WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer molecular imaging

  1. Molecular imaging in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KHAN, Sairah R.; ROCKALL, Andrea G.; BARWICK, Tara D.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development of screening and of a vaccine, cervix cancer is a major cause of cancer death in young women worldwide. A third of women treated for the disease will recur, almost inevitably leading to death. Functional imaging has the potential to stratify patients at higher risk of poor response or relapse by improved delineation of disease extent and tumor characteristics. A number of molecular imaging biomarkers have been shown to predict outcome at baseline and/or early during therapy in cervical cancer. In future this could help tailor the treatment plan which could include selection of patients for close follow up, adjuvant therapy or trial entry for novel agents or adaptive clinical trials. The use of molecular imaging techniques, FDG PET/CT and functional MRI, in staging and response assessment of cervical cancer is reviewed.

  2. Cancer Stratification by Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus Weber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The lack of specificity of traditional cytotoxic drugs has triggered the development of anticancer agents that selectively address specific molecular targets. An intrinsic property of these specialized drugs is their limited applicability for specific patient subgroups. Consequently, the generation of information about tumor characteristics is the key to exploit the potential of these drugs. Currently, cancer stratification relies on three approaches: Gene expression analysis and cancer proteomics, immunohistochemistry and molecular imaging. In order to enable the precise localization of functionally expressed targets, molecular imaging combines highly selective biomarkers and intense signal sources. Thus, cancer stratification and localization are performed simultaneously. Many cancer types are characterized by altered receptor expression, such as somatostatin receptors, folate receptors or Her2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Similar correlations are also known for a multitude of transporters, such as glucose transporters, amino acid transporters or hNIS (human sodium iodide symporter, as well as cell specific proteins, such as the prostate specific membrane antigen, integrins, and CD20. This review provides a comprehensive description of the methods, targets and agents used in molecular imaging, to outline their application for cancer stratification. Emphasis is placed on radiotracers which are used to identify altered expression patterns of cancer associated markers.

  3. Molecular imaging of apoptosis in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakumaeki, Juhana M.; Liimatainen, Timo

    2005-01-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in cancer. Mechanisms hindering its action are implicated in a number of malignancies. Also, the induction of apoptosis plays a pivotal role in non-surgical cancer treatment regimes such as irradiation, chemotherapy, or hormones. Recent advanced in imaging science have made it now possible for us to detect and visualize previously inaccessible and even unrecognized biological phenomena in cells and tissue undergoing apoptosis in vivo. Not only are these imaging techniques painting an intriguing picture of the spatiotemporal characteristics and metabolic and biophysical of apoptosis in situ, but they are expected to have an ever increasing impact in preclinical testing and design of new anticancer agents as well. Rapid and accurate visualization of apoptotic response in the clinical settings can also be of significant diagnostic and prognostic worth. With the advent of molecular medicine and patient-tailored treatment options and therapeutic agents, such monitoring techniques are becoming paramount

  4. Molecular imaging in the framework of personalized cancer medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Dzevad; Belkić, Karen

    2013-11-01

    With our increased understanding of cancer cell biology, molecular imaging offers a strategic bridge to oncology. This complements anatomic imaging, particularly magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, which is sensitive but not specific. Among the potential harms of false positive findings is lowered adherence to recommended surveillance post-therapy and by persons at increased cancer risk. Positron emission tomography (PET) plus computerized tomography (CT) is the molecular imaging modality most widely used in oncology. In up to 40% of cases, PET-CT leads to changes in therapeutic management. Newer PET tracers can detect tumor hypoxia, bone metastases in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-expressive tumors. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides insight into several metabolites at the same time. Combined with MRI, this yields magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), which does not entail ionizing radiation and is thus suitable for repeated monitoring. Using advanced signal processing, quantitative information can be gleaned about molecular markers of brain, breast, prostate and other cancers. Radiation oncology has benefited from molecular imaging via PET-CT and MRSI. Advanced mathematical approaches can improve dose planning in stereotactic radiosurgery, stereotactic body radiotherapy and high dose-rate brachytherapy. Molecular imaging will likely impact profoundly on clinical decision making in oncology. Molecular imaging via MR could facilitate early detection especially in persons at high risk for specific cancers.

  5. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Esther; Thippsandra, Shwetha; Yanamadala, Anusha; Redy, Siddaling; Pattanayak, Puskar; Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2017-01-01

    The concept of using tumor genomic profiling information has revolutionized personalized cancer treatment. Head and neck (HN) cancer management is being influenced by recent discoveries of activating mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor and related targeted therapies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, targeted therapies for Kristen Rat Sarcoma, and MET proto-oncogenes. Molecular imaging using PET plays an important role in assessing the biologic behavior of HN cancer with the goal of delivering individualized cancer treatment. This review summarizes recent genomic discoveries in HN cancer and their implications for functional PET imaging in assessing response to targeted therapies, and drug resistance mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Francesco; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Castellucci, Paolo; Fanti, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to discuss about the role of new probes for molecular imaging in the evaluation of prostate cancer (PCa). This review focuses particularly on the role of new promising radiotracers for the molecular imaging with PET/computed tomography in the detection of PCa recurrence. The role of these new imaging techniques to guide lesion-target therapies and the potential application of these molecular probes as theranostics agents is discussed. Finally, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to castration in PCa and the maintenance of active androgen receptor are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudgar, Amy V; Mankoff, David A

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine, basing treatment approaches on patient traits and specific molecular features of disease processes, has an important role in the management of patients with breast cancer as targeted therapies continue to improve. PET imaging offers noninvasive information that is complementary to traditional tissue biomarkers, including information about tumor burden, tumor metabolism, receptor status, and proliferation. Several PET agents that image breast cancer receptors can visually demonstrate the extent and heterogeneity of receptor-positive disease and help predict which tumors are likely to respond to targeted treatments. This review presents applications of PET imaging in the targeted treatment of breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer: Present and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eAlcantara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging technologies have undergone explosive growth over the past few decades and now play a central role in clinical oncology. But the truly transformative power of imaging in the clinical management of cancer patients lies ahead. Today, imaging is at a crossroads, with molecularly targeted imaging agents expected to broadly expand the capabilities of conventional anatomical imaging methods. Molecular imaging will allow clinicians to not only see where a tumour is located in the body, but also to visualize the expression and activity of specific molecules (e.g. proteases and protein kinases and biological processes (e.g. apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis that influence tumour behavior and/or response to therapy. Breast cancer, the most common cancer among women and a research area where our group is actively involved, is a very heterogeneous disease with diverse patterns of development and response to treatment. Hence, molecular imaging is expected to have a major impact on this type of cancer, leading to important improvements in diagnosis, individualized treatment, and drug development, as well as our understanding of how breast cancer arises.

  9. Molecular imaging of cancer using PET and SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    for molecular imaging of cancer. Especially the possibility of a quick transfer of methods developed in animals to patients (translational research) is an important strength. This article will briefly discuss the newest applications and their importance and perspective in relation to the shift in paradigm......Molecular imaging allows for the study of molecular and cellular events in the living intact organism. The nuclear medicine methodologies of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) posses several advantages, which make them particularly suited...

  10. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Uterine and Ovarian Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukotynski, Katherine A; Kim, Chun K

    2017-10-01

    Gynecologic cancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases both functionally and morphologically. Today, PET coupled with computed tomography (PET/CT) or PET/MR imaging play a central role in the precision medicine algorithm of patients with gynecologic malignancy. In particular, PET/CT and PET/MR imaging are molecular imaging techniques that not only are useful tools for initial staging and restaging but provide anatomofunctional insight and can serve as predictive and prognostic biomarkers of response in patients with gynecologic malignancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer: translating molecular biology approaches into the clinical realm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Grimm, Jan; F Donati, Olivio; Sala, Evis; Hricak, Hedvig

    2015-05-01

    The epidemiology of prostate cancer has dramatically changed since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the 1980's. Most prostate cancers today are detected at early stages of the disease and are considered 'indolent'; however, some patients' prostate cancers demonstrate a more aggressive behaviour which leads to rapid progression and death. Increasing understanding of the biology underlying the heterogeneity that characterises this disease has led to a continuously evolving role of imaging in the management of prostate cancer. Functional and metabolic imaging techniques are gaining importance as the impact on the therapeutic paradigm has shifted from structural tumour detection alone to distinguishing patients with indolent tumours that can be managed conservatively (e.g., by active surveillance) from patients with more aggressive tumours that may require definitive treatment with surgery or radiation. In this review, we discuss advanced imaging techniques that allow direct visualisation of molecular interactions relevant to prostate cancer and their potential for translation to the clinical setting in the near future. The potential use of imaging to follow molecular events during drug therapy as well as the use of imaging agents for therapeutic purposes will also be discussed. • Advanced imaging techniques allow direct visualisation of molecular interactions in prostate cancer. • MRI/PET, optical and Cerenkov imaging facilitate the translation of molecular biology. • Multiple compounds targeting PSMA expression are currently undergoing clinical translation. • Other targets (e.g., PSA, prostate-stem cell antigen, GRPR) are in development.

  12. Multifunctional Gold Nanostars for Molecular Imaging and Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Fales, Andrew; Register, Janna; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2015-08-01

    Plasmonics-active gold nanoparticles offer excellent potential in molecular imaging and cancer therapy. Among them, gold nanostars (AuNS) exhibit cross-platform flexibility as multimodal contrast agents for macroscopic X-ray computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), as well as nanoprobes for photoacoustic tomography (PAT), two-photon photoluminescence (TPL) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Their surfactant-free surface enables versatile functionalization to enhance cancer targeting, and allow triggered drug release. AuNS can also be used as an efficient platform for drug carrying, photothermal therapy, and photodynamic therapy. This review paper presents the latest progress regarding AuNS as a promising nanoplatform for cancer nanotheranostics. Future research directions with AuNS for biomedical applications will also be discussed.

  13. Status and Advances of RGD Molecular Imaging in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning YUE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer has been one of the most common and the highest mortality rates malignant tumors at home and abroad. Sustained angiogenesis was not only the characteristic of malignant tumors, but also the foundation of tumor proliferation, invasion, recurrence and metastasis, it was also one of the hot spots of treatments in lung cancer biology currently. Integrins played an important part in tumor angiogenesis. Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD peptides could combine with integrins specifically, and the application of radionuclide-labeled RGD molecular probes enabled imaging of tumor blood vessels to reflect its changes. The lung cancer imaging of RGD peptides at home and abroad in recent years was reviewed in this article.

  14. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nariya

    2016-01-01

    During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics

  15. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariya Cho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics.

  16. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nariya [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics.

  17. Multifunctional nanomaterials for advanced molecular imaging and cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Prasad

    Nanotechnology offers tremendous potential for use in biomedical applications, including cancer and stem cell imaging, disease diagnosis and drug delivery. The development of nanosystems has aided in understanding the molecular mechanisms of many diseases and permitted the controlled nanoscale manipulation of biological phenomena. In recent years, many studies have focused on the use of several kinds of nanomaterials for cancer and stem cell imaging and also for the delivery of anticancer therapeutics to tumor cells. However, the proper diagnosis and treatment of aggressive tumors such as brain and breast cancer requires highly sensitive diagnostic agents, in addition to the ability to deliver multiple therapeutics using a single platform to the target cells. Addressing these challenges, novel multifunctional nanomaterial-based platforms that incorporate multiple therapeutic and diagnostic agents, with superior molecular imaging and targeting capabilities, has been presented in this work. The initial part of this work presents the development of novel nanomaterials with superior optical properties for efficiently delivering soluble cues such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) into brain cancer cells with minimal toxicity. Specifically, this section details the development of non-toxic quantums dots for the imaging and delivery of siRNA into brain cancer and mesenchymal stem cells, with the hope of using these quantum dots as multiplexed imaging and delivery vehicles. The use of these quantum dots could overcome the toxicity issues associated with the use of conventional quantum dots, enabled the imaging of brain cancer and stem cells with high efficiency and allowed for the delivery of siRNA to knockdown the target oncogene in brain cancer cells. The latter part of this thesis details the development of nanomaterial-based drug delivery platforms for the co-delivery of multiple anticancer drugs to brain tumor cells. In particular, this part of the thesis focuses on

  18. Molecular imaging of tumor blood vessels in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilki, Derya; Seitz, Michael; Singer, Bernhard B; Irmak, Ster; Stief, Christian G; Reich, Oliver; Ergün, Süleyman

    2009-05-01

    In the past three decades many efforts have been undertaken to understand the mechanisms of tumor angiogenesis. The introduction of anti-angiogenic drugs in tumor therapy during the last few years necessitates the establishment of new techniques enabling molecular imaging of tumor vascular remodelling. The determination of tumor size as commonly used is not appropriate since the extended necrosis under anti-angiogenic therapy does not necessarily result in the reduction of tumor diameter. The basis for the molecular imaging of tumor blood vessels is the remodelling of the tumor vessels under anti-angiogenic therapy which obviously occurs at an early stage and seems to be a convincing parameter. Beside the enormous progress in this field during the last few years the resolution is still not high enough to evaluate the remodelling of the micro tumor vessels. New imaging approaches combining specific molecular markers for tumor vessels with the different imaging techniques are needed to overcome this issue as exemplarily discussed for prostate cancer in this review. Molecular contrast agents targeting the vasculature will allow clinicians the visualization of vascular remodelling processes taking place under anti-angiogenic therapy and improve tumor diagnosis and follow-up.

  19. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, Jeroen F; Brussel, Aram SA van; Groep, Petra van der; Morsink, Folkert HM; Bult, Peter; Wall, Elsken van der; Diest, Paul J van

    2012-01-01

    Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX) 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6) resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R) that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate

  20. Immunophenotyping invasive breast cancer: paving the road for molecular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeulen Jeroen F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammographic population screening in The Netherlands has increased the number of breast cancer patients with small and non-palpable breast tumors. Nevertheless, mammography is not ultimately sensitive and specific for distinct subtypes. Molecular imaging with targeted tracers might increase specificity and sensitivity of detection. Because development of new tracers is labor-intensive and costly, we searched for the smallest panel of tumor membrane markers that would allow detection of the wide spectrum of invasive breast cancers. Methods Tissue microarrays containing 483 invasive breast cancers were stained by immunohistochemistry for a selected set of membrane proteins known to be expressed in breast cancer. Results The combination of highly tumor-specific markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1-R, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET, and carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX 'detected' 45.5% of tumors, especially basal/triple negative and HER2-driven ductal cancers. Addition of markers with a 2-fold tumor-to-normal ratio increased the detection rate to 98%. Including only markers with >3 fold tumor-to-normal ratio (CD44v6 resulted in an 80% detection rate. The detection rate of the panel containing both tumor-specific and less tumor-specific markers was not dependent on age, tumor grade, tumor size, or lymph node status. Conclusions In search of the minimal panel of targeted probes needed for the highest possible detection rate, we showed that 80% of all breast cancers express at least one of a panel of membrane markers (CD44v6, GLUT1, EGFR, HER2, and IGF1-R that may therefore be suitable for molecular imaging strategies. This study thereby serves as a starting point for further development of a set of antibody-based optical tracers with a high breast cancer detection rate.

  1. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukotynski, Katherine A; Gerbaudo, Victor H

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine allows tailoring of preventive or therapeutic interventions to avoid the expense and toxicity of futile treatment given to those who will not respond. Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease functionally and morphologically. PET is a sensitive molecular imaging technique with a major role in the precision medicine algorithm of patients with lung cancer. It contributes to the precision medicine of lung neoplasia by interrogating tumor heterogeneity throughout the body. It provides anatomofunctional insight during diagnosis, staging, and restaging of the disease. It is a biomarker of tumoral heterogeneity that helps direct selection of the most appropriate treatment, the prediction of early response to cytotoxic and cytostatic therapies, and is a prognostic biomarker in patients with lung cancer. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bench to bedside molecular functional imaging in translational cancer medicine: to image or to imagine?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, A.; Goh, V.; Basu, S.; Vaish, R.; Weeks, A.J.; Thakur, M.H.; Cook, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing research on malignant and normal cell biology has substantially enhanced the understanding of the biology of cancer and carcinogenesis. This has led to the development of methods to image the evolution of cancer, target specific biological molecules, and study the anti-tumour effects of novel therapeutic agents. At the same time, there has been a paradigm shift in the field of oncological imaging from purely structural or functional imaging to combined multimodal structure–function approaches that enable the assessment of malignancy from all aspects (including molecular and functional level) in a single examination. The evolving molecular functional imaging using specific molecular targets (especially with combined positron-emission tomography [PET] computed tomography [CT] using 2- [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose [FDG] and other novel PET tracers) has great potential in translational research, giving specific quantitative information with regard to tumour activity, and has been of pivotal importance in diagnoses and therapy tailoring. Furthermore, molecular functional imaging has taken a key place in the present era of translational cancer research, producing an important tool to study and evolve newer receptor-targeted therapies, gene therapies, and in cancer stem cell research, which could form the basis to translate these agents into clinical practice, popularly termed “theranostics”. Targeted molecular imaging needs to be developed in close association with biotechnology, information technology, and basic translational scientists for its best utility. This article reviews the current role of molecular functional imaging as one of the main pillars of translational research. -- Highlights: •Molecular functional imaging (MFI) gives insight into the tumor biology and intratumoral heterogeneity. •It has potential role in identifying radiomic signatures associated with underlying gene-expression. •Radiomics can be used to create a road map

  3. Exogenous Molecular Probes for Targeted Imaging in Cancer: Focus on Multi-modal Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Bishnu P.; Wang, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in our healthcare system. Molecular imaging is an emerging methodology for the early detection of cancer, guidance of therapy, and monitoring of response. The development of new instruments and exogenous molecular probes that can be labeled for multi-modality imaging is critical to this process. Today, molecular imaging is at a crossroad, and new targeted imaging agents are expected to broadly expand our ability to detect and manage cancer. This integrated imaging strategy will permit clinicians to not only localize lesions within the body but also to manage their therapy by visualizing the expression and activity of specific molecules. This information is expected to have a major impact on drug development and understanding of basic cancer biology. At this time, a number of molecular probes have been developed by conjugating various labels to affinity ligands for targeting in different imaging modalities. This review will describe the current status of exogenous molecular probes for optical, scintigraphic, MRI and ultrasound imaging platforms. Furthermore, we will also shed light on how these techniques can be used synergistically in multi-modal platforms and how these techniques are being employed in current research

  4. UPAR targeted molecular imaging of cancers with small molecule-based probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng; Chen, Seng; Zhang, Wanshu; Tu, Yufeng; Sun, Yao

    2017-10-15

    Molecular imaging can allow the non-invasive characterization and measurement of biological and biochemical processes at the molecular and cellular levels in living subjects. The imaging of specific molecular targets that are associated with cancers could allow for the earlier diagnosis and better treatment of diseases. Small molecule-based probes play prominent roles in biomedical research and have high clinical translation ability. Here, with an emphasis on small molecule-based probes, we review some recent developments in biomarkers, imaging techniques and multimodal imaging in molecular imaging and highlight the successful applications for molecular imaging of cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Progress in Molecular Imaging in Endoscopy and Endomicroscopy for Cancer Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supang Khondee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging is an essential tool for effective cancer management. Endoscopes are important medical instruments for performing in vivo imaging in hollow organs. Early detection of cancer can be achieved with surveillance using endoscopy, and has been shown to reduce mortality and to improve outcomes. Recently, great advancements have been made in endoscopic instruments, including new developments in optical designs, light sources, optical fibers, miniature scanners, and multimodal systems, allowing for improved resolution, greater tissue penetration, and multispectral imaging. In addition, progress has been made in the development of highly-specific optical probes, allowing for improved specificity for molecular targets. Integration of these new endoscopic instruments with molecular probes provides a unique opportunity for significantly improving patient outcomes and has potential to further improve early detection, image guided therapy, targeted therapy, and personalized medicine. This work summarizes current and evolving endoscopic technologies, and provides an overview of various promising optical molecular probes.

  6. SU-E-I-39: Molecular Image Guided Cancer Stem Cells Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdollahi, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Cancer stem cells resistance to radiation is a problematic issue that has caused a big fail in cancer treatment. Methods: As a primary work, molecular imaging can indicate the main mechanisms of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. By developing and commissioning new probes and nanomolecules and biomarkers, radiation scientist will able to identify the essential pathways of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. As the second solution, molecular imaging is a best way to find biological target volume and delineate cancer stem cell tissues. In the other hand, by molecular imaging techniques one can image the treatment response in tumor and also in normal tissue. In this issue, the response of cancer stem cells to radiation during therapy course can be imaged, also the main mechanisms of radiation resistance and finding the best radiation modifiers (sensitizers) can be achieved by molecular imaging modalities. In adaptive radiotherapy the molecular imaging plays a vital role to have higher tumor control probability by delivering high radiation doses to cancer stem cells in any time of treatment. The outcome of a feasible treatment is dependent to high cancer stem cells response to radiation and removing all of which, so a good imaging modality can show this issue and preventing of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Results: Our results are dependent to use of molecular imaging as a new modality in the clinic. We propose molecular imaging as a new radiobiological technique to solve radiation therapy problems due to cancer stem cells. Conclusion: Molecular imaging guided cancer stem cell diagnosis and therapy is a new approach in the field of cancer treatment. This new radiobiological imaging technique should be developed in all clinics as a feasible tool that is more biological than physical imaging.

  7. SU-E-I-39: Molecular Image Guided Cancer Stem Cells Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdollahi, H

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Cancer stem cells resistance to radiation is a problematic issue that has caused a big fail in cancer treatment. Methods: As a primary work, molecular imaging can indicate the main mechanisms of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. By developing and commissioning new probes and nanomolecules and biomarkers, radiation scientist will able to identify the essential pathways of radiation resistance of cancer stem cells. As the second solution, molecular imaging is a best way to find biological target volume and delineate cancer stem cell tissues. In the other hand, by molecular imaging techniques one can image the treatment response in tumor and also in normal tissue. In this issue, the response of cancer stem cells to radiation during therapy course can be imaged, also the main mechanisms of radiation resistance and finding the best radiation modifiers (sensitizers) can be achieved by molecular imaging modalities. In adaptive radiotherapy the molecular imaging plays a vital role to have higher tumor control probability by delivering high radiation doses to cancer stem cells in any time of treatment. The outcome of a feasible treatment is dependent to high cancer stem cells response to radiation and removing all of which, so a good imaging modality can show this issue and preventing of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Results: Our results are dependent to use of molecular imaging as a new modality in the clinic. We propose molecular imaging as a new radiobiological technique to solve radiation therapy problems due to cancer stem cells. Conclusion: Molecular imaging guided cancer stem cell diagnosis and therapy is a new approach in the field of cancer treatment. This new radiobiological imaging technique should be developed in all clinics as a feasible tool that is more biological than physical imaging

  8. Molecular markers in breast cancer: new tools in imaging and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Although breast cancer is mainly diagnosed by mammography, other imaging modalities (e.g. MRI, PET) are increasingly used. The most recent developments in the field of molecular imaging comprise the application of near-infrared

  9. Integrated Molecular Imaging and Therapy for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2008-01-01

    ...) and NIR dosing of cancer cells using SWCNT. While previous studies have shown the transport of DNA into cells using nanotubes, in this study we show multi-component molecular targeting of both IGF1R and Her2 surface markers in cancer cells...

  10. Molecular image in biomedical research. Molecular imaging unit of the National Cancer Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Bruzon, J.; Mulero Anhiorte, F.

    2010-01-01

    This article has two basic objectives. firstly, it will review briefly the most important imaging techniques used in biomedical research indicting the most significant aspects related to their application in the preclinical stage. Secondly, it will present a practical application of these techniques in a pure biomedical research centre (not associated to a clinical facility). Practical aspects such as organisation, equipment, work norms, shielding of the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) Imaging Unit will be shown. This is a pioneering facility in the application of these techniques in research centres without any dependence or any direct relationship with other hospital Nuclear Medicine services. (Author) 7 refs.

  11. Application of Deep Learning in Automated Analysis of Molecular Images in Cancer: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Chen, Shihui; Liu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Molecular imaging enables the visualization and quantitative analysis of the alterations of biological procedures at molecular and/or cellular level, which is of great significance for early detection of cancer. In recent years, deep leaning has been widely used in medical imaging analysis, as it overcomes the limitations of visual assessment and traditional machine learning techniques by extracting hierarchical features with powerful representation capability. Research on cancer molecular images using deep learning techniques is also increasing dynamically. Hence, in this paper, we review the applications of deep learning in molecular imaging in terms of tumor lesion segmentation, tumor classification, and survival prediction. We also outline some future directions in which researchers may develop more powerful deep learning models for better performance in the applications in cancer molecular imaging. PMID:29114182

  12. Molecular MR imaging of cancer gene therapy. Ferritin transgene reporter takes the stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Sumitaka; Furukawa, Takako; Saga, Tsuneo

    2010-01-01

    Molecular imaging using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been actively investigated and made rapid progress in the past decade. Applied to cancer gene therapy, the technique's high spatial resolution allows evaluation of gene delivery into target tissues. Because noninvasive monitoring of the duration, location, and magnitude of transgene expression in tumor tissues or cells provides useful information for assessing therapeutic efficacy and optimizing protocols, molecular imaging is expected to become a critical step in the success of cancer gene therapy in the near future. We present a brief overview of the current status of molecular MR imaging, especially in vivo reporter gene imaging using ferritin and other reporters, discuss its application to cancer gene therapy, and present our research of MR imaging detection of electroporation-mediated cancer gene therapy using the ferritin reporter gene. (author)

  13. Molecular Imaging Probes for Diagnosis and Therapy Evaluation of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer death in women where early detection and accurate assessment of therapy response can improve clinical outcomes. Molecular imaging, which includes PET, SPECT, MRI, and optical modalities, provides noninvasive means of detecting biological processes and molecular events in vivo. Molecular imaging has the potential to enhance our understanding of breast cancer biology and effects of drug action during both preclinical and clinical phases of drug development. This has led to the identification of many molecular imaging probes for key processes in breast cancer. Hormone receptors, growth factor receptor, and angiogenic factors, such as ER, PR, HER2, and VEGFR, have been adopted as imaging targets to detect and stage the breast cancer and to monitor the treatment efficacy. Receptor imaging probes are usually composed of targeting moiety attached to a signaling component such as a radionuclide that can be detected using dedicated instruments. Current molecular imaging probes involved in breast cancer diagnosis and therapy evaluation are reviewed, and future of molecular imaging for the preclinical and clinical is explained.

  14. From molecular imaging to personalized radionuclide therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. 68 Gallium is a positron emitter (t 1/2 68 min) which can be produced from a generator in a convenient, 'in-house' preparation and used for labeling of peptides, e.g. somatostatin analogues (SA) like DOTATOC or DOTATATE for molecular imaging of SSTR expressing tumors. Since 2004, we have performed over 7700 68 Ga PET/CT studies in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET) and have established SSTR PET/CT as the new gold standard for imaging G1 and G2 NET (staging, re-staging, therapy response evaluation and detection of unknown primary NET). The same peptides can be labeled with 177 Lutetium or 90 Yttrium for radionuclide therapy, a form of personalized treatment (THERANOSTICS approach). PRRNT is based on the receptor-mediated internalization of SA. Several clinical trials indicate that PRRNT can deliver effective radiation doses to tumors. A German multi-institutional registry study with prospective follow up in 450 patients indicates that PRRT is an effective therapy for patients with G1-2 neuroendocrine tumors, irrespective of previous therapies, with a survival advantage of several years compared to other therapies and only minor side effects. Median overall survival (OS) of all patients from the start of treatment was 59 months. Median progression-free survival (PFS) measured from last cycle of therapy accounted to 41 mo. Median PFS of pancreatic NET was 39 mo. Similar results were obtained for NET of unknown primary (median PFS: 38 mo) whereas NET of small bowel had a median PFS of 51 months. Side effects like 3-4 NEThro- or hemato-toxicity were observed in only 0.2% and 2% of patients respectively. PRRNT is highly effective in the management of NET, even in advanced cases. In patients with progressive neuroendocrine tumors, fractionated, personalized PRRNT with lower doses of radioactivity given over a longer period of time (Bad Berka Concept using sequential (DUO) PRRNT) results in excellent therapeutic responses

  15. Nanotechnology-Enabled Optical Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    quantitatively and dynamically detect molecular markers of breast cancer in vivo without tissue removal or directly after removal in a surgical...hour oshells by c es, the nano ting to a fin ER2- positiv (CHTN) th tinction spect ter of 276 nm sert depicts co microscopy. n was visua rption...conclusively determine the penetration depth of the nanoshells. Additionally, a quantitative difference of the nanoshell signal at the surface of the Her2

  16. Dynamic fluorescence imaging with molecular agents for cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sun Kuk

    Non-invasive dynamic optical imaging of small animals requires the development of a novel fluorescence imaging modality. Herein, fluorescence imaging is demonstrated with sub-second camera integration times using agents specifically targeted to disease markers, enabling rapid detection of cancerous regions. The continuous-wave fluorescence imaging acquires data with an intensified or an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device. The work presented in this dissertation (i) assessed dose-dependent uptake using dynamic fluorescence imaging and pharmacokinetic (PK) models, (ii) evaluated disease marker availability in two different xenograft tumors, (iii) compared the impact of autofluorescence in fluorescence imaging of near-infrared (NIR) vs. red light excitable fluorescent contrast agents, (iv) demonstrated dual-wavelength fluorescence imaging of angiogenic vessels and lymphatics associated with a xenograft tumor model, and (v) examined dynamic multi-wavelength, whole-body fluorescence imaging with two different fluorescent contrast agents. PK analysis showed that the uptake of Cy5.5-c(KRGDf) in xenograft tumor regions linearly increased with doses of Cy5.5-c(KRGDf) up to 1.5 nmol/mouse. Above 1.5 nmol/mouse, the uptake did not increase with doses, suggesting receptor saturation. Target to background ratio (TBR) and PK analysis for two different tumor cell lines showed that while Kaposi's sarcoma (KS1767) exhibited early and rapid uptake of Cy5.5-c(KRGDf), human melanoma tumors (M21) had non-significant TBR differences and early uptake rates similar to the contralateral normal tissue regions. The differences may be due to different compartment location of the target. A comparison of fluorescence imaging with NIR vs. red light excitable fluorescent dyes demonstrates that NIR dyes are associated with less background signal, enabling rapid tumor detection. In contrast, animals injected with red light excitable fluorescent dyes showed high autofluorescence. Dual

  17. Molecular imaging in the management of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyong-Huey Lai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and integrated 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET/computed tomography are valuable techniques for assessing prognosis, treatment response after the completion of concurrent chemoradiation, suspicious or documented recurrence, unexplained post therapy elevations in tumor markers, and the response to salvage treatment when managing cervical cancer. However, PET plays a limited role in the primary staging of MRI-defined node-negative patients. Currently, 18F-FDG is still the only tracer approved for routine use, but several novel targeting PET compounds, high-Tesla MRI machines, diffusion-weighted imaging without contrast, and dynamic nuclear polarized-enhanced 13C-MR spectroscopic imaging may hold promising applications.

  18. Homing peptide guiding optical molecular imaging for the diagnosis of bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-feng; Pang, Jian-zhi; Liu, Jie-hao; Zhao, Yang; Jia, Xing-you; Li, Jun; Liu, Reng-xin; Wang, Wei; Fan, Zhen-wei; Zhang, Zi-qiang; Yan, San-hua; Luo, Jun-qian; Zhang, Xiao-lei

    2014-11-01

    Background: The limitations of primary transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBt) have led the residual tumors rates as high as 75%. The intraoperative fluorescence imaging offers a great potential for improving TURBt have been confirmed. So we aim to distinguish the residual tumors and normal mucosa using fluorescence molecular imaging formed by conjugated molecule of the CSNRDARRC bladder cancer homing peptide with fluorescent dye. The conjugated molecule was abbreviated FIuo-ACP. In our study, we will research the image features of FIuo-ACP probe targeted bladder cancer for fluorescence molecular imaging diagnosis for bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo. Methods: After the FIuo-ACP probe was synthetized, the binding sites, factors affecting binding rates, the specificity and the targeting of Fluo-ACP labeled with bladder cancer cells were studied respectively by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM), immunofluorescence and multispectral fluorescence ex vivo optical molecular imaging system. Results: The binding sites were located in nucleus and the binding rates were correlated linearly with the dose of probe and the grade of pathology. Moreover, the probe has a binding specificity with bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo. Tumor cells being labeled by the Fluo-ACP, bright green spots were observed under LSCM. The tissue samples and tumor cells can be labeled and identified by fluorescence microscope. Optical molecular imaging of xenograft tumor tissues was exhibited as fluorescent spots under EMCCD. Conclusion: The CSNRDARRC peptides might be a useful bladder cancer targeting vector. The FIuo-ACP molecular probe was suitable for fluorescence molecular imaging diagnosis for bladder cancer in vivo and ex vivo.

  19. Potential of luminescence based molecular animal imaging in research areas pertaining to cancer biology and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Hansa D.; Shetake, Neena G.; Balla Murali, M.S.; Kumar, Amit; Pandey, B.N.

    2017-01-01

    Animal imaging is getting tremendous importance in biomedical research areas including drug delivery, radiobiology and cancer research. Even though, imaging techniques like CT, PET, SPECT, MRI are available for experimental animals, luminescence-based molecular imaging is still considered as crucial and common tool for biomedical laboratories due to easy handling/maintenance, cost effectiveness and various strategies available to manipulate the molecules/cells employed for imaging purposes. The Molecular Animal Imaging System available in our laboratory is being utilized for various cancer research activities including measurement of tumor growth kinetics, angiogenesis, therapeutic efficacy evaluation and metastasis studies. Moreover, the imaging system is also been used for radio-luminescence imaging based on Cherenkov radiation of radio-pharmaceuticals. (author)

  20. The development of epidermal growth factor receptor molecular imaging in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaoliang; Wang Hao; Shi Peiji; Liu Jianfeng; Meng Aimin

    2013-01-01

    In vivo epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted therapy has great potential for cancer diagnosis and the evaluation of curative effects. Enhancement of EGFR-targeted therapy needs a reliable quantitative molecular imaging method which could enable monitoring of receptor drug binding and receptor occupancy in vivo, and identification of the mutation in EGFR. PET or SPECT is the most advanced molecular imaging technology of non-invasively selecting responders, predicting therapeutic outcome and monitoring EGFR-targeted treatment. This review analyzed the present situation and research progress of molecular imaging agents. (authors)

  1. Targeted gold nanoparticles enable molecular CT imaging of cancer: an in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuveni T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tobi Reuveni1, Menachem Motiei1, Zimam Romman2, Aron Popovtzer3, Rachela Popovtzer11Faculty of Engineering and the Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-ilan University, Ramat Gan, 2GE HealthCare, Tirat Hacarmel, 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery and Onology, Davidoff Center, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Campus, Petah Tiqwa, IsraelAbstract: In recent years, advances in molecular biology and cancer research have led to the identification of sensitive and specific biomarkers that associate with various types of cancer. However, in vivo cancer detection methods with computed tomography, based on tracing and detection of these molecular cancer markers, are unavailable today. This paper demonstrates in vivo the feasibility of cancer diagnosis based on molecular markers rather than on anatomical structures, using clinical computed tomography. Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor conjugated gold nanoparticles (30 nm were intravenously injected into nude mice implanted with human squamous cell carcinoma head and neck cancer. The results clearly demonstrate that a small tumor, which is currently undetectable through anatomical computed tomography, is enhanced and becomes clearly visible by the molecularly-targeted gold nanoparticles. It is further shown that active tumor targeting is more efficient and specific than passive targeting. This noninvasive and nonionizing molecular cancer imaging tool can facilitate early cancer detection and can provide researchers with a new technique to investigate in vivo the expression and activity of cancer-related biomarkers and molecular processes.Keywords: functional computed tomography, molecular imaging, gold nanoparticles, biologically targeted in vivo imaging, contrast agents

  2. Imaging and Molecular Markers for Patients with Lung Cancer: Approaches with Molecular Targets, Complementary/Innovative Treatment, and Therapeutic Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Therapeutic and Imaging Agents to Lung Cancer (PI and co-PI: Renata Pasqualini , Ph.D., Wadih Arap, M.D., Ph.D.) The studies outlined in this proposal...with Drs. Pasqualini , Arap, and Wistuba. The IHC staining of lung cancer TMAs (390 cases) has been completed. We are working with investigators to...Project 3, R. Pasqualini ). This project was completed and a manuscript is in preparation by Dr. Pasqualini’s lab. b) Molecular abnormalities

  3. Association Between Imaging Characteristics and Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingxiang; Ma, Jie

    2017-04-01

    Breast cancer can be divided into four major molecular subtypes based on the expression of hormone receptor (estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, HER2 status, and molecular proliferation rate (Ki67). In this study, we sought to investigate the association between breast cancer subtype and radiological findings in the Chinese population. Medical records of 300 consecutive invasive breast cancer patients were reviewed from the database: the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The imaging characteristics of the lesions were evaluated. The molecular subtypes of breast cancer were classified into four types: luminal A, luminal B, HER2 overexpressed (HER2), and basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between the subtype (dependent variable) and mammography or 15 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicators (independent variables). Luminal A and B subtypes were commonly associated with "clustered calcification distribution," "nipple invasion," or "skin invasion" (P cancers showed association with persistent enhancement in the delayed phase on MRI and "clustered calcification distribution" on mammography (P breast tumor, which are potentially useful tools in the diagnosis and subtyping of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Next Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer Tissue Specimens for Enhanced Clinical Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH- 14-1-0192 TITLE: Next-Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer...DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Next-Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer Tissue

  5. Personalized Medicine Based on Theranostic Radioiodine Molecular Imaging for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging based personalized therapy has been a fascinating concept for individualized therapeutic strategy, which is able to attain the highest efficacy and reduce adverse effects in certain patients. Theranostics, which integrates diagnostic testing to detect molecular targets for particular therapeutic modalities, is one of the key technologies that contribute to the success of personalized medicine. Although the term "theranostics" was used after the second millennium, its basic principle was applied more than 70 years ago in the field of thyroidology with radioiodine molecular imaging. Differentiated thyroid cancer, which arises from follicular cells in the thyroid, is the most common endocrine malignancy, and theranostic radioiodine has been successfully applied to diagnose and treat differentiated thyroid cancer, the applications of which were included in the guidelines published by various thyroid or nuclear medicine societies. Through better pathophysiologic understanding of thyroid cancer and advancements in nuclear technologies, theranostic radioiodine contributes more to modern tailored personalized management by providing high therapeutic effect and by avoiding significant adverse effects in differentiated thyroid cancer. This review details the inception of theranostic radioiodine and recent radioiodine applications for differentiated thyroid cancer management as a prototype of personalized medicine based on molecular imaging.

  6. Hypoxia-Targeting Fluorescent Nanobodies for Optical Molecular Imaging of Pre-Invasive Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brussel, Aram S A; Adams, Arthur; Oliveira, Sabrina; Dorresteijn, Bram; El Khattabi, Mohamed; Vermeulen, J. F.; van der Wall, Elsken; Mali, Willem P Th M; Derksen, Patrick W B; van Diest, Paul J; van Bergen En Henegouwen, Paul M P

    PURPOSE: The aim of this work was to develop a CAIX-specific nanobody conjugated to IRDye800CW for molecular imaging of pre-invasive breast cancer. PROCEDURES: CAIX-specific nanobodies were selected using a modified phage display technology, conjugated site-specifically to IRDye800CW and evaluated

  7. Hypoxia-Targeting Fluorescent Nanobodies for Optical Molecular Imaging of Pre-Invasive Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brussel, Aram S A; Adams, Arthur; Oliveira, Sabrina; Dorresteijn, Bram; El Khattabi, Mohamed; Vermeulen, Jeroen F.; van der Wall, Elsken; Mali, W.P.T.M.; Derksen, Patrick W B; van Diest, Paul J.; van Bergen En Henegouwen, Paul M P

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to develop a CAIX-specific nanobody conjugated to IRDye800CW for molecular imaging of pre-invasive breast cancer. Procedures: CAIX-specific nanobodies were selected using a modified phage display technology, conjugated site-specifically to IRDye800CW and evaluated

  8. Precision medicine and molecular imaging: new targeted approaches toward cancer therapeutic and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Nabipour, Iraj; Omrani, Abdolmajid; Alipour, Zeinab; Assadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the importance and role of precision medicine and molecular imaging technologies in cancer diagnosis with therapeutics and diagnostics purposes. Precision medicine is progressively becoming a hot topic in all disciplines related to biomedical investigation and has the capacity to become the paradigm for clinical practice. The future of medicine lies in early diagnosis and individually appropriate treatments, a concept that has been named precision medicine, i.e. delivering the right treatment to the right patient at the right time. Molecular imaging is quickly being recognized as a tool with the potential to ameliorate every aspect of cancer treatment. On the other hand, emerging high-throughput technologies such as omics techniques and systems approaches have generated a paradigm shift for biological systems in advanced life science research. In this review, we describe the precision medicine, difference between precision medicine and personalized medicine, precision medicine initiative, systems biology/medicine approaches (such as genomics, radiogenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), P4 medicine, relationship between systems biology/medicine approaches and precision medicine, and molecular imaging modalities and their utility in cancer treatment and diagnosis. Accordingly, the precision medicine and molecular imaging will enable us to accelerate and improve cancer management in future medicine. PMID:28078184

  9. Precision medicine and molecular imaging: new targeted approaches toward cancer therapeutic and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Mojtaba; Nabipour, Iraj; Omrani, Abdolmajid; Alipour, Zeinab; Assadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the importance and role of precision medicine and molecular imaging technologies in cancer diagnosis with therapeutics and diagnostics purposes. Precision medicine is progressively becoming a hot topic in all disciplines related to biomedical investigation and has the capacity to become the paradigm for clinical practice. The future of medicine lies in early diagnosis and individually appropriate treatments, a concept that has been named precision medicine, i.e. delivering the right treatment to the right patient at the right time. Molecular imaging is quickly being recognized as a tool with the potential to ameliorate every aspect of cancer treatment. On the other hand, emerging high-throughput technologies such as omics techniques and systems approaches have generated a paradigm shift for biological systems in advanced life science research. In this review, we describe the precision medicine, difference between precision medicine and personalized medicine, precision medicine initiative, systems biology/medicine approaches (such as genomics, radiogenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), P4 medicine, relationship between systems biology/medicine approaches and precision medicine, and molecular imaging modalities and their utility in cancer treatment and diagnosis. Accordingly, the precision medicine and molecular imaging will enable us to accelerate and improve cancer management in future medicine.

  10. Molecular MR imaging of fibrosis in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polášek, Miloslav; Yang, Y.; Schühle, D. T.; Yaseen, M. A.; Kim, Y. R.; Sung, Y. S.; Guimaraes, A. R.; Caravan, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, Aug 14 (2017), č. článku 8114. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : fibrosis * molecular imaging * pancreatic cancer Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology OBOR OECD: Oncology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 https://www.nature.com/ articles /s41598-017-08838-6

  11. Molecular imaging of hypoxia in non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yip, Connie; Blower, Philip J.; Goh, Vicky; Landau, David B.; Cook, Gary J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the commonest cancer worldwide but survival remains poor with a high risk of relapse, particularly after nonsurgical treatment. Hypoxia is present in a variety of solid tumours, including NSCLC. It is associated with treatment resistance and a poor prognosis, although when recognised may be amenable to different treatment strategies. Thus, noninvasive assessment of intratumoral hypoxia could be used to stratify patients for modification of subsequent treatment to improve tumour control. Molecular imaging approaches targeting hypoxic cells have shown some early success in the clinical setting. This review evaluates the evidence for hypoxia imaging using PET in NSCLC and explores its potential clinical utility. (orig.)

