (SMR=4105), peritoneal (SMR=1817) and lung (SMR=282) cancers. We observed direct relationships with duration of employment for lung and peritoneal cancer, and with time since first employment for lung cancer and mesothelioma. Pleural cancer risk was independent from duration (SMR=3428 for employment or =10 years). Corresponding SMRs for lung cancer were 139, 251, 233 and 531. Nonsignificantly increased ratios were found for ovarian (SMR=261), laryngeal (SMR=238) and oro-pharyngeal (SMR=226) cancers. This study confirms and further quantifies the central role of latency in pleural mesothelioma and of cumulative exposure in lung cancer. PMID:15702125

  15. [Mortality due to bronchopulmonary cancers in workers of 2 foundries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, J J; Lafontaine, M; Mantout, B; Belanger, A; Michel, M; Wild, P; Clavel, T; Fournier, M; Fontana, J M

    1995-01-01

    A mortality study was carried out in two factories producing stainless steel in order to assess lung cancer risk among workers employed in coke oven, blast and open hearth furnaces, foundry, electric furnace, hot and cold rolling mills and pickling areas. Occupational exposures of interest were chromium compounds, nickel compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), silica and asbestos. All male workers having at least one year of employment between 01.01.1960 and 31.12.1990 were followed up for mortality. The vital status was assessed from birth place registries. Complete job histories since date of first employment were abstracted from the company files. The smoking habits of 50% of the cohort members were known from medical records. The observed number of deaths (obs) were compared with the expected ones based on regional rates with adjustment for age, sex and calendar time (Standardized Mortality Ratio, SMR). The cohorts included 6324 (factory 1) and 5270 (factory 2) workers. The overall mortality did not differ markedly from that expected in both factories: SMR = 0.95 (obs = 1540, p = 0.05) in factory 1 and SMR = 1.06 (obs = 916, non-significant) in factory 2. SMRs for lung cancer did not differ from unity, respectively 0.99 (obs = 105) and 1.00 (obs = 54), in whole cohorts. Non-significant lung cancer excesses were observed among workers of some workshops where exposures of interest might have occurred: coke oven (SMR = 2.04), blast furnace (SMR = 1.36), open hearth furnace (SMR = 1.75), hot rolling mills (SMR = 1.29). These processes, however, are no longer involved in the study factories. Furthermore, no lung cancer excess was observed among workers employed in current workshops: electric furnaces and cold rolling mills. PMID:7732197

  16. Blood donation and colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although blood donations may reduce body iron stores, to date, prospective data on frequent blood donation and colorectal cancer risk are limited. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested whether frequent blood donation is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We prospectively followed 35,121 men who provide the information on lifetime number of blood donations in 1992 through 2008. Serum ferritin levels were measured in a random sample of 305 men. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the multivariable relative risks (RRs, 95%CIs after adjusting for age and other established colorectal cancer risk factors. We documented 684 incident colorectal cancer cases and 224 deaths from colorectal cancer. The mean serum ferritin levels varied from 178 µg/L for men who did not donate blood to 98 µg/L for men who had at least 30 donations. Age-adjusted results for both incidence and mortality were essentially the same as the multivariable-adjusted results. Comparing with non-donors, the multivariable RRs (95%CIs for colorectal cancer incidence were 0.92 (0.77, 1.11 for 1-5 donation, 0.85 (0.64, 1.11 for 6-9 donations, 0.96 (0.73, 1.26 for 10-19 donations, 0.91 (0.63, 1.32 for 20-29 donations, and 0.97 (0.68, 1.38 for at least 30 donations (P(trend = 0.92. The multivariable RRs for colorectal cancer mortality were 0.99 (0.72, 1.36 for 1-5 donation, 0.93 (0.57, 1.51 for 6-9 donations, 0.85 (0.50, 1.42 for 10-19 donations, and 1.14 (0.72, 1.83 for at least 20 donations (P(trend = 0.82. The results did not vary by cancer sub-sites, intake levels of total iron, heme iron, or family history of colorectal cancer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Frequent blood donations were not associated with colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in men. Our results do not support an important role of body iron stores in colorectal carcinogenesis.

  17. Recognition of Complications After Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Cancer Determines Inpatient Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan S Glazer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Context While perioperative mortality after pancreaticoduodenectomy is decreasing, key factors remain to be elucidated. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate inpatient mortality after pancreaticoduodenectomy in the NationwideInpatient Sample (NIS, a representative inpatient database in the USA. Methods Patient discharge data (diagnostic andprocedure codes and hospital characteristics were investigated for years 2009 and 2010. The inclusion criteria were aprocedure code for pancreaticoduodenectomy, elective procedure, and a pancreatic or peripancreatic cancer diagnosis. Chisquare test determined statistical significance. A logistic regression model for mortality was created from significantvariables. Results Two-thousand and 958 patients were identified with an average age of 65±12 years; 53% were male. Themean length of stay was 15±12 days with a mortality of 4% and a complication rate of 57%. Eighty-six percent of pancreaticoduodenectomy occurred in teaching hospitals. Pancreaticoduodenectomy performed in teaching hospitals in thefirst half of the academic year were associated with higher mortality than in the latter half (5.5% vs. 3.4%, P=0.005. Onlogistic regression analysis, non-surgical complications are the largest predictor of death (P

  18. Research Networks Map | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.  Five Major Programs' sites are shown on this map. | The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.

  19. Cancer mortality after multiple fluoroscopic examinations of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total cancer deaths were not increased among 2074 women and 1277 men who were fluoroscopically examined an average of 73 and 91 times, respectively, during lung-collapse therapy for tuberculosis (TB). Patients who did not receive this form of therapy (2141 women and 1418 men) and general population rates were used for comparison. All subjects were discharged alive from eight TB sanatoria in Massachusetts between 1930 and 1954; the average follow-up was 23 years. Deaths due to breast cancer were not increased among exposed females [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 1.0, n = 24], and SMRs greater than 2.1 could be excluded with 95% confidence. In contrast to other series, our inability to detect a breast cancer excess was likely due to lower breast doses (66 rad) and higher average ages at exposure (28 yr) and thus lower sensitivity. A deficit of lung cancer among exposed males and females was observed (SMR = 0.8, n = 26), even though increased risks have been observed among other populations exposed to similar dose levels. The estimated average lung dose was 91 rad, and SMRs greater than 1.2 for lung cancer could be excluded with 95% confidence. Overall, this study indicates that the radiation hazard of multiple low-dose exposures experienced over many years is not greater than currently accepted estimates for breast and lung cancer. For lung cancer the radiogenic risk may be less than predicted from high-dose, single-exposure studies

  20. All-Cause Mortality Among Men Whose Cohabiting Partner Has Been Diagnosed with Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaya, Naoki; Saito-Nakaya, Kumi; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold Hansen;

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that spouses of cancer patients are at increased risk for several chronic diseases. We investigated mortality in relation to cancer morbidity in the stable female partner.......Previous studies suggest that spouses of cancer patients are at increased risk for several chronic diseases. We investigated mortality in relation to cancer morbidity in the stable female partner....

  1. Choropleth Map Design for Cancer Incidence, Part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas B. Richards, MD; Zahava Berkowitz, MSPH; Cheryll C. Thomas, MSPH; Stephanie Lee Foster, MPH; Annette Gardner; Jessica Blythe King, MPH; Karen Ledford, CTR; Janet Royalty, MS

    2009-01-01

    Choropleth maps are commonly used in cancer reports and community discussions about cancer rates. Cancer registries increasingly use geographic information system techniques. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control convened a Map Work Group to help guide application of geographic information systems mapping techniques and to promote choropleth mapping of data from central cancer registries supported by the National Program of Cancer Registrie...

  2. Health practices and cancer mortality among active California Mormons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enstrom, J E

    1989-12-01

    Religiously active Mormons in California are a nonsmoking population with unusually low risk for cancer. This finding is based on the results of our 1979 questionnaire survey of life-style and the 8-year (1980-1987) follow-up of mortality among 5,231 Mormon high priests and 4,613 wives 25-99 years of age. Our study, which is the first prospective cohort study of Mormons, shows low standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for this population, relative to those for whites in the general population in the United States, which are defined as 100. The SMRs for males are 47 for all cancers, 52 for cardiovascular diseases, and 47 for all causes; the SMRs for females are 72 for all cancers, 64 for cardiovascular diseases, and 66 for all causes. For middle-aged high priests adhering to three health practices (never smoking cigarettes, engaging in regular physical activity, and getting proper sleep), the SMRs are 34 for all cancers, 14 for cardiovascular diseases, and 22 for all causes. These results have been largely replicated in an active Mormon-like subgroup (white nonsmokers attending church weekly) from a representative sample of residents of Alameda County, CA. Our findings confirm and expand on previous descriptive studies of Mormons and demonstrate how these results can be generalized. PMID:2585528

  3. Uncommon applications of sentinel lymph node mapping: urogenital cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beside the classical applications of sentinel lymph node mapping, some new procedures are emerging and showing feasibility and clinical utility. In this chapter, we will report on sentinel lymph node mapping in 1) malignancies of the female reproductive system (cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, vulvar cancer and ovarian cancer); 2) malignancies of the male reproductive system (prostate cancer, penile cancer and testicular cancer); 3) malignancies in kidney and bladder. This paper presents the uncommon applications of sentinel lymph node mapping in urogenital neoplasms.

  4. An Online Atlas for Exploring Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Cancer Mortality (1972-2011) and Incidence (1995-2008) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Wen-Yuan; Liaw, Yung-Po; Huang, Jing-Yang; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Hsu, Shu-Yi; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Lee, Wen-Chung; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2016-05-01

    Public health mapping and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are already being used to locate the geographical spread of diseases. This study describes the construction of an easy-to-use online atlas of cancer mortality (1972-2011) and incidence (1995-2008) in Taiwan.Two sets of color maps were made based on "age-adjusted mortality by rate" and "age-adjusted mortality by rank." AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML), JSON (JavaScript Object Notation), and SVG (Scaling Vector Graphic) were used to create the online atlas. Spatio-temporal patterns of cancer mortality and incidence in Taiwan over the period from 1972 to 2011 and from 1995 to 2008.The constructed online atlas contains information on cancer mortality and incidence (http://taiwancancermap.csmu-liawyp.tw/). The common GIS functions include zoom and pan and identity tools. Users can easily customize the maps to explore the spatio-temporal trends of cancer mortality and incidence using different devices (such as personal computers, mobile phone, or pad). This study suggests an easy- to-use, low-cost, and independent platform for exploring cancer incidence and mortality. It is expected to serve as a reference tool for cancer prevention and risk assessment.This online atlas is a cheap and fast tool that integrates various cancer maps. Therefore, it can serve as a powerful tool that allows users to examine and compare spatio-temporal patterns of various maps. Furthermore, it is an-easy-to use tool for updating data and assessing risk factors of cancer in Taiwan. PMID:27227915

  5. An Online Atlas for Exploring Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Cancer Mortality (1972–2011) and Incidence (1995–2008) in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Wen-Yuan; Liaw, Yung-Po; Huang, Jing-Yang; Nfor, Oswald Ndi; Hsu, Shu-Yi; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Lee, Wen-Chung; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Public health mapping and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are already being used to locate the geographical spread of diseases. This study describes the construction of an easy-to-use online atlas of cancer mortality (1972–2011) and incidence (1995–2008) in Taiwan. Two sets of color maps were made based on “age-adjusted mortality by rate” and “age-adjusted mortality by rank.” AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML), JSON (JavaScript Object Notation), and SVG (Scaling Vector Graphic) were used to create the online atlas. Spatio-temporal patterns of cancer mortality and incidence in Taiwan over the period from 1972 to 2011 and from 1995 to 2008. The constructed online atlas contains information on cancer mortality and incidence (http://taiwancancermap.csmu-liawyp.tw/). The common GIS functions include zoom and pan and identity tools. Users can easily customize the maps to explore the spatio-temporal trends of cancer mortality and incidence using different devices (such as personal computers, mobile phone, or pad). This study suggests an easy- to-use, low-cost, and independent platform for exploring cancer incidence and mortality. It is expected to serve as a reference tool for cancer prevention and risk assessment. This online atlas is a cheap and fast tool that integrates various cancer maps. Therefore, it can serve as a powerful tool that allows users to examine and compare spatio-temporal patterns of various maps. Furthermore, it is an-easy-to use tool for updating data and assessing risk factors of cancer in Taiwan. PMID:27227915

  6. Cancer Risk Map for the Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss calculations of the median and 95th percentile cancer risks on the surface of Mars for different solar conditions. The NASA Space Radiation Cancer Risk 2010 model is used to estimate gender and age specific cancer incidence and mortality risks for astronauts exploring Mars. Organ specific fluence spectra and doses for large solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) at various levels of solar activity are simulated using the HZETRN/QMSFRG computer code, and the 2010 version of the Badhwar and O Neill GCR model. The NASA JSC propensity model of SPE fluence and occurrence is used to consider upper bounds on SPE fluence for increasing mission lengths. In the transport of particles through the Mars atmosphere, a vertical distribution of Mars atmospheric thickness is calculated from the temperature and pressure data of Mars Global Surveyor, and the directional cosine distribution is implemented to describe the spherically distributed atmospheric distance along the slant path at each elevation on Mars. The resultant directional shielding by Mars atmosphere at each elevation is coupled with vehicle and body shielding for organ dose estimates. Astronaut cancer risks are mapped on the global topography of Mars, which was measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter. Variation of cancer risk on the surface of Mars is due to a 16-km elevation range, and the large difference is obtained between the Tharsis Montes (Ascraeus, Pavonis, and Arsia) and the Hellas impact basin. Cancer incidence risks are found to be about 2-fold higher than mortality risks with a disproportionate increase in skin and thyroid cancers for all astronauts and breast cancer risk for female astronauts. The number of safe days on Mars to be below radiation limits at the 95th percent confidence level is reported for several Mission design scenarios.

  7. GPS tracking for mapping seabird mortality induced by light pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Airam Rodríguez; Beneharo Rodríguez; Negro, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Light pollution and its consequences on ecosystems are increasing worldwide. Knowledge on the threshold levels of light pollution at which significant ecological impacts emerge and the size of dark refuges to maintain natural nocturnal processes is crucial to mitigate its negative consequences. Seabird fledglings are attracted by artificial lights when they leave their nest at night, causing high mortality. We used GPS data-loggers to track the flights of Cory’s shearwater Calonectris diomede...

  8. Obesity and Diabetes: The Increased Risk of Cancer and Cancer-Related Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Emily Jane; LeRoith, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, and both are associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes develop many years before the onset of diabetes and, therefore, may be contributing to cancer risk before individuals are aware that they are at risk. Multiple factors potentially contribute to the progression of cancer in obesity and type 2 diabetes, including hyperinsulinemi...

  9. Serum selenium level and risk of lung cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Hein, H O; Gyntelberg, F

    2011-01-01

    (chronic bronchitis and peak flow), referencing the lowest level of serum selenium HRs were 1.17(0.79-1.75), and 1.43(0.96-2.14), respectively. Among heavy smokers a high serum selenium was associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer mortality after taking into account all potential......Serum selenium has been implicated as a risk factor for lung cancer, but the issue remains unsettled. We tested in a cohort of 3,333 males aged 53 to 74 years the hypothesis that a low serum selenium would be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer mortality.During 16 years, 167 subjects(5......, referencing the lowest level of serum selenium hazard ratios with 95% CI (HR) for medium and high levels of serum selenium were 0.97(0.66-1.43), and 0.99(0.68-1.45), respectively. Taking into account pack years of smoking, spirits intake, dietary markers (salt and fat preferences), and health measures...

  10. Obesity and Diabetes: The Increased Risk of Cancer and Cancer-Related Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Emily Jane; LeRoith, Derek

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, and both are associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes develop many years before the onset of diabetes and, therefore, may be contributing to cancer risk before individuals are aware that they are at risk. Multiple factors potentially contribute to the progression of cancer in obesity and type 2 diabetes, including hyperinsulinemia and insulin-like growth factor I, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, adipokines and cytokines, and the gut microbiome. These metabolic changes may contribute directly or indirectly to cancer progression. Intentional weight loss may protect against cancer development, and therapies for diabetes may prove to be effective adjuvant agents in reducing cancer progression. In this review we discuss the current epidemiology, basic science, and clinical data that link obesity, diabetes, and cancer and how treating obesity and type 2 diabetes could also reduce cancer risk and improve outcomes. PMID:26084689

  11. Mortality salience increases defensive distancing from people with terminal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren M; Kasser, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Based on principles of terror management theory, the authors hypothesized that participants would distance more from a target person with terminal cancer than from a target with arthritis, and that this effect would be stronger following mortality salience. In Study 1, adults rated how similar their personalities were to a target person; in Study 2, participants arranged two chairs in preparation for meeting the target person. Both studies found that distancing from the person with terminal cancer increased after participants wrote about their own death (vs. giving a speech). Thus, death anxiety may explain why people avoid close contact with terminally ill people; further analyses suggest that gender and self-esteem may also influence such distancing from the terminally ill. PMID:24521045

  12. Effect of vitamin B supplementation on cancer incidence, death due to cancer, and total mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sui-Liang; Chen, Ting-Song; Ma, Chen-Yun; Meng, Yong-Bin; Zhang, Yu-Fei; Chen, Yi-Wei; Zhou, Yu-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Observational studies have suggested that vitamin B supplementation is associated with cancer risk, but this association remains controversial. A pooled data-based meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of vitamin B supplementation on cancer incidence, death due to cancer, and total mortality. Methods: PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify trials to fit our analysis through August 2015. Relative risk (RR) was used to measure the effect of vitamin B supplementation on the risk of cancer incidence, death due to cancer, and total mortality using a random-effect model. Cumulative meta-analysis, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis, heterogeneity tests, and tests for publication bias were also conducted. Results: Eighteen RCTs reporting the data on 74,498 individuals were included in the meta-analysis. Sixteen of these trials included 4103 cases of cancer; in 6 trials, 731 cancer-related deaths occurred; and in 15 trials, 7046 deaths occurred. Vitamin B supplementation had little or no effect on the incidence of cancer (RR: 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98–1.10; P = 0.216), death due to cancer (RR, 1.05; 95% CI: 0.90–1.22; P = 0.521), and total mortality (RR, 1.00; 95% CI: 0.94–1.06; P = 0.952). Upon performing a cumulative meta-analysis for cancer incidence, death due to cancer, and total mortality, the nonsignificance of the effect of vitamin B persisted. With respect to specific types of cancer, vitamin B supplementation significantly reduced the risk of skin melanoma (RR, 0.47; 95% CI: 0.23–0.94; P = 0.032). Conclusion: Vitamin B supplementation does not have an effect on cancer incidence, death due to cancer, or total mortality. It is associated with a lower risk of skin melanoma, but has no effect on other cancers. PMID:27495015

  13. Cancer mortality of nuclear workers of CEA and COGEMA from 1969 to 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer mortality of the nuclear workers of CEA and COGEMA has been collected by the occupational health services of both firms from 1969 to 1986. The data are related only to the workers who died when in activity. Only very few workers left CEA and COGEMA before retirement so we consider this mortality survey as describing correctly the cancer mortality for the age groups less than 60-65 years old. Compared to the national mortality of same sex, age and calendar period, by the method of indirect standardization, the only excess observed was in the female population, linked to breast cancer mortality. The male population demonstrated a high healthy worker effect, even for cancer mortality. This study has now to be completed by an typical epidemiological cohort study in order to test cancer mortality after retirement and to discuss a possible relation with occupational exposure. (author)

  14. Cancer mortality among French atomic energy commission workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the mortality of workers employed at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) between 1946 and 1994 is presented. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMR) are computed with reference to the French national population for the period 1968-1994. 51 286 workers are included in the study. 3 784 deaths occurred between 1968 and 1994. A healthy worker effect is observed for men (SMR=0.53 Cl90%=[0.52; 0.55]) and for women (SMR=0.70 Cl90%=[0.64; 0.76]). An excess is observed for male pleural cancers (SMR=1.54, Cl90%=[1.03; 2.21]). An excess of breast cancer is observed among women, statistically significant for the 1980-1994 period (SMR=1.30, Cl90%=[1.04; 1.61]). An excess is observed for malignant melanoma for both sexes (SMR=1.38, Cl90%=[0.95; 1.96]), stronger for the 1990-1994 period (SMR=2.11, Cl90%=[1.25; 3.34]). It diminishes with age. (orig.)

  15. Tobacco use and its contribution to early cancer mortality with a special emphasis on cigarette smoking.

    OpenAIRE

    Shopland, D. R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the relationship between tobacco use and early cancer mortality. It presents a retrospective examination of trends in smoking behavior and how these trends affected the national lung cancer mortality pattern during this century. Information on smoking prevalence is presented for black and white men and women for each 5-year birth cohort between 1885 and 1969. The author argues that the lung cancer mortality pattern observed in the United States since 1950 is...

  16. GPS tracking for mapping seabird mortality induced by light pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Airam; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Negro, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    Light pollution and its consequences on ecosystems are increasing worldwide. Knowledge on the threshold levels of light pollution at which significant ecological impacts emerge and the size of dark refuges to maintain natural nocturnal processes is crucial to mitigate its negative consequences. Seabird fledglings are attracted by artificial lights when they leave their nest at night, causing high mortality. We used GPS data-loggers to track the flights of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea fledglings from nest-burrows to ground, and to evaluate the light pollution levels of overflown areas on Tenerife, Canary Islands, using nocturnal, high-resolution satellite imagery. Birds were grounded at locations closer than 16 km from colonies in their maiden flights, and 50% were rescued within a 3 km radius from the nest-site. Most birds left the nests in the first three hours after sunset. Rescue locations showed radiance values greater than colonies, and flight distance was positively related to light pollution levels. Breeding habitat alteration by light pollution was more severe for inland colonies. We provide scientific-based information to manage dark refuges facilitating that fledglings from inland colonies reach the sea successfully. We also offer methodological approaches useful for other critically threatened petrel species grounded by light pollution. PMID:26035530

  17. Simulation of reduced breast cancer mortality in breast cancer screening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The breast cancer screening programs are an essential tool in the fight against breast cancer. Currently, many questions concerning the setup of these programs are open, namely: age range of women who undergo the same, frequency of mammography, ... The effectiveness of a program should be evaluated in terms of mortality reduction is its systematic implementation in the population. In this sense, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to assess that these reductions.

  18. Cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality among women with a history of endometrial cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, S.H.; Bryden, J R; Lee, Robert; Bishop, J L; Finlayson, A R; C. D. Byrne; Brewster, D H

    2007-01-01

    Among 7182 women with endometrial cancer in Scotland, standardised mortality ratios (and 95% confidence intervals (CI)) were 6.38 (5.74–7.15) for all cancers and 1.10 (1.00–1.22) for circulatory diseases as underlying cause of death and 2.81 (2.19–3.70) for diabetes as underlying/contributory cause of death.

  19. Ten-Year Mortality after a Breast Cancer Diagnosis in Women with Severe Mental Illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribe, Anette Riisgaard; Laurberg, Tinne; Laursen, Thomas Munk;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether higher mortality after breast cancer contributes to the life-expectancy gap of 15 years in women with severe mental illness (SMI). METHODS: We estimated all-cause mortality rate......% higher for women with SMI and breast cancer (MRR: 4.27, 95% CI: 3.98-4.57). Among women with both disorders, 15% of deaths could be attributed to interaction. In a sub-cohort of women with breast cancer, the ten-year all-cause-mortality was 59% higher after taking tumor stage into account (MRR: 1.59, 95...

  20. Circular asymmetry of cancer mortality in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors are used to investigate, for each city, possible circular asymmetry of cancer mortality around the hypocenter. Using the Cox regression method, and controlling for age at the time of the bomb, sex, follow-up year, distance from hypocenter, and type of shielding, it is found that cancer mortality in Hiroshima was significantly higher in the westerly direction from the hypocenter. Mortality from stomach cancer, leukemia, and colon cancer was higher in the westerly direction. In Nagasaki also cancer mortality, notably lung cancer mortality, was significantly higher in the westerly direction. Discussed are possible sources of the asymmetry, particularly the possibilities of asymmetry of epidemiologic variables and of radiation exposure, and indications for future work. (author)

  1. Differences in cancer incidence, mortality, and survival between African Americans and whites.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, B.; Figgs, L.W.; Zahm, S H

    1995-01-01

    This report highlights selected evidence of different cancer patterns among African Americans and whites and considers potential risk factors associated with these cancers. During the years 1987 to 1991, African Americans experienced higher incidence and mortality rates than whites for multiple myeloma and for cancers of the oropharynx, colorectum, lung and bronchus, cervix, and prostate. African Americans had lower incidence and mortality for cancer of the urinary bladder. The incidence of b...

  2. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley White-Means; Muriel Rice; Jill Dapremont; Barbara Davis; Judy Martin

    2015-01-01

    Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Themat...

  3. Choropleth Map Design for Cancer Incidence, Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B. Richards, MD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Choropleth maps are commonly used in cancer reports and community discussions about cancer rates. Cancer registries increasingly use geographic information system techniques. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control convened a Map Work Group to help guide application of geographic information system mapping techniques and to promote choropleth mapping of data from central cancer registries supported by the National Program of Cancer Registries, especially for comprehensive cancer control planning and evaluation purposes. In this 2-part series, we answer frequently asked questions about choropleth map design to display cancer incidence data. We recommend that future initiatives consider more advanced mapping, spatial analysis, and spatial statistics techniques and include usability testing with representatives of state and local programs and other cancer prevention partners.

  4. Cancer mortality by country of birth, sex, and socioeconomic position in Sweden, 1961-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Abdoli

    Full Text Available In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women, and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend <0.001. We also compared cancer mortality rates among foreign-born (13.9% and Sweden-born (86.1% individuals and determined the effect of education level and sex estimated by mortality rate ratios (MRRs using multivariable Poisson regression. All-site cancer mortality was slightly higher among foreign-born than Sweden-born men (MRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.07, but similar mortality risks was found among foreign-born and Sweden-born women. Men born in Angola, Laos, and Cambodia had the highest cancer mortality risk. Women born in all countries except Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth.

  5. Metformin Associated With Lower Cancer Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes - ZODIAC-16

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefstra, N.; van Hateren, K.J.J.; Groenier, K.H.; Gans, R.O.B.; Bilo, H.J.G.; Landman, G.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Several Studies have suggested an association between specific diabetes treatment and cancer mortality. We studied the association between metformin use and cancer mortality in a prospectively followed cohort. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - in 1998 and 1999,1,353 patients With type 2 diab

  6. The impact of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeders, Mireille; Moss, Sue; Nyström, Lennarth;

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of population-based mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality in Europe, considering different methodologies and limitations of the data.......To assess the impact of population-based mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality in Europe, considering different methodologies and limitations of the data....

  7. Trends in inequalities in premature cancer mortality by educational level in Colombia, 1998-2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Vries (Esther); I. Arroyave (Ivan); C. Pardo (Constanza); C. Wiesner (Carolina); R. Murillo (Raul); D. Forman (David); A. Burdorf (Alex); M. Avendano (Mauricio)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground There is a paucity of studies on socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in developing countries. We examined trends in inequalities in cancer mortality by educational attainment in Colombia during a period of epidemiological transition and rapid expansion of health ins

  8. Trends in inequalities in premature cancer mortality by educational level in Colombia, 1998-2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Vries (Esther); I. Arroyave (Ivan); C. Pardo (Constanza); C. Wiesner (Carolina); R. Murillo (Raul); D. Forman (David); A. Burdorf (Alex); M. Avendano (Mauricio)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: There is a paucity of studies on socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in developing countries. We examined trends in inequalities in cancer mortality by educational attainment in Colombia during a period of epidemiological transition and rapid expansion of health in

  9. Are we able to reduce the mortality and morbidity of oral cancer; Some considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. van der Waal

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer makes up 1%-2% of all cancers that may arise in the body. The majority of oral cancers consists of squamous cell carcinomas. Oral cancer carries a considerable mortality rate, being mainly dependent on the stage of the disease at admission. Worldwide some 50% of the patients with oral ca

  10. Postoperative Nomogram for Predicting Cancer-Specific Mortality in Medullary Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Allen S.; Wang, Lu; Palmer, Frank L.; Yu, Changhong; Toset, Arnbjorn; Patel, Snehal; Kattan, Michael W.; Tuttle, R. Michael; Ganly, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare thyroid cancer accounting for 5 % of all thyroid malignancies. The purpose of our study was to design a predictive nomogram for cancer-specific mortality (CSM) utilizing clinical, pathological, and biochemical variables in patients with MTC. Methods MTC patients managed entirely at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1986 and 2010 were identified. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were recorded, and variables predictive of CSM were identified by univariable analyses. A multivariable competing risk model was then built to predict the 10-year cancer specific mortality of MTC. All predictors of interest were added in the starting full model before selection, including age, gender, pre- and postoperative serum calcitonin, pre- and postoperative CEA, RET mutation status, perivascular invasion, margin status, pathologic T status, pathologic N status, and M status. Stepdown method was used in model selection to choose predictive variables. Results Of 249 MTC patients, 22.5 % (56/249) died from MTC, whereas 6.4 % (16/249) died secondary to other causes. Mean follow-up period was 87 ± 67 months. The seven variables with the highest predictive accuracy for cancer specific mortality included age, gender, postoperative calcitonin, perivascular invasion, pathologic T status, pathologic N status, and M status. These variables were used to create the final nomogram. Discrimination from the final nomogram was measured at 0.77 with appropriate calibration. Conclusions We describe the first nomogram that estimates cause-specific mortality in individual patients with MTC. This predictive nomogram will facilitate patient counseling in terms of prognosis and subsequent clinical follow up. PMID:25366585

  11. Relation between cancer incidence or mortality and external natural background radiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis was performed on the relationships between the organ dose-equivalent rate due to natural background radiation (mSv/a) and three parameters of cancer risk: the age-adjusted cancer incidence (patients x 105 persons x a-1) in 13 large areas, the standardized mortality ratio of cancers in 46 large areas, and the cancer mortality in the population aged more than 40 years old (cancer deaths x 105 persons x a-1) in 649 small areas. The age-adjusted liver cancer incidence in males fitted the exponential model significantly (p<0.01) and the relationship of stomach cancer mortality of aged males in small areas fitted the linear model significantly (p<0.05). No relationship was observed with regard to female cancer in either case. The relationships between the three parameters and various other cancers of both sexes were not statistically significant. (author)

  12. Waiting list paradox: Danish cancer patients diagnosed fast have higher mortality after diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise

    BACKGROUND: Delay in the diagnosis of cancer is generally considered unacceptable. However, observational studies often show an inverse association between the length of the diagnostic interval and mortality. Paradoxically, patients diagnosed more rapidly have higher mortality rates than patients...... with longer wait in the primary and secondary health care sector. AIM: To examine whether the waiting time paradox is manifest in the Danish health care system. MATERIALS & METHODS: The study was based on data on hospital discharge diagnoses for the 2004-2005 period, extracted from population...... 1270 cancer patients. Mortality varied across cancer diagnosis. There were no associations between duration and mortality for breast and skin cancer. For lung, prostate, and colorectal cancer a short diagnostic interval (0-14 days) was associated with highest mortality. CONCLUSION: The waiting-time-paradox...

  13. Cancer mortality and incidence survey around the Aube's low- and medium-activity radioactive waste storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the main results of a survey performed in 2010 to describe the health status of the population around the Aube's low- and medium-activity radioactive waste storage site. The aim of this survey was to determine whether the frequencies of death and hospitalization on account of cancer are different for this population (15 km around the site) with respect to two reference populations (the population of the Champagne-Ardennes region and the French metropolitan population). Results of mortality, hospitalization, and lung cancer are presented under the form of maps and tables giving global data or data for males, females, adults, or children

  14. Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Female Breast Cancer Mortality in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yunhee; Kim, Yeonju; Park, Sue K.; Shin, Hai-Rim; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite the low mortality rate of breast cancer among women in Korea, the breast cancer mortality rate has increased. The aim of this study was to examine trends in breast cancer mortality from 1983 to 2012 in Korea, assessing the importance of age, period, and birth cohort as risk factors. Materials and Methods Data on the annual number of deaths due to female breast cancer and on female population statistics from 1983 to 2012 were obtained from Statistics Korea. A log-linear Poisson...

  15. Cancer incidence and mortality in the municipality of Pasto, 1998 – 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Clara Yepez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE Introduction: In Colombia, information on cancer morbidity at the population level is limited. Incidence es­timates for most regions are based on mortality data. To improve the validity of these estimates, it is necessary that other population-based cancer registries, as well as Cali, provide cancer risk information. Objective: To describe the incidence and cancer mortality in the municipality of Pasto within the 1998-2007 period. Methodology: The study population belongs to rural and urban areas of the municipality of Pasto. Collection, processing, and systematization of the data were performed according to internationally standardized parame­ters for population-based cancer registries. The cancer incidence and mortality rates were calculated by gender, age, and tumor site. Results: During the 1998-2007 period 4,986 new cases of cancer were recorded of which 57.7% were in female. 2,503 deaths were presented, 52% in female. Neoplasm-associated infections are the leading cause of cancer morbidity in Pasto: stomach cancer in males and cervical cancer in females. Discussion: Cancer in general is a major health problem for the population of the municipality of Pasto. The overall behavior of the increasing incidence and cancer mortality in relation to other causes of death show the need to implement and strengthen prevention and promotion programs, focusing especially on tumors that produce greater morbidity and mortality in the population.

  16. Cancer incidence and mortality in the municipality of Pasto, 1998 – 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yépez, María Clara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Colombia, information on cancer morbidity at the population level is limited. Incidence estimates for most regions are based on mortality data. To improve the validity of these estimates, it is necessary that other population-based cancer registries, as well as Cali, provide cancer risk information.Objective: To describe the incidence and cancer mortality in the municipality of Pasto within the 1998-2007 period.Methodology: The study population belongs to rural and urban areas of the municipality of Pasto. Collection, processing, and systematization of the data were performed according to internationally standardized parameters for population-based cancer registries. The cancer incidence and mortality rates were calculated by gender, age, and tumor site.Results: During the 1998-2007 period 4,986 new cases of cancer were recorded of which 57.7% were in female. 2,503 deaths were presented, 52% in female. Neoplasm-associated infections are the leading cause of cancer morbidity in Pasto: stomach cancer in males and cervical cancer in females.Discussion: Cancer in general is a major health problem for the population of the municipality of Pasto. The overall behavior of the increasing incidence and cancer mortality in relation to other causes of death show the need to implement and strengthen prevention and promotion programs, focusing especially on tumors that produce greater morbidity and mortality in the population

  17. Applications of Machine learning in Prediction of Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths for the female population in both developed and developing countries. In this work we have used the baseline descriptive data about the incidence (new cancer cases) of in situ breast cancer among Wisconsin females. The documented data were from the most recent 12-years period for which data are available. Wiscons in cancer incidence and mortality (deaths due to cancer) that occurred were also considered in this work. Artificial Neural network (ANN) have been successfully applied to problems in the prediction of the number of new cancer cases and mortality. Using artificial intelligence (AI) in this study, the numbers of new cancer cases and mortality that may occur are predicted.

  18. Using mortality data to estimate radiation effects on breast cancer incidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, D. G.; Dinse, G E

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we combine Japanese data on radiation exposure and cancer mortality with U.S. data on cancer incidence and lethality to estimate the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer incidence. The analysis is based on the mathematical relationship between the mortality rate and the incidence and lethality rates, as well as on statistical models that relate Japanese incidence rates to U.S. incidence rates and radiation risk factors. Our approach assumes that the risk of death from causes ...

  19. Analysis of Cancer Mortality among Atomic Bomb Survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture, 1968-1997

    OpenAIRE

    Zhunussova, Tamara; Matsuura, Masaaki; Hayakawa, Norihiko

    2003-01-01

    The Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine has a cohort of atomic bomb survivors, residents of Hiroshima Prefecture, followed up since 1968. An epidemiological project on cancer mortality has been extended by the 5 years from 1992 to 1997. In this paper we aim to evaluate the relative risk pattern of specific cancers by radiation dose over time and during this recent 5 years. We obtained the late effects and temporary changes from cancer sites on mortal ity such as leukemia, al...

  20. Mortality from pancreatic and lymphopoietic cancer among workers in ethylene and propylene chlorohydrin production.

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, G. W.; Lacy, S E; Bodner, K M; Chau, M; Arceneaux, T G; Cartmill, J. B.; Ramlow, J M; Boswell, J M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A previous study reported a fivefold increase in mortality from pancreatic cancer and a threefold increase in lymphopoietic and haematopoietic cancer among 278 men who were assigned to a now dismantled Union Carbide chlorohydrin unit in the Kanawha Valley of West Virginia. There were also significant trends with duration of employment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a comparable increased risk in mortality from pancreatic cancer and lymphopoietic and haematopoi...

  1. Lung Cancer Mortality among Uranium Gaseous Diffusion Plant Workers: A Cohort Study 1952–2004

    OpenAIRE

    LW Figgs

    2013-01-01

    Background: 9%–15% of all lung cancers are attributable to occupational exposures. Reports are disparate regarding elevated lung cancer mortality risk among workers employed at uranium gaseous diffusion plants.Objective: To investigate whether external radiation exposure is associated with lung cancer mortality risk among uranium gaseous diffusion workers.Methods: A cohort of 6820 nuclear industry workers employed from 1952 to 2003 at the Paducah uranium gaseous diffusion plant (PGDP) was ass...

  2. Socioeconomic inequality of cancer mortality in the United States: a spatial data mining approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lam Nina SN; Vinnakota Srinivas

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to demonstrate the use of an association rule mining approach to discover associations between selected socioeconomic variables and the four most leading causes of cancer mortality in the United States. An association rule mining algorithm was applied to extract associations between the 1988–1992 cancer mortality rates for colorectal, lung, breast, and prostate cancers defined at the Health Service Area level and selected socioeconomic varia...

  3. Incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in the Asia-Paciifc region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danny R.Youlden; Susanna M.Cramb; Cheng Har Yip; Peter D.Baade

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of the incidence and mortality of female breast cancer for countries in the Asia-Paciifc region. Methods: Statistical information about breast cancer was obtained from publicly available cancer registry and mortality databases (such as GLOBOCAN), and supplemented with data requested from individual cancer registries. Rates were directly age-standardised to the Segi World Standard population and trends were analysed using joinpoint models. Results: Breast cancer was the most common type of cancer among females in the region, accounting for 18% of all cases in 2012, and was the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths (9%). Although incidence rates remain much higher in New Zealand and Australia, rapid rises in recent years were observed in several Asian countries. Large increases in breast cancer mortality rates also occurred in many areas, particularly Malaysia and hTailand, in contrast to stabilising trends in Hong Kong and Singapore, while decreases have been recorded in Australia and New Zealand. Mortality trends tended to be more favourable for women aged under 50 compared to those who were 50 years or older. Conclusion: It is anticipated that incidence rates of breast cancer in developing countries throughout the Asia-Pacific region will continue to increase. Early detection and access to optimal treatment are the keys to reducing breast cancer-related mortality, but cultural and economic obstacles persist. Consequently, the challenge is to customise breast cancer control initiatives to the particular needs of each country to ensure the best possible outcomes.

  4. Increasing Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality From 1979 to 2010 for US Black Women Aged 20 to 49 Years

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Anne Marie; Yang, Jianing; Armstrong, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Racial disparities in breast cancer mortality persist, and young Black women have higher disease incidence compared with White women. We compared trends in breast cancer mortality for young Black and White women with mortality trends for other common diseases from 1979 to 2010. In contrast to other cancers, ischemic heart disease, and stroke, the breast cancer mortality disparity has widened over the past 30 years, suggesting that unique aspects of disease biology, prevention, and treatment m...

  5. Study of mortality and cancer incidence among the offspring of atomic bomb survivors. 1946-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mortality and cancer incidence among offspring of atomic bomb survivors whose exposure dose was estimated in DS86 (Dose System 1986) were studied as one of means to evaluate the genetic influence of atomic bomb radiation. Big malformation incidence and mortality of subjects with the malformation were also studied. Death and its cause were traced from the city register and certificate of death of 67,586 offspring born in 1946-1984. Cancer was confirmed by certificate of death until 1957 and by cancer registration after 1958. Big malformation and the mortality were traced from clinical diagnostic records at birth or at necropsy, of 9-month examination after birth and of certificate of death. Comparisons were made in general and the offspring's age-related mortalities and in mortality or cancer incidence in relation to the radiation doses the parents had been exposed to. The comparisons showed no statistically significant relationships in those examined parameters. (K.H.)

  6. Estimation and Projection of Lung Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonong ZOU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The aim of this study is to analyze lung cancer epidemiological trend and estimate lung cancer burden in China. Methods Lung cancer age specific mortality and incidence rate ratios in different areas and sexes were obtained from national cancer registration database in 2004 and 2005. Cancer crude mortalities were retrieved from the database of the third national death survey, 2004-2005. Age specific incidence rates of lung cancer were calculated using mortality and M/I ratios. Annual percent change (APC was estimated by log regression model using Joint Point software by analyzing pooled lung cancer incidence data from 10 cancer registries from 1988 to 2005. Results The total estimated new cases and deaths of lung cancer in 2005 were 536 407 and 475 768 which were higher in male than in female. There was 1.63% increase of lung cancer incidence per year from 1988 to 2005, however, the trend showed a slowdown by 0.55% annually after adjusted by age. Conclusion Lung cancer is one of major health issues in China and the burden is getting serious. Ageing population is main cause for increasing incidence and mortality of lung cancer. Effective cancer prevention and control is imperative. Especially, tobacco control should be carried out in statewide.

  7. Diet and mortality from common cancers in Brazil: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosely Sichieri

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available A prospective ecological evaluation of mortality from common malignancies with dietary risk factors and alcohol consumption was carried out among 10 state capitals of Brazil. Regression analysis was used to examine the association of dietary intake with mortality rates of the most common cancers among adults age 30 years and older. Age-adjusted cancer mortality rates varied 2.4 to 3.3 fold across the state capitals. A positive relationship was observed between energy intake and colon, lung, and esophageal cancer (p<=0.02 for each. Colon cancer mortality was positively associated with consumption of total fat, eggs, alcohol, mate tea, cereals, and vegetables (p<=0.01. Lung cancer was positively associated with mate and cereal intake (p<0.05. Stomach cancer was associated with consumption of eggs (p=0.04; and negatively associated with consumption of high fiber foods, fruits, and vitamin A and C (p<=0.05. Esophageal cancer was positively associated with fat intake, mate and cereals (p<=0.05 and negatively associated with vitamin A (p=0.02; prostate cancer was negatively associated with vitamin C (p=0.007. Breast cancer was not associated with any of the factors studied. The marked variation in cancer mortality rates in Brazil may be partially related to the high variation in dietary components or other diet associated factors.

  8. Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia: follow-up for cancer incidence and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined cancer incidence (1986–2008) and mortality (1986–2011) among the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers in comparison with the Estonian male population. The cohort of 4810 men was followed through nationwide population, mortality and cancer registries. Cancer and death risks were measured by standardised incidence ratio (SIR) and standardised mortality ratio (SMR), respectively. Poisson regression was used to analyse the effects of year of arrival, duration of stay and time since return on cancer and death risks. The SIR for all cancers was 1.06 with 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.20 (232 cases). Elevated risks were found for cancers of the pharynx, the oesophagus and the joint category of alcohol-related sites. No clear evidence of an increased risk of thyroid cancer, leukaemia or radiation-related cancer sites combined was apparent. The SMR for all causes of death was 1.02 with 95% confidence interval 0.96–1.08 (1018 deaths). Excess mortality was observed for mouth and pharynx cancer, alcohol-related cancer sites together and suicide. Duration of stay rather than year of arrival was associated with increased mortality. Twenty-six years of follow-up of this cohort indicates no definite health effects attributable to radiation, but the elevated suicide risk has persisted. (paper)

  9. The influence of death-certificate errors on cancer mortality trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past few years, several reports have suggested a recent increase in cancer mortality based on death-certificate diagnoses. To explore the effect of death-certificate errors on temporal trends in cancer mortality rates, we analyzed the data from the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission/Radiation Effects Research Foundation's autopsy program in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This series includes 5886 autopsies conducted between 1961 and 1987. Our analyses were focused on lymphoma, cancer of the breast, neoplasms of the brain, multiple myeloma, and melanoma (172 cases, total) because of concern over reports of their increased mortality. These 172 autopsy cases were referred to as Cancers of Interest. A significant increase in detection rates was observed for these Cancers of Interest primarily due to a large rise in mortality between 1976 and 1987. For the remaining cancers excluding stomach and lung (defined as Other), the pattern was similar to that seen for Cancers of Interest, but the fluctuation over time was not statistically significant. Confirmation rates generally increased with time except for Cancers of Interest. As a measure of bias in mortality rates due to death-certification errors and as a method to quantify under- or overestimation of death-certificate-based mortality rates,an adjustment factor (confirmation rate divided by detection rate) was calculated. The higher the adjustment factor, the greater the need to compensate for underreporting. For Cancers of Interest the adjustment factor decreased dramatically over time, but it did not change significantly for Other cancers. When the adjustment factors for Cancers of Interest and Other were compared, a statistically significant difference was found. For Cancers of Interest, a significant interaction between type of cancer and period was seen. Our findings indicate that considerable care must be shown when interpreting temporal trends in cancer vital statistics. (author)

  10. Selenoprotein P status correlates to cancer-specific mortality in renal cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth A Meyer

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential trace element for selenoprotein biosynthesis. Selenoproteins have been implicated in cancer risk and tumor development. Selenoprotein P (SePP serves as the major Se transport protein in blood and as reliable biomarker of Se status in marginally supplied individuals. Among the different malignancies, renal cancer is characterized by a high mortality rate. In this study, we aimed to analyze the Se status in renal cell cancer (RCC patients and whether it correlates to cancer-specific mortality. To this end, serum samples of RCC patients (n = 41 and controls (n = 21 were retrospectively analyzed. Serum Se and SePP concentrations were measured by X-ray fluorescence and an immunoassay, respectively. Clinical and survival data were compared to serum Se and SePP concentrations as markers of Se status by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. In our patients, higher tumor grade and tumor stage at diagnosis correlated to lower SePP and Se concentrations. Kaplan-Meier analyses indicated that low Se status at diagnosis (SePP<2.4 mg/l, bottom tertile of patient group was associated with a poor 5-year survival rate of 20% only. We conclude that SePP and Se concentrations are of prognostic value in RCC and may serve as additional diagnostic biomarkers identifying a Se deficit in kidney cancer patients potentially affecting therapy regimen. As poor Se status was indicative of high mortality odds, we speculate that an adjuvant Se supplementation of Se-deficient RCC patients might be beneficial in order to stabilize their selenoprotein expression hopefully prolonging their survival. However, this assumption needs to be rigorously tested in prospective clinical trials.

  11. Selenoprotein P status correlates to cancer-specific mortality in renal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Hellmuth A; Endermann, Tobias; Stephan, Carsten; Stoedter, Mette; Behrends, Thomas; Wolff, Ingmar; Jung, Klaus; Schomburg, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for selenoprotein biosynthesis. Selenoproteins have been implicated in cancer risk and tumor development. Selenoprotein P (SePP) serves as the major Se transport protein in blood and as reliable biomarker of Se status in marginally supplied individuals. Among the different malignancies, renal cancer is characterized by a high mortality rate. In this study, we aimed to analyze the Se status in renal cell cancer (RCC) patients and whether it correlates to cancer-specific mortality. To this end, serum samples of RCC patients (n = 41) and controls (n = 21) were retrospectively analyzed. Serum Se and SePP concentrations were measured by X-ray fluorescence and an immunoassay, respectively. Clinical and survival data were compared to serum Se and SePP concentrations as markers of Se status by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. In our patients, higher tumor grade and tumor stage at diagnosis correlated to lower SePP and Se concentrations. Kaplan-Meier analyses indicated that low Se status at diagnosis (SePP<2.4 mg/l, bottom tertile of patient group) was associated with a poor 5-year survival rate of 20% only. We conclude that SePP and Se concentrations are of prognostic value in RCC and may serve as additional diagnostic biomarkers identifying a Se deficit in kidney cancer patients potentially affecting therapy regimen. As poor Se status was indicative of high mortality odds, we speculate that an adjuvant Se supplementation of Se-deficient RCC patients might be beneficial in order to stabilize their selenoprotein expression hopefully prolonging their survival. However, this assumption needs to be rigorously tested in prospective clinical trials. PMID:23056383

  12. Cancer, a disease of aging (part 2) - risk factors for older adult cancer mortality in Switzerland 1991-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidlin, Kurt; Spoerri, Adrian; Egger, Matthias; Zwahlen, Marcel; Stuck, Andreas; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M; Swiss National Cohort

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is disease of aging that disproportionately affects older adults and often results in considerable public health consequences. This study evaluated gender-age-specific cancer mortality risk factors in older adults in Switzerland with attention to the most common types of cancer.

  13. Endometrial and cervical cancer: incidence and mortality among women in the Lodz region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Leśniczak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By the early 21st century the most common cancer of female genitals in Poland was cervical cancer. Now endometrial cancer ranks first. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among women in the Lodz region. Material and methods: Data on the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among inhabitants of the Lodz region were obtained from the National Cancer Registry and Bulletin of Cancer Cases in the Lodz region. The analysis covered ten consecutive years beginning in 2001. Results : The number of new cases reported in 2010 exceeded that observed in 2001 by 181. The standardized incidence rate of endometrial cancer increased by 6.3, while the standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer decreased by 1.4. Conclusions : In the years 2001-2010, the incidence of endometrial cancer increased by 88.3% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 6.5% among inhabitants of the Lodz region. In the years 2001-2010, mortality of endometrial cancer increased by 24.5% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 12.6%. In 2010, the highest crude incidence rates in the Lodz region of both endometrial and cervical cancer at 39.1 were recorded in the district town of Piotrków.