  12. Molecular imaging of hypoxia in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, Connie [King' s College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Cancer Imaging, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); National Cancer Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Singapore (Singapore); St Thomas' Hospital, Imaging 2, London (United Kingdom); Blower, Philip J. [King' s College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Imaging Chemistry and Biology, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Goh, Vicky [King' s College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Cancer Imaging, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Radiology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Landau, David B. [King' s College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Cancer Imaging, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Clinical Oncology, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Cook, Gary J.R. [King' s College London, St Thomas' Hospital, Department of Cancer Imaging, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); St Thomas' Hospital, Clinical PET Imaging Centre, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the commonest cancer worldwide but survival remains poor with a high risk of relapse, particularly after nonsurgical treatment. Hypoxia is present in a variety of solid tumours, including NSCLC. It is associated with treatment resistance and a poor prognosis, although when recognised may be amenable to different treatment strategies. Thus, noninvasive assessment of intratumoral hypoxia could be used to stratify patients for modification of subsequent treatment to improve tumour control. Molecular imaging approaches targeting hypoxic cells have shown some early success in the clinical setting. This review evaluates the evidence for hypoxia imaging using PET in NSCLC and explores its potential clinical utility. (orig.)

  13. Oligometastatic prostate cancer: shaping the definition with molecular imaging and an improved understanding of tumor biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joice, Gregory A; Rowe, Steven P; Pienta, Kenneth J; Gorin, Michael A

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss how novel imaging modalities and molecular markers are shaping the definition of oligometastatic prostate cancer. To effectively classify a patient as having oligometastatic prostate cancer, diagnostic tests must be sensitive enough to detect subtle sites of metastatic disease. Conventional imaging modalities can readily detect widespread polymetastatic disease but do not have the sensitivity necessary to reliably classify patients as oligometastatic. Molecular imaging using both metabolic- and molecularly-targeted radiotracers has demonstrated great promise in aiding in our ability to define the oligometastatic state. Perhaps the most promising data to date have been generated with radiotracers targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen. In addition, early studies are beginning to define biologic markers in the oligometastatic state that may be indicative of disease with minimal metastatic potential. Recent developments in molecular imaging have allowed for improved detection of metastatic prostate cancer allowing for more accurate staging of patients with oligometastatic disease. Future development of biologic markers may assist in defining the oligometastatic state and determining prognosis.

  14. Nanotechnology-Enabled Optical Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    percent of invasive carcinoma and grows slowly over the course of years. It is very soft and looks like gray-blue gelatin . Two other invasive...Nitin, N., D. J. Javier, et al. (2007). "Widefield and high-resolution reflectance imaging of gold and silver nanospheres." J Biomed Opt 12(5...2010. “Widefield and High-resolution Reflectance Imaging of Gold and Silver Nanospheres.” Journal of Biomedical Optics 12 (5): 051505. doi:10.1117

  15. Tryptophan metabolism in breast cancers: molecular imaging and immunohistochemistry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhász, Csaba; Nahleh, Zeina; Zitron, Ian; Chugani, Diane C.; Janabi, Majid Z.; Bandyopadhyay, Sudeshna; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Mangner, Thomas J.; Chakraborty, Pulak K.; Mittal, Sandeep; Muzik, Otto

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tryptophan oxidation via the kynurenine pathway is an important mechanism of tumoral immunoresistance. Increased tryptophan metabolism via the serotonin pathway has been linked to malignant progression in breast cancer. In this study, we combined quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) with tumor immunohistochemistry to analyze tryptophan transport and metabolism in breast cancer. Methods: Dynamic α-[ 11 C]methyl-L-tryptophan (AMT) PET was performed in nine women with stage II–IV breast cancer. PET tracer kinetic modeling was performed in all tumors. Expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO; the initial and rate-limiting enzyme of the kynurenine pathway) and tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1; the initial enzyme of the serotonin pathway) was assessed by immunostaining of resected tumor specimens. Results: Tumor AMT uptake peaked at 5–20 min postinjection in seven tumors; the other two cases showed protracted tracer accumulation. Tumor standardized uptake values (SUVs) varied widely (2.6–9.8) and showed a strong positive correlation with volume of distribution values derived from kinetic analysis (P < .01). Invasive ductal carcinomas (n = 6) showed particularly high AMT SUVs (range, 4.7–9.8). Moderate to strong immunostaining for LAT1, IDO and TPH1 was detected in most tumor cells. Conclusions: Breast cancers show differential tryptophan kinetics on dynamic PET. SUVs measured 5–20 min postinjection reflect reasonably the tracer's volume of distribution. Further studies are warranted to determine if in vivo AMT accumulation in these tumors is related to tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine and serotonin pathways.

  16. Quantum dot-based molecular imaging of cancer cell growth using a clone formation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xia-Fei; Fang, Min; Liu, Shao-Ping; Li, Yan

    2016-10-01

    This aim of the present study was to investigate clonal growth behavior and analyze the proliferation characteristics of cancer cells. The MCF‑7 human breast cancer cell line, SW480 human colon cancer cell line and SGC7901 human gastric cancer cell line were selected to investigate the morphology of cell clones. Quantum dot‑based molecular targeted imaging techniques (which stained pan‑cytokeratin in the cytoplasm green and Ki67 in the cell nucleus yellow or red) were used to investigate the clone formation rate, cell morphology, discrete tendency, and Ki67 expression and distribution in clones. From the cell clone formation assay, the MCF‑7, SW480 and SGC7901 cells were observed to form clones on days 6, 8 and 12 of cell culture, respectively. These three types of cells had heterogeneous morphology, large nuclear:cytoplasmic ratios, and conspicuous pathological mitotic features. The cells at the clone periphery formed multiple pseudopodium. In certain clones, cancer cells at the borderline were separated from the central cell clusters or presented a discrete tendency. With quantum dot‑based molecular targeted imaging techniques, cells with strong Ki67 expression were predominantly shown to be distributed at the clone periphery, or concentrated on one side of the clones. In conclusion, cancer cell clones showed asymmetric growth behavior, and Ki67 was widely expressed in clones of these three cell lines, with strong expression around the clones, or aggregated at one side. Cell clone formation assay based on quantum dots molecular imaging offered a novel method to study the proliferative features of cancer cells, thus providing a further insight into tumor biology.

  17. Special conference of the American Association for Cancer Research on molecular imaging in cancer: linking biology, function, and clinical applications in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luker, Gary D

    2002-04-01

    The AACR Special Conference on Molecular Imaging in Cancer: Linking Biology, Function, and Clinical Applications In Vivo, was held January 23-27, 2002, at the Contemporary Hotel, Walt Disney World, Orlando, FL. Co-Chairs David Piwnica-Worms, Patricia Price and Thomas Meade brought together researchers with diverse expertise in molecular biology, gene therapy, chemistry, engineering, pharmacology, and imaging to accelerate progress in developing and applying technologies for imaging specific cellular and molecular signals in living animals and humans. The format of the conference was the presentation of research that focused on basic and translational biology of cancer and current state-of-the-art techniques for molecular imaging in animal models and humans. This report summarizes the special conference on molecular imaging, highlighting the interfaces of molecular biology with animal models, instrumentation, chemistry, and pharmacology that are essential to convert the dreams and promise of molecular imaging into improved understanding, diagnosis, and management of cancer.

  18. Transcription-Based Molecular Imaging and Gene Therapy for Castration-resistant and Metastatic Prostate Cancer in Translational Models

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Ziyue

    2013-01-01

    The advanced stage of prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death for American men. Novel, effective treatment options and more cancer-specific diagnostic tools are urgently needed to facilitate patient management. Here, we explored the construction and application of an array of gene-based molecular imaging and therapeutic vectors in a variety of clinically relevant settings. These vectors exploit prostate cancer-specific promoters to control the transcription of imag...

  19. Current perspectives in the use of molecular imaging to target surgical treatments for genitourinary cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Francesco; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Gill, Inderbir S; Kaouk, Jihad H; Remzi, Mesut; Thompson, R Houston; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B; van der Poel, Henk G; Fornara, Paolo; Rassweiler, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Molecular imaging (MI) entails the visualisation, characterisation, and measurement of biologic processes at the molecular and cellular levels in humans and other living systems. Translating this technology to interventions in real-time enables interventional MI/image-guided surgery, for example, by providing better detection of tumours and their dimensions. To summarise and critically analyse the available evidence on image-guided surgery for genitourinary (GU) oncologic diseases. A comprehensive literature review was performed using PubMed and the Thomson Reuters Web of Science. In the free-text protocol, the following terms were applied: molecular imaging, genitourinary oncologic surgery, surgical navigation, image-guided surgery, and augmented reality. Review articles, editorials, commentaries, and letters to the editor were included if deemed to contain relevant information. We selected 79 articles according to the search strategy based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis criteria and the IDEAL method. MI techniques included optical imaging and fluorescent techniques, the augmented reality (AR) navigation system, magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy, positron emission tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography. Experimental studies on the AR navigation system were restricted to the detection and therapy of adrenal and renal malignancies and in the relatively infrequent cases of prostate cancer, whereas fluorescence techniques and optical imaging presented a wide application of intraoperative GU oncologic surgery. In most cases, image-guided surgery was shown to improve the surgical resectability of tumours. Based on the evidence to date, image-guided surgery has promise in the near future for multiple GU malignancies. Further optimisation of targeted imaging agents, along with the integration of imaging modalities, is necessary to further enhance intraoperative GU oncologic surgery. Copyright © 2013

  20. Progress on molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Quan; Zhang Yongxue

    2011-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a new era of medical imaging,which can non-invasively monitor biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in vivo, including molecular imaging of nuclear medicine, magnetic resonance molecular imaging, ultrasound molecular imaging,optical molecular imaging and molecular imaging with X-ray. Recently, with the development of multi-subjects amalgamation, multimodal molecular imaging technology has been applied in clinical imaging, such as PET-CT and PET-MRI. We believe that with development of molecular probe and multi-modal imaging, more and more molecular imaging techniques will be applied in clinical diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  1. Imaging features of automated breast volume scanner: Correlation with molecular subtypes of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Feng-Yang, E-mail: fyzheng16@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai 200032 (China); Lu, Qing, E-mail: lu.qing@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Huang, Bei-Jian, E-mail: huang.beijian@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai 200032 (China); Xia, Han-Sheng, E-mail: zs12036@126.com [Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yan, Li-Xia, E-mail: dndyanlixia@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wang, Xi, E-mail: wang.xi@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yuan, Wei, E-mail: yuan.wei@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Pathology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wang, Wen-Ping, E-mail: wang.wenping@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • ABVS imaging features have a strong correlation with breast cancer molecular subtypes. • Retraction phenomenon on the coronal planes was the most important predictor for Luminal A and Triple Negative subtypes. • ABVS expand the scope of ultrasound in identifying breast cancer molecular subtypes. - Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the correlation between the imaging features obtained by an automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) and molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Methods: We examined 303 malignant breast tumours by ABVS for specific imaging features and by immunohistochemical analysis to determine the molecular subtype. ABVS imaging features, including retraction phenomenon, shape, margins, echogenicity, post-acoustic features, echogenic halo, and calcifications were analysed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine the significant predictive factors of the molecular subtypes. Results: By univariate logistic regression analysis, the predictive factors of the Luminal-A subtype (n = 128) were retraction phenomenon (odds ratio [OR] = 10.188), post-acoustic shadowing (OR = 5.112), and echogenic halo (OR = 3.263, P < 0.001). The predictive factors of the Human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-amplified subtype (n = 39) were calcifications (OR = 6.210), absence of retraction phenomenon (OR = 4.375), non-mass lesions (OR = 4.286, P < 0.001), absence of echogenic halo (OR = 3.851, P = 0.035), and post-acoustic enhancement (OR = 3.641, P = 0.008). The predictors for the Triple-Negative subtype (n = 47) were absence of retraction phenomenon (OR = 5.884), post-acoustic enhancement (OR = 5.255, P < 0.001), absence of echogenic halo (OR = 4.138, P = 0.002), and absence of calcifications (OR = 3.363, P = 0.001). Predictors for the Luminal-B subtype (n = 89) had a relatively lower association (OR ≤ 2.328). By multivariate logistic regression analysis, retraction phenomenon was the strongest independent predictor for

  2. Imaging features of automated breast volume scanner: Correlation with molecular subtypes of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Feng-Yang; Lu, Qing; Huang, Bei-Jian; Xia, Han-Sheng; Yan, Li-Xia; Wang, Xi; Yuan, Wei; Wang, Wen-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • ABVS imaging features have a strong correlation with breast cancer molecular subtypes. • Retraction phenomenon on the coronal planes was the most important predictor for Luminal A and Triple Negative subtypes. • ABVS expand the scope of ultrasound in identifying breast cancer molecular subtypes. - Abstract: Objectives: To investigate the correlation between the imaging features obtained by an automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) and molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Methods: We examined 303 malignant breast tumours by ABVS for specific imaging features and by immunohistochemical analysis to determine the molecular subtype. ABVS imaging features, including retraction phenomenon, shape, margins, echogenicity, post-acoustic features, echogenic halo, and calcifications were analysed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine the significant predictive factors of the molecular subtypes. Results: By univariate logistic regression analysis, the predictive factors of the Luminal-A subtype (n = 128) were retraction phenomenon (odds ratio [OR] = 10.188), post-acoustic shadowing (OR = 5.112), and echogenic halo (OR = 3.263, P < 0.001). The predictive factors of the Human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-amplified subtype (n = 39) were calcifications (OR = 6.210), absence of retraction phenomenon (OR = 4.375), non-mass lesions (OR = 4.286, P < 0.001), absence of echogenic halo (OR = 3.851, P = 0.035), and post-acoustic enhancement (OR = 3.641, P = 0.008). The predictors for the Triple-Negative subtype (n = 47) were absence of retraction phenomenon (OR = 5.884), post-acoustic enhancement (OR = 5.255, P < 0.001), absence of echogenic halo (OR = 4.138, P = 0.002), and absence of calcifications (OR = 3.363, P = 0.001). Predictors for the Luminal-B subtype (n = 89) had a relatively lower association (OR ≤ 2.328). By multivariate logistic regression analysis, retraction phenomenon was the strongest independent predictor for

  3. IMPACT (Imaging and Molecular Markers for Patients with Lung Cancer: Approaches with Molecular Targets and Complementary, Innovative and Therapeutic Modalities)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Waun Ki; Herbst, Roy

    2006-01-01

    .... These projects combine targeted approaches using molecular and imaging techniques to validate activity against a target and monitor response using imaging modalities specific to the receptor using...

  4. IMPACT (Imaging and Molecular Markers for Patients with Lung Cancer: Approaches with Molecular Targets and Complementary, Innovative and Therapeutic Modalities)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Waun K; Herbst, Roy

    2008-01-01

    .... These projects combine targeted approaches using molecular and imaging techniques to validate activity against a target and monitor response using imaging modalities specific to the receptor using...

  5. IMPACT (Imaging and Molecular Markers for Patients with Lung Cancer: Approaches with Molecular Targets and Complementary, Innovative and Therapeutic Modalities)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Waun K; Herbst, Roy

    2007-01-01

    .... These projects combine targeted approaches using molecular and imaging techniques to validate activity against a target and monitor response using imaging modalities specific to the receptor using...

  6. Harnessing Preclinical Molecular Imaging to Inform Advances in Personalized Cancer Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Peter M; Ebiana, Victoria A; Gosa, Laura; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Nathanson, David A

    2017-05-01

    Comprehensive molecular analysis of individual tumors provides great potential for personalized cancer therapy. However, the presence of a particular genetic alteration is often insufficient to predict therapeutic efficacy. Drugs with distinct mechanisms of action can affect the biology of tumors in specific and unique ways. Therefore, assays that can measure drug-induced perturbations of defined functional tumor properties can be highly complementary to genomic analysis. PET provides the capacity to noninvasively measure the dynamics of various tumor biologic processes in vivo. Here, we review the underlying biochemical and biologic basis for a variety of PET tracers and how they may be used to better optimize cancer therapy. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  7. Molecular image-guided radiation treatment planing using biological target volume (BTV)for advanced esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamamura, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Makoto; Bou, Sayuri; Satou, Yoshitaka; Minami, Hiroki; Saga, Yusuke; Aoyama, Masashi; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Kawamura, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    As the biological mechanisms of cancer cell proliferation become clear at molecular level, 'precision therapy' is attracting a great attention, in which the irradiation dose and area are determined in consideration of these molecular mechanism. For this sophisticated radiotherapy, it is essential to evaluate the tumor morphology and proliferation/activation of cancer cells before radiation treatment planning. Generally, cancer cells start to proliferate when their activity levels increase, and subsequently primary tumor or metastatic tumor that can De recognized by CT scan or MRI start to develop. Thus, when proliferation of cancer cells occurs and tumor start to develop, a vast amount of energy is required for proliferation and cancer cells obtain a part of this energy from glucose in the body. Therefore, we can get the information on the status of metabolism and density of cancer cells by PET using F-18-FDG, which is structurally similar to glucose. It is a general belief that, when conducting evaluation using F18-FDG-PET, evaluation of proliferation of cancer cells before tumor formation might be possible at the cell level by evaluating and visualizing glucose metabolism in cancer cells that proliferate in a manner that they cannot be visualized morphologically by using CT scan or MRI. Therefore, when performing sophisticated precision radiotherapy, it is important to implement radiation treatment plan including information obtained from FDG-PET imaging. Many studies have reported usefulness of FDG-PET imaging for esophagus cancer so far, indicating the efficacy of using FDG-PET imaging for radiation treatment plan of esophagus cancer as well. However, few studies have described how to use FDG-PET imaging for radiation treatment plan for esophagus cancer. In this review, therefore, we will outline the usefulness of molecular image-guided radiation treatment plan, in which biological target volume (BTV) and the actual radiation treatment plan using FDG

  8. Multimodal fluorescence molecular imaging for in vivo characterization of skin cancer using endogenous and exogenous fluorophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica P.; Habimana-Griffin, LeMoyne; Edwards, Tracy S.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    Similarity of skin cancer with many benign skin pathologies requires reliable methods to detect and differentiate the different types of these lesions. Previous studies have explored the use of disparate optical techniques to identify and estimate the invasive nature of melanoma and basal cell carcinoma with varying outcomes. Here, we used a concerted approach that provides complementary information for rapid screening and characterization of tumors, focusing on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. Assessment of in vivo autofluorescence lifetime (FLT) imaging of endogenous fluorophores that are excitable at longer wavelengths (480 nm) than conventional NADH and FAD revealed a decrease in the short FLT component for SCC compared to normal skin, with mean values of 0.57±0.026 ns and 0.61±0.021 ns, respectively (p=0.004). Subsequent systemic administration of a near-infrared fluorescent molecular probe in SCC bearing mice, followed by the implementation of image processing methods on data acquired from two-dimensional and three-dimensional fluorescence molecular imaging, allowed us to estimate the tumor volume and depth, as well as quantify the fluorescent probe in the tumor. The result suggests the involvement of lipofuscin-like lipopigments and riboflavin in SCC metabolism and serves as a model for staging SCC.

  9. A Partnership Training Program in Breast Cancer Research Using Molecular Imaging Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Paul C

    2006-01-01

    In the first year of this training grant, five faculty members from different departments at the Howard University were trained in molecular imaging with the faculty at the In Vivo Cellular Molecular...

  10. A small molecular pH-dependent fluorescent probe for cancer cell imaging in living cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junbao; Li, Wenqi; Li, Juanjuan; Shi, Rongguang; Yin, Gui; Wang, Ruiyong

    2018-05-15

    A novel pH-dependent two-photon fluorescent molecular probe ABMP has been prepared based on the fluorophore of 2, 4, 6-trisubstituted pyridine. The probe has an absorption wavelength at 354 nm and corresponding emission wavelength at 475 nm with the working pH range from 2.20 to 7.00, especially owning a good liner response from pH = 2.40 to pH = 4.00. ABMP also has excellent reversibility, photostability and selectivity which promotes its ability in analytical application. The probe can be excited with a two-photon fluorescence microscopy and the fluorescence cell imaging indicated that the probe can distinguish Hela cancer cells out of normal cells with a two-photon fluorescence microscopy which suggested its potential application in tumor cell detection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct-Conversion Molecular Breast Imaging of Invasive Breast Cancer: Imaging Features, Extent of Invasive Disease, and Comparison Between Invasive Ductal and Lobular Histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Amy Lynn; Jones, Katie N; Hruska, Carrie B; Geske, Jennifer R; Boughey, Judy C; Rhodes, Deborah J

    2015-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the tumor appearance of invasive breast cancer on direct-conversion molecular breast imaging using a standardized lexicon and to determine how often direct-conversion molecular breast imaging identifies all known invasive tumor foci in the breast, and whether this differs for invasive ductal versus lobular histologic profiles. Patients with prior invasive breast cancer and concurrent direct-conversion molecular breast imaging examinations were retrospectively reviewed. Blinded review of direct-conversion molecular breast imaging examinations was performed by one of two radiologists, according to a validated lexicon. Direct-conversion molecular breast imaging findings were matched with lesions described on the pathology report to exclude benign reasons for direct-conversion molecular breast imaging findings and to document direct-conversion molecular breast imaging-occult tumor foci. Associations between direct-conversion molecular breast imaging findings and tumor histologic profiles were examined using chi-square tests. In 286 patients, 390 invasive tumor foci were present in 294 breasts. A corresponding direct-conversion molecular breast imaging finding was present for 341 of 390 (87%) tumor foci described on the pathology report. Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) tumor foci were more likely to be a mass (40% IDC vs 15% invasive lobular carcinoma [ILC]; p < 0.001) and to have marked intensity than were ILC foci (63% IDC vs 32% ILC; p < 0.001). Direct-conversion molecular breast imaging correctly revealed all pathology-proven foci of invasive disease in 79.8% of cases and was more likely to do so for IDC than for ILC (86.1% vs 56.7%; p < 0.0001). Overall, direct-conversion molecular breast imaging showed all known invasive foci in 249 of 286 (87%) patients. Direct-conversion molecular breast imaging features of invasive cancer, including lesion type and intensity, differ by histologic subtype. Direct-conversion molecular

  12. The use of molecular imaging combined with genomic techniques to understand the heterogeneity in cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, R; Ganeshan, B; Irshad, S; Lawler, K; Eisenblätter, M; Milewicz, H; Rodriguez-Justo, M; Miles, K; Ellis, P; Groves, A; Punwani, S

    2014-01-01

    Tumour heterogeneity has, in recent times, come to play a vital role in how we understand and treat cancers; however, the clinical translation of this has lagged behind advances in research. Although significant advancements in oncological management have been made, personalized care remains an elusive goal. Inter- and intratumour heterogeneity, particularly in the clinical setting, has been difficult to quantify and therefore to treat. The histological quantification of heterogeneity of tumours can be a logistical and clinical challenge. The ability to examine not just the whole tumour but also all the molecular variations of metastatic disease in a patient is obviously difficult with current histological techniques. Advances in imaging techniques and novel applications, alongside our understanding of tumour heterogeneity, have opened up a plethora of non-invasive biomarker potential to examine tumours, their heterogeneity and the clinical translation. This review will focus on how various imaging methods that allow for quantification of metastatic tumour heterogeneity, along with the potential of developing imaging, integrated with other in vitro diagnostic approaches such as genomics and exosome analyses, have the potential role as a non-invasive biomarker for guiding the treatment algorithm. PMID:24597512

  13. Molecular imaging: High-resolution detectors for early diagnosis and therapy monitoring of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibaldi, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: Franco.garibaldi@iss.infn.it; Cisbani, E. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy); Colilli, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy); Cusanno, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy); Fratoni, R. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy); Giuliani, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy); Gricia, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy); Lucentini, M. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy); Fratoni, R. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy); Lo Meo, S. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy); Magliozzi, M.L. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy); Santanvenere, F. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita and INFN-gr. Sanita-Rome (Italy); Cinti, M.N. [University La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Pani, R. [University La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Pellegrini, R. [University La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Simonetti, G. [University Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Schillaci, O. [University Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Del Vecchio, S. [CNR Napoli, Naples (Italy); Salvatore, M. [CNR Napoli, Naples (Italy); Majewski, S. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA (United States); Lanza, R.C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); De Vincentis, G. [University La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Scopinaro, F. [University La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)

    2006-12-20

    Dedicated high-resolution detectors are required for detection of small cancerous breast tumours by molecular imaging with radionuclides. Absorptive collimation is normally applied in imaging single photon emitters, but it results in a strong reduction in detection efficiency. Systems based on electronic collimation are complex and expensive. For these reasons simulations and measurements have been performed to design optimised dedicated high-resolution mini gamma camera. Critical parameters are contrast and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Intrinsic performance (spatial resolution, pixel identification, and response linearity and uniformity) were first optimised. Pixellated scintillator arrays (NaI(Tl)) of different pixel size were coupled to arrays of PSPMTs with different anode pad dimensions (6x6 mm{sup 2} and 3x3 mm{sup 2}). Detectors having a field of view (FOV) of 100x100 mm{sup 2} and 150x200 mm{sup 2} were designed and built. The electronic system allows read out of all the anode pad signals. The collimation technique was then considered and limits of coded aperture option were studied. Preliminary results are presented.

  14. First-in-Human Ultrasound Molecular Imaging With a VEGFR2-Specific Ultrasound Molecular Contrast Agent (BR55) in Prostate Cancer: A Safety and Feasibility Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeenge, Martijn; Tranquart, François; Mannaerts, Christophe K; de Reijke, Theo M; van de Vijver, Marc J; Laguna, M Pilar; Pochon, Sibylle; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2017-07-01

    BR55, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)-specific ultrasound molecular contrast agent (MCA), has shown promising results in multiple preclinical models regarding cancer imaging. In this first-in-human, phase 0, exploratory study, we investigated the feasibility and safety of the MCA for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in men using clinical standard technology. Imaging with the MCA was performed in 24 patients with biopsy-proven PCa scheduled for radical prostatectomy using a clinical ultrasound scanner at low acoustic power. Safety monitoring was done by physical examination, blood pressure and heart rate measurements, electrocardiogram, and blood sampling. As first-in-human study, MCA dosing and imaging protocol were necessarily fine-tuned along the enrollment to improve visualization. Imaging data were correlated with radical prostatectomy histopathology to analyze the detection rate of ultrasound molecular imaging with the MCA. Imaging with MCA doses of 0.03 and 0.05 mL/kg was adequate to obtain contrast enhancement images up to 30 minutes after administration. No serious adverse events or clinically meaningful changes in safety monitoring data were identified during or after administration. BR55 dosing and imaging were fine-tuned in the first 12 patients leading to 12 subsequent patients with an improved MCA dosing and imaging protocol. Twenty-three patients underwent radical prostatectomy. A total of 52 lesions were determined to be malignant by histopathology with 26 (50%) of them seen during BR55 imaging. In the 11 patients that were scanned with the improved protocol and underwent radical prostatectomy, a total of 28 malignant lesions were determined: 19 (68%) were seen during BR55 ultrasound molecular imaging, whereas 9 (32%) were not identified. Ultrasound molecular imaging with BR55 is feasible with clinical standard technology and demonstrated a good safety profile. Detectable levels of the MCA can be reached in patients

  15. Quantitative diffusion weighted imaging parameters in tumor and peritumoral stroma for prediction of molecular subtypes in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ting; Fan, Ming; Zhang, Peng; Li, Hui; Zhang, Juan; Shao, Guoliang; Li, Lihua

    2018-03-01

    Breast cancer can be classified into four molecular subtypes of Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2 and Basal-like, which have significant differences in treatment and survival outcomes. We in this study aim to predict immunohistochemistry (IHC) determined molecular subtypes of breast cancer using image features derived from tumor and peritumoral stroma region based on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). A dataset of 126 breast cancer patients were collected who underwent preoperative breast MRI with a 3T scanner. The apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) were recorded from DWI, and breast image was segmented into regions comprising the tumor and the surrounding stromal. Statistical characteristics in various breast tumor and peritumoral regions were computed, including mean, minimum, maximum, variance, interquartile range, range, skewness, and kurtosis of ADC values. Additionally, the difference of features between each two regions were also calculated. The univariate logistic based classifier was performed for evaluating the performance of the individual features for discriminating subtypes. For multi-class classification, multivariate logistic regression model was trained and validated. The results showed that the tumor boundary and proximal peritumoral stroma region derived features have a higher performance in classification compared to that of the other regions. Furthermore, the prediction model using statistical features, difference features and all the features combined from these regions generated AUC values of 0.774, 0.796 and 0.811, respectively. The results in this study indicate that ADC feature in tumor and peritumoral stromal region would be valuable for estimating the molecular subtype in breast cancer.

  16. Molecular MR Imaging Probes

    OpenAIRE

    MAHMOOD, UMAR; JOSEPHSON, LEE

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been successfully applied to many of the applications of molecular imaging. This review discusses by example some of the advances in areas such as multimodality MR-optical agents, receptor imaging, apoptosis imaging, angiogenesis imaging, noninvasive cell tracking, and imaging of MR marker genes.

  17. General perspectives for molecular nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, June Key

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging provides a visualization of normal as well as abnormal cellular processes at a molecular or genetic level rather than at an anatomical level. Conventional medical imaging methods utilize the imaging signals produced by nonspecific physico-chemical interaction. However, molecular imaging methods utilize the imaging signals derived from specific cellular or molecular events. Because molecular and genetic changes precede anatomical change in the course of disease development, molecular imaging can detect early events in disease progression. In the near future, through molecular imaging we can understand basic mechanisms of disease, and diagnose earlier and, subsequently, treat earlier intractable disease such as cancer, neuro-degenerative diseases, and immunologic disorders. In beginning period, nuclear medicine started as a molecular imaging, and has had a leading role in the field of molecular imaging. But recently molecular imaging has been rapidly developed. Besides nuclear imaging, molecular imaging methods such as optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging are emerging. Each imaging modalities have their advantages and weaknesses. The opportunities from molecular imaging look bright. We should try nuclear medicine continues to have a leading role in molecular imaging

  18. Molecular imaging of head and neck cancers. Perspectives of PET/MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpp, P.; Kahn, T.; Purz, S.; Sabri, O.

    2016-01-01

    The 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG-PET/CT) procedure is a cornerstone in the diagnostics of head and neck cancers. Several years ago PET-magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) also became available as an alternative hybrid multimodal imaging method. Does PET/MRI have advantages over PET/CT in the diagnostics of head and neck cancers ?The diagnostic accuracy of the standard imaging methods CT, MRI and PET/CT is depicted according to currently available meta-analyses and studies concerning the use of PET/MRI for these indications are summarized. In all studies published up to now PET/MRI did not show superiority regarding the diagnostic accuracy in head and neck cancers; however, there is some evidence that in the future PET/MRI can contribute to tumor characterization and possibly be used to predict tumor response to therapy with the use of multiparametric imaging. Currently, 18 F-FDG-PET/CT is not outperformed by PET/MRI in the diagnostics of head and neck cancers. The additive value of PET/MRI due to the use of multiparametric imaging needs to be investigated in future research. (orig.) [de

  19. Chip Based Magnetic Imager for Molecular Profiling of Ovarian Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals ), investors, media leaders, and internationally recognized cancer researchers. Co-PI (Dr. Castro) presented research advances in nanosensors...magnetic resonance (DMR). Similar to clinical MRI , the DMR utilizes magnetic nanoparticles to modulate the spin-spin relaxation time of neighboring...In particular, iron oxide MNPs are degraded into nontoxic iron and oxygen components, and their utilization as magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI

  20. The application of surgical navigation system using optical molecular imaging technology in orthotopic breast cancer and metastasis studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chongwei; Zhang, Qian; Kou, Deqiang; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Qiu, Jingdan; Wang, Jiandong; Yang, Xin; Du, Yang; Tian, Jie

    2014-02-01

    Currently, it has been an international focus on intraoperative precise positioning and accurate resection of tumor and metastases. The methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) have played an important role in preoperative accurate diagnosis. However, most of them are inapplicable for intraoperative surgery. We have proposed a surgical navigation system based on optical molecular imaging technology for intraoperative detection of tumors and metastasis. This system collects images from two CCD cameras for real-time fluorescent and color imaging. For image processing, the template matching algorithm is used for multispectral image fusion. For the application of tumor detection, the mouse breast cancer cell line 4T1-luc, which shows highly metastasis, was used for tumor model establishment and a model of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expressing breast cancer. The tumor-bearing nude mice were given tail vein injection of MMP 750FAST (PerkinElmer, Inc. USA) probe and imaged with both bioluminescence and fluorescence to assess in vivo binding of the probe to the tumor and metastases sites. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed to confirm the presence of tumor and metastasis. As a result, one tumor can be observed visually in vivo. However liver metastasis has been detected under surgical navigation system and all were confirmed by histology. This approach helps surgeons to find orthotopic tumors and metastasis during intraoperative resection and visualize tumor borders for precise positioning. Further investigation is needed for future application in clinics.

  1. Targeted molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E. Edmund

    2003-01-01

    Molecular imaging aims to visualize the cellular and molecular processes occurring in living tissues, and for the imaging of specific molecules in vivo, the development of reporter probes and dedicated imaging equipment is most important. Reporter genes can be used to monitor the delivery and magnitude of therapeutic gene transfer, and the time variation involved. Imaging technologies such as micro-PET, SPECT, MRI and CT, as well as optical imaging systems, are able to non-invasively detect, measure, and report the simultaneous expression of multiple meaningful genes. It is believed that recent advances in reporter probes, imaging technologies and gene transfer strategies will enhance the effectiveness of gene therapy trials

  2. PET for molecular imaging of cancer: a tool for tailored therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The concept of personalised medicine has led to a need for improved phenotyping as well as prediction of treatment response early after therapy initiation. Most of the molecular biology methods used today need tissue sampling for in vitro analysis. In contrast, molecular imaging allows for non-invasive studies at the molecular level in living, intact organisms. Accordingly, molecular imaging with PET has been one of the most successful techniques in such phenotyping and response prediction using FDG. In addition, recent development of new PET tracers has further improved the value of PET in tumor characterization. Such new PET tracers allow for visualization of tumor specific receptors and tissue characteristics such as ability to metastasize. Furthermore, PET has a high sensitivity and allows for quantification and is not prone to sampling error as seen with biopsies. We will present examples of development of probes targeting the somatostatin receptor type 2, over-expressed in neuroendocrine tumors, including our first-in-man studies of 64 Cu-DOTATATE. Also development in probes for visualization of the invasive phenotype will be presented. Finally, with the most recent development of true integrated PET/MRI scanners has now become possible to add information from MRI. The value of such hybrid imaging will also be briefly discussed. (author)

  3. PET for molecular imaging of cancer: a tool for tailored therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The concept of personalised medicine has led to a need for improved phenotyping as well as prediction of treatment response early after therapy initiation. Most of the molecular biology methods used today need tissue sampling for in vitro analysis. In contrast, molecular imaging allows for non-invasive studies at the molecular level in living, intact organisms. Accordingly, molecular imaging with PET has been one of the most successful techniques in such phenotyping and response prediction using FDG. In addition, recent development of new PET tracers has further improved the value of PET in tumor characterization. Such new PET tracers allow for visualization of tumor specific receptors and tissue characteristics such as ability to metastasize. Furthermore, PET has a high sensitivity and allows for quantification and is not prone to sampling error as seen with biopsies. We will present examples of development of probes targeting the somatostatin receptor type 2, over-expressed in neuroendocrine tumors, including our first-in-man studies of 64Cu-DOTATATE. Also development in probes for visualization of the invasive phenotype will be presented. Finally, with the most recent development of true integrated PET/MRI scanners it has now become possible to add information from MRI. The value of such hybrid imaging will also be briefly discussed. (author)

  4. NIR-Cyanine Dye Linker: a Promising Candidate for Isochronic Fluorescence Imaging in Molecular Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komljenovic, Dorde; Wiessler, Manfred; Waldeck, Waldemar; Ehemann, Volker; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Schrenk, Hans-Hermann; Debus, Jürgen; Braun, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Personalized anti-cancer medicine is boosted by the recent development of molecular diagnostics and molecularly targeted drugs requiring rapid and efficient ligation routes. Here, we present a novel approach to synthetize a conjugate able to act simultaneously as an imaging and as a chemotherapeutic agent by coupling functional peptides employing solid phase peptide synthesis technologies. Development and the first synthesis of a fluorescent dye with similarity in the polymethine part of the Cy7 molecule whose indolenine-N residues were substituted with a propylene linker are described. Methylating agent temozolomide is functionalized with a tetrazine as a diene component whereas Cy7-cell penetrating peptide conjugate acts as a dienophilic reaction partner for the inverse Diels-Alder click chemistry-mediated ligation route yielding a theranostic conjugate, 3-mercapto-propionic-cyclohexenyl-Cy7-bis-temozolomide-bromide-cell penetrating peptide. Synthesis route described here may facilitate targeted delivery of the therapeutic compound to achieve sufficient local concentrations at the target site or tissue. Its versatility allows a choice of adequate imaging tags applicable in e.g. PET, SPECT, CT, near-infrared imaging, and therapeutic substances including cytotoxic agents. Imaging tags and therapeutics may be simultaneously bound to the conjugate applying click chemistry. Theranostic compound presented here offers a solid basis for a further improvement of cancer management in a precise, patient-specific manner.

  5. Molecular imaging in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, Otmar; Riemann, Burkhard (eds.) [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2013-02-01

    Considers in detail all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. Examines technological issues and probe design. Discusses preclinical studies in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. Presents current clinical use of PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and optical imagingWritten by acknowledged experts. The impact of molecular imaging on diagnostics, therapy, and follow-up in oncology is increasing significantly. The process of molecular imaging includes key biotarget identification, design of specific molecular imaging probes, and their preclinical evaluation, e.g., in vivo using small animal studies. A multitude of such innovative molecular imaging probes have already entered clinical diagnostics in oncology. There is no doubt that in future the emphasis will be on multimodality imaging in which morphological, functional, and molecular imaging techniques are combined in a single clinical investigation that will optimize diagnostic processes. This handbook addresses all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. The first section is devoted to technology and probe design, and examines a variety of PET and SPECT tracers as well as multimodality probes. Preclinical studies are then discussed in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. In the third section, diverse clinical applications are presented, and the book closes by looking at future challenges. This handbook will be of value to all who are interested in the revolution in diagnostic oncology that is being brought about by molecular imaging.

  6. Molecular imaging in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, Otmar; Riemann, Burkhard

    2013-01-01

    Considers in detail all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. Examines technological issues and probe design. Discusses preclinical studies in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. Presents current clinical use of PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and optical imagingWritten by acknowledged experts. The impact of molecular imaging on diagnostics, therapy, and follow-up in oncology is increasing significantly. The process of molecular imaging includes key biotarget identification, design of specific molecular imaging probes, and their preclinical evaluation, e.g., in vivo using small animal studies. A multitude of such innovative molecular imaging probes have already entered clinical diagnostics in oncology. There is no doubt that in future the emphasis will be on multimodality imaging in which morphological, functional, and molecular imaging techniques are combined in a single clinical investigation that will optimize diagnostic processes. This handbook addresses all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. The first section is devoted to technology and probe design, and examines a variety of PET and SPECT tracers as well as multimodality probes. Preclinical studies are then discussed in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. In the third section, diverse clinical applications are presented, and the book closes by looking at future challenges. This handbook will be of value to all who are interested in the revolution in diagnostic oncology that is being brought about by molecular imaging.

  7. A Partnership Training Program in Breast Cancer Research Using Molecular Imaging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots. Dr. Dnyanesh N. Tipre, Wednesday, Sept. 6, 2006 2. Synthesis , Surface and Colloidal...Materials: Synthesis and Modification of Functional Polymers and Application to Biomineralization. Dr. Tongxin Wang, University of Pennsylvania, 3/1/07 II.2... nitrosoureas (Journal of Clinical Investigation, in Review) [*: Equal contribution] 28. Liang, X.J. and Park, J.K. Inhibition of stathmin enhances CCNU

  8. A targeted nanoglobular contrast agent from host-guest self-assembly for MR cancer molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuxian; Han, Zhen; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2016-04-01

    The clinical application of nanoparticular Gd(III) based contrast agents for tumor molecular MRI has been hindered by safety concerns associated with prolonged tissue retention, although they can produce strong tumor enhancement. In this study, a targeted well-defined cyclodextrin-based nanoglobular contrast agent was developed through self-assembly driven by host-guest interactions for safe and effective cancer molecular MRI. Multiple β-cyclodextrins attached POSS (polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane) nanoglobule was used as host molecule. Adamantane-modified macrocyclic Gd(III) contrast agent, cRGD (cyclic RGDfK peptide) targeting ligand and fluorescent probe was used as guest molecules. The targeted host-guest nanoglobular contrast agent cRGD-POSS-βCD-(DOTA-Gd) specifically bond to αvβ3 integrin in malignant 4T1 breast tumor and provided greater contrast enhancement than the corresponding non-targeted agent. The agent also provided significant fluorescence signal in tumor tissue. The histological analysis of the tumor tissue confirmed its specific and effective targeting to αvβ3 integrin. The targeted imaging agent has a potential for specific cancer molecular MR and fluorescent imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. EDITORIAL: Molecular Imaging Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Keisuke; Okamoto, Koji

    2006-06-01

    'Molecular Imaging Technology' focuses on image-based techniques using nanoscale molecules as sensor probes to measure spatial variations of various species (molecular oxygen, singlet oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric monoxide, etc) and physical properties (pressure, temperature, skin friction, velocity, mechanical stress, etc). This special feature, starting on page 1237, contains selected papers from The International Workshop on Molecular Imaging for Interdisciplinary Research, sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) in Japan, which was held at the Sendai Mediatheque, Sendai, Japan, on 8 9 November 2004. The workshop was held as a sequel to the MOSAIC International Workshop that was held in Tokyo in 2003, to summarize the outcome of the 'MOSAIC Project', a five-year interdisciplinary project supported by Techno-Infrastructure Program, the Special Coordination Fund for Promotion of Science Technology to develop molecular sensor technology for aero-thermodynamic research. The workshop focused on molecular imaging technology and its applications to interdisciplinary research areas. More than 110 people attended this workshop from various research fields such as aerospace engineering, automotive engineering, radiotechnology, fluid dynamics, bio-science/engineering and medical engineering. The purpose of this workshop is to stimulate intermixing of these interdisciplinary fields for further development of molecular sensor and imaging technology. It is our pleasure to publish the seven papers selected from our workshop as a special feature in Measurement and Science Technology. We will be happy if this issue inspires people to explore the future direction of molecular imaging technology for interdisciplinary research.

  10. Nanoplatform-based molecular imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-01-01

    "Nanoplathform-Based Molecular Imaging provides rationale for using nanoparticle-based probes for molecular imaging, then discusses general strategies for this underutilized, yet promising, technology...

  11. Molecular PET imaging for biology-guided adaptive radiotherapy of head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeben, Bianca A W; Bussink, Johan; Troost, Esther G C; Oyen, Wim J G; Kaanders, Johannes H A M

    2013-10-01

    Integration of molecular imaging PET techniques into therapy selection strategies and radiation treatment planning for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) can serve several purposes. First, pre-treatment assessments can steer decisions about radiotherapy modifications or combinations with other modalities. Second, biology-based objective functions can be introduced to the radiation treatment planning process by co-registration of molecular imaging with planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Thus, customized heterogeneous dose distributions can be generated with escalated doses to tumor areas where radiotherapy resistance mechanisms are most prevalent. Third, monitoring of temporal and spatial variations in these radiotherapy resistance mechanisms early during the course of treatment can discriminate responders from non-responders. With such information available shortly after the start of treatment, modifications can be implemented or the radiation treatment plan can be adapted tailing the biological response pattern. Currently, these strategies are in various phases of clinical testing, mostly in single-center studies. Further validation in multicenter set-up is needed. Ultimately, this should result in availability for routine clinical practice requiring stable production and accessibility of tracers, reproducibility and standardization of imaging and analysis methods, as well as general availability of knowledge and expertise. Small studies employing adaptive radiotherapy based on functional dynamics and early response mechanisms demonstrate promising results. In this context, we focus this review on the widely used PET tracer (18)F-FDG and PET tracers depicting hypoxia and proliferation; two well-known radiation resistance mechanisms.