  14. Cancer mortality in Chinese chrysotile asbestos miners: exposure-response relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the relationship of mortality from lung cancer and other selected causes to asbestos exposure levels. METHODS: A cohort of 1539 male workers from a chrysotile mine in China was followed for 26 years. Data on vital status, occupation and smoking were collected from the mine records and individual contacts. Causes and dates of death were further verified from the local death registry. Individual cumulative fibre exposures (f-yr/ml were estimated based on converted dust measurements and working years at specific workshops. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs for lung cancer, gastrointestinal (GI cancer, all cancers and nonmalignant respiratory diseases (NMRD stratified by employment years, estimated cumulative fibre exposures, and smoking, were calculated. Poisson models were fitted to determine exposure-response relationships between estimated fibre exposures and cause-specific mortality, adjusting for age and smoking. RESULTS: SMRs for lung cancer increased with employment years at entry to the study, by 3.5-fold in ≥ 10 years and 5.3-fold in ≥ 20 years compared with <10 years. A similar trend was seen for NMRD. Smokers had greater mortality from all causes than nonsmokers, but the latter also had slightly increased SMR for lung cancer. No excess lung cancer mortality was observed in cumulative exposures of <20 f-yrs/ml. However, significantly increased mortality was observed in smokers at the levels of ≥ 20 f-yrs/ml and above, and in nonsmokers at ≥ 100 f-yrs/ml and above. A similarly clear gradient was also displayed for NMRD. The exposure-response relationships with lung cancer and NMRD persisted in multivariate analysis. Moreover, a clear gradient was shown in GI cancer mortality when age and smoking were adjusted for. CONCLUSION: There were clear exposure-response relationships in this cohort, which imply a causal link between chrysotile asbestos exposure and lung cancer and nonmalignant

  15. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality in Barcelona: 1992–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasarín M Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess trends in cancer mortality by educational level in Barcelona from 1992 to 2003. Methods The study population comprised Barcelona inhabitants aged 20 years or older. Data on cancer deaths were supplied by the system of information on mortality. Educational level was obtained from the municipal census. Age-standardized rates by educational level were calculated. We also fitted Poisson regression models to estimate the relative index of inequality (RII and the Slope Index of Inequalities (SII. All were calculated for each sex and period (1992–1994, 1995–1997, 1998–2000, and 2001–2003. Results Cancer mortality was higher in men and women with lower educational level throughout the study period. Less-schooled men had higher mortality by stomach, mouth and pharynx, oesophagus, larynx and lung cancer. In women, there were educational inequalities for cervix uteri, liver and colon cancer. Inequalities of overall and specific types of cancer mortality remained stable in Barcelona; although a slight reduction was observed for some cancers. Conclusion This study has identified those cancer types presenting the greatest inequalities between men and women in recent years and shown that in Barcelona there is a stable trend in inequalities in the burden of cancer.

  16. Cancer mortality by country of birth, sex, and socioeconomic position in Sweden, 1961-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth. PMID:24682217

  17. Cancer Mortality by Country of Birth, Sex, and Socioeconomic Position in Sweden, 1961–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Gholamreza; Bottai, Matteo; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for standardization. We observed a downward trend in all-site ASRs over the past two decades in men regardless of country of birth but no such trend was found in women. All-site cancer mortality increased with decreasing levels of education regardless of sex and country of birth (p for trend Iceland, Denmark, and Mexico had a similar or smaller risk than women born in Sweden. Cancer-specific mortality analysis showed an increased risk for cervical and lung cancer in both sexes but a decreased risk for colon, breast, and prostate cancer mortality among foreign-born compared with Sweden-born individuals. Further studies are required to fully understand the causes of the observed inequalities in mortality across levels of education and countries of birth. PMID:24682217

  18. Lung Cancer Mortality among Uranium Gaseous Diffusion Plant Workers: A Cohort Study 1952–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LW Figgs

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: 9%–15% of all lung cancers are attributable to occupational exposures. Reports are disparate regarding elevated lung cancer mortality risk among workers employed at uranium gaseous diffusion plants.Objective: To investigate whether external radiation exposure is associated with lung cancer mortality risk among uranium gaseous diffusion workers.Methods: A cohort of 6820 nuclear industry workers employed from 1952 to 2003 at the Paducah uranium gaseous diffusion plant (PGDP was assembled. A job-specific exposure matrix (JEM was used to determine likely toxic metal exposure categories. In addition, radiation film badge dosimeters were used to monitor cumulative external ionizing radiation exposure. International Classification for Disease (ICD codes 9 and 10 were used to identify 147 lung cancer deaths. Logistic and proportional hazards regression were used to estimate lung cancer mortality risk.Results: Lung cancer mortality risk was elevated among workers who experienced external radiation >3.5 mrem and employment duration >12 years.Conclusion: Employees of uranium gaseous diffusion plants carry a higher risk of lung cancer mortality; the mortality is associated with increased radiation exposure and duration of employment.

  19. Cosmic radiation and mortality from cancer among male German airline pilots: extended cohort follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors, potentially leading to increased cancer mortality. This was analysed in a cohort of 6,000 German cockpit crew members. A mortality follow-up for the years 1960–2004 was performed and occupational and dosimetry data were collected for this period. 405 deaths, including 127 cancer deaths, occurred in the cohort. The mortality from all causes and all cancers was significantly lower than in the German population. Total mortality decreased with increasing radiation doses (rate ratio (RR) per 10 mSv: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.79, 0.93), contrasting with a non-significant increase of cancer mortality (RR per 10 mSv: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.20), which was restricted to the group of cancers not categorized as radiogenic in categorical analyses. While the total and cancer mortality of cockpit crew is low, a positive trend of all cancer with radiation dose is observed. Incomplete adjustment for age, other exposures correlated with duration of employment and a healthy worker survivor effect may contribute to this finding. More information is expected from a pooled analysis of updated international aircrew studies.

  20. Forecasting Age-Specific Brain Cancer Mortality Rates Using Functional Data Analysis Models

    OpenAIRE

    Pokhrel, Keshav P.; Tsokos, Chris P.

    2015-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates are considered as a guideline for planning public health strategies and allocating resources. We apply functional data analysis techniques to model age-specific brain cancer mortality trend and forecast entire age-specific functions using exponential smoothing state-space models. The age-specific mortality curves are decomposed using principal component analysis and fit functional time series model with basis functions. Nonparametric smoothing methods are used to...

  1. Breast cancer mortality in Norway after the introduction of mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne Helene; Lynge, Elsebeth; Njor, Sisse H;

    2013-01-01

    An organized mammography screening program was gradually implemented in Norway during the period 1996-2004. Norwegian authorities have initiated an evaluation of the program. Our study focused on breast cancer mortality. Using Poisson regression, we compared the change in breast cancer mortality......, in the four control groups. The ratio between the changes in breast cancer mortality between early and late starting counties was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-1.12). In the evaluation model, this ratio was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.71-1.12). In Norway, where 40% of women used regular mammography prior...... to the program, the implementation of the organized mammography screening program was associated with a statistically nonsignificant decrease in breast cancer mortality of around 11%....

  2. Increased Cancer Mortality Risk for NASA's ISS Astronauts: The Contribution of Diagnostic Radiological Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, C.W.; Picco, C. E.; Gonzalez, S. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Van Baalen, M.; Shavers, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the radiation exposures and risks associated with long-term spaceflight on the International Space Station. NASA's risk model of cancer mortality is also presented.

  3. Assessing uncertainty in published risk estimates using hexavalent chromium and lung cancer mortality as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The National Research Council recommended quantitative evaluation of uncertainty in effect estimates for risk assessment. This analysis considers uncertainty across model forms and model parameterizations with hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and lung cancer mortality a...

  4. Assessing model uncertainty using hexavalent chromium and lung cancer mortality as an example [Abstract 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The National Research Council recommended quantitative evaluation of uncertainty in effect estimates for risk assessment. This analysis considers uncertainty across model forms and model parameterizations with hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and lung cancer mortality a...

  5. Breast cancer mortality in organised mammography screening in Denmark: comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up....

  6. Cancer Mortality in the United States: 1970-1994 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains 1970-1994 cancer mortality information for counties in the United States. Included are death rates, number of deaths, confidence levels, and...

  7. Disparities in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil between 1980 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffo Freitas-Junior

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the temporal trends in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil in its macro-regions and states between 1980 and 2009. METHODS: This was an ecological time-series study using data on breast cancer deaths registered in the Mortality Data System (SIM/WHO and census data on the resident population collected by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE/WHO. Joinpoint regression analyses were used to identify the significant changes in trends and to estimate the annual percentage change (APC in mortality rates. RESULTS: Female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil tended to stabilize from 1994 onward (APC = 0.4%. Considering the Brazilian macro-regions, the annual mortality rates decreased in the Southeast, stabilized in the South and increased in the Northeast, North, and Midwest. Only the states of Sao Paulo (APC = -1.9%, Rio Grande do Sul (APC = -0.8% and Rio de Janeiro (APC = -0.6% presented a significant decline in mortality rates. The greatest increases were found in Maranhao (APC=12%, Paraiba (APC=11.9%, and Piaui (APC=10.9%. CONCLUSION: Although there has been a trend toward stabilization in female breast cancer mortality rates in Brazil, when the mortality rate of each macro-region and state is analyzed individually, considerable inequalities are found, with rate decline or stabilization in states with higher socioeconomic levels and a substantial increase in those with lower socioeconomic levels.

  8. Effect of organized screening on incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, E; Madsen, Mette; Engholm, G

    1989-01-01

    multiplicative Poisson models on county-based incidence and mortality data for women aged 30-59 years in 1963-1982 showed a statistically significant effect of organized screening in reducing both the incidence (RR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.61-0.73), and the mortality (RR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.59-0.78) of cervical cancer...

  9. Impact of preoperative serum albumin on 30-day mortality following surgery for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montomoli, Jonathan; Erichsen, Rune; Antonsen, Sussie;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Surgery is the only potentially curable treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC), but it is hampered by high mortality. Human serum albumin (HSA) below 35 g/L is associated with poor overall prognosis in patients with CRC, but evidence regarding the impact on postoperative mortality is...

  10. Trends in breast cancer mortality in Sweden before and after implementation of mammography screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Haukka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Incidence-based mortality modelling comparing the risk of breast cancer death in screened and unscreened women in nine Swedish counties has suggested a 39% risk reduction in women 40 to 69 years old after introduction of mammography screening in the 1980s and 1990s. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated changes in breast cancer mortality in the same nine Swedish counties using a model approach based on official Swedish breast cancer mortality statistics, robust to effects of over-diagnosis and treatment changes. Using mortality data from the NordCan database from 1974 until 2003, we estimated the change in breast cancer mortality before and after introduction of mammography screening in at least the 13 years that followed screening start. RESULTS: Breast mortality decreased by 16% (95% CI: 9 to 22% in women 40 to 69, and by 11% (95% CI: 2 to 20% in women 40 to 79 years of age. DISCUSSION: Without individual data it is impossible to completely separate the effects of improved treatment and health service organisation from that of screening, which would bias our results in favour of screening. There will also be some contamination of post-screening mortality from breast cancer diagnosed prior to screening, beyond our attempts to adjust for delayed benefit. This would bias against screening. However, our estimates from publicly available data suggest considerably lower benefits than estimates based on comparison of screened versus non-screened women.

  11. Cancer Mortality in Six Lowest Versus Six Highest Elevation Jurisdictions in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, John

    2010-01-01

    Low levels of background radiation exist around us continuously. These levels increase with increasing land elevation, allowing a comparison of low elevations to high elevations in regard to an outcome such as cancer death rates. The present study compares archived cancer mortality rates in six low versus six high elevation jurisdictions. The study also compares mortality rates for all causes, heart disease, and diabetes in low versus high elevation jurisdictions in an effort to see if other ...

  12. Housework Reduces All-Cause and Cancer Mortality in Chinese Men

    OpenAIRE

    Ruby Yu; Jason Leung; Jean Woo

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leisure time physical activity has been extensively studied. However, the health benefits of non-leisure time physical activity, particular those undertaken at home on all-cause and cancer mortality are limited, particularly among the elderly. METHODS: We studied physical activity in relation to all-cause and cancer mortality in a cohort of 4,000 community-dwelling elderly aged 65 and older. Leisure time physical activity (sport/recreational activity and lawn work/yard care/garden...

  13. Breast cancer mortality in organised mammography screening in Denmark: comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up.......To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up....

  14. The impact of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, S M; Nyström, L; Jonsson, H.;

    2012-01-01

    Analysing trends in population breast cancer mortality statistics appears a simple method of estimating the effectiveness of mammographic screening programmes. We reviewed such studies of population-based screening in Europe to assess their value.......Analysing trends in population breast cancer mortality statistics appears a simple method of estimating the effectiveness of mammographic screening programmes. We reviewed such studies of population-based screening in Europe to assess their value....

  15. Incidence of cancer and mortality among workers exposed to mercury vapour in the Norwegian chloralkali industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Ellingsen, D G; Andersen, A; Nordhagen, H P; Efskind, J; Kjuus, H

    1993-01-01

    Incidence of cancer and mortality were studied among 674 men exposed to mercury vapour for more than one year at two chloralkali plants. Mercury excretion in urine had been monitored among the workers at the two plants since 1948 and 1949. An individual cumulative urinary mercury dose was calculated, based on about 20,000 urinary mercury measurements. The incidence of cancer and the mortality were followed up from 1953 to 1989 and 1953 to 1988 respectively. The general Norwegian male populati...

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness and digestive cancer mortality: findings from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS)

    OpenAIRE

    Peel, J. Brent; Sui, Xuemei; Matthews, Charles E.; Adams, Swann A; Hébert, James R; Hardin, James W.; Timothy S Church; Blair, Steven N.

    2009-01-01

    Although higher levels of physical activity are inversely associated with risk of colon cancer, few prospective studies have evaluated overall digestive system cancer mortality in relation to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The authors examined this association among 38,801 men aged 20−88 years and who performed a maximal treadmill exercise test at baseline in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (Dallas, Texas) during 1974−2003. Mortality was assessed over 29 years of follow-up (1974−2003...

  17. Temporal trends in area socioeconomic disparities in breast-cancer incidence and mortality, 1988–2005

    OpenAIRE

    Schootman, Mario; Lian, Min; Deshpande, Anjali D.; Baker, Elizabeth A; Pruitt, Sandi L.; Aft, Rebecca; Jeffe, Donna B.

    2010-01-01

    Since an overarching goal of Healthy People 2010 was to eliminate health disparities, we determined temporal trends in socioeconomic disparities in five breast-cancer indicators (in situ, stage I, lymph-node positive, and locally advanced breast-cancer incidence, and breast-cancer mortality) by county socioeconomic deprivation using 1988–2005 population-based breast-cancer data. Using 1988–2005 data from women aged 40 and older from 200 counties in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Resu...

  18. Evidence Supporting Radiation Hormesis in Atomic Bomb Survivor Cancer Mortality Data

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Mohan

    2012-01-01

    A recent update on the atomic bomb survivor cancer mortality data has concluded that excess relative risk (ERR) for solid cancers increases linearly with dose and that zero dose is the best estimate for the threshold, apparently validating the present use of the linear no threshold (LNT) model for estimating the cancer risk from low dose radiation. A major flaw in the standard ERR formalism for estimating cancer risk from radiation (and other carcinogens) is that it ignores the potential for ...

  19. Residential Racial Composition, Spatial Access to Care, and Breast Cancer Mortality among Women in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Emily; Kramer, Michael R.; Cooper, Hannah L.F.; Thompson, Winifred Wilkins; Arriola, Kimberly R. Jacob

    2011-01-01

    We explored the association between neighborhood residential racial composition and breast cancer mortality among Black and White breast cancer patients in Georgia and whether spatial access to cancer care mediates this association. Participants included 15,256 women living in 15 metropolitan statistical areas in Georgia who were diagnosed with breast cancer between 1999 and 2003. Residential racial composition was operationalized as the percent of Black residents in the census tract. We used...

  20. Risk factors for cancer mortality in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease with many possible causes and is currently a major public health problem in the world. Cancer can occur in individuals of all ages; however the risk of cancer increases with age. It has been estimated that 90-95% of all types of cancer can be attributed to environmental a

  1. Analysis of Mortality of Stomach Cancer in China from 1990-1992

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiudiSun; YaliZhang; LiandiLi; YoulinQiao

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of stom'ach cancer on the Chinese population by epidemiological analysis of its distributional mortality.METHODS Data from 1990-1992 on stomach cancer mortality collected by a sampling survey involved one tenth of the total Chinese population.RESULTS The crude mortality rate of stomach cancer in China was 25.2per 105 (32.8 per 105for males and 17.0 per 105 for females), which comprised23.2% of the total cancer deaths from 1990 to 1992, making stomach cancerthe leading cause of cancer death. The stomach cancer mortality rate ofmales was 1.9 times of that of females. The Chinese mortality rates ofstomach cancer adjusted by the world standard population were 40.8 per105 and 18.6 per 105 for males and females, which were 4.2-7.9 (for males)and 3.8-8.0 (for females) times of those in developed countries. Age-adjusted mortality rates of stomach cancer in China have distinctgeographical differences: form the lowest of 2.5 per 105 to the highest of153.0 per 105 in the 263 selected sites, and 15.3 per 105 in urban areas and24.4 per 105 in rural areas, a difference of 1.6 times.CONCW$10N The prevention and treatment of stomach cancer in L;n~na,especially in the countryside and the under-developed areas in thenorthwest, should be a long-term focus in preventing of cancers of thedigestive system. Urgent measures for prevention and early detection of stomach cancer should be taken.

  2. Cigarette smoking and radiation exposure in relation to cancer mortality, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer mortality among 40,498 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents was examined in relation to cigarette smoking habits and estimated atomic bomb radiation exposure. Relative risk models that are either multiplicative or additive in the two exposures (smoking radiation) were emphasized. Most analyses were directed toward all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, or digestive cancer other than stomach, for which there were, respectively, 1,725, 658, 281, and 338 deaths in the follow-up period of this study. Persons heavily exposed to both cigarette smoke and radiation were found to have significantly lower cancer mortality than multiplcative relative risk models would suggest for all nonhematologic cancer, stomach cancer, and digestive cancer other than stomach. Surprisingly, the relative risk function appeared not only to be submultiplicative for these cancer sites, but to be subadditive as well. The lung cancer relative risk function could not be distinguished from either a multiplicative or an additive form. The number of deaths was sufficient to permit some more detailed study of all nonhematologic cancer mortality: Relative risk functions appeared to be consistent between males and females though a paucity of heavy smoking females limits the precision of this comparison. (author)

  3. Cigarette Smoking and Prostate Cancer Mortality in Four US States, 1999–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshu, Corinne E.; Kanarek, Norma; Navas-Acien, Ana; Richardson, Kelly A.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the United States, prostate cancer mortality rates have declined in recent decades. Cigarette smoking, a risk factor for prostate cancer death, has also declined. It is unknown whether declines in smoking prevalence produced detectable declines in prostate cancer mortality. We examined state prostate cancer mortality rates in relation to changes in cigarette smoking. Methods We studied men aged 35 years or older from California, Kentucky, Maryland, and Utah. Data on state smoking prevalence were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Mortality rates for prostate cancer and external causes (control condition) were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research. The average annual percentage change from 1999 through 2010 was estimated using joinpoint analysis. Results From 1999 through 2010, smoking in California declined by 3.5% per year (−4.4% to −2.5%), and prostate cancer mortality rates declined by 2.5% per year (−2.9% to −2.2%). In Kentucky, smoking declined by 3.0% per year (−4.0% to −1.9%) and prostate cancer mortality rates declined by 3.5% per year (−4.3% to −2.7%). In Maryland, smoking declined by 3.0% per year (−7.0% to 1.2%), and prostate cancer mortality rates declined by 3.5% per year (−4.1% to −3.0%).In Utah, smoking declined by 3.5% per year (−5.6% to −1.3%) and prostate cancer mortality rates declined by 2.1% per year (−3.8% to −0.4%). No corresponding patterns were observed for external causes of death. Conclusion Declines in prostate cancer mortality rates appear to parallel declines in smoking prevalence at the population level. This study suggests that declines in prostate cancer mortality rates may be a beneficial effect of reduced smoking in the population. PMID:27079649

  4. Effect of Population Trends in Body Mass Index on Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Fesinmeyer, Megan Dann; Gulati, Roman; Zeliadt, Steve; Weiss, Noel; Kristal, Alan R.; Etzioni, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent with increasing prostate cancer incidence and declining prostate cancer mortality in the United States, the prevalence of obesity has been increasing steadily. Several studies have reported that obesity is associated with increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality, and it is thus likely that the increase in obesity has increased the burden of prostate cancer. In this study, we assess the potential effect of increasing obesity on prostate cancer incid...

  5. Mortality from cancers of major sites in female radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The female radium dial workers have now experienced significant mortality from cancers other than the bone sarcomas and head carcinomas long known to be radium induced. The relationships of radium exposure to mortality from cancers of the stomach, pancreas, colon, rectum, liver, lung, breast, cervix, and corpus uteri, and from leukemia were studied in 1,285 pre-1930 dial workers. Mortality was compared with that expected from rates for US white females, with and without adjustment for local area mortality rates, and with mortality in dial workers exposed from 1930 to 1949. For the 693 cases whose body content of radium has been measured since 1955, dose-response relationships of cancer to systemic intake of radium and duration of employment were examined. Liver, pancreatic, cervical, and uterine cancers were clearly unrelated to radium exposure. Other cancers of the digestive tract appeared to be indirectly, if at all, associated with work in radium facilities. Lung cancer requires further investigation; inhalation exposures of the dial workers were reviewed. Analyses of the breast cancer data uncovered several observations inconsistent with the previously suggested causal association with radium exposure. Multiple myeloma was also reviewed. A threefold excess risk of death due to multiple myeloma has occurred, but is more closely correlated with duration of employment (a surrogate for external gamma radiation) than with radium intake

  6. Resting heart rate as a prognostic factor for mortality in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Park, Seho; Lim, Sung Mook; Lee, Mi Kyung; Giovannucci, Edward L; Kim, Joo Heung; Kim, Seung Il; Jeon, Justin Y

    2016-09-01

    Although elevated resting heart rate (RHR) has been shown to be associated with mortality in the general population and patients with certain diseases, no study has examined this association in patients with breast cancer. A total of 4786 patients with stage I-III breast cancer were retrospectively selected from the Severance hospital breast cancer registry in Seoul, Korea. RHR was measured at baseline and the mean follow-up time for all patients was 5.0 ± 2.5 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox regression models. After adjustment for prognostic factors, patients in the highest quintile of RHR (≥85 beat per minute (bpm)) had a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.57; 95 %CI 1.05-2.35), breast cancer-specific mortality (HR: 1.69; 95 %CI 1.07-2.68), and cancer recurrence (HR: 1.49; 95 %CI 0.99-2.25), compared to those in the lowest quintile (≤67 bpm). Moreover, every 10 bpm increase in RHR was associated with 15, 22, and 6 % increased risk of all-cause mortality, breast cancer-specific mortality, and cancer recurrence, respectively. However, the association between RHR and cancer recurrence was not statistically significant (p = 0.26). Elevated RHR was associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with breast cancer. The findings from this study suggest that RHR may be used as a prognostic factor for patients with breast cancer in clinical settings. PMID:27544225

  7. Cancer incidence and mortality in the Bucaramanga metropolitan area, 2003-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe, Claudia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Population-based cancer registries (PBCRs make possible to estimate the burden of this condition.Aim: To estimate cancer incidence and mortality rates in the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area (BMA during 2003-2007.Methods: Incident cases of invasive cancer diagnosed during 2003-2007 were identified from the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area PBCR (BMA-PBCR. Population counts and mortality were obtained from the Colombian National Administrative Department of Statistics (NADS. We estimated total and cancer-specific crude incidence and mortality rates by age group and sex, as well as age-standardized (Segi’s world population incidence (ASIR[W] and mortality (ASMR[W] rates. Statistical analyses were conducted using CanReg4 and Stata/IC 10.1.Results: We identified 8,225 new cases of cancer excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (54.3% among women. Of all cases, 6,943 (84.4% were verified by microscopy and 669 (8.1% were detected only by death certificate. ASIR(W for all invasive cancers was 162.8 per 100,000 women and 177.6 per 100,000 men. Breast, cervix, colorectal, stomach and thyroid were the most common types of cancer in women. In men, the corresponding malignancies were prostate, stomach, colorectal, lung and lymphoma. ASMR(W was 84.5 per 100,000 person-years in women and 106.2 per 100,000 person-years in men. Breast and stomach cancer ranked first as causes of death in those groups, respectively. Conclusion: Overall, mortality rates in our region are higher than national estimates possibly due to limited effectiveness of secondary prevention strategies. Our work emphasizes the importance of maintaining high-quality, nationwide PBCRs.

  8. Cancer incidence and mortality in the Bucaramanga metropolitan area, 2003-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Janeth Uribe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Population-based cancer registries (PB­CRs make possible to estimate the burden of this condition. Objetive: To estimate cancer incidence and mortality rates in the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area (BMA during 2003-2007. Methods: Incident cases of invasive cancer diagnosed during 2003-2007 were identified from the Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area PBCR (BMA-PBCR. Population counts and mortality were obtained from the Colombian National Administrative De­partment of Statistics (NADS. We estimated total and cancer-specific crude incidence and mortality rates by age group and sex, as well as age-standardized (Segi’s world population incidence (ASIR[W] and mortality (ASMR[W] rates. Statistical analyses were conducted using CanReg4 and Stata/IC 10.1. Results: We identified 8,225 new cases of cancer excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (54.3% among women. Of all cases, 6,943 (84.4% were verified by microscopy and 669 (8.1% were detected only by death certificate. ASIR(W for all invasive cancers was 162.8 per 100,000 women and 177.6 per 100,000 men. Breast, cervix, colorectal, stomach and thyroid were the most common types of cancer in women. In men, the corresponding malignancies were prostate, stomach, colorectal, lung and lymphoma. ASMR(W was 84.5 per 100,000 person-years in women and 106.2 per 100,000 person-years in men. Breast and stomach cancer ranked first as causes of death in those groups, respectively. Conclusion: Overall, mortality rates in our region are higher than national estimates possibly due to limited effectiveness of secondary prevention strategies. Our work emphasizes the importance of maintaining high-quality, nationwide PBCRs.

  9. An update of cancer mortality among chrysotile asbestos miners in Balangero, northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piolatto, G; Negri, E; La Vecchia, C; Pira, E; Decarli, A; Peto, J

    1990-01-01

    The mortality experience of a cohort of chrysotile miners employed since 1946 in Balangero, northern Italy was updated to the end of 1987 giving a total of 427 deaths out of 27,010 man-years at risk. A substantial excess mortality for all causes (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 149) was found, mainly because of high rates for some alcohol related deaths (hepatic cirrhosis, accidents). For mortality from cancer, however, the number of observed deaths (82) was close to that expected (76.2). The SMR was raised for oral cancer (SMR 231 based on six deaths), cancer of the larynx (SMR 267 based on eight deaths), and pleura (SMR 667 based on two deaths), although the excess only reached statistical significance for cancer of the larynx. Rates were not increased for lung, stomach, or any other type of cancer. No consistent association was seen with duration or cumulative dust exposure (fibre-years) for oral cancer, but the greatest risks for laryngeal and pleural cancer were in the highest category of duration and degree of exposure to fibres. Although part of the excess mortality from laryngeal cancer is probably attributable to high alcohol consumption in this group of workers, the data suggest that exposure to chrysotile asbestos (or to the fibre balangeroite that accounts for 0.2-0.5% of total mass in the mine) is associated with some, however moderate, excess risk of laryngeal cancer and pleural mesothelioma. The absence of excess mortality from lung cancer in this cohort is difficult to interpret. Images PMID:2176805

  10. [Scoring systems for assessment of 30-day mortality after colorectal cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degett, Thea Helene; Iversen, Lene Hjerrild; Gögenur, Ismail

    2015-03-01

    Post-operative mortality from colorectal cancer depends on multiple factors and varies across countries and hospitals. Pre-operative risk prediction can be helpful in surgical decision-making. Several scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of post-operative mortality. The Portsmouth Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality (P-POSSUM) model and a revised Association of Colo-proctology of Great Britan and Ireland (ACPGBI) model are the most accurate predictors in colorectal cancer surgery. No scoring systems have been validated in the Danish population. PMID:25786698

  11. A geographical information system-based analysis of cancer mortality and population exposure to coal mining activities in West Virginia, United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hendryx

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence and mortality rates are high in West Virginia compared to the rest of the United States of America. Previous research has suggested that exposure to activities of the coal mining industry may contribute to elevated cancer mortality, although exposure measures have been limited. This study tests alternative specifications of exposure to mining activity to determine whether a measure based on location of mines, processing plants, coal slurry impoundments and underground slurry injection sites relative to population levels is superior to a previously-reported measure of exposure based on tons mined at the county level, in the prediction of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. To this end, we utilize two geographical information system (GIS techniques – exploratory spatial data analysis and inverse distance mapping – to construct new statistical analyses. Total, respiratory and “other” age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in West Virginia were found to be more highly associated with the GIS-exposure measure than the tonnage measure, before and after statistical control for smoking rates. The superior performance of the GIS measure, based on where people in the state live relative to mining activity, suggests that activities of the industry contribute to cancer mortality. Further confirmation of observed phenomena is necessary with person-level studies, but the results add to the body of evidence that coal mining poses environmental risks to population health in West Virginia.

  12. Time trends of cancer mortality among elderly in Italy, 1970–2008: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidoli Ettore

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aging of the Italian population will unavoidably lead to a growing number of persons diagnosed and living with cancer. A comprehensive description of the burden of cancer mortality among Italian elderly (65-84 years of age in the last four decades has not been carried out yet. Cancer mortality rates were used to describe time trends between 1970-2008. Methods Mortality counts, provided by the Italian National Institute of Statistics, were grouped according to data availability: in quinquennia from 1970-74 through 1995-99, and in 2000-03 and 2006-08 groups. Age-standardized rates (world population were computed by calendar periods while annual percent changes (APCs were computed for elderly and middle aged (35-64 years people for the period 1995-2008. Results The number of cancer deaths in elderly nearly doubled between 1970-74 (31,400 deaths/year in men, and 24,000 in women and 2006-08 (63,000 deaths/year in men, and 42,000 in women. Overall cancer mortality rates peaked during the quinquennia 1985-89 and 1990-94 (about 1,500/100,000 in men and 680 in women and declined thereafter. Throughout 1995-2008 cancer mortality rates decreased by -1.6%/year in men and -0.9%/year in women. These decreases were mainly driven by cancers of the stomach, bladder, prostate, and lung (APC = -3.3%, -2.7%, -2.5%, -2.2%, respectively in men, and by cancers of the stomach, bladder, and breast (APC = -3.5%, -1.9%, -1.1%, respectively in women. Conversely, increases in mortality rates between 1995 and 2008 were recorded for lung cancer (APC = +0.6% in women, cutaneous melanoma (APC = +1.7% in men, and pancreatic cancer (APC = +0.6% in men and +0.9% in women. Conclusions Overall favorable trends in cancer mortality were observed among Italian elderly between 1995 and 2008. Early diagnosis, improved efficacy of anti-cancer treatments and management of comorbidities are the most likely explanations of these positive

  13. Bladder cancer mortality of workers exposed to aromatic amines: a 58-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, Enrico; Piolatto, Giorgio; Negri, Eva; Romano, Canzio; Boffetta, Paolo; Lipworth, Loren; McLaughlin, Joseph K; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2010-07-21

    We previously investigated bladder cancer risk in a cohort of dyestuff workers who were heavily exposed to aromatic amines from 1922 through 1972. We updated the follow-up by 14 years (through 2003) for 590 exposed workers to include more than 30 years of follow-up since last exposure to aromatic amines. Expected numbers of deaths from bladder cancer and other causes were computed by use of national mortality rates from 1951 to 1980 and regional mortality rates subsequently. There were 394 deaths, compared with 262.7 expected (standardized mortality ratio = 1.50, 95% confidence interval = 1.36 to 1.66). Overall, 56 deaths from bladder cancer were observed, compared with 3.4 expected (standardized mortality ratio = 16.5, 95% confidence interval = 12.4 to 21.4). The standardized mortality ratio for bladder cancer increased with younger age at first exposure and increasing duration of exposure. Although the standardized mortality ratio for bladder cancer steadily decreased with time since exposure stopped, the absolute risk remained approximately constant at 3.5 deaths per 1000 man-years up to 29 years after exposure stopped. Excess risk was apparent 30 years or more after last exposure. PMID:20548022

  14. Mortality rate of gastric cancer in the population of Belgrade for 1990-2002 period

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    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worldwide, gastric cancer is the fourth leading cause of diseases, and the second leading cause of cancer deaths. Aim. To analyze the differences between men and women in mortality rate of gastric cancer in Belgrade from 1990−2002. Methods. Mortality rates standardized directly to the „World population“, and regression analysis were used. Results. In Belgrade population, 29.2% out the total number of deaths attributable to cancer were caused by gastric cancer. Gastric cancer was the second most common cause of death among digestive tract cancers. In women, in the period between 1990 and 1993, an average annual decline of mortality was 9.0% (95% confidence interval (CI = 5.9−13.1, and between 1994 and 2002, an average annual increase was 10.3% (CI = 8.4−12.6. Mortality rate series of gastric cancer in men did not fit any of the usual trend functions. The male/female gastric cancer mortality ratio was 1.7 : 1. Mortality rates for gastric cancer rose with age in both sexes and they were highest in the age group of 70 and more years. From 1990−2002, in both sexes aged 70 years and more, mortality from gastric cancer rose by 67.2% (CI = 58.0−76.4 in men and by 69.6% (CI = 60.6−78.6 in women. During the same period, the death rates in men decreased by 75.9 % (CI = 67.5−84.4 in the age group of 30−39 years, and by 48.1% (CI = 38.4−57.9 in women aged 50−59 years. In both sexes mortality rate series of all other age groups did not fit any of the usual trend functions. Conclusions. The increase in mortality rate of gastric in women over the past few years, showed the necessity of instituting primary and secondary preventive measures.

  15. Social determinants of Black-White disparities in breast cancer mortality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A; Pai, Manacy

    2008-11-01

    Despite the recent decline in breast cancer mortality, African American women continue to die from breast cancer at higher rates than do White women. Beyond the fact that breast cancer tends to be a more biologically aggressive disease in African American than in White women, this disparity in breast cancer mortality also reflects social barriers that disproportionately affect African American women. These barriers hinder cancer prevention and control efforts and modify the biological expression of disease. The present review focuses on delineating social, economic, and cultural factors that are potentially responsible for Black-White disparities in breast cancer mortality. This review was guided by the social determinants of health disparities model, a model that identifies barriers associated with poverty, culture, and social injustice as major causes of health disparities. These barriers, in concert with genetic, biological, and environmental factors, can promote differential outcomes for African American and White women along the entire breast cancer continuum, from screening and early detection to treatment and survival. Barriers related to poverty include lack of a primary care physician, inadequate health insurance, and poor access to health care. Barriers related to culture include perceived invulnerability, folk beliefs, and a general mistrust of the health care system. Barriers related to social injustice include racial profiling and discrimination. Many of these barriers are potentially modifiable. Thus, in addition to biomedical advancements, future efforts to reduce disparities in breast cancer mortality should address social barriers that perpetuate disparities among African American and White women in the United States. PMID:18990731

  16. Rapid Reduction in Breast Cancer Mortality With Inorganic Arsenic in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan H. Smith

    2014-11-01

    Interpretation: We found biologically plausible major reductions in breast cancer mortality during high exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water which could not be attributed to bias or confounding. We recommend clinical trial assessment of inorganic arsenic in the treatment of advanced breast cancer.

  17. News Note: Screening for ovarian cancer shows no reduction in mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simultaneous screening with a blood test for the biomarker CA-125 along with a transvaginal ultrasound (TVU), compared with usual care, did not reduce ovarian cancer mortality in American women. These results, from a National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored trial, also show that diagnostic evaluation following a false-positive result was associated with potentially harmful complications.

  18. Evaluation of cancer mortality in a cohort of workers exposed to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this dissertation was to re-analyze existing data to explore methodologic approaches that may determine whether excess cancer mortality in the ORNL cohort can be explained by time-related factors not previously considered; grouping of cancer outcomes; selection bias due to choice of method selected to incorporate an empirical induction period; or the type of statistical model chosen

  19. Evaluation of cancer mortality in a cohort of workers exposed to low-level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lea, C.S.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to re-analyze existing data to explore methodologic approaches that may determine whether excess cancer mortality in the ORNL cohort can be explained by time-related factors not previously considered; grouping of cancer outcomes; selection bias due to choice of method selected to incorporate an empirical induction period; or the type of statistical model chosen.

  20. Evaluating the disparity of female breast cancer mortality among racial groups - a spatiotemporal analysis

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    Jacobson Holly

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature suggests that the distribution of female breast cancer mortality demonstrates spatial concentration. There remains a lack of studies on how the mortality burden may impact racial groups across space and over time. The present study evaluated the geographic variations in breast cancer mortality in Texas females according to three predominant racial groups (non-Hispanic White, Black, and Hispanic females over a twelve-year period. It sought to clarify whether the spatiotemporal trend might place an uneven burden on particular racial groups, and whether the excess trend has persisted into the current decade. Methods The Spatial Scan Statistic was employed to examine the geographic excess of breast cancer mortality by race in Texas counties between 1990 and 2001. The statistic was conducted with a scan window of a maximum of 90% of the study period and a spatial cluster size of 50% of the population at risk. The next scan was conducted with a purely spatial option to verify whether the excess mortality persisted further. Spatial queries were performed to locate the regions of excess mortality affecting multiple racial groups. Results The first scan identified 4 regions with breast cancer mortality excess in both non-Hispanic White and Hispanic female populations. The most likely excess mortality with a relative risk of 1.12 (p = 0.001 occurred between 1990 and 1996 for non-Hispanic Whites, including 42 Texas counties along Gulf Coast and Central Texas. For Hispanics, West Texas with a relative risk of 1.18 was the most probable region of excess mortality (p = 0.001. Results of the second scan were identical to the first. This suggested that the excess mortality might not persist to the present decade. Spatial queries found that 3 counties in Southeast and 9 counties in Central Texas had excess mortality involving multiple racial groups. Conclusion Spatiotemporal variations in breast cancer mortality affected racial

  1. Gastric cancer mortality trends in Spain, 1976-2005, differences by autonomous region and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of oncologic death worldwide. One of the most noteworthy characteristics of this tumor's epidemiology is the marked decline reported in its incidence and mortality in almost every part of the globe in recent decades. This study sought to describe gastric cancer mortality time trends in Spain's regions for both sexes. Mortality data for the period 1976 through 2005 were obtained from the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Cases were identified using the International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th revision (codes 151 and C16, respectively). Crude and standardized mortality rates were calculated by geographic area, sex, and five-year period. Joinpoint regression analyses were performed to ascertain whether changes in gastric cancer mortality trends had occurred, and to estimate the annual percent change by sex and geographic area. Gastric cancer mortality decreased across the study period, with the downward trend being most pronounced in women and in certain regions situated in the interior and north of mainland Spain. Across the study period, there was an overall decrease of 2.90% per annum among men and 3.65% per annum among women. Generally, regions in which the rate of decline was sharpest were those that had initially registered the highest rates. However, the rate of decline was not constant throughout the study period: joinpoint analysis detected a shift in trend for both sexes in the early 1980s. Gastric cancer mortality displayed in both sexes a downward trend during the study period, both nationally and regionally. The different trend in rates in the respective geographic areas translated as greater regional homogeneity in gastric cancer mortality by the end of the study period. In contrast, rates in women fell more than did those in men. The increasing differences between the sexes could indicate that some risk factors may be modifying the sex-specific pattern of this tumor

  2. Using mortality data to estimate radiation effects on breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we combine Japanese data on radiation exposure and cancer mortality with U.S. data on cancer incidence and lethality to estimate the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer incidence. The analysis is based on the mathematical relationship between the mortality rate and the incidence and lethality rates, as well as on statistical models that relate Japanese incidence rates to U.S. incidence rates and radiation risk factors. Our approach assumes that the risk of death from causes other than the cancer does not depend on whether or not the cancer is present, and among individuals with the cancer, the risk of death attributable to the cancer is the same in Japan and the U.S. and is not affected by radiation exposure. In particular, we focus on the incidence of breast cancer in Japanese women and how this incidence is affected by radiation risk factors. The analysis uses Japanese exposure and mortality data from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation study of atomic bomb survivors and U.S. incidence and lethality data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry. Even without Japanese incidence data, we obtain reasonable estimates of the incidence of breast cancer in unexposed Japanese women and identify the radiation risk factors that affect this incidence. Our analysis demonstrates that the age at exposure is an important risk factor, but that the incidence of breast cancer is not affected by the city of residence (Nagasaki versus Hiroshima) or the time since exposure

  3. A novel web informatics approach for automated surveillance of cancer mortality trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourassi, Georgia; Yoon, Hong-Jun; Xu, Songhua

    2016-06-01

    Cancer surveillance data are collected every year in the United States via the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). General trends are closely monitored to measure the nation's progress against cancer. The objective of this study was to apply a novel web informatics approach for enabling fully automated monitoring of cancer mortality trends. The approach involves automated collection and text mining of online obituaries to derive the age distribution, geospatial, and temporal trends of cancer deaths in the US. Using breast and lung cancer as examples, we mined 23,850 cancer-related and 413,024 general online obituaries spanning the timeframe 2008-2012. There was high correlation between the web-derived mortality trends and the official surveillance statistics reported by NCI with respect to the age distribution (ρ=0.981 for breast; ρ=0.994 for lung), the geospatial distribution (ρ=0.939 for breast; ρ=0.881 for lung), and the annual rates of cancer deaths (ρ=0.661 for breast; ρ=0.839 for lung). Additional experiments investigated the effect of sample size on the consistency of the web-based findings. Overall, our study findings support web informatics as a promising, cost-effective way to dynamically monitor spatiotemporal cancer mortality trends. PMID:27044930

  4. Association between Metformin Therapy and Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ting; Yang, Yuan; Liu, Shengchun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Metformin may be associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the effect of metformin intake on breast cancer risk and mortality. Methods We performed a PubMed and EMbase search for all available studies that described the risk of breast cancer and all-cause mortality in relation to the use of metformin among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pooled relative risks (RRs) were determined using a random effects model to assess the streng...

  5. The suitability of using death certificates as a data source for cancer mortality assessement in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ulus, Tumer; Yurtseven, Eray; Cavdar, Sabanur; Erginoz, Ethem; Erdogan, M. Sarper

    2012-01-01

    Aim To compare the quality of the 2008 cancer mortality data of the Istanbul Directorate of Cemeteries (IDC) with the 2008 data of International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK), and discuss the suitability of using this databank for estimations of cancer mortality in the future. Methods We used 2008 and 2010 death records of the IDC and compared it to TUIK and IARC data. Results According to the WHO statistics, in Turkey in 2008 there were 67 255 ...

  6. Cancer Mortality by Country of Birth, Sex, and Socioeconomic Position in Sweden, 1961–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamreza Abdoli; Matteo Bottai; Tahereh Moradi

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, cancer deaths accounted for more than 15% of all deaths worldwide, and this fraction is estimated to rise in the coming years. Increased cancer mortality has been observed in immigrant populations, but a comprehensive analysis by country of birth has not been conducted. We followed all individuals living in Sweden between 1961 and 2009 (7,109,327 men and 6,958,714 women), and calculated crude cancer mortality rates and age-standardized rates (ASRs) using the world population for stan...

  7. Cancer mortality in the commune of Pargny sur Saulx in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive thorium wastes were found in April 1997 at the former industrial site of 'Orflam-Plast' in the commune of Pargny sur Saulx in the Northeast of France, where industrial activity began in 1934. On this site, between 1934 and 1970, cerium for lighter stones and thorium nitrate were extracted from imported monazite sand, a mineral containing elevated levels of natural radioactivity. We decided to study cancer mortality in the surrounding population. We found an excess of mortality due to lung and bladder cancer in the commune of Pargny sur Saulx and its neighbours, between 1968 and 1994. This excess did not seem to be linked to the river of Saulx which was a possible source of contamination. We conclude that a cancer incidence study of the former workers of this industrial site is necessary in order to investigate the role of natural radioactivity from monazite processing in the risk of cancer mortality among this workforce. (author)

  8. Diabetes but not insulin is associated with higher colon cancer mortality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chin-Hsiao Tseng

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate whether diabetic patients had a higher risk of colon cancer mortality and its associated risk factors.METHODS:The sex-specific crude and age-standard-ized (to the 2000 World Health Organization population) mortality rates of colon cancer in the Taiwanese general population were first calculated from 1995 to 2006.The trends were evaluated by linear regression.A total of 113 347 diabetic men and 131 573 diabetic women aged ≥ 25 years at recruitment from 1995 to 1998 were followed up until the end of 2006.Age/sexspecific colon cancer mortality rate ratios were calculated comparing the mortality rates of the diabetic patients with the average mortality rates of the general population within 12 years (1995-2006).A sub-cohort of diabetic patients (42 260 men and 49 405 women) was interviewed using a baseline questionnaire and Cox's regression was used to evaluate the risk factors for colon cancer mortality in these diabetic patients.RESULTS:The crude and age-standardized trends of colon cancer mortality from 1995 to 2006 increased significantly for both sexes in the general population.A total of 641 diabetic men and 573 diabetic women died of colon cancer,with a mortality rate of 74.4 and 54.3 per 100 000 person-years,respectively.Mortality rate ratios [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] showed a significantly higher risk of mortality from colon cancer for the diabetic patients compared to the general population,with the magnitude increasing with decreasing age:1.65 (1.40-1.95),2.01 (1.78-2.27),2.75 (2.36-3.21) and 5.69 (4.65-6.96) for ≥ 75,65-74,55-64 and 25-54 years old,respectively,for men; and 1.46 (1.24-1.72),2.09 (1.84-2.38),2.67 (2.27-3.14) and 3.05 (2.29-4.06),respectively,for women.Among the sub-cohort of diabetic patients who had been interviewed with the baseline questionnaire,including information on age,sex,diabetes duration,diabetes type,body mass index,smoking,insulin use and area of residence,age and smoking were significantly

  9. A Systematic Review of Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Pacific Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Josephine; Souares, Y; Hoy, D;

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first systematic literature review of cervical cancer incidence and mortality as well as human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype prevalence among women with cervical cancer in the Pacific Island countries and territories. The cervical cancer burden in the Pacific Region....... There are only few comprehensive studies examining the epidemiology of cervical cancer in this region and no published data have hitherto described the current cervical cancer prevention initiatives in this region....... is substantial, with age standardized incidence rates ranging from 8.2 to 50.7 and age standardized mortality rate from 2.7 to 23.9 per 100,000 women per year. The HPV genotype distribution suggests that 70-80% of these cancers could be preventable by the currently available bi- or quadrivalent HPV vaccines...

  10. Urban-rural differences in male cancer incidence and mortality in the Umbria region of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Stracci

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to verify the existence of different rates of cancer incidence and mortality in males in the urban and rural populations of Umbria and to formulate hypotheses as to why this occurs. Methods: Directly age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIR and age-adjusted death rates (AADR were calculated for 1998-2002 and the expected number of rural cases (standardized incidence ratios-SIRs and standardized mortality ratios-SMRs was determined by indirect standardization using urban incidence and mortality. Results: Urban zones have higher AAIR’s for the most common cancer sites. Significantly lower SIRs, in rural areas, were shown for skin melanoma, prostate and bladder cancers and a significantly lower SIR was also determined for the combination of all cancer sites. Lower AADRs in rural areas were demonstrated for the most common cancer sites and significant low SMRs were shown for lung cancer and skin melanoma. Prostate cancer incidence is significantly higher in urban areas whereas the mortality rate is slightly higher in rural municipalities probably due to the effects of the opportunistic screening widely available in Umbria, particularly in zones near diagnostic services. A very similar pattern was found for urinary bladder cancer; this could be related to the association between prostate and bladder cancer sites. Both incidence and mortality from melanoma are significantly lower in rural areas, this may be due to the difficulty in accessing diagnostic services or/and to different occupational exposure patterns. Conclusion: It would appear in Umbria that differences in health services utilization continue to exist. In particular, our results are compatible with a lower diffusion of preventive activities for prostate cancer and skin melanoma in rural areas.

  11. Childhood cancer mortality in relation to the St Lucie nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An unusual county-wide excess of childhood cancers of brain and other nervous tissue in the late 1990s in St Lucie County, Florida, prompted the Florida Department of Health to conduct a case-control study within the county assessing residential chemical exposures. No clear associations were found, but claims were then made that the release of radioactive substances such as strontium 90 from the St Lucie nuclear power station, which began operating in 1976, might have played a role. To test the plausibility of this hypothesis, we extended by 17 years a previous study of county mortality conducted by the National Cancer Institute. Rates of total cancer, leukaemia and cancer of brain and other nervous tissue in children and across all ages in St Lucie County were evaluated with respect to the years before and after the nuclear power station began operation and contrasted with rates in two similar counties in Florida (Polk and Volusia). Over the prolonged period 1950-2000, no unusual patterns of childhood cancer mortality were found for St Lucie County as a whole. In particular, no unusual patterns of childhood cancer mortality were seen in relation to the start-up of the St Lucie nuclear power station in 1976. Further, there were no significant differences in mortality between the study and comparison counties for any cancer in the time period after the power station was in operation. Relative rates for all childhood cancers and for childhood leukaemia were higher before the nuclear facility began operating than after, while rates of brain and other nervous tissue cancer were slightly lower in St Lucie County than in the two comparison counties for both time periods. Although definitive conclusions cannot be drawn from descriptive studies, these data provide no support for the hypothesis that the operation of the St Lucie nuclear power station has adversely affected the cancer mortality experience of county residents

  12. Cohort study examining tamoxifen adherence and its relationship to mortality in women with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    McCowan, C.; Shearer, J.; Donnan, P T; Dewar, J.A.; Crilly, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Fahey, T P

    2008-01-01

    Increasing duration of tamoxifen therapy improves survival in women with breast cancer but the impact of adherence to tamoxifen on mortality is unclear. This study investigated whether women prescribed tamoxifen after surgery for breast cancer adhered to their prescription and whether adherence influenced survival. A retrospective cohort study of all women with incident breast cancer in the Tayside region of Scotland between 1993 and 2002 was linked to encashed prescription records to calcula...