  12. Cardiovascular Molecular Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Han

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging strives to visualize processes in living subjects at the molecular level. Monitoring biochemical processes at this level will allow us to directly track biological processes and signaling events that lead to pathophysiological abnormalities, and help make personalized medicine a reality by allowing evaluation of therapeutic efficacies on an individual basis. Although most molecular imaging techniques emerged from the field of oncology, they have now gradually gained acceptance by the cardiovascular community. Hence, the availability of dedicated high-resolution small animal imaging systems and specific targeting imaging probes is now enhancing our understanding of cardiovascular diseases and expediting the development of newer therapies. Examples include imaging approaches to evaluate and track the progress of recent genetic and cellular therapies for treatment of myocardial ischemia. Other areas include in vivo monitoring of such key molecular processes as angiogenesis and apoptosis. Cardiovascular molecular imaging is already an important research tool in preclinical experiments. The challenge that lies ahead is to implement these techniques into the clinics so that they may help fulfill the promise of molecular therapies and personalized medicine, as well as to resolve disappointments and controversies surrounding the field

  13. Targeted Molecular Imaging of Cancer Cells Using MS2-Based 129 Xe NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Keunhong [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Netirojjanakul, Chawita [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Munch, Henrik K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Sun, Jinny [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Finbloom, Joel A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Wemmer, David E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Physical Biosciences Division; Pines, Alexander [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division; Francis, Matthew B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division

    2016-07-25

    Targeted, selective, and highly sensitive 129Xe NMR nanoscale biosensors have been synthesized using a spherical MS2 viral capsid, Cryptophane A molecules, and DNA aptamers. The biosensors showed strong binding specificity toward targeted lymphoma cells (Ramos line). Hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR signal contrast and hyper-CEST 129Xe MRI image contrast indicated its promise as highly sensitive hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR nanoscale biosensor for future applications in cancer detection in vivo.

  14. Introduction to basic molecular biologic techniques for molecular imaging researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Joo Hyun

    2004-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a rapidly growing field due to the advances in molecular biology and imaging technologies. With the introduction of imaging reporter genes into the cell, diverse cellular processes can be monitored, quantified and imaged non-invasively in vivo. These processes include the gene expression, protein-protein interactions, signal transduction pathways, and monitoring of cells such as cancer cells, immune cells, and stem cells. In the near future, molecular imaging analysis will allow us to observe the incipience and progression of the disease. These will make us easier to give a diagnosis in the early stage of intractable diseases such as cancer, neuro-degenerative disease, and immunological disorders. Additionally, molecular imaging method will be a valuable tool for the real-time evaluation of cells in molecular biology and the basic biological studies. As newer and more powerful molecular imaging tools become available, it will be necessary to corporate clinicians, molecular biologists and biochemists for the planning, interpretation, and application of these techniques to their fullest potential. In order for such a multidisciplinary team to be effective, it is essential that a common understanding of basic biochemical and molecular biologic techniques is achieved. Basic molecular techniques for molecular imaging methods are presented in this paper

  15. Molecular cardiovascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefers, M.

    2007-01-01

    Although huge and long-lasting research efforts have been spent on the development of new diagnostic techniques investigating cardiovascular diseases, still fundamental challenges exist; the main challenge being the diagnosis of a suspected or known coronary artery disease or its consequences (myocardial infarction, heart failure etc.). Beside morphological techniques, functional imaging modalities are available in clinical diagnostic algorithms, whereas molecular cardiovascular imaging techniques are still under development. This review summarizes clinical-diagnostical challenges of modern cardiovascular medicine as well as the potential of new molecular imaging techniques to face these. (orig.)

  16. Molecular imaging in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging is generally defined as noninvasive and quantitative imaging of targeted macromolecules and biological processes in living organisms. A characteristic of molecular imaging is the ability to perform repeated studies and assess changes in biological processes over time. Thus molecular imaging lends itself well for monitoring the effectiveness of tumor therapy. In animal models a variety of techniques can be used for molecular imaging. These include optical imaging (bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear medicine techniques. In the clinical setting, however, nuclear medicine techniques predominate, because so far only radioactive tracers provide the necessary sensitivity to study expression and function of macromolecules non-invasively in patients. Nuclear medicine techniques allows to study a variety of biological processes in patients. These include the expression of various receptors (estrogen, androgen, somatostatin receptors and integrins). In addition, tracers are available to study tumor cell proliferation and hypoxia. The by far most commonly used molecular imaging technique in oncology is, however, positron emission tomography (PET) with the glucose analog [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET). FDG-PET permits non-invasive quantitative assessment of the accelerated exogenous glucose use of malignant tumors. Numerous studies have now shown that reduction of tumor FDG-uptake during therapy allows early prediction of tumor response and patient survival. Clinical studies are currently underway to determine whether FDG-PET can be used to individualize tumor therapy by signaling early in the course of therapy the need for therapeutic adjustments in patients with likely non-responding tumors. (orig.)

  17. Oral Administration and Detection of a Near-Infrared Molecular Imaging Agent in an Orthotopic Mouse Model for Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Sumit; Verma, Kirti Dhingra; Hu, Yongjun; Khera, Eshita; Priluck, Aaron; Smith, David E; Thurber, Greg M

    2018-05-07

    Molecular imaging is advantageous for screening diseases such as breast cancer by providing precise spatial information on disease-associated biomarkers, something neither blood tests nor anatomical imaging can achieve. However, the high cost and risks of ionizing radiation for several molecular imaging modalities have prevented a feasible and scalable approach for screening. Clinical studies have demonstrated the ability to detect breast tumors using nonspecific probes such as indocyanine green, but the lack of molecular information and required intravenous contrast agent does not provide a significant benefit over current noninvasive imaging techniques. Here we demonstrate that negatively charged sulfate groups, commonly used to improve solubility of near-infrared fluorophores, enable sufficient oral absorption and targeting of fluorescent molecular imaging agents for completely noninvasive detection of diseased tissue such as breast cancer. These functional groups improve the pharmacokinetic properties of affinity ligands to achieve targeting efficiencies compatible with clinical imaging devices using safe, nonionizing radiation (near-infrared light). Together, this enables development of a "disease screening pill" capable of oral absorption and systemic availability, target binding, background clearance, and imaging at clinically relevant depths for breast cancer screening. This approach should be adaptable to other molecular targets and diseases for use as a new class of screening agents.

  18. Molecular Imaging of Cancer Using X-ray Computed Tomography with Protease Targeted Iodinated Activity-Based Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Hanmant K; Tsvirkun, Darya; Ben-Nun, Yael; Merquiol, Emmanuelle; Popovtzer, Rachela; Blum, Galia

    2018-03-14

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a robust, precise, fast, and reliable imaging method that enables excellent spatial resolution and quantification of contrast agents throughout the body. However, CT is largely inadequate for molecular imaging applications due mainly to its low contrast sensitivity that forces the use of large concentrations of contrast agents for detection. To overcome this limitation, we generated a new class of iodinated nanoscale activity-based probes (IN-ABPs) that sufficiently accumulates at the target site by covalently binding cysteine cathepsins that are exceptionally highly expressed in cancer. The IN-ABPs are comprised of a short targeting peptide selective to specific cathepsins, an electrophilic moiety that allows activity-dependent covalent binding, and tags containing dendrimers with up to 48 iodine atoms. IN-ABPs selectively bind and inhibit activity of recombinant and intracellular cathepsin B, L, and S. We compared the in vivo kinetics, biodistribution, and tumor accumulation of IN-ABPs bearing 18 and 48 iodine atoms each, and their control counterparts lacking the targeting moiety. Here we show that although both IN-ABPs bind specifically to cathepsins within the tumor and produce detectable CT contrast, the 48-iodine bearing IN-ABP was found to be optimal with signals over 2.1-fold higher than its nontargeted counterpart. In conclusion, this study shows the synthetic feasibility and potential utility of IN-ABPs as potent contrast agents that enable molecular imaging of tumors using CT.

  19. Development of HER2-targeted nanobodies for molecular optical imaging and therapy of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijanka, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex disease and the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide. It has been estimated that 1 in 8 women and 1 in 1,000 men will develop breast cancer. Surgical-, chemical- and radiation based therapies are available to breast cancer patients. Early detection of cancer is crucial

  20. IMPACT (Imaging and Molecular Markers for Patients with Lung Cancer: Approaches with Molecular Targets and Complementary, Innovative and Therapeutic Modalities)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    participants reported that smoking and secondhand smoke is harmful to health, harmful to the unborn child and expensive. However, knowledge regarding...Prevention Research Cancer Prevention Journals Portal Cancer Reviews Online Annual Meeting Education Book Meeting Abstracts Online QUICK SEARCH...Portal Cancer Reviews Online Annual Meeting Education Book Meeting Abstracts Online QUICK SEARCH: [advanced] Author: Keyword(s): Institution: MD

  1. Noninvasive imaging of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medarova, Z.

    2009-01-01

    With the development of molecularly targeted cancer therapies, it is highly advantageous to be able to determine their efficacy, to improve overall patient survival. Non-invasive imaging techniques are currently available for visualizing different pathological conditions of the human body, but their use for cancer monitoring is limited due to the lack of tumor-specific imaging probes. This review will attempt to summarize the current clinical diagnostic approaches for breast cancer detection, staging, and therapy assessment. In addition, I will present some novel concepts from the field of molecular imaging that form the basis of some of our research. We believe that this general imaging strategy has the potential of significantly advancing our ability to diagnose breast cancer at the earliest stages of the pathology, before any overt clinical symptoms have developed, as well as to better direct the development of molecularly-targeted individualized therapy protocols.

  2. Molecular MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleige, G.; Hamm, B.

    2000-01-01

    Basic medicobiological research in recent years has made rapid advances in the functional understanding of normal and pathological processes down to the molecular level. At the same time, various imaging modalities have developed from the depiction of organs to approaching the depiction of the cellular level and are about to make the visualization of molecular processes an established procedure. Besides other modalities like PET and near-infrared fluorescence, MR imaging offers some promising options for molecular imaging as well as some applications that have already been tested such as the visualization of enzyme activity, the depiction of the expression of certain genes, the visualization of surface receptors, or the specific demonstration of cells involved in the body's immune response. A major advantage of molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) over other more sensitive modalities is its high spatial resolution. However, the establishment of mMRI crucially relies on further improvements in resolution and the development of molecular markers for improving its sensitivity and specificity. The state of the art of mMRI is presented by giving a survey of the literature on experimental studies and reporting the results our study group obtained during investigation on gliomas. (orig.) [de

  3. Co-targeting androgen receptor and DNA for imaging and molecular radiotherapy of prostate cancer: in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang; Kortylewicz, Zbigniew P; Enke, Thomas; Baranowska-Kortylewicz, Janina

    2014-12-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) axis, the key growth and survival pathway in prostate cancer, remains a prime target for drug development. 5-Radioiodo-3'-O-(17β-succinyl-5α-androstan-3-one)-2'-deoxyuridin-5'-yl phosphate (RISAD-P) is the AR-seeking reagent developed for noninvasive assessment of AR and proliferative status, and for molecular radiotherapy of prostate cancer with Auger electron-emitting radionuclides. RISAD-P radiolabeled with 123I, 124I, and 125I were synthesized using a common stannylated precursor. The cellular uptake, subcellular distribution, and radiotoxicity of 123I-, 124I-, and (125) IRISAD-P were measured in LNCaP, DU145, and PC-3 cell lines expressing various levels of AR. The uptake of RISAD-P by prostate cancer cells is proportional to AR levels and independent of the radionuclide. The intracellular accumulation of radioactivity is directly proportional to the extracellular concentration of RISAD-P and the duration of exposure. Initially, RISAD-P is trapped in the cytoplasm. Within 24 hr, radioactivity is associated exclusively with DNA. The RISAD-P radiotoxicity is determined by the radionuclide; however, the cellular responses are directly proportional to the AR expression levels. LNCaP cells expressing high levels of AR are killed at the rate of up to 60% per day after a brief 1 hr RISAD-P treatment. For the first time, the AR expression in PC-3 and DU 145 cells, generally reported as AR-negative, was quantitated by the ultra sensitive RISAD-P-based method. RISAD-P is a theranostic drug, which targets AR. Its subcellular metabolite participates in DNA synthesis. RISAD-P is a promising candidate for imaging of the AR expression and tumor proliferation as well as molecular radiotherapy of prostate cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Quantitative background parenchymal uptake on molecular breast imaging and breast cancer risk: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Carrie B; Geske, Jennifer R; Swanson, Tiffinee N; Mammel, Alyssa N; Lake, David S; Manduca, Armando; Conners, Amy Lynn; Whaley, Dana H; Scott, Christopher G; Carter, Rickey E; Rhodes, Deborah J; O'Connor, Michael K; Vachon, Celine M

    2018-06-05

    Background parenchymal uptake (BPU), which refers to the level of Tc-99m sestamibi uptake within normal fibroglandular tissue on molecular breast imaging (MBI), has been identified as a breast cancer risk factor, independent of mammographic density. Prior analyses have used subjective categories to describe BPU. We evaluate a new quantitative method for assessing BPU by testing its reproducibility, comparing quantitative results with previously established subjective BPU categories, and determining the association of quantitative BPU with breast cancer risk. Two nonradiologist operators independently performed region-of-interest analysis on MBI images viewed in conjunction with corresponding digital mammograms. Quantitative BPU was defined as a unitless ratio of the average pixel intensity (counts/pixel) within the fibroglandular tissue versus the average pixel intensity in fat. Operator agreement and the correlation of quantitative BPU measures with subjective BPU categories assessed by expert radiologists were determined. Percent density on mammograms was estimated using Cumulus. The association of quantitative BPU with breast cancer (per one unit BPU) was examined within an established case-control study of 62 incident breast cancer cases and 177 matched controls. Quantitative BPU ranged from 0.4 to 3.2 across all subjects and was on average higher in cases compared to controls (1.4 versus 1.2, p Quantitative BPU was strongly correlated with subjective BPU categories (Spearman's r = 0.59 to 0.69, p quantitative BPU measure, assessed by intraclass correlation, was 0.92 and 0.98, respectively. Quantitative BPU measures showed either no correlation or weak negative correlation with mammographic percent density. In a model adjusted for body mass index and percent density, higher quantitative BPU was associated with increased risk of breast cancer for both operators (OR = 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-10.1, and 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.7). Quantitative

  5. Quantitative imaging as cancer biomarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankoff, David A.

    2015-03-01

    The ability to assay tumor biologic features and the impact of drugs on tumor biology is fundamental to drug development. Advances in our ability to measure genomics, gene expression, protein expression, and cellular biology have led to a host of new targets for anticancer drug therapy. In translating new drugs into clinical trials and clinical practice, these same assays serve to identify patients most likely to benefit from specific anticancer treatments. As cancer therapy becomes more individualized and targeted, there is an increasing need to characterize tumors and identify therapeutic targets to select therapy most likely to be successful in treating the individual patient's cancer. Thus far assays to identify cancer therapeutic targets or anticancer drug pharmacodynamics have been based upon in vitro assay of tissue or blood samples. Advances in molecular imaging, particularly PET, have led to the ability to perform quantitative non-invasive molecular assays. Imaging has traditionally relied on structural and anatomic features to detect cancer and determine its extent. More recently, imaging has expanded to include the ability to image regional biochemistry and molecular biology, often termed molecular imaging. Molecular imaging can be considered an in vivo assay technique, capable of measuring regional tumor biology without perturbing it. This makes molecular imaging a unique tool for cancer drug development, complementary to traditional assay methods, and a potentially powerful method for guiding targeted therapy in clinical trials and clinical practice. The ability to quantify, in absolute measures, regional in vivo biologic parameters strongly supports the use of molecular imaging as a tool to guide therapy. This review summarizes current and future applications of quantitative molecular imaging as a biomarker for cancer therapy, including the use of imaging to (1) identify patients whose tumors express a specific therapeutic target; (2) determine

  6. Background parenchymal uptake on molecular breast imaging as a breast cancer risk factor: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Carrie B; Scott, Christopher G; Conners, Amy Lynn; Whaley, Dana H; Rhodes, Deborah J; Carter, Rickey E; O'Connor, Michael K; Hunt, Katie N; Brandt, Kathleen R; Vachon, Celine M

    2016-04-26

    Molecular breast imaging (MBI) is a functional test used for supplemental screening of women with mammographically dense breasts. Additionally, MBI depicts variable levels of background parenchymal uptake (BPU) within nonmalignant, dense fibroglandular tissue. We investigated whether BPU is a risk factor for breast cancer. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of 3027 eligible women who had undergone MBI between February 2004 and February 2014. Sixty-two incident breast cancer cases were identified. A total of 179 controls were matched on age, menopausal status, and MBI year. Two radiologists blinded to case status independently assessed BPU as one of four categories: photopenic, minimal to mild, moderate, or marked. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the associations (OR) of BPU categories (moderate or marked vs. minimal to mild or photopenic) and breast cancer risk, adjusted for other risk factors. The median age was 60.2 years (range 38-86 years) for cases vs. 60.2 years (range 38-88 years) for controls (p = 0.88). Women with moderate or marked BPU had a 3.4-fold (95 % CI 1.6-7.3) and 4.8-fold (95 % CI 2.1-10.8) increased risk of breast cancer, respectively, compared with women with photopenic or minimal to mild BPU, for two radiologists. The results were similar after adjustment for BI-RADS density (OR 3.3 [95 % CI 1.6-7.2] and OR 4.6 [95 % CI 2.1-10.5]) or postmenopausal hormone use (OR 3.6 [95 % CI 1.7-7.7] and OR 5.0 [95 % CI 2.2-11.4]). The association of BPU with breast cancer remained in analyses limited to postmenopausal women only (OR 3.8 [95 % CI 1.5-9.3] and OR 4.1 [95 % CI 1.6-10.2]) and invasive breast cancer cases only (OR 3.6 [95 % CI 1.5-8.8] and OR 4.4 [95 % CI 1.7-11.1]). Variable BPU was observed among women with similar mammographic density; the distribution of BPU categories differed across density categories (p factor for breast cancer. Among women with dense breasts, who comprise

  7. Molecular photonic imaging of cancer using light-emitting e. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyo; Min, Jung Joon; Moon, Sung Min; Kim, Hyun Ju; Hong, Yeong Jin; Choy, Hyon E.; Bom, Hee Seung; Jeong, Jae Ho; Cho, Kyoung Oh

    2005-01-01

    Cancer research has long sought a magic bullet that would selectively target and destroy malignant cells. In this study, we exploited that E. coli injected into tumor-bearing mice selectively target and proliferate in solid tumors by employing optical imaging technique. Lux operon or GFP has been cloned into pUC19 plasmid to engineer pUC19Lux or pUC19gfp which was transformed into varying kinds of wild type (MG1655) or mutant E.coli strains. For stable expression, lux operon was cloned with asd (aspartate β-semialdehyde dehydrogenase) gene and transformed into asd defective E. coli (MG1655asd-/asd+lux). These bacteria were i.v. injected into tumor mice or directly into central necrosis of tumor. The imaging signal from wild type E.coli was detected initially at liver (20min), then migrated to and shine in the tumor mass until 2 weeks of injection which was consistently observed in immuno-defective (nude) and -competent (Balb/c) mice. Imaging signal of stbaly transformed strain (MG1655asd-/asd+lux) was stronger and longer-lasting than that of transiently transformed strain (MG1655lux). Flagella defective E. coli strain failed to reach tumor loci. Only a few amounts of stress regulatory defective E. coli strain arrived at but couldn't survive at the tumor loci. E. coli colonies expressing GFP was mostly observed at the border of central necrosis and peripheral proliferative areas in immunofluorescence studies. Directly injected MG1655ad-/asd+lux was transiently observed at central necrosis followed by spreading to the peripheral tumor mass which was consistent with the finding by tail vein injection. We successfully engineered E. coli strain stably expressing lux reporter gene. E. coli strongly targeted solid tumor regardless of host immune status. Our results support that the targeting of tumor by E.coli is an active process and would be applied as a delivery vehicle of varying imaging markers or therapeutic molecules

  8. Molecular imaging II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmler, Wolfhard; Schwaiger, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this textbook of molecular imaging is to provide an up to date review of this rapidly growing field and to discuss basic methodological aspects necessary for the interpretation of experimental and clinical results. Emphasis is placed on the interplay of imaging technology and probe development, since the physical properties of the imaging approach need to be closely linked with the biologic application of the probe (i.e. nanoparticles and microbubbles). Various chemical strategies are discussed and related to the biologic applications. Reporter-gene imaging is being addressed not only in experimental protocols, but also first clinical applications are discussed. Finally, strategies of imaging to characterize apoptosis and angiogenesis are described and discussed in the context of possible clinical translation. (orig.)

  9. Molecular imaging in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagannathan, N.R.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging (MI) is a diverse technology that revolutionized preclinical, clinical and drug-discovery research. It integrates biology and medicine, and the technique presents a unique opportunity to examine living systems in vivo as a dynamic biological system. It is a hybrid technology that combines PET, SPECT, ultrasound, optical imaging and MR. Several MI methodologies are developed to examine the integrative functions of molecules, cells, organ systems and whole organisms. MI is superior to conventional diagnostic techniques in allowing better staging as well as to monitor the response of cancer/tumour to treatment. In addition, it helps visualization of specific molecular targets or pathways and cells in living systems and ultimately in the clinic. (author)

  10. Department of Defense Era of Hope Scholar Award Nanotechnology-Enabled Optical Molecular Imaging of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    detection, and management of breast cancer today. A variety of imaging methods including screening and diagnostic x- ray mammography and resonance...profile of a tumor. In addition, techniques such as x- ray imaging and MRI are not able to detect small early cancers or pre-cancerous breast...227 (2007). 18. S. Oldenburg , J. Jackson, S. Westcott, and N. Halas, “Infrared extinction properties of gold nanoshells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2897

  11. Computational methods for molecular imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Kuangyu; Li, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains original submissions on the development and application of molecular imaging computing. The editors invited authors to submit high-quality contributions on a wide range of topics including, but not limited to: • Image Synthesis & Reconstruction of Emission Tomography (PET, SPECT) and other Molecular Imaging Modalities • Molecular Imaging Enhancement • Data Analysis of Clinical & Pre-clinical Molecular Imaging • Multi-Modal Image Processing (PET/CT, PET/MR, SPECT/CT, etc.) • Machine Learning and Data Mining in Molecular Imaging. Molecular imaging is an evolving clinical and research discipline enabling the visualization, characterization and quantification of biological processes taking place at the cellular and subcellular levels within intact living subjects. Computational methods play an important role in the development of molecular imaging, from image synthesis to data analysis and from clinical diagnosis to therapy individualization. This work will bring readers fro...

  12. Prostate Cancer Molecular Imaging Standardized Evaluation (PROMISE): Proposed miTNM Classification for the Interpretation of PSMA-Ligand PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiber, Matthias; Herrmann, Ken; Calais, Jeremie; Hadaschik, Boris; Giesel, Frederik L; Hartenbach, Markus; Hope, Thomas; Reiter, Robert; Maurer, Tobias; Weber, Wolfgang A; Fendler, Wolfgang P

    2018-03-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-ligand PET imaging provides unprecedented accuracy for whole-body staging of prostate cancer. As PSMA-ligand PET/CT is increasingly adopted in clinical trials and routine practice worldwide, a unified language for image reporting is urgently needed. We propose a molecular imaging TNM system (miTNM, version 1.0) as a standardized reporting framework for PSMA-ligand PET/CT or PET/MRI. miTNM is designed to organize findings in comprehensible categories to promote the exchange of information among physicians and institutions. Additionally, flowcharts integrating findings of PSMA-ligand PET and morphologic imaging have been designed to guide image interpretation. Specific applications, such as assessment of prognosis or impact on management, should be evaluated in future trials. miTNM is a living framework that evolves with clinical experience and scientific data. © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  13. Prostate-specific membrane antigen targeted protein contrast agents for molecular imaging of prostate cancer by MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Fan; Salarian, Mani; Xue, Shenghui; Qiao, Jingjuan; Feng, Jie; Tan, Shanshan; Patel, Anvi; Li, Xin; Mamouni, Kenza; Hekmatyar, Khan; Zou, Juan; Wu, Daqing; Yang, Jenny J.

    2016-06-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is one of the most specific cell surface markers for prostate cancer diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, achieving molecular imaging using non-invasive MRI with high resolution has yet to be achieved due to the lack of contrast agents with significantly improved relaxivity for sensitivity, targeting capabilities and metal selectivity. We have previously reported our creation of a novel class of protein Gd3+ contrast agents, ProCA32, which displayed significantly improved relaxivity while exhibiting strong Gd3+ binding selectivity over physiological metal ions. In this study, we report our effort in further developing biomarker-targeted protein MRI contrast agents for molecular imaging of PSMA. Among three PSMA targeted contrast agents engineered with addition of different molecular recognition sequences, ProCA32.PSMA exhibits a binding affinity of 1.1 +/- 0.1 μM for PSMA while the metal binding affinity is maintained at 0.9 +/- 0.1 × 10-22 M. In addition, ProCA32.PSMA exhibits r1 of 27.6 mM-1 s-1 and r2 of 37.9 mM-1 s-1 per Gd (55.2 and 75.8 mM-1 s-1 per molecule r1 and r2, respectively) at 1.4 T. At 7 T, ProCA32.PSMA also has r2 of 94.0 mM-1 s-1 per Gd (188.0 mM-1 s-1 per molecule) and r1 of 18.6 mM-1 s-1 per Gd (37.2 mM-1 s-1 per molecule). This contrast capability enables the first MRI enhancement dependent on PSMA expression levels in tumor bearing mice using both T1 and T2-weighted MRI at 7 T. Further development of these PSMA-targeted contrast agents are expected to be used for the precision imaging of prostate cancer at an early stage and to monitor disease progression and staging, as well as determine the effect of therapeutic treatment by non-invasive evaluation of the PSMA level using MRI.Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is one of the most specific cell surface markers for prostate cancer diagnosis and targeted treatment. However, achieving molecular imaging using non-invasive MRI with high

  14. Molecular MR Imaging of CD44 in Breast Cancer with Hyaluronan-Based Contrast Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    linear polysaccharide composed of alternating (β-1,4)-linked d- glucuronic acid and (β-1,3) N-acetyl-d-glucosamine residues with molecular weights as...enzymatic reactions in-vivo that generate polysaccharides of decreasing sizes, which in principle may facilitate the timely excretion of HA based...14CO2) or in urine (as low molecular weight HA or monosaccharide fragments). The same authors also reported that the total amount of excretion into

  15. Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL) is adjacent-a nd has access-to the Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences clinical imaging facilities. MBIL...

  16. Anatomic, functional and molecular imaging in lung cancer precision radiation therapy: treatment response assessment and radiation therapy personalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, Sarah; Schimek-Jasch, Tanja; Li, X. Allen; Nestle, Ursula; Kong, Feng-Ming (Spring)

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews key imaging modalities for lung cancer patients treated with radiation therapy (RT) and considers their actual or potential contributions to critical decision-making. An international group of researchers with expertise in imaging in lung cancer patients treated with RT considered the relevant literature on modalities, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). These perspectives were coordinated to summarize the current status of imaging in lung cancer and flag developments with future implications. Although there are no useful randomized trials of different imaging modalities in lung cancer, multiple prospective studies indicate that management decisions are frequently impacted by the use of complementary imaging modalities, leading both to more appropriate treatments and better outcomes. This is especially true of 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT which is widely accepted to be the standard imaging modality for staging of lung cancer patients, for selection for potentially curative RT and for treatment planning. PET is also more accurate than CT for predicting survival after RT. PET imaging during RT is also correlated with survival and makes response-adapted therapies possible. PET tracers other than FDG have potential for imaging important biological process in tumors, including hypoxia and proliferation. MRI has superior accuracy in soft tissue imaging and the MRI Linac is a rapidly developing technology with great potential for online monitoring and modification of treatment. The role of imaging in RT-treated lung cancer patients is evolving rapidly and will allow increasing personalization of therapy according to the biology of both the tumor and dose limiting normal tissues. PMID:29218270

  17. Nuclear medicine imaging instrumentations for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Hyun; Song, Tae Yong; Choi, Yong

    2004-01-01

    Small animal models are extensively utilized in the study of biomedical sciences. Current animal experiments and analysis are largely restricted to in vitro measurements and need to sacrifice animals to perform tissue or molecular analysis. This prevents researchers from observing in vivo the natural evolution of the process under study. Imaging techniques can provide repeatedly in vivo anatomic and molecular information noninvasively. Small animal imaging systems have been developed to assess biological process in experimental animals and increasingly employed in the field of molecular imaging studies. This review outlines the current developments in nuclear medicine imaging instrumentations including fused multi-modality imaging systems for small animal imaging

  18. Diffusion-weighted imaging features of breast tumours and the surrounding stroma reflect intrinsic heterogeneous characteristics of molecular subtypes in breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Ming

    2017-12-16

    Breast cancer heterogeneity is the main obstacle preventing the identification of patients with breast cancer with poor prognoses and treatment responses; however, such heterogeneity has not been well characterized. The purpose of this retrospective study was to reveal heterogeneous patterns in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) signals in tumours and the surrounding stroma to predict molecular subtypes of breast cancer. A dataset of 126 patients with breast cancer, who underwent preoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 3.0-T image system, was collected. Breast images were segmented into regions comprising the tumour and surrounding stromal shells in which features that reflect heterogeneous ADC signal distribution were extracted. For each region, imaging features were computed, including the mean, minimum, variance, interquartile range (IQR), range, skewness, kurtosis and entropy of ADC values. Univariate and stepwise multivariate logistic regression modelling was performed to identify the magnetic resonance imaging features that optimally discriminate luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-enriched and basal-like molecular subtypes. The performance of the predictive models was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the skewness in the tumour boundary achieved an AUC of 0.718 for discrimination between luminal A and non-luminal A tumours, whereas the IQR of the ADC value in the tumour boundary had an AUC of 0.703 for classification of the HER2-enriched subtype. Imaging features in the tumour boundary and the proximal peritumoral stroma corresponded to a higher overall prediction performance than those in other regions. A multivariate logistic regression model combining features in all the regions achieved an overall AUC of 0.800 for the classification of the four tumour subtypes. These findings suggest that features in the tumour

  19. Diffusion-weighted imaging features of breast tumours and the surrounding stroma reflect intrinsic heterogeneous characteristics of molecular subtypes in breast cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Ming; He, Ting; Zhang, Peng; Cheng, Hu; Zhang, Juan; Gao, Xin; Li, Lihua

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer heterogeneity is the main obstacle preventing the identification of patients with breast cancer with poor prognoses and treatment responses; however, such heterogeneity has not been well characterized. The purpose of this retrospective study was to reveal heterogeneous patterns in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) signals in tumours and the surrounding stroma to predict molecular subtypes of breast cancer. A dataset of 126 patients with breast cancer, who underwent preoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on a 3.0-T image system, was collected. Breast images were segmented into regions comprising the tumour and surrounding stromal shells in which features that reflect heterogeneous ADC signal distribution were extracted. For each region, imaging features were computed, including the mean, minimum, variance, interquartile range (IQR), range, skewness, kurtosis and entropy of ADC values. Univariate and stepwise multivariate logistic regression modelling was performed to identify the magnetic resonance imaging features that optimally discriminate luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-enriched and basal-like molecular subtypes. The performance of the predictive models was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the skewness in the tumour boundary achieved an AUC of 0.718 for discrimination between luminal A and non-luminal A tumours, whereas the IQR of the ADC value in the tumour boundary had an AUC of 0.703 for classification of the HER2-enriched subtype. Imaging features in the tumour boundary and the proximal peritumoral stroma corresponded to a higher overall prediction performance than those in other regions. A multivariate logistic regression model combining features in all the regions achieved an overall AUC of 0.800 for the classification of the four tumour subtypes. These findings suggest that features in the tumour

  20. Molecular nuclear cardiac imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Paeng, Jin Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Molecular nuclear cardiac imaging has included Tc-99m Annexin imaging to visualize myocardial apoptosis, but is now usually associated with gene therapy and cell-based therapy. Cardiac gene therapy was not successful so far but cardiac reporter gene imaging was made possible using HSV-TK (herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase) and F-18 FHBG (fluoro-hydroxymethylbutyl guanine) or I-124 FIAU (fluoro-deoxyiodo-arabino-furanosyluracil). Gene delivery was performed by needle injection with or without catheter guidance. TK expression did not last longer than 2 weeks in myocardium. Cell-based therapy of ischemic heart or failing heart looks promising, but biodistribution and differentiation of transplanted cells are not known. Reporter genes can be transfected to the stem/progenitor cells and cells containing these genes can be transplanted to the recipients using catheter-based purging or injection. Repeated imaging should be available and if promoter are varied to let express reporter transgenes, cellular (trans)differentiation can be studied. NIS (sodium iodide symporter) or D2R receptor genes are promising in this aspect.

  1. Molecular nuclear cardiac imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Paeng, Jin Chul

    2004-01-01

    Molecular nuclear cardiac imaging has included Tc-99m Annexin imaging to visualize myocardial apoptosis, but is now usually associated with gene therapy and cell-based therapy. Cardiac gene therapy was not successful so far but cardiac reporter gene imaging was made possible using HSV-TK (herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase) and F-18 FHBG (fluoro-hydroxymethylbutyl guanine) or I-124 FIAU (fluoro-deoxyiodo-arabino-furanosyluracil). Gene delivery was performed by needle injection with or without catheter guidance. TK expression did not last longer than 2 weeks in myocardium. Cell-based therapy of ischemic heart or failing heart looks promising, but biodistribution and differentiation of transplanted cells are not known. Reporter genes can be transfected to the stem/progenitor cells and cells containing these genes can be transplanted to the recipients using catheter-based purging or injection. Repeated imaging should be available and if promoter are varied to let express reporter transgenes, cellular (trans)differentiation can be studied. NIS (sodium iodide symporter) or D2R receptor genes are promising in this aspect

  2. Molecular imaging of oncolytic viral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Haddad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses have made their mark on the cancer world as a potential therapeutic option, with the possible advantages of reduced side effects and strengthened treatment efficacy due to higher tumor selectivity. Results have been so promising, that oncolytic viral treatments have now been approved for clinical trials in several countries. However, clinical studies may benefit from the ability to noninvasively and serially identify sites of viral targeting via molecular imaging in order to provide safety, efficacy, and toxicity information. Furthermore, molecular imaging of oncolytic viral therapy may provide a more sensitive and specific diagnostic technique to detect tumor origin and, more importantly, presence of metastases. Several strategies have been investigated for molecular imaging of viral replication broadly categorized into optical and deep tissue imaging, utilizing several reporter genes encoding for fluorescence proteins, conditional enzymes, and membrane protein and transporters. Various imaging methods facilitate molecular imaging, including computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission CT, gamma-scintigraphy, and photoacoustic imaging. In addition, several molecular probes are used for medical imaging, which act as targeting moieties or signaling agents. This review will explore the preclinical and clinical use of in vivo molecular imaging of replication-competent oncolytic viral therapy.

  3. Molecular biology of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoral, Miroslav; Minarikova, Petra; Zavada, Filip; Salek, Cyril; Minarik, Marek

    2011-06-28

    In spite of continuous research efforts directed at early detection and treatment of pancreatic cancer, the outlook for patients affected by the disease remains dismal. With most cases still being diagnosed at advanced stages, no improvement in survival prognosis is achieved with current diagnostic imaging approaches. In the absence of a dominant precancerous condition, several risk factors have been identified including family history, chronic pancreatitis, smoking, diabetes mellitus, as well as certain genetic disorders such as hereditary pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, familial atypical multiple mole melanoma, and Peutz-Jeghers and Lynch syndromes. Most pancreatic carcinomas, however, remain sporadic. Current progress in experimental molecular techniques has enabled detailed understanding of the molecular processes of pancreatic cancer development. According to the latest information, malignant pancreatic transformation involves multiple oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes that are involved in a variety of signaling pathways. The most characteristic aberrations (somatic point mutations and allelic losses) affect oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes within RAS, AKT and Wnt signaling, and have a key role in transcription and proliferation, as well as systems that regulate the cell cycle (SMAD/DPC, CDKN2A/p16) and apoptosis (TP53). Understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms should promote development of new methodology for early diagnosis and facilitate improvement in current approaches for pancreatic cancer treatment.

  4. Comparison of Tc-99m maraciclatide and Tc-99m sestamibi molecular breast imaging in patients with suspected breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Michael K; Morrow, Melissa M B; Hunt, Katie N; Boughey, Judy C; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Conners, Amy Lynn; Rhodes, Deborah J; Hruska, Carrie B

    2017-12-01

    Molecular breast imaging (MBI) performed with 99m Tc sestamibi has been shown to be a valuable technique for the detection of breast cancer. Alternative radiotracers such as 99m Tc maraciclatide may offer improved uptake in breast lesions. The purpose of this study was to compare relative performance of 99m Tc sestamibi and 99m Tc maraciclatide in patients with suspected breast cancer, using a high-resolution dedicated gamma camera for MBI. Women with breast lesions suspicious for malignancy were recruited to undergo two MBI examinations-one with 99m Tc sestamibi and one with 99m Tc maraciclatide. A radiologist interpreted MBI studies in a randomized, blinded fashion to assign an assessment score (1-5) and measured lesion size. Lesion-to-background (L/B) ratio was measured with region-of-interest analysis. Among 39 analyzable patients, 21 malignant tumors were identified in 21 patients. Eighteen of 21 tumors (86%) were seen on 99m Tc sestamibi MBI and 19 of 21 (90%) were seen on 99m Tc maraciclatide MBI (p = 1). Tumor extent measured with both radiopharmaceuticals correlated strongly with pathologic size ( 99m Tc sestamibi, r = 0.84; 99m Tc maraciclatide, r = 0.81). The L/B ratio in detected breast cancers was similar for the two radiopharmaceuticals: 1.55 ± 0.36 (mean ± S.D.) for 99m Tc sestamibi and 1.62 ± 0.37 (mean ± S.D.) for 99m Tc maraciclatide (p = 0.53). No correlation was found between the L/B ratio and molecular subtype for 99m Tc sestamibi (r s  = 0.12, p = 0.63) or 99m Tc maraciclatide (r s  = -0.12, p = 0.64). Of 20 benign lesions, 10 (50%) were seen on 99m Tc sestamibi and 9 of 20 (45%) were seen on 99m Tc maraciclatide images (p = 0.1). The average L/B ratio for benign lesions was 1.34 ±0.40 (mean ±S.D.) for 99m Tc sestamibi and 1.41 ±0.52 (mean ±S.D.) for 99m Tc maraciclatide (p = 0.75). Overall diagnostic performance was similar for both radiopharmaceuticals. AUC from ROC

  5. Molecular Imaging in Breast Cancer: From Whole-Body PET/CT to Dedicated Breast PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Koolen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET, with or without integrated computed tomography (CT, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG is based on the principle of elevated glucose metabolism in malignant tumors, and its use in breast cancer patients is frequently being investigated. It has been shown useful for classification, staging, and response monitoring, both in primary and recurrent disease. However, because of the partial volume effect and limited resolution of most whole-body PET scanners, sensitivity for the visualization of small tumors is generally low. To improve the detection and quantification of primary breast tumors with FDG PET, several dedicated breast PET devices have been developed. In this nonsystematic review, we shortly summarize the value of whole-body PET/CT in breast cancer and provide an overview of currently available dedicated breast PETs.

  6. Multifunctional dendrimer-based nanoparticles for in vivo MR/CT dual-modal molecular imaging of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kangan Li,1,4,5,* Shihui Wen,2,* Andrew C Larson,4,5 Mingwu Shen,2 Zhuoli Zhang,4,5 Qian Chen,3 Xiangyang Shi,2,3 Guixiang Zhang1 1Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 4Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA; 5Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Development of dual-mode or multi-mode imaging contrast agents is important for accurate and self-confirmatory diagnosis of cancer. We report a new multifunctional, dendrimer-based gold nanoparticle (AuNP as a dual-modality contrast agent for magnetic resonance (MR/computed tomography (CT imaging of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, amine-terminated generation 5 poly(amidoamine dendrimers modified with gadolinium chelate (DOTA-NHS and polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether were used as templates to synthesize AuNPs, followed by Gd(III chelation and acetylation of the remaining dendrimer terminal amine groups; multifunctional dendrimer-entrapped AuNPs (Gd-Au DENPs were formed. The formed Gd-Au DENPs were used for both in vitro and in vivo MR/CT imaging of human MCF-7 cancer cells. Both MR and CT images demonstrate that MCF-7 cells and the xenograft tumor model can be effectively imaged. The Gd-Au DENPs uptake, mainly in the cell cytoplasm, was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The cell cytotoxicity assay, cell morphology observation, and flow cytometry show that the developed Gd-Au DENPs have good biocompatibility in the given concentration range. Our results

  7. Role of PET/CT for precision medicine in lung cancer: perspective of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Bennett S

    2017-12-01

    This article discusses the role of PET/CT in contributing to precision medicine in lung cancer, and provides the perspective of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) on this process. The mission and vision of SNMMI are listed, along with the guidance provided by SNMMI to promote best practice in precision medicine. Basic principles of PET/CT are presented. An overview of the use of PET/CT imaging in lung cancer is discussed. In lung cancer patients, PET/CT is vitally important for optimal patient management. PET/CT is essential in determining staging and re-staging of disease, detecting recurrent or residual disease, evaluating response to therapy, and providing prognostic information. PET/CT is also critically important in radiation therapy planning by determining the extent of active disease, including an assessment of functional tumor volume. The current approach in tumor imaging is a significant advance over conventional imaging. However, recent advances suggest that therapeutic response criteria in the near future will be based on metabolic characteristics and will include the evaluation of biologic characteristics of tumors to further enhance the effectiveness of precision medicine in lung cancer, producing improved patient outcomes with less morbidity.

  8. Fluorescence background subtraction technique for hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography/x-ray computed tomography imaging of a mouse model of early stage lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Angelique; Ermolayev, Vladimir; Deliolanis, Nikolaos C; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2013-05-01

    The ability to visualize early stage lung cancer is important in the study of biomarkers and targeting agents that could lead to earlier diagnosis. The recent development of hybrid free-space 360-deg fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and x-ray computed tomography (XCT) imaging yields a superior optical imaging modality for three-dimensional small animal fluorescence imaging over stand-alone optical systems. Imaging accuracy was improved by using XCT information in the fluorescence reconstruction method. Despite this progress, the detection sensitivity of targeted fluorescence agents remains limited by nonspecific background accumulation of the fluorochrome employed, which complicates early detection of murine cancers. Therefore we examine whether x-ray CT information and bulk fluorescence detection can be combined to increase detection sensitivity. Correspondingly, we research the performance of a data-driven fluorescence background estimator employed for subtraction of background fluorescence from acquisition data. Using mice containing known fluorochromes ex vivo, we demonstrate the reduction of background signals from reconstructed images and sensitivity improvements. Finally, by applying the method to in vivo data from K-ras transgenic mice developing lung cancer, we find small tumors at an early stage compared with reconstructions performed using raw data. We conclude with the benefits of employing fluorescence subtraction in hybrid FMT-XCT for early detection studies.

  9. Classification of molecular structure images by using ANN, RF, LBP, HOG, and size reduction methods for early stomach cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytaç Korkmaz, Sevcan; Binol, Hamidullah

    2018-03-01

    Patients who die from stomach cancer are still present. Early diagnosis is crucial in reducing the mortality rate of cancer patients. Therefore, computer aided methods have been developed for early detection in this article. Stomach cancer images were obtained from Fırat University Medical Faculty Pathology Department. The Local Binary Patterns (LBP) and Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) features of these images are calculated. At the same time, Sammon mapping, Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (SNE), Isomap, Classical multidimensional scaling (MDS), Local Linear Embedding (LLE), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE), and Laplacian Eigenmaps methods are used for dimensional the reduction of the features. The high dimension of these features has been reduced to lower dimensions using dimensional reduction methods. Artificial neural networks (ANN) and Random Forest (RF) classifiers were used to classify stomach cancer images with these new lower feature sizes. New medical systems have developed to measure the effects of these dimensions by obtaining features in different dimensional with dimensional reduction methods. When all the methods developed are compared, it has been found that the best accuracy results are obtained with LBP_MDS_ANN and LBP_LLE_ANN methods.

  10. Cardiovascular molecular imaging of apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, S.L.; Reutelingsperger, C.P.M.; Corsten, M.F.; Hofstra, L.; Narula, J.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging strives to visualise processes at the molecular and cellular level in vivo. Understanding these processes supports diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on an individual basis and thereby makes personalised medicine possible. Apoptosis is a well-organised mode of cell suicide that plays a role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Apoptosis is associated with loss of cardiomyocytes following myocardial infarction, atherosclerotic plaque instability, congestive heart failure and allograft rejection of the transplanted heart. Thus, apoptosis constitutes an attractive target for molecular imaging of CVD. Our current knowledge about the molecular players and mechanisms underlying apoptosis offers a rich palette of potential molecular targets for molecular imaging. However, only a few have been successfully developed so far. This review highlights aspects of the molecular machinery and biochemistry of apoptosis relevant to the development of molecular imaging probes. It surveys the role of apoptosis in four major areas of CVD and portrays the importance and future perspectives of apoptosis imaging. The annexin A5 imaging protocol is emphasised since it is the most advanced protocol to measure apoptosis in both preclinical and clinical studies. (orig.)

  11. Cardiovascular molecular imaging of apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolters, S.L.; Reutelingsperger, C.P.M. [Maastricht University, Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Corsten, M.F.; Hofstra, L. [Maastricht University, Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, Maastricht (Netherlands); Narula, J. [University of California Irvine, Department of Cardiology, Irvine (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Molecular imaging strives to visualise processes at the molecular and cellular level in vivo. Understanding these processes supports diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy on an individual basis and thereby makes personalised medicine possible. Apoptosis is a well-organised mode of cell suicide that plays a role in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Apoptosis is associated with loss of cardiomyocytes following myocardial infarction, atherosclerotic plaque instability, congestive heart failure and allograft rejection of the transplanted heart. Thus, apoptosis constitutes an attractive target for molecular imaging of CVD. Our current knowledge about the molecular players and mechanisms underlying apoptosis offers a rich palette of potential molecular targets for molecular imaging. However, only a few have been successfully developed so far. This review highlights aspects of the molecular machinery and biochemistry of apoptosis relevant to the development of molecular imaging probes. It surveys the role of apoptosis in four major areas of CVD and portrays the importance and future perspectives of apoptosis imaging. The annexin A5 imaging protocol is emphasised since it is the most advanced protocol to measure apoptosis in both preclinical and clinical studies. (orig.)

  12. Molecular photoacoustic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frogh Jafarian Dehkordi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hybrid imaging modalities which simultaneously benefit from capabilities of combined modalities provides an opportunity to modify quality of the images which can be obtained by each of the combined imaging systems. One of the imaging modalities, emerged in medical research area as a hybrid of ultrasound imaging and optical imaging, is photoacoustic imaging which apply ultrasound wave generated by tissue, after receiving laser pulse, to produce medical images. Materials and Methods: In this review, using keywords such as photoacoustic, optoacoustic, laser-ultrasound, thermoacoustic at databases such as PubMed and ISI, studies performed in the field of photoacoustic and related findings were evaluated. Results: Photoacoustic imaging, acquiring images with high contrast and desired resolution, provides an opportunity to perform physiologic and anatomic studies. Because this technique does not use ionizing radiation, it is not restricted by the limitation of the ionizing-based imaging systems therefore it can be used noninvasively to make images from cell, vessels, whole body imaging of the animal and distinguish tumor from normal tissue. Conclusion: Photoacoustic imaging is a new method in preclinical researches which can be used in various physiologic and anatomic studies. This method, because of application of non-ionizing radiation, may resolve limitation of radiation based method in diagnostic assessments.

  13. Molecular pathology of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazares, L H; Drake, R R; Esquela-Kirscher, A; Lance, R S; Semmes, O J; Troyer, D A

    2010-01-01

    This chapter includes discussion of the molecular pathology of tissue, blood, urine, and expressed prostatic secretions. Because we are unable to reliably image the disease in vivo, a 12 core method that oversamples the peripheral zone is widely used. This generates large numbers of cores that need to be carefully processed and sampled. In spite of the large number of tissue cores, the amount of tumor available for study is often quite limited. This is a particular challenge for research, as new biomarker assays will need to preserve tissue architecture intact for histopathology. Methods of processing and reporting pathology are discussed. With the exception of ductal variants, recognized subtypes of prostate cancer are largely confined to research applications, and most prostate cancers are acinar. Biomarker discovery in urine and expressed prostatic secretions would be useful since these are readily obtained and are proximate fluids. The well-known challenges of biomarker discovery in blood and urine are referenced and discussed. Mediators of carcinogenesis can serve as biomarkers as exemplified by mutations in PTEN and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion. The use of proteomics in biomarker discovery with an emphasis on imaging mass spectroscopy of tissues is discussed. Small RNAs are of great interest, however, their usefulness as biomarkers in clinical decision making remains the subject of ongoing research. The chapter concludes with an overview of blood biomarkers such as circulating nucleic acids and tumor cells and bound/free isoforms of prostate specific antigen (PSA).

  14. High sensitivity optical molecular imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yu; Yuan, Gao; Huang, Chao; Jiang, Shixin; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Kun; Tian, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Optical Molecular Imaging (OMI) has the advantages of high sensitivity, low cost and ease of use. By labeling the regions of interest with fluorescent or bioluminescence probes, OMI can noninvasively obtain the distribution of the probes in vivo, which play the key role in cancer research, pharmacokinetics and other biological studies. In preclinical and clinical application, the image depth, resolution and sensitivity are the key factors for researchers to use OMI. In this paper, we report a high sensitivity optical molecular imaging system developed by our group, which can improve the imaging depth in phantom to nearly 5cm, high resolution at 2cm depth, and high image sensitivity. To validate the performance of the system, special designed phantom experiments and weak light detection experiment were implemented. The results shows that cooperated with high performance electron-multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera, precision design of light path system and high efficient image techniques, our OMI system can simultaneously collect the light-emitted signals generated by fluorescence molecular imaging, bioluminescence imaging, Cherenkov luminance and other optical imaging modality, and observe the internal distribution of light-emitting agents fast and accurately.

  15. Molecular biology of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, A; Rodríguez Braun, E; Pérez Fidalgo, A; Chirivella González, I

    2007-04-01

    Despite its decreasing incidence overall, gastric cancer is still a challenging disease. Therapy is based mainly upon surgical resection when the tumour remains localised in the stomach. Conventional chemotherapy may play a role in treating micrometastatic disease and is effective as palliative therapy for recurrent or advanced disease. However, the knowledge of molecular pathways implicated in gastric cancer pathogenesis is still in its infancy and the contribution of molecular biology to the development of new targeted therapies in gastric cancer is far behind other more common cancers such as breast, colon or lung. This review will focus first on the difference of two well defined types of gastric cancer: intestinal and diffuse. A discussion of the cell of origin of gastric cancer with some intriguing data implicating bone marrow derived cells will follow, and a comprehensive review of different genetic alterations detected in gastric cancer, underlining those that may have clinical, therapeutic or prognostic implications.

  16. Cancer imaging with radiolabeled antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldenberg, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book presents a perspective of the use of antibodies to target diagnostic isotopes to tumors. Antibodies with reasonable specificity can be developed against almost any substance. If selective targeting to cancer cells can be achieved, the prospects for a selective therapy are equally intriguing. But the development of cancer detection, or imaging, with radiolabeled antibodies has depended upon advances in a number of different areas, including cancer immunology and immunochemistry for identifying suitable antigen targets and antibodies to these targets, tumor biology for model systems, radiochemistry for he attachment of radionuclides to antibodies, molecular biology for reengineering the antibodies for safer and more effective use in humans, and nuclear medicine for providing the best imaging protocols and instrumentation to detect minute amounts of elevated radioactivity against a background of considerable noise. Accordingly, this book has been organized to address the advances that are being made in many of these areas

  17. A Preclinical Evaluation of Antrodia camphorata Alcohol Extracts in the Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Using Non-Invasive Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Feng Chiou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to provide a platform for the pre-clinical evaluation of anti-cancer properties of a unique CAM (complementary and alternative medicine agent, Antrodia camphorata alcohol extract (ACAE, in a mouse model with the advantageous non-invasive in vivo bioluminescence molecular imaging technology. In vitro analyses on the proliferation, migration/invasion, cell cycle and apoptosis were performed on ACAE-treated non-small cell lung cancer cells, H441GL and control CGL1 cells. In vivo, immune-deficient mice were inoculated subcutaneously with H441GL followed by oral gavages of ACAE. The effect of ACAE on tumor progression was monitored by non-invasive bioluminescence imaging. The proliferation and migration/invasion of H441GL cells were inhibited by ACAE in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, ACAE induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis in H441GL cells as shown by flow cytometric analysis, Annexin-V immunoflourescence and DNA fragmentation. In vivo bioluminescence imaging revealed that tumorigenesis was significantly retarded by oral treatment of ACAE in a dose-dependent fashion. Based on our experimental data, ACAE contains anti-cancer properties and could be considered as a potential CAM agent in future clinical evaluation.

  18. Imaging in oral cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, Supreeta; Chaukar, Devendra; Pai, Prathamesh

    2012-01-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist

  19. Imaging in cervical cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Follen, M.; Levenback, C.F.; Iyer, R.B.; Grigsby, P.W.; Boss, E.A.; Delpassand, E.S.; Fornage, B.D.; Fishman, E.K.

    2003-01-01

    Cervical cancer traditionally has been staged clinically. Advances in imaging could improve the staging of cervical cancer by facilitating the detection of lymph node metastases and micrometastases in distant organs. Such progress could lead to improvements in treatment selection and therefore

  20. Breast cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, M.; Villena, C.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in female breast imaging have substantially influenced the diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of breast cancer in the past few years. Mammography using conventional or digital technique is considered the gold standard for the early detection of breast cancer. Other modalities such as breast ultrasound and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast play an important role in diagnostic imaging, staging, and follow-up of breast cancer. Percutaneous needle biopsy is a faster, less invasive, and more cost-effective method than surgical biopsy for verifying the histological diagnosis. New methods such as breast tomosynthesis, contrast-enhanced mammography, and positron emission tomography promise to further improve breast imaging. Further studies are mandatory to adapt these new methods to clinical needs and to evaluate their performance in clinical practice. (orig.) [de

  1. Imaging prostate cancer: an update on positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter

    2010-01-01

    , and molecular imaging information. Developments in imaging technologies, specifically magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT), have improved the detection rate of prostate cancer. MRI has improved lesion detection and local staging. Furthermore, MRI...

  2. Molecular imaging in cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botnar, R.M.; Ebersberger, H.; Noerenberg, D.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized and developing countries. In clinical practice, the in-vivo identification of atherosclerotic lesions, which can lead to complications such as heart attack or stroke, remains difficult. Imaging techniques provide the reference standard for the detection of clinically significant atherosclerotic changes in the coronary and carotid arteries. The assessment of the luminal narrowing is feasible, while the differentiation of stable and potentially unstable or vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is currently not possible using non-invasive imaging. With high spatial resolution and high soft tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a suitable method for the evaluation of the thin arterial wall. In clinical practice, native MRI of the vessel wall already allows the differentiation and characterization of components of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries and the aorta. Additional diagnostic information can be gained by the use of non-specific MRI contrast agents. With the development of targeted molecular probes, that highlight specific molecules or cells, pathological processes can be visualized at a molecular level with high spatial resolution. In this review article, the development of pathophysiological changes leading to the development of the arterial wall are introduced and discussed. Additionally, principles of contrast enhanced imaging with non-specific contrast agents and molecular probes will be discussed and latest developments in the field of molecular imaging of the vascular wall will be introduced.

  3. Molecular imaging. Fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Covers a wide range of new theory, new techniques and new applications. Contributed by many experts in China. The editor has obtained the National Science and Technology Progress Award twice. ''Molecular Imaging: Fundamentals and Applications'' is a comprehensive monograph which describes not only the theory of the underlying algorithms and key technologies but also introduces a prototype system and its applications, bringing together theory, technology and applications. By explaining the basic concepts and principles of molecular imaging, imaging techniques, as well as research and applications in detail, the book provides both detailed theoretical background information and technical methods for researchers working in medical imaging and the life sciences. Clinical doctors and graduate students will also benefit from this book.

  4. Imaging and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    1996-01-01

    The use of imaging in evaluating patients with prostate cancer is highly dependent upon the purpose of the evaluation. Ultrasound, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, TC-99m Bone Scanning, and Positron Emission Tomography may all be utilized for imaging in prostate cancer. The utility of each of these modalities depends upon the intended purpose: for instance, screening, staging, or evaluating for progression of disease in patients with prostate cancer. Transrectal ultrasound is performed by placing a 5MHz to 7.5 MHz transducer in the rectum and imaging the prostate in the coronal and sagittal planes. Prostate cancer generally appears as an area of diminished echogenocity in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland. However, up to 24% of prostate cancers are isoechoic and cannot be well distinguished from the remainder of the peripheral zone. In addition, the incidence of malignancy in a lesion judged to be suspicious on ultrasound is between 20% and 25%. Therefore, while ultrasound is the least expensive of the three cross sectional imaging modalities, its relatively low specificity precludes it from being used as a screening examination. Investigators have also looked at the ability of ultrasound to evaluate the presence and extent of extracapsular spread of prostate cancer. The RDOG (Radiology Diagnostic Oncology Group) multi-institutional cooperative trial reported a disappointing overall accuracy of ultrasound of 58% for staging prostate cancer. The accuracy was somewhat higher 63%, for patients with advanced disease. The other cross-sectional imaging modalities available for imaging the prostate include Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Computed Tomography is useful as an 'anatomic' imaging technique to detect lymph node enlargement. It is not sensitive in detecting microscopic nodal involvement with tumor, or tumor in non-enlarged pelvic lymph nodes. The primary prostate neoplasm is generally the same attenuation as the normal

  5. Molecular imaging by cardiovascular MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, Tillmann; Lanza, Gregory M; Wickline, Samuel A

    2007-01-01

    Do molecularly-targeted contrast agents have what it takes to usher in a paradigm shift as to how we will image cardiovascular disease in the near future? Moreover, are non-invasive vulnerable plaque detection and preemptive treatments with these novel nanoparticulate agents within reach for clinical applications? In this article, we attempt to make a compelling case for how the advent of molecularly-targeted nanoparticle technology may change the way we detect atherosclerotic lesions, determine their clinical significance and even provide non-invasive treatments. Focusing on imaging with cardiovascular MR, an overview of the latest developments in this rapidly evolving field of so-called "intelligent" contrast agents that are able to interrogate the vascular wall and various complementary advanced imaging technologies are presented.

  6. 3D molecular imaging SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillen, Greg [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8371 (United States)]. E-mail: Greg.gillen@nist.gov; Fahey, Albert [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8371 (United States); Wagner, Matt [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8371 (United States); Mahoney, Christine [Surface and Microanalysis Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8371 (United States)

    2006-07-30

    Thin monolayer and bilayer films of spin cast poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), poly(lactic) acid (PLA) and PLA doped with several pharmaceuticals have been analyzed by dynamic SIMS using SF{sub 5} {sup +} polyatomic primary ion bombardment. Each of these systems exhibited minimal primary beam-induced degradation under cluster ion bombardment allowing molecular depth profiles to be obtained through the film. By combing secondary ion imaging with depth profiling, three-dimensional molecular image depth profiles have been obtained from these systems. In another approach, bevel cross-sections are cut in the samples with the SF{sub 5} {sup +} primary ion beam to produce a laterally magnified cross-section of the sample that does not contain the beam-induced damage that would be induced by conventional focussed ion beam (FIB) cross-sectioning. The bevel surface can then be examined using cluster SIMS imaging or other appropriate microanalysis technique.

  7. Molecular Imaging Challenges With PET

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2010-01-01

    The future trends in molecular imaging and associated challenges for in-vivo functional imaging are illustrated on the basis of a few examples, such as atherosclerosis vulnerable plaques imaging or stem cells tracking. A set of parameters are derived to define the specifications of a new generation of in-vivo imaging devices in terms of sensitivity, spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. The limitations of strategies used in present PET scanners are discussed and new approaches are proposed taking advantage of recent progress on materials, photodetectors and readout electronics. A special focus is put on metamaterials, as a new approach to bring more functionality to detection devices. It is shown that the route is now open towards a fully digital detector head with very high photon counting capability over a large energy range, excellent timing precision and possibility of imaging the energy deposition process.

  8. Integrin-Targeted Hybrid Fluorescence Molecular Tomography/X-ray Computed Tomography for Imaging Tumor Progression and Early Response in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrins play an important role in tumor progression, invasion and metastasis. Therefore we aimed to evaluate a preclinical imaging approach applying ανβ3 integrin targeted hybrid Fluorescence Molecular Tomography/X-ray Computed Tomography (FMT-XCT for monitoring tumor progression as well as early therapy response in a syngeneic murine Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC model. Lewis Lung Carcinomas were grown orthotopically in C57BL/6 J mice and imaged in-vivo using a ανβ3 targeted near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF probe. ανβ3-targeted FMT-XCT was able to track tumor progression. Cilengitide was able to substantially block the binding of the NIRF probe and suppress the imaging signal. Additionally mice were treated with an established chemotherapy regimen of Cisplatin and Bevacizumab or with a novel MEK inhibitor (Refametinib for 2 weeks. While μCT revealed only a moderate slowdown of tumor growth, ανβ3 dependent signal decreased significantly compared to non-treated mice already at one week post treatment. ανβ3 targeted imaging might therefore become a promising tool for assessment of early therapy response in the future.

  9. Molecular Imaging in Synthetic Biology, and Synthetic Biology in Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, Assaf A; Shapiro, Mikhail G

    2017-06-01

    Biomedical synthetic biology is an emerging field in which cells are engineered at the genetic level to carry out novel functions with relevance to biomedical and industrial applications. This approach promises new treatments, imaging tools, and diagnostics for diseases ranging from gastrointestinal inflammatory syndromes to cancer, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. As these cellular technologies undergo pre-clinical and clinical development, it is becoming essential to monitor their location and function in vivo, necessitating appropriate molecular imaging strategies, and therefore, we have created an interest group within the World Molecular Imaging Society focusing on synthetic biology and reporter gene technologies. Here, we highlight recent advances in biomedical synthetic biology, including bacterial therapy, immunotherapy, and regenerative medicine. We then discuss emerging molecular imaging approaches to facilitate in vivo applications, focusing on reporter genes for noninvasive modalities such as magnetic resonance, ultrasound, photoacoustic imaging, bioluminescence, and radionuclear imaging. Because reporter genes can be incorporated directly into engineered genetic circuits, they are particularly well suited to imaging synthetic biological constructs, and developing them provides opportunities for creative molecular and genetic engineering.

  10. Visualization of angiogenesis during cancer development in the polyoma middle T breast cancer model: molecular imaging with (R)-[11C]PAQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samén, Erik; Lu, Li; Mulder, Jan; Thorell, Jan-Olov; Damberg, Peter; Tegnebratt, Tetyana; Holmgren, Lars; Rundqvist, Helene; Stone-Elander, Sharon

    2014-03-26

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is a crucial mediator of tumour angiogenesis. High expression levels of the receptor have been correlated to poor prognosis in cancer patients. Reliable imaging biomarkers for stratifying patients for anti-angiogenic therapy could therefore be valuable for increasing treatment success rates. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and angiogenesis imaging abilities of the VEGFR2-targeting positron emission tomography (PET) tracer (R)-[11C]PAQ. (R)-[11C]PAQ was evaluated in the mouse mammary tumour virus-polyoma middle T (MMTV-PyMT) model of metastatic breast cancer. Mice at different stages of disease progression were imaged with (R)-[11C]PAQ PET, and results were compared to those obtained with [18 F]FDG PET and magnetic resonance imaging. (R)-[11C]PAQ uptake levels were also compared to ex vivo immunofluorescence analysis of tumour- and angiogenesis-specific biomarkers. Additional pharmacokinetic studies were performed in rat and mouse. A heterogeneous uptake of (R)-[11C]PAQ was observed in the tumorous mammary glands. Ex vivo analysis confirmed the co-localization of areas with high radioactivity uptake and areas with elevated levels of VEGFR2. In some animals, a high focal uptake was observed in the lungs. The lung uptake correlated to metastatic and angiogenic activity, but not to uptake of [18 F]FDG PET. The pharmacokinetic studies revealed a limited metabolism and excretion during the 1-h scan and a distribution of radioactivity mainly to the liver, kidneys and lungs. In rat, a high uptake was additionally observed in adrenal and parathyroid glands. The results indicate that (R)-[11C]PAQ is a promising imaging biomarker for visualization of angiogenesis, based on VEGFR2 expression, in primary tumours and during metastasis development.

  11. Molecular imaging in neurology and neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckenberger, M.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging in neurology and neuroscience is a suspenseful and fast developing tool in order to quantitatively image genomics and proteomics by means of direct and indirect markers. Because of its high-sensitive tracer principle, nuclear medicine imaging has the pioneering task for the methodical progression of molecular imaging. The current development of molecular imaging in neurology changes from the use of indirect markers of gene and protein expression to the direct imaging of the molecular mechanisms. It is the aim of this article to give a short review on the status quo of molecular imaging in neurology with emphasis on clinically relevant aspects. (orig.)

  12. Meninges in cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendru, G; Chong, V

    2009-10-02

    Primary malignant tumours arising from the meninges are distinctly uncommon, and when they occur, they are usually sarcomas. In contrast, metastatic meningeal involvement is increasingly seen as advances in cancer therapy have changed the natural history of malignant disease and prolonged the life span of cancer patients. The meninges can either be infiltrated by contiguous extension of primary tumours of the central nervous system, paranasal sinuses and skull base origin or can be diffusely infiltrated from haematogenous dissemination from distant primary malignancies. Imaging in these patients provides crucial information in planning management. This article reviews the pertinent anatomy that underlies imaging findings, discusses the mechanism of meningeal metastasis and highlights different imaging patterns of meningeal carcinomatosis and the pitfalls.

  13. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-targeted gadolinium oxide-based multifunctional nanoparticles for dual magnetic resonance/fluorescent molecular imaging of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui DT

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Danting Cui,1 Xiaodan Lu,1 Chenggong Yan,1 Xiang Liu,1 Meirong Hou,1 Qi Xia,2 Yikai Xu,1 Ruiyuan Liu2,3 1Department of Medical Imaging Center, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Biomedical Engineering, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Bombesin (BBN, an analog of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP, specifically binds to GRP receptors, which are overexpressed in human prostate cancer (PC. Here, we synthesized a BBN-modified gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3 nanoprobe containing fluorescein (Gd2O3-5(6-carboxyfluorescein [FI]-polyethylene glycol [PEG]-BBN for targeted magnetic resonance (MR/optical dual-modality imaging of PC. The Gd2O3-FI-PEG-BBN nanoparticles exhibited a relatively uniform particle size with an average diameter of 52.3 nm and spherical morphology as depicted by transmission electron microscopy. The longitudinal relaxivity (r1 of Gd2O3-FI-PEG-BBN (r1 =4.23 mM–1s–1 is comparable to that of clinically used Magnevist (Gd-DTPA. Fluorescence microscopy and in vitro cellular MRI demonstrated GRP receptor-specific and enhanced cellular uptake of the Gd2O3-FI-PEG-BBN in PC-3 tumor cells. Moreover, Gd2O3-FI-PEG-BBN showed more remarkable contrast enhancement than the corresponding nontargeted Gd2O3-FI-PEG according to in vivo MRI and fluorescent imaging. Tumor immunohistochemical analysis further demonstrated improved accumulation of the targeted nanoprobe in tumors. BBN-conjugated Gd2O3 may be a promising nanoplatform for simultaneous GRP receptor-targeted molecular cancer diagnosis and antitumor drug delivery in future clinical applications. Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging, gadolinium oxide, bombesin, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, molecular imaging

  14. Cancerology: to see and to treat with molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    By allowing to visualize, beyond the organs and tissues structure, the molecules present inside cells and their action in cell functioning, to the genome level, the molecular imaging opens a new era in biology and medicine and creates the conditions for the perfecting of targeting and personalised treatments of cancers. The E.M.I.L. network is the only European network in molecular imaging for the cancer. It has been initiated and is coordinated by 'the genes expression in vivo imaging group' of the Cea at Orsay. The E.M.I.L network represents 43 organisms of 13 european countries with 6 technological platforms. (N.C.)

  15. Nanoplatforms for magnetic resonance imaging of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cywinska, M. A.; Grudzinski, I. P.; Cieszanowski, A.; Bystrzejewski, M.; Poplawska, M.

    2011-01-01

    The application of biomedical nanotechnology in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is expect to have a major impact leading to the development of new contrast drug candidates on the nanoscale (1 - 100 nm) that are able to react with specific biological targets at a molecular level. One of the major challenges in this regard is the construction of nanomaterials, especially used in molecular MRI diagnostics of cancer in vivo, specialized antitumor drug delivery or real-time evaluation of the efficacy of the implemented cancer treatment. In this paper, we tried to gain further insights into current trends of nanomedicine, with special focus on preclinical MRI studies in translation cancer research. (authors)

  16. Molecular genetics of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radice, P.; Pierotti, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    In the last two decades, molecular studies have enlightened the complexity of the genetic alterations that occur in breast cancer cells. To date, more than 40 different genes or loci have been found to be altered in breast carcinomas. Although some of these genes, as for example ERBB2, appear to be mutated in a high proportion of cases, their mechanism of action and their role in the different stages of cancer development are still poorly understood. More recently, two major determinants of the inherited predisposition to breast cancer, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been isolated. As a consequence, it is now possible to screen families with a positive history of breast carcinomas for the identification of mutations carriers, in order to address these individuals into adequate programs of cancer surveillance and prevention

  17. Molecular Testing for Gastrointestinal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Seung Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With recent advances in molecular diagnostic methods and targeted cancer therapies, several molecular tests have been recommended for gastric cancer (GC and colorectal cancer (CRC. Microsatellite instability analysis of gastrointestinal cancers is performed to screen for Lynch syndrome, predict favorable prognosis, and screen patients for immunotherapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor has been approved in metastatic CRCs with wildtype RAS (KRAS and NRAS exon 2–4. A BRAF mutation is required for predicting poor prognosis. Additionally, amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 and MET is also associated with resistance to EGFR inhibitor in metastatic CRC patients. The BRAF V600E mutation is found in sporadic microsatellite unstable CRCs, and thus is helpful for ruling out Lynch syndrome. In addition, the KRAS mutation is a prognostic biomarker and the PIK3CA mutation is a molecular biomarker predicting response to phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors and response to aspirin therapy in CRC patients. Additionally, HER2 testing should be performed in all recurrent or metastatic GCs. If the results of HER2 immunohistochemistry are equivocal, HER2 silver or fluorescence in situ hybridization testing are essential for confirmative determination of HER2 status. Epstein-Barr virus–positive GCs have distinct characteristics, including heavy lymphoid stroma, hypermethylation phenotype, and high expression of immune modulators. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies enable us to examine various genetic alterations using a single test. Pathologists play a crucial role in ensuring reliable molecular testing and they should also take an integral role between molecular laboratories and clinicians.

  18. Translational research of optical molecular imaging for personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, C; Ma, X; Tian, J

    2013-12-01

    In the medical imaging field, molecular imaging is a rapidly developing discipline and forms many imaging modalities, providing us effective tools to visualize, characterize, and measure molecular and cellular mechanisms in complex biological processes of living organisms, which can deepen our understanding of biology and accelerate preclinical research including cancer study and medicine discovery. Among many molecular imaging modalities, although the penetration depth of optical imaging and the approved optical probes used for clinics are limited, it has evolved considerably and has seen spectacular advances in basic biomedical research and new drug development. With the completion of human genome sequencing and the emergence of personalized medicine, the specific drug should be matched to not only the right disease but also to the right person, and optical molecular imaging should serve as a strong adjunct to develop personalized medicine by finding the optimal drug based on an individual's proteome and genome. In this process, the computational methodology and imaging system as well as the biomedical application regarding optical molecular imaging will play a crucial role. This review will focus on recent typical translational studies of optical molecular imaging for personalized medicine followed by a concise introduction. Finally, the current challenges and the future development of optical molecular imaging are given according to the understanding of the authors, and the review is then concluded.

  19. Imaging of hepatic toxicity of systemic therapy in a tertiary cancer centre: chemotherapy, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, molecular targeted therapies, and immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrino, F; Tirumani, S H; Krajewski, K M; Shinagare, A B; Jagannathan, J P; Ramaiya, N H; Di Salvo, D N

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this review is to familiarise radiologists with the spectrum of hepatic toxicity seen in the oncology setting, in view of the different systemic therapies used in cancer patients. Drug-induced liver injury can manifest in various forms, and anti-neoplastic agents are associated with different types of hepatotoxicity. Although chemotherapy-induced liver injury can present as hepatitis, steatosis, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, and chronic parenchymal damages, molecular targeted therapy-associated liver toxicity ranges from mild liver function test elevation to fulminant life-threatening acute liver failure. The recent arrival of immune checkpoint inhibitors in oncology has introduced a new range of immune-related adverse events, with differing mechanisms of liver toxicity and varied imaging presentation of liver injury. High-dose chemotherapy regimens for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation are associated with sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. Management of hepatic toxicity depends on the clinical scenario, the drug in use, and the severity of the findings. In this article, we will (1) present the most common types of oncological drugs associated with hepatic toxicity and associated liver injuries; (2) illustrate imaging findings of hepatic toxicities and the possible differential diagnosis; and (3) provide a guide for management of these conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy: radiologic-pathologic correlation of the response and disease-free survival depending on molecular subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Ciria, S; Jiménez Aragón, F; García Mur, C; Esteban Cuesta, H; Gros Bañeres, B

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the radiologic and pathologic responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and their correlation in the molecular subtypes of breast cancer and to analyze their impact in disease-free survival. We included 205 patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We evaluated the radiologic response by comparing MRI images acquired before and after chemotherapy. The pathologic response was classified on the Miller and Payne scale. For each subtype (HER2+, TN, luminal A, luminal B HER2-, and luminal B HER2+), we used the χ(2) test, Student's t-test, ANOVA, and Kendall's Tau-b to evaluate the radiologic response and the pathologic response, the radiologic-pathologic correlation, and the disease-free survival. The subtypes HER2+ (62.1%) and TN (45.2%) had higher rates of complete radiologic response. The pathologic response was 65.5% in the HER2+ subtype, 38.1% in the TN subtype, 2.6% in the luminal A subtype, 8.2% in the luminal B HER2- subtype, and 31% in the luminal B HER2+ subtype. The rate of radiologic-pathologic correlation was significant in all subtypes, higher in TN and HER2 (Tau-b coefficients 0.805 and 0.717, respectively). Disease-free survival was higher in HER2+ (91.9±3.3 months) and lower in TN (69.5±6.3 months), with significant differences between the cases with poor and good radiologic responses (P=.040). Survival was greater in cases with good radiologic response, except in cases with luminal A subtype. MRI can be a useful tool that provides information about the evolution of breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which varies with the immunohistochemical subtype. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular imaging: current status and emerging strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pysz, M.A.; Gambhir, S.S.; Willmann, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    In vivo molecular imaging has a great potential to impact medicine by detecting diseases in early stages (screening), identifying extent of disease, selecting disease- and patient-specific treatment (personalized medicine), applying a directed or targeted therapy, and measuring molecular-specific effects of treatment. Current clinical molecular imaging approaches primarily use positron-emission tomography (PET) or single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based techniques. In ongoing preclinical research, novel molecular targets of different diseases are identified and, sophisticated and multifunctional contrast agents for imaging these molecular targets are developed along with new technologies and instrumentation for multi-modality molecular imaging. Contrast-enhanced molecular ultrasound (US) with molecularly-targeted contrast microbubbles is explored as a clinically translatable molecular imaging strategy for screening, diagnosing, and monitoring diseases at the molecular level. Optical imaging with fluorescent molecular probes and US imaging with molecularly-targeted microbubbles are attractive strategies as they provide real-time imaging, are relatively inexpensive, produce images with high spatial resolution, and do not involve exposure to ionizing irradiation. Raman spectroscopy/microscopy has emerged as a molecular optical imaging strategy for ultrasensitive detection of multiple biomolecules/biochemicals with both in vivo and ex vivo versatility. Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid of optical and US techniques involving optically-excitable molecularly-targeted contrast agents and quantitative detection of resulting oscillatory contrast agent movement with US. Current preclinical findings and advances in instrumentation, such as endoscopes and microcatheters, suggest that these molecular imaging methods have numerous potential clinical applications and will be translated into clinical use in the near future.

  2. [Future perspectives for diagnostic imaging in urology: from anatomic and functional to molecular imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macis, Giuseppe; Di Giovanni, Silvia; Di Franco, Davide; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    The future approach of diagnostic imaging in urology follows the technological progress, which made the visualization of in vivo molecular processes possible. From anatomo-morphological diagnostic imaging and through functional imaging molecular radiology is reached. Based on molecular probes, imaging is aimed at assessing the in vivo molecular processes, their physiology and function at cellular level. The future imaging will investigate the complex tumor functioning as metabolism, aerobic glycolysis in particular, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, metastatic potential, hypoxia, apoptosis and receptors expressed by neoplastic cells. Methods for performing molecular radiology are CT, MRI, PET-CT, PET-MRI, SPECT and optical imaging. Molecular ultrasound combines technological advancement with targeted contrast media based on microbubbles, this allowing the selective registration of microbubble signal while that of stationary tissues is suppressed. An experimental study was carried out where the ultrasound molecular probe BR55 strictly bound to prostate tumor results in strong enhancement in the early phase after contrast, this contrast being maintained in the late phase. This late enhancement is markedly significant for the detection of prostatic cancer foci and to guide the biopsy sampling. The 124I-cG250 molecular antibody which is strictly linked to cellular carbonic anhydrase IX of clear cell renal carcinoma, allows the acquisition of diagnostic PET images of clear cell renal carcinoma without biopsy. This WG-250 (RENCAREX) antibody was used as a therapy in metastatic clear cell renal carcinoma. Future advancements and applications will result in early cancer diagnosis, personalized therapy that will be specific according to the molecular features of cancer and leading to the development of catheter-based multichannel molecular imaging devices for cystoscopy-based molecular imaging diagnosis and intervention.

  3. Imaging for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, W.

    2005-01-01

    During the last three decades, 3D imaging with X-ray computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were introduced to characterize tumour morphology for improved delineation of target volumes. At present, the time has come to also start the assessment and correction of the temporal alterations of the target volume. This is leading to 'image guided radiotherapy' (IGRT), which is characterized by the integration of 2D and 3D imaging modalities into the radiotherapy workflow. The vision is to detect deformations and motion between radiotherapy fractions (inter-fractional IGRT) and during beam delivery (intra fractional IGRT). Considering these changes and correcting for them either by gating or tracking of the irradiation beam is leading a step further to 'time adapted radiotherapy' (ART). Many institutions are currently addressing this technical challenge, with the goal of implementing IGRT and ART into radiotherapy as a faster, safer and more efficient treatment technique. Another innovation, which is currently coming up is 'biological adaptive radiotherapy'. The background for this approach is the fact, that the old hypothesis of radiotherapy assuming that the tumor consists of homogenous tissue and therefore a homogeneous dose distribution has to be delivered to the target can no longer be sustained. It is known today, that a tumor may consist of various subvolumes with different radiobiological properties. New methods are currently being developed to characterize these properties more appropriately, e.g. by functional and molecular imaging using new tracers for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The challenge in radiotherapy is to develop concepts to include and integrate this information into radiotherapy planning and beam delivery, first by extending the morphological image content towards a biological planning target volume including subvolumes of different radiosensitivity, and second by

  4. Use of Molecular Imaging to Predict Clinical Outcome in Patients With Rectal Cancer After Preoperative Chemotherapy and Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konski, Andre; Li Tianyu; Sigurdson, Elin; Cohen, Steven J.; Small, William; Spies, Stewart; Yu, Jian Q.; Wahl, Andrew; Stryker, Steven; Meropol, Neal J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate changes in 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) (18-FDG-PET) uptake with response and disease-free survival with combined modality neoadjuvant therapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Charts were reviewed for consecutive patients with ultrasound-staged T3x to T4Nx or TxN1 rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent preoperative chemoradiation therapy at Fox Chase Cancer Center (FCCC) or Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University with 18-FDG-PET scanning before and after combined-modality neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy . The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) was measured from the tumor before and 3 to 4 weeks after completion of chemoradiation therapy preoperatively. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association of pretreatment SUV, posttreatment SUV, and % SUV decrease on pathologic complete response (pCR), and a Cox model was fitted to analyze disease-free survival. Results: A total of 53 patients (FCCC, n = 41, RLCCC, n = 12) underwent pre- and postchemoradiation PET scanning between September 2000 and June 2006. The pCR rate was 31%. Univariate analysis revealed that % SUV decrease showed a marginally trend in predicting pCR (p = 0.08). In the multivariable analysis, posttreatment SUV was shown a predictor of pCR (p = 0.07), but the test results did not reach statistical significance. None of the investigated variables were predictive of disease-free survival. Conclusions: A trend was observed for % SUV decrease and posttreatment SUV predicting pCR in patients with rectal cancer treated with preoperative chemoradiation therapy. Further prospective study with a larger sample size is warranted to better characterize the role of 18-FDG-PET for response prediction in patients with rectal cancer.

  5. IMPACT: Imaging and Molecular Markers for Patients with Lung Cancer: Approaches with Molecular Targets, Complementary/Innovative Treatments, and Therapeutic Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    imaging, MRI and CT scan in vivo imaging, and/or heat deposition for NIR photo-therapy. The identification of vascular markers targeted by...studies, as a prelude to potential clinical trials, is to secure a large source of the drug from our pharmaceutical counterparts. Therefore, from the...beginning of this project, we tried to identify agents that target FGF receptor signaling and are under development in pharmaceutical companies. We had

  6. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  7. Toward in vivo diagnosis of skin cancer using multimode imaging dermoscopy: (II) molecular mapping of highly pigmented lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a multimode imaging dermoscope that combines polarization and hyperspectral imaging with a computationally rapid analytical model. This approach employs specific spectral ranges of visible and near infrared wavelengths for mapping the distribution of specific skin bio-molecules. This corrects for the melanin-hemoglobin misestimation common to other systems, without resorting to complex and computationally intensive tissue optical models that are prone to inaccuracies due to over-modeling. Various human skin measurements including a melanocytic nevus, and venous occlusion conditions were investigated and compared with other ratiometric spectral imaging approaches. Access to the broad range of hyperspectral data in the visible and near-infrared range allows our algorithm to flexibly use different wavelength ranges for chromophore estimation while minimizing melanin-hemoglobin optical signature cross-talk.

  8. Molecular imaging of transcriptional regulation during inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlsen Harald

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular imaging enables non-invasive visualization of the dynamics of molecular processes within living organisms in vivo. Different imaging modalities as MRI, SPECT, PET and optic imaging are used together with molecular probes specific for the biological process of interest. Molecular imaging of transcription factor activity is done in animal models and mostly in transgenic reporter mice, where the transgene essentially consists of a promoter that regulates a reporter gene. During inflammation, the transcription factor NF-κB is widely involved in orchestration and regulation of the immune system and almost all imaging studies in this field has revolved around the role and regulation of NF-κB. We here present a brief introduction to experimental use and design of transgenic reporter mice and a more extensive review of the various studies where molecular imaging of transcriptional regulation has been applied during inflammation.

  9. Molecular imaging promotes progress in orthopedic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp; Boskey, Adele L

    2006-11-01

    Modern orthopedic research is directed towards the understanding of molecular mechanisms that determine development, maintenance and health of musculoskeletal tissues. In recent years, many genetic and proteomic discoveries have been made which necessitate investigation under physiological conditions in intact, living tissues. Molecular imaging can meet this demand and is, in fact, the only strategy currently available for noninvasive, quantitative, real-time biology studies in living subjects. In this review, techniques of molecular imaging are summarized, and applications to bone and joint biology are presented. The imaging modality most frequently used in the past was optical imaging, particularly bioluminescence and near-infrared fluorescence imaging. Alternate technologies including nuclear and magnetic resonance imaging were also employed. Orthopedic researchers have applied molecular imaging to murine models including transgenic mice to monitor gene expression, protein degradation, cell migration and cell death. Within the bone compartment, osteoblasts and their stem cells have been investigated, and the organic and mineral bone phases have been assessed. These studies addressed malignancy and injury as well as repair, including fracture healing and cell/gene therapy for skeletal defects. In the joints, molecular imaging has focused on the inflammatory and tissue destructive processes that cause arthritis. As described in this review, the feasibility of applying molecular imaging to numerous areas of orthopedic research has been demonstrated and will likely result in an increase in research dedicated to this powerful strategy. Molecular imaging holds great promise in the future for preclinical orthopedic research as well as next-generation clinical musculoskeletal diagnostics.

  10. [Microdose clinical trial--impact of PET molecular imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Tsuneo; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2010-10-01

    Microdose (MD) clinical trial and exploratory IND study including sub-therapeutic dose and therapeutic dose which are higher than microdoses are expected to bring about innovations in drug development. The outlines of guidances for microdose clinical trial and ICH-M3 (R2) issued by the MHLW in June, 2008, and February, 2010, are first explained, respectively, and some examples of their application to clinical developments of therapeutic drugs in the infection and cancer fields are introduced. Especially, thanks to the progress of molecular imaging research, a new field of drug development is explored by using imaging biomarkers for efficacy or safety evaluation which visualize biomarkers by PET imaging agents. Finally, the roadmap for drug development in infection and cancer fields utilizing PET molecular imaging is discussed.

  11. Evidence-based cancer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinagare, Atul B.; Khorasani, Ramin [Dept. of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    With the advances in the field of oncology, imaging is increasingly used in the follow-up of cancer patients, leading to concerns about over-utilization. Therefore, it has become imperative to make imaging more evidence-based, efficient, cost-effective and equitable. This review explores the strategies and tools to make diagnostic imaging more evidence-based, mainly in the context of follow-up of cancer patients.

  12. Squamous cell cancer (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squamous cell cancer involves cancerous changes to the cells of the middle portion of the epidermal skin layer. It is ... malignant tumor, and is more aggressive than basal cell cancer, but still may be relatively slow-growing. It ...