  13. An analysis: Colon cancer mortality in Tianjin, China, from 1981 to 2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao-Gang Wang; Ke-Xin Chen; Guang-Lin Wu; Feng-Ju Song

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the data from Tianjin Cancer Registry of morality due to colon cancer from 1981 to 2000 in Tianjin,China.METHODS: Tumors diagnosed in this study were coded according to ICD-9. Mortality rates were calculated by sex and calendar year of diagnosis.RESULTS: Seventy point four percent of colon cancer deaths occurred in the age group of 55-79 years and the mortality rate reached its peak in the age group of 75-80 years.The average age at death was 64.10 years. An ascending trend was observed in the mean age of death due to colon cancer from 1981 through 2000. However, as for the sex ratio, there was no clear trend exhibited. During 1981-2000, the total number of deaths was 2147, 1041males and 1106 females. The mean mortality rate of colon cancer was 3.04/100 000. The mortality caused by colon cancer ascended from 1981 to 2000.CONCLUSION: The epidenic trend of colon cancer in Tianjin and its risk factors and prevention should be studied further.

  14. Relation between breast cancer mortality and screening effectiveness: systematic review of the mammography trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2011-01-01

    The mammography screening trials have shown varying results. This could be because screening was better in some trials than in others at advancing the time of diagnosis. If so, more cancers would be identified in such trials relative to the control group, and fewer of the cancers would have reached...... an advanced stage. I performed a systematic review of the mammography screening trials using metaregression. Finding many cancers was not related to the size of the reduction in breast cancer mortality (p = 0.19 after seven and p = 0.73 after 13 years of follow-up). In contrast, finding few cancers...

  15. Survival and mortality from oral cancer by anatomical location. A narrative review.

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Candia; Alejandra Fernández; Kim Kraemer

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is a global problem. It is the sixth most frequent cancer among all types of cancer and can affect different areas of the oral cavity. Survival rates are influenced by various factors, such as: histological type, tumor size, presence of regional and/or distance metastases, and the biological status of the patient. According to WHO, survival rate from oral cancer at 5 years is 53-56%. The objective of this review is to describe the survival and mortality rate from oral cancer by a...

  16. Socioeconomic differentials and mortality from colorectal cancer in large cities in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Viviane Gomes; Meira, Karina Cardoso; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the mortality pattern of colorectal cancer according to the social development profile of the large Brazilian cities. This was an ecological study that used as units of analysis Brazilian municipalities that were considered to be large (i.e. over 100,000 inhabitants). The social indicators adopted were obtained from the Atlas of Human Development in Brazil. Mortality data came from the Mortality Information System (MIS), represented by codes C18, C19, and C20. For data analysis, municipalities were characterised according to the indicator profile used by multivariate classification cluster analysis. It was observed that the Southeast, South, and Midwest regions concentrated over 90% of cities in the group of more developed municipalities, while the North and Northeast regions were represented by 60% of cities in the group of less developed municipalities. The mortality pattern of colorectal cancer in both groups was different, with a higher average mortality rate from colorectal cancer for populations living in cities from the more developed group (p = 0.02). The mortality rate from this cancer was shown to be directly proportional to the Municipal Human Developlemnt Index (MHDI) and inversely proportional to the inequality indicator (p < 0.001); therefore the highest means were observed among the municipalities with better socioeconomic conditions. It is important to consider social disparities to ensure equity in healthcare policy management. PMID:26823683

  17. External validation of nomograms for predicting cancer-specific mortality in penile cancer patients treated with definitive surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Yao Zhu; Wei-Jie Gu; Ding-Wei Ye; Xu-Dong Yao; Shi-Lin Zhang; Bo Dai; Hai-Liang Zhang; Yi-Jun Shen

    2014-01-01

    Using a population-based cancer registry, Thuret et al. developed 3 nomograms for estimating cancer-specific mortality in men with penile squamous cell carcinoma. In the initial cohort, only 23.0% of the patients were treated with inguinal lymphadenectomy and had pN stage. To generalize the prediction models in clinical practice, we evaluated the performance of the 3 nomograms in a series of penile cancer patients who were treated with definitive surgery. Clinicopathologic information was obt...

  18. Trends in corrected lung cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; de Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier; de Moura, Lenildo; Lana, Gustavo C; Azevedo, Gulnar; França, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the trend in cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions before and after correction for underreporting of deaths and redistribution of ill-defined and nonspecific causes. METHODS The study used data of deaths from lung cancer among the population aged from 30 to 69 years, notified to the Mortality Information System between 1996 and 2011, corrected for underreporting of deaths, non-registered sex and age , and causes with ill-defined or garbage codes according to sex, age, and region. Standardized rates were calculated by age for raw and corrected data. An analysis of time trend in lung cancer mortality was carried out using the regression model with autoregressive errors. RESULTS Lung cancer in Brazil presented higher rates among men compared to women, and the South region showed the highest death risk in 1996 and 2011. Mortality showed a trend of reduction for males and increase for women. CONCLUSIONS Lung cancer in Brazil presented different distribution patterns according to sex, with higher rates among men and a reduction in the mortality trend for men and increase for women. PMID:27355467

  19. Air pollution in relation to US cancer mortality rates: an ecological study; likely role of carbonaceous aerosols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.B. [Sunlight Nutrients & Health Research Center SUNARC, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2009-09-15

    There are large geographical variations of cancer mortality rates in the United States. In a series of ecological studies in the U.S., a number of risk-modifying factors including alcohol, diet, ethnic background, poverty, smoking, solar ultraviolet-B (UVB), and urban/rural residence have been linked to many types of cancer. Air pollution also plays a role in cancer risk. Cancer mortality rates averaged by state for two periods, 1950-1969 and 1970-1994, were used in multiple-linear regression analyses with respect to many, of the risk-modifying factors mentioned with the addition of an air pollution index in the form of a map of acid deposition in 1985. This index is correlated with emissions from coal-fired power plants. In addition, lung cancer mortality rates for five-Year periods from 1970-74 to 1990-94 were used in multiple linear regression analyses including air pollution and cigarette smoking. The air pollution index correlated with respiratory, digestive tract, urogenital, female, blood and skin cancer. Air pollution was estimated to account for 5% of male cancer deaths and 3% of female cancer deaths between 1970-1994. Solar UVB was inversely correlated with all these types of cancer except the respirator, skin and cervical cancer. Cigarette smoking was directly linked to lung cancer but not to other types of cancer in this study. Combustion of coal, diesel fuel and wood is the likely source of air pollution that affects cancer risk on a large scale, through production of black carbon aerosols with adsorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  20. Trends in lung cancer mortality in South Africa: 1995-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kielkowski Danuta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In developing countries, data on lung cancer mortality are scarce. Methods Using South Africa's annual mortality and population estimates data, we calculated lung cancer age-standardised mortality rates for the period 1995 to 2006. The WHO world standard population was used as the reference population. Scatter plots and regression models were used to assess linear trends in mortality rates. To better characterise emerging trends, regression models were also partitioned for defined periods. Results Lung cancer caused 52,217 deaths during the study period. There were 4,525 deaths for the most recent year (2006, with men accounting for 67% of deaths. For the entire South African population, the age-standardised mortality rate of 24.3 per 100,000 persons in 1995 was similar to the rate of 23.8 per 100,000 persons in 2006. Overall, there was no significant decline in lung cancer mortality in South Africa from 1995 to 2006 (slope = -0.15, p = 0.923. In men, there was a statistically non-significant annual decline of 0.21 deaths per 100,000 persons (p = 0.433 for the study period. However, from 2001 to 2006, the annual decline of 1.29 deaths per 100,000 persons was statistically significant (p = 0.009. In women, the mortality rate increased significantly at an annual rate of 0.19 per 100,000 persons (p = 0.043 for the study period, and at a higher rate of 0.34 per 100,000 persons (p = 0.007 from 1999 to 2006. Conclusion The more recent declining lung cancer mortality rate in men is welcome but the increasing rate in women is a public health concern that warrants intervention. Smoking intervention policies and programmes need to be strengthened to further reduce lung cancer mortality in men and to address the increasing rates in women.

  1. Major reduction in 30-day mortality after elective colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lene Hjerrild; Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Laurberg, Søren

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For years, the outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery has been inferior in Denmark compared to its neighbouring countries. Several strategies have been initiated in Denmark to improve CRC prognosis. We studied whether there has been any effect on postoperative mortality based on the...... information from a national database. METHODS: Patients who underwent elective major surgery for CRC in the period 2001-2011 were identified in the national Danish Colorectal Cancer Group database. Thirty-day mortality rates were calculated and factors with impact on mortality were identified using logistic......, American Society of Anesthesiologists score ≥ II, tumor located in the colon, palliative intent, outcome of surgery "not cured," and open surgical approach. Additionally, 3-month mortality of all 37,022 CRC patients, irrespective of surgical treatment, decreased significantly from 15.8 to 11.3 % during the...

  2. Increased 30-day mortality in patients with diabetes undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransgaard, T; Thygesen, L C; Gögenur, I

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The primary aim of the study was to determine whether preexisting diabetes is associated with increased 30-day mortality after curative resection of colorectal cancer (CRC). The association between antidiabetic treatment and 30-day mortality was also examined. METHOD: Patients diagnosed with...... CRC between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2012 were identified through the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group National Clinical Database (DCCG). The Danish National Patient Register (NPR) collated all hospital contacts in Denmark and the diagnosis of diabetes was identified by combining NPR data with the...... 3250 had preexisting diabetes. The 30-day mortality was significantly increased in patients with CRC and preexisting diabetes (adjusted hazard ratio 1.17, 95% CI 1.01-1.35, P = 0.03). The type of antidiabetic medication used was not associated with 30-day mortality. CONCLUSION: Preexisting diabetes was...

  3. Portable stove use is associated with lower lung cancer mortality risk in lifetime smoky coal users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosgood, H.D.; Chapman, R.; Shen, M.; Blair, A.; Chen, E.; Zheng, T.; Lee, K.M.; He, X.; Lan, Q. [NCI, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Domestic fuel combustion from cooking and heating, to which about 3 billion people worldwide are exposed, is associated with increased lung cancer risk. Lung cancer incidence in Xuanwei is the highest in China, and the attributable risk of lung cancer from unvented smoky coal burning is greater than 90%. To evaluate any lung cancer mortality reduction after changing from unvented stoves to portable stoves, we used lifetime smoky coal users in a retrospective cohort of all farmers born during 1917-1951 and residing in Xuanwei in 1976. Of the 42 422 enrolled farmers, 4054 lifetime smoky coal users changed to portable stoves, 4364 did not change, and 1074 died of lung cancer. Lung cancer morality associated with stove change was assessed by product-limit survival curves and multivariate Cox regression models. Both men (P < 0.0001) and women (P < 0.0001) who changed to portable stoves had a significantly increased probability of survival compared with those who did not change. Portable stoves were associated with decreased risk of lung cancer mortality in male participants (hazard ratio (HR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46-0.82) and female participants (HR 0.41, 95% CI 0.29-0.57). Portable stove use is associated with reduced lung cancer mortality risk, highlighting a cost-effective intervention that could substantially benefit health in developing countries.

  4. Mortality and cancer morbidity in United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1979, in response to concern about the effects of occupational radiation doses, the UKAEA commissioned the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine to carry out an epidemiological study of the health of its workforce. Two papers have been published; the first dealt with the mortality of AEA workers up to 1979 and the second covered mortality to 1986 and cancer morbidity to 1984. This report is a fuller account of the data presented in the latter paper. (author)

  5. Bayesian analysis of esophageal cancer mortality in the presence of misclassification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Amin Pourhoseingholi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Esophageal cancer (EC is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Mortality is a familiar projection that addresses the burden of cancers. With regards to cancer mortality, data are important and used to monitor the effects of screening programs, earlier diagnosis and other prognostic factors. But according to the Iranian death registry, about 20% of death statistics are still recorded in misclassified categories. The aim of this study is to estimate EC mortality in the Iranian population, using a Bayesian approach in order to revise this misclassification.

    Methods: We analyzed National death Statistics reported by the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education from 1995 to 2004. ECs [ICD-9; C15] were expressed as annual mortality rates/100,000, overall, by sex, by age group and age standardized rate (ASR. The Bayesian approach was used to correct and account for misclassification effects in Poisson count regression, with a beta prior employed to estimate the mortality rate of EC in age and sex groups.

    Results: According to the Bayesian analysis, there were between 20 to 30 percent underreported deaths in mortality records related to EC, and the rate of mortality from EC has increased through recent years.

    Conclusions: Our findings suggested a substantial undercount of EC mortality in the Iranian population. So
    policy makers who determine research and treatment priorities based on reported death rates should notice of this underreported data.

  6. Lung cancer mortality in nickel/chromium platers, 1946-95

    OpenAIRE

    Sorahan, T; Burges, D. C.; Hamilton, L.; Harrington, J M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate mortality from lung cancer in nickel/chromium platers. METHODS: The mortality experience of a cohort of 1762 chrome workers (812 men, 950 women) from a large electroplating and light engineering plant in the Midlands, United Kingdom, was investigated for the period 1946-95. All subjects were first employed in chrome work at the plant during the period 1946-75, and had at least six months employment in jobs associated with exposure to chromic acid mist (hexaval...

  7. Cancer mortality in a Chinese population exposed to hexavalent chromium in drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, J.J.; Sedman, R.M.; Reynolds, S.D.; Sherman, C.D.; Li, L.-H.; Howd, R.A.; Sandy, M.S.; Zeise, L.; Alexeeff, G.V.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1987, investigators in Liaoning Province, China, reported that mortality rates for all cancer, stomach cancer, and lung cancer in 1970-1978 were higher in villages with hexavalent chromium (Cr)-contaminated drinking water than in the general population. The investigators reported rates, but did not report statistical measures of association or precision. METHODS: Using reports and other communications from investigators at the local Jinzhou Health and Anti-Epidemic Station, we obtained data on Cr contamination of groundwater and cancer mortality in 9 study regions near a ferrochromium factory. We estimated:(1) person-years at risk in the study regions, based on census and population growth rate data, (2) mortality counts, based on estimated person-years at risk and previously reported mortality rates, and (3) rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The all-cancer mortality rate in the combined 5 study regions with Cr-contaminated water was negligibly elevated in comparison with the rate in the 4 combined study regions without contaminated water (rate ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval = 0.86-1.46), but was somewhat more elevated in comparison with the whole province (1.23; 0.97-1.53). Stomach cancer mortality in the regions with contaminated water was more substantially elevated in comparison with the regions without contaminated water (1.82; 1.11-2.91) and the whole province (1.69; 1.12-2.44). Lung cancer mortality was slightly elevated in comparison with the unexposed study regions (1.15; 0.62-2.07), and more strongly elevated in comparison with the whole province (1.78; 1.03-2.87). Mortality from other cancers combined was not elevated in comparison with either the unexposed study regions (0.86; 0.53-1.36) or the whole province (0.92; 0.58-1.38). CONCLUSIONS: While these data are limited, they are consistent with increased stomach cancer risk in a population exposed to Cr in drinking water. ?? 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  8. Patients' perceptions of mortality risk for localized prostate cancer vary markedly depending on their treatment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendel, Friederike; Helbig, Lukas; Neumann, Konrad; Herden, Jan; Stephan, Carsten; Schrader, Mark; Gaissmaier, Wolfgang

    2016-08-15

    Treatment choice for localized prostate cancer (PCa) is a controversial issue, and mortality risk is probably the most decisive factor in this regard. The study aimed to compare prostate-cancer-specific mortality risk estimates for different treatment options assigned by patients managed with active surveillance (AS), radical prostatectomy (RP) and patients who had discontinued AS (DAS). Patients initially managed with AS or RP (N = 370) were matched according to length of therapy. All patients completed mailed questionnaires assessing their mortality risk estimates (in %) and prostate-cancer-specific anxiety. Differences in risk estimates among the three treatment groups were analyzed using ANOVA, relationships of clinical and psychosocial variables with risk estimates using standard multiple regression. In all treatment groups, the prostate- cancer-specific mortality risk was overestimated. This applied whether it was the patient's own treatment or the alternative treatment option. RP patients assigned a mortality risk to AS that was almost three times higher than that assigned to RP (50.9 ± 25.0 vs. 17.8 ± 19.7, d = 1.48; p risk estimates for AS (p = 0.008) and RP (p = 0.001). Compared with clinical data that suggest that the prostate-cancer-specific mortality risk for AS is low and does not significantly differ from that for RP, patients strongly overestimated the mortality risk. This was most markedly so in RP patients, who drastically overestimated the benefits of RP compared to the risk of AS. This overestimation could increase overtreatment and should therefore be corrected by better patient education. PMID:27038059

  9. Lung cancer mortality among nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon daughters, both in the workplace and in the household, are a continuing cause for concern because of the well-documented association between exposure to radon daughters and lung cancer. To estimate the risk of lung cancer mortality among nonsmokers exposed to varying levels of radon daughters, 516 white men who never smoked cigarettes, pipes, or cigars were selected from the US Public Health Service cohort of Colorado Plateau uranium miners and followed up from 1950 through 1984. Age-specific mortality rates for nonsmokers from a study of US veterans were used for comparison. Fourteen deaths from lung cancer were observed among the nonsmoking miners, while 1.1 deaths were expected, yielding a standardized mortality ratio of 12.7 with 95% confidence limits of 8.0 and 20.1. These results confirm that exposure to radon daughters in the absence of cigarette smoking is a potent carcinogen that should be strictly controlled

  10. Evaluation of fallout strontium-90 accumulation in bone and cancer mortality risk in Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mathematical model was developed for evaluating a fallout 90Sr accumulation in Japanese bone through its dietary intake, and was validated by comparing the estimates of 90Sr concentration in bone with the observed. The mortality risk by the radiation-induced leukemia and bone cancer was evaluated based on the NUREG/CR-4214 model. The main results obtained in this study under the limited assumptions are as follows: (1) The mathematical model was developed to relate 90Sr concentration in an environment with the mortality risk due to the radiation-induced leukemia and bone cancer through dietary intake of fallout 90Sr. (2) The leukemia mortality risk due to the fallout 90Sr is about one order larger than the bone cancer mortality risk, and is evaluated to be larger than 10-6 for Japanese who were born before early 1970's. (3) The leukemia mortality risk due to the fallout 90Sr is about 10% level in 1992 of the leukemia mortality risk expected by the benzene in ambient air. (author)

  11. Mortality and cancer incidence in New Zealand meat workers

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, D.; Cheng, S.; 't, M; Woodward, A.; Pearce, N

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To ascertain whether there is an increased risk of cancers of the lung and lymphohaematopoietic tissue in workers employed in the New Zealand meat processing industry, and to identify exposures associated with any increased risks.

  12. Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Cement Industry Workers in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Kim, Tae-Woo; Jang, Seung Hee; Ryu, Hyang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Cement contains hexavalent chromium, which is a human carcinogen. However, its effect on cancer seems inconclusive in epidemiologic studies. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to elucidate the association between dust exposure in the cement industry and cancer occurrence. Methods The cohorts consisted of male workers in 6 Portland cement factories in Korea. Study subjects were classified into five groups by job: quarry, production, maintenance, laboratory, and office wo...

  13. Risk of mortality, cancer incidence, and stroke in a population potentially exposed to cadmium

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, P.; Arnold, R.; Cockings, S; Eaton, N; Jarup, L.; Jones, J.(University of Ioánnina, Ioánnina, Greece); Quinn, M; Rosato, M; Thornton, I; Toledano, M.; Tristan, E.; Wakefield, J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To follow up mortality and cancer incidence in a cohort potentially exposed to cadmium and to perform a geographical (ecological) analysis to further assess the health effects of potential exposure to cadmium.
METHODS—The English village of Shipham has very high concentrations of cadmium in the soil. A previous cohort study of residents of Shipham in 1939 showed overall mortality below that expected, but a 40% excess of mortality from stroke. This study extends the follow up of the...

  14. Lung cancer mortality trends in Chile and six-year projections using Bayesian dynamic linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Avilés, Francisco; Moraga, Tomás; Núñez, Loreto; Icaza, Gloria

    2015-09-01

    The objectives were to analyze lung cancer mortality trends in Chile from 1990 to 2009, and to project the rates six years forward. Lung cancer mortality data were obtained from the Chilean Ministry of Health. To obtain mortality rates, population projections were used, based on the 2002 National Census. Rates were adjusted using the world standard population as reference. Bayesian dynamic linear models were fitted to estimate trends from 1990 to 2009 and to obtain projections for 2010-2015. During the period under study, there was a 19.9% reduction in the lung cancer mortality rate in men. In women, there was increase of 28.4%. The second-order model showed a better fit for men, and the first-order model a better fit for women. Between 2010 and 2015 the downward trend continued in men, while a trend to stabilization was projected for lung cancer mortality in women in Chile. This analytical approach could be useful implement surveillance systems for chronic non-communicable disease and to evaluate preventive strategies. PMID:26578021

  15. Factor analysis of digestive cancer mortality and food consumption in 65 Chinese counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, X G; Watanabe, S

    1999-08-01

    Dietary factors were analyzed for the regional difference of GI tract cancer mortality rates in China. Sixty-five rural counties were selected among a total of 2,392 counties to represent a range of rates for seven most prevalent cancers. The dietary data in the selected 65 counties were obtained by three-day dietary record of households in 1983. The four digestive cancer mortality rates (annual cases per 100,000 standardized truncated rates for ages 35-64) and per capita food consumption were analyzed by the principal components factor analysis. Esophageal cancer associated with poor area, dietary pattern rich in starchy tubers, and salt, lack of consumption of meat, eggs, vegetables and rice. Stomach cancer seemed to be less associated with diet in this study because of its small model Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy, suggesting some other carcinogenic factors would play more important role in the development of this cancer in China. The colon and rectal cancer showed close relation to diet; rich in sea vegetables, eggs, soy sauce, meat and fish, while lack in consumption of milk and dairy products. Rapeseed oil was more important risk factor for colon cancer than that of rectum. Rice, processed starch and sugar were closely associated with colon cancer, supporting the insulin/colon cancer hypothesis. PMID:10510586

  16. Intersection of Race/Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status in Mortality After Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff-Marco, Salma; Yang, Juan; John, Esther M; Kurian, Allison W; Cheng, Iona; Leung, Rita; Koo, Jocelyn; Monroe, Kristine R; Henderson, Brian E; Bernstein, Leslie; Lu, Yani; Kwan, Marilyn L; Sposto, Richard; Vigen, Cheryl L P; Wu, Anna H; Keegan, Theresa H M; Gomez, Scarlett Lin

    2015-12-01

    We investigated social disparities in breast cancer (BC) mortality, leveraging data from the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium. The associations of race/ethnicity, education, and neighborhood SES (nSES) with all-cause and BC-specific mortality were assessed among 9372 women with BC (diagnosed 1993-2007 in California with follow-up through 2010) from four racial/ethnic groups [African American, Asian American, Latina, and non-Latina (NL) White] using Cox proportional hazards models. Compared to NL White women with high-education/high-nSES, higher all-cause mortality was observed among NL White women with high-education/low-nSES [hazard ratio (HR) (95 % confidence interval) 1.24 (1.08-1.43)], and African American women with low-nSES, regardless of education [high education HR 1.24 (1.03-1.49); low-education HR 1.19 (0.99-1.44)]. Latina women with low-education/high-nSES had lower all-cause mortality [HR 0.70 (0.54-0.90)] and non-significant lower mortality was observed for Asian American women, regardless of their education and nSES. Similar patterns were seen for BC-specific mortality. Individual- and neighborhood-level measures of SES interact with race/ethnicity to impact mortality after BC diagnosis. Considering the joint impacts of these social factors may offer insights to understanding inequalities by multiple social determinants of health. PMID:26072260

  17. Waiting list paradox: Danish cancer patients diagnosed fast have higher mortality after diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise; Frydenberg, Morten; Hansen, Rikke Pilegaard;

    Studies often show that cancer patients diagnosed more rapidly have higher mortality rates than patients with longer waits in the primary and secondary health care sector. Our aim was to examine whether this paradox is manifest in the Danish health care system. The study was based on data on...... with longer diagnostic interval until the reference point of 30 days. For colon, rectal, skin, and breast cancer mortality seemed to increase with diagnostic interval longer than 30 days. The waiting list paradox is manifest in Denmark. We speculate that medical professionals organise the diagnostic...

  18. Social inequalities in breast cancer mortality among French women: disappearing educational disparities from 1968 to 1996.

    OpenAIRE

    Menvielle, Gwenn; Leclerc, Annette; Chastang, Jean-François; Luce, Danièle

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the time trends in social inequalities in breast cancer mortality with an analysis by age at death and birth cohort using a representative 1% sample of the French population and four subcohorts (1968-1974, 1975-1981, 1982-1988 and 1990-1996). Causes of death were obtained by direct linkage with the French national death registry. Education was measured at the beginning of each period, and educational disparities in breast cancer mortality were studied among women aged 35-74 at...

  19. Housework reduces all-cause and cancer mortality in Chinese men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leisure time physical activity has been extensively studied. However, the health benefits of non-leisure time physical activity, particular those undertaken at home on all-cause and cancer mortality are limited, particularly among the elderly. METHODS: We studied physical activity in relation to all-cause and cancer mortality in a cohort of 4,000 community-dwelling elderly aged 65 and older. Leisure time physical activity (sport/recreational activity and lawn work/yard care/gardening and non-leisure time physical activity (housework, home repairs and caring for another person were self-reported on the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly. Subjects with heart diseases, stroke, cancer or diabetes at baseline were excluded (n = 1,133. RESULTS: Among the 2,867 subjects with a mean age of 72 years at baseline, 452 died from all-cause and 185 died from cancer during the follow-up period (2001-2012. With the adjustment for age, education level and lifestyle factors, we found an inverse association between risk of all-cause mortality and heavy housework among men, with the adjusted hazard ratio (HR of 0.72 (95%CI = 0.57-0.92. Further adjustment for BMI, frailty index, living arrangement, and leisure time activity did not change the result (HR = 0.71, 95%CI = 0.56-0.91. Among women, however, heavy housework was not associated with all-cause mortality. The risk of cancer mortality was significantly lower among men who participated in heavy housework (HR = 0.52, 95%CI = 0.35-0.78, whereas among women the risk was not significant. Men participated in light housework also were at lower risk of cancer mortality than were their counterparts, however, the association was not significant. Leisure time physical activity was not related to all-cause or cancer mortality in either men or women. CONCLUSION: Heavy housework is associated with reduced mortality and cancer deaths over a 9-year period. The underlying mechanism needs

  20. Mean Cancer Mortality Rates in Low Versus High Elevation Counties in Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, John

    2010-01-01

    There is controversy as to whether low levels of radiation (i.e., < 5 rem) pose a health risk. This brief inquiry compares archived cancer mortality data in counties having relatively low (0–250 feet above sea level), medium (500–1000 feet above sea level), and high (3000+ feet above sea level) elevations also having corresponding greater natural background levels of radiation respectively. Cancer mortality was found to be lowest in the high elevation counties (mean = 58.2) followed by low el...

  1. Selenium status and cancer mortality in subjects residing in four Canadian provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selenium status in male and female Canadian subjects was measured relative to cancer mortality in their respective provinces. Toenail specimens from 755 subjects, 377 males and 378 females, living in Vancouver (186), Edmonton (188), Toronto (197) and Montreal (184) were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis giving means of 0.968 ± 0.177, 0.950 ± 0.148, 0.932 ± 0.135 and 0.896 ± 0.127 ppm Se, respectively. The effect of selenium determinants such as gender, selenium supplementation and smoking on selenium status is presented. Details of the observed inverse relationship of selenium status and cancer mortality are discussed. (author)

  2. Lung cancer mortality and indoor radon concentrations in 18 Canadian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon and radon daughter concentrations were measured in a survey of 14,000 homes in 18 Canadian cities conducted in the summers of 1978 through 1980. Mortality and population data for the period 1966 through 1979 were retrieved for the geographic areas surveyed in each city. The results of analysis of the relation between lung cancer and radon daughter concentration, smoking habits and socioeconomic indicators for each city showed no detectable association between radon daughter concentrations and lung cancer mortality rates with or without adjustment for differences in smoking habits between cities

  3. Residential racial composition, spatial access to care, and breast cancer mortality among women in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Emily; Kramer, Michael R; Cooper, Hannah L F; Thompson, Winifred Wilkins; Arriola, Kimberly R Jacob

    2011-12-01

    We explored the association between neighborhood residential racial composition and breast cancer mortality among Black and White breast cancer patients in Georgia and whether spatial access to cancer care mediates this association. Participants included 15,256 women living in 15 metropolitan statistical areas in Georgia who were diagnosed with breast cancer between 1999 and 2003. Residential racial composition was operationalized as the percent of Black residents in the census tract. We used gravity-based modeling methods to ascertain spatial access to oncology care. Multilevel Cox proportional hazards models and mediation analyses were used to test associations. Black women were 1.5 times more likely to die from breast cancer than White women. Residential racial composition had a small but significant association with breast cancer mortality (hazard ratios [HRs] = 1.04-1.08 per 10% increase in the percent of Black tract residents). Individual race did not moderate this relationship, and spatial access to care did not mediate it. Residential racial composition may be part of the socioenvironmental milieu that produces increased breast cancer mortality among Black women. However, there is a lack of evidence that spatial access to oncology care mediates these processes. PMID:21847712

  4. Attributable fraction of tobacco smoking on cancer using population-based nationwide cancer incidence and mortality data in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sohee; Jee, Sun Ha; Shin, Hai-Rim; Park, Eun Hye; Shin, Aesun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Cha, Eun Shil; Yun, Young Ho; Park, Sue Kyung; Boniol, Mathieu; Boffetta, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking is by far the most important cause of cancer that can be modified at the individual level. Cancer incidence and mortality rates in Korea are the highest among all Asian countries, and smoking prevalence in Korean men is one of the highest in developed countries. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic review and provide an evidence-based assessment of the burden of tobacco smoking-related cancers in the Korean population. Methods Sex- and cancer-specifi...

  5. Characterization of Cancer Mortality in Cruces in the Decade 2002-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Ayo Pérez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: cancer is a major health problem due its high morbidity and mortality. It presents a major social challenge, since its incidence increases with economic and industrial development of the countries. Objectives: to characterize cancer mortality in Cruces in the decade 2002-2011 and to determine mortality rates per year. Methods: a retrospective descriptive study was conducted. The universe consisted of 530 patients who died of cancer in the interval indicated. Data were obtained through the Primary Register of Deaths of the Statistics Department in the municipality. The variables were: age, sex, place of death, primary cause of death and survival time for the disease. Results: male patients aged 73-90 years who died of lung cancer in 2006 predominated. The most frequent place of death was home. Time interval between diagnosis and time of death was several years. Conclusions: cancer is a major health problem for the population in Cruces, showing increasing levels of mortality mostly related to population aging.

  6. Spatial Analysis of County-Level Breast Cancer Mortality in Texas Arvin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. The objectives of the study were to detect high-risk areas and to examine how racial and ethnic status affect the geographic distribution of female breast cancer mortality in Texas. Analyses were based on county-level data for the years from 2000 to 2008. Materials and Methods. Breast cancer mortality data were obtained from the Texas Cancer Registry, and the Spatial Scan Statistics method was used to run Purely Spatial Analyses using the Discrete Poisson, Bernoulli, and Multinomial models. Results and Conclusions. Highest rates of female breast cancer mortality in Texas have shifted over time from southeastern areas towards northern and eastern areas, and breast cancer mortality at the county level is distributed heterogeneously based on racial/ethnic status. Non-Hispanic blacks were at highest risk in the northeastern region and lowest risk in the southern region, while Hispanics were at highest risk in the southern region along the border with Mexico and lowest risk in the northeastern region.

  7. External validation of nomograms for predicting cancer-specific mortality in penile cancer patients treated with definitive surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Zhu; Wei-Jie Gu; Ding-Wei Ye; Xu-Dong Yao; Shi-Lin Zhang; Bo Dai; Hai-Liang Zhang; Yi-Jun Shen

    2014-01-01

    Using a population-based cancer registry, Thuret et al. developed 3 nomograms for estimating cancer-specific mortality in men with penile squamous cell carcinoma. In the initial cohort, only 23.0% of the patients were treated with inguinal lymphadenectomy and had pN stage. To generalize the prediction models in clinical practice, we evaluated the performance of the 3 nomograms in a series of penile cancer patients who were treated with definitive surgery. Clinicopathologic information was obtained from 160 M0 penile cancer patients who underwent primary tumor excision and regional lymphadenectomy between 1990 and 2008. The predicted probabilities of cancer-specific mortality were calculated from 3 nomograms that were based on different disease stage definitions and tumor grade. Discrimination, calibration, and clinical usefulness were assessed to compare model performance. The discrimination ability was similar in nomograms using the TNM classification or American Joint Committee on Cancer staging (Harrell’s concordance index = 0.817 and 0.832, respectively), whereas it was inferior for the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results staging (Harrel ’s concordance index = 0.728). Better agreement with the observed cancer-specific mortality was shown for the model consisting of TNM classification and tumor grade, which also achieved favorable clinical net benefit, with a threshold probability in the range of 0 to 42%. The nomogram consisting of TNM classification and tumor grading was shown to have better performance for predicting cancer-specific mortality in penile cancer patients who underwent definitive surgery. Our data support the integration of this model in decision-making and trial design.

  8. Mortality, Cancer, and Comorbidities Associated With Chronic Pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ulrich Christian; Benfield, Thomas; Hyldstrup, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: We aimed to assess the risk of death, cancer, and comorbidities among patients with alcoholic and nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis (CP). METHODS: We performed a nationwide retrospective cohort study, collecting data from Danish registries from 1995 through 2010. We evaluated the...... prevalences and incidences of death, cancers, and comorbidities among subjects with CP (cases) compared with age- and sex-matched individuals (controls). In total, 11,972 cases (71,814 person-years) and 119,720 controls (917,436 person-years) were included in the analysis. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by...... Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Forty-six percent of the cases died during the follow-up period, compared with 13.0% of controls (mean age, 63.7 vs 72.1 y; P < .0001), corresponding to a HR of 5.0 for CP (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.8-5.2). Cancer was a frequent cause of death among...

  9. Lack of Reduction in Racial Disparities in Cancer-Specific Mortality Over a Twenty-Year Period

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhite, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    Background: It remains unknown how race-based differences in cancer outcomes have changed with time. We sought to explore racial disparities in cancer-specific mortality. Methods: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program, we identified 2,713,474 patients diagnosed in 1988-2007 with lung, breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer. The impact of race on cancer-specific mortality was assessed using Fine and Gray’s regression; an interaction model evaluated trends over time. ...

  10. Radiation-Induced Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality from Digital Mammography Screening: A Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglioretti, Diana L.; Lange, Jane; van den Broek, Jeroen J.; Lee, Christoph I.; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T.; Ritley, Dominique; Kerlikowske, Karla; Fenton, Joshua J.; Melnikow, Joy; de Koning, Harry J.; Hubbard, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Estimates of radiation-induced breast cancer risk from mammography screening have not previously considered dose exposure variation or diagnostic work-up after abnormal screening. Objective To estimate distributions of radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening, considering exposure from screening and diagnostic mammography and dose variation across women. Design Two simulation-modeling approaches using common data on screening mammography from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium and radiation dose from mammography from the Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial. Setting U.S. population. Patients Women aged 40–74 years. Interventions Annual or biennial digital mammography screening from age 40, 45, or 50 until 74. Measurements Lifetime breast cancer deaths averted (benefits) and radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality per 100,000 women screened (harms). Results On average, annual screening of 100,000 women aged 40 to 74 years was projected to induce 125 breast cancers (95% confidence interval [CI]=88–178) leading to 16 deaths (95% CI=11–23) relative to 968 breast cancer deaths averted by early detection from screening. Women exposed at the 95th percentile were projected to develop 246 radiation-induced breast cancers leading to 32 deaths per 100,000 women. Women with large breasts requiring extra views for complete breast examination (8% of population) were projected to have higher radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality (266 cancers, 35 deaths per 100,000 women), compared to women with small or average breasts (113 cancers, 15 deaths per 100,000 women). Biennial screening starting at age 50 reduced risk of radiation-induced cancers 5-fold. Limitations We were unable to estimate years of life lost from radiation-induced breast cancer. Conclusions Radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality from digital mammography screening are impacted by dose

  11. The effects of height and BMI on prostate cancer incidence and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Neil M; Gaunt, Tom R; Lewis, Sarah J; Holly, Jeff; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Kemp, John P; Eeles, Rosalind; Easton, Doug; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham G; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A; Schleutker, Johanna; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Travis, Ruth C; Neal, David; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L; Blot, William J; Thibodeau, Stephen; Maier, Christiane; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Teixeira, Manuel R; Pandha, Hardev; Lathrop, Mark; Smith, George Davey; Martin, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest a potential role for obesity and determinants of adult stature in prostate cancer risk and mortality, but the relationships described in the literature are complex. To address uncertainty over the causal nature of previous observational findings, we...... investigated associations of height- and adiposity-related genetic variants with prostate cancer risk and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study based on 20,848 prostate cancers and 20,214 controls of European ancestry from 22 studies in the PRACTICAL consortium. We constructed genetic risk......, respectively. There was only weak evidence that genetic variants previously associated with increased BMI were associated with a lower prostate cancer risk (odds ratio per standard deviation increase in BMI genetic score 0.98; 95% CI 0.96, 1.00; p = 0.07). Genetic variants associated with increased height were...

  12. Anastomotic Leak Increases Distant Recurrence and Long-Term Mortality After Curative Resection for Colonic Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Peter-Martin; Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Jorgensen, Lars N; Harling, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of anastomotic leak (AL) on disease recurrence and long-term mortality in patients alive 120 days after curative resection for colonic cancer. BACKGROUND: There is no solid data as to whether AL after colonic cancer surgery increases the risk of disease...... recurrence. METHODS: This was a nationwide cohort study of 9333 patients, prospectively registered in the database of the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group and merged with data from the Danish Pathology Registry and the National Patient Registry. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to adjust for...... (14.9%) patients and more frequently after AL (adjusted HR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.13-1.78; P = 0.003). AL was also associated with increased long-term mortality (adjusted HR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.01-1.44; P = 0.042). In 2841 patients with stage III cancer, AL was associated with both decreased likelihood of...

  13. Cancer and non-cancer mortality risks in atomic bomb survivors, 1950-1997: lSS report 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report continues the series of general reports on mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort followed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). The present report deals with solid cancer and non-cancer disease mortality during the period from 1950 through 1997, updating with seven additional years of follow-up LSS Report 12. The LSS cohort includes 86,572 people with individual dose estimates. There have been 9,335 deaths from solid cancer and 31,881 deaths from non-cancer disease during the 47 years follow-up. 19% of the solid cancer and 15% of the non-cancer disease deaths occurred during the newly added follow-up period. While excess rates for radiation-associated solid cancers are seen to increase throughout the study period regardless of age at exposure, relative risks are highest for those exposed as children but appear to decline with increasing age. For those exposed at age 30 the solid cancer risk is elevated by 47% at age 70. There are interesting variations by site of age and age at exposure pattern, though the patterns of the risk do not differ statistically from those for solid cancer as a group. However, the interpretation of age at exposure effects on the ERR or the EAR is complicated by changes in background rates with birth cohort or time trend. The evidence for radiation effects on non-cancer mortality remains strong with risks increased by about 14% per Sv during the last thirty years of follow-up. Statistically significant increases are seen for heart disease, stroke, digestive diseases, and respiratory diseases. Although the non-cancer data are consistent with some non-linearity in the dose response, the evidence against linearity is weaker than past. However, there is no direct statistical evidence of radiation effects for doses less than 0.5 Sv

  14. Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Jakobsen, Marianne U; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjønneland, Anne; Nailler, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bergmann, Manuela M

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, some US cohorts have shown a moderate association between red and processed meat consumption and mortality supporting the results of previous studies among vegetarians. The aim of this study was to examine the association of red meat, processed meat, and poultry consumption with the risk of early death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods Included in the analysis were 448,568 men and women without prevalent cancer, stroke, or...

  15. Meat consumption and mortality--results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrmann, S; Overvad, K.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB; Jakobsen, MU; Egeberg, R; Tjønneland, A.; Nailler, L; Boutron-Ruault, MC; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Krogh, V.; Palli, D; Panico, S.; Tumino, R; Ricceri, F.; Bergmann, MM

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, some US cohorts have shown a moderate association between red and processed meat consumption and mortality supporting the results of previous studies among vegetarians. The aim of this study was to examine the association of red meat, processed meat, and poultry consumption with the risk of early death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: Included in the analysis were 448,568 men and women without prevalent cancer, stroke, ...

  16. Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Jakobsen, Marianne U; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjonneland, Anne; Nailler, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bergmann, Manuela M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recently, some US cohorts have shown a moderate association between red and processed meat consumption and mortality supporting the results of previous studies among vegetarians. The aim of this study was to examine the association of red meat, processed meat, and poultry consumption with the risk of early death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Included in the analysis were 448,568 men and women without prevalent cancer, stroke, ...

  17. Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Jakobsen, Marianne U; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjønneland, Anne; Nailler, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bergmann, Manuela M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, some US cohorts have shown a moderate association between red and processed meat consumption and mortality supporting the results of previous studies among vegetarians. The aim of this study was to examine the association of red meat, processed meat, and poultry consumption with the risk of early death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: Included in the analysis were 448,568 men and women without prevalent cancer, strok...

  18. Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.; Jakobsen, Marianne; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjønneland, Anne; Nailler, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bergmann, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, some US cohorts have shown a moderate association between red and processed meat consumption and mortality supporting the results of previous studies among vegetarians. The aim of this study was to examine the association of red meat, processed meat, and poultry consumption with the risk of early death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: Included in the analysis were 448,568 men and women without prevalent cancer, stroke, ...

  19. Meat consumption and mortality : results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Jakobsen, Marianne U; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjonneland, Anne; Nailler, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bergmann, Manuela M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recently, some US cohorts have shown a moderate association between red and processed meat consumption and mortality supporting the results of previous studies among vegetarians. The aim of this study was to examine the association of red meat, processed meat, and poultry consumption with the risk of early death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Included in the analysis were 448,568 men and women without prevalent cancer, stroke, ...

  20. Cancer, Infant Mortality and Birth Sex-Ratio in Fallujah, Iraq 2005–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Malak Hamdan; Entesar Ariabi; Chris Busby

    2010-01-01

    There have been anecdotal reports of increases in birth defects and cancer in Fallujah, Iraq blamed on the use of novel weapons (possibly including depleted uranium) in heavy fighting which occurred in that town between US led forces and local elements in 2004. In Jan/Feb 2010 the authors organised a team of researchers who visited 711 houses in Fallujah, Iraq and obtained responses to a questionnaire in Arabic on cancer, birth defects and infant mortality. The total population in the resulti...

  1. Residential environment and breast cancer incidence and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Farhat, Maggie; Wilson, Adrienne; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Factors beyond the individual level such as those characterizing the residential environment may be important to breast cancer outcomes. We provide a systematic review and results of meta-analysis of the published empirical literature on the associations between breast cancer risk and mortality and features of the residential environment. Methods Using PRISMA guidelines, we searched four electronic databases and manually searched the references of selected articles for studies that...

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness and digestive cancer mortality: findings from the aerobics center longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, J Brent; Sui, Xuemei; Matthews, Charles E; Adams, Swann A; Hébert, James R; Hardin, James W; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2009-04-01

    Although higher levels of physical activity are inversely associated with risk of colon cancer, few prospective studies have evaluated overall digestive system cancer mortality in relation to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The authors examined this association among 38,801 men ages 20 to 88 years who performed a maximal treadmill exercise test at baseline in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (Dallas, TX) during 1974 to 2003. Mortality was assessed over 29 years of follow-up (1974-2003). Two hundred eighty-three digestive system cancer deaths occurred during a mean 17 years of observation. Age-adjusted mortality rates per 10,000 person-years according to low, moderate, and high CRF groups were 6.8, 4.0, and 3.3 for digestive system cancer (P(trend) < 0.001). After adjustment for age, examination year, body mass index, smoking, drinking, family history of cancer, personal history of diabetes, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for overall digestive cancer deaths for those in the middle and upper 40% of the distribution of CRF relative to those in the lowest 20% were 0.66 (0.49-0.88) and 0.56 (0.40-0.80), respectively. Being fit (the upper 80% of CRF) was associated with a lower risk of mortality from colon [0.61 (0.37-1.00)], colorectal [0.58 (0.37-0.92)], and liver cancer [0.28 (0.11-0.72)] compared with being unfit (the lowest 20% of CRF). These findings support a protective role of CRF against total digestive tract, colorectal, and liver cancer deaths in men. PMID:19293313

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness and digestive cancer mortality: findings from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, J. Brent; Sui, Xuemei; Matthews, Charles E.; Adams, Swann A.; Hébert, James R.; Hardin, James W.; Church, Timothy S.; Blair, Steven N.

    2009-01-01

    Although higher levels of physical activity are inversely associated with risk of colon cancer, few prospective studies have evaluated overall digestive system cancer mortality in relation to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The authors examined this association among 38,801 men aged 20−88 years and who performed a maximal treadmill exercise test at baseline in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (Dallas, Texas) during 1974−2003. Mortality was assessed over 29 years of follow-up (1974−2003). 283 digestive system cancer deaths occurred during a mean 17-year of observation. Age-adjusted mortality rates per 10,000 person-yrs according to low, moderate, and high CRF groups were 6.8, 4.0, and 3.3 for digestive system cancer (trend p < 0.001). After adjustment for age, examination year, body mass index, smoking, drinking, family history of cancer, personal history of diabetes, hazard ratios for overall digestive cancer deaths (95% confidence interval) for those in the middle and upper 40% of the distribution of CRF relative to those in the lowest 20% were 0.66 (0.49, 0.88) and 0.56 (0.40, 0.80), respectively. Being fit (the upper 80% of CRF) was associated with a lower risk of mortality from colon (0.61 [0.37, 1.00]), colorectal (0.58 [0.37, 0.92]), and liver cancer (0.28 [0.11, 0.72]), compared with being unfit (the lowest 20% of CRF). These findings support a protective role of CRF against total digestive tract, colorectal, and liver cancer deaths in men. PMID:19293313

  4. Cancer incidence and mortality in workers exposed to fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, P; Olsen, J H; Jensen, O M; Juel, K

    1992-01-01

    Although a recent bioassay showed increased frequency of bone cancer in rats with high oral intake of fluoride, the data are reported as equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity. In humans, occupational fluoride exposure may cause skeletal fluorosis, and our earlier follow-up of fluoride...

  5. High mortality rates after non-elective colon cancer resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, I S; Snijders, H S; Grossmann, Irene;

    2016-01-01

    obtained from the Dutch Surgical Colorectal Audit. Patients undergoing colon cancer resection in the Netherlands between January 2009 and December 2013 were included. Patient, treatment and tumour factors were analyzed in relation to the urgency of surgery. The primary outcome was the thirty day...

  6. INCREASE INCOME AND MORTALITY OF COLORRECTAL CANCER IN BRAZIL, 2001-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Mendonca GUIMARAES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Several international studies have observed a correlation between the improvement of socio-demographic indicators and rates of incidence and mortality from cancer of the colon and rectum. Objective The objective of this study is to estimate the correlation between average per capita income and the rate of colorectal cancer mortality in Brazil between 2001 and 2009. Methods We obtained data on income inequality (Gini index, population with low incomes (½ infer the minimum wage/month, average family income, per capita ICP and mortality from colon cancer and straight between 2001-2009 by DATASUS. A trend analysis was performed using linear regression, and correlation between variables by Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results There was a declining trend in poverty and income inequality, and growth in ICP per capita and median family income and standardized mortality rate for colorectal cancer in Brazil. There was also strong positive correlation between mortality from this site of cancer and inequality (men r = -0.30, P = 0.06, women r = -0.33, P = 0.05 income low income (men r = -0.80, P<0.001, women r = -0.76, P<0.001, median family income (men r = 0.79, P = 0.06, women r = 0.76, P<0.001 and ICP per capita (men r = 0.73, P<0.001, women r = 0.68, P<0.001 throughout the study period. Conclusion The increase of income and reducing inequality may partially explain the increased occurrence of colorectal cancer and this is possibly due to differential access to food recognized as a risk factor, such as red meat and high in fat. It is important therefore to assess the priority of public health programs addressing nutrition in countries of intermediate economy, as is the case of Brazil.

  7. A retrospective cohort study of mortality and cancer incidence among chemist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoar, S K; Pell, S

    1981-07-01

    This retrospective cohort study examines mortality and cancer incidence among 3,686 men and 75 women who were employed as chemists in 1959. During the period 1964 to 1977, the male chemists experienced lower overall mortality than other salaried employees of the chemical company (198 deaths observed, 241.0 expected, SMR = 82). Large deficits are seen in lung cancer and arteriosclerotic heart disease death. The chemist appear to be at slightly higher risk for death from malignancies of the colon (12 observed, 6.7 expected, SMR = 178) and from cerebrovascular disease (15 observed, 10.8 expected, SMR = 138). The low overall mortality resulted in a larger than expected proportion of deaths due to cancer. Fewer than expected cases were diagnosed of cancer of all sited combined (61 observed, 86.5 expected, SIR = 71) and of the lung (8 observed, 20.0 expected, SIR = 40). The incidence rates of melanoma and of cancer of the prostate are slightly higher than expected, relative to the Third National Cancer Survey and the experience of nonchemists, respectively. Among female chemists, deaths due to all causes and suicide occurred more frequently than expected. Possible explanations for the lack of anticipated excess risks and for the observed deficits are presented. PMID:7252610

  8. Global Inequalities in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality are Linked to Deprivation, Low Socioeconomic Status, and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI, socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII, and healthcare expenditure.Methods: Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates.Results: Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks.Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by

  9. Classification of treatment-related mortality in children with cancer: a systematic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Sarah; Pole, Jason D; Gibson, Paul; Lee, Michelle; Hesser, Tanya; Chi, Susan N; Dvorak, Christopher C; Fisher, Brian; Hasle, Henrik; Kanerva, Jukka; Möricke, Anja; Phillips, Bob; Raetz, Elizabeth; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Samarasinghe, Sujith; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Tissing, Wim; Lehrnbecher, Thomas; Sung, Lillian

    2015-12-01

    Treatment-related mortality is an important outcome in paediatric cancer clinical trials. An international group of experts in supportive care in paediatric cancer developed a consensus-based definition of treatment-related mortality and a cause-of-death attribution system. The reliability and validity of the system was tested in 30 deaths, which were independently assessed by two clinical research associates and two paediatric oncologists. We defined treatment-related mortality as death occurring in the absence of progressive cancer. Of the 30 reviewed deaths, the reliability of classification for treatment-related mortality was noted as excellent by clinical research associates (κ=0·83, 95% CI 0·60-1·00) and paediatric oncologists (0·84, 0·63-1·00). Criterion validity was established because agreement between the consensus classifications by clinical research associates and paediatric oncologists was almost perfect (0·92, 0·78-1·00). Our approach should allow comparison of treatment-related mortality across trials and across time. PMID:26678213

  10. Immunologic mapping of glycomes: implications for cancer diagnosis and therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dapeng; Levery, Steven B; Hsu, Fong-Fu;

    2011-01-01

    Cancer associated glycoconjugates are important biomarkers, as exemplified by globo-H, CA125, CA15.3 and CA27.29. However, the exact chemical structures of many such biomarkers remain unknown because of technological limitations. In this article, we propose the "immunologic mapping" of cancer...... glycomes based on specific immune recognition of glycan structures, which can be hypothesized theoretically, produced chemically, and examined biologically by immuno-assays. Immunologic mapping of glycans not only provides a unique perspective on cancer glycomes, but also may lead to the invention of...

  11. Regional trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Denmark prior to mammographic screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, A H; Andersen, K W; Madsen, Mette;

    1994-01-01

    To provide a basis for the evaluation of mammographic screening programmes in Denmark, a study was undertaken of the regional differences in breast cancer incidence and mortality. All 16 regions were followed for the 20 year period, 1970-89, before the start of the first population...... among women below age 60. The mortality was more stable, changing only from 24 to 28 (per 100,000 standardised WSP), but a significant increase occurred in the late 1980s. The study showed regional differences in both incidence and mortality of breast cancer in Denmark. Both the incidence and the......-based mammographic screening programme in the Copenhagen municipality in 1991. Multiplicative Poisson models were used for the analysis. In general, the incidence increased during this period from 55 to 70 [per 100,000 standardised world standard population (WSP)], and the analysis shows this to be most pronounced...

  12. Cancer mortality does not differ between migrants and Danish-born patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Larsen, Maja Olsbjerg; Petersen, Jørgen Holm;

    2014-01-01

    -born women. Correspondingly, migrant women (HR = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.49-1.17) showed no significant differences in breast cancer mortality compared with Danish-born women. Regarding lung cancer, neither migrant women (HR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.45-1.40) nor men (HR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.53-1.14) presented statistical......-specific hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality were estimated by ethnicity; adjusting for age, income, co-morbidity and disease stage. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in mortality for gynaecological cancers between migrant women (HR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-1.80) and Danish...... variances in mortality rates compared with Danish-born patients. Similarly, for colorectal cancer, migrant women (HR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.27-1.55) and men (HR = 1.58; 95% CI: 0.75-3.36) displayed no significant differences compared with Danish-born patients. CONCLUSION: Different trends were observed according...

  13. Cancer Mortality in Rural Appalachian Kentucky. Appalachian Data Bank Report #6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Thomas C.; And Others

    This report compares cancer mortality rates in rural Appalachian Kentucky with rates for rural non-Appalachian Kentucky and the U.S. white population. Rural Appalachian Kentucky differs from the rest of rural Kentucky in having a younger, poorer, less educated population with greater employment in mining as opposed to agriculture, and with less…

  14. Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Jakobsen, Marianne U; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjønneland, Anne; Nailler, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bergmann, Manuela M

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, some US cohorts have shown a moderate association between red and processed meat consumption and mortality supporting the results of previous studies among vegetarians. The aim of this study was to examine the association of red meat, processed meat, and poultry consumption with the risk of early death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods ...

  15. The association between glucose-lowering drug use and mortality among breast cancer patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, Pauline A J; Cardwell, Chris R; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V; Young, Ian S; Pouwer, Frans; Murray, Liam J

    2015-04-01

    This study assessed the association between glucose-lowering drug (GLD) use, including metformin, sulphonylurea derivatives and insulin, after breast cancer diagnosis and breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. 1763 breast cancer patients, diagnosed between 1998 and 2010, with type 2 diabetes were included. Cancer information was retrieved from English cancer registries, prescription data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and mortality data from the Office of National Statistics (up to January 2012). Time-varying Cox regression models were used to calculate HRs and 95 % CIs for the association between GLD use and breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. In 1057 patients with diabetes before breast cancer, there was some evidence that breast cancer-specific mortality decreased with each year of metformin use (adjusted HR 0.88; 95 % CI 0.75-1.04), with a strong association seen with over 2 years of use (adjusted HR 0.47; 95 % CI 0.26-0.82). Sulphonylurea derivative use for less than 2 years was associated with increased breast cancer-specific mortality (adjusted HR 1.70; 95 % CI 1.18-2.46), but longer use was not (adjusted HR 0.94; 95 % CI 0.54-1.66). In 706 patients who developed diabetes after breast cancer, similar patterns were seen for metformin, but sulphonylurea derivative use was strongly associated with cancer-specific mortality (adjusted HR 3.64; 95 % CI 2.16-6.16), with similar estimates for short- and long-term users. This study provides some support for an inverse association between, mainly long-term, metformin use and (breast cancer-specific) mortality. In addition, sulphonylurea derivative use was associated with increased breast cancer-specific mortality, but this should be interpreted cautiously, as it could reflect selective prescribing in advanced cancer patients. PMID:25762476

  16. Trends in oral cavity cancer incidence, mortality, survival and treatment in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Boukje A C; Brands, Marieke T; Geurts, Sandra M E; Merkx, Matthias A W; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2016-08-01

    Information on epidemiology is essential to evaluate care for the growing group of oral cancer patients. We investigated trends in incidence, mortality and relative survival rates for oral cavity cancer (OCC) and its subsites in the Netherlands from 1991 to 2010, and relate these to changes in stage and treatment. Patient (age, sex), tumour (subsite, stage) and treatment characteristics of patients diagnosed with OCC (ICD-O-3: C02-C06) in 1991-2010 were extracted from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Incidence, mortality and 5-year relative survival rates over time are presented, as well as trends in type of treatment. The incidence of OCC increased with +1.2% (95%CI: +0.9%;+1.6%) per year: more strongly in women, stage I and IV disease, and in cancers of the tongue and gum. The mortality rate slightly rose (+0.8%, 95%CI: +0.3%;+1.3% per year), but differed by subsite. The 5-year relative survival improved from 57% in 1991-1995 to 62% in 2006-2010. The 5-year relative survival was better for women compared with men (64% and 55%, respectively), decreased with increasing stage, was the best for tongue cancer (63%) and the worst for cancer of the gum (56%) and floor of mouth cancer (55%). The relative excess risk of dying was higher for non-surgery-based treatments. Surgery was the main treatment option and the proportion of "surgery only" rose in stage I and III disease. The incidence and, to a lesser extent, mortality of OCC are increasing and therefore, even with slightly improving survival rates, OCC is an increasingly important health problem. PMID:27038013

  17. The effect of tobacco and alcohol and their reduction/cessation on mortality in oral cancer patients: short communication

    OpenAIRE

    Jerjes, W.; Upile, T; Radhi, H.; Petrie, A.; Abiola, J.; Adams, A.; Kafas, P.; Callear, J.; Carbiner, R.; Rajaram, K.; Hopper, C

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of tobacco is known to increase the incidence of developing oral cancer by 6 times, while the additive effect of drinking alcohol further increases the risk leading to higher rate of morbidity and mortality. In this short communication, we prospectively assessed the effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in oral cancer patients on the overall mortality from the disease, as well as the effect of smoking and drinking reduction/cessation at time of diagnosis on mortal...

  18. Morbidity and mortality in long-term survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    OpenAIRE

    Castellino, Sharon M.; Geiger, Ann M.; Mertens, Ann C.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Tooze, Janet A.; Goodman, Pam; Stovall, Marilyn; Robison, Leslie L.; Hudson, Melissa M

    2011-01-01

    The contribution of specific cancer therapies, comorbid medical conditions, and host factors to mortality risk after pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is unclear. We assessed leading morbidities, overall and cause-specific mortality, and mortality risks among 2742 survivors of HL in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of survivors diagnosed from 1970 to 1986. Excess absolute risk for leading causes of death and cumulative incidence and standardi...

  19. Are we able to reduce the mortality and morbidity of oral cancer; some considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Isaäc

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer makes up 1%-2% of all cancers that may arise in the body. The majority of oral cancers consists of squamous cell carcinomas. Oral cancer carries a considerable mortality rate, being mainly dependent on the stage of the disease at admission. Worldwide some 50% of the patients with oral cancer present with advanced disease. There are several ways of trying to diagnose oral cancer in a lower tumor stage, being 1) mass screening or screening in selected patients, 2) reduction of patients' delay, and 3) reduction of doctors' delay. Oral cancer population-based screening ("mass screening") programs do not meet the guidelines for a successful outcome. There may be some benefit when focusing on high-risk groups, such as heavy smokers and heavy drinkers. Reported reasons for patients' delay range from fear of a diagnosis of cancer, limited accessibility of primary health care, to unawareness of the possibility of malignant oral diseases. Apparently, information campaigns in news programs and TV have little effect on patients' delay. Mouth self-examination may have some value in reducing patients'delay. Doctors' delay includes dentists' delay and diagnostic delay caused by other medical and dental health care professionals. Doctors' delay may vary from almost zero days up to more than six months. Usually, morbidity of cancer treatment is measured by quality of life (QoL) questionnaires. In the past decades this topic has drawn a lot of attention worldwide. It is a challenge to decrease the morbidity that is associated with the various treatment modalities that are used in oral cancer without substantially compromising the survival rate. Smoking cessation contributes to reducing the risk of oral cancers, with a 50% reduction in risk within five years. Indeed, risk factor reduction seems to be the most effective tool in an attempt to decrease the morbidity and mortality of oral cancer. PMID:23229266

  20. Spatio - Temporal Distribution Of Cancer Mortality In Marathwada Region ( M.s., India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokhande T. N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Cancer is one of the most important causes of death in the world and also in India. Excluding a few diseases like AIDS, most of the major killers of the world as well as India are on the decline. Cancer is, however, on the rise. India is now the highest Cancer burden country in the world. The data regarding Cancer has been collected from vital statistics published by government of Maharashtra. The present study attempts to evaluate the Spatio-temporal analysis of cancer mortality in Marathwada region of Maharashtra state. The objective of this research paper is to study the distributional pattern both spatially and temporally, The researcher proposes to analyze the available data at various stages is being calculated using various statistical methods. The distributional pattern of Cancer is to be investigated at district level. The data collected for 35 years period has been analyzed by Choropleth methods, Standard Mortality Rate (S. M. R.and simple ranking technique is used for understanding comparison and distributional pattern. A class interval for distribution is decided by percentile method. The study reveals that various physical and cultural factors of the environment associated with the occurrence of the Cancer in the study region. Moreover, various factors such as smoking and chewing of tobacco and betel pan, consumption of alcohol, malnutrition, poor post natal care and poor maternity services, poor genital hygiene, early consummation of marriage, multiple pregnancies, and contact with multiple sexual partners, dietary factors, life styles, occupational exposure, vitamin deficiency, water and air pollution, sunlight, radiation, pesticides and medications. Lack of application of screening techniques, adequate treatment facilities and lack of public awareness about cancer are some of the causes responsible for cancer mortality in the study region.

  1. Social networks, social support and burden in relationships, and mortality after breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Yvonne; Tindle, Hilary; Gage, Elizabeth; Chlebowski, Rowan; Garcia, Lorena; Messina, Catherine; Manson, JoAnn E.; Caan, Bette J.

    2016-01-01

    Though larger social networks are associated with reduced breast cancer mortality, there is a need to clarify how both social support and social burden influence this association. We included 4,530 women from the Women's Health Initiative who were diagnosed with breast cancer between 1993 and 2009, and provided data on social networks (spouse or intimate partner, religious ties, club ties, and number of first-degree relatives) before diagnosis. Of those, 354 died during follow-up, with 190 from breast cancer. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate associations of social network members with risk of post-diagnosis mortality, further evaluating associations by social support and social burden (caregiving, social strain). In multivariate-adjusted analyses, among women with high but not low social support, being married was related to lower all-cause mortality. By contrast, among women with high but not low social burden, those with a higher number of first-degree relatives, including siblings, parents, and children, had higher all-cause and breast cancer mortality (among caregivers: 0–3 relatives (ref), 4–5 relatives, HR = 1.47 (95% CI: 0.62–3.52), 6–9 relatives, HR = 2.08 (95% CI: 0.89–4.86), 10+ relatives, HR = 3.55 (95% CI: 1.35–9.33), P-continuous = 0.02, P-interaction = 0.008). The association by social strain was similar though it was not modified by level of social support. Other social network members were unrelated to mortality. Social relationships may have both adverse and beneficial influences on breast cancer survival. Clarifying these depends on understanding the context of women's relationships. PMID:22331479

  2. Mortality of wives of men dying with cancer of the penis.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, P. G.; Kinlen, L J; White, G. C.; Adelstein, A M; Fox, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    711 women were identified who in 1939 were married to men who died with cancer of the penis in England and Wales during the period 1964 to 1973. The records of women were traced through the National Health Service Central Register and, by January 1975, 378 (53%) were found to have died. Expected numbers of deaths from all causes, all cancers and from some specific cancers were calculated assuming the women to have the same mortality rates as the general population of England and Wales. The to...

  3. Using Current Smoking Prevalence to Project Lung Cancer Morbidity and Mortality in Georgia by 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Victoria N.; Lavender, Antionette; Bayakly, Rana; Ray, Kenneth; Moon, Tamira

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of disease and premature death in the United States. In Georgia, approximately 18% of adults smoke cigarettes, and 87% of men’s lung cancer deaths and 70% of women’s lung cancer deaths are due to smoking. From 2004–2008, the age-adjusted lung cancer incidence rate in Georgia was 112.8 per 100,000 population, and the mortality rate was 88.2 per 100,000 population. Methods The Georgia Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey was...

  4. Post-sampling mortality and non-response patterns in the English Cancer Patient Experience Survey: Implications for epidemiological studies based on surveys of cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Abel, Gary A; Saunders, Catherine L; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surveys of the experience of cancer patients are increasingly being introduced in different countries and used in cancer epidemiology research. We examine how sampling processes, post-sampling mortality and survey non-response influence the representativeness of cancer patient surveys. METHODS: We examined predictors of post-sampling mortality and non-response among patients initially included in the sampling frame of the English Cancer Patient Experience Survey. We also comp...

  5. Mortality and cancer incidence experience of employees in a nuclear fuels fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mortality and cancer incidence experience of 4,106 employees in a nuclear fuels fabrication plant was evaluated in this retrospective cohort study. Standardized mortality (SMR) and incidence ratios were calculated for groups of employees holding different jobs in the company associated with various types of industrial exposures and with low levels of radiation. Connecticut population mortality rates and Connecticut Tumor Registry incidence rates, specific for age-sex, calendar year and cause of death or cancer site, were used for the calculation of expected rates. Results showed the SMR for all male employees to be significantly lower than expected for all causes and what would be expected for all cancer deaths. More deaths were observed than expected from diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system and from obstructive pulmonary disease. The overall cancer incidence experience of the male employees was significantly lower than expected; cancer of the brain was found to be significantly higher than expected among the industrial employees. There was no risk associated with any particular job exposure group. Log linear models analysis showed no significant effect from industrial and radiation exposures or from their combined influence

  6. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers: II. Incidence of cancer and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cohort of 4,472 men from Estonia who had participated in the cleanup activities in the Chernobyl area sometime between 1986 and 1991 and were followed through 1993 was analyzed with respect to the incidence of cancer and mortality. Incidence and mortality in the cleanup workers were assessed relative to national rates. No increases were found in all cancers (25 incident cases compared to 26.5 expected) or in leukemia (no cases observed, 1.0 expected). Incidence did not differ statistically significantly from expectation for any individual cancer site or type, though lung cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma both occurred slightly more often than expected. A total of 144 deaths were observed [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.82-1.14] during an average of 6.5 years of follow-up. Twenty-eight deaths (19.4%) were suicides (SMR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.01-2.19). Exposure to ionizing radiation while at Chernobyl has not caused a detectable increase in the incidence of cancer among cleanup workers from Estonia. At least for the short follow-up period, diseases directly attributable to radiation appear to be of relatively minor importance when compared with the substantial excess of deaths due to suicide. 28 refs., 3 tabs

  7. An overview of the cancer mortality data on the atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description is given of the cancer mortality data at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, with the aim of providing some general perspective on the extent of the excess cancer mortality, for those who may not be inclined to glean this information from the more comprehensive reports on the Life Span Study. In addition, a summary is given of the changes in dosimetry given by the recently installed DS86 system. Even a cursory view of these changes requires consideration of several factors; changes in air doses, in environmental and organ shielding factors, in the extent of the neutron component, and in effects of truncation of exposures at 6 Gy. Finally, a brief discussion is given of the evolution of radiogenic cancer risk estimates during the past 10-15 years. (author)

  8. Time trends in educational inequalities in cancer mortality in Colombia, 1998–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyave, Ivan; Pardo, Constanza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate trends in premature cancer mortality in Colombia by educational level in three periods: 1998–2002 with low healthcare insurance coverage, 2003–2007 with rapidly increasing coverage and finally 2008–2012 with almost universal coverage (2008–2012). Setting Colombian population-based, national secondary mortality data. Participants We included all (n=188 091) cancer deaths occurring in the age group 20–64 years between 1998 and 2012, excluding only cases with low levels of quality of registration (n=2902, 1.5%). Primary and secondary outcome measures In this descriptive study, we linked mortality data of ages 20–64 years to census data to obtain age-standardised cancer mortality rates by educational level. Using Poisson regression, we modelled premature mortality by educational level estimating rate ratios (RR), relative index of inequality (RII) and the Slope Index of Inequality (SII). Results Relative measures showed increased risks of dying among the lower educated compared to the highest educated; this tendency was stronger in women (RRprimary 1.49; RRsecondary 1.22, both p<0.0001) than in men (RRprimary 1.35; RRsecondary 1.11, both p<0.0001). In absolute terms (SII), cancer caused a difference per 100 000 deaths between the highest and lowest educated of 20.5 in males and 28.5 in females. RII was significantly higher among women and the younger age categories. RII decreased between the first and second periods; afterwards (2008–2012), it increased significantly back to their previous levels. Among women, no significant increases or declines in cancer mortality over time were observed in recent periods in the lowest educated group, whereas strong recent declines were observed in those with secondary education or higher. Conclusions Educational inequalities in cancer mortality in Colombia are increasing in absolute and relative terms, and are concentrated in young age categories. This trend was not curbed by increases in

  9. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655

  10. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Among the country's 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655

  11. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley White-Means

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis.

  12. Cancer Mortality and Asbestosis Among Workers in an Asbestos Plant in Chongqing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI ZHONG; EIJI YANO; ZHI-MING WANG; MIAN-ZHEN WANG; YA-JIA LAN

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether asbestosis is a risk factor for mortality of lung cancer. Methods A fixed cohort study was established in an asbestos plant in Chongqing, China, and followed up for 30 years from the beginning of 1972. Basic personal information on life state, cause of death, and diagnosis of asbestosis was collected. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to analyze risk factors. Results During the 30-year follow-up, 584 male workers constituting a total of 14 664 person-years were monitored and data were analyzed. Among them, 203 (34.8%) died and the mortality rate was 13.8 per 1000 person-years, cancer accounting for 37.4%. Excess risks were observed for lung cancer (OR=3.72) and nonmalignant respiratory diseases (OR=2.73) among workers with asbestosis. High-exposure level was another risk factor for lung cancer (OR=3.20). Workers with category Ⅱ of asbestusis demonsatrated a higher OR of both lung cancer and nonmalignant respiratory diseases than those with category Ⅰ of asbestosis. Conclusion High asbestos exposure level and asbestosis were the risk factors for death of lung cancer and nonmalignant respiratory diseases. Asbestosis is an independent risk factor for lung cancer among Chinese workers exposed to chrysotile, the risk increases with the increasing profusion of opacities of lung.

  13. Analysis of the lung cancer mortality in Mayak worker cohort with a model of carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer mortality in the Mayak worker cohort is analysed with the two stage clonal expansion (TSCE) model of carcinogenesis. Reactor workers in Mayak facilities were exposed to external γ-ray and neutron exposures, and workers in the radiochemical and plutonium facilities additionally to internal exposures due to plutonium inhalation. The cohort used in this study involves male nuclear workers for whom plutonium measurements and smoking information (smoker/non-smoker) exists and with health follow-up to the end of 1999. A subcohort with 5421 workers and 274 lung cancer deaths is analysed. Specific emphasis was given to the distinction of the effects of external and internal exposures. Within the TSCE model, an action of radiation was assumed both in initiation and promotion. The baseline lung cancer mortality rate was derived from the cohort itself. The model which gives the best fit of the data has a linear dose dependence in TSCE-model parameters for both external and internal radiation. Using the smoking information significantly increased the quality of the fit. Analysis showed no effect of radiation on transformation. It is found that most of the lung cancer cases are due to plutonium inhalation. The estimated excess relative risk per unit dose due to the plutonium αparticles is 0.13/Sv. For the γ-ray component, the present analysis gives an excess relative risk for lung cancer mortality of 0.05/Sv. Lung cancer mortality among Mayak workers is analysed within two step clonal expansion model. Models of carcinogenesis are well suited for analysing data with complex exposure scenario. Resulting risk for plutonium exposures is compatible with the radiation weighting factor 20. In general no strong dose or dose-rate effects were observed within the cohort

  14. Impact of 2-, 4- and 9-valent HPV vaccines on morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rebecca; Feldman, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most cervical cancers are associated with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), and vaccination with any of 3 available HPV vaccines is anticipated to greatly reduce the burden of cervical cancer. This review provides an overview of the burden of HPV, the efficacy and clinical effectiveness of the bivalent (HPV 16, 18), quadrivalent (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18) and 9vHPV (HPV 6, 11, 16, 1831, 33, 45, 52, 58) vaccines in order to assess the anticipated impact on cervical cancer. All three vaccines show high efficacy in prevention of vaccine-specific HPV-type infection and associated high-grade cervical dysplasia in HPV-naïve women. Early clinical effectiveness data for the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccine demonstrate reduced rates of HPV 16 and 18 prevalence in vaccinated cohorts; data evaluating cervical dysplasia and cervical procedures as outcomes will shed further light on the clinical effectiveness of both vaccines. The bivalent vaccine has demonstrated cross-protection to non-vaccine HPV types, including the types in the 9vHPV vaccine. No clinical effectiveness data is yet available for the 9vHPV vaccine.  While HPV vaccination has great promise to reduce cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, estimated benefits are largely theoretical at present. Large population-based clinical effectiveness studies will provide long-term immunogenicity and effectiveness, as well as assessment of cervical cancer as an endpoint, particularly as young vaccinated women enter the appropriate age range to initiate screening for cervical cancer. Strengthening screening and treatment programs will likely have the greatest impact in the short-term on cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. PMID:26588179

  15. Global Patterns of Prostate Cancer Incidence, Aggressiveness, and Mortality in Men of African Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Rebbeck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (CaP is the leading cancer among men of African descent in the USA, Caribbean, and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The estimated number of CaP deaths in SSA during 2008 was more than five times that among African Americans and is expected to double in Africa by 2030. We summarize publicly available CaP data and collected data from the men of African descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP Consortium and the African Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3 to evaluate CaP incidence and mortality in men of African descent worldwide. CaP incidence and mortality are highest in men of African descent in the USA and the Caribbean. Tumor stage and grade were highest in SSA. We report a higher proportion of T1 stage prostate tumors in countries with greater percent gross domestic product spent on health care and physicians per 100,000 persons. We also observed that regions with a higher proportion of advanced tumors reported lower mortality rates. This finding suggests that CaP is underdiagnosed and/or underreported in SSA men. Nonetheless, CaP incidence and mortality represent a significant public health problem in men of African descent around the world.

  16. [Cancer incidence and mortality in some health districts in Brescia area 1993--1995].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonati, C; Limina, R M; Gelatti, U; Indelicato, A; Scarcella, C; Donato, F; Nardi, G

    2004-01-01

    Cancer Registries are an essential part of any rational programme of cancer control, for assessing the impact of cancer in the community, for health care planning and monitoring screening programmes, according to local enviromental problems. The Brescia Cancer Registry started in 1994 producing prevalence, incidence and mortality data using only manual procedures of colletting and processing data from clinical and pathological sources in Brescia in 1993--1995. Data quality indicators such as the percentages of istologically or cytologically verified cases and that of cases registered on the basis of Death Certificate Only (DCO) are similar to those from the other Northern Italian Registries. Incidence rates for all causes and for various common sites are higher in Brescia than in other areas covered by Cancer Registries in North of Italy. PMID:15697007

  17. Prevention of lymphocyte apoptosis in septic mice with cancer increases mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Amy C; Breed, Elise R; Liang, Zhe; Clark, Andrew T; Zee-Cheng, Brendan R; Chang, Katherine C; Dominguez, Jessica A; Jung, Enjae; Dunne, W Michael; Burd, Eileen M; Farris, Alton B; Linehan, David C; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2011-08-15

    Lymphocyte apoptosis is thought to have a major role in the pathophysiology of sepsis. However, there is a disconnect between animal models of sepsis and patients with the disease, because the former use subjects that were healthy prior to the onset of infection while most patients have underlying comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether lymphocyte apoptosis prevention is effective in preventing mortality in septic mice with preexisting cancer. Mice with lymphocyte Bcl-2 overexpression (Bcl-2-Ig) and wild type (WT) mice were injected with a transplantable pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line. Three weeks later, after development of palpable tumors, all animals received an intratracheal injection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite having decreased sepsis-induced T and B lymphocyte apoptosis, Bcl-2-Ig mice had markedly increased mortality compared with WT mice following P. aeruginosa pneumonia (85 versus 44% 7-d mortality; p = 0.004). The worsened survival in Bcl-2-Ig mice was associated with increases in Th1 cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreased production of the Th2 cytokine IL-10 in stimulated splenocytes. There were no differences in tumor size or pulmonary pathology between Bcl-2-Ig and WT mice. To verify that the mortality difference was not specific to Bcl-2 overexpression, similar experiments were performed in Bim(-/-) mice. Septic Bim(-/-) mice with cancer also had increased mortality compared with septic WT mice with cancer. These data demonstrate that, despite overwhelming evidence that prevention of lymphocyte apoptosis is beneficial in septic hosts without comorbidities, the same strategy worsens survival in mice with cancer that are given pneumonia. PMID:21734077

  18. Mortality and cancer incidence in the perfumery and flavour industry of Geneva.

    OpenAIRE

    Guberan, E; Raymond, L

    1985-01-01

    An analysis has been made of the mortality and cancer incidence of 1168 workers who entered the three factories of the perfumery industry of the Canton of Geneva from their establishment at the turn of the century to the end of 1964. The workers were followed up from their entry until 31 December 1980, at which date 344 were dead and 28 lost to follow up. Among the whole study population only mortality from tuberculosis was significantly raised; there was no significant increase in the incide...

  19. Disease-specific mortality and secondary primary cancer in well-differentiated thyroid cancer with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Tah Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased body mass index is related to the incidence of thyroid cancer. However, the presentation and therapeutic outcomes of different thyroid cancers and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM have not been studied. This study investigated the effect of type 2 DM on the clinical presentations and therapeutic outcome of well-differentiated thyroid cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A retrospective analysis of adult thyroid cancer patients with or without type 2 DM admitted between January 2001 and December 2010 was performed at an institution. A total of 1,687 well-differentiated thyroid cancer patients with different histological patterns were enrolled. Among these subjects, 122 were type 2 DM patients. Patients with thyroid cancer and type 2 DM were significantly older than non-DM patients. After a mean follow-up period of 5.6±0.1 years, patients with thyroid cancer and type 2 DM showed a higher percentage of disease progression than non-DM patients (24.6% vs. 17.4%. In addition, disease-specific mortality was higher in the type 2 DM group (10.7% vs. 3.8%. Thyroid cancer patients with type 2 DM showed a higher percentage of secondary primary cancers than those without DM (10.7% vs. 4.9%. Thyroid cancer-specific survival rates in the type 2 DM and non-DM groups were 82.2% and 94.9% at 5 years, 72.9% and 91.4% at 10 years, and 36.5% and 61.3% at 20 years, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that type 2 DM was independent of thyroid cancer-specific mortality. CONCLUSION: Patients with type 2 DM and well-differentiated thyroid cancer had an advanced tumor-node-metastasis stage at the time of diagnosis and an increased disease-specific mortality. Aggressive surgical procedures and close follow-up for well-differentiated thyroid cancer patients with type 2 DM are therefore necessary.

  20. Mapping Mountain Pine Beetle Mortality through Growth Trend Analysis of Time-Series Landsat Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances are key processes in the carbon cycle of forests and other ecosystems. In recent decades, mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae outbreaks have become more frequent and extensive in western North America. Remote sensing has the ability to fill the data gaps of long-term infestation monitoring, but the elimination of observational noise and attributing changes quantitatively are two main challenges in its effective application. Here, we present a forest growth trend analysis method that integrates Landsat temporal trajectories and decision tree techniques to derive annual forest disturbance maps over an 11-year period. The temporal trajectory component successfully captures the disturbance events as represented by spectral segments, whereas decision tree modeling efficiently recognizes and attributes events based upon the characteristics of the segments. Validated against a point set sampled across a gradient of MPB mortality, 86.74% to 94.00% overall accuracy was achieved with small variability in accuracy among years. In contrast, the overall accuracies of single-date classifications ranged from 37.20% to 75.20% and only become comparable with our approach when the training sample size was increased at least four-fold. This demonstrates that the advantages of this time series work flow exist in its small training sample size requirement. The easily understandable, interpretable and modifiable characteristics of our approach suggest that it could be applicable to other ecoregions.

  1. Mathematical simulation for estimating reduction of breast cancer mortality in mass screening using mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan it is considered that mammography should be introduced with physical examination for the mass screening of breast cancer instead of physical examination alone, which is performed at present. Before the introduction of mammography, a mathematical simulation should be performed to show the reduction in breast cancer mortality by mass screening compared with an unscreened population. A mathematical model of cancer screening devised by the authors was used to estimate the number of deaths due to breast cancer (A) in the screened group and those (B) in the unscreened group within the same population. Then the relative risk (RR) and attributable risk (RD) were calculated as (A/B) and (B-A) respectively. Three methods of mass screening were compared: (1) physical examination (1-year interval), (2) mammography with physical examination (1-year interval), (3) mammography with physical examination (2-year interval). The calculated RR values were 0.85 for (1), 0.60 for (2) and 0.69 for (3). Assuming that the incidence of breast cancer was 100/105 person-years, the calculated RD values were 3.0, 8.1 and 6.2 persons/105 person-years for (1), (2) and (3), respectively. The 95% confidence interval of RR for three methods was over 1.0, and thus the reduction of breast cancer mortality was not statistically significant in the present population. In conclusion, mammography with physical examination may reduce breast cancer mortality in comparison with physical examination alone, but a larger number of women must be screened in order to obtain a significant RR value. (author)

  2. The relative effect of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality by socioeconomic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripping, Theodora M.; van der Waal, Danielle; Verbeek, André L.M.; Broeders, Mireille J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Breast cancer incidence and mortality are higher in women with a high socioeconomic status (SES). The potential to prevent death from breast cancer is therefore greater in the high SES group. This does, however, require that the effectiveness of screening in the high SES group is equal to or greater than the effectiveness in the low SES group. The aim of this study is to assess the relative effectiveness of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality by SES. In Nijmegen, the Netherlands, women are invited to participate in biennial mammographic screening since 1975. Postal code is collected at each round and is used to calculate the SES of each woman based on the SES indicator of the Netherlands Institute for Social Research. The Dutch average was used to classify the SES score of each woman as either high or low. We designed a case-control study to investigate the effect of mammographic screening in women aged 50 to 75, 40 to 75, and 50 to 69 years, and calculated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Among the women invited to the mammographic screening program in Nijmegen, 10% had a high SES. In women aged 50 to 75 years, the breast cancer death rate was 38% lower in screened women than in unscreened women. The ORs for women with high SES (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.31–2.19) and low SES did not differ significantly (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.47–0.78). Mammographic screening reduces breast cancer mortality, but we did not observe a significant difference in the relative effectiveness of screening by SES. If the effectiveness of mammographic screening is indeed not dependent on SES status, the absolute number of breast cancer deaths prevented by mammographic screening will be greater in the high SES than low SES group, because women with a high SES have a greater risk of breast cancer death. PMID:27495038

  3. Cancer mortality risk of nuclear power workers due to the exposure of ionising radiation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehringer, F.; Seitz, G. [Berufsgenossenschaft der Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik, Koln (Germany); Hammer, G.P.; Blettner, M. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitat Mainz, Institut fur Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik des Klinikums (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    A cohort study of German nuclear power workers was set up to investigate overall and cancer mortality risk related to a chronic exposure to ionising radiation of low-level dose. The German study was performed as a part of an international study carried out by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon. First results of the international study have been published recently [1]. German data are not yet included in this analysis. The German cohort consists of 4844 employees from 10 nuclear power plants. All persons who worked in these nuclear power plants in 1991 or started employment between 1991 und 1997 are included (except for employees of one plant, whose observation period started in 1992). These persons accumulated about 31,000 person years. Overall, 68 deaths were observed in the observation period between 1.1.1991-31.12.1997. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were computed for all causes of death, all cancers, cardiovascular diseases, external causes, and all other causes. Overall, a strong healthy worker effect was observed (SMR=0.52 [95% CI: 0.41;0.67]). No increase in total cancer mortality was seen (SMR=0.85 [95% CI: 0.53;1.30]). However, numbers are too small for stable risk estimates and further effort is under way to complete the cohort in terms of power plants and to extend the follow-up until 2005. (authors)

  4. Inhalation cancer risk assessment of hexavalent chromium based on updated mortality for Painesville chromate production workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Deborah M; Suh, Mina; Mittal, Liz; Hirsch, Shawn; Valdes Salgado, Raydel; Bartlett, Chris; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Rohr, Annette; Crump, Kenny

    2016-01-01

    The exposure-response for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI))-induced lung cancer among workers of the Painesville Ohio chromate production facility has been used internationally for quantitative risk assessment of environmental and occupational exposures to airborne Cr(VI). We updated the mortality of 714 Painesville workers (including 198 short-term workers) through December 2011, reconstructed exposures, and conducted exposure-response modeling using Poisson and Cox regressions to provide quantitative lung cancer risk estimates. The average length of follow-up was 34.4 years with 24,535 person-years at risk. Lung cancer was significantly increased for the cohort (standardized mortality ratio (SMR)=186; 95% confidence interval (CI) 145–228), for those hired before 1959, those with >30-year tenure, and those with cumulative exposure >1.41 mg/m3-years or highest monthly exposures >0.26 mg/m3. Of the models assessed, the linear Cox model with unlagged cumulative exposure provided the best fit and was preferred. Smoking and age at hire were also significant predictors of lung cancer mortality. Adjusting for these variables, the occupational unit risk was 0.00166 (95% CI 0.000713–0.00349), and the environmental unit risk was 0.00832 (95% CI 0.00359–0.0174), which are 20% and 15% lower, respectively, than values developed in a previous study of this cohort. PMID:26669850

  5. Cancer mortality risk of nuclear power workers due to the exposure of ionising radiation in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cohort study of German nuclear power workers was set up to investigate overall and cancer mortality risk related to a chronic exposure to ionising radiation of low-level dose. The German study was performed as a part of an international study carried out by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon. First results of the international study have been published recently [1]. German data are not yet included in this analysis. The German cohort consists of 4844 employees from 10 nuclear power plants. All persons who worked in these nuclear power plants in 1991 or started employment between 1991 und 1997 are included (except for employees of one plant, whose observation period started in 1992). These persons accumulated about 31,000 person years. Overall, 68 deaths were observed in the observation period between 1.1.1991-31.12.1997. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were computed for all causes of death, all cancers, cardiovascular diseases, external causes, and all other causes. Overall, a strong healthy worker effect was observed (SMR=0.52 [95% CI: 0.41;0.67]). No increase in total cancer mortality was seen (SMR=0.85 [95% CI: 0.53;1.30]). However, numbers are too small for stable risk estimates and further effort is under way to complete the cohort in terms of power plants and to extend the follow-up until 2005. (authors)

  6. Cancer morbidity and mortality in USA Mormons and Seventh-day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, E

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of cancer morbidity and mortality rates between Mormons and Seventh-day-Adventists and the corresponding rates in the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States, reveals that mortality from malignant neoplasms in general is much lower in Mormons and Seventh-day Adventists than in the Federal Republic of Germany. The difference concerns in particular the tobacco-dependent tumors: compared to the rate of affected males in the Federal Republic of Germany, only some 25% of Mormon males are getting lung cancer. Similar patterns are found in laryngeal carcinoma. Tumors that are related to both alcohol and tobacco, such as carcinomas of tongue, pharynx and esophagus, are also significantly less frequent in Mormons. Malignant neoplasms of the female genital tract show distinct analogies: cervical carcinoma has a morbidity rate of only 26.7% of affected women in Germany. Accordingly, mortality rates of Mormons and Seventh-day Adventists show a significant lower level when compared with cancer data of lung, colon and rectum, and prostate from the best German cancer registry (Saarland). Some tumor rates are higher in Mormons, e.g. malignant melanoma, also all types of malignant lymphoma and myeloma. The life expectancy is generally elevated by 2-4 years in Mormons and Seventh-day Adventists. The association with the particular life style of both religious groups, especially the strict reduction of tobacco consumption, and factors of dietary and other habits is discussed. PMID:1449267

  7. Radon in Drinking Water and Cancer Mortality: An Ecological Study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Narazaki, Yukinori; Mizuno, Shoichi; Akiba, Suminori

    2008-08-01

    There is limited information on the health effects of radon in drinking water in spite of their potential exposures. We conducted an ecological study in a small town in Japan where the groundwater with high concentrations of radon is supplied as utilities. A total of 607 cancer deaths were ascertained by vital statistics in that town from 1972 to 1997. Standardized mortality ratios on the basis of national rates were 1.01 (95% confidence interval; 0.93-1.09) for all cancers, 1.10 (0.95-1.28) for stomach cancer, 0.88 (0.70-1.10) for lung cancer, and 1.14 (0.87-1.48) for liver cancer. Mortality from liver cancer was significantly higher than that of two surrounding control cities combined, with a relative risk of 1.40 (1.04-1.89) based on Poisson regression analysis. Lack of information on possible confounders including diet, alcohol drinking, smoking and hepatitis virus infection, is the main limitation of the study, which precludes the evaluation of causal associations.

  8. Radon in Drinking Water and Cancer Mortality: An Ecological Study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is limited information on the health effects of radon in drinking water in spite of their potential exposures. We conducted an ecological study in a small town in Japan where the groundwater with high concentrations of radon is supplied as utilities. A total of 607 cancer deaths were ascertained by vital statistics in that town from 1972 to 1997. Standardized mortality ratios on the basis of national rates were 1.01 (95% confidence interval; 0.93-1.09) for all cancers, 1.10 (0.95-1.28) for stomach cancer, 0.88 (0.70-1.10) for lung cancer, and 1.14 (0.87-1.48) for liver cancer. Mortality from liver cancer was significantly higher than that of two surrounding control cities combined, with a relative risk of 1.40 (1.04-1.89) based on Poisson regression analysis. Lack of information on possible confounders including diet, alcohol drinking, smoking and hepatitis virus infection, is the main limitation of the study, which precludes the evaluation of causal associations

  9. Cancer mortality in women after repeated fluoroscopic examinations of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among 1,047 women fluoroscopically examined in average of 102 times during pneumothorax therapy for tuberculosis and followed up to 45 years (average . 27 yr), no increase in the total number of cancer deaths occurred when these women were compared to 717 women who received other treatments [relative risk (RR) . 0.8]. However, elevated risks of mortality from stomach cancer (RR . 2.3), rectal cancer (RR . 3.8), breast cancer (RR . 1.2), lung cancer (RR . 1.8), and leukemia (RR . 1.2) were observed, but none was statistically significant and all were based on very small numbers of deaths. These increases were balanced by decreases of genital cancer (RR . 0.2), pancreatic cancer (RR . 0.9), lymphoma (RR . 0.6), and all other cancers (RR . 0.1). Average cumulative absorbed doses were 110 rads for the lungs, 33 rads for the trunk, 13 rads for the active bone marrow, and 7 rads for the stomach. The following upper levels of excess risk could be excluded with 95% confidence: 3.5 deaths/10(6) woman-year (WY)-rad for lung cancer, 4.8 deaths/10(6) WY-rad for lymphoma, and 12 deaths/10(6) WY-rad for leukemia. These findings indicated that the carcinogenic effect of multiple low-dose X-ray exposures was not greater than that currently assumed

  10. Insulin-like growth factor-1 enhances mortality risk in women with breast cancer through epithelial-mesenchymal transition initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala-Eddin Al Moustafa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metastatic disease which leads to cancer patients′ mortality results from a multi-step process of tumor progression caused by gene alteration and cooperation. Accordingly, it was recently demonstrated that alteration level of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 are associated with the risk of cancer related death in several human malignancies including breast cancer. On the other hand, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is described as a crucial event in cancer progression and metastasis. Herein, we discuss the association between IGF-1, IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio, EMT, and breast cancer mortality.

  11. What's wrong with sentinel node mapping in colon cancer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Despite near-universal embrace of the concept and clinical relevance of lymphatic mapping for sentinel node identification and analysis for cancers of the breast and integument, the same technique has struggled to a find a role in gastrointestinal cancers in general and,perhaps, in colon cancer in particular. Despite many studies demonstrating its feasibility in malignancies of the large bowel, concern is continually aroused by the variable and often unacceptably low sensitivity rates.Additionally, many confess uncertainty as to what benefit it could ever confer to patients even if it were proven sufficiently accurate given that standard surgical resection incorporates mesenteric resection anyway.However, the huge impact sentinel node mapping has had on clinical practice in certain cancers means that each of these aspects merit careful reconsideration, from very first principles.

  12. Male tobacco smoke load and non-lung cancer mortality associations in Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clancy Luke

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different methods exist to estimate smoking attributable cancer mortality rates (Peto and Ezzati methods, as examples. However, the smoking attributable estimates using these methods cannot be generalized to all population sub-groups. A simpler method has recently been developed that can be adapted and applied to different population sub-groups. This study assessed cumulative tobacco smoke damage (smoke load/non-lung cancer mortality associations across time from 1979 to 2003 among all Massachusetts males and ages 30–74 years, using this novel methodology. Methods Annual lung cancer death rates were used as smoke load bio-indices, and age-adjusted lung/all other (non-lung cancer death rates were analyzed with linear regression approach. Non-lung cancer death rates include all cancer deaths excluding lung. Smoking-attributable-fractions (SAFs for the latest period (year 2003 were estimated as: 1-(estimated unexposed cancer death rate/observed rate. Results Male lung and non-lung cancer death rates have declined steadily since 1992. Lung and non-lung cancer death rates were tightly and steeply associated across years. The slopes of the associations analyzed were 1.69 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.35–2.04, r = 0.90, and 1.36 (CI 1.14–1.58, r = 0.94 without detected autocorrelation (Durbin-Watson statistic = 1.8. The lung/non-lung cancer death rate associations suggest that all-sites cancer death rate SAFs in year 2003 were 73% (Sensitivity Range [SR] 61–82% for all ages and 74% (SR 61–82% for ages 30–74 years. Conclusion The strong lung/non-lung cancer death rate associations suggest that tobacco smoke load may be responsible for most prematurely fatal cancers at both lung and non-lung sites. The present method estimates are greater than the earlier estimates. Therefore, tobacco control may reduce cancer death rates more than previously noted.

  13. Nutritional Status Parameters as Risk Factors for Mortality in Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Sílvia Fernandes; Ribeiro, Helem Sena; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between weight loss, handgrip strength (HGS) and phase angle (PA) before the beginning of chemotherapy with overall survival in cancer patients. Patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal and breast cancer who were over 18 years old and were scheduled to undergo adjuvant treatment at Hospital Borges da Costa/Brazil were evaluated. The exclusion criteria were neoadjuvant treatment, patients with kidney and liver disease and using diuretics. Weight, HGS and PA tests were performed by trained dietitians. The Kaplan-Meier survival method and the log-rank test, cox regression and ROC curve were used and p loss of less than 10% of usual body weight (p loss and PA were predictors of mortality, HGS wasn't significantly associated with mortality. ROC analysis revealed that weight loss was the nutritional status parameter with the most predictive power. PMID:27348185

  14. Mortality from diseases other than cancer following low doses of ionizing radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, M; Cardis, E; Ashmore, P;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation at very high (radio-therapeutic) dose levels can cause diseases other than cancer, particularly heart diseases. There is increasing evidence that doses of the order of a few sievert (Sv) may also increase the risk of non-cancer diseases. It is not known, however......, whether such effects also occur following the lower doses and dose rates of public health concern. METHODS: We used data from an international (15-country) nuclear workers cohort study to evaluate whether mortality from diseases other than cancer is related to low doses of external ionizing radiation....... Analyses included 275 312 workers with adequate information on socioeconomic status, over 4 million person-years of follow-up and an average cumulative radiation dose of 20.7 mSv; 11 255 workers had died of non-cancer diseases. RESULTS: The excess relative risk (ERR) per Sv was 0.24 [95% CI (confidence...

  15. Brain cancer mortality rates increase with Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittecoq, Marion; Elguero, Eric; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Roche, Benjamin; Brodeur, Jacques; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Missé, Dorothée; Thomas, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of adult brain cancer was previously shown to be higher in countries where the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is common, suggesting that this brain protozoan could potentially increase the risk of tumor formation. Using countries as replicates has, however, several potential confounding factors, particularly because detection rates vary with country wealth. Using an independent dataset entirely within France, we further establish the significance of the association between T. gondii and brain cancer and find additional demographic resolution. In adult age classes 55 years and older, regional mortality rates due to brain cancer correlated positively with the local seroprevalence of T. gondii. This effect was particularly strong for men. While this novel evidence of a significant statistical association between T. gondii infection and brain cancer does not demonstrate causation, these results suggest that investigations at the scale of the individual are merited.

  16. Asbestosis as a precursor of asbestos related lung cancer: results of a prospective mortality study.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, J. M.; Weill, H

    1991-01-01

    A prospective mortality study of 839 men employed in the manufacture of asbestos cement products in 1969 examined lung cancer risk in relation to lung fibrosis seen on chest x ray film, controlling for age, smoking, and exposure to asbestos. Twenty or more years after hire, no excess of lung cancer was found among workers without radiographically detectable lung fibrosis, even among long term workers (greater than or equal to 21.5 years); nor was there a trend in risk by level of cumulative e...

  17. Mortality and cancer incidence in UK participants in UK atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and experimental programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief report is given of a study by the NRPB on the mortality and cancer incidence in UK participants in UK atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and experimental programmes. The results of 22,347 participants were compared with a population of 22,326 controls. It was concluded that participation in the nuclear weapons tests had no detectable effect on the participants' expectation of life or on their total risk of developing cancer, apart possibly from an effect on the risks from developing multiple myeloma and leukaemia. (U.K.)

  18. Reproductive history and pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality in a cohort of post-menopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Richard J.; Roddam, Andrew W; Green, Jane; Pirie, Kirstin; Bull, Diana; Reeves, Gillian K.; Beral, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    There is inconsistent evidence about the effect of reproductive history on women’s risk of pancreatic cancer. In the Million Women Study, a prospective cohort of middle-aged women in the UK, we examined associations between reproductive history and pancreatic cancer incidence and mortality, controlling for age, socioeconomic status, geographic region, body mass index, smoking and history of diabetes. During 7.1 million person-years of follow-up in 995,192 post-menopausal women there were 1,18...

  19. Incidence of gynaecological cancers and overall and cause specific mortality of grand multiparous women in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Hinkula, M

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this population-based cohort study was to evaluate the incidence and relative risk ratios of gynaecological cancers and the mortality of women with at least five children (GM women) compared to the average of Finnish women. We linked together the data of the Population Register (1974–1997), the Finnish Cancer Registry and the national cause-of death files of Statistics Finland (1974–2001) by using a personal identification code. The study population consisted of 86 978 ...

  20. Mortality in asymptomatic vs. symptomatic patients surgically treated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kirsten Riis; Bødtger, Uffe

    Introduction: Compared to incidentally found lung cancer, the presence of symptoms (eg. cough, haemoptysis, pain, weight loss) at diagnosis is associated with a 50% reduction in median survival. In surgically treated patients, it is unknown whether presence of symptoms has prognostic significance...... higher in asymptomatic than symptomatic subjects (23% vs. 12%), and in patients with former malignancy compared to patients with no former cancer (17% vs. 16%). Discussion: Symptoms at diagnosis per se appear unrelated to mortality in patients with NSCLC referred for surgery. Asymptomatic patients were...

  1. Statistical analyses of cancer mortality data of high background radiation areas of Yangjiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the methodology and results of the recent statistical analysis of cancer mortality data between 1970-1986 of high background radiation areas in Yangjiang, Guangdong, China. This analysis emphases on the establishment of reasonable mathematical models, parameter estimation techniques and combined analysis of data collected in different survey periods. Dose-response analyses were carried out in more detail to detect radiation effects. Statistical estimation of the upper confidence bounds of hazardous effect of radiation is given in terms of the upper confidence limit of excess relative risk of all cancers and of leukemia. The analysis further confirms that there is no correlation between radiation exposure and mortality from all cancers or from leukemia. Estimates of radiation induced cancer risk were made based on three mathematical models. Each model was designed for a specific subset of data which were collected differently in method or contain different information. The upper confidence limit of the excess relative risk was also estimated using the likelihood method. It is noted that the estimate of the upper bound of cancer risk is consistent with or similar to the result of occupational exposure and the risk extrapolated from the Japanese A-bomb study. Therefore, these results strengthen the conclusion that the estimates obtained through extrapolation from high dose data do not seriously underestimate the risk of low-dose exposure, but leave open the possibility that extrapolation may overestimate risks

  2. Lung cancer mortality and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in British coke oven workers

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Brian G.; Doust, Emma; Cherrie, John W.; Hurley, J Fintan

    2013-01-01

    Background Workers on coke oven plants may be exposed to potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly during work on the ovens tops. Two cohorts, employees of National Smokeless Fuels (NSF) and the British Steel Corporation (BSC) totalling more than 6,600 British coke plant workers employed in 1967, had been followed up to mid-1987 for mortality. Previous analyses suggested an excess in lung cancer risk of around 25%, or less when compared with Social Class I...