  13. Molecular imaging of mental disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hidehiko; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques have made it possible to measure changes in neurochemical components in living human brain. PET can be used to investigate various brain functions such as receptors, transporters, enzymes and various biochemical pathways; therefore, it could be a powerful tool for molecular imaging of mental disorders. Since the pathophysiology of schizophrenia has been discussed with a functional alteration of dopaminergic transmission in the brain, we have focused the dopaminergic components for the research target of schizophrenia using PET. Using high affinity ligand [ 11 C]FLB 457, we found reduced D 2 receptor binding in the anterior cingulate cortex of patients with schizophrenia, and a significant negative correlation was observed between D 2 receptor binding and the positive symptom score. Subregions of interest were defined on the thalamus using individual magnetic resonance images. D 2 receptor binding was also lower in the central medial and posterior subregions of the thalamus in patients with schizophrenia. Alterations in D 2 receptor function in the extrastriatal region may underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. On the other hand D 1 receptor binding was found to be lower in the prefrontal cortex and a significant negative correlation was observed between D 1 receptor binding and the negative symptom score. Abnormality of D 1 receptor function would be at the bottom of the negative symptoms and cognitive impairment of schizophrenia. Regarding the effect of antipsychotics on dopamine D 2 receptor, occupancy and it's time-course have been measured in a living body using PET. This approach can provide in vivo pharmacological evidences of antipsychotics and establish the rational therapeutic strategy. PET is a powerful tool not only in the field of brain research but also drug discovery. (author)

  14. Molecular pathogenesis and mechanisms of thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mingzhao

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is a common endocrine malignancy. There has been exciting progress in understanding its molecular pathogenesis in recent years, as best exemplified by the elucidation of the fundamental role of several major signalling pathways and related molecular derangements. Central to these mechanisms are the genetic and epigenetic alterations in these pathways, such as mutation, gene copy-number gain and aberrant gene methylation. Many of these molecular alterations represent novel diagnostic and prognostic molecular markers and therapeutic targets for thyroid cancer, which provide unprecedented opportunities for further research and clinical development of novel treatment strategies for this cancer. PMID:23429735

  15. The synthesis of a D-glucosamine contrast agent, Gd-DTPA-DG, and its application in cancer molecular imaging with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Chen Yue; Guo Dajing; Huang Zhanwen; Cai Liang; He Ling

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the synthesis of Gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-deoxyglucosamine (Gd-DTPA-DG) which is a D-glucosamine metabolic MR imaging contrast agent. We will also discuss its use in a pilot MRI study using a xenograft mouse model of human adenocarcinoma. Methods: This novel contrast agent was specifically studied because of its ability to 'target' metabolically active tumor tissues. In this study Gd-DTPA-DG is used to investigate how tumor tissues would react to a dose of 0.2 mmol Gd/kg over a 120 min exposure in a xenograft mouse model. These experiments used athymic mice implanted with human pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549) as demonstrated by dynamic MRI. Alternately, another contrast agent that is not specific for targeting, Gd-DTPA, was used as the control at a similar dose of gadolinium. Efficacy of the targeted contrast agent was assessed by measuring relaxation rate in vitro and signal intensity (SI) in vivo. Statistical differences were calculated using one-way analysis of variance. Results: The synthesized Gd-DTPA-DG was shown to improve the contrast of tumor tissue in this model. Gd-DTPA-DG was also shown to have a similar pharmacokinetic rate but generated a higher relaxation rate in tumor tissues relative to the control contrast Gd-DTPA. In comparison to the pre-contrast imaging, the SI of tumor tissue in the experimental group was shown to be significantly increased at 15 min after injection of Gd-DTPA-DG (p < 0.001). The enhanced signal intensity spread from the edge of the tumor to the center and seemed to strengthen the idea that MRI performance would be useful in different tumor tissues. Conclusion: This preliminary study shows that this new chelated contrast agent, Gd-DTPA-DG, can be specifically targeted to accumulation in tumor tissue as compared to normal tissues. This targeted paramagnetic contrast agent has potential for specific cancer molecular imaging with MRI.

  16. Inorganic Nanoparticles for Multimodal Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Swierczewska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal molecular imaging can offer a synergistic improvement of diagnostic ability over a single imaging modality. Recent development of hybrid imaging systems has profoundly impacted the pool of available multimodal imaging probes. In particular, much interest has been focused on biocompatible, inorganic nanoparticle-based multimodal probes. Inorganic nanoparticles offer exceptional advantages to the field of multimodal imaging owing to their unique characteristics, such as nanometer dimensions, tunable imaging properties, and multifunctionality. Nanoparticles mainly based on iron oxide, quantum dots, gold, and silica have been applied to various imaging modalities to characterize and image specific biologic processes on a molecular level. A combination of nanoparticles and other materials such as biomolecules, polymers, and radiometals continue to increase functionality for in vivo multimodal imaging and therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the unique concepts, characteristics, and applications of the various multimodal imaging probes based on inorganic nanoparticles.

  17. PET/CT Imaging and Radioimmunotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Tagawa, Scott T; Goldsmith, Stanley J

    2011-01-01

    disease (ideal for antigen access and antibody delivery). Furthermore, prostate cancer is also radiation sensitive. Prostate-specific membrane antigen is expressed by virtually all prostate cancers, and represents an attractive target for RIT. Antiprostate-specific membrane antigen RIT demonstrates......Prostate cancer is a common cancer in men and continues to be a major health problem. Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of patients with prostate cancer. An important goal for prostate cancer imaging is more accurate disease characterization through the synthesis...... of anatomic, functional, and molecular imaging information. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in oncology is emerging as an important imaging tool. The most common radiotracer for PET/CT in oncology, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), is not very useful in the imaging of prostate cancer...

  18. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  19. Optical Molecular Imaging Frontiers in Oncology: The Pursuit of Accuracy and Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutting-edge technologies in optical molecular imaging have ushered in new frontiers in cancer research, clinical translation, and medical practice, as evidenced by recent advances in optical multimodality imaging, Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI, and optical image-guided surgeries. New abilities allow in vivo cancer imaging with sensitivity and accuracy that are unprecedented in conventional imaging approaches. The visualization of cellular and molecular behaviors and events within tumors in living subjects is improving our deeper understanding of tumors at a systems level. These advances are being rapidly used to acquire tumor-to-tumor molecular heterogeneity, both dynamically and quantitatively, as well as to achieve more effective therapeutic interventions with the assistance of real-time imaging. In the era of molecular imaging, optical technologies hold great promise to facilitate the development of highly sensitive cancer diagnoses as well as personalized patient treatment—one of the ultimate goals of precision medicine.

  20. Current state of molecular imaging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, J.; Wunder, A.

    2005-01-01

    The recent years have seen significant advances in both molecular biology, allowing the identification of genes and pathways related to disease, and imaging technologies that allow for improved spatial and temporal resolution, enhanced sensitivity, better depth penetration, improved image processing, and beneficial combinations of different imaging modalities. These advances have led to a paradigm shift in the scope of diagnostic imaging. The traditional role of radiological diagnostic imaging is to define gross anatomy and structure in order to detect pathological abnormalities. Available contrast agents are mostly non-specific and can be used to image physiological processes such as changes in blood volume, flow, and perfusion but not to demonstrate pathological alterations at molecular levels. However, alterations at the anatomical-morphological level are relatively late manifestations of underlying molecular changes. Using molecular probes or markers that bind specifically to molecular targets allows for the non-invasive visualization and quantitation of biological processes such as gene expression, apoptosis, or angiogenesis at the molecular level within intact living organisms. This rapidly evolving, multidisciplinary approach, referred to as molecular imaging, promises to enable early diagnosis, can provide improved classification of stage and severity of disease, an objective assessment of treatment efficacy, and a reliable prognosis. Furthermore, molecular imaging is an important tool for the evaluation of physiological and pathophysiological processes, and for the development of new therapies. This article comprises a review of current technologies of molecular imaging, describes the development of contrast agents and various imaging modalities, new applications in specific disease models, and potential future developments. (orig.)

  1. Targeted Nanotechnology for Cancer Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Randall; Bauer, Lisa; Hoimes, Christopher; Ghaghada, Ketan B.; Karathanasis, Efstathios

    2014-01-01

    Targeted nanoparticle imaging agents provide many benefits and new opportunities to facilitate accurate diagnosis of cancer and significantly impact patient outcome. Due to the highly engineerable nature of nanotechnology, targeted nanoparticles exhibit significant advantages including increased contrast sensitivity, binding avidity and targeting specificity. Considering the various nanoparticle designs and their adjustable ability to target a specific site and generate detectable signals, nanoparticles can be optimally designed in terms of biophysical interactions (i.e., intravascular and interstitial transport) and biochemical interactions (i.e., targeting avidity towards cancer-related biomarkers) for site-specific detection of very distinct microenvironments. This review seeks to illustrate that the design of a nanoparticle dictates its in vivo journey and targeting of hard-to-reach cancer sites, facilitating early and accurate diagnosis and interrogation of the most aggressive forms of cancer. We will report various targeted nanoparticles for cancer imaging using X-ray computed tomography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear imaging and optical imaging. Finally, to realize the full potential of targeted nanotechnology for cancer imaging, we will describe the challenges and opportunities for the clinical translation and widespread adaptation of targeted nanoparticles imaging agents. PMID:25116445

  2. Molecular Cancer Prevention: Current Status & Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresso, Karen Colbert; Tsai, Kenneth Y.; Brown, Powel H.; Szabo, Eva; Lippman, Scott; Hawk, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneity and complexity of advanced cancers strongly supports the rationale for an enhanced focus on molecular prevention as a priority strategy to reduce the burden of cancer. Molecular prevention encompasses traditional chemopreventive agents as well as vaccinations and therapeutic approaches to cancer-predisposing conditions. Despite challenges to the field, we now have refined insights into cancer etiology and early pathogenesis; successful risk assessment and new risk models; agents with broad preventive efficacy (e.g., aspirin) in common chronic diseases, including cancer; and a successful track record of more than 10 agents approved by the FDA for the treatment of precancerous lesions or cancer risk reduction. The development of molecular preventive agents does not differ significantly from the development of therapies for advanced cancers, yet has unique challenges and special considerations given that it most often involves healthy or asymptomatic individuals. Agents, biomarkers, cohorts, overall design, and endpoints are key determinants of molecular preventive trials, as with therapeutic trials, although distinctions exist for each within the preventive setting. Progress in the development and evolution of molecular preventive agents has been steadier in some organ systems, such as breast and skin, than in others. In order for molecular prevention to be fully realized as an effective strategy, a number of challenges to the field must be addressed. Here we provide a brief overview of the context for and special considerations of molecular prevention along with a discussion of the results of major randomized controlled trials. PMID:26284997

  3. Molecular Imaging: A Useful Tool for the Development of Natural Killer Cell-Based Immunotherapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Gangadaran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging is a relatively new discipline that allows visualization, characterization, and measurement of the biological processes in living subjects, including humans, at a cellular and molecular level. The interaction between cancer cells and natural killer (NK cells is complex and incompletely understood. Despite our limited knowledge, progress in the search for immune cell therapies against cancer could be significantly improved by dynamic and non-invasive visualization and tracking of immune cells and by visualization of the response of cancer cells to therapies in preclinical and clinical studies. Molecular imaging is an essential tool for these studies, and a multimodal molecular imaging approach can be applied to monitor immune cells in vivo, for instance, to visualize therapeutic effects. In this review, we discuss the usefulness of NK cells in cancer therapies and the preclinical and clinical usefulness of molecular imaging in NK cell-based therapies. Furthermore, we discuss different molecular imaging modalities for use with NK cell-based therapies, and their preclinical and clinical applications in animal and human subjects. Molecular imaging has contributed to the development of NK cell-based therapies against cancers in animal models and to the refinement of current cell-based cancer immunotherapies. Developing sensitive and reproducible non-invasive molecular imaging technologies for in vivo NK cell monitoring and for real-time assessment of therapeutic effects will accelerate the development of NK cell therapies.

  4. Current Molecular Imaging Positron Emitting Radiotracers in Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Aizhi; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2011-01-01

    Molecular imaging is one of the fastest growing areas of medical imaging. Positron emission tomography has been widely used in the clinical management of patients with cancer. Nuclear imaging provides biological information at the cellular, subcellular, and molecular level in living subjects with noninvasive procedures. In particular, PET imaging takes advantage of traditional diagnostic imaging techniques and introduces positron emitting probes to determine the expression of indicative molecular targets at different stages of cancer. 18F fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18F FDG), the only FDA approved oncological PET tracer, has been widely utilized in cancer diagnosis, staging, restaging, and even monitoring response to therapy; however, 18F FDG is not a tumor specific PET tracer. Over the last decade, many promising tumor specific PET tracer. Over the last decade, many promising tumor specific PET tracers have been developed and evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies. This review provides an overview of the current non 18F FDG PET tracers in oncology that have been developed based on tumor characteristics such as increased metabolism, hyperproliferation, angiogenesis, hypoxia, apoptosis, and tumor specific antigens and surface receptors

  5. Cancer molecular markers: A guide to cancer detection and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Meera; Sandhu, Sardul Singh; Sharma, Anil Kumar

    2018-02-08

    Cancer is generally caused by the molecular alterations which lead to specific mutations. Advances in molecular biology have provided an impetus to the study of cancers with valuable prognostic and predictive significance. Over the hindsight various attempts have been undertaken by scientists worldwide, in the management of cancer; where, we have witnessed a number of molecular markers which allow the early detection of cancers and lead to a decrease in its mortality rate. Recent advances in oncology have led to the discovery of cancer markers that has allowed early detection and targeted therapy of tumors. In this context, current review provides a detail outlook on various molecular markers for diagnosis, prognosis and management of therapeutic response in cancer patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Technique development of 3D dynamic CS-EPSI for hyperpolarized 13 C pyruvate MR molecular imaging of human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Larson, Peder E Z; Gordon, Jeremy W; Bok, Robert A; Ferrone, Marcus; van Criekinge, Mark; Carvajal, Lucas; Cao, Peng; Pauly, John M; Kerr, Adam B; Park, Ilwoo; Slater, James B; Nelson, Sarah J; Munster, Pamela N; Aggarwal, Rahul; Kurhanewicz, John; Vigneron, Daniel B

    2018-03-25

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new 3D dynamic carbon-13 compressed sensing echoplanar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) MR sequence and test it in phantoms, animal models, and then in prostate cancer patients to image the metabolic conversion of hyperpolarized [1- 13 C]pyruvate to [1- 13 C]lactate with whole gland coverage at high spatial and temporal resolution. A 3D dynamic compressed sensing (CS)-EPSI sequence with spectral-spatial excitation was designed to meet the required spatial coverage, time and spatial resolution, and RF limitations of the 3T MR scanner for its clinical translation for prostate cancer patient imaging. After phantom testing, animal studies were performed in rats and transgenic mice with prostate cancers. For patient studies, a GE SPINlab polarizer (GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) was used to produce hyperpolarized sterile GMP [1- 13 C]pyruvate. 3D dynamic 13 C CS-EPSI data were acquired starting 5 s after injection throughout the gland with a spatial resolution of 0.5 cm 3 , 18 time frames, 2-s temporal resolution, and 36 s total acquisition time. Through preclinical testing, the 3D CS-EPSI sequence developed in this project was shown to provide the desired spectral, temporal, and spatial 5D HP 13 C MR data. In human studies, the 3D dynamic HP CS-EPSI approach provided first-ever simultaneously volumetric and dynamic images of the LDH-catalyzed conversion of [1- 13 C]pyruvate to [1- 13 C]lactate in a biopsy-proven prostate cancer patient with full gland coverage. The results demonstrate the feasibility to characterize prostate cancer metabolism in animals, and now patients using this new 3D dynamic HP MR technique to measure k PL , the kinetic rate constant of [1- 13 C]pyruvate to [1- 13 C]lactate conversion. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. PET-based molecular imaging in neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, A.H.; Heiss, W.D.; Li, H.; Knoess, C.; Schaller, B.; Kracht, L.; Monfared, P.; Vollmar, S.; Bauer, B.; Wagner, R.; Graf, R.; Wienhard, K.; Winkeler, A.; Rueger, A.; Klein, M.; Hilker, R.; Galldiks, N.; Herholz, K.; Sobesky, J.

    2003-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows non-invasive assessment of physiological, metabolic and molecular processes in humans and animals in vivo. Advances in detector technology have led to a considerable improvement in the spatial resolution of PET (1-2 mm), enabling for the first time investigations in small experimental animals such as mice. With the developments in radiochemistry and tracer technology, a variety of endogenously expressed and exogenously introduced genes can be analysed by PET. This opens up the exciting and rapidly evolving field of molecular imaging, aiming at the non-invasive localisation of a biological process of interest in normal and diseased cells in animal models and humans in vivo. The main and most intriguing advantage of molecular imaging is the kinetic analysis of a given molecular event in the same experimental subject over time. This will allow non-invasive characterisation and ''phenotyping'' of animal models of human disease at various disease stages, under certain pathophysiological stimuli and after therapeutic intervention. The potential broad applications of imaging molecular events in vivo lie in the study of cell biology, biochemistry, gene/protein function and regulation, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation and characterisation of transgenic animals. Most importantly, molecular imaging will have great implications for the identification of potential molecular therapeutic targets, in the development of new treatment strategies, and in their successful implementation into clinical application. Here, the potential impact of molecular imaging by PET in applications in neuroscience research with a special focus on neurodegeneration and neuro-oncology is reviewed. (orig.)

  8. Radiological imaging of rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Lincender-Cvijetić

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possibilities of diagnosing abdominal imaging in patients with rectal cancer, detecting lesions and assessing the stage of the lesions, in order to select the appropriate therapy. Before the introduction of imaging technologies, the diagnosis of colorectal pathology was based on conventional methods of inspecting intestines with a barium enema, with either a single or double contrast barium enema. Following the development of endoscopic methods and the wide use of colonoscopy, colonoscopy became the method of choice for diagnosing colorectal diseases. The improvement of Computerized Tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, gave us new possibilities for diagnosing colorectal cancer. For rectal cancer, trans-rectal US (TRUS or endo-anal US (EAUS have a significant role. For staging rectal cancer, the Multi Slice Computed Tomography (MSCT is not the method of choice, but Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI is preferred when it comes to monitoring the rectum. Therole of the MRI in the T staging of rectal cancer is crucial in preoperative assessment of: thickness – the width of the tumor, the extramural invasion, the circumference of resection margin (CRM, andthe assessment of the inclusion of mesorectal fascia. For successful execution of surgical techniques, good diagnostic imaging of the cancer is necessary in order to have a low level of recurrence. According to medical studies, the sensitivity of FDG-PET in diagnosing metastatic nodals is low, but for now it is not recommended in routine diagnosis of metastatic colorectal carcinoma.

  9. Nanobody: the "magic bullet" for molecular imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Goel, Shreya; Cai, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging involves the non-invasive investigation of biological processes in vivo at the cellular and molecular level, which can play diverse roles in better understanding and treatment of various diseases. Recently, single domain antigen-binding fragments known as 'nanobodies' were bioengineered and tested for molecular imaging applications. Small molecular size (~15 kDa) and suitable configuration of the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of nanobodies offer many desirable features suitable for imaging applications, such as rapid targeting and fast blood clearance, high solubility, high stability, easy cloning, modular nature, and the capability of binding to cavities and difficult-to-access antigens. Using nanobody-based probes, several imaging techniques such as radionuclide-based, optical and ultrasound have been employed for visualization of target expression in various disease models. This review summarizes the recent developments in the use of nanobody-based probes for molecular imaging applications. The preclinical data reported to date are quite promising, and it is expected that nanobody-based molecular imaging agents will play an important role in the diagnosis and management of various diseases.

  10. Molecular Imaging with Small Animal PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, T.; El-Ali, H.H.; Skovgaard, D.

    2011-01-01

    is also described. In addition, the non-invasive nature of molecular imaging and the targets of these promising new tracers are attractive for other research areas as well, although these fields are much less explored. We present an example of an interesting research field with the application of small......Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) and computer tomography (CT) is an emerging field in pre-clinical imaging. High quality, state-of-the-art instruments are required for full optimization of the translational value of the small animal studies with PET and CT. However...... in this field of small animal molecular imaging with special emphasis on the targets for tissue characterization in tumor biology such as hypoxia, proliferation and cancer specific over-expression of receptors. The added value of applying CT imaging for anatomical localization and tumor volume measurements...

  11. Molecular Diagnosis in Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C.M. Zuiverloon (Tahlita)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEpidemiologyBladder cancer (BC) is the most prevalent type of urothelial cancer and is associated with thehighest costs of all cancer types due to intensive patient surveillance. Because bladder tumorsfrequently recur, patients need to be monitored extensively [1-4]. Incidence increases

  12. Radiogenomics: Creating a link between molecular diagnostics and diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutman, Aaron M. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); Kuo, Michael D. [Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); Center for Translational Medical Systems, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States)], E-mail: mkuo@ucsd.edu

    2009-05-15

    Studies employing high-throughput biological techniques have recently contributed to an improved characterization of human cancers, allowing for novel sub-classification, better diagnostic accuracy, and more precise prognostication. However, requirement of surgical procurement of tissue among other things limits the clinical application of such methods in everyday patient care. Radiographic imaging is routine in clinical practice but is currently histopathology based. The use of routine radiographic imaging provides a potential platform for linking specific imaging traits with specific gene expression patterns that inform the underlying cellular pathophysiology; imaging features could then serve as molecular surrogates that contribute to the diagnosis, prognosis, and likely gene-expression-associated treatment response of various forms of human cancer. This review focuses on high-throughput methods such as microarray analysis of gene expression, their role in cancer research, and in particular, on novel methods of associating gene expression patterns with radiographic imaging phenotypes, known as 'radiogenomics.' These findings underline a potential future role of both diagnostic and interventional radiologists in genetic assessment of cancer patients with radiographic imaging studies.

  13. Radiogenomics: Creating a link between molecular diagnostics and diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutman, Aaron M.; Kuo, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Studies employing high-throughput biological techniques have recently contributed to an improved characterization of human cancers, allowing for novel sub-classification, better diagnostic accuracy, and more precise prognostication. However, requirement of surgical procurement of tissue among other things limits the clinical application of such methods in everyday patient care. Radiographic imaging is routine in clinical practice but is currently histopathology based. The use of routine radiographic imaging provides a potential platform for linking specific imaging traits with specific gene expression patterns that inform the underlying cellular pathophysiology; imaging features could then serve as molecular surrogates that contribute to the diagnosis, prognosis, and likely gene-expression-associated treatment response of various forms of human cancer. This review focuses on high-throughput methods such as microarray analysis of gene expression, their role in cancer research, and in particular, on novel methods of associating gene expression patterns with radiographic imaging phenotypes, known as 'radiogenomics.' These findings underline a potential future role of both diagnostic and interventional radiologists in genetic assessment of cancer patients with radiographic imaging studies.

  14. Molecular Classification and Correlates in Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ogino, Shuji; Goel, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Molecular classification of colorectal cancer is evolving. As our understanding of colorectal carcinogenesis improves, we are incorporating new knowledge into the classification system. In particular, global genomic status [microsatellite instability (MSI) status and chromosomal instability (CIN) status] and epigenomic status [CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) status] play a significant role in determining clinical, pathological and biological characteristics of colorectal cancer. In thi...

  15. Molecular biology of bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Doyle, William; Kwiatkowski, David J

    2015-04-01

    Classic as well as more recent large-scale genomic analyses have uncovered multiple genes and pathways important for bladder cancer development. Genes involved in cell-cycle control, chromatin regulation, and receptor tyrosine and PI3 kinase-mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways are commonly mutated in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Expression-based analyses have identified distinct types of bladder cancer that are similar to subsets of breast cancer, and have prognostic and therapeutic significance. These observations are leading to novel therapeutic approaches in bladder cancer, providing optimism for therapeutic progress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mouse Models of Breast Cancer: Platforms for Discovering Precision Imaging Diagnostics and Future Cancer Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, H Charles; Buck, Jason R; Cook, Rebecca S

    2016-02-01

    Representing an enormous health care and socioeconomic challenge, breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Although many of the challenges associated with preventing, treating, and ultimately curing breast cancer are addressable in the laboratory, successful translation of groundbreaking research to clinical populations remains an important barrier. Particularly when compared with research on other types of solid tumors, breast cancer research is hampered by a lack of tractable in vivo model systems that accurately recapitulate the relevant clinical features of the disease. A primary objective of this article was to provide a generalizable overview of the types of in vivo model systems, with an emphasis primarily on murine models, that are widely deployed in preclinical breast cancer research. Major opportunities to advance precision cancer medicine facilitated by molecular imaging of preclinical breast cancer models are discussed. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  17. Fluorescence based molecular in vivo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Molecular imaging represents a modern research area that allows the in vivo study of molecular biological process kinetics using appropriate probes and visualization methods. This methodology may be defined- apart from the contrast media injection - as non-abrasive. In order to reach an in vivo molecular process imaging as accurate as possible the effects of the used probes on the biological should not be too large. The contrast media as important part of the molecular imaging can significantly contribute to the understanding of molecular processes and to the development of tailored diagnostics and therapy. Since more than 15 years PTB is developing optic imaging systems that may be used for fluorescence based visualization of tissue phantoms, small animal models and the localization of tumors and their predecessors, and for the early recognition of inflammatory processes in clinical trials. Cellular changes occur during many diseases, thus the molecular imaging might be of importance for the early diagnosis of chronic inflammatory diseases. Fluorescent dyes can be used as unspecific or also as specific contrast media, which allow enhanced detection sensitivity

  18. Imaging in early phase childhood cancer trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)

  19. Lung cancer imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ravenel, James G

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a guide to the diagnosis, staging and overview of the management of lung cancer relevant to practicing radiologists so that they can better understand the decision making issues and provide more useful communication to treating physicians.

  20. Molecular and parametric imaging with iron oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszewski, L.; Bremer, C.; Tombach, B.; Heindel, W.

    2007-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) contrast agents, clinically established for high resolution magnetic resonance imaging of reticuloendothelial system containing anatomical structures, can additionally be exploited for the non-invasive characterization and quantification of pathology down to the molecular level. In this context, SPIOs can be applied for non-invasive cell tracking, quantification of tissue perfusion and target specific imaging, as well as for the detection of gene expression. This article provides an overview of new applications for clinically approved iron oxides as well of new, modified SPIO contrast agents for parametric and molecular imaging. (orig.) [de

  1. Molecular Imaging of Inflammation in Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildgruber, Moritz; Swirski, Filip K.; Zernecke, Alma

    2013-01-01

    Acute rupture of vulnerable plaques frequently leads to myocardial infarction and stroke. Within the last decades, several cellular and molecular players have been identified that promote atherosclerotic lesion formation, maturation and plaque rupture. It is now widely recognized that inflammation of the vessel wall and distinct leukocyte subsets are involved throughout all phases of atherosclerotic lesion development. The mechanisms that render a stable plaque unstable and prone to rupture, however, remain unknown and the identification of the vulnerable plaque remains a major challenge in cardiovascular medicine. Imaging technologies used in the clinic offer minimal information about the underlying biology and potential risk for rupture. New imaging technologies are therefore being developed, and in the preclinical setting have enabled new and dynamic insights into the vessel wall for a better understanding of this complex disease. Molecular imaging has the potential to track biological processes, such as the activity of cellular and molecular biomarkers in vivo and over time. Similarly, novel imaging technologies specifically detect effects of therapies that aim to stabilize vulnerable plaques and silence vascular inflammation. Here we will review the potential of established and new molecular imaging technologies in the setting of atherosclerosis, and discuss the cumbersome steps required for translating molecular imaging approaches into the clinic. PMID:24312156

  2. Molecular Imaging Probe Development using Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kan; Wang, Ming-Wei; Lin, Wei-Yu; Phung, Duy Linh; Girgis, Mark D.; Wu, Anna M.; Tomlinson, James S.; Shen, Clifton K.-F.

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we review the latest advancement of microfluidics in molecular imaging probe development. Due to increasing needs for medical imaging, high demand for many types of molecular imaging probes will have to be met by exploiting novel chemistry/radiochemistry and engineering technologies to improve the production and development of suitable probes. The microfluidic-based probe synthesis is currently attracting a great deal of interest because of their potential to deliver many advantages over conventional systems. Numerous chemical reactions have been successfully performed in micro-reactors and the results convincingly demonstrate with great benefits to aid synthetic procedures, such as purer products, higher yields, shorter reaction times compared to the corresponding batch/macroscale reactions, and more benign reaction conditions. Several ‘proof-of-principle’ examples of molecular imaging probe syntheses using microfluidics, along with basics of device architecture and operation, and their potential limitations are discussed here. PMID:22977436

  3. Quantitative Image Informatics for Cancer Research (QIICR) | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaging has enormous untapped potential to improve cancer research through software to extract and process morphometric and functional biomarkers. In the era of non-cytotoxic treatment agents, multi- modality image-guided ablative therapies and rapidly evolving computational resources, quantitative imaging software can be transformative in enabling minimally invasive, objective and reproducible evaluation of cancer treatment response. Post-processing algorithms are integral to high-throughput analysis and fine- grained differentiation of multiple molecular targets.

  4. Molecular imaging of head and neck cancers. Perspectives of PET/MRI; Molekulare Bildgebung bei Kopf-ï]¿Hals-Tumoren. Perspektive der PET-MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumpp, P.; Kahn, T. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Leipzig (Germany); Purz, S.; Sabri, O. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    The {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT) procedure is a cornerstone in the diagnostics of head and neck cancers. Several years ago PET-magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) also became available as an alternative hybrid multimodal imaging method. Does PET/MRI have advantages over PET/CT in the diagnostics of head and neck cancers ?The diagnostic accuracy of the standard imaging methods CT, MRI and PET/CT is depicted according to currently available meta-analyses and studies concerning the use of PET/MRI for these indications are summarized. In all studies published up to now PET/MRI did not show superiority regarding the diagnostic accuracy in head and neck cancers; however, there is some evidence that in the future PET/MRI can contribute to tumor characterization and possibly be used to predict tumor response to therapy with the use of multiparametric imaging. Currently, {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT is not outperformed by PET/MRI in the diagnostics of head and neck cancers. The additive value of PET/MRI due to the use of multiparametric imaging needs to be investigated in future research. (orig.) [German] Die {sup 18}F-Fluordesoxyglukose-Positronenemissionstomographie-Computertomographie ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET-CT) hat ihren festen Stellenwert in der Diagnostik von Kopf-Hals-Tumoren. Seit einigen Jahren ist die PET-MRT als weitere hybride Bildgebungsmodalitaet verfuegbar. Bringt die PET-MRT Fortschritte bei der Diagnostik von Kopf-Hals-Tumoren ?Darstellung der diagnostischen Genauigkeit der bisherigen Bildgebungsmethoden CT, MRT und PET-CT anhand von Metaanalysen und Zusammenfassung der bisherigen Publikationen zur PET-MRT auf diesem Gebiet. Die PET-MRT zeigt in allen bisherigen Studien keine Ueberlegenheit bzgl. der diagnostischen Genauigkeit von Kopf-Hals-Tumoren. Sie kann jedoch durch die multiparametrische Diagnostik perspektivisch Beitraege zur Tumorcharakterisierung und damit moeglicherweise Voraussagen zum

  5. Cancer nanomedicine: from drug delivery to imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Edward Kai-Hua; Ho, Dean

    2013-12-18

    Nanotechnology-based chemotherapeutics and imaging agents represent a new era of "cancer nanomedicine" working to deliver versatile payloads with favorable pharmacokinetics and capitalize on molecular and cellular targeting for enhanced specificity, efficacy, and safety. Despite the versatility of many nanomedicine-based platforms, translating new drug or imaging agents to the clinic is costly and often hampered by regulatory hurdles. Therefore, translating cancer nanomedicine may largely be application-defined, where materials are adapted only toward specific indications where their properties confer unique advantages. This strategy may also realize therapies that can optimize clinical impact through combinatorial nanomedicine. In this review, we discuss how particular materials lend themselves to specific applications, the progress to date in clinical translation of nanomedicine, and promising approaches that may catalyze clinical acceptance of nano.

  6. Online molecular image repository and analysis system: A multicenter collaborative open-source infrastructure for molecular imaging research and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahabubur; Watabe, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    Molecular imaging serves as an important tool for researchers and clinicians to visualize and investigate complex biochemical phenomena using specialized instruments; these instruments are either used individually or in combination with targeted imaging agents to obtain images related to specific diseases with high sensitivity, specificity, and signal-to-noise ratios. However, molecular imaging, which is a multidisciplinary research field, faces several challenges, including the integration of imaging informatics with bioinformatics and medical informatics, requirement of reliable and robust image analysis algorithms, effective quality control of imaging facilities, and those related to individualized disease mapping, data sharing, software architecture, and knowledge management. As a cost-effective and open-source approach to address these challenges related to molecular imaging, we develop a flexible, transparent, and secure infrastructure, named MIRA, which stands for Molecular Imaging Repository and Analysis, primarily using the Python programming language, and a MySQL relational database system deployed on a Linux server. MIRA is designed with a centralized image archiving infrastructure and information database so that a multicenter collaborative informatics platform can be built. The capability of dealing with metadata, image file format normalization, and storing and viewing different types of documents and multimedia files make MIRA considerably flexible. With features like logging, auditing, commenting, sharing, and searching, MIRA is useful as an Electronic Laboratory Notebook for effective knowledge management. In addition, the centralized approach for MIRA facilitates on-the-fly access to all its features remotely through any web browser. Furthermore, the open-source approach provides the opportunity for sustainable continued development. MIRA offers an infrastructure that can be used as cross-boundary collaborative MI research platform for the rapid

  7. Radionuclide molecular target therapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fuhai; Meng Zhaowei; Tan Jian

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer harms people's health or even lives severely. Currently, the morbidity and mortality of lung cancer are ascending all over the world. Accounting for 38.08% of malignant tumor caused death in male and 16% in female in cities,ranking top in both sex. Especially, the therapy of non-small cell lung cancer has not been obviously improved for many years. Recently, sodium/iodide transporter gene transfection and the therapy of molecular target drugs mediated radionuclide are being taken into account and become the new research directions in treatment of advanced lung cancer patients with the development of technology and theory for medical molecular biology and the new knowledge of lung cancer's pathogenesis. (authors)

  8. Molecular biology of the lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, S.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases and leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The advances in molecular biology and genetics, including the modern microarray technology and rapid sequencing techniques, have enabled a remarkable progress into elucidating the lung cancer ethiopathogenesis. Numerous studies suggest that more than 20 different genetic and epigenetic alterations are accumulating during the pathogenesis of clinically evident pulmonary cancers as a clonal, multistep process. Thus far, the most investigated alterations are the inactivational mutations and losses of tumour suppressor genes and the overexpression of growth-promoting oncogenes. More recently, the acquired epigenetic inactivation of tumour suppressor genes by promoter hypermethylation has been recognized. The early clonal genetic abnormalities that occur in preneoplastic bronchial epithelium damaged by smoking or other carcinogenes are being identified. The molecular distinctions between small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as well as between tumors with different clinical outcomes have been described. These investigations lead to the h allmarks of lung cancer . Conclusions. It is realistic to expect that the molecular and cell culture-based investigations will lead to discoveries of new clinical applications with the potential to provide new avenues for early diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention, and most important, new more effective treatment approaches for the lung cancer patients. (author)

  9. Imaging metabolic heterogeneity in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Debanti; Pratx, Guillem

    2016-01-06

    As our knowledge of cancer metabolism has increased, it has become apparent that cancer metabolic processes are extremely heterogeneous. The reasons behind this heterogeneity include genetic diversity, the existence of multiple and redundant metabolic pathways, altered microenvironmental conditions, and so on. As a result, methods in the clinic and beyond have been developed in order to image and study tumor metabolism in the in vivo and in vitro regimes. Both regimes provide unique advantages and challenges, and may be used to provide a picture of tumor metabolic heterogeneity that is spatially and temporally comprehensive. Taken together, these methods may hold the key to appropriate cancer diagnoses and treatments in the future.

  10. Has molecular imaging delivered to drug development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Philip S.; Patel, Neel; McCarthy, Timothy J.

    2017-10-01

    Pharmaceutical research and development requires a systematic interrogation of a candidate molecule through clinical studies. To ensure resources are spent on only the most promising molecules, early clinical studies must understand fundamental attributes of the drug candidate, including exposure at the target site, target binding and pharmacological response in disease. Molecular imaging has the potential to quantitatively characterize these properties in small, efficient clinical studies. Specific benefits of molecular imaging in this setting (compared to blood and tissue sampling) include non-invasiveness and the ability to survey the whole body temporally. These methods have been adopted primarily for neuroscience drug development, catalysed by the inability to access the brain compartment by other means. If we believe molecular imaging is a technology platform able to underpin clinical drug development, why is it not adopted further to enable earlier decisions? This article considers current drug development needs, progress towards integration of molecular imaging into studies, current impediments and proposed models to broaden use and increase impact. This article is part of the themed issue 'Challenges for chemistry in molecular imaging'.

  11. Molecular Imaging of Apoptosis: From Micro to Macro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wenbin; Wang, Xiaobo; Xu, Pengfei; Liu, Gang; Eden, Henry S.; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is involved in numerous human conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic damage, autoimmune disorders and many types of cancer, and is often confused with other types of cell death. Therefore strategies that enable visualized detection of apoptosis would be of enormous benefit in the clinic for diagnosis, patient management, and development of new therapies. In recent years, improved understanding of the apoptotic machinery and progress in imaging modalities have provided opportunities for researchers to formulate microscopic and macroscopic imaging strategies based on well-defined molecular markers and/or physiological features. Correspondingly, a large collection of apoptosis imaging probes and approaches have been documented in preclinical and clinical studies. In this review, we mainly discuss microscopic imaging assays and macroscopic imaging probes, ranging in complexity from simple attachments of reporter moieties to proteins that interact with apoptotic biomarkers, to rationally designed probes that target biochemical changes. Their clinical translation will also be our focus. PMID:25825597

  12. Tumor Targeting via Sialic Acid: [68Ga]DOTA-en-pba as a New Tool for Molecular Imaging of Cancer with PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoukalas, Charalambos; Geninatti-Crich, Simonetta; Gaitanis, Anastasios; Tsotakos, Theodoros; Paravatou-Petsotas, Maria; Aime, Silvio; Jiménez-Juárez, Rogelio; Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos D; Djanashvili, Kristina; Bouziotis, Penelope

    2018-02-20

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the potential of Ga-68-labeled macrocycle (DOTA-en-pba) conjugated with phenylboronic vector for tumor recognition by positron emission tomography (PET), based on targeting of the overexpressed sialic acid (Sia). The imaging reporter DOTA-en-pba was synthesized and labeled with Ga-68 at high efficiency. Cell binding assay on Mel-C and B16-F10 melanoma cells was used to evaluate melanin production and Sia overexpression to determine the best model for demonstrating the capability of [ 68 Ga]DOTA-en-pba to recognize tumors. The in vivo PET imaging was done with B16-F10 tumor-bearing SCID mice injected with [ 68 Ga]DOTA-en-pba intravenously. Tumor, blood, and urine metabolites were assessed to evaluate the presence of a targeting agent. The affinity of [ 68 Ga]DOTA-en-pba to Sia was demonstrated on B16-F10 melanoma cells, after the production of melanin as well as Sia overexpression was proved to be up to four times higher in this cell line compared to that in Mel-C cells. Biodistribution studies in B16-F10 tumor-bearing SCID mice showed blood clearance at the time points studied, while uptake in the tumor peaked at 60 min post-injection (6.36 ± 2.41 % ID/g). The acquired PET images were in accordance with the ex vivo biodistribution results. Metabolite assessment on tumor, blood, and urine samples showed that [ 68 Ga]DOTA-en-pba remains unmetabolized up to at least 60 min post-injection. Our work is the first attempt for in vivo imaging of cancer by targeting overexpression of sialic acid on cancer cells with a radiotracer in PET.

  13. Clinical photoacoustic imaging of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valluru, Keerthi S.; Willmann, Juergen K. [Dept. of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid technique that shines laser light on tissue and measures optically induced ultrasound signal. There is growing interest in the clinical community over this new technique and its possible clinical applications. One of the most prominent features of photoacoustic imaging is its ability to characterize tissue, leveraging differences in the optical absorption of underlying tissue components such as hemoglobin, lipids, melanin, collagen and water among many others. In this review, the state-of-the-art photoacoustic imaging techniques and some of the key outcomes pertaining to different cancer applications in the clinic are presented.

  14. Molecular alterations and biomarkers in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, William M.; Pritchard, Colin C.

    2013-01-01

    The promise of precision medicine is now a clinical reality. Advances in our understanding of the molecular genetics of colorectal cancer genetics is leading to the development of a variety of biomarkers that are being used as early detection markers, prognostic markers, and markers for predicting treatment responses. This is no more evident than in the recent advances in testing colorectal cancers for specific molecular alterations in order to guide treatment with the monoclonal antibody therapies cetuximab and panitumumab, which target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this review, we update a prior review published in 2010 and describe our current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and how these alterations relate to emerging biomarkers for early detection and risk stratification (diagnostic markers), prognosis (prognostic markers), and the prediction of treatment responses (predictive markers). PMID:24178577

  15. Cancer heterogeneity and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, James P B

    2017-04-01

    There is interest in identifying and quantifying tumor heterogeneity at the genomic, tissue pathology and clinical imaging scales, as this may help better understand tumor biology and may yield useful biomarkers for guiding therapy-based decision making. This review focuses on the role and value of using x-ray, CT, MRI and PET based imaging methods that identify, measure and map tumor heterogeneity. In particular we highlight the potential value of these techniques and the key challenges required to validate and qualify these biomarkers for clinical use. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Molecular nuclear imaging for targeting and trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Jun; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong

    2006-01-01

    Noninvasive molecular targeting in living subjects is highly demanded for better understanding of such diverse topics as the efficient delivery of drugs, genes, or radionuclides for the diagnosis or treatment of diseases. Progress in molecular biology, genetic engineering and polymer chemistry provides various tools to target molecules and cells in vivo. We used chitosan as a polymer, and 99m Tc as a radionuclide. We developed 99m Tc-galactosylated chitosan to target asialoglycoprotein receptors for nuclear imaging. We also developed 99m Tc-HYNIC-chitosan-transferrin to target inflammatory cells, which was more effective than 67 Ga-citrate for imaging inflammatory lesions. For an effective delivery of molecules, a longer circulation time is needed. We found that around 10% PEGylation was most effective to prolong the circulation time of liposomes for nuclear imaging of 99m Tc-HMPAO-labeled liposomes in rats. Using various characteristics of molecules, we can deliver drugs into targets more effectively. We found that 99m Tc-labeled biodegradable pullulan-derivatives are retained in tumor tissue in response to extracellular ion-strength. For the trafficking of various cells or bacteria in an intact animal, we used optical imaging techniques or radiolabeled cells. We monitored tumor-targeting bacteria by bioluminescent imaging techniques, dentritic cells by radiolabeling and neuronal stem cells by sodium-iodide symporter reporter gene imaging. In summary, we introduced recent achievements of molecular nuclear imaging technologies in targeting receptors for hepatocyte or inflammatory cells and in trafficking bacterial, immune and stem cells using molecular nuclear imaging techniques

  17. A review of molecular imaging studies reaching the clinical stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Franklin C.; Kim, E. Edmund

    2009-01-01

    The practice of molecular imaging in the clinics is examined across various imaging modalities to assess the current status of clinical molecular imaging. The various physiologic and scientific bases of clinical molecular imaging are surveyed to assess the possibilities and opportunities for the deployment of the different imaging modalities in the near future. The requisites for successful candidate(s) of clinical molecular imaging are reviewed for future development.

  18. Molecular Imaging Probes for Positron Emission Tomography and Optical Imaging of Sentinel Lymph Node and Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhengtao

    Molecular imaging is visualizations and measurements of in vivo biological processes at the molecular or cellular level using specific imaging probes. As an emerging technology, biocompatible macromolecular or nanoparticle based targeted imaging probes have gained increasing popularities. Those complexes consist of a carrier, an imaging reporter, and a targeting ligand. The active targeting ability dramatically increases the specificity. And the multivalency effect may further reduce the dose while providing a decent signal. In this thesis, sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping and cancer imaging are two research topics. The focus is to develop molecular imaging probes with high specificity and sensitivity, for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and optical imaging. The objective of this thesis is to explore dextran radiopharmaceuticals and porous silicon nanoparticles based molecular imaging agents. Dextran polymers are excellent carriers to deliver imaging reporters or therapeutic agents due to its well established safety profile and oligosaccharide conjugation chemistry. There is also a wide selection of dextran polymers with different lengths. On the other hand, Silicon nanoparticles represent another class of biodegradable materials for imaging and drug delivery. The success in fluorescence lifetime imaging and enhancements of the immune activation potency was briefly discussed. Chapter 1 begins with an overview on current molecular imaging techniques and imaging probes. Chapter 2 presents a near-IR dye conjugated probe, IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept. Fluorophore density was optimized to generate the maximum brightness. It was labeled with 68Ga and 99mTc and in vivo SLN mapping was successfully performed in different animals, such as mice, rabbits, dogs and pigs. With 99mTc labeled IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept, chapter 3 introduces a two-day imaging protocol with a hand-held imager. Chapter 4 proposed a method to dual radiolabel the IRDye 800CW-tilmanocept with both 68Ga and

  19. [The molecular biology of epithelial ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Alexandra; Pautier, Patricia; Tazi, Youssef; Morice, Philippe; Duvillard, Pierre; Gouy, Sébastien; Uzan, Catherine; Gauthier, Hélène; Balleyguier, Corinne; Lhommé, Catherine

    2012-12-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer frequently presents at an advanced stage where the cornerstone of management remains surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. Unfortunately, despite sometimes dramatic initial responses, advanced ovarian cancer almost invariably relapses. Little progress has been made in the identification of effective targeted-therapies for ovarian cancer. The majority of clinical trials investigating novel agents have been negative and the only approved targeted-therapy is bevacizumab, for which reliable predictive biomarkers still elude us. Ovarian cancer is treated as a uniform disease. Yet, biological studies have highlighted the heterogeneity of this malignancy with marked differences in histology, oncogenesis, prognosis, chemo-responsiveness, and molecular profile. Recent high throughput molecular analyses have identified a huge number of genomic/phenotypic alterations. Broadly speaking, high grade serous carcinomas (type II) display significant genomic instability and numerous amplifications and losses; low grade (type I) tumors are genomically stable but display frequent mutations. Importantly, many of these genomic alterations relate to known oncogenes for which targeted-therapies are available or in development. There is today a real potential for personalized medicine in ovarian cancer. We will review the current literature regarding the molecular characterization of epithelial ovarian cancer and discuss the biological rationale for a number of targeted strategies. In order to translate these biological advances into meaningful clinical improvements for our patients, it is imperative to incorporate translational research in ovarian cancer trials, a number of strategies will be proposed such as the acquisition of quality tumor samples, including sequential pre- and post-treatment biopsies, the potential of liquid biopsies, and novel trial designs more adapted to the molecular era of ovarian cancer research.