  3. Meat consumption and mortality - results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Overvad, Kim; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Egeberg, Rikke; Tjønneland, Anne; Nailler, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bergmann, Manuela M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recently, some US cohorts have shown a moderate association between red and processed meat consumption and mortality supporting the results of previous studies among vegetarians. The aim of this study was to examine the association of red meat, processed meat, and poultry consumption with the risk of early death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Included in the analysis were 448,568 men and women without prevalent canc...

  4. Incidence of cancer and mortality among employees in the asbestos cement industry in Denmark.

    OpenAIRE

    Raffn, E; Lynge, E; Juel, K.; Korsgaard, B

    1989-01-01

    In a cohort study of the incidence of cancer and mortality among 7996 men and 584 women employed in the Danish asbestos cement industry between 1928 and 1984 over 99% were traced. Chrysotile asbestos was the only fibre type used until 1946, when amosite and (in 1952) crocidolite were also introduced. Chrysotile constituted 89%, amosite 10%, and crocidolite 1% of the asbestos used. During the first 25 years of manufacture the exposure levels were high, especially in areas where the asbestos wa...

  5. Prevention of lymphocyte apoptosis in septic mice with cancer increases mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Amy C.; Elise R Breed; Liang, Zhe; Clark, Andrew T.; Zee-Cheng, Brendan R.; Chang, Katherine C.; Dominguez, Jessica A.; Jung, Enjae; Dunne, W. Michael; Burd, Eileen M.; Farris, Alton B.; Linehan, David C; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2011-01-01

    Lymphocyte apoptosis is thought to play a major role in the pathophysiology of sepsis. However, there is a disconnect between animal models of sepsis and patients with the disease, since the former use subjects that were healthy prior to the onset of infection while most patients have underlying comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether lymphocyte apoptosis prevention is effective in preventing mortality in septic mice with pre-existing cancer. Mice with lymphocyte Bcl...

  6. Tobacco-related cancer mortality: projections for different geographical regions in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Jürgens, Verena; Ess, Silvia; Phuleria, Harish C.; Früh, Martin; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Frick, Harald; Cerny, Thomas; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-01-01

    PRINCIPLES: Switzerland is divided into 26 cantons of variable population size and cultural characteristics. Although a federal law to protect against passive smoking and a national tobacco control programme exist, details of tobacco-related policies are canton-specific. This study aimed to project gender-specific tobacco-related cancer mortality in Switzerland at different geographical levels for the periods 2009-2013 and 2014-2018. METHODS: In this analysis, data on Swiss tobacco-related ca...

  7. Identification of racial disparities in breast cancer mortality: does scale matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan F Benjamin; Goovaerts Pierre; Tian Nancy; Wilson Jeff G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper investigates the impact of geographic scale (census tract, zip code, and county) on the detection of disparities in breast cancer mortality among three ethnic groups in Texas (period 1995-2005). Racial disparities were quantified using both relative (RR) and absolute (RD) statistics that account for the population size and correct for unreliable rates typically observed for minority groups and smaller geographic units. Results were then correlated with socio-eco...

  8. Mortalidad por cáncer en los mineros del mercurio Cancer mortality in mercury miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat García Gómez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar la mortalidad por cáncer en una cohorte de mineros del mercurio. Métodos: Estudiamos la mortalidad por cáncer de 3.998 mineros expuestos a mercurio de Minas de Almadén y Arrayanes, S.A. El período de seguimiento comprendió desde 1895 hasta 1994. Se determinó el estado vital y la causa básica de defunción. Se calcularon las razones de mortalidad estandarizadas (RME según la edad, el sexo y el período de calendario. Las muertes esperadas se obtuvieron de las tasas específicas españolas. Resultados: Se determinó el estado vital del 92% de los trabajadores: 1.786 estaban vivos en 1994 (49%, 1.535 habían muerto (42% y de 327 no pudo conocerse el estado vital (8%. La mortalidad por cáncer fue significativamente menor de la esperada (RME de 0,72; intervalo de confianza del 95%, 0,63-0,82, y se encontró el déficit principalmente en los cánceres de colon y vejiga. Se encontró un pequeño exceso en la mortalidad por cáncer de hígado, para el que se registraron 20 muertes, mientras se esperaban 17. La mortalidad por cáncer de pulmón y del sistema nervioso central fue prácticamente igual a la esperada; la mortalidad por cáncer de riñón fue menor de la esperada. Se observó una tendencia positiva en la mortalidad por todos los tipos de cáncer con la duración de la exposición. Conclusiones: Esta investigación aporta evidencias adicionales de la ausencia de un aumento sustancial del riesgo de cáncer en los trabajadores expuestos al mercurio inorgánico.Objectives: To analyze cancer mortality in a cohort of mercury miners. Methods: Cancer mortality in 3,998 workers exposed to mercury in Minas de Almadén y Arrayanes S.A. was studied. The follow-up period was from 1895 to 1994. Vital status and the basic cause of death, in the case of fatalities, were determined. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR by age, sex and calendar period were calculated. Expected deaths were obtained from age, sex and calendar period

  9. Proteomic maps of breast cancer subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyanova, Stefka; Albrechtsen, Reidar; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Cox, Juergen; Mann, Matthias; Geiger, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Systems-wide profiling of breast cancer has almost always entailed RNA and DNA analysis by microarray and sequencing techniques. Marked developments in proteomic technologies now enable very deep profiling of clinical samples, with high identification and quantification accuracy. We analysed 40 oestrogen receptor positive (luminal), Her2 positive and triple negative breast tumours and reached a quantitative depth of >10,000 proteins. These proteomic profiles identified functional differences between breast cancer subtypes, related to energy metabolism, cell growth, mRNA translation and cell-cell communication. Furthermore, we derived a signature of 19 proteins, which differ between the breast cancer subtypes, through support vector machine (SVM)-based classification and feature selection. Remarkably, only three proteins of the signature were associated with gene copy number variations and eleven were also reflected on the mRNA level. These breast cancer features revealed by our work provide novel insights that may ultimately translate to development of subtype-specific therapeutics. PMID:26725330

  10. Lung cancer mortality among nonsmoking uranium miners exposed to radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on radon daughters, both in the workplace and in the household, that are a continuing cause of concern because of the well-documented association between exposure to radon daughters and lung cancer. To estimate the risk of lung cancer mortality among nonsmokers exposed to varying levels of radon daughters, 516 white men who never smoked cigarettes, pipes, or cigars were selected from the U.S. Public Health Service cohort of Colorado Plateau uranium miners and followed up from 1950 through 1984. Age-specific mortality rates for nonsmokers from a study of U.S. veterans were used for comparison. Fourteen deaths from lung cancer were observed among the nonsmoking miners, while 1.1 deaths were expected, yielding a standardized mortality radio of 12.7 with 95% confidence limits of 8.0 and 20.1. These results confirm that exposure to radon daughters in the absence of cigarette smoking is a potent carcinogen that should be strictly controlled

  11. Late mortality among five-year survivors of cancer in childhood and adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Torgil R.; Garwicz, Stanislaw; Perfekt, Roland; Barlow, Lotti; Falck Winther, Jeanette; Glattre, Eystein; Olafsdottir, Gudridur; Olsen, Joergen H.; Ritvanen, Annukka; Sankila, Risto [Univ. Hospital MAS, Malmoe (Sweden). Dept. of Endocrinology

    2004-12-01

    The present study was aimed at assessing differences between the Nordic countries, if any, in late mortality among five-year survivors of childhood cancer. All cases diagnosed before the age of 20 years, between 1960 and 1989, were collected from all Nordic cancer registries. In total, 13,689 patients were identified as five-year survivors and during the extended follow-up 12.3% of them died. Mortality was analysed by decade of diagnosis, for all sites, and for leukaemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and central nervous system tumours separately. Analyses were done within a Cox proportional hazards regression framework with adjustments made for gender and age at diagnosis. Hazard ratios were calculated in relation to a weighted Nordic mean based on the proportion of five-year survivors in each country. Overall late mortality was significantly higher in Denmark and Finland than in Norway and Sweden. This could not be explained by inverse differences in five-year survival. The differences diminished over time and had disappeared in the last period. The pattern was similar for both genders. The disappearance of the differences was most probably the effect of a closer collaboration between Nordic paediatric oncologists with development and implementation of common protocols for treatment of childhood cancers in all countries.

  12. Use of Insulin and Mortality from Breast Cancer among Taiwanese Women with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao

    2015-01-01

    Background. To evaluate whether insulin use was predictive for mortality from breast cancer in Taiwanese women with diabetes mellitus. Methods. A total of 48,880 diabetic women were followed up to determine the mortality from breast cancer during 1995–2006. Cox models were used, considering the following independent variables: age, sex, diabetes type, diabetes duration, body mass index, smoking, insulin use, and area of residence. Insulin use was also considered for its duration of use at cutoffs of 3 years and 5 years. Results. Age was a significant predictor in all analyses. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval, P value) for insulin use without considering the duration of use was not statistically significant (1.339 [0.782–2.293, P = 0.2878]). Compared with nonusers, insulin users showed the following adjusted hazard ratios for insulin use <3 years, ≥3 years, <5 years, and ≥5 years: 0.567 (0.179–1.791, P = 0.3333), 2.006 (1.102–3.653, P = 0.0228), 1.045 (0.505–2.162, P = 0.9048), and 1.899 (0.934–3.860, P = 0.0763). Conclusions. Insulin use (mainly human insulin) for ≥3 years may be associated with a higher risk of breast cancer mortality. PMID:26171401

  13. Preexisting Diabetes and Risks of Morbidity and Mortality After Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Shian; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Kao, Yin-Hsien; Jeng, Long-Bin; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of surgical mortality and morbidity in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) undergoing a gastrectomy for gastric cancer (GC). Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 6284 patients who underwent gastrectomy for GC from 1999 to 2010. In addition, we created a non-DM control cohort consisting of 6268 patients who received gastrectomy during the same period. Compared with the non-DM cohort, the DM cohort exhibited a higher prevalence of preoperative coexisting medical conditions, namely hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic pulmonary disease, stroke, and cirrhosis. The odds ratio (OR) of 30-day postoperative mortality after gastrectomy in the DM cohort was 1.04 (95% confidence interval 0.78–1.40) after we adjusted for covariates. The DM cohort did not exhibit a significantly higher risk of 30-day postoperative morbidities. Further analysis revealed that only patients with a history of a DM-related coma exhibited a higher risk of 30-day postoperative mortality (adjusted OR 2.46, 95% confidence interval 1.10 − 5.54). Moreover, the risk of 90-day postoperative mortality was significantly higher in patients with DM-related eye involvement, coma, peripheral circulatory disease, and renal manifestations, in comparison with the non-DM cohort. The risk of 90-day mortality after gastrectomy for GC is higher in patients with DM-related manifestations than those without DM. PMID:26376386

  14. The effect of performing corrections on reported uterine cancer mortality data in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L.F. Antunes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Reports of uterine cancer deaths that do not specify the subsite of the tumor threaten the quality of the epidemiologic appraisal of corpus and cervix uteri cancer mortality. The present study assessed the impact of correcting the estimated corpus and cervix uteri cancer mortality in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The epidemiologic assessment of death rates comprised the estimation of magnitudes, trends (1980-2003, and area-level distribution based on three strategies: i using uncorrected death certificate information; ii correcting estimates of corpus and cervix uteri mortality by fully reallocating unspecified deaths to either one of these categories, and iii partially correcting specified estimates by maintaining as unspecified a fraction of deaths certified as due to cancer of "uterus not otherwise specified". The proportion of uterine cancer deaths without subsite specification decreased from 42.9% in 1984 to 20.8% in 2003. Partial and full corrections resulted in considerable increases of cervix (31.3 and 48.8%, respectively and corpus uteri (34.4 and 55.2% cancer mortality. Partial correction did not change trends for subsite-specific uterine cancer mortality, whereas full correction did, thus representing an early indication of decrease for cervical neoplasms and stability for tumors of the corpus uteri in this population. Ecologic correlations between mortality and socioeconomic indices were unchanged for both strategies of correcting estimates. Reallocating unspecified uterine cancer mortality in contexts with a high proportion of these deaths has a considerable impact on the epidemiologic profile of mortality and provides more reliable estimates of cervix and corpus uteri cancer death rates and trends.

  15. β-Blocker use and mortality in cancer patients: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shanliang; Yu, Dandan; Zhang, Xiaohui; Chen, Xiu; Yang, Sujin; Tang, Jinhai; Zhao, Jianhua; Wang, Shukui

    2016-09-01

    A number of epidemiologic studies have attempted to link the use of β blockers to mortality in cancer patients, but their findings have been inconclusive. A meta-analysis was carried out to derive a more precise estimation. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE to May 2015. We calculated the summary hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using random-effects models. Twenty cohort studies and four case-control studies involving 76 538 participants were included. The overall results showed that patients who used β blockers after diagnosis had an HR of 0.89 (95% CI 0.81-0.98) for all-cause mortality compared with nonusers. Those who used β blockers after diagnosis (vs. nonusers) had an HR of 0.89 (95% CI 0.79-0.99) for cancer-specific mortality. Prediagnostic use of β blockers showed no beneficial effect on all-cause mortality or cancer-specific mortality. Stratifying by cancer type, only breast cancer patients who used β blockers after diagnosis had a prolonged overall survival. A linear but nonsignificant trend was found between postdiagnostic β-blocker use and mortality of cancer patients. In conclusion, the average effect of β-blocker use after diagnosis but not before diagnosis is beneficial for the survival of cancer patients. PMID:26340056

  16. The effects of terrain shielding on cancer mortality in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills in environs around the hypocenter in Nagasaki City are suggested to have shielded (S) the resident in the hill back from A-bomb radiation (terrain shielding). The effect of this S on cancer mortality risk was analyzed by comparison with the risk in residents in non-shielded (NS) areas. An S area was selected at 2-3 km afar from the hypocenter and NS areas, at 2-3, 3-4 and 4-5 km (NS I, II, III, respectively). The subject cohorts were 1,579 residents in the S area, 1,504, 5,062 and 5,540 in the NS I, II and III areas, respectively; and were analyzed for their cancer death during 40 years from Jan. 1970 to Dec. 2009 by Cox proportional hazard model with covariates of the area, sex, age at exposure and death age. Cancer death was seen in 8.7% of the resident in S; and 11.9, 8.6 and 7.7% in NS I, NS II, and NS III, respectively. The hazard ratios of cancer mortality were 0.78 between areas S/NS I, 0.74 between N II/N I and 0.77 between N III/N I, which were all statistically significant. Thus reducing effect of S on cancer mortality was 22% as compared with that of residents in NS I, suggesting that the terrain shielding effect should be taken in consideration for evaluation of health hazard in Nagasaki. (T.T.)

  17. Symptomatic and incidental venous thromboembolic disease are both associated with mortality in patients with prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available The association between malignancy and venous thromboembolic disease (VTE is well established. The independent impact of VTE, both symptomatic and incidental, on survival in patients with prostate cancer is not known. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the effect of VTE of survival in prostate cancer.Data regarding clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of 453 consecutive prostate cancer patients were collected. Fisher exact (categorical variables and t-test (continuous variables were utilized to test associations with VTE and mortality. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan Meier method. A Cox regression model was used to model the mortality hazard ratio (HR.At diagnosis, 358 (83% patients had early stage disease, 43 (10% had locally advanced disease and 32 (7% had metastatic disease. During the follow up period, 122 (27% patients died and 41 (9% developed VTE (33 deep vein thrombosis, 5 pulmonary embolism, and 3 patients with both DVT and PE. Twenty-five VTE events were symptomatic and 16 were incidentally diagnosed on CT scans obtained for other reasons. VTE was associated with increased mortality [HR 6.89 (4.29-11.08, p<0.001] in a multivariable analysis adjusted for cancer stage, performance status, treatments and co-morbidities. There was no difference in survival between patients who had symptomatic and incidental VTE.Venous thromboembolic disease, both symptomatic and incidental, is a predictor of poor survival in patients with prostate cancer, especially those with advanced disease. Further studies are needed to evaluate the benefit of prophylactic and therapeutic anticoagulation in this population.

  18. Analysis of the lung cancer mortality in Mayak worker cohort with a model of carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer mortality in the Mayak worker cohort is analysed with the two stage clonal expansion (TSCE) model of carcinogenesis. Mayak production association includes a nuclear reactor, radiochemical plant and plutonium production plant. Reactor workers were exposed to external g-ray and neutron exposures, and workers in the radiochemical and plutonium facilities additionally to internal exposures due to plutonium inhalant ion. the cohort used in this study involves male nuclear workers for whom plutonium measurements and smoking information (smoker/non-smoker) exists and with health follow-up to the end of 1999. A Subcohort with 5421 workers and 274 lung cancer deaths is analysed. Within the TSCE model, an action of radiation was assumed both in initiation and promotion. specific emphasis was given to the distinction of the effects of external and internal exposures. The baseline lung cancer mortality rate was derived from the cohort itself. Using the smoking information significantly increased the quality of the fit. Analysis showed no effect of radiation on transformation. Two models are found to five equally good fit of the data. Both models have a linear dose dependence in TSCE-model parameters for external and internal radiation. Both models have linear dependence either initiation or promotion on birth year effect. It is found that most of the lung cancer cases are due to plutonium inhalation. The estimated excess relative risk per unit dose due to the plutonium a particles is 0.13/Sv, in both models. For the g-ray component, the present analysis gives an excess relative risk for lung cancer mortality of 0.02/Sv, in both models. Resulting risk for plutonium exposures is compatible with the radiation weighting factor 20. In general no strong dose or dose-rate effects were observed within the cohort. (Author)

  19. Meat consumption, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and mortality among colorectal cancer patients in the California Teachers Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zell, Jason A.; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Clarke, Christina A.; Deapen, Dennis; Largent, Joan A.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Stram, Daniel O.; Ursin, Giske; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2010-01-01

    A low meat diet and regular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with decreased mortality among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Here we investigated the association between pre-diagnosis usual meat consumption and CRC-specific mortality, and whether meat consumption modifies the previously noted association between NSAID use and CRC-specific mortality among women in the California Teachers Study (CTS) cohort. Women joining CTS in 1995–1996 without prior CRC di...

  20. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways and Lung Cancer Mortality. Italy, 1990–2010: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidoli, Ettore; Pappagallo, Marilena; Birri, Silvia; Frova, Luisa; Zanier, Loris; Serraino, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Background: Air pollution from road traffic has been associated to an increased risk of lung cancer. Herein, we investigated the association between lung cancer mortality and residence near Italian highways or national major roads. Methods: Information on deaths for lung cancer registered from 1990 to 2010 and stratified by age, gender, and urban or rural municipality of residence at death were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics. Distance between the centroid of the municipality of residence and closest major roadways was considered as a proxy of pollution exposure. Relative Risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using Poisson log-linear models adjusted for age, calendar period, deprivation index, North/South gradient, and urban/rural status. Results: A gradient in risk for lung cancer mortality was seen for residents within 50 meters (m) of national major roads. In particular, in rural municipalities a statistically significant increased risk for lung cancer death was observed in both sexes (RR = 1.27 for distance <25 m vs. 500–1999 m, 95% CI 1.17–1.42, in men; RR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.64–2.39, in women). In urban municipalities, weak risks of borderline significance were documented in both sexes (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.99–1.15 in men; and RR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.97–1.22 in women). No statistically significant association emerged between residence within 100 to 500 m from highways and RRs of death for lung cancer. Conclusions: In Italy, residing near national major roads, in particular in rural municipalities, was related to elevated risks of death for lung cancer. PMID:26848674

  1. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways and Lung Cancer Mortality. Italy, 1990–2010: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Bidoli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air pollution from road traffic has been associated to an increased risk of lung cancer. Herein, we investigated the association between lung cancer mortality and residence near Italian highways or national major roads. Methods: Information on deaths for lung cancer registered from 1990 to 2010 and stratified by age, gender, and urban or rural municipality of residence at death were obtained from the National Institute of Statistics. Distance between the centroid of the municipality of residence and closest major roadways was considered as a proxy of pollution exposure. Relative Risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were computed using Poisson log-linear models adjusted for age, calendar period, deprivation index, North/South gradient, and urban/rural status. Results: A gradient in risk for lung cancer mortality was seen for residents within 50 meters (m of national major roads. In particular, in rural municipalities a statistically significant increased risk for lung cancer death was observed in both sexes (RR = 1.27 for distance <25 m vs. 500–1999 m, 95% CI 1.17–1.42, in men; RR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.64–2.39, in women. In urban municipalities, weak risks of borderline significance were documented in both sexes (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.99–1.15 in men; and RR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.97–1.22 in women. No statistically significant association emerged between residence within 100 to 500 m from highways and RRs of death for lung cancer. Conclusions: In Italy, residing near national major roads, in particular in rural municipalities, was related to elevated risks of death for lung cancer.

  2. Assessing uncertainty in published risk estimates using hexavalent chromium and lung cancer mortality as an example [Presentation 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The National Research Council recommended quantitative evaluation of uncertainty in effect estimates for risk assessment. This analysis considers uncertainty across model forms and model parameterizations with hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and lung cancer mortality a...

  3. Studies of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors. Report 12, Part I. Cancer: 1950-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This continues the series of periodic general reports on cancer mortality in the cohort of A-bomb survivors followed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The follow-up is extended by the 5 years 1986-1990, and analysis includes an additional 10,500 survivors with recently estimated radiation doses. Together these extensions add about 550,000 person-years of follow-up. The cohort analyzed consists of 86,572 subjects, of which about 60% have dose estimates of at least 0.005 Sv. During 1950-1990 there have been 3086 and 4741 cancer deaths for the less than and greater than 0.005 Sv groups, respectively. It is estimated that among these there have been approximately 420 excess cancer deaths during 19509-1990, of which about 85 were due to leukemia, For cancers other than leukemia (solid cancers), about 25% of the excess deaths in 1950-1990 occurred during the last 5 years; for those exposed as children this figure is nearly 50%. For leukemia only about 3% of the excess deaths in 1950-1990 occurred in th last 5 years. Whereas most of the excess for leukemia occurred in the first 15 years after exposure, for solid cancers the pattern of excess risk in apparently more like alife-long elevation of the natural age-specific cancer risk. 29 refs., 8 figs., 19 tabs

  4. Permitted water pollution discharges and population cancer and non-cancer mortality: toxicity weights and upstream discharge effects in US rural-urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendryx Michael

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study conducts statistical and spatial analyses to investigate amounts and types of permitted surface water pollution discharges in relation to population mortality rates for cancer and non-cancer causes nationwide and by urban-rural setting. Data from the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR were used to measure the location, type, and quantity of a selected set of 38 discharge chemicals for 10,395 facilities across the contiguous US. Exposures were refined by weighting amounts of chemical discharges by their estimated toxicity to human health, and by estimating the discharges that occur not only in a local county, but area-weighted discharges occurring upstream in the same watershed. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC mortality files were used to measure age-adjusted population mortality rates for cancer, kidney disease, and total non-cancer causes. Analysis included multiple linear regressions to adjust for population health risk covariates. Spatial analyses were conducted by applying geographically weighted regression to examine the geographic relationships between releases and mortality. Results Greater non-carcinogenic chemical discharge quantities were associated with significantly higher non-cancer mortality rates, regardless of toxicity weighting or upstream discharge weighting. Cancer mortality was higher in association with carcinogenic discharges only after applying toxicity weights. Kidney disease mortality was related to higher non-carcinogenic discharges only when both applying toxicity weights and including upstream discharges. Effects for kidney mortality and total non-cancer mortality were stronger in rural areas than urban areas. Spatial results show correlations between non-carcinogenic discharges and cancer mortality for much of the contiguous United States, suggesting that chemicals not currently recognized as carcinogens may contribute to cancer

  5. Cancer mortality in Cuba and among the Cuban-born in the United States: 1979-81.

    OpenAIRE

    Shai, D

    1991-01-01

    The Cuban-born population of the United States, enumerated at 608,000 in the 1980 census, has been little studied with regard to cancer mortality. Being older and rarely migrating back to Cuba, Cuban Americans present a good subject for comparative cancer mortality. Age-adjusted death rates for selected causes of cancer are compared in this paper for Cubans in Cuba, the Cuban-born in the United States, and all whites in the United States. Two forms of cancer have been of particular concern in...

  6. Dose-response relationship analysis for cancer and circulatory system disease mortality risks among uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relation between lung cancer risk and radon exposure has been clearly established, especially from the studies on uranium miner cohorts. But the association between radon exposure and extrapulmonary cancers and non-cancer diseases remains not well known. Moreover, the health risks associated with the other mining-related ionizing radiation exposures are still under consideration. The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the estimation of the radio-induced health risks at low-doses through the analysis of the kidney cancer and Circulatory System Disease (CSD) mortality risks among uranium miners. Kidney cancer mortality risk analyses were performed from the French cohort of uranium miners (n=5086; follow-up period: 1946-2007), the post-55 cohort (n=3,377; follow-up period: 1957-2007) and the German cohort of the Wismut (n=58,986; follow-up period: 1946-2003) which included 24, 11 and 174 deaths from kidney cancer, respectively. The exposures to radon and its short-lived progeny (expressed in Working Level Month WLM), to uranium ore dust (kBqh.m-3) and to external gamma rays (mSv) were estimated for each miners and the equivalent kidney dose was calculated. The dose-response relation was refined considering two responses: the instantaneous risk of kidney cancer mortality (corresponding to the classical analysis, Cause specific Hazard Ratio (CSHR) estimated with the Cox model) and its occurrence probability during the followup (Sub-distribution Hazard Ratio (SHR) estimated with the Fine and Gray model). An excess of kidney cancer mortality was observed only in the French cohort (SMR = 1.62 CI95%[1.04; 2.41]). In the Wismut cohort, a decrease of the kidney cancer mortality was observed (0.89 [0.78; 0.99]). For these three cohorts, the occupational radiological exposures (or the equivalent kidney dose) were significantly associated neither with the risk of kidney cancer mortality (e.g. CSHRWismut-radon/100 WLM=1.023 [0.993; 1.053]), nor with its occurrence

  7. Lung cancer mortality in towns near paper, pulp and board industries in Spain: a point source pollution study

    OpenAIRE

    Pollán Marina; Aragonés Nuria; García-Pérez Javier; Monge-Corella Susana; Pérez-Gómez Beatriz; López-Abente Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background This study sought to ascertain whether there might be excess lung cancer mortality among the population residing in the vicinity of Spanish paper and board industries which report their emissions to the European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER). Methods This was an ecological study that modelled the Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) for lung cancer in 8073 Spanish towns over the period 1994–2003. Population exposure to industrial pollution was estimated on the basis of ...

  8. Dietary components and risk of total, cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality in the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials cohort in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Bing Wang; Jin-Hu Fan; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Rashmi Sinha; Freedman, Neal D.; Taylor, Philip R.; You-Lin Qiao; Abnet, Christian C.

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that dietary consumption of certain food groups is associated with a lower risk of cancer, heart disease and stroke mortality in western populations, limited prospective data are available from China. We prospectively examined the association between dietary intake of different food groups at baseline and risk of total, cancer, heart disease and stroke mortality outcomes in the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials(NIT) cohort. In 1984–1991, 2445 subjects ...

  9. Circulating soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor predicts cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and mortality in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, J; Andersen, O; Linneberg, A; Ladelund, S; Hansen T, W; Langkilde, A; Petersen, Janne; Pielak, T; Møller, N. L.; Jeppesen, J; Lyngbæk, S; Fenger, M; Olsen M, H; Borch-Johnsen, K; Jørgensen, Torben; Haugaard S, B; Hildebrandt, P. R.

    2010-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation is thought to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), cancer and mortality. Biomarkers of inflammation may aid in risk prediction and enable early intervention and prevention of disease.......Low-grade inflammation is thought to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), cancer and mortality. Biomarkers of inflammation may aid in risk prediction and enable early intervention and prevention of disease....

  10. Association between Changing Mortality of Digestive Tract Cancers and Water Pollution: A Case Study in the Huai River Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hongyan Ren; Xia Wan; Fei Yang; Xiaoming Shi; Jianwei Xu; Dafang Zhuang; Gonghuan Yang

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB) in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP) indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG), biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD), chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD), and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN) were used to characte...

  11. Impact of Reduced Tobacco Smoking on Lung Cancer Mortality in the United States During 1975–2000

    OpenAIRE

    Moolgavkar, Suresh H.; Holford, Theodore R.; Levy, David T.; Foy, Millenia; Clarke, Lauren; Jeon, Jihyoun; Hazelton, William D.; Meza, Rafael; Schultz, Frank; McCarthy, William; de Boer, Robert; Gorlova, Olga; Kimmel, Marek; de Koning, Harry J.; Feuer, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Considerable effort has been expended on tobacco control strategies in the United States since the mid-1950s. However, we have little quantitative information on how changes in smoking behaviors have impacted lung cancer mortality. We quantified the cumulative impact of changes in smoking behaviors that started in the mid-1950s on lung cancer mortality in the United States over the period 1975–2000. Methods: A consortium of six groups of investigators used common inputs consisting...

  12. The influence of advanced age on the morbi-mortality of gastric cancer after curative surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Mayol-Oltra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: gastric cancer (GC is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in Spain after lung, colorectal, breast and prostate tumours. Surgery remains the only potentially curative treatment in localized gastric cancer. Objective: the aim of our study is to evaluate and compare the clinical and surgical aspects, development of postoperative complications and outcomes of patients over 75 years old compared with younger patients in our centre. Material and methods: comparative retrospective study, from March 2003 to June 2011. We diagnosed 166 cases of GC, 109 (65 % underwent curative surgery. Two groups were settled: group M: ≥ 75 years (41 patients and group m: < 75 years (68 patients. We analyzed age, sex, comorbidities, tumour location, clinical stage, perioperative chemotherapy, surgical technique, postoperative complications, recurrence and mortality from cancer. Results: a more frequent presence of cardiovascular comorbidities and a greater postoperative mortality by medical causes were the only significant differences between both groups. Also, a lower proportion of patients in group M received preoperative chemotherapy and underwent D1 lymphadenectomy. However, the rate of local and systemic recurrence and overall survival were similar in both groups. Conclusions: age should not be considered a contraindication for curative surgery on GC. The general condition and comorbidities are more important to contraindicate surgical treatment.

  13. Oxygen supply maps for hypoxic microenvironment visualization in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Niels J.; Schüffler, Peter J.; Zhong, Qing; Falkner, Florian; Rechsteiner, Markus; Rüschoff, Jan H.; Fankhauser, Christian; Drach, Matthias; Largo, Remo; Tremp, Mathias; Poyet, Cedric; Sulser, Tullio; Kristiansen, Glen; Moch, Holger; Buhmann, Joachim; Müntener, Michael; Wild, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intratumoral hypoxia plays an important role with regard to tumor biology and susceptibility to radio- and chemotherapy. For further investigation of hypoxia-related changes, areas of certain hypoxia must be reliably detected within cancer tissues. Pimonidazole, a 2-nitroimindazole, accumulates in hypoxic tissue and can be easily visualized using immunohistochemistry. Materials and Methods: To improve detection of highly hypoxic versus normoxic areas in prostate cancer, immunoreactivity of pimonidazole and a combination of known hypoxia-related proteins was used to create computational oxygen supply maps of prostate cancer. Pimonidazole was intravenously administered before radical prostatectomy in n = 15 patients, using the da Vinci robot-assisted surgical system. Prostatectomy specimens were immediately transferred into buffered formaldehyde, fixed overnight, and completely embedded in paraffin. Pimonidazole accumulation and hypoxia-related protein expression were visualized by immunohistochemistry. Oxygen supply maps were created using the normalized information from pimonidazole and hypoxia-related proteins. Results: Based on pimonidazole staining and other hypoxia.related proteins (osteopontin, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, and glucose transporter member 1) oxygen supply maps in prostate cancer were created. Overall, oxygen supply maps consisting of information from all hypoxia-related proteins showed high correlation and mutual information to the golden standard of pimonidazole. Here, we describe an improved computer-based ex vivo model for an accurate detection of oxygen supply in human prostate cancer tissue. Conclusions: This platform can be used for precise colocalization of novel candidate hypoxia-related proteins in a representative number of prostate cancer cases, and improve issues of single marker correlations. Furthermore, this study provides a source for further in situ tests and biochemical investigations PMID:26955501

  14. Cancer specific mortality in insulin-treated type 2 diabetes patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Ioacara

    Full Text Available AIMS: To test the hypothesis that cumulative exposure to insulin and long-acting insulin analogs might be associated with cancer mortality in diabetes patients. METHODS: All consecutive diabetes patients aged over 40 years, residing in a major urban area were screened at their first diabetes outpatient visit between 01/01/2001-12/31/2008 (n = 79869. Exclusion criteria were insulin treatment at screening, no insulin treatment until 12/31/2008, less than 6 months of glucose-lowering treatment alone before insulin initiation, insulin prescription before glargine became available, age <40/≥ 80 years at first insulin prescription, and <6 months of insulin exposure. A total 4990 subjects were followed-up for death based on death certificate, until 12/31/2011. Adjusted time-dependent competing risk regression analysis, with daily updates of treatment modalities was performed. Results are expressed for every 10,000 IU of cumulative dose or one year of cumulative time exposure to insulin. RESULTS: Mean baseline age was 62 ± 9 years, and follow-up 4.7 ± 1.9 years. Glargine cumulative dose was associated with lower cancer mortality risk (subhazard ratio, SHR: 0.94 (95%CI 0.89-0.99, p = 0.033. Cumulative exposure limited to that attained one year prior to death revealed lower SHRs for cumulative time (0.94 (95%CI 0.89-0.99, p = 0.018 and cumulative dose of glargine (0.92 (95%CI 0.86-0.98, p = 0.014. Glargine cumulative time and cumulative dose were significant predictors for lower pancreatic and breast cancer mortality, but not for deaths from lung, colorectal, female genital, liver, and urinary tract cancer. No increased hazards were found for any other subtypes of insulins. CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative dose exposure to insulin glargine was associated with a lower risk of cancer mortality in general, and of breast and pancreatic cancer in particular. This effect remained even after additional "fixed" cohort or propensity score analyses.

  15. The Interval to Biochemical Failure Is Prognostic for Metastasis, Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality, and Overall Mortality After Salvage Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Skyler, E-mail: Skylerjohn3101@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Jackson, William; Li, Darren; Song, Yeohan; Foster, Corey; Foster, Ben; Zhou, Jessica; Vainshtein, Jeffrey; Feng, Felix; Hamstra, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the utility of the interval to biochemical failure (IBF) after salvage radiation therapy (SRT) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer as a surrogate endpoint for distant metastasis (DM), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), and overall mortality (OM). Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of 575 patients treated with SRT after RP from a single institution. Of those, 250 patients experienced biochemical failure (BF), with the IBF defined as the time from commencement of SRT to BF. The IBF was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models for its association with DM, PCSM, and OM. Results: The median follow-up time was 85 (interquartile range [IQR] 49.8-121.1) months, with a median IBF of 16.8 (IQR, 8.5-37.1) months. With a cutoff time of 18 months, as previously used, 129 (52%) of patients had IBF ≤18 months. There were no differences among any clinical or pathologic features between those with IBF ≤ and those with IBF >18 months. On log–rank analysis, IBF ≤18 months was prognostic for increased DM (P<.0001, HR 4.9, 95% CI 3.2-7.4), PCSM (P<.0001, HR 4.1, 95% CI 2.4-7.1), and OM (P<.0001, HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.7-4.1). Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for other clinical variables demonstrated that IBF was independently prognostic for DM (P<.001, HR 4.9), PCSM (P<.0001, HR 4.0), and OM (P<.0001, HR 2.7). IBF showed minimal change in performance regardless of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) use. Conclusion: After SRT, a short IBF can be used for early identification of patients who are most likely to experience progression to DM, PCSM, and OM. IBF ≤18 months may be useful in clinical practice or as an endpoint for clinical trials.

  16. The Interval to Biochemical Failure Is Prognostic for Metastasis, Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality, and Overall Mortality After Salvage Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the utility of the interval to biochemical failure (IBF) after salvage radiation therapy (SRT) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer as a surrogate endpoint for distant metastasis (DM), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), and overall mortality (OM). Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of 575 patients treated with SRT after RP from a single institution. Of those, 250 patients experienced biochemical failure (BF), with the IBF defined as the time from commencement of SRT to BF. The IBF was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models for its association with DM, PCSM, and OM. Results: The median follow-up time was 85 (interquartile range [IQR] 49.8-121.1) months, with a median IBF of 16.8 (IQR, 8.5-37.1) months. With a cutoff time of 18 months, as previously used, 129 (52%) of patients had IBF ≤18 months. There were no differences among any clinical or pathologic features between those with IBF ≤ and those with IBF >18 months. On log–rank analysis, IBF ≤18 months was prognostic for increased DM (P<.0001, HR 4.9, 95% CI 3.2-7.4), PCSM (P<.0001, HR 4.1, 95% CI 2.4-7.1), and OM (P<.0001, HR 2.7, 95% CI 1.7-4.1). Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for other clinical variables demonstrated that IBF was independently prognostic for DM (P<.001, HR 4.9), PCSM (P<.0001, HR 4.0), and OM (P<.0001, HR 2.7). IBF showed minimal change in performance regardless of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) use. Conclusion: After SRT, a short IBF can be used for early identification of patients who are most likely to experience progression to DM, PCSM, and OM. IBF ≤18 months may be useful in clinical practice or as an endpoint for clinical trials

  17. Prostate Cancer Screening : The effect on prostate cancer mortality and incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Leeuwen (Pim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAt first glance, deciding whether to get the PSA screening test for prostate cancer seems to be pretty straightforward and attractive. It’s a simple blood test that can pick up the prostate cancer long before your symptoms appear. After all, your prostate cancer is earlier treated result

  18. Cause-specific long-term mortality in survivors of childhood cancer in Switzerland: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Matthias; Spycher, Ben D; Ammann, Roland A; Ansari, Marc; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2016-07-15

    Survivors of childhood cancer have a higher mortality than the general population. We describe cause-specific long-term mortality in a population-based cohort of childhood cancer survivors. We included all children diagnosed with cancer in Switzerland (1976-2007) at age 0-14 years, who survived ≥5 years after diagnosis and followed survivors until December 31, 2012. We obtained causes of death (COD) from the Swiss mortality statistics and used data from the Swiss general population to calculate age-, calendar year-, and sex-standardized mortality ratios (SMR), and absolute excess risks (AER) for different COD, by Poisson regression. We included 3,965 survivors and 49,704 person years at risk. Of these, 246 (6.2%) died, which was 11 times higher than expected (SMR 11.0). Mortality was particularly high for diseases of the respiratory (SMR 14.8) and circulatory system (SMR 12.7), and for second cancers (SMR 11.6). The pattern of cause-specific mortality differed by primary cancer diagnosis, and changed with time since diagnosis. In the first 10 years after 5-year survival, 78.9% of excess deaths were caused by recurrence of the original cancer (AER 46.1). Twenty-five years after diagnosis, only 36.5% (AER 9.1) were caused by recurrence, 21.3% by second cancers (AER 5.3) and 33.3% by circulatory diseases (AER 8.3). Our study confirms an elevated mortality in survivors of childhood cancer for at least 30 years after diagnosis with an increased proportion of deaths caused by late toxicities of the treatment. The results underline the importance of clinical follow-up continuing years after the end of treatment for childhood cancer. PMID:26950898

  19. Simulation of reduced breast cancer mortality in breast cancer screening programs; Simulacion de la reduccion de mortalidad por cancer de mama en programas de cribado mamografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, L. I.; Forastero, C.; Guirado, D.; Lallena, A. M.

    2011-07-01

    The breast cancer screening programs are an essential tool in the fight against breast cancer. Currently, many questions concerning the setup of these programs are open, namely: age range of women who undergo the same, frequency of mammography, ... The effectiveness of a program should be evaluated in terms of mortality reduction is its systematic implementation in the population. In this sense, we performed Monte Carlo simulations to assess that these reductions.

  20. Trends of cancer incidence and mortality in Cali, Colombia. 50 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Bravo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: The Population-based Cancer Registry of Cali aims to report all new cases in permanent residents within the limits of the city of Cali. Time trends of cancer incidence and mortality are described. The registry has been in continuous operation for 50 years. Methods: Cancer cases reports are obtained actively by visiting all sources of information: hospitals, pathology departments, hematology laboratories, radiotherapy centers, government offices where death certificates are processed and physician’s offices. It is estimated that the reporting is at least 95% complete. Results: Drastic decreases are documented in rates for tumors causally related to infectious agents, especially cancers of the uterine cervix and the stomach. Gradual increases are documented in rates of tumors linked to affluence and the metabolic syndrome, especially cancers of the colon and the female breast. An unexpected increase in the incidence of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in women is reported. Tobacco-related cancers, especially cancer of the lung, showed marked increase in incidence rates around 1970, apparently the beginning of an epidemic similar to the one reported in Western societies. But the increase in incidence stopped around 1980, resulting from a strong anti-smoking campaign launched in Colombia in the 1970s. Conclusions: The findings have influenced prevention strategies implemented by public health authorities, specially the establishment of a city-wide program to prevent cervix cancer via widespread use of vaginal cytology and anti-smoking campaigns. Also, new population-based cancer registries have been established in other Colombian cities as well as in Ecuador.

  1. Trends of cancer incidence and mortality in Cali, Colombia. 50 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose :The Population-based Cancer Registry of Cali aims to report all new cases in permanent residents within the limits of the city of Cali. Time trends of cancer incidence and mortality are described. The registry has been in continuous operation for 50 years. Methods: Cancer cases reports are obtained actively by visiting all sources of information: hospitals, pathology departments, hematology laboratories, radiotherapy centers, government offices where death certificates are processed and physician’s offices. It is estimated that the reporting is at least 95% complete. Results: Drastic decreases are documented in rates for tumors causally related to infectious agents, especially cancers of the uterine cervix and the stomach. Gradual increases are documented in rates of tumors linked to affluence and the metabolic syndrome, especially cancers of the colon and the female breast. An unexpected increase in the incidence of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in women is reported. Tobacco-related cancers, especially cancer of the lung, showed marked increase in incidence rates around 1970, apparently the beginning of an epidemic similar to the one reported in Western societies. But the increase in incidence stopped around 1980, resulting from a strong anti-smoking campaign launched in Colombia in the 1970s. Conclusions: The findings have influenced prevention strategies implemented by public health authorities, specially the establishment of a city-wide program to prevent cervix cancer via widespread use of vaginal cytology and anti-smoking campaigns. Also, new population-based cancer registries have been established in other Colombian cities as well as in Ecuador.

  2. The relative contributions of different organ sites to the total cancer mortality associated with low-dose radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the factors involved in the assessment of the relative contributions of mortality from cancer of individual organs are explored, thus providing a basis for new estimates of weighting factors to be made by the ICRP in assessing the total detriment for a given radiation dose. Systems of site-specific relative weights for cancer mortality risk due to radiation exposure were examined with respect to the effects of age, sex, projection model, population characteristics as represented by baseline, cause-specific mortality rates and choice between probability of untimely death and expected loss of life span as a measure of health detriment. (UK)

  3. Time from first presentation of symptoms in primary care until diagnosis of cancer: Association with mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Marie Louise

    association was reverse, although not statistically significant. The thesis demonstrates how confounding by indication hampers the epidemiological study design by masking the actual effect of delay. For obvious clinical reasons, doctors respond faster to patients who are clinically very sick and have clear...... than other patients. Some studies illustrating this paradox take the results to show no association and find them reassuring. The aim of this thesis was to validly identify an underlying relation between delayed diagnosis and mortality by exploring the association between time from first presentation...... of symptoms in primary care to diagnosis (the diagnostic interval) and mortality after diagnosis of cancer. The empirical part of the thesis consists of three papers based on data from two Danish and one British population-based study. In Paper I, we analyse the association between the length of...

  4. Historical U.S. Residential Coal Use and Female Lung Cancer Mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, Jennifer; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    2001-03-01

    Recent ecological and case-control studies have indicated elevated lung cancer mortality (LCM) associated with bituminous "smoky" coal use in China, but no similar study has been conducted using U.S. populations. Early 20th century U.S. home cooking and heating fuels were examined in relation to age-specific female LCM, focusing on county-level mortality during 1950-54 to reduce potential inter-county confounding due to cigarette smoking among women aged 40* vs. 60* years (among whom 11% vs. 5% ever smoked, respectively). Overall, a significant relationship was found between female LCM and county-level average per capita bituminous coal use with and without adjustment for numerous covariates in counties where ~75% of homes used coal for heating. This positive association was similar in each female age group after adjustment of 190 combinations of variates considered in addition t

  5. Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality in the United States, 1993–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscoe Francis P

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An inverse relationship between solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B exposure and non-skin cancer mortality has long been reported. Vitamin D, acquired primarily through exposure to the sun via the skin, is believed to inhibit tumor development and growth and reduce mortality for certain cancers. Methods We extend the analysis of this relationship to include cancer incidence as well as mortality, using higher quality and higher resolution data sets than have typically been available. Over three million incident cancer cases between 1998 and 2002 and three million cancer deaths between 1993 and 2002 in the continental United States were regressed against daily satellite-measured solar UV-B levels, adjusting for numerous confounders. Relative risks of reduced solar UV-B exposure were calculated for thirty-two different cancer sites. Results For non-Hispanic whites, an inverse relationship between solar UV-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality was observed for ten sites: bladder, colon, Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloma, other biliary, prostate, rectum, stomach, uterus, and vulva. Weaker evidence of an inverse relationship was observed for six sites: breast, kidney, leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, pancreas, and small intestine. For three sites, inverse relationships were seen that varied markedly by sex: esophagus (stronger in males than females, gallbladder (stronger in females than males, and thyroid (only seen in females. No association was found for bone and joint, brain, larynx, liver, nasal cavity, ovary, soft tissue, male thyroid, and miscellaneous cancers. A positive association between solar UV-B exposure and cancer mortality and incidence was found for anus, cervix, oral cavity, melanoma, and other non-epithelial skin cancer. Conclusion This paper adds to the mounting evidence for the influential role of solar UV-B exposure on cancer, particularly for some of the less-well studied digestive cancers. The relative risks for cancer

  6. Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality in the United States, 1993–2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An inverse relationship between solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure and non-skin cancer mortality has long been reported. Vitamin D, acquired primarily through exposure to the sun via the skin, is believed to inhibit tumor development and growth and reduce mortality for certain cancers. We extend the analysis of this relationship to include cancer incidence as well as mortality, using higher quality and higher resolution data sets than have typically been available. Over three million incident cancer cases between 1998 and 2002 and three million cancer deaths between 1993 and 2002 in the continental United States were regressed against daily satellite-measured solar UV-B levels, adjusting for numerous confounders. Relative risks of reduced solar UV-B exposure were calculated for thirty-two different cancer sites. For non-Hispanic whites, an inverse relationship between solar UV-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality was observed for ten sites: bladder, colon, Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloma, other biliary, prostate, rectum, stomach, uterus, and vulva. Weaker evidence of an inverse relationship was observed for six sites: breast, kidney, leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, pancreas, and small intestine. For three sites, inverse relationships were seen that varied markedly by sex: esophagus (stronger in males than females), gallbladder (stronger in females than males), and thyroid (only seen in females). No association was found for bone and joint, brain, larynx, liver, nasal cavity, ovary, soft tissue, male thyroid, and miscellaneous cancers. A positive association between solar UV-B exposure and cancer mortality and incidence was found for anus, cervix, oral cavity, melanoma, and other non-epithelial skin cancer. This paper adds to the mounting evidence for the influential role of solar UV-B exposure on cancer, particularly for some of the less-well studied digestive cancers. The relative risks for cancer incidence are similar to those for cancer mortality for most

  7. Rethinking ovarian cancer II: reducing mortality from high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowtell, David D; Böhm, Steffen; Ahmed, Ahmed A; Aspuria, Paul-Joseph; Bast, Robert C; Beral, Valerie; Berek, Jonathan S; Birrer, Michael J; Blagden, Sarah; Bookman, Michael A; Brenton, James D; Chiappinelli, Katherine B; Martins, Filipe Correia; Coukos, George; Drapkin, Ronny; Edmondson, Richard; Fotopoulou, Christina; Gabra, Hani; Galon, Jérôme; Gourley, Charlie; Heong, Valerie; Huntsman, David G; Iwanicki, Marcin; Karlan, Beth Y; Kaye, Allyson; Lengyel, Ernst; Levine, Douglas A; Lu, Karen H; McNeish, Iain A; Menon, Usha; Narod, Steven A; Nelson, Brad H; Nephew, Kenneth P; Pharoah, Paul; Powell, Daniel J; Ramos, Pilar; Romero, Iris L; Scott, Clare L; Sood, Anil K; Stronach, Euan A; Balkwill, Frances R

    2015-11-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) accounts for 70-80% of ovarian cancer deaths, and overall survival has not changed significantly for several decades. In this Opinion article, we outline a set of research priorities that we believe will reduce incidence and improve outcomes for women with this disease. This 'roadmap' for HGSOC was determined after extensive discussions at an Ovarian Cancer Action meeting in January 2015. PMID:26493647

  8. Rethinking ovarian cancer II: reducing mortality from high-grade serous ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowtell, David D.; Böhm, Steffen; Ahmed, Ahmed A.; Aspuria, Paul-Joseph; Bast, Robert C.; Beral, Valerie; Berek, Jonathan S.; Birrer, Michael J.; Blagden, Sarah; Bookman, Michael A.; Brenton, James; Chiappinelli, Katherine B.; Martins, Filipe Correia; Coukos, George; Drapkin, Ronny; Edmondson, Richard; Fotopoulou, Christina; Gabra, Hani; Galon, Jérôme; Gourley, Charlie; Heong, Valerie; Huntsman, David G.; Iwanicki, Marcin; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kaye, Allyson; Lengyel, Ernst; Levine, Douglas A.; Lu, Karen H.; McNeish, Iain A.; Menon, Usha; Narod, Steve A.; Nelson, Brad H.; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Pharoah, Paul; Powell, Daniel J.; Ramos, Pilar; Romero, Iris L.; Scott, Clare L.; Sood, Anil K.; Stronach, Euan A.; Balkwill, Frances R.

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) accounts for 70-80% of ovarian cancer deaths, and overall survival has not changed significantly for several decades. In this Opinion article, we outline a set of research priorities that we believe will reduce incidence and improve outcomes for women with this disease. This ‘roadmap’ for HGSOC was determined after extensive discussions at an Ovarian Cancer Action meeting in January 2015. PMID:26493647

  9. Identification of racial disparities in breast cancer mortality: does scale matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan F Benjamin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper investigates the impact of geographic scale (census tract, zip code, and county on the detection of disparities in breast cancer mortality among three ethnic groups in Texas (period 1995-2005. Racial disparities were quantified using both relative (RR and absolute (RD statistics that account for the population size and correct for unreliable rates typically observed for minority groups and smaller geographic units. Results were then correlated with socio-economic status measured by the percentage of habitants living below the poverty level. Results African-American and Hispanic women generally experience higher mortality than White non-Hispanics, and these differences are especially significant in the southeast metropolitan areas and southwest border of Texas. The proportion and location of significant racial disparities however changed depending on the type of statistic (RR versus RD and the geographic level. The largest proportion of significant results was observed for the RD statistic and census tract data. Geographic regions with significant racial disparities for African-Americans and Hispanics frequently had a poverty rate above 10.00%. Conclusions This study investigates both relative and absolute racial disparities in breast cancer mortality between White non-Hispanic and African-American/Hispanic women at the census tract, zip code and county levels. Analysis at the census tract level generally led to a larger proportion of geographical units experiencing significantly higher mortality rates for minority groups, although results varied depending on the use of the relative versus absolute statistics. Additional research is needed before general conclusions can be formulated regarding the choice of optimal geographic regions for the detection of racial disparities.

  10. Adjusting a cancer mortality-prediction model for disease status-related eligibility criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmel Marek

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Volunteering participants in disease studies tend to be healthier than the general population partially due to specific enrollment criteria. Using modeling to accurately predict outcomes of cohort studies enrolling volunteers requires adjusting for the bias introduced in this way. Here we propose a new method to account for the effect of a specific form of healthy volunteer bias resulting from imposing disease status-related eligibility criteria, on disease-specific mortality, by explicitly modeling the length of the time interval between the moment when the subject becomes ineligible for the study, and the outcome. Methods Using survival time data from 1190 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients at MD Anderson Cancer Center, we model the time from clinical lung cancer diagnosis to death using an exponential distribution to approximate the length of this interval for a study where lung cancer death serves as the outcome. Incorporating this interval into our previously developed lung cancer risk model, we adjust for the effect of disease status-related eligibility criteria in predicting the number of lung cancer deaths in the control arm of CARET. The effect of the adjustment using the MD Anderson-derived approximation is compared to that based on SEER data. Results Using the adjustment developed in conjunction with our existing lung cancer model, we are able to accurately predict the number of lung cancer deaths observed in the control arm of CARET. Conclusions The resulting adjustment was accurate in predicting the lower rates of disease observed in the early years while still maintaining reasonable prediction ability in the later years of the trial. This method could be used to adjust for, or predict the duration and relative effect of any possible biases related to disease-specific eligibility criteria in modeling studies of volunteer-based cohorts.

  11. Insight into the differences in classification of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes between Wang’s lymph node map and the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer lymph node map

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ya-qing; Wang, Ko-Pen; Ben, Su-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of malignant-tumor-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) has for the past 30 years been an effective technique for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. Understanding the anatomy of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes is essential to improve the yield of TBNA. Wang’s lymph node map is based on the lymph node map of the American Thoracic Society (ATS), and on the TBNA technique; it was published in 1994, and has pr...

  12. Serum uric acid levels and cancer mortality risk among males in a large general population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, N.; Vonk, J. M.; Boezen, H. M.

    2014-01-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA) has antioxidant capacities and therefore may protect against the development of cancer. Few epidemiological studies have tested this hypothesis, and findings were inconsistent. We studied the association between SUA levels and mortality due to any type of cancer, and three comm

  13. Objective allergy markers and risk of cancer mortality and hospitalization in a large population-based cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar; Vonk, Judith M; Hospers, Jeannette J; Postma, Dirkje S; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Schouten, Jan P; Boezen, H Marike

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: There are indications that a history of allergy may offer some protection against cancer. We studied the relation of three objectively determined allergy markers with cancer mortality and hospitalization risk. METHODS: Associations between three allergy markers (number of peripheral blood e

  14. Geographic Disparities in Cervical Cancer Mortality: What Are the Roles of Risk Factor Prevalence, Screening, and Use of Recommended Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabroff, K. Robin; Lawrence, William F.; King, Jason C.; Mangan, Patricia; Washington, Kathleen Shakira; Yi, Bin; Kerner, Jon F.; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.

    2005-01-01

    Despite advances in early detection and prevention of cervical cancer, women living in rural areas, and particularly in Appalachia, the rural South, the Texas-Mexico border, and the central valley of California, have had consistently higher rates of cervical cancer mortality than their counterparts in other areas during the past several decades.…

  15. Cause-specific mortality and second cancer incidence after non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bluhm, Elizabeth C.; Ronckers, Cécile; Hayashi, Robert J.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Mertens, Ann C.; Stovall, Marilyn; Meadows, Anna T.; Mitby, Pauline A.; Whitton, John A.; Hammond, Sue; Barker, Joseph D.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Robison, Leslie L.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2008-01-01

    Second primary malignancies and premature death are a concern for patients surviving treatment for childhood lymphomas. We assessed mortality and second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) among 1082 5-year survivors of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a multi-institutional North American retrospective cohort study of cancer survivors diagnosed from 1970 to 1986. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated using US pop...

  16. Individual- and neighborhood-level predictors of mortality in Florida colorectal cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey L Tannenbaum

    Full Text Available We examined individual-level and neighborhood-level predictors of mortality in CRC patients diagnosed in Florida to identify high-risk groups for targeted interventions.Demographic and clinical data from the Florida Cancer Data System registry (2007-2011 were linked with Agency for Health Care Administration and US Census data (n = 47,872. Cox hazard regression models were fitted with candidate predictors of CRC survival and stratified by age group (18-49, 50-64, 65+.Stratified by age group, higher mortality risk per comorbidity was found among youngest (21%, followed by middle (19%, and then oldest (14% age groups. The two younger age groups had higher mortality risk with proximal compared to those with distal cancer. Compared with private insurance, those in the middle age group were at higher death risk if not insured (HR = 1.35, or received healthcare through Medicare (HR = 1.44, Medicaid (HR = 1.53, or the Veteran's Administration (HR = 1.26. Only Medicaid in the youngest (52% higher risk and those not insured in the oldest group (24% lower risk were significantly different from their privately insured counterparts. Among 18-49 and 50-64 age groups there was a higher mortality risk among the lowest SES (1.17- and 1.23-fold higher in the middle age and 1.12- and 1.17-fold higher in the older age group, respectively compared to highest SES. Married patients were significantly better off than divorced/separated (HR = 1.22, single (HR = 1.29, or widowed (HR = 1.19 patients.Factors associated with increased risk for mortality among individuals with CRC included being older, uninsured, unmarried, more comorbidities, living in lower SES neighborhoods, and diagnosed at later disease stage. Higher risk among younger patients was attributed to proximal cancer site, Medicaid, and distant disease; however, lower SES and being unmarried were not risk factors in this age group. Targeted interventions to improve

  17. A cancer mortality study in Bombay-based atomic energy community: 1975-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer deaths recorded by the centralized health services of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) among its employees and their families stationed in Bombay during 1975-1987 have been analysed. Expected number of deaths due to cancer in the study group has been estimated by using the age -sex -specific cancer death rates reported for Bombay resident population for the year 1983. The size of the database for the entire DAE community is about 702,000 person years and the number of cancer deaths observed in 154. Analysis has been done separately for employees and their families, individually for important groups of cancer sites such as respiratory organs, digestive organs, breast, genito-urinary organs and lymphatic and haematopoietic systems. The standardised mortality ratios are generally lower than 100, which may partly be due to the 'healthy worker effect' in the DAE community and partly because of its differences in the social class distribution and the concomitant differences in lifestyle with respect to the comparison group of Bombay city. (author). 4 tabs., 2 figs., 9 refs

  18. First and subsequent asbestos exposures in relation to mesothelioma and lung cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, E; Pelucchi, C; Piolatto, P G; Negri, E; Discalzi, G; La Vecchia, C

    2007-11-01

    We analysed data from a cohort of 1966 subjects (889 men and 1,077 women) employed by an Italian asbestos (mainly textile) company in the period 1946-1984, who were followed-up to 2004. A total of 62,025 person-years of observation were recorded. We computed standardised mortality ratios (SMR) for all causes and selected cancer sites using national death rates for each 5-year calendar period and age group. There were 68 deaths from mesothelioma (25 men and 43 women, 39 pleural and 29 peritoneal) vs 1.6 expected (SMR=4,159), and 109 from lung cancer vs 35.1 expected (SMR=310). The SMRs of pleural/peritoneal cancer were 6661 for subjects exposed only before 30 years of age, 8,019 for those first exposed before 30 and still employed at 30-39 years of age and 5,786 for those first exposed before 30 and still employed at 40 or more years of age. The corresponding SMRs for lung cancer were 227, 446 and 562. The SMR of mesothelioma was strongly related to time since first exposure. The SMR of lung cancer, but not of mesothelioma, appeared to be related to subsequent exposures. PMID:17895892

  19. Mortality and cancer morbidity in cohorts of asbestos cement workers and referents.

    OpenAIRE

    Albin, M; Jakobsson, K; Attewell, R; L. Johansson; Welinder, H

    1990-01-01

    Total and cause specific mortality and cancer morbidity were studied among 1929 asbestos cement workers with an estimated median cumulative exposure of 2.3 fibre (f)-years/ml (median intensity 1.2 f/ml, predominantly chrysotile). A local reference cohort of 1233 industrial workers and non-case referents from the exposed cohort were used for comparisons. The risk for pleural mesothelioma was significantly increased (13 cases out of 592 deaths in workers with at least 20 years latency). No case...

  20. Radiation risk and cancer mortality in exposed populations living near the Techa River in Southern Urals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossenko, M.M.; Degteva, M.O.

    1992-06-01

    The appropriateness of applying risk coefficients calculated from short-term exposures at high doses for the assessment of radiation effects at low doses is currently much debated. The problem can be resolved on the basis of the data obtained from a long-term follow-up of the population exposed in the early 1950s when discharges of radioactive wastes from a radiochemical plant into the Techa River (southern Urals) occurred. This paper discusses the results of an analysis of cancer mortality during the period 1950-82. 10 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Cancer mortality in a rural population living in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last period, some minor incidents at the Kozlodui Nuclear Power Plant, placed on the left bank of the Danube, have been notified. The mass media and the population living on the romanian Danube's bank closed to Kozlodui - having still in mind the Chernobyl disaster - became more concerned about the possible health effects as a consequence of these events. On the other hand from the 1995 the cancer mortality in our country has an ascendant evolution. In this context the public health authority considered as a duty to pay attention to the possible influence of the Kozlodui Nuclear Power Plant on the local population health

  2. Cancer Specific Mortality in Insulin-Treated Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ioacara, Sorin; Guja, Cristian; Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; Fica, Simona; Roden, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Aims To test the hypothesis that cumulative exposure to insulin and long-acting insulin analogs might be associated with cancer mortality in diabetes patients. Methods All consecutive diabetes patients aged over 40 years, residing in a major urban area were screened at their first diabetes outpatient visit between 01/01/2001-12/31/2008 (n = 79869). Exclusion criteria were insulin treatment at screening, no insulin treatment until 12/31/2008, less than 6 months of glucose-lowering treatment al...

  3. Comparison of mortality outcomes after radical prostatectomy versus radiotherapy in patients with localized prostate cancer. A population-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this study were to compare the mortality outcomes of radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy as treatment modalities for patients with localized prostate cancer. Our cohort consisted of 68 665 patients with localized prostate cancer, treated with radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy, between 1992 and 2005. Propensity-score matching was used to minimize potential bias related to treatment assignment. Competing-risks analyses tested the effect of treatment type on cancer-specific mortality, after accounting for other-cause mortality. All analyses were stratified according to prostate cancer risk groups, baseline Charlson Comorbidity Index and age. For patients treated with radical prostatectomy versus radiotherapy, the 10-year cancer-specific mortality rates were 1.4 versus 3.9% in low-intermediate risk prostate cancer and 6.8 versus 11.5% in high-risk prostate cancer, respectively. Rates were 2.4 versus 5.9% in patients with Charlson Comorbidity Index of 0, 2.4 versus 5.1% in patients with Charlson Comorbidity Index of 1, and 2.9 versus 5.2% in patients with Charlson Comorbidity Index of ≥2. Rates were 2.1 versus 5.0% in patients aged 65-69 years, 2.8 versus 5.5% in patients aged 70-74 years, and 2.9 versus 7.6% in patients aged 75-80 years (all P<0.001). At multivariable analyses, radiotherapy was associated with less favorable cancer-specific mortality in all categories (all P<0.001). Patients treated with radical prostatectomy fare substantially better than those treated with radiotherapy. Patients with high-risk prostate cancer benefit the most from radical prostatectomy. Conversely, the lowest benefit was observed in patients with low-intermediate risk prostate cancer and/or multiple comorbidities. An intermediate benefit was observed in the other examined categories. (author)

  4. Glycated Hemoglobin and Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the Atherosclerosis in Communities (ARIC) Study, 1990–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Joshu, Corinne E.; Prizment, Anna E.; Dluzniewski, Paul J.; Menke, Andy; Folsom, Aaron R.; Coresh, Josef; Yeh, Hsin C; Brancati, Frederick L.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a risk factor for many cancers; chronic hyperglycemia is hypothesized to be, in part, explanatory. We evaluated the association between glycated hemoglobin, a time-integrated glycemia measure, and cancer incidence and mortality in non-diabetic and diabetic men and women. We conducted a prospective study of 12,792 cancer-free participants attending the second visit (1990–1992) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. We measured glycated hemoglobin in whole-blood sa...

  5. The Association of Reproductive Hormone Levels and All-Cause, Cancer, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard Holmboe, Stine; Vradi, Eleni; Jensen, Tina Kold;

    2015-01-01

    , 50, 60 or 70 years at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and cancer mortality. RESULTS: 1,533 men died during the follow-up period; 428 from CVD and 480 from cancer. Cox proportional hazard models revealed that men in highest LH quartile had...... an increased all-cause mortality compared to lowest quartile (HR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.14 to 1.53). Likewise, increased quartiles of LH/T and estradiol increased the risk of all-cause mortality (HR=1.23, 95%CI: 1.06 to 1.43, HR=1.23, 95%CI: 1.06 to 1.43). No association to testosterone levels was found....... Higher LH levels were associated with increased cancer mortality (HR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.10 to 1.84) independently of smoking status. Lower CVD mortality was seen for men with testosterone in the highest quartile compared to lowest (HR=0.72, 95%CI: 0.53 to 0.98). Furthermore, negative trends were seen for...

  6. Quality of Life and Mortality of Long-Term Colorectal Cancer Survivors in the Seattle Colorectal Cancer Family Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott V.; Ceballos, Rachel; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Because most colorectal cancer patients survive beyond five years, understanding quality of life among these long-term survivors is essential to providing comprehensive survivor care. We sought to identify personal characteristics associated with reported quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors, and sub-groups of survivors potentially vulnerable to very low quality of life. Methods We assessed quality of life using the Veterans RAND 12-item Health Survey within a population-based sample of 1,021 colorectal cancer survivors in the Seattle Colorectal Cancer Family Registry, approximately 5 years post-diagnosis. In this case-only study, mean physical component summary scores and mental component summary scores were examined with linear regression. To identify survivors with substantially reduced ability to complete daily tasks, logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for “very low” summary scores, defined as a score in the lowest decile of the reference US population. All cases were followed for vital status following QoL assessment, and mortality was analyzed with Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Lower mean physical component summary score was associated with older age, female sex, obesity, smoking, and diabetes or other co-morbidity; lower mean mental component summary score was associated with younger age and female sex. Higher odds of very low physical component summary score was associated with older age, obesity, less education, smoking, co-morbidities, and later stage at diagnosis; smoking was associated with higher odds of very low mental component summary score. A very low physical component score was associated with higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 3.97 (2.95–5.34)). Conclusions Our results suggest that identifiable sub-groups of survivors are vulnerable to very low physical components of quality of life, decrements that may represent meaningful impairment in completing

  7. Quality of Life and Mortality of Long-Term Colorectal Cancer Survivors in the Seattle Colorectal Cancer Family Registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott V Adams

    Full Text Available Because most colorectal cancer patients survive beyond five years, understanding quality of life among these long-term survivors is essential to providing comprehensive survivor care. We sought to identify personal characteristics associated with reported quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors, and sub-groups of survivors potentially vulnerable to very low quality of life.We assessed quality of life using the Veterans RAND 12-item Health Survey within a population-based sample of 1,021 colorectal cancer survivors in the Seattle Colorectal Cancer Family Registry, approximately 5 years post-diagnosis. In this case-only study, mean physical component summary scores and mental component summary scores were examined with linear regression. To identify survivors with substantially reduced ability to complete daily tasks, logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for "very low" summary scores, defined as a score in the lowest decile of the reference US population. All cases were followed for vital status following QoL assessment, and mortality was analyzed with Cox proportional hazards regression.Lower mean physical component summary score was associated with older age, female sex, obesity, smoking, and diabetes or other co-morbidity; lower mean mental component summary score was associated with younger age and female sex. Higher odds of very low physical component summary score was associated with older age, obesity, less education, smoking, co-morbidities, and later stage at diagnosis; smoking was associated with higher odds of very low mental component summary score. A very low physical component score was associated with higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio (95% confidence interval: 3.97 (2.95-5.34.Our results suggest that identifiable sub-groups of survivors are vulnerable to very low physical components of quality of life, decrements that may represent meaningful impairment in completing everyday tasks and are associated with

  8. Oral ingestion of hexavalent chromium through drinking water and cancer mortality in an industrial area of Greece - An ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoltidis Melina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen when inhaled, but its carcinogenic potential when orally ingested remains controversial. Water contaminated with hexavalent chromium is a worldwide problem, making this a question of significant public health importance. Methods We conducted an ecological mortality study within the Oinofita region of Greece, where water has been contaminated with hexavalent chromium. We calculated gender, age, and period standardized mortality ratios (SMRs for all deaths, cancer deaths, and specific cancer types of Oinofita residents over an 11-year period (1999 - 2009, using the greater prefecture of Voiotia as the standard population. Results A total of 474 deaths were observed. The SMR for all cause mortality was 98 (95% CI 89-107 and for all cancer mortality 114 (95% CI 94-136. The SMR for primary liver cancer was 1104 (95% CI 405-2403, p-value Conclusions Elevated cancer mortality in the Oinofita area of Greece supports the hypothesis of hexavalent chromium carcinogenicity via the oral ingestion pathway of exposure. Further studies are needed to determine whether this association is causal, and to establish preventive guidelines and public health recommendations.

  9. Association of serum C-peptide concentrations with cancer mortality risk in pre-diabetes or undiagnosed diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Neng Hsu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Known associations between diabetes and cancer could logically be attributed to hyperglycemia, hypersecretion of insulin, and/or insulin resistance. This study examined the relationship between initial glycemic biomarkers among men and women with impaired fasting glucose or undiagnosed diabetes and cancer mortality during follow up. METHODS: The cohort included subjects aged 40 years and above from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III with fasted serum glucose >100 mg/dl without the aid of pharmaceutical intervention (insulin or oral hypoglycemics. Cancer mortality was obtained from the NHANES III-linked follow-up database (up to December 31, 2006. A Cox regression model was applied to test for the associations between cancer mortality and fasting serum glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, C-peptide, insulin like growth factor (IGF-1, IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3 and estimated insulin resistance. RESULTS: A total of 158 and 100 cancer deaths were recorded respectively from 1,348 men and 1,161 women during the mean 134-month follow-up. After adjusting for the effect of age and smoking in women, all-cause cancer deaths (HR: 1.96 per pmol/ml, 95% CI: 1.02-3.77 and lung cancer deaths (HR: 2.65 per pmol/ml, 95% CI: 1.31-5.36 were specifically associated with serum C-peptide concentrations. Similar associations in men were not statistically significant. Serum glucose, HbA1c, IGF-1, IGFBP3 and HOMA were not independently related to long-term cancer mortality. CONCLUSION: C-peptide analyses suggest a modest association with both all-cause and lung cancer mortality in women but not in men. Further studies will be required to explore the mechanisms.

  10. Future burden of prostate cancer mortality in Brazil: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Jerez-Roig

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer mortality projections at the nationwide and regional levels to the year 2025 are carried out in this ecological study that is based on an analysis of Brazilian trends between 1996 and 2010. The predictions were made for the period 2011-2025 utilizing the Nordpred program based on the period of 1996-2010, using the age-period-cohort model. A significant increase was observed in the Brazilian rates between 1996 and 2006, followed by a non-significant decrease. The projections indicate a decrease in rates at a national level as well as for the Central, South and Southeast regions. Increases are expected for the North and Northeast regions. In conclusion, a reduction in the mortality rates for prostate cancer in Brazil is expected to the year 2025, as well as for the Central, South and Southeast regions. However, an increase in the absolute number of deaths in all regions is expected due to the anticipated aging of the population.

  11. Cancer mortality among a group of fluorspar miners exposed to radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cohort study of the mortality experience (1950-1984) of 1,772 Newfoundland underground fluorspar miners occupationally exposed to high levels of radon daughters (mean dose = 382.8 working levels months) has been conducted. Observed numbers of cancers of the lung, salivary gland, and buccal cavity and pharynx were significantly elevated among these miners. A highly significant relation was noted between radon daughter exposure and risk of dying of lung cancer; the small numbers of salivary gland (n = 2) and buccal cavity and pharynx (n = 6) cancers precluded meaningful analysis of dose response. Attributable and relative risk coefficients for lung cancer were estimated as 6.3 deaths per working level month per million person-years and 0.9% per working level month, respectively. Relative risk coefficients were highest for those first exposed before age 20 years. Cigarette smokers had relative and attributable risk coefficients comparable to those of nonsmokers. Relative risks fell sharply with age, whereas attributable risks were lowest in the youngest and oldest age groups. The results suggest that efforts to raise existing occupational exposure standards may be inappropriate

  12. Detected troponin elevation is associated with high early mortality after lung resection for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tornout Fillip

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial infarction can be difficult to diagnose after lung surgery. As recent diagnostic criteria emphasize serum cardiac markers (in particular serum troponin we set out to evaluate its clinical utility and to establish the long term prognostic impact of detected abnormal postoperative troponin levels after lung resection. Methods We studied a historic cohort of patients with primary lung cancer who underwent intended surgical resection. Patients were grouped according to known postoperative troponin status and survival calculated by Kaplan Meier method and compared using log rank. Parametric survival analysis was used to ascertain independent predictors of mortality. Results From 2001 to 2004, a total of 207 patients underwent lung resection for primary lung cancer of which 14 (7% were identified with elevated serum troponin levels within 30 days of surgery, with 9 (64% having classical features of myocardial infarction. The median time to follow up (interquartile range was 22 (1 to 52 months, and the one and five year survival probabilities (95% CI for patients without and with postoperative troponin elevation were 92% (85 to 96 versus 60% (31 to 80 and 61% (51 to 71 versus 18% (3 to 43 respectively (p T stage and postoperative troponin elevation remained independent predictors of mortality in the final multivariable model. The acceleration factor for death of elevated serum troponin after adjusting for tumour stage was 9.19 (95% CI 3.75 to 22.54. Conclusion Patients with detected serum troponin elevation are at high risk of early mortality with or without symptoms of myocardial infarction after lung resection.

  13. Mortality from breast cancer after irradiation during fluoroscopic examinations in patients being treated for tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of mammography to screen asymptomatic women makes it important to know the risk of breast cancer associated with exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. We examined the mortality from breast cancer in a cohort of 31,710 women who had been treated for tuberculosis at Canadian sanatoriums between 1930 and 1952. A substantial proportion (26.4 percent) had received radiation doses to the breast of 10 cGy or more from repeated fluoroscopic examinations during therapeutic pneumothoraxes. Women exposed to greater than or equal to 10 cGy of radiation had a relative risk of death from breast cancer of 1.36, as compared with those exposed to less than 10 cGy (95 percent confidence interval, 1.11 to 1.67; P = 0.001). The data were most consistent with a linear dose-response relation. The risk was greatest among women who had been exposed to radiation when they were between 10 and 14 years of age; they had a relative risk of 4.5 per gray, and an additive risk of 6.1 per 10(4) person-years per gray. With increasing age at first exposure, there was substantially less excess risk, and the radiation effect appeared to peak approximately 25 to 34 years after the first exposure. Our additive model for lifetime risk predicts that exposure to 1 cGy at the age of 40 increases the number of deaths from breast cancer by 42 per million women. We conclude that the risk of breast cancer associated with radiation decreases sharply with increasing age at exposure and that even a small benefit to women of screening mammography would outweigh any possible risk of radiation-induced breast cancer

  14. Skipping Breakfast and Risk of Mortality from Cancer, Circulatory Diseases and All Causes: Findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Yae; Onishi, Kazunari; Hosoda, Takenobu; Amano, Hiroki; Otani, Shinji; KUROZAWA, Youichi; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Background Breakfast eating habits are a dietary pattern marker and appear to be a useful predictor of a healthy lifestyle. Many studies have reported the unhealthy effects of skipping breakfast. However, there are few studies on the association between skipping breakfast and mortality. In the present study, we examined the association between skipping breakfast and mortality from cancer, circulatory diseases and all causes using data from a large-scale cohort study, the Japan Collaborative C...

  15. Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Susanna C.; Alessio Crippa; Nicola Orsini; Alicja Wolk; Karl Michaëlsson

    2015-01-01

    Results from epidemiological studies of milk consumption and mortality are inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. PubMed was searched until August 2015. A two-stage, random-effects, dose-response meta-analysis was used to combine study-specific results. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the I ...

  16. Information bias and lifetime mortality risks of radiation-induced cancer: Low LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, L.E.; Schull, W.J.; Davis, B.R. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Health Science Center; Buffler, P.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). School of Public Health

    1994-04-01

    Additive and multiplicative models of relative risk were used to measure the effect of cancer misclassification and DS86 random errors on lifetime risk projections in the Life Span Study (LSS) of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The true number of cancer deaths in each stratum of the cancer mortality cross-classification was estimated using sufficient statistics from the EM algorithm. Average survivor doses in the strata were corrected for DS86 random error ({sigma}=0.45) by use of reduction factors. Poisson regression was used to model the corrected and uncorrected mortality rates with risks in RERF Report 11 (Part 2) and the BEIR-V Report. Bias due to DS86 random error typically ranged from {minus}15% to {minus}30% for both sexes, and all sites and models. The total bias, including diagnostic misclassification, of excess risk of nonleukemia for exposure to 1 Sv from age 18 to 65 under the non-constant relative project model was {minus}37.1% for males and {minus}23.3% for females. Total excess risks of leukemia under the relative projection model were biased {minus}27.1% for males and {minus}43.4% for females. Thus, nonleukemia risks for 1 Sv from ages 18 to 65 (DRREF=2) increased from 1.91%/Sv to 2.68%/Sv among males and from 3.23%/Sv to 4.92%/Sv among females. Leukemia excess risk increased from 0.87%/Sv to 1.10/Sv among males and from 0.73%/Sv to 1.04/Sv among females. Bias was dependent on the gender, site, correction method, exposure profile and projection model considered. Future studies that use LSS data for US nuclear workers may be downwardly biased if lifetime risk projections are not adjusted for random and systematic errors.

  17. Information bias and lifetime mortality risks of radiation-induced cancer: Low LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additive and multiplicative models of relative risk were used to measure the effect of cancer misclassification and DS86 random errors on lifetime risk projections in the Life Span Study (LSS) of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The true number of cancer deaths in each stratum of the cancer mortality cross-classification was estimated using sufficient statistics from the EM algorithm. Average survivor doses in the strata were corrected for DS86 random error (σ=0.45) by use of reduction factors. Poisson regression was used to model the corrected and uncorrected mortality rates with risks in RERF Report 11 (Part 2) and the BEIR-V Report. Bias due to DS86 random error typically ranged from -15% to -30% for both sexes, and all sites and models. The total bias, including diagnostic misclassification, of excess risk of nonleukemia for exposure to 1 Sv from age 18 to 65 under the non-constant relative project model was -37.1% for males and -23.3% for females. Total excess risks of leukemia under the relative projection model were biased -27.1% for males and -43.4% for females. Thus, nonleukemia risks for 1 Sv from ages 18 to 65 (DRREF=2) increased from 1.91%/Sv to 2.68%/Sv among males and from 3.23%/Sv to 4.92%/Sv among females. Leukemia excess risk increased from 0.87%/Sv to 1.10/Sv among males and from 0.73%/Sv to 1.04/Sv among females. Bias was dependent on the gender, site, correction method, exposure profile and projection model considered. Future studies that use LSS data for US nuclear workers may be downwardly biased if lifetime risk projections are not adjusted for random and systematic errors

  18. Tumor recurrence and tumor-related mortality in endometrial cancer: Analysis in 276 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Tejerizo-Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this manuscript, we assessed tumor recurrence and tumor-related mortality in a clinical series of endometrial cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective evaluation of 276 patients (mean age 64 years with histologically confirmed endometrial cancer treated at a single hospital in Madrid (Spain was conducted. The median follow-up was estimated using the inverse Kaplan–Meier method. RESULTS: Salient findings were endometrioid carcinoma (84.8% of cases, grade G1 (48.9% and stages IB (35.1% and IC (23.2%. Myometrial infiltration >50% was documented in 31.2% of cases and lymphovascular space invasion in 11.9%. After surgery, 52.5% of patients were classified into the low risk group, 21.4% into the intermediate risk group and 26.1% into the high risk group. Tumor recurrence occurred in 14.5% of patients, with an estimated median follow-up of 45 months (95% confidence interval (CI: 41.2–48.8, locoregional recurrence in 42.5% and distant recurrences in 57.5%. Furthermore, 40% of tumor recurrences developed during the first year after primary treatment and 90% over the first 3 years of follow-up. The tumor-related mortality rate was 15.9%. The estimated median follow-up was 46 months (95% CI: 43.0–49.0. Furthermore, 5.07% of death because of tumor developed during the first year after primary treatment and 13.77% over the first 3 years of follow-up. CONCLUSION: The rates of tumor-related death and tumor recurrence in endometrial cancer patients are low, with the highest percentages occurring within 3 years of primary treatment. Most of the recurrences occur outside the pelvis.

  19. Information bias and lifetime mortality risks of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additive and multiplicative models of relative risk were used to measure the effect of cancer misclassification and DS86 random errors on lifetime risk projections in the Life Span Study (LSS) of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The true number of cancer deaths in each stratum of the cancer mortality cross-classification was estimated using sufficient statistics from the EM algorithm. Average survivor doses in the strata were corrected for DS86 random error (σ = 0.45) by use of reduction factors. Poisson regression was used to model the corrected and uncorrected mortality rates with covariates for age at-time-of-bombing, age at-time-of-death and gender. Excess risks were in good agreement with risks in RERF Report 11 (Part 2) and the BEIR-V report. Bias due to DS86 random error typically ranged from -15% to -30% for both sexes, and all sites and models. The total bias, including diagnostic misclassification, of excess risk of nonleukemia for exposure to 1 Sv from age 18 to 65 under the non-constant relative projection model was -37.1% for males and -23.3% for females. Total excess risks of leukemia under the relative projection model were biased -27.1% for males and -43.4% for females. Thus, nonleukemia risks for 1 Sv from ages 18 to 85 (DRREF = 2) increased from 1.91%/Sv to 2.68%/Sv among males and from 3.23%/Sv to 4.02%/Sv among females. Leukemia excess risks increased from 0.87%/Sv to 1.10%/Sv among males and from 0.73%/Sv to 1.04%/Sv among females. Bias was dependent on the gender, site, correction method, exposure profile and projection model considered. Future studies that use LSS data for U.S. nuclear workers may be downwardly biased if lifetime risk projections are not adjusted for random and systematic errors

  20. Association between PSA kinetics and cancer-specific mortality in patients with localised prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, F B; Brasso, K; Berg, K D;

    2016-01-01

    with localised PCa managed on watchful waiting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with clinically localised PCa managed observationally, who were randomised to and remained on placebo for minimum 18 months in the SPCG-6 study, were included. All patients survived at least 2 years and had a minimum of...... three PSA determinations available. The prognostic value of PSA kinetics was analysed and patients were stratified according to their PSA at consent: ≤10, 10.1-25, and >25 ng/ml. Cumulative incidences of PCa-specific mortality were estimated with the Aalen-Johansen method. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty...

  1. Long-term mortality from cardiac causes after adjuvant hypofractionated vs. conventional radiotherapy for localized left-sided breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Ongoing concern remains regarding cardiac injury with hypofractionated whole breast/chest-wall radiotherapy (HF-WBI) compared to conventional radiotherapy (CF-WBI) in left-sided breast cancer patients. The purpose was to determine if cardiac mortality increases with HF-WBI relative to CF-WBI. Materials and methods: Between 1990 and 1998, 5334 women with early-stage breast cancer received post-operative radiotherapy to the breast/chest wall alone. A population-based database recorded baseline patient, tumor and treatment factors. Baseline cardiovascular risk factors were identified from hospital administrative records. A propensity-score model balanced risk factors between radiotherapy groups. Cause of death was coded as breast cancer, cardiac or other cause. Cumulative mortality from each cause after radiotherapy was estimated using a competing risk approach. Results: For left-sided cases, median follow-up was 14.2 years. 485 women received CF-WBI, 2221 women received HF-WBI. There was no difference in 15-year mortality from cardiac causes: 4.8% with HF-WBI and 4.2% with CF-WBI (p = 0.74), even after propensity-score adjustment (p = 0.45). There was no difference in breast cancer mortality or other cause mortality. For right-sided cases, there was no difference in mortality for the three causes of death. Conclusions: At 15-years follow-up, cardiac mortality is not statistically different among left-sided breast cancer patients treated with HF-WBI or CF-WBI

  2. Perineural invasion associated with increased cancer-specific mortality after external beam radiation therapy for men with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify an association between perineural invasion (PNI) and cancer-specific survival in patients with prostate cancer after standard-dose external beam radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A total of 517 consecutive patients who underwent RT (median dose, 70.5 Gy) between 1989 and 2003 for low-risk or intermediate-risk prostate cancer were studied. A genitourinary pathologist (AAR) scored presence or absence of PNI on all prostate needle-biopsy specimens. A Cox regression multivariable analysis was performed to assess whether the presence of PNI was associated with risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality after RT when the recognized risk-group variables were factored into the model. Estimates of cancer-specific mortality were made using a cumulative incidence method. Comparisons of survival were made using a two-tailed log-rank test. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 84 patients (16%) have died, 15 of 84 (18%) from prostate cancer. PNI was the only significant predictor of prostate cancer-specific mortality after RT (p = 0.012). The estimated prostate cancer-specific mortality was 14% at 8 years for PNI+ patients vs. 5% for PNI- patients (p = 0.0008). Conclusions: Patients with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer who have PNI on prostate needle biopsy have a significantly higher rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality after standard-dose radiation therapy than patients without PNI. Although this analysis is retrospective, this association argues for consideration of the use of more aggressive therapy, such as hormonal therapy with RT or dose escalation, in these select patients

  3. Evidence for cervical cancer mortality with screening program in Taiwan, 1981–2010: age-period-cohort model

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    Su Shih-Yung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most common cancer experienced by women worldwide; however, screening techniques are very effective for reducing the risk of death. The national cervical cancer screening program was implemented in Taiwan in 1995. The objective of this study was to examine and provide evidence of the cervical cancer mortality trends for the periods before and after the screening program was implemented. Methods Data from 1981 to 2010 of the causes of death registered were obtained from the Department of Health, Taiwan. Age-standardized mortality rates, age-specific rates, and age-period-cohort models that employed the sequential method were used to assess temporal changes that occurred between 1981 and 2010, with 1995 used as the separating year. Results The results showed that for both time periods of 1981 to 1995 and 1996 to 2010, age and period had significant effects, whereas the birth cohort effects were insignificant. For patients between 80 and 84 years of age, the mortality rate for 1981 to 1995 and 1996 to 2010 was 48.34 and 68.08. The cervical cancer mortality rate for 1996 to 2010 was 1.0 for patients between 75 and 79 years of age and 1.4 for patients between 80 and 84 years of age compared to that for 1981 to 1995. Regarding the period effect, the mortality trend decreased 2-fold from 1996 to 2010. Conclusions The results of this study indicate a decline in cervical cancer mortality trends after the screening program involving Papanicolaou tests was implemented in 1995. However, the positive effects of the screening program were not observed in elderly women because of treatment delays during the initial implementation of the screening program.

  4. Estrogen receptor testing and 10-year mortality from breast cancer: A model for determining testing strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Naugler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy in the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER expressing breast carcinomas represents a major advance in personalized cancer treatment. Because there is no benefit (and indeed there is increased morbidity and mortality associated with the use of tamoxifen therapy in ER-negative breast cancer, its use is restricted to women with ER expressing cancers. However, correctly classifying cancers as ER positive or negative has been challenging given the high reported false negative test rates for ER expression in surgical specimens. In this paper I model practice recommendations using published information from clinical trials to address the question of whether there is a false negative test rate above which it is more efficacious to forgo ER testing and instead treat all patients with tamoxifen regardless of ER test results. Methods: I used data from randomized clinical trials to model two different hypothetical treatment strategies: (1 the current strategy of treating only ER positive women with tamoxifen and (2 an alternative strategy where all women are treated with tamoxifen regardless of ER test results. The variables used in the model are literature-derived survival rates of the different combinations of ER positivity and treatment with tamoxifen, varying true ER positivity rates and varying false negative ER testing rates. The outcome variable was hypothetical 10-year survival. Results: The model predicted that there will be a range of true ER rates and false negative test rates above which it would be more efficacious to treat all women with breast cancer with tamoxifen and forgo ER testing. This situation occurred with high true positive ER rates and false negative ER test rates in the range of 20-30%. Conclusions: It is hoped that this model will provide an example of the potential importance of diagnostic error on clinical outcomes and furthermore will give an example of how the effect of that

  5. The impact of socioeconomic factors on 30-day mortality following elective colorectal cancer surgery: A nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B L; Osler, M; Harling, H;

    2009-01-01

    We investigated postoperative mortality in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) in electively operated colorectal cancer patients, and evaluated whether social inequalities were explained by factors related to patient, disease or treatment. Data from the nationwide database of Danish Colorectal.......58-0.93). Differences in comorbidity and to a lesser extent lifestyle characteristics accounted for the excess risk of postoperative death among low-SES patients.......We investigated postoperative mortality in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) in electively operated colorectal cancer patients, and evaluated whether social inequalities were explained by factors related to patient, disease or treatment. Data from the nationwide database of Danish Colorectal...

  6. In-hospital mortality following lung cancer resection: nationwide administrative database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagès, Pierre-Benoit; Cottenet, Jonathan; Mariet, Anne-Sophie; Bernard, Alain; Quantin, Catherine

    2016-06-01

    Our aim was to determine the effect of a national strategy for quality improvement in cancer management (the "Plan Cancer") according to time period and to assess the influence of type and volume of hospital activity on in-hospital mortality (IHM) within a large national cohort of patients operated on for lung cancer.From January 2005 to December 2013, 76 235 patients were included in the French Administrative Database. Patient characteristics, hospital volume of activity and hospital type were analysed over three periods: 2005-2007, 2008-2010 and 2011-2013.Global crude IHM was 3.9%: 4.3% during 2005-2007, 4% during 2008-2010 and 3.5% during 2011-2013 (p43 resections per year (adjusted (a)OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.197-1.834). The risk of death was lower in the period 2011-2013 than in the period 2008-2010 (aOR 0.841, 95% CI 0.764-0.926). Adjustment variables (age, sex, Charlson score and type of resection) were significantly linked to IHM, whereas the type of hospital was not.The French national strategy for quality improvement seems to have induced a significant decrease in IHM. PMID:26965293

  7. [Incidence and mortality due to cancer in Navarre, 1998-2002. Trends in the last 30 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardanaz, E; Moreno-Iribas, C; Pérez de Rada, M E; Ezponda, C; Floristán, Y; Navaridas, N; Martínez-Peñuela, J M; Puras, A; Santamaría, M; Ezpeleta, I; Valerdi, J J; Pardo, F J; Monzón, F J; Lizarraga, J; Ortigosa, C; Resano, J; Barricarte, A

    2007-01-01

    Between 1998-2002, 16,952 new cases of cancer were registered in Navarre. In men, the most frequently diagnosed cancers were in the following order: prostate, lung, colon and rectum, bladder and stomach, which accounted for 63.2%. In women, the sites were breast, colon and rectum, corpus uteri, stomach and ovary, which accounted for 57.6% of the cases. In the same period, 1998-2002, 4,127 men and 2,470 women died from cancer. Sixty percent of all deaths due to malign tumours in men were due to cancer of the lung, prostate, colon and rectum, stomach and bladder. In women this was due to cancers of colon and rectum, breast, stomach, pancreas and lung, which accounted for 49% of the cases. In men in Navarre there has been an increase in the incidence rates of cancer of the prostate, kidney and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Avoidable cancers such as those related to smoking (lung, oral cavity and pharynx or pancreas) continue to rise, and represent a greater global risk of dying from cancer in the latest period studied than in the decades of the 1970s and 1980s. From 1995 up to the present, mortality due to cancer has moved from occupying the second place to become the first cause of death among men in Navarre. The global risk of death due to cancer in men is now equal to the first period studied, 1975-1977. Amongst women the global risk of death due to cancer fell by 25% between 1975 and 2002, basically at the cost of breast and stomach cancer. Tumours related to smoking increased both in mortality and in incidence and appear as a significant health problem amongst women in Navarre. Breast cancer has increased in incidence, with lower mortality figures than those of the first period 1975-1977. Invasive cancer of the cervix remains at very low rates in comparison with many European countries, including Spain. In both sexes colorectal and skin cancer has increased, while the incidence and mortality of stomach cancer continues to fall. PMID:17898820

  8. Association between Changing Mortality of Digestive Tract Cancers and Water Pollution: A Case Study in the Huai River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Ren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG, biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD, chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD, and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight with high FSPWQG (>50% distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS, gross domestic product (GDP, and population (POP. Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments.

  9. Association between changing mortality of digestive tract cancers and water pollution: a case study in the Huai River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongyan; Wan, Xia; Yang, Fei; Shi, Xiaoming; Xu, Jianwei; Zhuang, Dafang; Yang, Gonghuan

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB) in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP) indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG), biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD), chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD), and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN) were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM) due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight) with high FSPWQG (>50%) distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS), gross domestic product (GDP), and population (POP). Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments. PMID:25546281

  10. Understanding the Racial and Ethnic Differences in Cost and Mortality Among Advanced Stage Prostate Cancer Patients (STROBE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Sumedha; Bruce Malkowicz, Stanley; Sanford Schwartz, J; Jayadevappa, Ravishankar

    2015-08-01

    The aims of the study were to understand the racial/ethnic differences in cost of care and mortality in Medicare elderly with advanced stage prostate cancer.This retrospective, observational study used SEER-Medicare data. Cohort consisted of 10,509 men aged 66 or older and diagnosed with advanced-stage prostate cancer between 2001and 2004. The cohort was followed retrospectively up to 2009. Racial/ethnic variation in cost was analyzed using 2 part-models and quantile regression. Step-wise GLM log-link and Cox regression was used to study the association between race/ethnicity and cost and mortality. Propensity score approach was used to minimize selection bias.Pattern of cost and mortality varies between racial/ethnic groups. Compared with other racial/ethnic groups, non-Hispanic white patients had higher unadjusted costs in treatment and follow-up phases. Quintile regression results indicated that in treatment phase, Hispanics had higher costs in the 95th quantile and non-Hispanic blacks had lower cost in the 95th quantile, compared with non-Hispanic white men. In terminal phase non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics had higher cost. After controlling for treatment, all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality was not significant for non-Hispanic black men, compared with non-Hispanic white men. However, for Asians, mortality remained significantly lower compared with non-Hispanic white men.In conclusion, relationship between race/ethnicity, cost of care, and mortality is intricate. For non-Hispanic black men, disparity in mortality can be attributed to treatment differences. To reduce racial/ethnic disparities in prostate cancer care and outcomes, tailored policies to address underuse, overuse, and misuse of treatment and health services are necessary. PMID:26266389

  11. Cohort Studies on Cancer Mortality Among Workers Exposed Only to Chrysotile Asbestos:a Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU LI; TONG-DA SUN; XING ZHANG; RUI-NAN LAI; XIU-YANG LI; XUE-JIN FAN; KENJI MORINAGA

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether there was excessive risk of cancer among workers exposed to chrysotile fiber alone by applying a meta-analysis technique. Methods All data meeting the criteria of cohort studies on cancer mortality among workers exposed only to chrysotile were incorporated into meta-analysis. Pooled standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for main cancer sites were calculated using two approaches of unweighted ratio and random effect model. The heterogeneity and its sources of the results were examined with a Q-statistic and Z-score test. The dose-response effect as reflected in the percentage of all deaths due to mesothelioma served as a proxy measure of chrysotile exposure. Results A cohort of twenty six workers exposed to chrysotile alone was summarized. The significantly elevated meta-SMRs for all deaths (1.27), all cancers (1.28), cancers of respiratory organs (2.51), cancers of lung (2.35) and cancers of stomach (1.24) were observed. The significantly elevated meta-SMRs for lung cancer within occupational strata were observed among textile workers (3.55), asbestos product manufacturers (3.30), miners and millers (2.24), cement product workers (1.22), and for stomach cancer among asbestos product manufacturers (1.49). Meta-SMRs for cancers at other sites were not significant. Meta-SMR for lung cancer showed an increasing trend with an elevated percentage of all deaths from mesothelioma, but no such trend for stomach cancer. Conclusion There are excessive risks of lung cancer and mesothelioma among workers exposed to chrysotile fiber alone, and likely no convincing indication of an etiological association between chrysotile exposure and cancers at other sites.

  12. Effect of recent changes in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on cancer mortality risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Dale L; Pierce, Donald A; Shimizu, Yukiko; Cullings, Harry M; Fujita, Shoichiro; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Kodama, Kazunori

    2004-10-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation has recently implemented a new dosimetry system, DS02, to replace the previous system, DS86. This paper assesses the effect of the change on risk estimates for radiation-related solid cancer and leukemia mortality. The changes in dose estimates were smaller than many had anticipated, with the primary systematic change being an increase of about 10% in gamma-ray estimates for both cities. In particular, an anticipated large increase of the neutron component in Hiroshima for low-dose survivors did not materialize. However, DS02 improves on DS86 in many details, including the specifics of the radiation released by the bombs and the effects of shielding by structures and terrain. The data used here extend the last reported follow-up for solid cancers by 3 years, with a total of 10,085 deaths, and extends the follow-up for leukemia by 10 years, with a total of 296 deaths. For both solid cancer and leukemia, estimated age-time patterns and sex difference are virtually unchanged by the dosimetry revision. The estimates of solid-cancer radiation risk per sievert and the curvilinear dose response for leukemia are both decreased by about 8% by the dosimetry revision, due to the increase in the gamma-ray dose estimates. The apparent shape of the dose response is virtually unchanged by the dosimetry revision, but for solid cancers, the additional 3 years of follow-up has some effect. In particular, there is for the first time a statistically significant upward curvature for solid cancer on the restricted dose range 0-2 Sv. However, the low-dose slope of a linear-quadratic fit to that dose range should probably not be relied on for risk estimation, since that is substantially smaller than the linear slopes on ranges 0-1 Sv, 0-0.5 Sv, and 0- 0.25 Sv. Although it was anticipated that the new dosimetry system might reduce some apparent dose overestimates for Nagasaki factory workers, this did not materialize, and factory workers have

  13. The Geographical and Biophysical Correlates of Hunger and Infant Mortality: Lessons from CIESIN's Poverty Mapping Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, A. M.; Balk, D.; Chen, R. S.; Levy, M.; Storeygard, A.

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports on a collection of recent efforts to integrate global spatial datasets and survey microdata to investigate drivers of hunger and infant mortality. They were motivated by a desire on the part of the United Nations Millennium Project to understand the conditions under which the world's poor and hungry live, for the purpose of improving the diagnosing the causes of poverty and hunger, designing interventions, and understanding the interactions among different Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). First, at the global level, it reports on a number of explorations that were undertaken to characterize the large-scale distribution of the world's poor in terms of climatic, topographic, land cover, ecosystem, and hydrologic factors. Second, at the regional level, it reports on an analysis of the correlates of hunger in Africa. Third, it reports on work combining survey microdata with spatial data in a study of infant mortality in West Africa. Lastly, it discusses ongoing work to combine these two scales at the continental and global scale in the context of drivers of hunger.