  20. Molecular perspectives in differentiated thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, C; Groussin, L

    2015-02-01

    Progress in understanding the molecular genetics of thyroid cancer in the last 20 years has accelerated recently with the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies known as Next-Generation Sequencing. Besides classical molecular abnormalities involving the MAPK (Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase) and PI3K (PhosphoInositide 3-Kinase) pathways that play a key role in follicular-derived thyroid tumorigenesis, new molecular abnormalities have been discovered. The major advances in recent years have been the discovery of new somatic driver gene point mutations (such as RASAL1 [RAS protein activator Like 1] mutations in follicular cancer) and/or mutations that have prognostic value (such as TERT [Telomerase reverse transcriptase] promoter mutations); new chromosomal rearrangements, usually having close connection with exposure to ionizing radiation (such as ALK [Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase] rearrangements); and deregulation of some gene or microRNA expression representing a molecular signature. Progress made in understanding the molecular mechanisms of thyroid cancer offers new perspectives for the diagnosis of the benign or malignant status of a thyroid nodule, to refine prognosis and offer new perspectives of targeted therapy for radioiodine-refractory cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. In Vivo Imaging of Molecularly Targeted Phage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Kelly

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification of in vivo affinity ligands would have far-reaching applications for imaging specific molecular targets, in vivo systems imaging, and medical use. We have developed a high-throughput method for identifying and optimizing ligands to map and image biologic targets of interest in vivo. We directly labeled viable phage clones with far-red fluorochromes and comparatively imaged them in vivo by multichannel fluorescence ratio imaging. Using Secreted Protein Acidic and Rich in Cysteine (osteonectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 as model targets, we show that: 1 fluorescently labeled phage retains target specificity on labeling; 2 in vivo distribution can be quantitated (detection thresholds of ~ 300 phage/mm3 tissue throughout the entire depth of the tumor using fluorescent tomographic imaging; and 3 fluorescently labeled phage itself can serve as a replenishable molecular imaging agent. The described method should find widespread application in the rapid in vivo discovery and validation of affinity ligands and, importantly, in the use of fluorochrome-labeled phage clones as in vivo imaging agents.

  2. [Colorectal cancer (CCR): genetic and molecular alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Vázquez, Clara Ibet; Rosales-Reynoso, Mónica Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present a genetic and molecular overview of colorectal carcinogenesis (sporadic and hereditary origin) as a multistage process, where there are a number of molecular mechanisms associated with the development of colorectal cancer and genomic instability that allows the accumulation of mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, chromosomal instability, and methylation and microsatellite instability, and the involvement of altered expression of microRNAs' prognosis factors.

  3. Molecular Imaging in Nanotechnology and Theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Chrysafis; Pal, Suchetan; Rotter, Lara; Yang, Jiang; Kircher, Moritz F

    2017-06-01

    The fields of biomedical nanotechnology and theranostics have enjoyed exponential growth in recent years. The "Molecular Imaging in Nanotechnology and Theranostics" (MINT) Interest Group of the World Molecular Imaging Society (WMIS) was created in order to provide a more organized and focused forum on these topics within the WMIS and at the World Molecular Imaging Conference (WMIC). The interest group was founded in 2015 and was officially inaugurated during the 2016 WMIC. The overarching goal of MINT is to bring together the many scientists who work on molecular imaging approaches using nanotechnology and those that work on theranostic agents. MINT therefore represents scientists, labs, and institutes that are very diverse in their scientific backgrounds and areas of expertise, reflecting the wide array of materials and approaches that drive these fields. In this short review, we attempt to provide a condensed overview over some of the key areas covered by MINT. Given the breadth of the fields and the given space constraints, we have limited the coverage to the realm of nanoconstructs, although theranostics is certainly not limited to this domain. We will also focus only on the most recent developments of the last 3-5 years, in order to provide the reader with an intuition of what is "in the pipeline" and has potential for clinical translation in the near future.

  4. Towards molecular imaging by means of MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norek, M.

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in the thesis is focused on the design of highly efficient contrast agents for molecular imaging by means of MRI based on the detailed physical characterization of the given material. Specifically, attention is paid on the development of contrast agents for magnetic fields higher

  5. Molecular Imaging in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, H.C.; Doorduin, J.; van Berckel, B.N.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we aim to shed light on the schizophrenia spectrum disorders using molecular imaging. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders consist primarily of the disorders with full-blown psychosis in their course and are grouped in the DSM-IV category of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.

  6. Connotation and category of functional-molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianran; Tian Jiahe

    2007-01-01

    Function and molecular lmaging represent medical imaging' s direction. The review article introduce function and molecular's concept and category and its characteristic. Comparing with traditionary classics radiology, function and molecular imaging have many features, such as micro-mount and specificity and quantitative. There are many technology about function and molecular imaging. Function and molecular imaging is important ingredient of modern medical and play a considerable role. (authors)

  7. Molecular photoacoustic imaging of follicular thyroid carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Jelena; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajashekar; Bohndiek, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    in living mice optically, observing the increase in Alexa750 fluorescence, and photoacoustically, using a dual wavelength imaging method. Results Active forms of both MMP2 and MMP-9 enzymes were found in FTC133 tumor homogenates, with MMP-9 detected in greater amounts. The molecular imaging agent......Purpose To evaluate the potential of targeted photoacoustic imaging as a non-invasive method for detection of follicular thyroid carcinoma. Experimental Design We determined the presence and activity of two members of matrix metalloproteinase family (MMP), MMP-2 and MMP-9, suggested as biomarkers...... for malignant thyroid lesions, in FTC133 thyroid tumors subcutaneously implanted in nude mice. The imaging agent used to visualize tumors was MMP activatable photoacoustic probe, Alexa750-CXeeeeXPLGLAGrrrrrXK-BHQ3. Cleavage of the MMP activatable agent was imaged after intratumoral and intravenous injections...

  8. Molecular and biological interactions in colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heer, Pieter de

    2007-01-01

    The current thesis discusses the use of molecular and biological tumor markers to predict clinical outcome. By studying several key processes in the develepment of cancer as regulation of cell motility (non-receptor protein tyrosin adesion kinases, FAK, Src and paxillin, Apoptosis (caspase-3

  9. Mesoscopic and Macroscopic Optoacoustic Imaging of Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taruttis, Adrian; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2015-01-01

    Optoacoustic imaging combines the rich contrast of optical methods with the resolution of ultrasound imaging. It can therefore deliver optical visualization of cancer far deeper in tissue than optical microscopy and other conventional optical imaging methods. Technological progress and novel

  10. Molecular Imaging and nuclear medicine: expectations and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollo, F.D.

    2003-01-01

    Molecular Imaging with Nuclear Medicine offers earlier, more accurate and more specific diagnosis, as well as targeted molecular therapy, providing significant improvements in clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  11. Molecular markers for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Rodriguez, Maria Teresa; Sinconegui Gomez, Belkys; Cruz Cruz, Anaisa

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more accessible and potentially usable from a methodological viewpoint for diagnosis of the thyroid nodule before surgery. The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more

  12. Breast cancer molecular subtype classification using deep features: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhe; Albadawy, Ehab; Saha, Ashirbani; Zhang, Jun; Harowicz, Michael R.; Mazurowski, Maciej A.

    2018-02-01

    Radiogenomics is a field of investigation that attempts to examine the relationship between imaging characteris- tics of cancerous lesions and their genomic composition. This could offer a noninvasive alternative to establishing genomic characteristics of tumors and aid cancer treatment planning. While deep learning has shown its supe- riority in many detection and classification tasks, breast cancer radiogenomic data suffers from a very limited number of training examples, which renders the training of the neural network for this problem directly and with no pretraining a very difficult task. In this study, we investigated an alternative deep learning approach referred to as deep features or off-the-shelf network approach to classify breast cancer molecular subtypes using breast dynamic contrast enhanced MRIs. We used the feature maps of different convolution layers and fully connected layers as features and trained support vector machines using these features for prediction. For the feature maps that have multiple layers, max-pooling was performed along each channel. We focused on distinguishing the Luminal A subtype from other subtypes. To evaluate the models, 10 fold cross-validation was performed and the final AUC was obtained by averaging the performance of all the folds. The highest average AUC obtained was 0.64 (0.95 CI: 0.57-0.71), using the feature maps of the last fully connected layer. This indicates the promise of using this approach to predict the breast cancer molecular subtypes. Since the best performance appears in the last fully connected layer, it also implies that breast cancer molecular subtypes may relate to high level image features

  13. PET imaging in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombardieri, E.; Crippa, F.

    2001-01-01

    The basis of tumour imaging with PET is a specific uptake mechanism of positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals. Among the potential tracers for breast cancer (fluorodeoxyglucose, methionine, tyrosine, fluoro-estradiol, nor-progesterone), 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose labelled with fluorine (FDG) is the most widely used radiopharmaceutical because breast cancer is particularly avid of FDG and 18 F has the advantages of the a relatively long physical half-life. Mammography is the first choice examination in studying breast masses, due to its very good performances, an excellent compliance and the best value regarding the cost/effectiveness aspects. The FDG uptake in tissue correlates with the histological grade and potential aggressiveness of breast cancer and this may have prognostic consequences. Besides the evaluation of breast lesions, FDG-PET shows a great efficacy in staging lymph node involvement prior surgery and this could have a great value in loco-regional staging. Whole body PET provides also information with regard to metastasis localizations both in soft tissue and bone, and plays an important clinical role mainly in detecting recurrent metastatic disease. In fact for its metabolic characteristics PET visualizes regions of enhanced metabolic activity and can complete other imaging modalities based on structural anatomic changes. Even though CT and MRI show superior resolution characteristics, it has been demonstrated that PET provides more accurate information in discriminating between viable tumour, fibrotic scar or necrosis. These statements are coming from the examination of more than 2000 breast cancer detection

  14. Transrectal ultrasound imaging and prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossen, Tjerk; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2003-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most important causes of death from cancer in men. Ultrasound imaging is frequently used in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. This paper presents an overview of currently available ultrasound imaging techniques. The underlying principles and methods are discussed

  15. Fluorescent imaging of cancerous tissues for targeted surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Lihong; Shen, Baozhong; Cheng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    To maximize tumor excision and minimize collateral damage is the primary goal of cancer surgery. Emerging molecular imaging techniques have to “image-guided surgery” developing into “molecular imaging-guided surgery”, which is termed “targeted surgery” in this review. Consequently, the precision of surgery can be advanced from tissue-scale to molecule-scale, enabling “targeted surgery” to be a component of “targeted therapy”. Evidence from numerous experimental and clinical studies has demonstrated significant benefits of fluorescent imaging in targeted surgery with preoperative molecular diagnostic screening. Fluorescent imaging can help to improve intraoperative staging and enable more radical cytoreduction, detect obscure tumor lesions in special organs, highlight tumor margins, better map lymph node metastases, and identify important normal structures intraoperatively. Though limited tissue penetration of fluorescent imaging and tumor heterogeneity are two major hurdles for current targeted surgery, multimodality imaging and multiplex imaging may provide potential solutions to overcome these issues, respectively. Moreover, though many fluorescent imaging techniques and probes have been investigated, targeted surgery remains at a proof-of-principle stage. The impact of fluorescent imaging on cancer surgery will likely be realized through persistent interdisciplinary amalgamation of research in diverse fields. PMID:25064553

  16. Image guided prostate cancer treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, Robert L. [Bard Cancer Center, Biofoundation for Angiogenesis Research and Development, New York, NY (United States); Fuetterer, Jurgen J. [Radboud Univ. Nijmegen, Medical Centre (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Sperling, Dan (ed.) [Sperling Prostate Center, Alpha 3TMRI, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Detailed information on image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, and microwave and laser ablation. Numerous high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment. Represents the state of the art in Non Invasive Imaging and Minimally Invasive Ablation Treatment (MIAT). Image-Guided Prostate Cancer Treatments is a comprehensive reference and practical guide on the technology and application of ultrasound and MRI in the male pelvis, with special attention to the prostate. The book is organized into three main sections, the first of which is devoted to general aspects of imaging and image-guided treatments. The second section provides a systematic overview of the application of ultrasound and MRI to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the lower urinary tract. Performance of the ultrasound and MRI studies is explained, and the normal and abnormal pathological anatomy is reviewed. Correlation with the ultrasound in the same plane is provided to assist in understanding the MRI sequences. Biopsy and interventional procedures, ultrasound-MRI fusion techniques, and image-guided therapies, including focused ultrasound, photodynamic therapy, microwave and laser ablation, are all fully covered. The third section focuses on securing treatment effectiveness and the use of follow-up imaging to ensure therapeutic success and detect tumor recurrence at an early stage, which is vital given that prompt focal treatment of recurrence is very successful. Here, particular attention is paid to the role of Doppler ultrasound and DCE-MRI technologies. This book, containing a wealth of high-quality illustrations based on high-end equipment, will acquaint beginners with the basics of prostate ultrasound and MRI, while more advanced practitioners will learn new skills, means of avoiding pitfalls, and ways of effectively

  17. Ethical and regulatory problems of molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jae Min

    2004-01-01

    As a molecular imaging is the most up-to-date technology in nuclear medicine, it has complicate ethical and regulatory problems. For animal experiment, we have to follow institutional animal care committee. For clinical experiment, we have to get approval of Institutional Review Board according to Helsinki declaration. In addition, approval from Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is essential for manufacturing and commercialization. However, too much regulation would suppress development of new technology, which would result in the loss of national competitive power. In addition, most new radioactive ligands for molecular imaging are administered to human at sub-pharmacological and sub-toxicological level. In conclusion, a balanced regulation is essential for the safety of clinical application and development of new technology

  18. Molecular Cochaperones: Tumor Growth and Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart K. Calderwood

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular chaperones play important roles in all cellular organisms by maintaining the proteome in an optimally folded state. They appear to be at a premium in cancer cells whose evolution along the malignant pathways requires the fostering of cohorts of mutant proteins that are employed to overcome tumor suppressive regulation. To function at significant rates in cells, HSPs interact with cochaperones, proteins that assist in catalyzing individual steps in molecular chaperoning as well as in posttranslational modification and intracellular localization. We review current knowledge regarding the roles of chaperones such as heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 and Hsp70 and their cochaperones in cancer. Cochaperones are potential targets for cancer therapy in themselves and can be used to assess the likely prognosis of individual malignancies. Hsp70 cochaperones Bag1, Bag3, and Hop play significant roles in the etiology of some cancers as do Hsp90 cochaperones Aha1, p23, Cdc37, and FKBP1. Others such as the J domain protein family, HspBP1, TTC4, and FKBPL appear to be associated with more benign tumor phenotypes. The key importance of cochaperones for many pathways of protein folding in cancer suggests high promise for the future development of novel pharmaceutical agents.

  19. Multiparametric and molecular imaging of breast tumors with MRI and PET/MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinker, K.; Marino, M.A.; Meyer-Baese, A.; Helbich, T.H.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast is an indispensable tool in breast imaging for many indications. Several functional parameters with MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) have been assessed for imaging of breast tumors and their combined application is defined as multiparametric imaging. Available data suggest that multiparametric imaging using different functional MRI and PET parameters can provide detailed information about the hallmarks of cancer and may provide additional specificity. Multiparametric and molecular imaging of the breast comprises established MRI parameters, such as dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), MR proton spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRSI) as well as combinations of radiological and MRI techniques (e.g. PET/CT and PET/MRI) using radiotracers, such as fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Multiparametric and molecular imaging of the breast can be performed at different field-strengths (range 1.5-7 T). Emerging parameters comprise novel promising techniques, such as sodium imaging ( 23 Na MRI), phosphorus spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRSI), chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) and hyperpolarized MRI as well as various specific radiotracers. Multiparametric and molecular imaging has multiple applications in breast imaging. Multiparametric and molecular imaging of the breast is an evolving field that will enable improved detection, characterization, staging and monitoring for personalized medicine in breast cancer. (orig.) [de

  20. Cancer imaging phenomics toolkit: quantitative imaging analytics for precision diagnostics and predictive modeling of clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davatzikos, Christos; Rathore, Saima; Bakas, Spyridon; Pati, Sarthak; Bergman, Mark; Kalarot, Ratheesh; Sridharan, Patmaa; Gastounioti, Aimilia; Jahani, Nariman; Cohen, Eric; Akbari, Hamed; Tunc, Birkan; Doshi, Jimit; Parker, Drew; Hsieh, Michael; Sotiras, Aristeidis; Li, Hongming; Ou, Yangming; Doot, Robert K; Bilello, Michel; Fan, Yong; Shinohara, Russell T; Yushkevich, Paul; Verma, Ragini; Kontos, Despina

    2018-01-01

    The growth of multiparametric imaging protocols has paved the way for quantitative imaging phenotypes that predict treatment response and clinical outcome, reflect underlying cancer molecular characteristics and spatiotemporal heterogeneity, and can guide personalized treatment planning. This growth has underlined the need for efficient quantitative analytics to derive high-dimensional imaging signatures of diagnostic and predictive value in this emerging era of integrated precision diagnostics. This paper presents cancer imaging phenomics toolkit (CaPTk), a new and dynamically growing software platform for analysis of radiographic images of cancer, currently focusing on brain, breast, and lung cancer. CaPTk leverages the value of quantitative imaging analytics along with machine learning to derive phenotypic imaging signatures, based on two-level functionality. First, image analysis algorithms are used to extract comprehensive panels of diverse and complementary features, such as multiparametric intensity histogram distributions, texture, shape, kinetics, connectomics, and spatial patterns. At the second level, these quantitative imaging signatures are fed into multivariate machine learning models to produce diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers. Results from clinical studies in three areas are shown: (i) computational neuro-oncology of brain gliomas for precision diagnostics, prediction of outcome, and treatment planning; (ii) prediction of treatment response for breast and lung cancer, and (iii) risk assessment for breast cancer.

  1. Molecular diagnosis of prostate cancer: Topical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Knyazev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second most common cancer and the fifth highest malignancy mortality rate in men worldwide. Although PC is detectable in 15-20% of men during life, its death risk is only about 3%. This means that not all PC cases require the same management tactics. The given review analyzes the current investigations searching for molecular biological markers to predict the course of PC and to choose its treatment policy, including that in the development of resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy.

  2. Molecular biology of prostate cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Timothy C.; Sehgal, I.; Timme, T.L.; Rn, C.; Yang, G.; Park, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    'control' gene in human prostate cancer was supported by studies using molecular biological and immunohistochemical techniques (Eastham et al, Clin Cancer Res 1:1111-1118, 1995 and Yang et al, Clin Cancer Res 2:399-401, 1996). Another possible ''control'' gene related to prostate cancer metastases may be the gene which encodes TGF-β1. We have previously shown that overexpression of TGF-β1 is associated with mouse and human prostate cancer and occurs predominantly in metastatic disease (Eastham et al, Lab Invest 73:628-635, 1995). To investigate a possible role of TGF-β1 in metastatic progression, we compared growth and extracellular matrix responses to TGF-β1 in six metastatic and six primary tumor cell lines derived from our metastatic mouse prostate cancer model system. The results indicated that tumor cell lines derived from focal pulmonary metastases secrete greater quantities of total TGF-β's and have lost most or all TGF-β1 growth inhibition, but respond to TGF-β1 through induction of type IV collagenase, matrix metalloproteinase-9. Cell lines derived from primary site tumors retain TGF-β1 growth inhibition, but lack TGF-β1-induced collagenase activity. Our results indicate that the elimination and/or subversion of TGF-β1 responsive pathways should be considered a mechanistic framework for metastatic events (Sehgal et al., Cancer Res 56:3359-3365, 1996). Both p53 and TGF-β1 can regulate the expression of downstream genetic targets, therefore, we are currently pursuing a strategy using differential display-polymerase chain reaction to elucidate additional changes in gene expression resulting from loss and/or subversion of function for these two putative ''control'' genes in prostate cancer metastasis. Hopefully, identification of these target genes will lead to greater understanding of the mechanisms of prostate cancer metastasis and possibly provide novel therapeutic targets

  3. Multidisciplinary Functional MR Imaging for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Kon; Jang, Yun Jin; Cho, Gyung Goo

    2009-01-01

    Various functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques are used for evaluating prostate cancer including diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast- enhanced MR imaging, and MR spectroscopy. These techniques provide unique information that is helpful to differentiate prostate cancer from non-cancerous tissue and have been proven to improve the diagnostic performance of MRI not only for cancer detection, but also for staging, post-treatment monitoring, and guiding prostate biopsies. However, each functional MR imaging technique also has inherent challenges. Therefore, in order to make accurate diagnoses, it is important to comprehensively understand their advantages and limitations, histologic background related with image findings, and their clinical relevance for evaluating prostate cancer. This article will review the basic principles and clinical significance of functional MR imaging for evaluating prostate cancer

  4. Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes Among Moroccan Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissal Mahir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast cancer remains despite the therapeutic progress, the leading cause of death by cancer among women. It represents a group of very heterogeneous clinical, histopathological and molecular diseases. Molecular heterogeneity has been demonstrated by genomic analysis, even for similar histology cancers. Four subgroups of breast carcinomas are distinguished: Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2 over expression and Basal - like. The Immuno-histo-chemical analysis useip (estrogen receptors RE, the PR (progesterone receptors, the ((Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2, the Ki67 (proliferation marker HER2, CK5/6 has shown a subdivision into subgroups similar to those found by genomic analysis. These subgroups are different from the point of view of clinical course and response to adjuvant treatment.Objectives: The aim of this work is to study the molecular profile of the breast cancers by immunostaining on Moroccan series to a classification with a prognostic value allowing a treatment tailored to each group of patients. Furthermore, the molecular subgroups were correlated to other clinical and histological factors.Material and methods: It is a prospective study of the laboratory of Anatomy and Pathologic cytology of the children's Hospital, the service I of the maternity hospital in Rabat and in cooperation with the United Nations Centre of pathological anatomy. To do this, 88 cases of breast cancer together were diagnosed between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014, taking a period of five years. All tissue samples made subject study of Immuno-histo-chemistry with the following markers: RE, PR, HER2 and Ki67. Only negative triple cases (HR and HER2 negative benefited from an additional marking with CK5/6 and EGFR to set the basal profile.Results: Series of 88 cases of mammary carcinomas observed on operating parts, ranged in age between 28 and 84 years old, with an average of 51 ± 12, 8. Carcinoma infiltrating non-specific (DOCTORS was

  5. Molecular cytogenetic in the familial cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermak, M.

    2015-01-01

    The development of cancer diseases is accompanied by number of genetic changes at different levels of the genome. Some of these changes are still subject of research but others are already known in such an extent that they are associated with a specific type of malignity, the development, or treatment possibilities. The cancer genetics dispose of wide range of techniques, with reliable detection of the causal changes. Starting the molecular cytogenetics has launched a new era in diagnostics of genetic aberrations. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) definitely changed cytogenetic world from black and white to color one and set the foundation of modern investigative methods such as M-FISH, CGH, array CGH and many others. Successively all these methodologies have become a part of routine cancer diagnostics thorough the world. Actually, when much attention is given mostly to submicroscopic changes in DNA supposed as predispositions to various malignancies, the molecular cytogenetics is trying to success in competition of modern highly sensitive molecular biology methods. (author)

  6. Molecular targeted therapies of aggressive thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Martina eFerrari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC that arise from follicular cells account > 90% of thyroid cancer (TC [papillary thyroid cancer (PTC 90%, follicular thyroid cancer (FTC 10%], while medullary thyroid cancer (MTC accounts < 5%. Complete total thyroidectomy is the treatment of choice for PTC, FTC and MTC. Radioiodine is routinely recommended in high-risk patients and considered in intermediate risk DTC patients. DTC cancer cells, during tumor progression, may lose the iodide uptake ability, becoming resistant to radioiodine, with a significant worsening of the prognosis. The lack of specific and effective drugs for aggressive and metastatic DTC and MTC leads to additional efforts towards the development of new drugs.Several genetic alterations in different molecular pathways in TC have been shown in the last decades, associated with TC development and progression. Rearranged during transfection (RET/PTC gene rearrangements, RET mutations, BRAF mutations, RAS mutations, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 angiogenesis pathways are some of the known pathways determinant in the development of TC. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs are small organic compounds inhibiting tyrosine kinases auto-phosphorylation and activation, most of them are multikinase inhibitors. TKIs act on the above-mentioned molecular pathways involved in growth, angiogenesis, local and distant spread of TC. TKIs are emerging as new therapies of aggressive TC, including DTC, MTC and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC, being capable of inducing clinical responses and stabilization of disease. Vandetanib and cabozantinib have been approved for the treatment of MTC, while sorafenib and lenvatinib for DTC refractory to radioiodine. These drugs prolong median progression-free survival, but until now no significant increase has been observed on overall survival; side effects are common. New efforts are made to find new more effective and safe compounds, and to personalize

  7. Molecular concept in human oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Akhilesh; Singh, Shraddha; Kumar, Vijay; Pal, U S

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oral cancer remains high in both Asian and Western countries. Several risk factors associated with development of oral cancer are now well-known, including tobacco chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Cancerous risk factors may cause many genetic events through chromosomal alteration or mutations in genetic material and lead to progression and development of oral cancer through histological progress, carcinogenesis. Oral squamous carcinogenesis is a multistep process in which multiple genetic events occur that alter the normal functions of proto-oncogenes/oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Furthermore, these gene alterations can deregulate the normal activity such as increase in the production of growth factors (transforming growth factor-α [TGF-α], TGF-β, platelet-derived growth factor, etc.) or numbers of cell surface receptors (epidermal growth factor receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor, etc.), enhanced intracellular messenger signaling and mutated production of transcription factors (ras gene family, c-myc gene) which results disturb to tightly regulated signaling pathways of normal cell. Several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes have been implicated in oral cancer especially cyclin family, ras, PRAD-1, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p53 and RB1. Viral infections, particularly with oncogenic human papilloma virus subtype (16 and 18) and Epstein-Barr virus have tumorigenic effect on oral epithelia. Worldwide, this is an urgent need to initiate oral cancer research programs at molecular and genetic level which investigates the causes of genetic and molecular defect, responsible for malignancy. This approach may lead to development of target dependent tumor-specific drugs and appropriate gene therapy.

  8. Molecular Imaging with Activatable Reporter Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imaging is a newly emerged multiple disciplinary field that aims to visualize, characterize and quantitatively measure biological processes at cellular and molecular levels in humans and other living systems. A reporter gene is a piece of DNA encoding reporter protein, which presents as a readily measurable phenotype that can be distinguished easily from the background of endogenous protein. After being transferred into cells of organ systems (transgenes, the reporter gene can be utilized to visualize transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, protein-protein interactions, or trafficking of proteins or cells in living subjects. Herein, we review previous classification of reporter genes and regroup the reporter gene based imaging as basic, inducible and activatable, based on the regulation of reporter gene transcription and post-translational modification of reporter proteins. We then focus on activatable reporters, in which the signal can be activated at the posttranslational level for visualizing protein-protein interactions, protein phosphorylation or tertiary structure changes. The applications of several types of activatable reporters will also be summarized. We conclude that activatable reporter imaging can benefit both basic biomedical research and drug development.

  9. MR imaging of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, A.; Scheidler, J.; Sommer, B.; Graser, A.; Mueller-Lisse, U.G.; Massmann, J.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer (PC) is developing into an important health care issue in light of the high incidence of PC and the improvements in stage-adapted therapy. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the current role of MR imaging and MR spectroscopy in the diagnosis and staging of PC.Material and methods Pertinent literature was searched and evaluated to collect information on current clinical indications, study techniques, diagnostic value, and limitations of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Major indications for MR imaging of patients with supected PC are to define tumor location before biopsy when clinical or TRUS findings are inconclusive, and to provide accurate staging of histologically proven PC to ascertain effective therapy. Current MR imaging techniques for the evaluation of PC include multiplanar high-resolution T2-weighted FSE and T1-weighted SE sequences using combined endorectal and phased-array coils. Using these techniques, the reported accuracy of MR imaging for the diagnosis of extracapsular tumor extension ranges between 82 and 88% with sensitivities between 80 and 95%, and specificities between 82 and 93%. Typical MR findings of PC in different stages of disease, as well as diagnostic problems, such as chronic prostatitis, biopsy-related hemorrhage and therapy-related changes of prostatic tissue are discussed. In addition, the current perspectives and limitations of MR spectroscopy in PC are summarized. Current MR imaging techniques provide important diagnostic information in the pretherapeutic workup of PC including a high staging accuracy, and is superior to TRUS. (orig.) [de

  10. Neutron imaging for inertial confinement fusion and molecular optic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delage, O.

    2010-01-01

    Scientific domains that require imaging of micrometric/nano-metric objects are dramatically increasing (Plasma Physics, Astrophysics, Biotechnology, Earth Sciences...). Difficulties encountered in imaging smaller and smaller objects make this research area more and more challenging and in constant evolution. The two scientific domains, through which this study has been led, are the neutron imaging in the context of the inertial confinement fusion and the fluorescence molecular imaging. Work presented in this thesis has two main objectives. The first one is to describe the instrumentation characteristics that require such imagery and, relatively to the scientific domains considered, identify parameters likely to optimize the imaging system accuracy. The second one is to present the developed data analysis and reconstruction methods able to provide spatial resolution adapted to the size of the observed object. Similarities of numerical algorithms used in these two scientific domains, which goals are quiet different, show how micrometric/nano-metric object imaging is a research area at the border of a large number of scientific disciplines. (author)

  11. Molecularly targeted drugs for metastatic colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng YD

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ying-dong Cheng, Hua Yang, Guo-qing Chen, Zhi-cao Zhang Department of General Surgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China Abstract: The survival rate of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC has significantly improved with applications of molecularly targeted drugs, such as bevacizumab, and led to a substantial improvement in the overall survival rate. These drugs are capable of specifically targeting the inherent abnormal pathways in cancer cells, which are potentially less toxic than traditional nonselective chemotherapeutics. In this review, the recent clinical information about molecularly targeted therapy for mCRC is summarized, with specific focus on several of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved molecularly targeted drugs for the treatment of mCRC in the clinic. Progression-free and overall survival in patients with mCRC was improved greatly by the addition of bevacizumab and/or cetuximab to standard chemotherapy, in either first- or second-line treatment. Aflibercept has been used in combination with folinic acid (leucovorin–fluorouracil–irinotecan (FOLFIRI chemotherapy in mCRC patients and among patients with mCRC with wild-type KRAS, the outcomes were significantly improved by panitumumab in combination with folinic acid (leucovorin–fluorouracil–oxaliplatin (FOLFOX or FOLFIRI. Because of the new preliminary studies, it has been recommended that regorafenib be used with FOLFOX or FOLFIRI as first- or second-line treatment of mCRC chemotherapy. In summary, an era of new opportunities has been opened for treatment of mCRC and/or other malignancies, resulting from the discovery of new selective targeting drugs. Keywords: metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC, antiangiogenic drug, bevacizumab, aflibercept, regorafenib, cetuximab, panitumumab, clinical trial, molecularly targeted therapy

  12. Molecular imaging with targeted contrast ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedra, Mark; Allroggen, Achim; Lindner, Jonathan R

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging with contrast-enhanced ultrasound uses targeted microbubbles that are retained in diseased tissue. The resonant properties of these microbubbles produce acoustic signals in an ultrasound field. The microbubbles are targeted to diseased tissue by using certain chemical constituents in the microbubble shell or by attaching disease-specific ligands such as antibodies to the microbubble. In this review, we discuss the applications of this technique to pathological states in the cerebrovascular system including atherosclerosis, tumor angiogenesis, ischemia, intravascular thrombus, and inflammation. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Molecular imaging in Libman-Sacks endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Schaadt, Bente K; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric

    2015-01-01

    cardiothoracic surgery and pathologic examinations showed characteristic morphology of Libman-Sacks vegetations. All microbiological examinations including blood cultures, microscopy, culture and 16s PCR of the valve were negative and the diagnosis of Libman-Sacks endocarditis was convincing. It is difficult...... to distinguish Libman-Sacks endocarditis from culture-negative infective endocarditis (IE). Molecular imaging techniques are being used increasingly in cases of suspected IE but no studies have previously reported the use in patients with Libman-Sacks endocarditis. In the present case, (18)F-FDG-PET-CT clearly...

  14. Prognostic molecular markers in early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteva, Francisco J; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N

    2004-01-01

    A multitude of molecules involved in breast cancer biology have been studied as potential prognostic markers. In the present review we discuss the role of established molecular markers, as well as potential applications of emerging new technologies. Those molecules used routinely to make treatment decisions in patients with early-stage breast cancer include markers of proliferation (e.g. Ki-67), hormone receptors, and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Tumor markers shown to have prognostic value but not used routinely include cyclin D 1 and cyclin E, urokinase-like plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor, and cathepsin D. The level of evidence for other molecular markers is lower, in part because most studies were retrospective and not adequately powered, making their findings unsuitable for choosing treatments for individual patients. Gene microarrays have been successfuly used to classify breast cancers into subtypes with specific gene expression profiles and to evaluate prognosis. RT-PCR has also been used to evaluate expression of multiple genes in archival tissue. Proteomics technologies are in development

  15. Cell and Tissue Imaging with Molecularly Imprinted Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kunath, Stephanie; Haupt, Karsten; Tse Sum Bui, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Advanced tools for cell imaging are of particular interest as they can detect, localize and quantify molecular targets like abnormal glycosylation sites that are biomarkers of cancer and infection. Targeting these biomarkers is often challenging due to a lack of receptor materials. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are promising artificial receptors; they can be tailored to bind targets specifically, be labeled easily, and are physically and chemically stable. Herein, we demonstrate the application of MIPs as artificial antibodies for selective labeling and imaging of cellular targets, on the example of hyaluronan and sialylation moieties on fixated human skin cells and tissues. Thus, fluorescently labeled MIP nanoparticles templated with glucuronic acid (MIPGlcA) and N-acetylneuraminic acid (MIPNANA) are respectively applied. Two different fluorescent probes are used: (1) MIPGlcA particles, ~400 nm in size are labeled with the dye rhodamine that target the extracellular hyaluronan on cells and tissue specimens and (2) MIP-coated InP/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) of two different colors, ~125 nm in size that target the extracellular and intracellular hyaluronan and sialylation sites. Green and red emitting QDs are functionalized with MIPGlcA and MIPNANA respectively, enabling multiplexed cell imaging. This is a general approach that can also be adapted to other target molecules on and in cells.

  16. Bioresponsive probes for molecular imaging: concepts and in vivo applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, S.M. van; Robillard, M.S.; Langereis, S.; Grull, H.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a powerful tool to visualize and characterize biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in vivo. In most molecular imaging approaches, probes are used to bind to disease-specific biomarkers highlighting disease target sites. In recent years, a new subset of

  17. Bioresponsive probes for molecular imaging : Concepts and in vivo applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijnhoven, S.M.J.; Robillard, M.S.; Langereis, S.; Grüll, H.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a powerful tool to visualize and characterize biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in vivo. In most molecular imaging approaches, probes are used to bind to disease-specific biomarkers highlighting disease target sites. In recent years, a new subset of

  18. [Molecular imaging; current status and future prospects in USA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2007-02-01

    The goal of this review is to introduce the definition, current status, and future prospects of the molecular imaging, which has recently been a hot topic in medicine and the biological science in USA. In vivo imaging methods to visualize the molecular events and functions in organs or animals/humans are overviewed and discussed especially in combinations of imaging modalities (machines) and contrast agents(chemicals) used in the molecular imaging. Next, the close relationship between the molecular imaging and the nanotechnology, an important part of nanomedicine, is stressed from the aspect of united multidisciplinary sciences such as physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine.

  19. Urinary bladder cancer: role of MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sadhna; Rajesh, Arumugam; Prasad, Srinivasa R; Gaitonde, Krishnanath; Lall, Chandana G; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Aeron, Gunjan; Bracken, Robert B; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan

    2012-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease with a variety of pathologic features, cytogenetic characteristics, and natural histories. It is the fourth most common cancer in males and the tenth most common cancer in females. Urinary bladder cancer has a high recurrence rate, necessitating long-term surveillance after initial therapy. Early detection is important, since up to 47% of bladder cancer-related deaths may have been avoided. Conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are only moderately accurate in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer, with cystoscopy and pathologic staging remaining the standards of reference. However, the role of newer MR imaging sequences (eg, diffusion-weighted imaging) in the diagnosis and local staging of bladder cancer is still evolving. Substantial advances in MR imaging technology have made multiparametric MR imaging a feasible and reasonably accurate technique for the local staging of bladder cancer to optimize treatment. In addition, whole-body CT is the primary imaging technique for the detection of metastases in bladder cancer patients, especially those with disease that invades muscle. © RSNA, 2012.

  20. Molecular imaging in drug development: Update and challenges for radiolabeled antibodies and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Ilaria; Overchuk, Marta; Chen, Juan; Reilly, Raymond M; Zheng, Gang; Lheureux, Stephanie

    2017-11-01

    Despite the significant advancement achieved in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for cancer transformation and aberrant proliferation, leading to novel targeted cancer therapies, significant effort is still needed to "personalize" cancer treatment. Molecular imaging is an emerging field that has shown the ability to characterize in vivo the molecular pathways present at the cancer cell level, enabling diagnosis and personalized treatment of malignancies. These technologies, particularly SPECT and PET also permit the development of novel radiotheranostic probes, which provide capabilities for diagnosis and treatment with the same agent. The small therapeutic index of most anticancer agents is a limitation in the drug development process. Incorporation of molecular imaging in clinical research may help in overcoming this limitation and favouring selection of patient populations most likely to achieve benefit from targeted therapy. This review will focus on two of the most advanced theranostic approaches with promising potential for application in the clinic: 1) therapeutic monoclonal antibodies which may be linked to a radionuclide for SPECT or PET imaging to guide cancer diagnosis, staging, molecular characterization, and assessment of the response to treatment and 2) multifunctional nanotechnology that allows image guided drug delivery through encapsulation of multiple therapeutic, targeting and imaging agents into a single nanoparticle. Porphysome, a liposome-like nanoparticle, is an example of a novel and promising application of nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and treatment. These technologies have proven to be effective in preclinical models, warranting further clinical investigation to advance their application for the benefit of cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Images of gastric cancer stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Aragon, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The present work has the objective to review the importance of the images in the preoperating stage of the gastric cancer. It has been emphasized in the modalities of transabdominal ultrasound as much as endoscopic and TAC since they are most valuable in the stage. Certainly the importance of conventional radiology (gastroduodenal series) is also valuable in the stage of the tumor, specially in considering the depth of the same one. In order to make this overhaul, the recent bibliography was consulted but, specially the published one by Japaneses since they follow a classification and methodology different from the used one in most of the countries that belong to the World-wide Organization of the Health. They made an overhaul of approximately 200 cases of patients who have been diagnosed and treated in the Center of Detection of Gastric Cancer of Cartago. In each case review the file, radiological, sonographic and pathological studies, and the cases were chosen that better illustrated the exposed subjects. (Author) [es

  2. Breast cancer molecular subtype classifier that incorporates MRI features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Elizabeth J; Dashevsky, Brittany Z; Oh, Jung Hun; Veeraraghavan, Harini; Apte, Aditya P; Thakur, Sunitha B; Morris, Elizabeth A; Deasy, Joseph O

    2016-07-01

    To use features extracted from magnetic resonance (MR) images and a machine-learning method to assist in differentiating breast cancer molecular subtypes. This retrospective Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant study received Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval. We identified 178 breast cancer patients between 2006-2011 with: 1) ERPR + (n = 95, 53.4%), ERPR-/HER2 + (n = 35, 19.6%), or triple negative (TN, n = 48, 27.0%) invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and 2) preoperative breast MRI at 1.5T or 3.0T. Shape, texture, and histogram-based features were extracted from each tumor contoured on pre- and three postcontrast MR images using in-house software. Clinical and pathologic features were also collected. Machine-learning-based (support vector machines) models were used to identify significant imaging features and to build models that predict IDC subtype. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) was used to avoid model overfitting. Statistical significance was determined using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Each support vector machine fit in the LOOCV process generated a model with varying features. Eleven out of the top 20 ranked features were significantly different between IDC subtypes with P machine-learning-based predictive model using features extracted from MRI that can distinguish IDC subtypes with significant predictive power. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:122-129. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Molecular profiling of childhood cancer: Biomarkers and novel therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Saletta

    2014-06-01

    General significance: The increasing recognition of the heterogeneity of molecular causes of cancer favors the continued development of molecularly targeted agents, and their transfer to pediatric and adolescent populations.

  4. Synthesis and stability test of radiogadolinium(III-DOTA-PAMAM G3.0-trastuzumab as SPECT-MRI molecular imaging agent for diagnosis of HER-2 positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiani Rahmania

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonivasive diagnosis of cancer can be provided by molecular imaging using hybrid modality to obtain better sensitivity, specificity and depiction localization of the disease. In this study, we developed a new molecular imaging agent, radiogadolinium(III-DOTA-PAMAM G3.0-trastuzumab in the form of 147Gd-DOTA-PAMAM G3.0-trastuzumab, that can be both target-specific radiopharmaceutical in SPECT as well as targeted contrast agent in MRI for the purpose of diagnosis of HER-2 positive breast cancer. 147Gd radionuclide emits γ-rays that can be used in SPECT modality, but because of technical constraint, 147Gd radionuclide was simulated by its radioisotope, 153Gd. Gd-DOTA complex has also been known as good MRI contrast agent. PAMAM G3.0 is useful to concentrate Gd-DOTA compelexes in large quantities, thus minimizing the number of trastuzumab molecules used. Trastuzumab is human monoclonal antibody that can spesifically interact with HER-2. Synthesis of radiogadolinium(III-DOTA-PAMAM G3.0-trastuzumab was initiated by conjugating DOTA NHS ester ligand with PAMAM G3.0 dendrimer. The DOTA-PAMAM G3.0 produced was conjugated to trastuzumab molecule and labeled with 153Gd. Characterization DOTA-PAMAM G3.0-trastuzumab immunoconjugate was performed using HPLC system equipped with SEC. The formation of immunoconjugate was indicated by the shorter retention time (6.82 min compared to that of trastuzumab (7.06 min. Radiochemical purity of radiogadolinium(III-DOTA-PAMAM G3.0-trastuzumab was >99% after purification process by PD-10 desalting column. Radiogadolinium(III-DOTA-PAMAM G3.0-trastuzumab compound was stable at room temperature and at 2–8 0C as indicated by its radiochemical purity 97.6 ± 0.5%–99.1 ± 0.5% after 144 h storage.