  14. Hypnotic drug risks of mortality, infection, depression, and cancer: but lack of benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    This is a review of hypnotic drug risks and benefits, reassessing and updating advice presented to the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration (United States FDA). Almost every month, new information appears about the risks of hypnotics (sleeping pills). This review includes new information on the growing USA overdose epidemic, eight new epidemiologic studies of hypnotics’ mortality not available for previous compilations, and new emphasis on risks of short-term hypnotic prescription. The most important risks of hypnotics include excess mortality, especially overdose deaths, quiet deaths at night, infections, cancer, depression and suicide, automobile crashes, falls, and other accidents, and hypnotic-withdrawal insomnia. The short-term use of one-two prescriptions is associated with greater risk per dose than long-term use. Hypnotics are usually prescribed without approved indication, most often with specific contraindications, but even when indicated, there is little or no benefit. The recommended doses objectively increase sleep little if at all, daytime performance is often made worse, not better, and the lack of general health benefits is commonly misrepresented in advertising. Treatments such as the cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia and bright light treatment of circadian rhythm disorders might offer safer and more effective alternative approaches to insomnia. PMID:27303633

  15. Hypnotic drug risks of mortality, infection, depression, and cancer: but lack of benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Daniel F

    2016-01-01

    This is a review of hypnotic drug risks and benefits, reassessing and updating advice presented to the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration (United States FDA). Almost every month, new information appears about the risks of hypnotics (sleeping pills). This review includes new information on the growing USA overdose epidemic, eight new epidemiologic studies of hypnotics' mortality not available for previous compilations, and new emphasis on risks of short-term hypnotic prescription. The most important risks of hypnotics include excess mortality, especially overdose deaths, quiet deaths at night, infections, cancer, depression and suicide, automobile crashes, falls, and other accidents, and hypnotic-withdrawal insomnia. The short-term use of one-two prescriptions is associated with greater risk per dose than long-term use. Hypnotics are usually prescribed without approved indication, most often with specific contraindications, but even when indicated, there is little or no benefit. The recommended doses objectively increase sleep little if at all, daytime performance is often made worse, not better, and the lack of general health benefits is commonly misrepresented in advertising. Treatments such as the cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia and bright light treatment of circadian rhythm disorders might offer safer and more effective alternative approaches to insomnia. PMID:27303633

  16. Cancer incidence and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with human insulin: a cohort study in Shanghai.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjuan Gu

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim was to investigate the association between human insulin and cancer incidence and mortality in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We recruited 8,774 insulin-naïve diabetes patients from the Shanghai Diabetes Registry (SDR. The follow-up rate was 85.4%. All subjects were divided into the insulin use cohort (n = 3,639 and the non-insulin use cohort (n = 5,135. The primary outcome was the first diagnosis of any cancer. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative risk (RR of cancer and mortality. RESULTS: We observed 98 cancer events in the insulin use cohort and 170 in the non-insulin use cohort. Cancer incidence rates were 78.6 and 74.3 per 10,000 patients per year in the insulin users and the non-insulin users, respectively. No significant difference in cancer risk was observed between the two cohorts (adjusted RR = 1.20, 95% CI 0.89-1.62, P = 0.228. Regarding site-specific cancers, only the risk of liver cancer was significantly higher in the insulin users compared to that in the non-insulin users (adjusted RR = 2.84, 95% CI 1.12-7.17, P = 0.028. The risks of overall mortality (adjusted RR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.47-2.43, P<0.0001 and death from cancer (adjusted RR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.39-3.35, P = 0.001 were all significantly higher in the insulin users than in the non-insulin users. CONCLUSION: There was no excess risk of overall cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with human insulin. However, a significantly higher risk of liver cancer was found in these patients. Moreover, insulin users showed higher risks of overall and cancer mortality. Considering that individuals treated with insulin were more likely to be advanced diabetic patients, caution should be used in interpreting these results.

  17. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Treated with Human Insulin: A Cohort Study in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Hou, Xuhong; Mo, Yifei; Yu, Weihui; Zhang, Lei; Hu, Cheng; Nan, Hairong; Chen, Lei; Li, Jie; Liu, Yuxiang; Huang, Zhezhou; Han, Ming; Bao, Yuqian; Zhong, Weijian; Jia, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim was to investigate the association between human insulin and cancer incidence and mortality in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We recruited 8,774 insulin-naïve diabetes patients from the Shanghai Diabetes Registry (SDR). The follow-up rate was 85.4%. All subjects were divided into the insulin use cohort (n = 3,639) and the non-insulin use cohort (n = 5,135). The primary outcome was the first diagnosis of any cancer. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of cancer and mortality. Results We observed 98 cancer events in the insulin use cohort and 170 in the non-insulin use cohort. Cancer incidence rates were 78.6 and 74.3 per 10,000 patients per year in the insulin users and the non-insulin users, respectively. No significant difference in cancer risk was observed between the two cohorts (adjusted RR = 1.20, 95% CI 0.89–1.62, P = 0.228). Regarding site-specific cancers, only the risk of liver cancer was significantly higher in the insulin users compared to that in the non-insulin users (adjusted RR = 2.84, 95% CI 1.12–7.17, P = 0.028). The risks of overall mortality (adjusted RR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.47–2.43, P<0.0001) and death from cancer (adjusted RR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.39–3.35, P = 0.001) were all significantly higher in the insulin users than in the non-insulin users. Conclusion There was no excess risk of overall cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with human insulin. However, a significantly higher risk of liver cancer was found in these patients. Moreover, insulin users showed higher risks of overall and cancer mortality. Considering that individuals treated with insulin were more likely to be advanced diabetic patients, caution should be used in interpreting these results. PMID:23308218

  18. Beyond breast cancer: mammographic features and mortality risk in a population of healthy women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A Murphy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast fibroglandular (dense tissue is a risk factor for breast cancer. Beyond breast cancer, little is known regarding the prognostic significance of mammographic features. METHODS: We evaluated relationships between nondense (fatty breast area and dense area with all-cause mortality in 4,245 initially healthy women from the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project; 1,361 died during a mean follow-up of 28.2 years. Dense area and total breast area were assessed using planimeter measurements from screening mammograms. Percent density reflects dense area relative to breast area and nondense area was calculated as the difference between total breast area and dense area. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: In age-adjusted models, greater nondense and total breast area were associated with increased risk of death (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.10-1.24 and HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06-1.19, per SD difference while greater dense area and percent density were associated with lower risk of death (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.86-0.95 and HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.83-0.92, per SD difference. Associations were not attenuated with adjustment for race, education, mammogram type (x-ray or xerogram, smoking status, diabetes and heart disease. With additional adjustment for body mass index, associations were diminished for all features but remained statistically significant for dense area (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.89-0.99, per SD difference and percent density (HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-0.98, per SD difference. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that dense area and percent density may relate to survival in healthy women and suggest the potential utility of mammograms beyond prediction of breast cancer risk.

  19. Mortality from lung cancer and population risk attributable to asbestos in an asbestos cement manufacturing town in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Magnani, C; Leporati, M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate mortality from lung cancer and the risk attributable to asbestos separately for asbestos cement workers and for the general (non-occupationally exposed) population in the town of Casale Monferrato, where the largest Italian asbestos cement factory had been in operation in 1907-86. According to cancer registry data, in the same town the incidence of malignant mesothelioma in the general population is about 10 times higher than in comparable Italian provinces. METHO...

  20. The effects of internal radiation exposure on cancer mortality in nuclear workers at Rocketdyne/Atomics International.

    OpenAIRE

    Ritz, B.; Morgenstern, H; Crawford-Brown, D; Young, B.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effects of chronic exposure to radionuclides, primarily uranium and mixed-fission products, on cancer mortality in a retrospective cohort study of workers enrolled in the radiation-monitoring program of a nuclear research and development facility. Between 1950 and 1994, 2,297 workers were monitored for internal radiation exposures, and 441 workers died, 134 (30.4%) of them from cancer as the underlying cause. We calculated internal lung-dose estimates based on urinalysis and w...

  1. Breast Cancer Mortality among Asian-American Women in California: Variation according to Ethnicity and Tumor Subtype

    OpenAIRE

    Parise, Carol; Caggiano, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Asian-American women have equal or better breast cancer survival rates than non-Hispanic white women, but many studies use the aggregate term "Asian/Pacific Islander" (API) or consider breast cancer as a single disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of mortality in seven subgroups of Asian-Americans expressing the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) tumor marker subtypes and determine whether the ris...

  2. Using panel econometric methods to estimate the effect of milk consumption on the mortality rate of prostate and ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Tobias; Waldeck, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Recently prostate and ovarian cancer has been related to milk consumption. However, existing observational studies based on country level data do not attempt to identify causal effects since they are only based on simple cross-sectional analyses. This paper takes a step toward estimating of causal effects of milk consumption on cancer by applying panel econometric models and by using the within-country variation of the mortality rates and food consumption instead of the between-country variat...

  3. Association of Serum C-Peptide Concentrations with Cancer Mortality Risk in Pre-Diabetes or Undiagnosed Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Chih-Neng; Chang, Chia-Hsuin; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Jou-Wei; Caffrey, James L

    2013-01-01

    Background Known associations between diabetes and cancer could logically be attributed to hyperglycemia, hypersecretion of insulin, and/or insulin resistance. This study examined the relationship between initial glycemic biomarkers among men and women with impaired fasting glucose or undiagnosed diabetes and cancer mortality during follow up. Methods The cohort included subjects aged 40 years and above from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) with fasted s...

  4. Awareness that early cancer lump is painless could decrease breast cancer mortality in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    There are several factors which contribute to patients’ reporting late to healthcare facility even after detecting the breast lump (patient delay). Amongst these, one of the important factors in low- and middle-income countries is lack of awareness that early cancer lump is painless (ECLIPs). Pain is often taken as a danger sign and absence of pain is often not taken seriously. The studies have shown that up to 98% of women in low-income countries are unaware that a painless lump could be a w...

  5. Mortality due to lung, laryngeal and bladder cancer in towns lying in the vicinity of combustion installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Perez, Javier [Environmental and Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, C/Sinesio Delgado, 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)], E-mail: jgarcia@isciii.es; Pollan, Marina; Boldo, Elena; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Aragones, Nuria; Lope, Virginia; Ramis, Rebeca; Vidal, Enrique; Lopez-Abente, Gonzalo [Environmental and Cancer Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, C/Sinesio Delgado, 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain)

    2009-04-01

    Background: Installations that burn fossil fuels to generate power may represent a health problem due to the toxic substances which they release into the environment. Objectives: To investigate whether there might be excess mortality due to tumors of lung, larynx and bladder in the population residing near Spanish combustion installations included in the European Pollutant Emission Register. Methods: Ecologic study designed to model sex-specific standardized mortality ratios for the above three tumors in Spanish towns, over the period 1994-2003. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. Using mixed Poisson regression models, we analyzed: risk of dying from cancer in a 5-kilometer zone around installations that commenced operations before 1990; effect of type of fuel used; and risk gradient within a 50-kilometer radius of such installations. Results: Excess mortality (relative risk, 95% confidence interval) was detected in the vicinity of pre-1990 installations for lung cancer (1.066, 1.041-1.091 in the overall population; 1.084, 1.057-1.111 in men), and laryngeal cancer among men (1.067, 0.992-1.148). Lung cancer displayed excess mortality for all types of fuel used, whereas in laryngeal and bladder cancer, the excess was associated with coal-fired industries. There was a risk gradient effect in the proximity of a number of installations. Conclusions: Our results could support the hypothesis of an association between risk of lung, laryngeal and bladder cancer mortality and proximity to Spanish combustion installations.

  6. Mortality due to lung, laryngeal and bladder cancer in towns lying in the vicinity of combustion installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Installations that burn fossil fuels to generate power may represent a health problem due to the toxic substances which they release into the environment. Objectives: To investigate whether there might be excess mortality due to tumors of lung, larynx and bladder in the population residing near Spanish combustion installations included in the European Pollutant Emission Register. Methods: Ecologic study designed to model sex-specific standardized mortality ratios for the above three tumors in Spanish towns, over the period 1994-2003. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. Using mixed Poisson regression models, we analyzed: risk of dying from cancer in a 5-kilometer zone around installations that commenced operations before 1990; effect of type of fuel used; and risk gradient within a 50-kilometer radius of such installations. Results: Excess mortality (relative risk, 95% confidence interval) was detected in the vicinity of pre-1990 installations for lung cancer (1.066, 1.041-1.091 in the overall population; 1.084, 1.057-1.111 in men), and laryngeal cancer among men (1.067, 0.992-1.148). Lung cancer displayed excess mortality for all types of fuel used, whereas in laryngeal and bladder cancer, the excess was associated with coal-fired industries. There was a risk gradient effect in the proximity of a number of installations. Conclusions: Our results could support the hypothesis of an association between risk of lung, laryngeal and bladder cancer mortality and proximity to Spanish combustion installations

  7. Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Crippa, Alessio; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2015-09-01

    Results from epidemiological studies of milk consumption and mortality are inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. PubMed was searched until August 2015. A two-stage, random-effects, dose-response meta-analysis was used to combine study-specific results. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the I² statistic. During follow-up periods ranging from 4.1 to 25 years, 70,743 deaths occurred among 367,505 participants. The range of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption and the shape of the associations between milk consumption and mortality differed considerably between studies. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies of non-fermented milk consumption in relation to mortality from all causes (12 studies; I² = 94%), cardiovascular disease (five studies; I² = 93%), and cancer (four studies; I² = 75%) as well as among studies of fermented milk consumption and all-cause mortality (seven studies; I² = 88%). Thus, estimating pooled hazard ratios was not appropriate. Heterogeneity among studies was observed in most subgroups defined by sex, country, and study quality. In conclusion, we observed no consistent association between milk consumption and all-cause or cause-specific mortality. PMID:26378576

  8. Milk Consumption and Mortality from All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna C. Larsson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Results from epidemiological studies of milk consumption and mortality are inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies assessing the association of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. PubMed was searched until August 2015. A two-stage, random-effects, dose-response meta-analysis was used to combine study-specific results. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the I2 statistic. During follow-up periods ranging from 4.1 to 25 years, 70,743 deaths occurred among 367,505 participants. The range of non-fermented and fermented milk consumption and the shape of the associations between milk consumption and mortality differed considerably between studies. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies of non-fermented milk consumption in relation to mortality from all causes (12 studies; I2 = 94%, cardiovascular disease (five studies; I2 = 93%, and cancer (four studies; I2 = 75% as well as among studies of fermented milk consumption and all-cause mortality (seven studies; I2 = 88%. Thus, estimating pooled hazard ratios was not appropriate. Heterogeneity among studies was observed in most subgroups defined by sex, country, and study quality. In conclusion, we observed no consistent association between milk consumption and all-cause or cause-specific mortality.

  9. Cancer, Infant Mortality and Birth Sex-Ratio in Fallujah, Iraq 2005–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malak Hamdan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been anecdotal reports of increases in birth defects and cancer in Fallujah, Iraq blamed on the use of novel weapons (possibly including depleted uranium in heavy fighting which occurred in that town between US led forces and local elements in 2004. In Jan/Feb 2010 the authors organised a team of researchers who visited 711 houses in Fallujah, Iraq and obtained responses to a questionnaire in Arabic on cancer, birth defects and infant mortality. The total population in the resulting sample was 4,843 persons with and overall response rate was better than 60%. Relative Risks for cancer were age-standardised and compared to rates in the Middle East Cancer Registry (MECC, Garbiah Egypt for 1999 and rates in Jordan 1996–2001. Between Jan 2005 and the survey end date there were 62 cases of cancer malignancy reported (RR = 4.22; CI: 2.8, 6.6; p < 0.00000001 including 16 cases of childhood cancer 0-14 (RR = 12.6; CI: 4.9, 32; p < 0.00000001. Highest risks were found in all-leukaemia in the age groups 0-34 (20 cases RR = 38.5; CI: 19.2, 77; p < 0.00000001, all lymphoma 0–34 (8 cases, RR = 9.24;CI: 4.12, 20.8; p < 0.00000001, female breast cancer 0–44 (12 cases RR = 9.7;CI: 3.6, 25.6; p < 0.00000001 and brain tumours all ages (4 cases, RR = 7.4;CI: 2.4, 23.1; P < 0.004. Infant mortality was based on the mean birth rate over the 4 year period 2006–2009 with 1/6th added for cases reported in January and February 2010. There were 34 deaths in the age group 0–1 in this period giving a rate of 80 deaths per 1,000 births. This may be compared with a rate of 19.8 in Egypt (RR = 4.2 p < 0.00001 17 in Jordan in 2008 and 9.7 in Kuwait in 2008. The mean birth sex-ratio in the recent 5-year cohort was anomalous. Normally the sex ratio in human populations is a constant with 1,050 boys born to 1,000 girls. This is disturbed if there is a genetic damage stress. The ratio of boys to 1,000 girls in the 0–4, 5–9, 10–14 and 15–19 age cohorts in

  10. Cancer, infant mortality and birth sex-ratio in Fallujah, Iraq 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Chris; Hamdan, Malak; Ariabi, Entesar

    2010-07-01

    There have been anecdotal reports of increases in birth defects and cancer in Fallujah, Iraq blamed on the use of novel weapons (possibly including depleted uranium) in heavy fighting which occurred in that town between US led forces and local elements in 2004. In Jan/Feb 2010 the authors organised a team of researchers who visited 711 houses in Fallujah, Iraq and obtained responses to a questionnaire in Arabic on cancer, birth defects and infant mortality. The total population in the resulting sample was 4,843 persons with and overall response rate was better than 60%. Relative Risks for cancer were age-standardised and compared to rates in the Middle East Cancer Registry (MECC, Garbiah Egypt) for 1999 and rates in Jordan 1996-2001. Between Jan 2005 and the survey end date there were 62 cases of cancer malignancy reported (RR = 4.22; CI: 2.8, 6.6; p < 0.00000001) including 16 cases of childhood cancer 0-14 (RR = 12.6; CI: 4.9, 32; p < 0.00000001). Highest risks were found in all-leukaemia in the age groups 0-34 (20 cases RR = 38.5; CI: 19.2, 77; p < 0.00000001), all lymphoma 0-34 (8 cases, RR = 9.24;CI: 4.12, 20.8; p < 0.00000001), female breast cancer 0-44 (12 cases RR = 9.7;CI: 3.6, 25.6; p < 0.00000001) and brain tumours all ages (4 cases, RR = 7.4;CI: 2.4, 23.1; P < 0.004). Infant mortality was based on the mean birth rate over the 4 year period 2006-2009 with 1/6th added for cases reported in January and February 2010. There were 34 deaths in the age group 0-1 in this period giving a rate of 80 deaths per 1,000 births. This may be compared with a rate of 19.8 in Egypt (RR = 4.2 p < 0.00001) 17 in Jordan in 2008 and 9.7 in Kuwait in 2008. The mean birth sex-ratio in the recent 5-year cohort was anomalous. Normally the sex ratio in human populations is a constant with 1,050 boys born to 1,000 girls. This is disturbed if there is a genetic damage stress. The ratio of boys to 1,000 girls in the 0-4, 5-9, 10-14 and 15-19 age cohorts in the Fallujah sample were 860

  11. Cancer, Infant Mortality and Birth Sex-Ratio in Fallujah, Iraq 2005–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Chris; Hamdan, Malak; Ariabi, Entesar

    2010-01-01

    There have been anecdotal reports of increases in birth defects and cancer in Fallujah, Iraq blamed on the use of novel weapons (possibly including depleted uranium) in heavy fighting which occurred in that town between US led forces and local elements in 2004. In Jan/Feb 2010 the authors organised a team of researchers who visited 711 houses in Fallujah, Iraq and obtained responses to a questionnaire in Arabic on cancer, birth defects and infant mortality. The total population in the resulting sample was 4,843 persons with and overall response rate was better than 60%. Relative Risks for cancer were age-standardised and compared to rates in the Middle East Cancer Registry (MECC, Garbiah Egypt) for 1999 and rates in Jordan 1996–2001. Between Jan 2005 and the survey end date there were 62 cases of cancer malignancy reported (RR = 4.22; CI: 2.8, 6.6; p < 0.00000001) including 16 cases of childhood cancer 0–14 (RR = 12.6; CI: 4.9, 32; p < 0.00000001). Highest risks were found in all-leukaemia in the age groups 0–34 (20 cases RR = 38.5; CI: 19.2, 77; p < 0.00000001), all lymphoma 0–34 (8 cases, RR = 9.24;CI: 4.12, 20.8; p < 0.00000001), female breast cancer 0–44 (12 cases RR = 9.7;CI: 3.6, 25.6; p < 0.00000001) and brain tumours all ages (4 cases, RR = 7.4;CI: 2.4, 23.1; P < 0.004). Infant mortality was based on the mean birth rate over the 4 year period 2006–2009 with 1/6th added for cases reported in January and February 2010. There were 34 deaths in the age group 0–1 in this period giving a rate of 80 deaths per 1,000 births. This may be compared with a rate of 19.8 in Egypt (RR = 4.2 p < 0.00001) 17 in Jordan in 2008 and 9.7 in Kuwait in 2008. The mean birth sex-ratio in the recent 5-year cohort was anomalous. Normally the sex ratio in human populations is a constant with 1,050 boys born to 1,000 girls. This is disturbed if there is a genetic damage stress. The ratio of boys to 1,000 girls in the 0–4, 5–9, 10–14 and 15–19 age cohorts in the

  12. Age- and Sex-Specific Trends in Lung Cancer Mortality over 62 Years in a Nation with a Low Effort in Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Ulrich; Hanke, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: A decrease in lung cancer mortality among females below 50 years of age has been reported for countries with significant tobacco control efforts. The aim of this study was to describe the lung cancer deaths, including the mortality rates and proportions among total deaths, for females and males by age at death in a country with a high smoking prevalence (Germany) over a time period of 62 years. Methods: The vital statistics data were analyzed using a joinpoint regression analysis stratified by age and sex. An age-period-cohort analysis was used to estimate the potential effects of sex and school education on mortality. Results: After an increase, lung cancer mortality among women aged 35–44 years remained stable from 1989 to 2009 and decreased by 10.8% per year from 2009 to 2013. Conclusions: Lung cancer mortality among females aged 35–44 years has decreased. The potential reasons include an increase in the number of never smokers, following significant increases in school education since 1950, particularly among females. PMID:27023582

  13. Long-term Prostate-specific Antigen Velocity in Improved Classification of Prostate Cancer Risk and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Bojesen, Stig E; Kamstrup, Pia R;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether adding long-term prostate-specific antigen velocity (PSAV) to baseline PSA values improves classification of prostate cancer (PCa) risk and mortality in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether long-term PSAV improves classification of PCa risk...

  14. Breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Nordic capitals, 1970-1998. Trends related to mammography screening programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnberg, Sven; Kemetli, Levent; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to relate the time trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality to the introduction of mammography screening in the Nordic capitals. Helsinki offered screening to women aged 50-59 starting in 1986. The other three capitals offered screening to women aged 50...

  15. [Lung cancer mortality in Casale Monferrato (Italy) and attributable risk to occupations in the asbestos-cement production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, C; Zanetti, R; Schiavo, D; Leporati, M; Botta, M

    1995-12-01

    The study presents mortality rates for lung cancer in the town of Casale Monferrato, where the largest Italian asbestos cement-plant was located. Cases of lung cancer dying in 1989-94 were exhaustively searched for in the register of deaths. Each case of lung cancer has been identified as ever or never employed in the factory with a linkage to the rosters of employees in the plant. Women were also identified as ever or never married to an asbestos-cement worker. The number of person-years at risk for asbestos cement workers and their wives was measured on the basis of the most recent follow-up. Mortality rates were computed separately for those exposed (workers and wives of workers) and for those with no evidence of exposure. Mortality rates for non-exposed were similar to rates in Piedmont (the region where Casale is located). The relative risk (ever exposed vs. never exposed) was 2.8 among men and 2.1 among women. Attributable risk among the exposed was 64.5% for men and 53.1% for women while among the general population it was 18.1% for men and 13.2% for women. The study confirms the dramatic effect of occupational asbestos exposure in Casale Monferrato but does not suggest an increase in lung cancer mortality among people with no occupational activity in the asbestos-cement production. PMID:8852083

  16. Social Stress, Smoking Behavior and Mortality from Cancer of the Respiratory System: A Macro-Social Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsky, Arnold S.; And Others

    This study investigated the relationship between the stressfulness of each state's social environment, smoking, and mortality rates for respiratory cancer. It was based on a health behavior model which assumed that under conditions of high stress some people fail to exercise normal prudence in either protecting their health or engage in practices…

  17. Brachytherapy boost and cancer-specific mortality in favorable high-risk versus other high-risk prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidhar, Vinayak; Xiang, Michael; Orio, Peter F.; Martin, Neil E.; Beard, Clair J.; Feng, Felix Y.; Hoffman, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent retrospective data suggest that brachytherapy (BT) boost may confer a cancer-specific survival benefit in radiation-managed high-risk prostate cancer. We sought to determine whether this survival benefit would extend to the recently defined favorable high-risk subgroup of prostate cancer patients (T1c, Gleason 4 + 4 = 8, PSA 20 ng/ml). Material and methods We identified 45,078 patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database with cT1c-T3aN0M0 intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer diagnosed 2004-2011 treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) only or EBRT plus BT. We used multivariable competing risks regression to determine differences in the rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) after EBRT + BT or EBRT alone in patients with intermediate-risk, favorable high-risk, or other high-risk disease after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Results EBRT + BT was not associated with an improvement in 5-year PCSM compared to EBRT alone among patients with favorable high-risk disease (1.6% vs. 1.8%; adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21-1.52, p = 0.258), and intermediate-risk disease (0.8% vs. 1.0%, AHR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.59-1.16, p = 0.270). Others with high-risk disease had significantly lower 5-year PCSM when treated with EBRT + BT compared with EBRT alone (3.9% vs. 5.3%; AHR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.55-0.95; p = 0.022). Conclusions Brachytherapy boost is associated with a decreased rate of PCSM in some men with high-risk prostate cancer but not among patients with favorable high-risk disease. Our results suggest that the recently-defined “favorable high-risk” category may be used to personalize therapy for men with high-risk disease. PMID:26985191

  18. Incidence of cancer and mortality among employees in the asbestos cement industry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffn, E; Lynge, E; Juel, K;

    1989-01-01

    In a cohort study of the incidence of cancer and mortality among 7996 men and 584 women employed in the Danish asbestos cement industry between 1928 and 1984 over 99% were traced. Chrysotile asbestos was the only fibre type used until 1946, when amosite and (in 1952) crocidolite were also...... introduced. Chrysotile constituted 89%, amosite 10%, and crocidolite 1% of the asbestos used. During the first 25 years of manufacture the exposure levels were high, especially in areas where the asbestos was handled dry. Measurements from 1948 indicate that the fibre levels may have ranged from 100 to 1600...... for men for non-malignant pulmonary diseases (O/E 1.63; 95% CI 1.33-1.98). Among the group of asbestos cement workers with first employment 1928-40 an excess risk of laryngeal cancer was found (O/E 5.50;95% CI 1.77-12.82). A total of 12 cases of pleural and one of peritoneal mesotheliomas was observed...

  19. Skipping Breakfast and Risk of Mortality from Cancer, Circulatory Diseases and All Causes: Findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yae; Onishi, Kazunari; Hosoda, Takenobu; Amano, Hiroki; Otani, Shinji; Kurozawa, Youichi; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Background Breakfast eating habits are a dietary pattern marker and appear to be a useful predictor of a healthy lifestyle. Many studies have reported the unhealthy effects of skipping breakfast. However, there are few studies on the association between skipping breakfast and mortality. In the present study, we examined the association between skipping breakfast and mortality from cancer, circulatory diseases and all causes using data from a large-scale cohort study, the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC) Study. Methods A cohort study of 34,128 men and 49,282 women aged 40–79 years was conducted, to explore the association between lifestyle and cancer in Japan. Participants completed a baseline survey during 1988 to 1990 and were followed until the end of 2009. We classified participants into two groups according to dietary habits with respect to eating or skipping breakfast and carried out intergroup comparisons of lifestyle. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results There were 5,768 deaths from cancer and 5,133 cases of death owing to circulatory diseases and 17,112 cases for all causes of mortality during the median 19.4 years follow-up. Skipping breakfast was related to unhealthy lifestyle habits. After adjusting for confounding factors, skipping breakfast significantly increased the risk of mortality from circulatory diseases [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.42] and all causes (HR = 1.43) in men and all causes mortality (HR = 1.34) in women. Conclusion Our findings showed that skipping breakfast is associated with increasing risk of mortality from circulatory diseases and all causes among men and all causes mortality among women in Japan. PMID:27046951

  20. Cancer Mortality Among Techa Riverside Residents (Southern Urals). Chronically Exposed to Radiation During the Prenatal Period and in Childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imperfect technology and lack of management and utilization facilities for reprocessing liquid waste released by the Mayak PA resulted in a protracted combined (external and internal) environmental radiation exposure of the population resident on the banks of the Techa River. The followup of 8.640 subjects exposed during the prenatal period and in childhood covered the period of 49 years (1.1.1950-31.12.1998), the total person-years under observation amounted to 222,686. From 1950 through 1998 1,231 death cases were registered in the catchment area (5 raions in Chelyabinsk OBlast through which the Techa flows). In 70 cases death was caused by solid cancers, and in 12 cases by leukemia. Analyses of solid cancer mortality yielded higher rates for men as compared to women (p<0.001). No significant differences in death rates were observed between different ethnic groups (Slavs vs Tartars and Bashkirs). A statistically significant increase in solid cancer mortality with attained age was shown (p<0.001). The age at first exposure was demonstrated to be a factor modifying the solid cancer mortality rate (p=0.049). The highest risk of death from solid cancers was manifested by persons whose exposure started in the prenatal period or at the age under 5 years. There were 4.6 excess cases in this group of 30 observed solid cancer cases, whereas in the group including subjects aged 5 years or older at first exposure only 1 excess case was registered among the 40 observed cancer cases. The obtained leukemia mortality ERR value (CLL excluded) was 7.76, p=0.09. The excess leukemia death was found to be 7.6 out of of 10 observed cases. The analysis performed should be regarded as a preliminary one, taking into account the need to further extend the followup of the cohort and a potential verification of dose estimates in the future. (Author) 11 refs

  1. Quantifying disparities in cancer incidence and mortality of Australian residents of New South Wales (NSW) by place of birth: an ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Feletto, Eleonora; Sitas, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2013, about 32 % of the Australian population over 15 years of age was born overseas. Previous cancer-related immigrant health studies identified differences in mortality and incidence between immigrants and Australian-born people. To identify groups that may require targeted interventions, we describe by region of birth: 1. the highest cancer incidence and mortality rates for NSW residents, Australia’s most populous state; and 2. mortality to incidence ratios (MIR) for all canc...

  2. A comparative population-based study of prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates in Singapore, Sweden and Geneva, Switzerland from 1973 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Cynthia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men in Sweden and Geneva, and the third most common in men in Singapore. This population-based study describes trends in the incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer in Singapore, Sweden and Geneva (Switzerland from 1973 to 2006 and explores possible explanations for these different trends. Methods Data from patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were extracted from national cancer registries in Singapore (n = 5,172, Sweden (n = 188,783 and Geneva (n = 5,755 from 1973 to 2006. Trends of incidence and mortality were reported using the Poisson and negative binomial regression models. The age, period and birth-cohort were tested as predictors of incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer. Results Incidence rates of prostate cancer increased over all time periods for all three populations. Based on the age-period-cohort analysis, older age and later period of diagnosis were associated with a higher incidence of prostate cancer, whereas older age and earlier period were associated with higher mortality rates for prostate cancer in all three countries. Conclusions This study demonstrated an overall increase in incidence rates and decrease in mortality rates in Singapore, Sweden and Geneva. Both incidence and mortality rates were much lower in Singapore. The period effect is a stronger predictor of incidence and mortality of prostate cancer than the birth-cohort effect.

  3. MORTALIDAD POR CÁNCER EN COLOMBIA EN 2005 Cancer mortality in Colombia in 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Luis Ochoa-Jaramillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Durante el año 2005, el cáncer cobró la vida de 7,6 millones de personas en el mundo, de los cuales el 75 por ciento de ellas se presentaron en países de bajos o medianos ingresos. Objetivo. Describir la mortalidad por cáncer en Colombia en 2005. Material y métodos. Estudio descriptivo-retrospectivo de las muertes por cáncer en Colombia en 2005 utilizando la base de datos de los certificados de defunción del DANE y los datos oficiales del último censo. Se ajustaron las tasas nacional y específica por sexo utilizando EpiDat 3.1®. Resultados. De las 189.022 defunciones en Colombia el 17,8 por ciento fueron por cáncer, para una tasa bruta de 81,3/100.000 habitantes. La edad promedio de las defunciones fue de 64,3 ± 18 años. Dos de cada tres defunciones ocurrieron en mayores de sesenta años. Entre los hombres las primeras causas fueron los tumores de estómago, próstata, pulmón y bronquios, mientras que en las mujeres fueron los de mama, estómago y cuello uterino. Bogotá, Antioquia y Valle contribuyeron con el 46 por ciento de las defunciones, y los departamentos del Eje Cafetero, junto con Valle y Antioquia, presentaron las tasas más elevadas de muerte por cáncer. Conclusión. El cáncer tiene una gran carga en la morbi mortalidad del país, por lo que es urgente priorizar las políticas orientadas a esta enfermedad en una población que envejece. Se requiere mayor compromiso del personal sanitario para solicitar las pruebas de tamizaje reglamentadas en Colombia. Son necesarios más estudios sobre el comportamiento de los tumores en el país, especialmente en las zonas de mayor riesgoBackground. In 2005, cancer killed 7.6 million people worldwide, of which 75 percent of them occurred in low and middle incomes. Objective. To describe cancer mortality in Colombia in 2005. Materials and methods. Retrospective descriptive study of cancer deaths in Colombia in 2005 using the database of death certificates and DANE last

  4. The combined impact of adherence to five lifestyle factors on all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kristina E N; Johnsen, Nina F; Olsen, Anja;

    2015-01-01

    Individual lifestyle factors have been associated with lifestyle diseases and premature mortality by an accumulating body of evidence. The impact of a combination of lifestyle factors on mortality has been investigated in several studies, but few have applied a simple index taking national guidel......·70) for cardiovascular mortality. In the present study, adherence to merely one additional health recommendation had a protective effect on mortality risk, indicating a huge potential in enhancing healthy lifestyle behaviours of the population.......Individual lifestyle factors have been associated with lifestyle diseases and premature mortality by an accumulating body of evidence. The impact of a combination of lifestyle factors on mortality has been investigated in several studies, but few have applied a simple index taking national...... guidelines into account. The objective of the present prospective cohort study was to investigate the combined impact of adherence to five lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, waist circumference and diet) on all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality based on international and...

  5. Mortality and cancer incidence in Misasa, Japan, a spa area with elevated radon levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A historical cohort study was conducted in Misasa town, Tottori prefecture, Japan, where radon spas have been operating for a long time. Misasa town was divided into an elevated radon level area and a control area, with mean indoor radon levels of about 60 and 20 Bq/m3, respectively. In total, 3,083 subjects in the elevated radon level area and 1,248 in the control area, all aged 40 or older on January 1, 1976, were followed up until December 31, 1993, for a mean period of 14 years. The mortality rates from all causes exhibited no difference between the elevated radon level area and the control area for both sexes. No difference was observed in the incidence of all-site cancers (age, period-adjusted rate ratios by Poisson regression, RR=1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-1.42 for males, RR=0.90, 95%CI 0.65-1.24 for females), while stomach cancer incidence seemed to decrease for both sexes (RR=0.70, 95%CI 0.44-1.11 for male, RR=0.58, 95%CI 0.34-1.00 for female) and lung cancer incidence for males only seemed to increase (RR=1.65, 95%CI 0.83-3.30 for male, RR=1.07, 95%CI 0.28-4.14 for female) in the elevated radon level area. Caution is needed in the interpretation of these findings, however, since the individual exposure level was not measured and major confounding factors, such as smoking and diet, could not be controlled in this study. (author)

  6. Cancer mortality in a Chinese population surrounding a multi-metal sulphide mine in Guangdong province: an ecologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dabaoshan mine in the southeast of Guangdong Province, China, is at high risk of multi-metal pollutant discharge into a local river (Hengshihe and the surrounding area. Following approximately 30 years of exposure to these metals, little is known regarding the subsequent health effects and risks for the local residents. In our present study, we have estimated the relationships between long-term environmental exposure to multiple heavy metals and the risk of cancer mortality in a Chinese population in the vicinity of Dabaoshan. Methods An ecologic study was performed. Between 2000-2007, a total population of 194,131 lived in the nine agricultural villages that surround the Hengshihe area. Heavy metals concentrations were determined in local environmental samples (water and crops and whole blood taken from 1152 local residents of both a high-exposure area (HEA and a low-exposure area (LEA. We calculated the rate ratio and standardized mortality ratios based on age- and gender-specific cancer mortality rates for the different reference populations (based on district, county and province. Simple, multiple linear and ridge regression models were used to evaluate the associations between exposure to multiple heavy metals and cancer mortality in the nine villages, after adjustment for age and sex. Results The geometric mean blood levels of cadmium and lead were measured at 24.10 μg/L and 38.91 μg/dL for subjects (n = 563 in the HEA and 1.87 μg/L and 4.46 μg/dL for subjects (n = 589 from the LEA, respectively (P Conclusions The findings of this study reveal probable associations between long-term environmental exposure to both cadmium and lead and an increased risk of mortality from all cancer, as well as from stomach, esophageal and lung-cancers.

  7. News Portrayal of Cancer: Content Analysis of Threat and Efficacy by Cancer Type and Comparison with Incidence and Mortality in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Minsun; Kim, Yong-Chan; Kye, Su Yeon; Park, Keeho

    2016-08-01

    How the news media cover cancer may have profound significance for cancer prevention and control; however, little is known about the actual content of cancer news coverage in Korea. This research thus aimed to examine news portrayal of specific cancer types with respect to threat and efficacy, and to investigate whether news portrayal corresponds to actual cancer statistics. A content analysis of 1,138 cancer news stories was conducted, using a representative sample from 23 news outlets (television, newspapers, and other news media) in Korea over a 5-year period from 2008 to 2012. Cancer incidence and mortality rates were obtained from the Korean Statistical Information Service. Results suggest that threat was most prominent in news stories on pancreatic cancer (with 87% of the articles containing threat information with specific details), followed by liver (80%) and lung cancers (70%), and least in stomach cancer (41%). Efficacy information with details was conveyed most often in articles on colorectal (54%), skin (54%), and liver (50%) cancers, and least in thyroid cancer (17%). In terms of discrepancies between news portrayal and actual statistics, the threat of pancreatic and liver cancers was overreported, whereas the threat of stomach and prostate cancers was underreported. Efficacy information regarding cervical and colorectal cancers was overrepresented in the news relative to cancer statistics; efficacy of lung and thyroid cancers was underreported. Findings provide important implications for medical professionals to understand news information about particular cancers as a basis for public (mis)perception, and to communicate effectively about cancer risk with the public and patients. PMID:27478333

  8. Mortality and cancer incident among residents in an area with a geological occurrence of uranium: the municipality of Monte Alegre, PA, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The municipality of Monte Alegre, located in the Amazonian State of Para, Brazil, presents scattered areas with increased levels of natural radiation due to uranium rocks. The objectives of this dissertation were: to evaluate the mortality trend among Monte Alegre residents, and to compare it with that observed in neighbor municipalities (Alenquer and Prainha) without natural radiation sources; and to determine the impact of cancer distribution either in Monte Alegre or control counties population, taking into account their estimates of cancer incidence and mortality. The dissertation was organized in two papers. The first one aimed to evaluate the mortality trend for all causes of death, cancer, and unknown causes of death occurred between 1981-2005. Analyzed data was provided by the Brazilian National Mortality Information System (SIM), being the general population of the State of Para used as reference. In the second paper, cancer mortality risks at selected sites were ascertained using standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and mortality odds ratios (MOR). Additionally, cancer mortality risk ratios of Monte Alegre and control counties were obtained towards the ratio between SMRs of selected cancer sites in both areas. Three different sources of data were used to retrieve all cancer cases in the studied area, and therefore, to estimate cancer incidence in the studied populations: the diagnosed cancer cases at the regional reference centers for oncological care settled in Santarem, Belem and Manaus; the cancer-related hospitalization authorization records obtained at the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) registries; and primary data of cancer reported by local residents at a population-based health survey conducted by our research team in 2007-2008. A declining trend for all causes of death mortality in Monte Alegre general population, as well as for the unknown causes of death, was observed along the studied time series for both gender. Cancer mortality trend

  9. INCREASE INCOME AND MORTALITY OF COLORRECTAL CANCER IN BRAZIL, 2001-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Mendonça GUIMARÃES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Several international studies have observed a correlation between the improvement of socio-demographic indicators and rates of incidence and mortality from cancer of the colon and rectum. Objective The objective of this study is to estimate the correlation between average per capita income and the rate of colorectal cancer mortality in Brazil between 2001 and 2009. Methods We obtained data on income inequality (Gini index, population with low incomes (½ infer the minimum wage/month, average family income, per capita ICP and mortality from colon cancer and straight between 2001-2009 by DATASUS. A trend analysis was performed using linear regression, and correlation between variables by Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results There was a declining trend in poverty and income inequality, and growth in ICP per capita and median family income and standardized mortality rate for colorectal cancer in Brazil. There was also strong positive correlation between mortality from this site of cancer and inequality (men r = -0.30, P = 0.06, women r = -0.33, P = 0.05 income low income (men r = -0.80, P Contexto Diversos estudos internacionais têm observado uma correlação entre a melhora dos indicadores sociodemográficos e as taxas de incidência e mortalidade por câncer de cólon e reto. Objetivo O objetivo do presente estudo é estimar a correlação entre renda média per capita e a taxa de mortalidade por câncer colorretal no Brasil entre 2001 e 2009. Métodos Obteve-se os dados de desigualdade de renda (índice de Gini, população que vive com baixa renda (inferir a ½ salário mínimo/mês, renda média familiar, PIB per capita e taxa de mortalidade por câncer de cólon e reto entre 2001 e 2009 através do DATASUS. A análise de tendência foi realizada através do método de regressão linear, e a correlação entre as variáveis através do coeficiente de correlação de Pearson. Resultados Observou-se tendência ao declínio da

  10. Lycopene, tomato products and prostate cancer-specific mortality among men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Jacobs, Eric J; Newton, Christina C; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2016-06-15

    While dietary lycopene and tomato products have been inversely associated with prostate cancer incidence, there is limited evidence for an association between consumption of lycopene and tomato products and prostate-cancer specific mortality (PCSM). We examined the associations of prediagnosis and postdiagnosis dietary lycopene and tomato product intake with PCSM in a large prospective cohort. This analysis included men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between enrollment in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort in 1992 or 1993 and June 2011. Prediagnosis dietary data, collected at baseline, were available for 8,898 men, of whom 526 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Postdiagnosis dietary data, collected on follow-up surveys in 1999 and/or 2003, were available for 5,643 men, of whom 363 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PCSM. Neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis dietary lycopene intake was associated with PCSM (fourth vs. first quartile HR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.78-1.28; HR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.91-1.64, respectively). Similarly, neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis consumption of tomato products was associated with PCSM. Among men with high-risk cancers (T3-T4 or Gleason score 8-10, or nodal involvement), consistently reporting lycopene intake ≥ median on both postdiagnosis surveys was associated with lower PCSM (HR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-0.99, based on ten PCSM cases consistently ≥ median intake) compared to consistently reporting intake prostate cancers. PMID:26830232

  11. Monocyte number associated with incident cancer and mortality in middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, Ahmad; Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Selmer, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Monocytes play an important role in innate immunity and exhibit prognostic value in some cancers. It was hypothesised that activation of the innate immune system through mobilisation of monocytes to tissue macrophages develops an inflammatory state associated with increased risk of ca...... death (HR 1.13 (1.06-1.19)). CONCLUSIONS: In healthy middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling Danes circulating monocytes independently predicted incident cancer and mortality....... cancer and mortality. METHODS: To test this hypothesis monocyte number was measured in a sample of 669 Danish men (59%) and women (41%) aged 55 to 75years who were free of any known prevalent cancer or cardiovascular disease. The population was followed for 6.3years, during which period incident cancers......% CI 1.12-3.57]) and deaths (HR 1.67 [1.03-2.72]) in univariate analyses, after correction for age and gender (cancer HR 2.15 [1.20-3.86] and death HR 1.63 [1.00-2.67]), and following additional correction for smoking habits, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol (cancer HR 2.00 [1...

  12. Lung cancer risk and cancer-specific mortality in subjects undergoing routine imaging test when stratified with and without identified lung nodule on imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Saez, Noemi [Miguel Hernandez University, Public Health, History of Science and Ginecology Department, Alicante (Spain); Hernandez-Aguado, Ildefonso; Pastor Valero, Maria; Parker, Lucy Anne; Lumbreras, Blanca [Miguel Hernandez University, Public Health, History of Science and Ginecology Department, Alicante (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica, Madrid (Spain); Vilar, Jose; Domingo, Maria Luisa [Peset Hospital, Radiodiagnostic Department, Valencia (Spain); Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel; Lorente, Maria Fermina [San Juan Hospital, Radiodiagnostic Department, San Juan de Alicante (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    To assess the risk of lung cancer and specific mortality rate in patients with and without solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) on chest radiograph and CT. This prospective study included 16,078 patients ≥35 years old (893 of them had an SPN detected with either chest radiograph or CT) and 15,185 without SPN. Patients were followed up for 18 months or until being diagnosed with lung cancer. Risk and mortality lung cancer were calculated in both groups with Poisson regression. In patients with SPN, incidence of lung cancer was 8.3 % (95 % CI 6.0-11.2) on radiograph and 12.4 % (95 % CI 9.3-15.9) on CT. A chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with radiographs (odds ratio 2.62; 95 % CI 1.03, 6.67) and smoking habit (odds ratio 20.63; 95 % CI 3.84, 110.77) in patients with CT were associated with a higher probability of lung cancer. Large nodule size and spiculated edge were associated with lung cancer on both CT and radiograph. Lung cancer-specific mortality was lower in patients with SPN than in those without SPN (1.73/1000 person-years, 95 % CI 1.08-2.88 vs. 2.15/1000 person-years, 95 % CI 1.25-3.96). The risk of lung cancer for patients with SPN is higher in clinical populations than in screening studies. Moreover, patients with SPN showed lower mortality than those without SPN. (orig.)

  13. Lung cancer risk and cancer-specific mortality in subjects undergoing routine imaging test when stratified with and without identified lung nodule on imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the risk of lung cancer and specific mortality rate in patients with and without solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) on chest radiograph and CT. This prospective study included 16,078 patients ≥35 years old (893 of them had an SPN detected with either chest radiograph or CT) and 15,185 without SPN. Patients were followed up for 18 months or until being diagnosed with lung cancer. Risk and mortality lung cancer were calculated in both groups with Poisson regression. In patients with SPN, incidence of lung cancer was 8.3 % (95 % CI 6.0-11.2) on radiograph and 12.4 % (95 % CI 9.3-15.9) on CT. A chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with radiographs (odds ratio 2.62; 95 % CI 1.03, 6.67) and smoking habit (odds ratio 20.63; 95 % CI 3.84, 110.77) in patients with CT were associated with a higher probability of lung cancer. Large nodule size and spiculated edge were associated with lung cancer on both CT and radiograph. Lung cancer-specific mortality was lower in patients with SPN than in those without SPN (1.73/1000 person-years, 95 % CI 1.08-2.88 vs. 2.15/1000 person-years, 95 % CI 1.25-3.96). The risk of lung cancer for patients with SPN is higher in clinical populations than in screening studies. Moreover, patients with SPN showed lower mortality than those without SPN. (orig.)

  14. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, hormone receptor status, and breast cancer-specific mortality in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allott, E H; Tse, C-K; Olshan, A F; Carey, L A; Moorman, P G; Troester, M A

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiologic studies report a protective association between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer risk, a finding consistent with NSAID-mediated suppression of aromatase-driven estrogen biosynthesis. However, the association between NSAID use and breast cancer-specific mortality is uncertain and it is unknown whether this relationship differs by hormone receptor status. This study comprised 935 invasive breast cancer cases, of which 490 were estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, enrolled between 1996 and 2001 in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study. Self-reported NSAID use in the decade prior to diagnosis was categorized by duration and regularity of use. Differences in tumor size, stage, node, and receptor status by NSAID use were examined using Chi-square tests. Associations between NSAID use and breast cancer-specific mortality were examined using age- and race-adjusted Cox proportional hazards analysis. Tumor characteristics did not differ by NSAID use. Increased duration and regularity of NSAID use was associated with reduced breast cancer-specific mortality in women with ER-positive tumors (long-term regular use (≥8 days/month for ≥ 3 years) versus no use; hazard ratio (HR) 0.48; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.23-0.98), with a statistically significant trend with increasing duration and regularity (p-trend = 0.036). There was no association for ER-negative cases (HR 1.19; 95 %CI 0.50-2.81; p-trend = 0.891). Long-term, regular NSAID use in the decade prior to breast cancer diagnosis was associated with reduced breast cancer-specific mortality in ER-positive cases. If confirmed, these findings support the hypothesis that potential chemopreventive properties of NSAIDs are mediated, at least in part, through suppression of estrogen biosynthesis. PMID:25151293

  15. Increased cardiovascular mortality more than fifteen years after radiotherapy for breast cancer: a population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast radiotherapy as practised in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in significant myocardial exposure, and this was higher when the left breast was treated. It has been proposed that this difference might result in greater cardiovascular mortality following irradiation of the left breast when compared with the right. All cases of female breast cancer diagnosed between 1971 and 1988 and recorded on the Thames Cancer Registry database were followed up to the end of 2003 to identify cases who had died from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) or any cardiovascular disease (CVD). A proportional hazards regression analysis was performed, stratified by time since diagnosis, using as the baseline group those women with right-sided disease who did not receive radiotherapy, and adjusting for age at diagnosis. A total of 20,871 women with breast cancer were included in the analysis, of which 51% had left-sided disease. Mortality at 15+ years after diagnosis was increased in recipients of left-breast radiotherapy compared to non-irradiated women with right-sided breast cancer, both for IHD (hazard ratio 1.59; 95% confidence interval 1.21–2.08; p = 0.001) and all CVD (hazard ratio 1.27; 95% confidence interval 1.07–1.51; p = 0.006). When irradiated women with left-sided breast cancer were compared with irradiated women with right-sided breast cancer, cardiovascular mortality at 15+ years after diagnosis was raised by around 25% (IHD: hazard ratio 1.23; 95% confidence interval 0.95–1.60; p = 0.114; CVD: hazard ratio 1.25; 95% confidence interval 1.05–1.49; p = 0.014). We have found an elevation in cardiovascular mortality more than 15 years after breast radiotherapy in women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1971 and 1988. The risk was greater following irradiation of the left breast compared with the right. This confirms that radiotherapy as practised in the 1970s and 1980s has resulted in significant long-term cardiac toxicity. In absolute terms, the increase in

  16. Lung cancer mortality in towns near paper, pulp and board industries in Spain: a point source pollution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollán Marina

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study sought to ascertain whether there might be excess lung cancer mortality among the population residing in the vicinity of Spanish paper and board industries which report their emissions to the European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER. Methods This was an ecological study that modelled the Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR for lung cancer in 8073 Spanish towns over the period 1994–2003. Population exposure to industrial pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. An exploratory, near-versus-far analysis was conducted, using mixed Poisson regression models and an analysis of the effect of municipal proximity within a 50-kilometre radius of each of the 18 installations. Results Results varied for the different facilities. In two instances there was an increasing mortality gradient with proximity to the installation, though this was exclusively observed among men. Conclusion The study of cancer mortality in areas surrounding pollutant foci is a useful tool for environmental surveillance, and serves to highlight areas of interest susceptible to being investigated by ad hoc studies. Despite present limitations, recognition is therefore due to the advance represented by publication of the EPER and the study of pollutant foci.