  5. The research progress of nuclear medicine on cardiovascular molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xiaohua; Zhang Yongxue

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular molecular imaging is a rapidly evolving discipline and its clinical application is promising. Nuclear medicine is playing a leading role in this field with its special superiority of noninvasive, quantifiability, high sensitivity and specificity. It provides broad opportunities for exploring the pathophysiologic process of cardiovascular diseases and monitoring its gene therapy in the molecular level. In this review, we mainly discuss some basic knowledge on cardiovascular molecular imaging, and then focus on the applied research prospect of nuclear medicine radionuclide imaging. (authors)

  6. Nanotargeted Radionuclides for Cancer Nuclear Imaging and Internal Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gann Ting

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current progress in nanomedicine has exploited the possibility of designing tumor-targeted nanocarriers being able to deliver radionuclide payloads in a site or molecular selective manner to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer imaging and therapy. Radionuclides of auger electron-, α-, β-, and γ-radiation emitters have been surface-bioconjugated or after-loaded in nanoparticles to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of cancer imaging and therapy in preclinical and clinical studies. This article provides a brief overview of current status of applications, advantages, problems, up-to-date research and development, and future prospects of nanotargeted radionuclides in cancer nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. Passive and active nanotargeting delivery of radionuclides with illustrating examples for tumor imaging and therapy are reviewed and summarized. Research on combing different modes of selective delivery of radionuclides through nanocarriers targeted delivery for tumor imaging and therapy offers the new possibility of large increases in cancer diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic index. However, further efforts and challenges in preclinical and clinical efficacy and toxicity studies are required to translate those advanced technologies to the clinical applications for cancer patients.

  7. Molecular ultrasound imaging: current status and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.; Needles, A.; Willmann, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    Targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound (molecular ultrasound) is an emerging imaging strategy that combines ultrasound technology with novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents for assessing biological processes at the molecular level. Molecular ultrasound contrast agents are nano- or micro-sized particles that are targeted to specific molecular markers by adding high-affinity binding ligands onto the surface of the particles. Following intravenous administration, these targeted ultrasound contrast agents accumulate at tissue sites overexpressing specific molecular markers, thereby enhancing the ultrasound imaging signal. High spatial and temporal resolution, real-time imaging, non-invasiveness, relatively low costs, lack of ionising irradiation and wide availability of ultrasound systems are advantages compared to other molecular imaging modalities. In this article we review current concepts and future directions of molecular ultrasound imaging, including different classes of molecular ultrasound contrast agents, ongoing technical developments of pre-clinical and clinical ultrasound systems, the potential of molecular ultrasound for imaging different diseases at the molecular level, and the translation of molecular ultrasound into the clinic.

  8. Apoptosis and Molecular Targeting Therapy in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamed; Watari, Hidemichi; AbuAlmaaty, Ali; Ohba, Yusuke; Sakuragi, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is the programmed cell death which maintains the healthy survival/death balance in metazoan cells. Defect in apoptosis can cause cancer or autoimmunity, while enhanced apoptosis may cause degenerative diseases. The apoptotic signals contribute into safeguarding the genomic integrity while defective apoptosis may promote carcinogenesis. The apoptotic signals are complicated and they are regulated at several levels. The signals of carcinogenesis modulate the central control points of the apoptotic pathways, including inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins and FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP). The tumor cells may use some of several molecular mechanisms to suppress apoptosis and acquire resistance to apoptotic agents, for example, by the expression of antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 or by the downregulation or mutation of proapoptotic proteins such as BAX. In this review, we provide the main regulatory molecules that govern the main basic mechanisms, extrinsic and intrinsic, of apoptosis in normal cells. We discuss how carcinogenesis could be developed via defective apoptotic pathways or their convergence. We listed some molecules which could be targeted to stimulate apoptosis in different cancers. Together, we briefly discuss the development of some promising cancer treatment strategies which target apoptotic inhibitors including Bcl-2 family proteins, IAPs, and c-FLIP for apoptosis induction. PMID:25013758

  9. Molecular pathways and therapeutic targets in lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtivelman, Emma; Hensing, Thomas; Simon, George R.; Dennis, Phillip A.; Otterson, Gregory A.; Bueno, Raphael; Salgia, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Both histologically and molecularly lung cancer is heterogeneous. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the pathways involved in the various types of lung cancer with an emphasis on the clinical implications of the increasing number of actionable molecular targets. It describes the major pathways and molecular alterations implicated in the development and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (adenocarcinoma and squamous cancer), and of small cell carcinoma, emphasizing the molecular alterations comprising the specific blueprints in each group. The approved and investigational targeted therapies as well as the immune therapies, and clinical trials exploring the variety of targeted approaches to treatment of lung cancer are the main focus of this review. PMID:24722523

  10. Molecular imaging in the era of personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2015-01-01

    Clinical imaging creates visual representations of the body interior for disease assessment. The role of clinical imaging significantly overlaps with that of pathology, and diagnostic workflows largely depend on both fields. The field of clinical imaging is presently undergoing a radical change through the emergence of a new field called molecular imaging. This new technology, which lies at the intersection between imaging and molecular biology, enables noninvasive visualization of biochemical processes at the molecular level within living bodies. Molecular imaging differs from traditional anatomical imaging in that biomarkers known as imaging probes are used to visualize target molecules-of-interest. This ability opens up exciting new possibilities for applications in oncologic, neurological and cardiovascular diseases. Molecular imaging is expected to make major contributions to personalized medicine by allowing earlier diagnosis and predicting treatment response. The technique is also making a huge impact on pharmaceutical development by optimizing preclinical and clinical tests for new drug candidates. This review will describe the basic principles of molecular imaging and will briefly touch on three examples (from an immense list of new techniques) that may contribute to personalized medicine: receptor imaging, angiogenesis imaging, and apoptosis imaging.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques: current imaging strategies and molecular imaging probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briley-Saebo, Karen C.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Mani, Venkatesh; Hyafil, Fabien; Amirbekian, Vardan; Aguinaldo, Juan Gilberto S.; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2007-01-01

    The vulnerability or destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques has been directly linked to plaque composition. Imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, that allow for evaluation of plaque composition at a cellular and molecular level, could further improve the detection of

  12. Translation of New Molecular Imaging Approaches to the Clinical Setting : Bridging the Gap to Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, Suzanne C; Venema, Clasina M; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N; Elias, Sjoerd G; Boellaard, Ronald; Hospers, Geke A P; Schröder, Carolina P; de Vries, Elisabeth G E

    Molecular imaging with PET is a rapidly emerging technique. In breast cancer patients, more than 45 different PET tracers have been or are presently being tested. With a good rationale, after development of the tracer and proven feasibility, it is of interest to evaluate whether there is a potential

  13. Translation of New Molecular Imaging Approaches to the Clinical Setting : Bridging the Gap to Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, Suzanne C; Venema, Clasina M; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N; Elias, Sjoerd G; Boellaard, Ronald; Hospers, Geke A.P.; Schröder, Carolina P; de Vries, Elisabeth G E

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging with PET is a rapidly emerging technique. In breast cancer patients, more than 45 different PET tracers have been or are presently being tested. With a good rationale, after development of the tracer and proven feasibility, it is of interest to evaluate whether there is a potential

  14. Impact of molecular imaging with PET on healthcare worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, Abbas

    2009-01-01

    Full text: FDG-PET imaging has substantially improved healthcare throughout the world. This technique has been applied to patients with some of the most serious diseases, including cancer, central nervous system disorders, cardiovascular disease and infections including infected prostheses. There is also enormous potential for further improvement in patient management using this technique, for example, in the detection of atherosclerosis and clots, and assessment of muscle function. Studies using FDG-PET methodology have led to the development of many novel radiotracers that have been designed to explore new diagnostic and therapeutic domains. We therefore expect that molecular imaging with PET will play an increasingly central role in research and in the optimal management of patients with many disorders. This will include diagnosing pathological processes at the molecular level and individualizing treatment for these patients. By utilizing PET and the appropriately labeled pharmaceuticals, one will be able to select the most suitable therapeutic drugs for a particular disease, instead of administering drugs to patients without a good idea of the chance of efficacy. Likewise, PET will increasingly play a major role in drug development by demonstrating the degree to which the intended pharmaceutical targets the diseased tissues in animal models and in human beings. PET will also assist in determining the rate of metabolism of the administered drugs by different tissues. PET imaging will also allow accurate staging of cancer and other serious diseases and will be adopted as the most accurate technique for monitoring response to treatment and detecting recurrence. The role of CT and/or MRI as independent modalities in medicine will decrease as the efficacy of PET is realized by scientists and clinicians alike. In particular, the use of contrast agents such as iodinated compounds and gadolinium based agents will be minimized. Similarly, imaging with single gamma

  15. Next-Generation Molecular Histology Using Highly Multiplexed Ion Beam Imaging (MIBI) of Breast Cancer Tissue Specimens for Enhanced Clinical Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    in soft tissue sarcoma . J Surg Oncol 2005;92:267–271. 3. Stack EC, Wang C, Roman KA, et al. Multiplexed immuno- histochemistry, imaging, and...Contributions: M.A., S.B., and R.F. conducted experiments and wrote the manuscript. M.H. designed and fabricated reagents. C.H. assisted in data acquisition and

  16. Applications of the Preclinical Molecular Image in Biomedicine; Aplicaciones de la imagen Molecular Preclínica en Biomedicina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, M.; Bascuñana, P.; Fernández de la Rosa, R.; De Cristobal, J.; García-García, L.; Pozo, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    Molecular imaging is a broad platform, which provides valuable information about physiological and pathophysiological changes in living organisms by non-invasive methods. Depending on the used technique: anatomical, functional metabolic or molecular data could be assessed. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) provides with functional and molecular data, and combined with Computerized Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MRI) with the multimodality equipment, it can be exponentially improved. Metabolic pathways and changes on the molecular and cellular level are target in molecular imaging cancer research. Tumour microenvironment, stroma and new vessels can be assessed by PET imaging. Additionally the visualization of functions and monitoring data of provided therapies could be obtained. The aim of the current review is to summarize principles and novel findings in molecular imaging specifically in PET and its application in preclinical cancer research. The theoretical background of techniques and main applications will be highlighted [Spanish] La imagen molecular aporta información muy valiosa, mediante métodos no invasivos, acerca de la fisiología de organismos vivos y sus cambios debidos a patologías. Dependiendo de la técnica utilizada se pueden obtener datos anatómicos, funcionales, metabólicos o moleculares. La Tomografía por Emisión de Positrones (PET) aporta datos metabólicos y moleculares con una alta sensibilidad, y en asociación con la Tomografía Computarizada (TC) o con Resonancia Magnética (RM), con la aparición de los nuevos equipos multimodalidad, las posibilidades de diagnóstico se incrementan exponencialmente. La imagen molecular en investigación oncológica presenta como objetivos principales identificar las diferentes vías metabólicas tumorales y sus cambios a nivel molecular y celular, el comportamiento del microentorno tumoral, aparición de nuevos vasos, estroma, etc. Además, es posible el análisis y cuantificación del

  17. Molecular imaging of the tumor microenvironment for precision medicine and theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penet, Marie-France; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Chen, Zhihang; Jin, Jiefu; Bhujwalla, Zaver M

    2014-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from cancer and their associated conditions and treatments continue to extract a heavy social and economic global burden despite the transformative advances in science and technology in the twenty-first century. In fact, cancer incidence and mortality are expected to reach pandemic proportions by 2025, and costs of managing cancer will escalate to trillions of dollars. The inability to establish effective cancer treatments arises from the complexity of conditions that exist within tumors, the plasticity and adaptability of cancer cells coupled with their ability to escape immune surveillance, and the co-opted stromal cells and microenvironment that assist cancer cells in survival. Stromal cells, although destroyed together with cancer cells, have an ever-replenishing source that can assist in resurrecting tumors from any residual cancer cells that may survive treatment. The tumor microenvironment landscape is a continually changing landscape, with spatial and temporal heterogeneities that impact and influence cancer treatment outcome. Importantly, the changing landscape of the tumor microenvironment can be exploited for precision medicine and theranostics. Molecular and functional imaging can play important roles in shaping and selecting treatments to match this landscape. Our purpose in this review is to examine the roles of molecular and functional imaging, within the context of the tumor microenvironment, and the feasibility of their applications for precision medicine and theranostics in humans. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Breast cancer histopathology image analysis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veta, Mitko; Pluim, Josien P W; van Diest, Paul J; Viergever, Max A

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of methods that have been proposed for the analysis of breast cancer histopathology images. This research area has become particularly relevant with the advent of whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners, which can perform cost-effective and high-throughput histopathology slide digitization, and which aim at replacing the optical microscope as the primary tool used by pathologist. Breast cancer is the most prevalent form of cancers among women, and image analysis methods that target this disease have a huge potential to reduce the workload in a typical pathology lab and to improve the quality of the interpretation. This paper is meant as an introduction for nonexperts. It starts with an overview of the tissue preparation, staining and slide digitization processes followed by a discussion of the different image processing techniques and applications, ranging from analysis of tissue staining to computer-aided diagnosis, and prognosis of breast cancer patients.

  19. Cellular Imaging | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative imaging methods developed and refined within CCR revealed atomic-level structures of biological molecules and unveiled dynamic views of a cell’s interior that are driving the design of new treatments and diagnostics for cancer.

  20. Molecular Imaging to Identify Tumor Recurrence following Chemoradiation in a Hostile Surgical Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbenga T. Okusanya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical biopsy of potential tumor recurrence is a common challenge facing oncologists, surgeons, and cancer patients. Imaging modalities have limited ability to accurately detect recurrent cancer in fields affected by previous surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation. However, definitive tissue diagnosis is often needed to initiate treatment and to direct therapy. We sought to determine if a targeted fluorescent intraoperative molecular imaging technique could be applied in a clinical setting to assist a surgical biopsy in a “hostile” field. We describe the use of a folate-fluorescein conjugate to direct the biopsy of a suspected recurrent lung adenocarcinoma invading the mediastinum that had been previously treated with chemoradiation. We found that intraoperative imaging allowed the identification of small viable tumor deposits that were otherwise indistinguishable from scar and necrosis. Our operative observations were confirmed by histology, fluorescence microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate one possible application and clinical value of intraoperative molecular imaging.

  1. Progress in molecular-based management of differentiated thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mingzhao; Haugen, Bryan R; Schlumberger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Substantial developments have occurred in the past 5–10 years in clinical translational research of thyroid cancer. Diagnostic molecular markers, such as RET-PTC, RAS, and BRAFV600E mutations; galectin 3; and a new gene expression classifier, are outstanding examples that have improved diagnosis of thyroid nodules. BRAF mutation is a prognostic genetic marker that has improved risk stratification and hence tailored management of patients with thyroid cancer, including those with conventionally low risks. Novel molecular-targeted treatments hold great promise for radioiodine-refractory and surgically inoperable thyroid cancers as shown in clinical trials; such treatments are likely to become a component of the standard treatment regimen for patients with thyroid cancer in the near future. These novel molecular-based management strategies for thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer are the most exciting developments in this unprecedented era of molecular thyroid-cancer medicine. PMID:23668556

  2. Gold Nanoconstructs for Multimodal Diagnostic Imaging and Photothermal Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Andrew James

    Cancer accounts for nearly 1 out of every 4 deaths in the United States, and because conventional treatments are limited by morbidity and off-target toxicities, improvements in cancer management are needed. This thesis further develops nanoparticle-assisted photothermal therapy (NAPT) as a viable treatment option for cancer patients. NAPT enables localized ablation of disease because heat generation only occurs where tissue permissive near-infrared (NIR) light and absorbing nanoparticles are combined, leaving surrounding normal tissue unharmed. Two principle approaches were investigated to improve the specificity of this technique: multimodal imaging and molecular targeting. Multimodal imaging affords the ability to guide NIR laser application for site-specific NAPT and more holistic characterization of disease by combining the advantages of several diagnostic technologies. Towards the goal of image-guided NAPT, gadolinium-conjugated gold-silica nanoshells were engineered and demonstrated to enhance imaging contrast across a range of diagnostic modes, including T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, X-Ray, optical coherence tomography, reflective confocal microscopy, and two-photon luminescence in vitro as well as within an animal tumor model. Additionally, the nanoparticle conjugates were shown to effectively convert NIR light to heat for applications in photothermal therapy. Therefore, the broad utility of gadolinium-nanoshells for anatomic localization of tissue lesions, molecular characterization of malignancy, and mediators of ablation was established. Molecular targeting strategies may also improve NAPT by promoting nanoparticle uptake and retention within tumors and enhancing specificity when malignant and normal tissue interdigitate. Here, ephrinA1 protein ligands were conjugated to nanoshell surfaces for particle homing to overexpressed EphA2 receptors on prostate cancer cells. In vitro, successful targeting and subsequent photothermal ablation of

  3. Using T2-Exchange from Ln3+DOTA-Based Chelates for Contrast-Enhanced Molecular Imaging of Prostate Cancer with MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    thereby performing disease staging entirely non-invasively. Also, in contrast to PET/CT or SPECT/CT, disease diagnostics and therapy monitoring would...2011;6.e27370. 11. Zhang SR, Sherry AD. Physical characteristics of lanthanide com- plexes that act as magnetization transfer (MT) contrast agents. J...reper- fused and nonreperfused myocardial infarctions - MR imaging with dysprosium-DTPA-BMA in the pig. Acta Radiol 1996;37:18–26. 28. Nilsson S

  4. Molecular Imaging Of Metabolic Reprogramming In Mutant IDH Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra eViswanath

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH have recently been identified as drivers in the development of several tumor types. Most notably, cytosolic IDH1 is mutated in 70-90% of low-grade gliomas and upgraded glioblastomas, and mitochondrial IDH2 is mutated in ~20% of acute myeloid leukemia cases. Wild-type IDH catalyzes the interconversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG. Mutations in the enzyme lead to loss of wild-type enzymatic activity and a neomorphic activity that converts α-KG to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG. In turn, 2-HG, which has been termed an oncometabolite, inhibits key α-KG- dependent enzymes, resulting in alterations of the cellular epigenetic profile and, subsequently, inhibition of differentiation and initiation of tumorigenesis. In addition, it is now clear that the IDH mutation also induces a broad metabolic reprogramming that extends beyond 2-HG production, and this reprogramming often differs from what has been previously reported in other cancer types. In this review we will discuss in detail what is known to date about the metabolic reprogramming of mutant IDH cells and how this reprogramming has been investigated using molecular metabolic imaging. We will describe how metabolic imaging has helped shed light on the basic biology of mutant IDH cells and how this information can be leveraged to identify new therapeutic targets and to develop new clinically translatable imaging methods to detect and monitor mutant IDH tumors in vivo.

  5. Imaging strategy in differentiated thyroid cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, Thi Thanh Ha

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on clinical dilemmas, which the clinician faces in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with a specific emphasis on the role of current and new diagnostic imaging. Thyroid cancer is a rare disease, but it is the most common endocrine malignancy of

  6. Imaging biomarker roadmap for cancer studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Connor, James P. B.; Aboagye, Eric O.; Adams, Judith E.; Aerts, Hugo J. W. L.; Barrington, Sally F.; Beer, Ambros J.; Boellaard, Ronald; Bohndiek, Sarah E.; Brady, Michael; Brown, Gina; Buckley, David L.; Chenevert, Thomas L.; Clarke, Laurence P.; Collette, Sandra; Cook, Gary J.; Desouza, Nandita M.; Dickson, John C.; Dive, Caroline; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L.; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Gallagher, Ferdia A.; Gilbert, Fiona J.; Gillies, Robert J.; Goh, Vicky; Griffiths, J. R.; Groves, Ashley M.; Halligan, Steve; Harris, Adrian L.; Hawkes, David J.; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Huang, Erich P.; Hutton, Brian F.; Jackson, Edward F.; Jayson, Gordon C.; Jones, Andrew; Koh, Dow-Mu; Lacombe, Denis; Lambin, Philippe; Lassau, Nathalie; Leach, Martin O.; Lee, Ting-Yim; Leen, Edward L.; Lewis, Jason S.; Liu, Yan; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Manoharan, Prakash; Maxwell, Ross J.; Miles, Kenneth A.; Morgan, Bruno; Morris, Steve; Ng, Tony; Padhani, Anwar R.; Parker, Geoff J. M.; Partridge, Mike; Pathak, Arvind P.; Peet, Andrew C.; Punwani, Shonit; Reynolds, Andrew R.; Robinson, Simon P.; Shankar, Lalitha K.; Sharma, Ricky A.; Soloviev, Dmitry; Stroobants, Sigrid G.; Sullivan, Daniel C.; Taylor, Stuart A.; Tofts, Paul S.; Tozer, Gillian M.; van Herk, Marcel B.; Walker-Samuel, Simon; Wason, James; Williams, Kaye J.; Workman, Paul; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Brindle, Kevin M.; McShane, Lisa M.; Jackson, Alan; Waterton, John C.

    Imaging biomarkers (IBs) are integral to the routine management of patients with cancer. IBs used daily in oncology include clinical TNM stage, objective response and left ventricular ejection fraction. Other CT, MRI, PET and ultrasonography biomarkers are used extensively in cancer research and

  7. Molecular Imaging and Therapy of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beylergil, Volkan, E-mail: beylergv@mskcc.org [Molecular and Imaging Therapy Service, Department of Radiology Box 77, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center 1275 York Ave, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Carrasquillo, Jorge A. [Molecular and Imaging Therapy Service, Department of Radiology Box 77, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center 1275 York Ave, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2014-04-29

    Several molecular imaging modalities have been evaluated in the management of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare and aggressive tumor with a high tendency to metastasize. Continuous progress in the field of molecular imaging might improve management in these patients. The authors review the current modalities and their impact on MCC in this brief review article.

  8. Molecular Imaging and Therapy of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Beylergil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several molecular imaging modalities have been evaluated in the management of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC, a rare and aggressive tumor with a high tendency to metastasize. Continuous progress in the field of molecular imaging might improve management in these patients. The authors review the current modalities and their impact on MCC in this brief review article.

  9. Harnessing Integrative Omics to Facilitate Molecular Imaging of the Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Family for Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Martin; de Boer, H Rudolf; Hooge, Marjolijn N Lub-de; van Vugt, Marcel A T M; de Vries, Elisabeth G E

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a growing problem worldwide. The cause of death in cancer patients is often due to treatment-resistant metastatic disease. Many molecularly targeted anticancer drugs have been developed against 'oncogenic driver' pathways. However, these treatments are usually only effective in properly selected patients. Resistance to molecularly targeted drugs through selective pressure on acquired mutations or molecular rewiring can hinder their effectiveness. This review summarizes how molecular imaging techniques can potentially facilitate the optimal implementation of targeted agents. Using the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family as a model in (pre)clinical studies, we illustrate how molecular imaging may be employed to characterize whole body target expression as well as monitor drug effectiveness and the emergence of tumor resistance. We further discuss how an integrative omics discovery platform could guide the selection of 'effect sensors' - new molecular imaging targets - which are dynamic markers that indicate treatment effectiveness or resistance.

  10. Molecular targeted therapy for advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Gwang

    2013-03-01

    Although medical treatment has been shown to improve quality of life and prolong survival, no significant progress has been made in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) within the last two decades. Thus, the optimum standard first-line chemotherapy regimen for AGC remains debatable, and most responses to chemotherapy are partial and of short duration; the median survival is approximately 7 to 11 months, and survival at 2 years is exceptionally > 10%. Recently, remarkable progress in tumor biology has led to the development of new agents that target critical aspects of oncogenic pathways. For AGC, many molecular targeting agents have been evaluated in international randomized studies, and trastuzumab, an anti-HER-2 monoclonal antibody, has shown antitumor activity against HER-2-positive AGC. However, this benefit is limited to only ~20% of patients with AGC (patients with HER-2-positive AGC). Therefore, there remains a critical need for both the development of more effective agents and the identification of molecular predictive and prognostic markers to select those patients who will benefit most from specific chemotherapeutic regimens and targeted therapies.

  11. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, beryllium, mustard gas increases the risk of lung cancer. The well defined risk factor is exposure to asbestos. In addition advanced age, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and genetic predisposition are the risk factors that increases lung cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 749-756

  12. Quantitative assessment of dynamic PET imaging data in cancer imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzi, Mark; O'Sullivan, Finbarr; Mankoff, David A; Doot, Robert K; Pierce, Larry A; Kurland, Brenda F; Linden, Hannah M; Kinahan, Paul E

    2012-11-01

    Clinical imaging in positron emission tomography (PET) is often performed using single-time-point estimates of tracer uptake or static imaging that provides a spatial map of regional tracer concentration. However, dynamic tracer imaging can provide considerably more information about in vivo biology by delineating both the temporal and spatial pattern of tracer uptake. In addition, several potential sources of error that occur in static imaging can be mitigated. This review focuses on the application of dynamic PET imaging to measuring regional cancer biologic features and especially in using dynamic PET imaging for quantitative therapeutic response monitoring for cancer clinical trials. Dynamic PET imaging output parameters, particularly transport (flow) and overall metabolic rate, have provided imaging end points for clinical trials at single-center institutions for years. However, dynamic imaging poses many challenges for multicenter clinical trial implementations from cross-center calibration to the inadequacy of a common informatics infrastructure. Underlying principles and methodology of PET dynamic imaging are first reviewed, followed by an examination of current approaches to dynamic PET image analysis with a specific case example of dynamic fluorothymidine imaging to illustrate the approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tumor-specific detection of an optically targeted antibody combined with a quencher-conjugated neutravidin "quencher-chaser": a dual "quench and chase" strategy to improve target to nontarget ratios for molecular imaging of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Mikako; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2009-01-01

    In vivo molecular cancer imaging with monoclonal antibodies has great potential not only for cancer detection, but also for cancer characterization. However, the prolonged retention of intravenously injected antibody in the blood causes low target tumor-to-background ratio (TBR). Avidin has been used as a "chase" to clear the unbound, circulating biotinylated antibody and decrease the background signal. Here, we utilize a combined approach of a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) quenched antibody with an "avidin chase" to increase TBR. Trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), was biotinylated and conjugated with the near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore Alexa680 to synthesize Tra-Alexa680-biotin. Next, the FRET quencher, QSY-21, was conjugated to avidin, neutravidin (nAv), or streptavidin (sAv), thus creating Av-QSY21, nAv-QSY21, or sAv-QSY21 as "chasers". The fluorescence was quenched in vitro by binding Tra-Alexa680-biotin to Av-QSY21, nAv-QSY21, or sAv-QSY21. To evaluate if the injection of quencher-conjugated avidin derivatives can improve target TBR by using a dual "quench and chase" strategy, both target (3T3/HER2+) and nontarget (Balb3T3/ZsGreen) tumor-bearing mice were employed. The "FRET quench" effect induced by all the QSY21 avidin-based conjugates reduced but did not totally eliminate background signal from the blood pool. The addition of nAv-QSY21 administration increased target TBR mainly because of the "chase" effect where unbound conjugated antibody was preferentially cleared to the liver. The relatively slow clearance of unbound nAv-QSY21 leads to further reductions in background signal by leaking out of the vascular space and binding to unbound antibodies in the extravascular space of tumors, resulting in decreased nontarget tumor-to-background ratios but increased target TBR due to the "FRET quench" effect, because target-bound antibodies were internalized and could not bind

  14. Tumor Specific Detection of an Optically Targeted Antibody Combined with a Quencher-conjugated Neutravidin “Quencher-Chaser”: A Dual “Quench and Chase” Strategy to Improve Target to Non-target Ratios for Molecular Imaging of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Mikako; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2009-01-01

    In vivo molecular cancer imaging with monoclonal antibodies has great potential not only for cancer detection but also for cancer characterization. However, the prolonged retention of intravenously injected antibody in the blood causes low target tumor-to-background ratio (TBR). Avidin has been used as a “chase” to clear the unbound, circulating biotinylated antibody and decrease the background signal. Here, we utilize a combined approach of a Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) quenched antibody with an “avidin chase” to increase TBR. Trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), was biotinylated and conjugated with the near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore Alexa680 to synthesize Tra-Alexa680-biotin. Next, the FRET quencher, QSY-21, was conjugated to avidin, neutravidin (nAv) or streptavidin (sAv), thus creating Av-QSY21, nAv-QSY21 or sAv-QSY21 as “chasers”. The fluorescence was quenched in vitro by binding Tra-Alexa680-biotin to Av-QSY21, nAv-QSY21 or sAv-QSY21. To evaluate if the injection of quencher-conjugated avidin-derivatives can improve target TBR by using a dual “quench and chase” strategy, both target (3T3/HER2+) and non-target (Balb3T3/ZsGreen) tumor bearing mice were employed. The “FRET quench” effect induced by all the QSY21 avidin-based conjugates reduced but did not totally eliminate background signal from the blood pool. The addition of nAv-QSY21 administration increased target TBR mainly due to the “chase” effect where unbound conjugated antibody was preferentially cleared to the liver. The relatively slow clearance of unbound nAv-QSY21 leads to further reductions in background signal by leaking out of the vascular space and binding to unbound antibodies in the extravascular space of tumors resulting in decreased non-target tumor-to-background ratios but increased target TBR due to the “FRET quench” effect because target-bound antibodies were internalized

  15. A review of molecular biomarkers for bladder cancer | Miakhil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Numerous molecular markers for bladder cancer have been identified and investigated with various laboratory techniques. Molecular markers are isolated from tissue, serum and urine. They fall into proteomic, genetic and epigenetic categories. Some of molecular markers show promising results in terms of ...

  16. Breast cancer histopathology image analysis : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veta, M.; Pluim, J.P.W.; Diest, van P.J.; Viergever, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of methods that have been proposed for the analysis of breast cancer histopathology images. This research area has become particularly relevant with the advent of whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners, which can perform cost-effective and high-throughput histopathology

  17. Proteomic Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Skin Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazova, Rossitza; Seeley, Erin H

    2017-10-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging can be successfully used for skin cancer diagnosis, particularly for the diagnosis of challenging melanocytic lesions. This method analyzes proteins within benign and malignant melanocytic tumor cells and, based on their differences, which constitute a unique molecular signature of 5 to 20 proteins, can render a diagnosis of benign nevus versus malignant melanoma. Mass spectrometry imaging may assist in the differentiation between metastases and nevi as well as between proliferative nodules in nevi and melanoma arising in a nevus. In the difficult area of atypical Spitzoid neoplasms, mass spectrometry diagnosis can predict clinical outcome better than histopathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Breast cancer staging with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smathers, R.L.; D'Amelio, F.; Stockdale, F.

    1989-01-01

    Forty-three patients with biopsy-proved breast cancer underwent MR staging of the cervicothoracic spine, lumbosacral spine, liver, and thorax. In all cases, these findings have been compared with the results of clinical staging, laboratory tests, chest radiography, and radionuclide bone scanning. MR imaging was a valuable staging tool for patients with more than minimal breast cancer and indications for radionuclide bone scanning. MR imaging had the greatest clinical importance when it identified thoracic soft-tissue abnormalities, including axillary., lateral thoracic, supraclavicular, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. The coronal and sagittal views were very valuable for detection of chest wall invasion, sternal involvement, and internal mammary adenopathy. Negative MR staging clinically reassured patients that aggressive local therapy bad curative potential. Positive MR staging avoided inappropriate aggressive local therapy and mastectomy. MR imaging can be recommended for improved breast cancer staging in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer who have more than minimal disease

  19. Molecular Dimensions of Gastric Cancer: Translational and Clinical Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Young Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is a global health burden and has the highest incidence in East Asia. This disease is complex in nature because it arises from multiple interactions of genetic, local environmental, and host factors, resulting in biological heterogeneity. This genetic intricacy converges on molecular characteristics reflecting the pathophysiology, tumor biology, and clinical outcome. Therefore, understanding the molecular characteristics at a genomic level is pivotal to improving the clinical care of patients with gastric cancer. A recent landmark study, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA project, showed the molecular landscape of gastric cancer through a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric cancers. The proposed molecular classification divided gastric cancer into four subtypes: Epstein-Barr virus–positive, microsatellite unstable, genomic stable, and chromosomal instability. This information will be taken into account in future clinical trials and will be translated into clinical therapeutic decisions. To fully realize the clinical benefit, many challenges must be overcome. Rapid growth of high-throughput biology and functional validation of molecular targets will further deepen our knowledge of molecular dimensions of this cancer, allowing for personalized precision medicine.

  20. Molecular Dimensions of Gastric Cancer: Translational and Clinical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Young; Noh, Sung Hoon; Cheong, Jae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a global health burden and has the highest incidence in East Asia. This disease is complex in nature because it arises from multiple interactions of genetic, local environmental, and host factors, resulting in biological heterogeneity. This genetic intricacy converges on molecular characteristics reflecting the pathophysiology, tumor biology, and clinical outcome. Therefore, understanding the molecular characteristics at a genomic level is pivotal to improving the clinical care of patients with gastric cancer. A recent landmark study, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, showed the molecular landscape of gastric cancer through a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric cancers. The proposed molecular classification divided gastric cancer into four subtypes: Epstein-Barr virus-positive, microsatellite unstable, genomic stable, and chromosomal instability. This information will be taken into account in future clinical trials and will be translated into clinical therapeutic decisions. To fully realize the clinical benefit, many challenges must be overcome. Rapid growth of high-throughput biology and functional validation of molecular targets will further deepen our knowledge of molecular dimensions of this cancer, allowing for personalized precision medicine.

  1. Self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Tianhui; Xu, Jinghong; Zhu, Yongliang

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs) represent a small fraction of the colorectal cancer cell population that possess self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential and drive tumorigenicity. Self-renewal is essential for the malignant biological behaviors of colorectal cancer stem cells. While the self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells are not yet fully understood, the aberrant activation of signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, transforming growth facto...

  2. Inflammation to cancer: The molecular biology in the pancreas (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    LING, SUNBIN; FENG, TINGTING; JIA, KAIQI; TIAN, YU; LI, YAN

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory responses are known to be correlated with cancer initiation and progression, and exploration of the route from inflammation to cancer makes a great contribution in elucidating the mechanisms underlying cancer development. Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a lethal disease with a low radical-resection rate and a poor prognosis. As chronic pancreatitis is considered to be a significant etiological factor for PC development, the current review aims to describe the molecular pathways from in...

  3. Employing image processing techniques for cancer detection using microarray images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan Khalilabad, Nastaran; Hassanpour, Hamid

    2017-02-01

    Microarray technology is a powerful genomic tool for simultaneously studying and analyzing the behavior of thousands of genes. The analysis of images obtained from this technology plays a critical role in the detection and treatment of diseases. The aim of the current study is to develop an automated system for analyzing data from microarray images in order to detect cancerous cases. The proposed system consists of three main phases, namely image processing, data mining, and the detection of the disease. The image processing phase performs operations such as refining image rotation, gridding (locating genes) and extracting raw data from images the data mining includes normalizing the extracted data and selecting the more effective genes. Finally, via the extracted data, cancerous cell is recognized. To evaluate the performance of the proposed system, microarray database is employed which includes Breast cancer, Myeloid Leukemia and Lymphomas from the Stanford Microarray Database. The results indicate that the proposed system is able to identify the type of cancer from the data set with an accuracy of 95.45%, 94.11%, and 100%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular Mechanisms Linking Exercise to Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Gehl, Julie; Christensen, Jesper F.

    2018-01-01

    The benefits of exercise training for cancer patients are becoming increasingly evident. Physical exercise has been shown to reduce cancer incidence and inhibit tumor growth. Here we provide the status of the current molecular understanding of the effect of exercise on cancer. We propose...... that exercise has a role in controlling cancer progression through a direct effect on tumor-intrinsic factors, interplay with whole-body exercise effects, alleviation of cancer-related adverse events, and improvement of anti-cancer treatment efficacy. These findings have wide-ranging societal implications......, as this understanding may lead to changes in cancer treatment strategies. Hojman et al. discuss the role of exercise in controlling cancer progression through direct effects on tumor-intrinsic factors, interplay with whole-body exercise effects, alleviation of cancer-related adverse events, and improvement of cancer...

  5. Resonance Energy Transfer Molecular Imaging Application in Biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIE Da-hong1,2;TANG Gang-hua1,3

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resonance energy transfer molecular imaging (RETI can markedly improve signal intensity and tissue penetrating capacity of optical imaging, and have huge potential application in the deep-tissue optical imaging in vivo. Resonance energy transfer (RET is an energy transition from the donor to an acceptor that is in close proximity, including non-radiative resonance energy transfer and radiative resonance energy transfer. RETI is an optical imaging technology that is based on RET. RETI mainly contains fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging (FRETI, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer imaging (BRETI, chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer imaging (CRETI, and radiative resonance energy transfer imaging (RRETI. RETI is the hot field of molecular imaging research and has been widely used in the fields of biology and medicine. This review mainly focuses on RETI principle and application in biomedicine.

  6. Computational methods in molecular imaging technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gunjan, Vinit Kumar; Venkatesh, C; Amarnath, M

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the experimental investigations that have been carried out on magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (MRI & CT) images using state-of-the-art Computational Image processing techniques, and tabulates the statistical values wherever necessary. In a very simple and straightforward way, it explains how image processing methods are used to improve the quality of medical images and facilitate analysis. It offers a valuable resource for researchers, engineers, medical doctors and bioinformatics experts alike.

  7. Raman spectroscopic analysis for gastric and colorectal cancer in surgical treatment toward molecular-guided surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Shigehiro; Watanabe, Yuji; Oshima, Yusuke

    2018-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy provides a wealth of diagnostic information to the surgeon with in situ cancer detection and label-free histopathology in intraoperative conditions. Raman spectroscopy is a promising optical technique which can analyze biological tissues with light scattering. The difference in frequencies between the incident light and the scattering light are called Raman shifts, which correspond to the vibrational energy of the molecular bonds. Raman spectrum gives information about the molecular structure and composition in biological specimens. We had been previously reported that Raman spectroscopy could distinguish various histological types of human lung cancer cells from normal cells in vitro, and also confirmed that Raman spectra obtained from cancer cells and their environment including other cells and extracellular matrix in xenograft models and spontaneous metastasis models were distinguishable using Raman spectroscopy combined with fluorescence microscopy and photoluminescence imaging. Malignancy can be characterized not only by the cancer cells but also by the environmental factors including immune cells, stroma cells, secretion vesicles and extracellular matrix, but to identify and detect cancer diagnostic biomarkers in vivo on Raman spectroscopy is still challenging. Here we investigate morphological and molecular dynamics in advanced cancer specimens obtained from patients. We are also constructing a customdesigned Raman spectral imaging system for both in vitro and in vivo assay of tumor tissues to reveal the metastasis process and to evaluate therapeutic effects of anti-cancer drugs and their drug delivery toward the clinical application of the technique.

  8. Personalized Cancer Medicine: Molecular Diagnostics, Predictive biomarkers, and Drug Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez de Castro, D; Clarke, P A; Al-Lazikani, B; Workman, P

    2013-01-01

    The progressive elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of cancer has fueled the rational development of targeted drugs for patient populations stratified by genetic characteristics. Here we discuss general challenges relating to molecular diagnostics and describe predictive biomarkers for personalized cancer medicine. We also highlight resistance mechanisms for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors in lung cancer. We envisage a future requiring the use of longitudinal genome sequencing and other omics technologies alongside combinatorial treatment to overcome cellular and molecular heterogeneity and prevent resistance caused by clonal evolution. PMID:23361103

  9. Nanomedicine: Perspective and promises with ligand-directed molecular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Dipanjan [Department of Medicine, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States)], E-mail: dipanjan@wustl.edu; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A. [Department of Medicine, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States); Caruthers, Shelton D. [Department of Medicine, Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States); Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA (United States)], E-mail: scaruthers@cmrl.wustl.edu

    2009-05-15

    Molecular imaging and targeted drug delivery play an important role toward personalized medicine, which is the future of patient management. Of late, nanoparticle-based molecular imaging has emerged as an interdisciplinary area, which shows promises to understand the components, processes, dynamics and therapies of a disease at a molecular level. The unprecedented potential of nanoplatforms for early detection, diagnosis and personalized treatment of diseases, have found application in every biomedical imaging modality. Biological and biophysical barriers are overcome by the integration of targeting ligands, imaging agents and therapeutics into the nanoplatform which allow for theranostic applications. In this article, we have discussed the opportunities and potential of targeted molecular imaging with various modalities putting a particular emphasis on perfluorocarbon nanoemulsion-based platform technology.

  10. Nanomedicine: Perspective and promises with ligand-directed molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Dipanjan; Lanza, Gregory M.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Caruthers, Shelton D.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imaging and targeted drug delivery play an important role toward personalized medicine, which is the future of patient management. Of late, nanoparticle-based molecular imaging has emerged as an interdisciplinary area, which shows promises to understand the components, processes, dynamics and therapies of a disease at a molecular level. The unprecedented potential of nanoplatforms for early detection, diagnosis and personalized treatment of diseases, have found application in every biomedical imaging modality. Biological and biophysical barriers are overcome by the integration of targeting ligands, imaging agents and therapeutics into the nanoplatform which allow for theranostic applications. In this article, we have discussed the opportunities and potential of targeted molecular imaging with various modalities putting a particular emphasis on perfluorocarbon nanoemulsion-based platform technology.

  11. [Diagnostic imaging of breast cancer : An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, M

    2016-10-01

    Advances in imaging of the female breast have substantially influenced the diagnosis and probably also the therapy and prognosis of breast cancer in the past few years. This article gives an overview of the most important imaging modalities in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Digital mammography is considered to be the gold standard for the early detection of breast cancer. Digital breast tomosynthesis can increase the diagnostic accuracy of mammography and is used for the assessment of equivocal or suspicious mammography findings. Other modalities, such as ultrasound and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play an important role in the diagnostics, staging and follow-up of breast cancer. Percutaneous needle biopsy is a rapid and minimally invasive method for the histological verification of breast cancer. New breast imaging modalities, such as contrast-enhanced spectral mammography, diffusion-weighted MRI and MR spectroscopy can possibly further improve breast cancer diagnostics; however, further studies are necessary to prove the advantages of these methods so that they cannot yet be recommended for routine clinical use.

  12. Ovarian cancer: Novel molecular aspects for clinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmirotta, Raffaele; Silvestris, Erica; D'Oronzo, Stella; Cardascia, Angela; Silvestris, Franco

    2017-09-01

    Ovarian cancer is a very heterogeneous tumor which has been traditionally characterized according to the different histological subtypes and differentiation degree. In recent years, innovative molecular screening biotechnologies have allowed to identify further subtypes of this cancer based on gene expression profiles, mutational features, and epigenetic factors. These novel classification systems emphasizing the molecular signatures within the broad spectrum of ovarian cancer have not only allowed a more precise prognostic prediction, but also proper therapeutic strategies for specific subgroups of patients. The bulk of available scientific data and the high refinement of molecular classifications of ovarian cancers can today address the research towards innovative drugs with the adoption of targeted therapies tailored for single molecular profiles leading to a better prediction of therapeutic response. Here, we summarize the current state of knowledge on the molecular bases of ovarian cancer, from the description of its molecular subtypes derived from wide high-throughput analyses to the latest discoveries of the ovarian cancer stem cells. The latest personalized treatment options are also presented with recent advances in using PARP inhibitors, anti-angiogenic, anti-folate receptor and anti-cancer stem cells treatment approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Luminescence imaging using radionuclides: a potential application in molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Chan; Il An, Gwang; Park, Se-Il; Oh, Jungmin; Kim, Hong Joo; Su Ha, Yeong; Wang, Eun Kyung; Min Kim, Kyeong; Kim, Jung Young; Lee, Jaetae; Welch, Michael J.; Yoo, Jeongsoo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Nuclear and optical imaging are complementary in many aspects and there would be many advantages when optical imaging probes are prepared using radionuclides rather than classic fluorophores, and when nuclear and optical dual images are obtained using single imaging probe. Methods: The luminescence intensities of various radionuclides having different decay modes have been assayed using luminescence imaging and in vitro luminometer. Radioiodinated Herceptin was injected into a tumor-bearing mouse, and luminescence and microPET images were obtained. The plant dipped in [ 32 P]phosphate solution was scanned in luminescence mode. Radio-TLC plate was also imaged in the same imaging mode. Results: Radionuclides emitting high energy β + /β - particles showed higher luminescence signals. NIH3T6.7 tumors were detected in both optical and nuclear imaging. The uptake of [ 32 P]phosphate in plant was easily followed by luminescence imaging. Radio-TLC plate was visualized and radiochemical purity was quantified using luminescence imaging. Conclusion: Many radionuclides with high energetic β + or β - particles during decay were found to be imaged in luminescence mode due mainly to Cerenkov radiation. 'Cerenkov imaging' provides a new optical imaging platform and an invaluable bridge between optical and nuclear imaging. New optical imaging probes could be easily prepared using well-established radioiodination methods. Cerenkov imaging will have more applications in the research field of plant science and autoradiography.