  17. Cancer mortality in ethnic South Asian migrants in England and Wales (1993–2003): patterns in the overall population and in first and subsequent generations

    OpenAIRE

    Mangtani, P; Maringe, C; Rachet, B; Coleman, M P; dos Santos Silva, I.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cancer mortality has been examined among ethnic South Asian migrants in England and Wales, but not by generation of migration. Methods: Using South Asian mortality records, identified by a name-recognition algorithm, and census information, age-standardised rates among South Asians, and South Asian vs non-South Asian rate ratios, were calculated. Results and conclusions: All-cancer rates in ethnic South Asians were half of those in non-South Asians in first-generation (all-cancer-...

  18. Global trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality Cáncer de mama en el mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy L. Porter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the increasing incidence of breast cancer world-wide and the increasing burden of breast cancer deaths experienced by lower-income countries. The causes of increasing incidence have been attributed to changes in the prevalence of reproductive risk factors, lifestyle changes, and genetic and biological differences between ethnic and racial groups. All these factors may contribute, but data linking etiological factors to increased risk in developing countries is lacking. The challenge for lower-income countries is developing effective strategies to reverse the trend of increasing mortality. Down-staging of breast cancer by early detection is a promising long-term strategy for preventing disease-related deaths but it is difficult to make the economic investment required to carry out broad screening programs. Successful strategies for addressing the growing breast cancer burden will therefore take political will, reliable data, public and medical community awareness, and partnerships between community advocates, governments, non-governmental organizations and biotechnology.Se destaca el aumento en la incidencia de cáncer de mama (CaMa en el mundo y la creciente carga de muertes por la enfermedad en países en desarrollo. El aumento en la incidencia se atribuye a cambios en la prevalencia de factores de riesgo reproductivo, estilo de vida, y a diferencias biológicas entre grupos étnicos y raciales. Sin embargo, aún faltan datos que relacionen los factores etiológicos al incremento en el riesgo en países en desarrollo. El desafío es generar estrategias efectivas que reviertan la tendencia en la mortalidad. La detección en etapas más tempranas es una estrategia prometedora de largo plazo pero la inversión necesaria para los programas de tamizaje es muy alta. Las estrategias exitosas para hacer frente a la creciente carga de CaMa deben tener voluntad política, evidencia confiable, reconocimiento de la comunidad p

  19. Causes of Mortality After Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy and Androgen Deprivation for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tendulkar, Rahul D., E-mail: tendulr@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hunter, Grant K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Intermountain Healthcare, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Reddy, Chandana A.; Stephans, Kevin L.; Ciezki, Jay P.; Abdel-Wahab, May [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stephenson, Andrew J.; Klein, Eric A. [Department of Urology, Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Mahadevan, Arul [Seacoast Cancer Center New Hampshire, Dover, New Hampshire (United States); Kupelian, Patrick A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles Health System, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: Men with high-risk prostate cancer have other competing causes of mortality; however, current risk stratification schema do not account for comorbidities. We aim to identify the causes of death and factors predictive for mortality in this population. Methods and Materials: A total of 660 patients with high-risk prostate cancer were treated with definitive high-dose external beam radiation therapy (≥74 Gy) and androgen deprivation (AD) between 1996 and 2009 at a single institution. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to determine factors predictive of survival. Results: The median radiation dose was 78 Gy, median duration of AD was 6 months, and median follow-up was 74 months. The 10-year overall survival (OS) was 60.6%. Prostate cancer was the leading single cause of death, with 10-year mortality of 14.1% (95% CI 10.7-17.6), compared with other cancers (8.4%, 95% CI 5.7-11.1), cardiovascular disease (7.3%, 95% CI 4.7-9.9), and all other causes (10.4%, 95% CI 7.2-13.6). On multivariate analysis, older age (HR 1.55, P=.002) and Charlson comorbidity index score (CS) ≥1 (HR 2.20, P<.0001) were significant factors predictive of OS, whereas Gleason score, T stage, prostate-specific antigen, duration of AD, radiation dose, smoking history, and body mass index were not. Men younger than 70 years of age with CS = 0 were more likely to die of prostate cancer than any other cause, whereas older men or those with CS ≥1 more commonly suffered non-prostate cancer death. The cumulative incidences of prostate cancer-specific mortality were similar regardless of age or comorbidities (P=.60). Conclusions: Men with high-risk prostate cancer are more likely to die of causes other than prostate cancer, except for the subgroup of men younger than 70 years of age without comorbidities. Only older age and presence of comorbidities significantly predicted for OS, whereas prostate cancer- and treatment-related factors did not.

  20. Short-term mortality in older patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Aron S; Lei, Xiudong; Tripathy, Debu; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Giordano, Sharon H; Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana

    2016-06-01

    Chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer has lowered cancer recurrence and deaths. However, short-term mortality rates due to cancer or treatment in the general population remain largely unknown. In this study, we evaluate the short-term mortality rate and the determinants of such outcome among a cohort of older breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. This is a population-based study based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER)-Medicare and the Texas Cancer Registry (TCR)-Medicare databases. Patients diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer between 2003 and 2011 who were 66 years or older and were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy within 6 months of diagnosis were included. Short-term mortality was defined as death from any cause within one year of breast cancer diagnosis. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression modeling were used for the analysis. Of the 21,536 patients included, a total of 625 (2.9 %) died within one year of breast cancer diagnosis. In multivariate analysis, older age (using 66-70 as reference category; 71-75 years OR 1.31, 95 % CI 1.05-1.62; 76-80 years OR 1.73, 95 % CI 1.36-2.19; >80 years OR 3.48, 95 % CI 2.7-4.48) and higher comorbidity index (using Charlson score of 0 as a reference, those with score of 1 or >2 had higher risk OR 1.46, 95 % CI 1.19-1.8 and OR 2.98, 95 % CI 2.42-3.67, respectively) were associated with the increased risk of short-term mortality. Other factors significantly associated with the outcome were higher grade and stage, ER-negative status, poor census tract area, and mastectomy. The findings of this study revealed that, in this large cohort of older breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, 2.9 % of the population died within one year of breast cancer diagnosis. Finally, it was concluded that tumor- and patient-related characteristics were associated with short-term death. Our findings add relevant information that can be

  1. Serum total cholesterol level and some cancer mortality:A 7 years follow-up study in 698796 people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qin-feng; WU Duo-wen; Jong Ku Park; Sang Baek Koh; Chun Bae Kim; Sei Jin Chan

    2003-01-01

    目的为研究血清总胆固醇与全癌、胃癌、肝癌以及肺癌死亡的关系,评价血清总胆固醇含量作为这几种癌的预报指标的价值.方法研究人群是韩国医疗保险公司的投保人,且年龄在40岁及40岁以上,共有698,796人.1992年至1993年首先对每一个观察对象进行身体健康检查并调查他们的生活习惯以及疾病既往史.随访开始于1994年1月1日结束于2000年12月31日.本研究的主要数据来自健康检查记录以及保险公司的死亡补贴记录.结果随访期内有11754人死于癌症,其中2631人死于胃癌,2456人死于肝癌,2129人死于肺癌.血清总胆固醇水平与全癌、肝癌的死亡呈明显的负相关关系并且有统计学意义.血清胆固醇升高,全癌和肝癌的死亡率降低,不论男性还是女性均是同样的结果.排除随访期前3年的死亡人数后,得到的仍然是这个结果.胆固醇与胃癌之间呈现弱的负相关关系.胆固醇与肺癌间无统计学联系.结论胆固醇与全癌以及肝癌之间有负的相关关系,血清胆固醇含量过低预示死于全癌和肝癌的危险升高.%Objective: To analyze the relationship of serum total cholesterol and mortality from overall cancer,stomach cancer, liver cancer, and lung cancer, and evaluate an importance of serum cholesterol concentrations as predictor of the several cancers in both men and women. Methods: The cohort consisted of the beneficiaries of Korea Medical Insurance Corporation (KMIC) aged 40 and older who had taken the health examination and completed the questionnairenquiring of health habits and past medical history in 1992 or 1993. Numbers of cohort member were 698,796, and they were followed from 1 Jan, 1994 until 31 Dec, 2000. The primary source of the data used in this study were the death benefit record and health examination file of KMIC. Results: There were 11754 deaths from cancer and among them 2631 were stomach cancer, 2456 were liver cancer, 2129

  2. The effect of changes in dosimetry on cancer mortality risk estimates in the atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the spring of 1986, RERF received a new dosimetry system which was developed by the US-Japan Committee for Reassessment of Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This report presents the comparisons of leukemia and nonleukemia cancer mortality risk estimates under the old and new dosimetries. In terms of total kerma (essentially whole-body gamma-ray plus neutron exposure), the risk estimates for both types of cancer are 75 %-85 % higher with the new dosimetry. This and other summary comparisons here make some allowance for possible nonlinearity at high estimated doses. It is also important to consider the changes in relation to organ doses and assumptions about the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons. Without regard to RBE, the risk estimates for total organ dose are essentially unchanged by the dosimetry revision. However, with increasing assumed values of RBE, the estimated low-LET risk decreases much less rapidly under the new dosimetry, due to the smaller neutron component. Thus at an assumed constant RBE of 10, for example, the effect of the dosimetry revision is to increase organ dose risk estimates, relative to those based on the old dosimetry, by 30 % for nonleukemia and 80 % for leukemia. At an RBE of 20 these increases are 72 % and 136 %, respectively. A number of other issues are discussed. The city difference in dose-response is smaller with the new dosimetry, and is no longer statistically significant, even at an RBE of one. Estimation of RBE is even less feasible with the new dosimetry. There is substantial question of the linearity in dose-response, in the sense of a leveling off at higher doses. Finally, some indication is given of how estimated lifetime risks from this dosimetry may compare to widely-used estimates based largely on the RERF data with the previous dosimetry. (author)

  3. Mortality trends and risk of dying from breast cancer in the 32 states and 7 socioeconomic regions of Mexico, 2002-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Sánchez-Barriga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine mortality trends from breast cancer in Mexico nationwide, by state, by socioeconomic region, and to establish an association between education, state of residence, and socioeconomic region with mortality from breast cancer in 2002–2011.Methods. Records of mortality associated with breast cancer were obtained. Rates of mortality nationwide, by state, and by socioeconomic region were calculated. The strength of association between states where women resided, socioeconomic regions, and education with mortality from breast cancer was determined.Results. Women who completed elementary school had a higher risk of dying from breast cancer than people with more education [relative risk (RR 2.58, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.49–2.67]. Mexico City had the strongest association with dying from breast cancer as state and as socioeconomic region 7 [Mexico City: RR 3.47, CI95% 2.7-4.46 (2002 and RR 3.33, CI95% 2.66-4.15 (2011 and region 7: RR 3.72, CI 95%: 3.15-4.38 (2002 and RR 2.87, CI 95%: 2.51-3.28 (2011].Conclusions. In Mexico, the raw mortality rates per 100 000 women who died from breast cancer increased. Mortality was higher in women who had elementary school than in those with more education. The strongest association was in Mexico City as state and as region 7. 

  4. Cancer mortality among radiological technologists in Japan. Updated analysis of follow-up data from 1969 to 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, Shinji; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Aoyama, Takashi; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    1999-04-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted for 12,195 male radiological technologists who received the occupational exposure to low dose radiation over a long term. A total of 1,097 deaths including 435 from cancer were ascertained by Koseki and death certificates from 1969 to 1993. Cancer mortality among the study population was basically compared with that of whole Japanese men. The significant low SMRs were obtained for all cancers, stomach and lung cancer partly due to Healthy Worker Effect, unlike the results of the early reports with some inappropriateness in the methods. Apparent high risks of lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers were observed, although none of site-specific cancers revealed the statistically significant increase. For these cancers, the SMRs among old sub-cohort were somewhat higher than those of young sub-cohort, whereas similar SMRs for solid cancer were obtained between the two sub cohorts. The SMR for leukemia reached statistically significant level of 1.75 (95%Cl: 1.07-2.71) when using whole professional and technical workers as a standard population. The study results might suggest that the chronic exposure to low-dose radiation enhanced the risk of lymphatic and hematopoietic cancers. (author)

  5. Mortality and cancer registration experience of the Sellafield employees known to have been involved in the 1957 Windscale accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mortality and cancer morbidity experience of the 470 male Sellafield employees known to be involved in the 1957 Windscale accident is reported. All these employees are known to have been involved in dealing with the fire itself, or in the clean-up operation afterwards. The size of the study population is small, leading to predicted low power to reveal any effects, but the cohort is of interest because of the involvement of the workers in the accident. For 1957-97, using rates for England and Wales to calculate the expected numbers, the all causes standardised mortality ratio (SMR) is 100 (observed=258, expected=258.80), and the all malignant neoplasms SMR is 79 (observed=58, expected=73.12) which is not significantly different from 100. For 1971-91, the all malignant neoplasms standardised registration ratio (SRR) of 85 (observed=59, expected=69.23) is not significantly different from 100. Significant excesses of deaths from diseases of the circulatory system (SMR=121) and from ischaemic heart disease (SMR=128), and a significant deficit of deaths from cancer of the genito-urinary organs (SMR=31), were found. There were no significant differences in mortality rates between workers who had received high recorded external doses during the fire and those who had received low doses, though the power of this comparison was low. Comparison of the mortality rates of workers directly involved in the accident with workers in post, but not so involved, showed no significant differences. This study has been unable to detect any effect of the 1957 fire upon the mortality and cancer morbidity experience of those workers involved in it. (author)

  6. Fear of death, mortality communication, and psychological distress among secular and religiously observant family caregivers of terminal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachner, Yaacov G; O'Rourke, Norm; Carmel, Sara

    2011-02-01

    Previous research suggests that caregivers and terminally ill patients face substantial difficulties discussing illness and death. Existing research, however, has focused primarily on the experience of patients. The current study compared responses as well as the relative strength of association between mortality comunication, fear of death, and psychological distress (i.e., depressive symptomatology, emotional exhaustion) among secular and religiously observant family caregivers of terminally ill cancer patients. A total of 236 participants were recruited over 18 months within the first year of caregiver bereavement. Retrospectively reported mortality communication was statistically greater among secular caregivers; in contrast, both fear of death and depressive symptoms were greater among the religiously observant. Path analyses subsequently revealed notable differences between groups. Among secular caregivers, a significant inverse relationship between mortality communication and the two indices of caregiver distress emerged. In contrast, the association between mortality communication and psychological distress among the religious was moderated by these caregivers' fear of death. The results of this study suggest that fear of death is a significant predictor of psychological distress among religiously observant caregivers of terminal cancer patients (i.e., fear of their own death as elicited by the caregiving role). Fostering morality communication between secular caregivers and patients would appear to be one means of reducing the likelihood of clinically significant psychological distress. This may be insufficient among religiously observant caregivers, however, for whom fear of death may first need to be redressed. PMID:24501834

  7. Reproductive factors and risk of mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Murphy, Neil; Kadi, Mai; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fortner, Renée T.; Katzke, Verena A; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reproductive events are associated with important physiologic changes, yet little is known about how reproductive factors influence long-term health in women. Our objective was to assess the relation of reproductive characteristics with all-cause and cause-specific mortality risk. Methods: The analysis was performed within the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition prospective cohort study, which enrolled >500,000 women and men from 1992 to 2000, who were residing in a g...

  8. Delayed intensive care unit admission is associated with increased mortality in patients with cancer with acute respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokart, Djamel; Lambert, Jérôme; Schnell, David; Fouché, Louis; Rabbat, Antoine; Kouatchet, Achille; Lemiale, Virginie; Vincent, François; Lengliné, Etienne; Bruneel, Fabrice; Pene, Frederic; Chevret, Sylvie; Azoulay, Elie

    2013-08-01

    Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is the leading reason for intensive care unit (ICU) admission in patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to identify early predictors of death in patients with cancer admitted to the ICU for ARF who were not intubated at admission. We conducted analysis of a prospective randomized controlled trial including 219 patients with cancer with ARF in which day-28 mortality was a secondary endpoint. Mortality at day 28 was 31.1%. By multivariate analysis, independent predictors of day-28 mortality were: age (odds ratio [OR] 1.30/10 years, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.01-1.68], p = 0.04), more than one line of chemotherapy (OR 2.14, 95% CI [1.08-4.21], p = 0.03), time between respiratory symptoms onset and ICU admission > 2 days (OR 2.50, 95% CI [1.25-5.02], p = 0.01), oxygen flow at admission (OR 1.07/L, 95% CI [1.00-1.14], p = 0.04) and extra-respiratory symptoms (OR 2.84, 95%CI [1.30-6.21], p = 0.01). After adjustment for the logistic organ dysfunction (LOD) score at admission, only time between respiratory symptoms onset and ICU admission > 2 days and LOD score were independently associated with day-28 mortality. Determinants of death include both factors non-amenable to change, and delay in ARF management. These results suggest that early intensive care management of patients with cancer with ARF may translate to better survival. PMID:23185988

  9. Dose–responses from multi-model inference for the non-cancer disease mortality of atomic bomb survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Schöllnberger, H.; Kaiser, J. C.; Jacob, P.; Walsh, L

    2012-01-01

    The non-cancer mortality data for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular diseases from Report 13 on the atomic bomb survivors published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation were analysed to investigate the dose–response for the influence of radiation on these detrimental health effects. Various parametric and categorical models (such as linear-no-threshold (LNT) and a number of threshold and step models) were analysed with a statistical selection protocol that rated the mode...

  10. Lung Cancer Mortality and Radon Concentration in a Chronically Exposed Neighborhood in Chihuahua, Mexico: A Geospatial Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hinojosa de la Garza, Octavio R.; Sanín, Luz H.; María Elena Montero Cabrera; Korina Ivette Serrano Ramirez; Enrique Martínez Meyer; Manuel Reyes Cortés

    2014-01-01

    This study correlated lung cancer (LC) mortality with statistical data obtained from government public databases. In order to asses a relationship between LC deaths and radon accumulation in dwellings, indoor radon concentrations were measured with passive detectors randomly distributed in Chihuahua City. Kriging (K) and Inverse-Distance Weighting (IDW) spatial interpolations were carried out. Deaths were georeferenced and Moran's I correlation coefficients were calculated. The mean values (o...

  11. Fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause, cancer and CVD mortality: analysis of Health Survey for England data

    OpenAIRE

    Oyebode, O; Gordon-Dseagu, V.; Walker, A.; Mindell, J

    2014-01-01

    Background Governments worldwide recommend daily consumption of fruit and vegetables. We examine whether this benefits health in the general population of England. Methods Cox regression was used to estimate HRs and 95% CI for an association between fruit and vegetable consumption and all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality, adjusting for age, sex, social class, education, BMI, alcohol consumption and physical activity, in 65 226 participants aged 35+ years in the 2001–2008 Health Surv...

  12. Validating drug repurposing signals using electronic health records: a case study of metformin associated with reduced cancer mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Hua; Aldrich, Melinda C; Chen, Qingxia; Liu, Hongfang; Peterson, Neeraja B.; Dai, Qi; Levy, Mia; Shah, Anushi; Han, Xue; Ruan, Xiaoyang; Jiang, Min; Ying LI; Julien, Jamii St.; Warner, Jeremy; Friedman, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Drug repurposing, which finds new indications for existing drugs, has received great attention recently. The goal of our work is to assess the feasibility of using electronic health records (EHRs) and automated informatics methods to efficiently validate a recent drug repurposing association of metformin with reduced cancer mortality. Methods By linking two large EHRs from Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Mayo Clinic to their tumor registries, we constructed a cohort includ...

  13. Diet Quality Scores and Prediction of All-Cause, Cardiovascular and Cancer Mortality in a Pan-European Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassale, Camille; Gunter, Marc J.; Romaguera, Dora; Peelen, Linda M.; Van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Freisling, Heinz; Muller, David C.; Ferrari, Pietro; Huybrechts, Inge; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Affret, Aurélie; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C.; Olsen, Anja; Roswall, Nina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Katzke, Verena A.; Kühn, Tilman; Buijsse, Brian; Quirós, José-Ramón; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Etxezarreta, Nerea; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bonet, Catalina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Fasanelli, Francesca; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Renström, Frida; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Moons, Karel G. M.; Riboli, Elio; Tzoulaki, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Scores of overall diet quality have received increasing attention in relation to disease aetiology; however, their value in risk prediction has been little examined. The objective was to assess and compare the association and predictive performance of 10 diet quality scores on 10-year risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 451,256 healthy participants to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, followed-up for a median of 12.8y. All dietary scores studied showed significant inverse associations with all outcomes. The range of HRs (95% CI) in the top vs. lowest quartile of dietary scores in a composite model including non-invasive factors (age, sex, smoking, body mass index, education, physical activity and study centre) was 0.75 (0.72–0.79) to 0.88 (0.84–0.92) for all-cause, 0.76 (0.69–0.83) to 0.84 (0.76–0.92) for CVD and 0.78 (0.73–0.83) to 0.91 (0.85–0.97) for cancer mortality. Models with dietary scores alone showed low discrimination, but composite models also including age, sex and other non-invasive factors showed good discrimination and calibration, which varied little between different diet scores examined. Mean C-statistic of full models was 0.73, 0.80 and 0.71 for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. Dietary scores have poor predictive performance for 10-year mortality risk when used in isolation but display good predictive ability in combination with other non-invasive common risk factors. PMID:27409582

  14. Effect of radiotherapy after mastectomy and axillary surgery on 10-year recurrence and 20-year breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGale, P; Taylor, C; Correa, C;

    2014-01-01

    nodes, radiotherapy reduced locoregional recurrence (2p<0·00001), overall recurrence (RR 0·68, 95% CI 0·57-0·82, 2p=0·00006), and breast cancer mortality (RR 0·80, 95% CI 0·67-0·95, 2p=0·01). 1133 of these 1314 women were in trials in which systemic therapy (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and......BACKGROUND: Postmastectomy radiotherapy was shown in previous meta-analyses to reduce the risks of both recurrence and breast cancer mortality in all women with node-positive disease considered together. However, the benefit in women with only one to three positive lymph nodes is uncertain. We...... significant effect on locoregional recurrence (two-sided significance level [2p]>0·1), overall recurrence (rate ratio [RR], irradiated vs not, 1·06, 95% CI 0·76-1·48, 2p>0·1), or breast cancer mortality (RR 1·18, 95% CI 0·89-1·55, 2p>0·1). For 1314 women with axillary dissection and one to three positive...

  15. Mapping proteolytic cancer cell-extracellular matrix interfaces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, K.A.; Friedl, P.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    For cancer progression and metastatic dissemination, cancer cells migrate and penetrate through extracellular tissues. Cancer invasion is frequently facilitated by proteolytic processing of components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The cellular regions mediating proteolysis are diverse and depen

  16. Ethnic differences in the relationships between diabetes, early age adiposity and mortality among breast cancer survivors: the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Avonne E; Visvanathan, Kala; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Baumgartner, Richard N; Boone, Stephanie D; Hines, Lisa M; Wolff, Roger K; John, Esther M; Slattery, Martha L

    2016-05-01

    The contribution of type 2 diabetes and obesity on mortality in breast cancer (BC) patients has not been well studied among Hispanic women, in whom these exposures are highly prevalent. In a multi-center population-based study, we examined the associations between diabetes, multiple obesity measures, and mortality in 1180 Hispanic and 1298 non-Hispanic white (NHW) women who were diagnosed with incident invasive BC from the San Francisco Bay Area, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, and Arizona. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. The median follow-up time from BC diagnosis to death was 10.8 years. In ethnic-stratified results, the association for BC-specific mortality among Hispanics was significantly increased (HR 1.85 95 % CI 1.11, 3.09), but the ethnic interaction was not statistically significant. In contrast, obesity at age 30 increased BC-specific mortality risk in NHW women (HR 2.33 95 % CI 1.36, 3.97) but not Hispanics (p-interaction = 0.045). Although there were no ethnic differences for all-cause mortality, diabetes, obesity at age 30, and post-diagnostic waist-hip ratio were significantly associated with all-cause mortality in all women. This study provides evidence that diabetes and adiposity, both modifiable, are prognostic factors among Hispanic and NHW BC patients. PMID:27116186

  17. Cluster analysis of social and environment inequalities of infant mortality. A spatial study in small areas revealed by local disease mapping in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Cindy M; Deguen, Severine; Lalloue, Benoit; Blanchard, Olivier; Beaugard, Charles; Troude, Florence; Navier, Denis Zmirou; Vieira, Verónica M

    2013-06-01

    Mapping spatial distributions of disease occurrence can serve as a useful tool for identifying exposures of public health concern. Infant mortality is an important indicator of the health status of a population. Recent literature suggests that neighborhood deprivation status can modify the effect of air pollution on preterm delivery, a known risk factor for infant mortality. We investigated the effect of neighborhood social deprivation on the association between exposure to ambient air NO2 and infant mortality in the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas, north and center of France, respectively, between 2002 and 2009. We conducted an ecological study using a neighborhood deprivation index estimated at the French census block from the 2006 census data. Infant mortality data were collected from local councils and geocoded using the address of residence. We generated maps using generalized additive models, smoothing on longitude and latitude while adjusting for covariates. We used permutation tests to examine the overall importance of location in the model and identify areas of increased and decreased risk. The average death rate was 4.2‰ and 4.6‰ live births for the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas during the period. We found evidence of statistically significant precise clusters of elevated infant mortality for Lille and an east-west gradient of infant mortality risk for Lyon. Exposure to NO2 did not explain the spatial relationship. The Lille MA, socioeconomic deprivation index explained the spatial variation observed. These techniques provide evidence of clusters of significantly elevated infant mortality risk in relation with the neighborhood socioeconomic status. This method could be used for public policy management to determine priority areas for interventions. Moreover, taking into account the relationship between social and environmental exposure may help identify areas with cumulative inequalities. PMID:23563257

  18. Epidemiology of birth defects, perinatal mortality and thyroid cancer before and after the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatial and temporal trends of birth defects and perinatal mortality in Germany and Europe as well as in least and most contaminated regions have been compared and investigated by trends. In numerous data sets, especially from northern and eastern Europe, positive and significant trend variations with upward 'disturbances' in temporal relation associated with the Chernobyl accident 1986 have been identified and spatial associations with regional fallout have been found. A surprisingly consistent picture evolves of significantly raised stillbirth rates after Chernobyl of ca. 5 % in Poland, ca. 10 % in parts of Germany and Sweden, ca. 20 % in Denmark and Finland, and up to ca. 30% in Iceland and Hungary. Low as compared to higher contaminated regions show weaker or stronger effects, respectively. The additional relative risks for birth defects are in the same order of magnitude as the additional relative risks for stillbirth, namely 0,5%-20 %/kBq·m2. Using well-known conversion coefficients, the excess relative risk of 1 %/kBq·m2 translates theoretically to a preliminary relative risk of 1,6/mSv/a. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma among children affected by Chernobyl fallout has increased dramatically in certain parts of Europe. Less evidence exists for a similar effect among adolescents and adults. The cancer registry of the Czech Republic provides an opportunity to study various determinants of the occurrence of thyroid cancer. After the Chernobyl accident, the thyroid cancer incidence of the Czech Republic reveals an additional annual increase of up to 5% depending on age and gender. The additional increases of thyroid cancer in the whole population of the Czech Republic are consistent with reports from other countries. To investigate trends in the sex distribution of newborns before and after the Chernobyl accident, gender-specific annual birth statistics were obtained from the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland, and Sweden

  19. A lincRNA connected to cell mortality and epigenetically-silenced in most common human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrba, Lukas; Garbe, James C; Stampfer, Martha R; Futscher, Bernard W

    2015-01-01

    Immortality is an essential characteristic of human carcinoma cells. We recently developed an efficient, reproducible method that immortalizes human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) in the absence of gross genomic changes by targeting 2 critical senescence barriers. Consistent transcriptomic changes associated with immortality were identified using microarray analysis of isogenic normal finite pre-stasis, abnormal finite post-stasis, and immortal HMECs from 4 individuals. A total of 277 genes consistently changed in cells that transitioned from post-stasis to immortal. Gene ontology analysis of affected genes revealed biological processes significantly altered in the immortalization process. These immortalization-associated changes showed striking similarity to the gene expression changes seen in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) clinical breast cancer data. The most dramatic change in gene expression seen during the immortalization step was the downregulation of an unnamed, incompletely annotated transcript that we called MORT, for mortality, since its expression was closely associated with the mortal, finite lifespan phenotype. We show here that MORT (ZNF667-AS1) is expressed in all normal finite lifespan human cells examined to date and is lost in immortalized HMEC. MORT gene silencing at the mortal/immortal boundary was due to DNA hypermethylation of its CpG island promoter. This epigenetic silencing is also seen in human breast cancer cell lines and in a majority of human breast tumor tissues. The functional importance of DNA hypermethylation in MORT gene silencing is supported by the ability of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine to reactivate MORT expression. Analysis of TCGA data revealed deregulation of MORT expression due to DNA hypermethylation in 15 out of the 17 most common human cancers. The epigenetic silencing of MORT in a large majority of the common human cancers suggests a potential fundamental role in cellular immortalization during human carcinogenesis. PMID

  20. Cancer mortality in towns in the vicinity of installations for the production of cement, lime, plaster, and magnesium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Javier; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Castelló, Adela; González-Sánchez, Mario; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether there might be excess cancer mortality in the vicinity of Spanish installations for the production of cement, lime, plaster, and magnesium oxide, according to different categories of industrial activity. An ecologic study was designed to examine municipal mortality due to 33 types of cancer (period 1997-2006) in Spain. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town to industrial facility. Using spatial Besag-York-Mollié regression models with integrated nested Laplace approximations for Bayesian inference, we assessed the relative risk of dying from cancer in a 5-km zone around installations, analyzed the effect of category of industrial activity according to the manufactured product, and conducted individual analyses within a 50-km radius of each installation. Excess all cancer mortality (relative risk, 95% credible interval) was detected in the vicinity of these installations as a whole (1.04, 1.01-1.07 in men; 1.03, 1.00-1.06 in women), and, principally, in the vicinity of cement installations (1.05, 1.01-1.09 in men). Special mention should be made of the results for tumors of colon-rectum in both sexes (1.07, 1.01-1.14 in men; 1.10, 1.03-1.16 in women), and pleura (1.71, 1.24-2.28), peritoneum (1.62, 1.15-2.20), gallbladder (1.21, 1.02-1.42), bladder (1.11, 1.03-1.20) and stomach (1.09, 1.00-1.18) in men in the vicinity of all such installations. Our results suggest an excess risk of dying from cancer, especially in colon-rectum, in towns near these industries. PMID:25681568

  1. Cancer in populations living near nuclear facilities. A survey of mortality nationwide and incidence in two states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports from the United Kingdom have described increases in leukemia and lymphoma among young persons living near certain nuclear installations. Because of concerns raised by these reports, a mortality survey was conducted in populations living near nuclear facilities in the United States. All facilities began service before 1982. Over 900,000 cancer deaths occurred from 1950 through 1984 in 107 counties with or near nuclear installations. Each study county was matched for comparison to three control counties in the same region. There were 1.8 million cancer deaths in the 292 control counties during the 35 years studied. Deaths due to leukemia or other cancers were not more frequent in the study counties than in the control counties. For childhood leukemia mortality, the relative risk comparing the study counties with their controls before plant start-up was 1.08, while after start-up it was 1.03. For leukemia mortality at all ages, the relative risks were 1.02 before start-up and 0.98 after. For counties in two states, cancer incidence data were also available. For one facility, the standardized registration ratio for childhood leukemia was increased significantly after start-up. However, the increase also antedated the operation of this facility. The study is limited by the correlational approach and the large size of the geographic areas (counties) used. It does not prove the absence of any effect. If, however, any excess cancer risk was present in US counties with nuclear facilities, it was too small to be detected with the methods employed

  2. Long-term mortality from pleural and peritoneal cancer after exposure to asbestos: Possible role of asbestos clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone-Adesi, Francesco; Ferrante, Daniela; Bertolotti, Marinella; Todesco, Annalisa; Mirabelli, Dario; Terracini, Benedetto; Magnani, Corrado

    2008-08-15

    Models based on the multistage theory of carcinogenesis predict that the rate of mesothelioma increases monotonically as a function of time since first exposure (TSFE) to asbestos. Predictions of long-term mortality (TSFE >or= 40 years) are, however, still untested, because of the limited follow-up of most epidemiological studies. Some authors have suggested that the increase in mesothelioma rate with TSFE might be attenuated by clearance of asbestos from the lungs. We estimated mortality time trends from pleural and peritoneal cancer in a cohort of 3,443 asbestos-cement workers, followed for more than 50 years. The functional relation between mesothelioma rate and TSFE was evaluated with various regression models. The role of asbestos clearance was explored using the traditional mesothelioma multistage model, generalized to include a term representing elimination over time. We observed 139 deaths from pleural and 56 from peritoneal cancer during the period 1950-2003. The rate of pleural cancer increased during the first 40 years of TSFE and reached a plateau thereafter. In contrast, the rate of peritoneal cancer increased monotonically with TSFE. The model allowing for asbestos elimination fitted the data better than the traditional model for pleural (p = 0.02) but not for peritoneal cancer (p = 0.22). The risk for pleural cancer, rather than showing an indefinite increase, might reach a plateau when a sufficiently long time has elapsed since exposure. The different trends for pleural and peritoneal cancer might be related to clearance of the asbestos from the workers' lungs. PMID:18528868

  3. Cohort studies on cancer mortality among nuclear workers exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide direct estimates of risk of cancer after protracted low doses of ionising radiation and to strengthen the scientific basis of radiation protection standards for low-dose ionising radiation exposure. Published papers referring to 20 low-dose ionising radiation-exposed cohorts among nuclear industry workers with Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMR) were recta-analyzed in fixed and random effect models. The significantly deficient Meta-SMRs for all deaths (0.73; 95% CI: 0.66-0.80), all cancers (0.83; 95% CI: 0.77- 0.91), lung cancer (0.93; 95% CI: 0.90-0.95), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (0.88; 95% CI: 0.78- 0.99), esophagus cancer (0.83; 95% CI:0.76-0.91), colorectal cancer (0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.94), stomach cancer (0.81; 95% CI: 0.76-0.86) were observed. The Meta-SMRs for leukemia, multiple myeloma, Hodgkin's disease were found to be no significant difference with normal populations. There was no excessive risk of cancers among nuclear workers exposed to low-doses and low-dose rates ionizing radiation. (authors)

  4. Exploring spatial patterns of mortality: the new atlas of United States mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickle, L W; Mungiole, M; Jones, G K; White, A A

    1999-12-15

    The National Center for Health Statistics, CDC, has produced an Atlas of United States Mortality which includes maps of rates for the leading causes of death in the United States for the period 1988-1992. As part of this project, many aspects of statistical mapping have been re-examined to maximize the atlas's effectiveness in conveying accurate mortality patterns to epidemiologists and public health practitioners. Because recent cognitive research demonstrated that no one map style is optimal for answering many different map questions, maps and graphs of several different mortality statistics are included for each cause of death. New mixed effects models were developed to provide predicted rates and improved variance estimates. Results from these models were smoothed using a weighted head-banging algorithm to produce maps of general spatial trends free of background noise. Maps of White female lung cancer rates from the new atlas are presented here to illustrate how this innovative combination of maps and graphs permits greater exploration of the underlying mortality data than is possible from previous single-map atlas designs. Published in 1999 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the United States. PMID:10602146

  5. The Relationship between Obesity and Cancer Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes : A Ten-year Follow-up Study (ZODIAC-21)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hateren, K. J. J.; Kleefstra, N.; Bilo, H. J. G.; Landman, G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as well as patients with obesity have increased cancer mortality. In a previous paper we suggested that there was a trend for decreased mortality in obese individuals with T2DM. The aim of the new analyses was to investigate the same relation

  6. IQ in late adolescence/early adulthood, risk factors in middle age, and later cancer mortality in men: the Vietnam Experience Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Gale, Catharine R;

    2009-01-01

    (i) examine the relation, if any, of pre-morbid IQ scores at 20 years of age with the risk of later cancer mortality; and (ii) explore the role, if any, of potential mediating factors (e.g. smoking, obesity), assessed in middle age, in explaining the IQ-cancer relation.......(i) examine the relation, if any, of pre-morbid IQ scores at 20 years of age with the risk of later cancer mortality; and (ii) explore the role, if any, of potential mediating factors (e.g. smoking, obesity), assessed in middle age, in explaining the IQ-cancer relation....

  7. A comparative study on the risks of radiogenic second cancers and cardiac mortality in a set of pediatric medulloblastoma patients treated with photon or proton craniospinal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the risks of radiogenic second cancers and cardiac mortality in 17 pediatric medulloblastoma patients treated with passively scattered proton or field-in-field photon craniospinal irradiation (CSI). Material/methods: Standard of care photon or proton CSI treatment plans were created for all 17 patients in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) (Eclipse version 8.9; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) and prescription dose was 23.4 or 23.4 Gy (RBE) to the age specific target volume at 1.8 Gy/fraction. The therapeutic doses from proton and photon CSI plans were estimated from TPS. Stray radiation doses were determined from Monte Carlo simulations for proton CSI and from measurements and TPS for photon CSI. The Biological Effects of Ionization Radiation VII report and a linear model based on childhood cancer survivor data were used for risk predictions of second cancer and cardiac mortality, respectively. Results: The ratios of lifetime attributable risk (RLARs) (proton/photon) ranged from 0.10 to 0.22 for second cancer incidence and ranged from 0.20 to 0.53 for second cancer mortality, respectively. The ratio of relative risk (RRR) (proton/photon) of cardiac mortality ranged from 0.12 to 0.24. The RLARs of both cancer incidence and mortality decreased with patient’s age at exposure (e), while the RRRs of cardiac mortality increased with e. Girls had a significantly higher RLAR of cancer mortality than boys. Conclusion: Passively scattered proton CSI provides superior predicted outcomes by conferring lower predicted risks of second cancer and cardiac mortality than field-in-field photon CSI for all medulloblastoma patients in a large clinically representative sample in the United States, but the magnitude of superiority depends strongly on the patients’ anatomical development status

  8. Ten-Year Mortality after a Breast Cancer Diagnosis in Women with Severe Mental Illness: A Danish Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribe, Anette Riisgaard; Laurberg, Tinne; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Charles, Morten; Vedsted, Peter; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether higher mortality after breast cancer contributes to the life-expectancy gap of 15 years in women with severe mental illness (SMI). Methods We estimated all-cause mortality rate ratios (MRRs) of women with SMI, women with breast cancer and women with both disorders compared to women with neither disorder using data from nationwide registers in Denmark for 1980–2012. Results The cohort included 2.7 million women, hereof 31,421 women with SMI (12,852 deaths), 104,342 with breast cancer (52,732 deaths), and 1,106 with SMI and breast cancer (656 deaths). Compared to women with neither disorder, the mortality was 118% higher for women with SMI (MRR: 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.14–2.22), 144% higher for women with breast cancer (MRR: 2.44, 95% CI: 2.42–2.47) and 327% higher for women with SMI and breast cancer (MRR: 4.27, 95% CI: 3.98–4.57). Among women with both disorders, 15% of deaths could be attributed to interaction. In a sub-cohort of women with breast cancer, the ten-year all-cause-mortality was 59% higher after taking tumor stage into account (MRR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.47–1.72) for women with versus without SMI. Conclusions The mortality among women with SMI and breast cancer was markedly increased. More information is needed to determine which factors might explain this excess mortality, such as differences between women with and without SMI in access to diagnostics, provision of care for breast cancer or physical comorbidity, health-seeking-behavior, and adherence to treatment. PMID:27462907

  9. Cancer mortality and incidence survey around the Aube's low- and medium-activity radioactive waste storage site; Etude de mortalite et d'incidence des cancers autour du site de stockage de dechets radioactifs de faible et de moyenne activite de l'Aube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This report presents the main results of a survey performed in 2010 to describe the health status of the population around the Aube's low- and medium-activity radioactive waste storage site. The aim of this survey was to determine whether the frequencies of death and hospitalization on account of cancer are different for this population (15 km around the site) with respect to two reference populations (the population of the Champagne-Ardennes region and the French metropolitan population). Results of mortality, hospitalization, and lung cancer are presented under the form of maps and tables giving global data or data for males, females, adults, or children

  10. Osteoporosis markers on low-dose lung cancer screening chest computed tomography scans predict all-cause mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckens, C.F. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Radiology Department, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Graaf, Y. van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verkooijen, H.M.; Mali, W.P.; Jong, P.A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Radiology Department, Utrecht (Netherlands); Isgum, I.; Mol, C.P. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Verhaar, H.J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, R.; Oudkerk, M. [Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Aalst, C.M. van; Koning, H.J. de [Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    Further survival benefits may be gained from low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) by assessing vertebral fractures and bone density. We sought to assess the association between CT-measured vertebral fractures and bone density with all-cause mortality in lung cancer screening participants. Following a case-cohort design, lung cancer screening trial participants (N = 3,673) who died (N = 196) during a median follow-up of 6 years (inter-quartile range: 5.7-6.3) were identified and added to a random sample of N = 383 from the trial. We assessed vertebral fractures using Genant and acute;s semiquantative method on sagittal reconstructions and measured bone density (Hounsfield Units (HU)) in vertebrae. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to determine if vertebral fractures or bone density were independently predictive of mortality. The prevalence of vertebral fractures was 35 % (95 % confidence interval 30-40 %) among survivors and 51 % (44-58 %) amongst cases. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, pack years smoked, coronary and aortic calcium volume and pulmonary emphysema, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for vertebral fracture was 2.04 (1.43-2.92). For each 10 HU decline in trabecular bone density, the adjusted HR was 1.08 (1.02-1.15). Vertebral fractures and bone density are independently associated with all-cause mortality. (orig.)

  11. Cardiac comorbidity in head and neck cancer patients and its influence on cancer treatment selection and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeoni, Roland; Breitenstein, Kerstin; Eßer, Dirk; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2016-09-01

    Comorbidity assessment and a profound cardiac examination were implemented into pre-treatment diagnostics to analyze their influence on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) therapy selection and short-term mortality. Comorbidity was measured prospectively in 49 HNSCC patients using standard indices between 2012 and 2013. Cardiac examinations included electrocardiogram, echocardiography, and bicycle ergometry. Most patients had stage IV tumors (61 %), smoked (61 %), and showed alcohol abuse (57 %); 38 patients (78 %) received a multimodal therapy; 65 % had an adult comorbidity evaluation 27 index ≥2, 59 % a Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) ≥4, and 12 % a revised cardiac risk index (RCRI) ≥2. Additional cardiac examinations revealed moderate to severe cardiovascular pathologies in 32 % of the patients and led to recommendations for additional therapy in 4 patients (8 %) necessary only after cancer treatment. RCRI was associated with CCI and cardiac examinations (p = 0.009, p = 0.030). Chemotherapy, stroke history, and RCRI ≥2 were risk factors for early mortality within first 2 years after cancer therapy (p = 0.037; p = 0.012; p = 0.015). Although one-third of a strongly smoking and drinking patient cohort had relevant cardiac morbidity, extended unselected cardiac diagnostics had only low impact on HNSCC therapy selection. The risk of early mortality after HNSCC cancer treatment seems to be sufficiently reflected by the RCRI. PMID:26581475

  12. Studies of the mortality of A-bomb survivors. 9. Mortality, 1950-1985: Part 1. Comparison of risk coefficients for site-specific cancer mortality based on the DS86 and T65DR shielded kerma and organ doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the reassessment of the A-bomb dosimetry, new (DS86) doses were calculated in 1986. In this paper, site-specific estimates of cancer mortality in the years 1950-1985, based on these new doses, are compared with those using the T65DR doses. The subjects of the study are 75,991 members of the Life Span Study sample for whom DS86 doses have been calculated. This reevaluation of the exposures does not change the list of radiation-related cancers. Most differences in dose response between Hiroshima and Nagasaki are no longer significant with the DS86 doses. The dose-response curve is closer to linear with the DS86 than the T65DR doses even for leukemia in the entire dose range, though, statistically, many other models cannot be excluded. However, in the low-dose range, the risk of leukemia remains nonlinear. Assuming a linear model at an RBE of 1, and using organ-absorbed doses, the risk coefficients derived from the two dosimetries are very similar, whereas those based on shielded kerma are about 40% higher with the new dosimetry. If RBE values larger than 1 are assumed, the disparity between the two dosimetries increases because the neutron dose is much greater in the T65DR. At an RBE of 10, for the five specific cancers, i.e., female breast, colon, leukemia, lung, and stomach, the increase in excess number of deaths per 10(4) PYSv under the DS86 varies from 12% (colon) to 133% (female breast). The magnitude of the effects of such modifiers of radiation-induced cancer as age at time of bomb and sex do not differ between the two dose systems

  13. Urinary arsenic profiles and the risks of cancer mortality: A population-based 20-year follow-up study in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few studies investigated the association between chronic arsenic exposure and the mortality of cancers by estimating individual urinary arsenic methylation profiles. Therefore, we compared with the general population in Taiwan to calculate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in arseniasis-endemic area of Taiwan from 1996 to 2010 and evaluated the dose-response relationships between environmental arsenic exposure indices or urinary arsenic profiles and the mortality of cause-specific cancer. A cohort of 1563 residents was conducted and collected their urine sample and information regarding arsenic exposure from a questionnaire. All-cause death was identified using the National Death Registry of Taiwan. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator–atomic absorption spectrometry. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the mortality risks. In results, 193 all-site cancer deaths, and 29, 71, 43 deaths respectively for liver, lung and bladder cancers were ascertained. The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. People with high urinary InAs% or low DMA% or low secondary methylation index (SMI) were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer after adjusting other risk factors. Even stopping exposure to arsenic from the artesian well water, the mortality rates of the residents were higher than general population. Finally, urinary InAs%, DMA% and SMI could be the potential biomarkers to predict the mortality risk of bladder cancer. -- Highlights: ► The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. ► People with high urinary InAs% were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer. ► People with low DMA% or low SMI were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer

  14. Urinary arsenic profiles and the risks of cancer mortality: A population-based 20-year follow-up study in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chi-Jung [Department of Health Risk Management, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Ya-Li [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yung-Kai [School of Oral Hygiene, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shu-Yuan [Department of Public Health, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-04-15

    Few studies investigated the association between chronic arsenic exposure and the mortality of cancers by estimating individual urinary arsenic methylation profiles. Therefore, we compared with the general population in Taiwan to calculate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in arseniasis-endemic area of Taiwan from 1996 to 2010 and evaluated the dose-response relationships between environmental arsenic exposure indices or urinary arsenic profiles and the mortality of cause-specific cancer. A cohort of 1563 residents was conducted and collected their urine sample and information regarding arsenic exposure from a questionnaire. All-cause death was identified using the National Death Registry of Taiwan. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high performance liquid chromatography–hydride generator–atomic absorption spectrometry. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the mortality risks. In results, 193 all-site cancer deaths, and 29, 71, 43 deaths respectively for liver, lung and bladder cancers were ascertained. The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. People with high urinary InAs% or low DMA% or low secondary methylation index (SMI) were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer after adjusting other risk factors. Even stopping exposure to arsenic from the artesian well water, the mortality rates of the residents were higher than general population. Finally, urinary InAs%, DMA% and SMI could be the potential biomarkers to predict the mortality risk of bladder cancer. -- Highlights: ► The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. ► People with high urinary InAs% were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer. ► People with low DMA% or low SMI were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer.

  15. Lung cancer mortality and radon concentration in a chronically exposed neighborhood in Chihuahua, Mexico: a geospatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa de la Garza, Octavio R; Sanín, Luz H; Montero Cabrera, María Elena; Serrano Ramirez, Korina Ivette; Martínez Meyer, Enrique; Reyes Cortés, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This study correlated lung cancer (LC) mortality with statistical data obtained from government public databases. In order to asses a relationship between LC deaths and radon accumulation in dwellings, indoor radon concentrations were measured with passive detectors randomly distributed in Chihuahua City. Kriging (K) and Inverse-Distance Weighting (IDW) spatial interpolations were carried out. Deaths were georeferenced and Moran's I correlation coefficients were calculated. The mean values (over n = 171) of the interpolation of radon concentrations of deceased's dwellings were 247.8 and 217.1 Bq/m(3), for K and IDW, respectively. Through the Moran's I values obtained, correspondingly equal to 0.56 and 0.61, it was evident that LC mortality was directly associated with locations with high levels of radon, considering a stable population for more than 25 years, suggesting spatial clustering of LC deaths due to indoor radon concentrations. PMID:25165752

  16. Lung Cancer Mortality and Radon Concentration in a Chronically Exposed Neighborhood in Chihuahua, Mexico: A Geospatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio R. Hinojosa de la Garza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study correlate