  14. Molecular basis of the triple negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Feyda Nursal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women and more than 1 million breast cancer cases are diagnosed each year all over the world. Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease in terms of its molecular structure, mutation type, metastase properties, clinical course and therapeutic response. Breast cancer is divided into subtypes based on expression properties of molecular markers as estrogen receptor, progestron receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Triple-negative breast cancer is characterized by the lack of tumors that estrogen receptor, progestron receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene expression. These type of tumors lead to agressive clinical course due to unresponsiveness to systemic endocrine therapy and poor prognosis. Triple negative breast cancer constitutes 10-20% of all breast cancers. It affects generally young and African-American women. Triple negative breast cancer have several subtypes based on the gene expression properties. The majority of them are basal-like breast cancers. In this review, current literature is revised and summarized with respect to the molecular basis of triple negative cancers. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(2.000: 251-259

  15. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis Molecular expression of vascular markers by aggressive breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, Mary JC; Seftor, Elisabeth A; Kirschmann, Dawn A; Seftor, Richard EB

    2000-01-01

    During embryogenesis, the formation of primary vascular networks occurs via the processes of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. In uveal melanoma, vasculogenic mimicry describes the 'embryonic-like' ability of aggressive, but not nonaggressive, tumor cells to form networks surrounding spheroids of tumor cells in three-dimensional culture; these recapitulate the patterned networks seen in patients' aggressive tumors and correlates with poor prognosis. The molecular profile of these aggressive tumor cells suggests that they have a deregulated genotype, capable of expressing vascular phenotypes. Similarly, the embryonic-like phenotype expressed by the aggressive human breast cancer cells is associated with their ability to express a variety of vascular markers. These studies may offer new insights for consideration in breast cancer diagnosis and therapeutic intervention strategies

  16. Image-Guided Cancer Nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hyun Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctional nanoparticles with superior imaging properties and therapeutic effects have been extensively developed for the nanomedicine. However, tumor-intrinsic barriers and tumor heterogeneity have resulted in low in vivo therapeutic efficacy. The poor in vivo targeting efficiency in passive and active targeting of nano-therapeutics along with the toxicity of nanoparticles has been a major problem in nanomedicine. Recently, image-guided nanomedicine, which can deliver nanoparticles locally using non-invasive imaging and interventional oncology techniques, has been paid attention as a new opportunity of nanomedicine. This short review will discuss the existing challenges in nanomedicine and describe the prospects for future image-guided nanomedicine.

  17. Endometrial cancer: magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, R; Gui, B; Maresca, G; Fanfani, F; Bonomo, L

    2005-01-01

    Carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common invasive gynecologic malignancy of the female genital tract. Clinically, patients with endometrial carcinoma present with abnormal uterine bleeding. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in endometrial carcinoma is disease staging and treatment planning. MRI has been shown to be the most valuable imaging mod-ality in this task, compared with endovaginal ultrasound and computed tomography, because of its intrinsic contrast resolution and multiplanar capability. MRI protocol includes axial T1-weighted images; axial, sagittal, and coronal T2-weighted images; and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. MR examination is usually performed in the supine position with a phased array multicoil using a four-coil configuration. Endometrial carcinoma is isointense with the normal endometrium and myometrium on noncontrast T1-weighted images and has a variable appearance on T2-weighted images demonstrating heterogeneous signal intensity. The appearance of noninvasive endometrial carcinoma on MRI is characterized by a normal or thickened endometrium, with an intact junctional zone and a sharp tumor-myometrium interface. Invasive endometrial carcinoma is characterized disruption or irregularity of the junctional zone by intermediate signal intensity mass on T2-weighted images. Invasion of the cervical stroma is diagnosed when the low signal intensity cervical stroma is disrupted by the higher signal intensity endometrial carcinoma. MRI in endometrial carcinoma performs better than other imaging modalities in disease staging and treatment planning. Further, the accuracy and the cost of MRI are equivalent to those of surgical staging.

  18. Early Detection of Breast Cancer Using Molecular Beacons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Lily

    2008-01-01

    .... We proposed to use molecular beacon technology to detect the level of expression of several biomarker genes that are highly expressed in breast cancer cells but not in normal breast epithelial cells...

  19. Introduction to the cellular and molecular biology of cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selby, P. (Peter); Knowles, Margaret A

    2005-01-01

    ... A. Prigent 186xii CONTENTS 12 Apoptosis: molecular physiology and significance for cancer therapeutics Dean A. Fennell 210 13 Mechanisms of viral carcinogenesis Paul Farrell 229 14 Cytokines and canc...

  20. Integration of molecular imaging in treatment planning and delivery of modern radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, V.; Wilkens, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Among various imaging modalities currently available, positron emission tomography (PET) has the potential to visualize processes on a molecular level. Molecular imaging, often also referred to as functional or biological imaging, brought a new dimension to diagnostics and therapy of cancer by providing images of metabolism and other processes in the human body and in tumours. PET was first applied for diagnostics and staging of various tumours with high diagnostic precision. Modern radiotherapy asks increasingly for individualized treatment strategies, taking molecular imaging into account. Technical developments over the last years, in particular methods to register various imaging modalities within software packages for treatment planning and target delineation, facilitated the use of PET imaging in radiotherapy. In order to exploit the full potential of modern high-precision radiotherapy, exact imaging procedures are necessary, for example for precise target volume definition. In the long run, concepts employing an inhomogeneous dose prescription based on biological imaging may become routine in clinical applications, leading to individualized, biologically adaptive therapy. (orig.)

  1. Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Michael J.; Eckelman, William C.; Vera, David

    2005-01-01

    Molecular imaging is becoming a larger part of imaging research and practice. The Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the Department of Energy funds a significant number of researchers in this area. The proposal is to partially fund a workshop to inform scientists working in nuclear medicine and nuclear medicine practitioners of the recent advances of molecular imaging in nuclear medicine as well as other imaging modalities. A limited number of topics related to radionuclide therapy will also be discussed. The proposal is to request partial funds for the workshop entitled ''Translational Applications of Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy'' to be held prior to the Society of Nuclear Medicine Annual Meeting in Toronto, Canada in June 2005. The meeting will be held on June 17-18. This will allow scientists interested in all aspects of nuclear medicine imaging to attend. The chair of the organizing group is Dr. Michael J. Welch. The organizing committee consists of Dr. Welch, Dr. William C. Eckelman and Dr. David Vera. The goal is to invite speakers to discuss the most recent advances of modern molecular imaging and therapy. Speakers will present advances made in in vivo tagging imaging assays, technical aspects of small animal imaging, in vivo imaging and bench to bedside translational study; and the role of a diagnostic scan on therapy selection. This latter topic will include discussions on therapy and new approaches to dosimetry. Several of these topics are those funded by the Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research

  2. Advances in medical imaging for the diagnosis and management of common genitourinary cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Mohammad H; Ahlman, Mark A; Lindenberg, Liza; Turkbey, Baris; Lin, Jeffrey; Cahid Civelek, Ali; Malayeri, Ashkan A; Agarwal, Piyush K; Choyke, Peter L; Folio, Les R; Apolo, Andrea B

    2017-07-01

    Medical imaging of the 3 most common genitourinary (GU) cancers-prostate adenocarcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and urothelial carcinoma of the bladder-has evolved significantly during the last decades. The most commonly used imaging modalities for the diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of GU cancers are computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET). Multiplanar multidetector computed tomography and multiparametric MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging are the main imaging modalities for renal cell carcinoma and urothelial carcinoma, and although multiparametric MRI is rapidly becoming the main imaging tool in the evaluation of prostate adenocarcinoma, biopsy is still required for diagnosis. Functional and molecular imaging using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET and sodium fluoride-PET are essential for the diagnosis, and especially follow-up, of metastatic GU tumors. This review provides an overview of the latest advances in the imaging of these 3 major GU cancers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The motivations and methodology for high-throughput PET imaging of small animals in cancer research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aide, N.; Visser, E.P.; Lheureux, S.; Heutte, N.; Szanda, I.; Hicks, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, small-animal PET imaging has become a vital platform technology in cancer research. With the development of molecularly targeted therapies and drug combinations requiring evaluation of different schedules, the number of animals to be imaged within a PET experiment has

  4. Current Concepts and Future Perspectives on Intraoperative Fluorescence Imaging in Cancer : Clinical Need

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    Progress with technology and regulatory approvals has recently allowed the successful clinical translation of fluorescence molecular imaging to intra-operative applications. Initial studies have demonstrated a promising outlook for imaging cancer micro-foci, margins and lymph-nodes. However, not all

  5. Spatial Organization and Molecular Correlation of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes Using Deep Learning on Pathology Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Saltz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Beyond sample curation and basic pathologic characterization, the digitized H&E-stained images of TCGA samples remain underutilized. To highlight this resource, we present mappings of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs based on H&E images from 13 TCGA tumor types. These TIL maps are derived through computational staining using a convolutional neural network trained to classify patches of images. Affinity propagation revealed local spatial structure in TIL patterns and correlation with overall survival. TIL map structural patterns were grouped using standard histopathological parameters. These patterns are enriched in particular T cell subpopulations derived from molecular measures. TIL densities and spatial structure were differentially enriched among tumor types, immune subtypes, and tumor molecular subtypes, implying that spatial infiltrate state could reflect particular tumor cell aberration states. Obtaining spatial lymphocytic patterns linked to the rich genomic characterization of TCGA samples demonstrates one use for the TCGA image archives with insights into the tumor-immune microenvironment. : Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs were identified from standard pathology cancer images by a deep-learning-derived “computational stain” developed by Saltz et al. They processed 5,202 digital images from 13 cancer types. Resulting TIL maps were correlated with TCGA molecular data, relating TIL content to survival, tumor subtypes, and immune profiles. Keywords: digital pathology, immuno-oncology, machine learning, lymphocytes, tumor microenvironment, deep learning, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, artificial intelligence, bioinformatics, computer vision

  6. Quantitative Methods for Molecular Diagnostic and Therapeutic Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Quanzheng

    2013-01-01

    This theme issue provides an overview on the basic quantitative methods, an in-depth discussion on the cutting-edge quantitative analysis approaches as well as their applications for both static and dynamic molecular diagnostic and therapeutic imaging.

  7. Molecular Imaging of Ovarian Carcinoma Angiogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2007-01-01

    .... Ovarian cancer is angiogenesis dependent. Integrin , a key player in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis, has been identified as a target for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for several highly proliferative and metastatic tumor types...

  8. Optical Coherence Tomography in Cancer Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ahhyun Stephanie; Vakoc, Benjamin; Blauvelt, David; Chico-Calero, Isabel

    Investigations into the biology of cancer and novel cancer therapies rely on preclinical mouse models and traditional histological endpoints. Drawbacks of this approach include a limit in the number of time points for evaluation and an increased number of animals per study. This has motivated the use of intravital microscopy, which can provide longitudinal imaging of critical tumor parameters. Here, the capabilities of OCT as an intravital microscopy of the tumor microenvironment are summarized, and the state of OCT adoption into cancer research is summarized.

  9. Molecular-resolution imaging of pentacene on KCl(001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia L. Neff

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth of pentacene on KCl(001 at submonolayer coverage was studied by dynamic scanning force microscopy. At coverages below one monolayer pentacene was found to arrange in islands with an upright configuration. The molecular arrangement was resolved in high-resolution images. In these images two different types of patterns were observed, which switch repeatedly. In addition, defects were found, such as a molecular vacancy and domain boundaries.

  10. Theranostic Imaging of Cancer Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Thillai V; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy

    2016-01-01

    Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) is a promising therapeutic approach for treating cancers of various phenotypes. This strategy is independent of various other chemotherapeutic drugs used for treating cancers where the drugs are mainly designed to target endogenous cellular mechanisms, which are different in various cancer subtypes. In GDEPT an external enzyme, which is different from the cellular proteins, is expressed to convert the injected prodrug in to a toxic metabolite, that normally kill cancer cells express this protein. Theranostic imaging is an approach used to directly monitor the expression of these gene therapy enzymes while evaluating therapeutic effect. We recently developed a dual-GDEPT system where we combined mutant human herpes simplex thymidine kinase (HSV1sr39TK) and E. coli nitroreductase (NTR) enzyme, to improve therapeutic efficiency of cancer gene therapy by simultaneously injecting two prodrugs at a lower dose. In this approach we use two different prodrugs such as ganciclovir (GCV) and CB1954 to target two different cellular mechanisms to kill cancer cells. The developed dual GDEPT system was highly efficacious than that of either of the system used independently. In this chapter, we describe the complete protocol involved for in vitro and in vivo imaging of therapeutic cancer gene therapy evaluation.

  11. Molecular concept in human oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna, Akhilesh; Singh, Shraddha; Kumar, Vijay; Pal, U. S.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oral cancer remains high in both Asian and Western countries. Several risk factors associated with development of oral cancer are now well-known, including tobacco chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Cancerous risk factors may cause many genetic events through chromosomal alteration or mutations in genetic material and lead to progression and development of oral cancer through histological progress, carcinogenesis. Oral squamous carcinogenesis is a multistep process in...

  12. Molecular Determinants of Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    receptor is no longer essential for survival, collectively termed androgen pathway independent prostate cancer (APIPC) (Nelson, 2012). A subset of these...Reciprocal feedback regulation of PI3K and androgen receptor signaling in PTEN-deficient prostate cancer . Cancer Cell. 2011 May 17;19(5):575-86. Chen J, Li...2005a). The androgen receptor and signal-transduction pathways in hormone-refractory prostate cancer . Part 1: Modifications to the androgen receptor

  13. Nanobody: The “Magic Bullet” for Molecular Imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Goel, Shreya; Cai, Weibo

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging involves the non-invasive investigation of biological processes in vivo at the cellular and molecular level, which can play diverse roles in better understanding and treatment of various diseases. Recently, single domain antigen-binding fragments known as 'nanobodies' were bioengineered and tested for molecular imaging applications. Small molecular size (~15 kDa) and suitable configuration of the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of nanobodies offer many desirable features suitable for imaging applications, such as rapid targeting and fast blood clearance, high solubility, high stability, easy cloning, modular nature, and the capability of binding to cavities and difficult-to-access antigens. Using nanobody-based probes, several imaging techniques such as radionuclide-based, optical and ultrasound have been employed for visualization of target expression in various disease models. This review summarizes the recent developments in the use of nanobody-based probes for molecular imaging applications. The preclinical data reported to date are quite promising, and it is expected that nanobody-based molecular imaging agents will play an important role in the diagnosis and management of various diseases. PMID:24578722

  14. Ultra-high sensitivity imaging of cancer using SERRS nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Moritz F.

    2016-05-01

    "Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy" (SERS) nanoparticles have gained much attention in recent years for in silico, in vitro and in vivo sensing applications. Our group has developed novel generations of biocompatible "surfaceenhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy" (SERRS) nanoparticles as novel molecular imaging agents. Via rigorous optimization of the different variables contributing to the Raman enhancement, we were able to design SERRS nanoparticles with so far unprecedented sensitivity of detection under in vivo imaging conditions (femto-attomolar range). This has resulted in our ability to visualize, with a single nanoparticle, many different cancer types (after intravenous injection) in mouse models. The cancer types we have tested so far include brain, breast, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, colon, sarcoma, and prostate cancer. All mouse models used are state-of-the-art and closely mimic the tumor biology in their human counterparts. In these animals, we were able to visualize not only the bulk tumors, but importantly also microscopic extensions and locoregional satellite metastases, thus delineating for the first time the true extent of tumor spread. Moreover, the particles enable the detection of premalignant lesions. Given their inert composition they are expected to have a high chance for clinical translation, where we envision them to have an impact in various scenarios ranging from early detection, image-guidance in open or minimally invasive surgical procedures, to noninvasive imaging in conjunction with spatially offset (SESORS) Raman detection devices.

  15. A novel 111In-labeled anti-PSMA nanobody for targeted SPECT/CT imaging of prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatalic, K.L.S.; Veldhoven-Zweistra, J.; Bolkestein, M.; Hoeben, S.; Koning, G.A.; Boerman, O.C.; Jong, M. de; Weerden, W.M. van

    2015-01-01

    Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) is overexpressed in prostate cancer (PCa) and a promising target for molecular imaging and therapy. Nanobodies (single domain antibodies, VHH) are the smallest antibody-based fragments possessing ideal molecular imaging properties, such as high target

  16. MRI Reporter Genes for Noninvasive Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is one of the most important imaging technologies used in clinical diagnosis. Reporter genes for MRI can be applied to accurately track the delivery of cell in cell therapy, evaluate the therapy effect of gene delivery, and monitor tissue/cell-specific microenvironments. Commonly used reporter genes for MRI usually include genes encoding the enzyme (e.g., tyrosinase and β-galactosidase, the receptor on the cells (e.g., transferrin receptor, and endogenous reporter genes (e.g., ferritin reporter gene. However, low sensitivity limits the application of MRI and reporter gene-based multimodal imaging strategies are common including optical imaging and radionuclide imaging. These can significantly improve diagnostic efficiency and accelerate the development of new therapies.

  17. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Dementia and Movement Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Atul K; Drzezga, Alexander; Minoshima, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine (PM) has been defined as "prevention and treatment strategies that take individual variability into account." Molecular imaging (MI) is an ideally suited tool for PM approaches to neurodegenerative dementia and movement disorders (MD). Here we review PM approaches and discuss how they may be applied to other associated neurodegenerative dementia and MD. With ongoing major therapeutic research initiatives that include the use of molecular imaging, we look forward to established interventions targeted to specific molecular pathophysiology and expect the potential benefit of MI PM approaches in neurodegenerative dementia and MD will only increase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuclear Molecular Imaging Strategies in Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandsen, Kasper F; Hendel, Helle W; Langer, Seppo W

    2017-01-01

    this, new response criteria for evaluating these patients with morphologic imaging have been proposed. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss the current evidence for the use of molecular imaging, e.g., PET/CT (Positron Emission Tomography/Computer Tomography) with18F-Fluorodeoxyglucoes (FDG...

  19. Molecular mass spectrometry imaging in biomedical and life science research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pól, Jaroslav; Strohalm, Martin; Havlíček, Vladimír; Volný, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 5 (2010), s. 423-443 ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545; GA ČR GPP206/10/P018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Mass spectrometry * Chemical imaging * Molecular imaging Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.727, year: 2010

  20. Ultrasound Imaging Methods for Breast Cancer Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozmen, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is on modeling acoustic wavefield propagation and implementing imaging algorithms for breast cancer detection using ultrasound. As a starting point, we use an integral equation formulation, which can be used to solve both the forward and inverse problems. This thesis

  1. Companion diagnostics and molecular imaging-enhanced approaches for oncology clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heertum, Ronald L; Scarimbolo, Robert; Ford, Robert; Berdougo, Eli; O'Neal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the era of personalized medicine, diagnostic approaches are helping pharmaceutical and biotechnology sponsors streamline the clinical trial process. Molecular assays and diagnostic imaging are routinely being used to stratify patients for treatment, monitor disease, and provide reliable early clinical phase assessments. The importance of diagnostic approaches in drug development is highlighted by the rapidly expanding global cancer diagnostics market and the emergent attention of regulatory agencies worldwide, who are beginning to offer more structured platforms and guidance for this area. In this paper, we highlight the key benefits of using companion diagnostics and diagnostic imaging with a focus on oncology clinical trials. Nuclear imaging using widely available radiopharmaceuticals in conjunction with molecular imaging of oncology targets has opened the door to more accurate disease assessment and the modernization of standard criteria for the evaluation, staging, and treatment responses of cancer patients. Furthermore, the introduction and validation of quantitative molecular imaging continues to drive and optimize the field of oncology diagnostics. Given their pivotal role in disease assessment and treatment, the validation and commercialization of diagnostic tools will continue to advance oncology clinical trials, support new oncology drugs, and promote better patient outcomes.

  2. Role of Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging in Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saroj; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Nikolajeff, Fredrik

    2018-01-01

    Cancer is a major global health issue. It causes extensive individual suffering and gives a huge burden on the health care in society. Despite extensive research and different tools have been developed it still remains a challenge for early detection of this disease. FTIR imaging has been used to diagnose and differentiate the molecular differences between normal and diseased tissues. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is able to measure biochemical changes in tissue, cell and biofluids based on the vibrational signature of their components. This technique enables to the distribution and structure of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids as well as other metabolites. These differences depended on the type and the grade of cancer. We emphasize here, that the FTIR spectroscopy and imaging can be considered as a promising technique and will find its place on the detection of this dreadful disease because of high sensitivity, accuracy and inexpensive technique. Now the medical community started using and accepting this technique for early stage cancer detection. We discussed this technique and the several challenges in its application for the diagnosis of cancer in regards of sample preparations, data interpretation, and data analysis. The sensitivity of chemotherapy drugs on individual specific has also discussed. So far progressed has done with the FTIR imaging in understanding of cancer disease pathology. However, more research is needed in this field and it is necessary to understand the morphology and biology of the sample before using the spectroscopy and imaging because invaluable information to be figured out. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Novel approach to improve molecular imaging research: Correlation between macroscopic and molecular pathological findings in patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Ingrid, E-mail: i.boehm@uni-bonn.de [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, ZARF Project, Center for Molecular Imaging Research MBMB, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Currently, clinical research approaches are sparse in molecular imaging studies. Moreover, possible links between imaging features and pathological laboratory parameters are unknown, so far. Therefore, the goal was to find a possible relationship between imaging features and peripheral blood cell apoptosis, and thereby to present a novel way to complement molecular imaging research. Materials and methods: The investigation has been done in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototype of an autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan involvement, autoantibody production, and disturbed apoptosis. Retrospectively, radiological findings have been compared to both autoantibody findings and percentage apoptotic blood cells. Results: Two SLE groups could be identified: patients with normal (annexin V binding < 20%), and with increased apoptosis (annexin V binding > 20%) of peripheral blood cells. The frequency of radiological examinations in SLE patients significantly correlated with an increased percentage of apoptotic cells (p < 0.005). In patients with characteristic imaging findings (e.g. lymph node swelling, pleural effusion) an elevated percentage of apoptotic cells was present. In contrast SLE-patients with normal imaging findings or uncharacteristic results of minimal severity had normal percentages of apoptotic blood cells. Conclusion: This correlation between radiographic findings and percentage of apoptotic blood cells provides (1) further insight into pathological mechanisms of SLE, (2) will offer the possibility to introduce apoptotic biomarkers as molecular probes for clinical molecular imaging approaches in future to early diagnose organ complaints in patients with SLE, and (3) is a plea to complement molecular imaging research by this clinical approach.

  4. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalay, Rakesh; Talbot, Clifford; Munro, Ian; Breunig, Hans Georg; König, Karsten; Alexandrov, Yuri; Warren, Sean; Neil, Mark A. A.; French, Paul M. W.; Chu, Anthony; Stamp, Gordon W.; Dunsby, Chris

    2011-03-01

    Fluorescence intensity imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) using two photon microscopy (TPM) have been used to study tissue autofluorescence in ex vivo skin cancer samples. A commercially available system (DermaInspect®) was modified to collect fluorescence intensity and lifetimes in two spectral channels using time correlated single photon counting and depth-resolved steady state measurements of the fluorescence emission spectrum. Uniquely, image segmentation has been used to allow fluorescence lifetimes to be calculated for each cell. An analysis of lifetime values obtained from a range of pigmented and non-pigmented lesions will be presented.

  5. Molecular Concordance Between Primary Breast Cancer and Matched Metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Thomassen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Clinical management of breast cancer is increasingly personalized and based on molecular profiling. Often, primary tumors are used as proxies for systemic disease at the time of recurrence. However, recent studies have revealed substantial discordances between primary tumors and metastases, both....... The purpose of this review is to illuminate the extent of cancer genome evolution through disease progression and the degree of molecular concordance between primary breast cancers and matched metastases. We present an overview of the most prominent studies investigating the expression of endocrine receptors......, transcriptomics, and genome aberrations in primary tumors and metastases. In conclusion, biopsy of metastatic lesions at recurrence of breast cancer is encouraged to provide optimal treatment of the disease. Furthermore, molecular profiling of metastatic tissue provides invaluable mechanistic insight...

  6. The development of nanobody probes for molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Zhiling; Lan Xiaoli; Zhang Yongxue

    2014-01-01

    The nanobody is a novel antibody fragment, which has beneficial biophysical and pharmacokinetic properties, such as the small molecular weight, high affinity and specificity for antigen. Nanobody is ideally suitable for molecular imaging as a targeting probe that could label antigen at nmol level in vitro. In animal models of xenografted tumor, atherosclerotic plaques and brain disorders, the target tissues were specifically and clearly detected and the high tumor-to-blood (T/B) ratios were obtained. Structural or chemical modified nanobodies will have higher affinity and retention to target tissues, and be convenient for the application of molecular imaging. With the development of the related research, nanobody-based molecular imaging will be gradually transformed into the clinical applications, and play an important role in early diagnosis and therapeutic assessment. (authors)

  7. The public cancer radiology imaging collections of The Cancer Imaging Archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Fred; Smith, Kirk; Sharma, Ashish; Kirby, Justin; Tarbox, Lawrence; Clark, Ken; Bennett, William; Nolan, Tracy; Freymann, John

    2017-09-19

    The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) is the U.S. National Cancer Institute's repository for cancer imaging and related information. TCIA contains 30.9 million radiology images representing data collected from approximately 37,568 subjects. This data is organized into collections by tumor-type with many collections also including analytic results or clinical data. TCIA staff carefully de-identify and curate all incoming collections prior to making the information available via web browser or programmatic interfaces. Each published collection within TCIA is assigned a Digital Object Identifier that references the collection. Additionally, researchers who use TCIA data may publish the subset of information used in their analysis by requesting a TCIA generated Digital Object Identifier. This data descriptor is a review of a selected subset of existing publicly available TCIA collections. It outlines the curation and publication methods employed by TCIA and makes available 15 collections of cancer imaging data.

  8. [Molecular Biology for Surgical Treatment of Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Kenichi; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Progress in lung cancer research achieved during the last 10 years was summarized. These include identification of novel driver mutations and application of targeted therapies, resistance mechanisms to targeted therapies, and immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Molecular biology also affects the field of surgical treatment. Several molecular markers have been reported to predict benign/ malignant or stable/growing tumors, although far from clinical application. In perioperative period, there is a possibility of atrial natriuretic peptide to prevent cancer metastasis. As adjuvant settings, although biomarker-based cytotoxic therapies failed to show clinical efficacy, several trials are ongoing employing molecular targeted agents (EGFR-TKI or ALK-TKI) or immune checkpoint inhibitors. In clinical practice, mutational information is sometimes used to distinguish 2nd primary tumors from pulmonary metastases of previous cancers. Surgery also has important role for oligo-progressive disease during molecular targeted therapies.

  9. Molecular and neuroendocrine mechanisms of cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Maria Carolina S; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Costa, Felipe O; Carvalheira, José B C

    2015-09-01

    Cancer and its morbidities, such as cancer cachexia, constitute a major public health problem. Although cancer cachexia has afflicted humanity for centuries, its underlying multifactorial and complex physiopathology has hindered the understanding of its mechanism. During the last few decades we have witnessed a dramatic increase in the understanding of cancer cachexia pathophysiology. Anorexia and muscle and adipose tissue wasting are the main features of cancer cachexia. These apparently independent symptoms have humoral factors secreted by the tumor as a common cause. Importantly, the hypothalamus has emerged as an organ that senses the peripheral signals emanating from the tumoral environment, and not only elicits anorexia but also contributes to the development of muscle and adipose tissue loss. Herein, we review the roles of factors secreted by the tumor and its effects on the hypothalamus, muscle and adipose tissue, as well as highlighting the key targets that are being exploited for cancer cachexia treatment. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. Mechanically magnified imaging of molecular interferograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stibor, A.; Stefanov, A.; Goldfarb, F.; Reiger, E.; Arndt, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Imaging of surface adsorbed molecules is presented as a valuable detection method for matter interferometry with fluorescent particles. A mechanical magnification scheme is implemented to circumvent the optical resolution limit. Mechanically magnified fluorescence imaging turns out to be an excellent tool for recording quantum interference patterns with high visibility. A unique advantage of this technique is its scalability: for certain classes of nanosized objects, the detection sensitivity will even increase significantly with increasing size of the particle. (author)

  11. Imaging and Screening of Kidney Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz de Leon, Alberto; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2017-11-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) exhibits a diverse and heterogeneous disease spectrum, but insight into its molecular biology has provided an improved understanding of potential risk factors, oncologic behavior, and imaging features. Computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging may allow the identification and preoperative subtyping of RCC and assessment of a response to various therapies. Active surveillance is a viable management option in some patients and has provided further insight into the natural history of RCC, including the favorable prognosis of cystic neoplasms. This article reviews CT and MR imaging in RCC and the role of screening in selected high-risk populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Image processing of early gastric cancer cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamoto, Kazuo; Umeda, Tokuo; Inamura, Kiyonari

    1992-01-01

    Computer image processing was used to enhance gastric lesions in order to improve the detection of stomach cancer. Digitization was performed in 25 cases of early gastric cancer that had been confirmed surgically and pathologically. The image processing consisted of grey scale transformation, edge enhancement (Sobel operator), and high-pass filtering (unsharp masking). Grey scale transformation improved image quality for the detection of gastric lesions. The Sobel operator enhanced linear and curved margins, and consequently, suppressed the rest. High-pass filtering with unsharp masking was superior to visualization of the texture pattern on the mucosa. Eight of 10 small lesions (less than 2.0 cm) were successfully demonstrated. However, the detection of two lesions in the antrum, was difficult even with the aid of image enhancement. In the other 15 lesions (more than 2.0 cm), the tumor surface pattern and margin between the tumor and non-pathological mucosa were clearly visualized. Image processing was considered to contribute to the detection of small early gastric cancer lesions by enhancing the pathological lesions. (author)

  13. Quantitative Imaging in Cancer Evolution and Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Olya; Gillies, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer therapy, even when highly targeted, typically fails because of the remarkable capacity of malignant cells to evolve effective adaptations. These evolutionary dynamics are both a cause and a consequence of cancer system heterogeneity at many scales, ranging from genetic properties of individual cells to large-scale imaging features. Tumors of the same organ and cell type can have remarkably diverse appearances in different patients. Furthermore, even within a single tumor, marked variations in imaging features, such as necrosis or contrast enhancement, are common. Similar spatial variations recently have been reported in genetic profiles. Radiologic heterogeneity within tumors is usually governed by variations in blood flow, whereas genetic heterogeneity is typically ascribed to random mutations. However, evolution within tumors, as in all living systems, is subject to Darwinian principles; thus, it is governed by predictable and reproducible interactions between environmental selection forces and cell phenotype (not genotype). This link between regional variations in environmental properties and cellular adaptive strategies may permit clinical imaging to be used to assess and monitor intratumoral evolution in individual patients. This approach is enabled by new methods that extract, report, and analyze quantitative, reproducible, and mineable clinical imaging data. However, most current quantitative metrics lack spatialness, expressing quantitative radiologic features as a single value for a region of interest encompassing the whole tumor. In contrast, spatially explicit image analysis recognizes that tumors are heterogeneous but not well mixed and defines regionally distinct habitats, some of which appear to harbor tumor populations that are more aggressive and less treatable than others. By identifying regional variations in key environmental selection forces and evidence of cellular adaptation, clinical imaging can enable us to define intratumoral

  14. Prostate Cancer Detection by Molecular Urinalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    subjected to physical manipulation, thus creating the potential for their non- invasive detection in either urine or expressed prostatic fluid ( EPF ...samples or EPF . The recent application of molecular techniques to the study of PC has led to the identification of several novel molecular alterations...focused on detecting such molecular changes in the urine or EPF [7-12,15]. Paralleling the advances in biomarker discovery, sig- nificant advances in

  15. Molecular Biomarkers in the Clinical Management of Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udager, Aaron M; Tomlins, Scott A

    2018-01-08

    Prostate cancer, one of the most common noncutaneous malignancies in men, is a heterogeneous disease with variable clinical outcome. Although the majority of patients harbor indolent tumors that are essentially cured by local therapy, subsets of patients present with aggressive disease or recur/progress after primary treatment. With this in mind, modern clinical approaches to prostate cancer emphasize the need to reduce overdiagnosis and overtreatment via personalized medicine. Advances in our understanding of prostate cancer pathogenesis, coupled with recent technologic innovations, have facilitated the development and validation of numerous molecular biomarkers, representing a range of macromolecules assayed from a variety of patient sample types, to help guide the clinical management of prostate cancer, including early detection, diagnosis, prognostication, and targeted therapeutic selection. Herein, we review the current state of the art regarding prostate cancer molecular biomarkers, emphasizing those with demonstrated utility in clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  16. Self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tianhui; Xu, Jinghong; Zhu, Yongliang

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs) represent a small fraction of the colorectal cancer cell population that possess self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential and drive tumorigenicity. Self-renewal is essential for the malignant biological behaviors of colorectal cancer stem cells. While the self-renewal molecular mechanisms of colorectal cancer stem cells are not yet fully understood, the aberrant activation of signaling pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Hedgehog-Gli (HH-GLI), specific roles mediated by cell surface markers and micro-environmental factors are involved in the regulation of self-renewal. The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind self-renewal may lead to the development of novel targeted interventions for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

  17. Molecular Biology and Prevention of Endometrial Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, George L

    2006-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the molecular aberrations associated with endometrial carcinogenesis and the biologic mechanisms underlying the protective effect of oral contraceptive (OC) therapy. 1...

  18. Molecular Biology and Prevention of Endometrial Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, George

    2003-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the molecular aberrations associated with endometrial carcinogenesis and the biologic mechanisms underlying the protective effect of oral contraceptive therapy. Methods: 1...

  19. Molecular Biology and Prevention of Endometrial Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, George L

    2004-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the molecular aberrations associated with endometrial carcinogenesis and the biologic mechanisms underlying the protective effect of oral contraceptive therapy. Methods: 1...

  20. Colorectal Cancers: An Update on Their Molecular Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamura, Kentaro

    2018-01-20

    Colorectal cancers (CRCs) are the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Rather than being a single, uniform disease type, accumulating evidence suggests that CRCs comprise a group of molecularly heterogeneous diseases that are characterized by a range of genomic and epigenomic alterations. This heterogeneity slows the development of molecular-targeted therapy as a form of precision medicine. Recent data regarding comprehensive molecular characterizations and molecular pathological examinations of CRCs have increased our understanding of the genomic and epigenomic landscapes of CRCs, which has enabled CRCs to be reclassified into biologically and clinically meaningful subtypes. The increased knowledge of the molecular pathological epidemiology of CRCs has permitted their evolution from a vaguely understood, heterogeneous group of diseases with variable clinical courses to characteristic molecular subtypes, a development that will allow the implementation of personalized therapies and better management of patients with CRC. This review provides a perspective regarding recent developments in our knowledge of the molecular and epidemiological landscapes of CRCs, including results of comprehensive molecular characterizations obtained from high-throughput analyses and the latest developments regarding their molecular pathologies, immunological biomarkers, and associated gut microbiome. Advances in our understanding of potential personalized therapies for molecularly specific subtypes are also reviewed.

  1. Molecular mechanisms of cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Wenwen; Shen, Zhaojun; Hu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2016-01-01

    Patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer have poor prognosis, and their 1-year survival is only 10%-20%. Chemotherapy is considered as the standard treatment for patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, and cisplatin appears to treat the disease effectively. However, resistance to cisplatin may develop, thus substantially compromising the efficacy of cisplatin to treat advanced or recurrent cervical cancer. In this article, we systematically review the recent literature and summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer.

  2. [Molecular biology of castration-resistant prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Ludovic; Terrisse, Safae; Gauthier, Hélène; Pouessel, Damien; Le Maignan, Christine; Teixeira, Luis; Culine, Stéphane

    2015-06-01

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer was subjected to a paradigm switch from hormone resistance to androgen deprivation therapy resistance during the last decade. Indeed, new therapeutics targeting the androgen receptor showed clinical efficacy in patients with progressive disease under castration. Thus, it is a proof that the AR remains a dominant driver of oncogenesis in earlier-called hormone resistant prostate cancer. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms involved in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Inflammation to cancer: The molecular biology in the pancreas (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Sunbin; Feng, Tingting; Jia, Kaiqi; Tian, Yu; Li, Yan

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory responses are known to be correlated with cancer initiation and progression, and exploration of the route from inflammation to cancer makes a great contribution in elucidating the mechanisms underlying cancer development. Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a lethal disease with a low radical-resection rate and a poor prognosis. As chronic pancreatitis is considered to be a significant etiological factor for PC development, the current review aims to describe the molecular pathways from inflammation to pancreatic carcinogenesis, in support of the strategies for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of PC.

  4. Thermoacoustic Molecular Imaging of Small Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Kruger

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We have designed, constructed, and tested a thermoacoustic computed tomography (TCT scanner for imaging optical absorption in small animals in three dimensions. The device utilizes pulsed laser irradiation (680–1064 nm and a unique, 128-element transducer array. We quantified the isotropic spatial resolution of this scanner to be 0.35 mm. We describe a dual-wavelength subtraction technique for isolating optical dyes with TCT. Phantom experiments demonstrate that we can detect 5 fmol of a near-infrared dye (indocyanine green, ICG in a 1-ML volume using dual-wavelength subtraction. Initial TCT imaging in phantoms and in two sacrificed mice suggests that three-dimensional, optical absorption patterns in small animals can be detected with an order of magnitude better spatial resolution and an order of magnitude better low-contrast detectability in small animals when compared to fluorescence imaging or diffusion optical tomography.

  5. Role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), MR spectroscopy (MRS) and other imaging modalities in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Uma; Virendra Kumar; Jagannathan, N.R.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women world over and the diagnosis continues to generate fear and turmoil in the life of patients and their families. This article describes the currently available techniques used for screening primary and recurrent breast cancers and the evaluation of therapeutic response of breast cancer with special emphasis on MRI and MRS techniques. MRI, a noninvasive technique, provides anatomic images in multiple planes enabling tissue characterization. Contrast enhanced MR studies have been found to be useful in the diagnosis of small tumors in dense breast benign diseases from malignant ones. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is another useful technique for diagnosis and for assessing the biochemical status of normal and diseased tissues. Being noninvasive, MR techniques can be used repetitively for assessment of response of the tumor to various therapeutic regimens and for evaluating the efficacy of drugs at both the structural and molecular level. An overview of the various aspects of different imaging modalities used in breast cancer research including various in vivo MR methodologies with clinical examples is presented in this review. (author)

  6. Molecular Imaging in Stem Cell Therapy for Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahuan Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI is a serious disease of the center nervous system (CNS. It is a devastating injury with sudden loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic function distal to the level of trauma and produces great personal and societal costs. Currently, there are no remarkable effective therapies for the treatment of SCI. Compared to traditional treatment methods, stem cell transplantation therapy holds potential for repair and functional plasticity after SCI. However, the mechanism of stem cell therapy for SCI remains largely unknown and obscure partly due to the lack of efficient stem cell trafficking methods. Molecular imaging technology including positron emission tomography (PET, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, optical imaging (i.e., bioluminescence imaging (BLI gives the hope to complete the knowledge concerning basic stem cell biology survival, migration, differentiation, and integration in real time when transplanted into damaged spinal cord. In this paper, we mainly review the molecular imaging technology in stem cell therapy for SCI.

  7. Magnetic nanoparticles as contrast agents for molecular imaging in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Matthew

    2018-05-01

    For over twenty years, superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been developed for a number of medical applications ranging from bioseparations, magnetic drug targeting, hyperthermia and imaging. Recent studies have shown that they can be functionalized for in vivo biological targeting, potentially enabling nanoagents for molecular imaging and site-localized drug delivery. Here we review several imaging technologies developed using functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as targeted molecular agents. Several imaging modalities have exploited the large induced magnetic moment of SPIONs to create local mechanical force. Magnetic force microscopy can probe nanoparticle uptake in single cells. For in vivo applications, magnetomotive modulation of primary images in ultrasound (US), photoacoustics (PA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) can help identify very small concentrations of nanoagents while simultaneously suppressing intrinsic background signals from tissue.

  8. Cancer diagnostics: The journey from histomorphology to molecular profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Atif A; Abedalthagafi, Malak

    2016-09-06

    Although histomorphology has made significant advances into the understanding of cancer etiology, classification and pathogenesis, it is sometimes complicated by morphologic ambiguities, and other shortcomings that necessitate the development of ancillary tests to complement its diagnostic value. A new approach to cancer patient management consists of targeting specific molecules or gene mutations in the cancer genome by inhibitory therapy. Molecular diagnostic tests and genomic profiling methods are increasingly being developed to identify tumor targeted molecular profile that is the basis of targeted therapy. Novel targeted therapy has revolutionized the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumor, renal cell carcinoma and other cancers that were previously difficult to treat with standard chemotherapy. In this review, we discuss the role of histomorphology in cancer diagnosis and management and the rising role of molecular profiling in targeted therapy. Molecular profiling in certain diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties may provide a practical and useful complement to histomorphology and opens new avenues for targeted therapy and alternative methods of cancer patient management.

  9. Multi-target molecular imaging and its progress in research and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Ganghua

    2011-01-01

    Multi-target molecular imaging (MMI) is an important field of research in molecular imaging. It includes multi-tracer multi-target molecular imaging(MTMI), fusion-molecule multi-target imaging (FMMI), coupling-molecule multi-target imaging (CMMI), and multi-target multifunctional molecular imaging(MMMI). In this paper,imaging modes of MMI are reviewed, and potential applications of positron emission tomography MMI in near future are discussed. (author)

  10. Theragnosis-based combined cancer therapy using doxorubicin-conjugated microRNA-221 molecular beacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Choi, Kyung-Ju; Moon, Sung Ung; Kim, Soonhag

    2016-01-01

    Recently, microRNA (miRNA or miR) has emerged as a new cancer biomarker because of its high expression level in various cancer types and its role in the control of tumor suppressor genes. In cancer studies, molecular imaging and treatment based on target cancer markers have been combined to facilitate simultaneous cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this study, for combined therapy with diagnosis of cancer, we developed a doxorubicin-conjugated miR-221 molecular beacon (miR-221 DOXO MB) in a single platform composed of three different nucleotides: miR-221 binding sequence, black hole quencher 1 (BHQ1), and doxorubicin binding site. Imaging of endogenous miR-221 was achieved by specific hybridization between miR-221 and the miR-221 binding site in miR-221 DOXO MB. The presence of miR-221 triggered detachment of the quencher oligo and subsequent activation of a fluorescent signal of miR-221 DOXO MB. Simultaneous cancer therapy in C6 astrocytoma cells and nude mice was achieved by inhibition of miRNA-221 function that downregulates tumor suppressor genes. The detection of miR-221 expression and inhibition of miR-221 function by miR-221 DOXO MB provide the feasibility as a cancer theragnostic probe. Furthermore, a cytotoxic effect was induced by unloading of doxorubicin intercalated into miR-221 DOXO MB inside cells. Loss of miR-221 function and cytotoxicity induced by the miR-221 DOXO MB provides combined therapeutic efficacy against cancers. This method could be used as a new theragnostic probe with enhanced therapy to detect and inhibit many cancer-related miRNAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular imaging: a new approach to nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrucki, L.W.; Sinusas, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology has historically played an important role in detection of cardiovascular disease as well as risk statification. With the growth of molecular biology have come new therapeutic interventions and the requirement for new diagnostic imaging approaches. Noninvasive targeted radiotracer based as well as transporter gene imaging strategies are evolving to meet these new needs, but require the development of an interdisciplinary approach which focuses on molecular processes, as well as the pathogenesis and progression of disease. This progress has been made possible with the availability of transgenic animal models along with many technological advances. Future adaptations of the developing experimental procedures and instrumentations will allow for the smooth translation and application to clinical practice. This review is intended as a brief overview on the subject molecular imaging. Basic concepts and historical perspective of molecular imaging will be reviewed first, followed by description of current technology, and concluding with current applications in cardiology. The emphasis will be on the use of both single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers, although other imaging modalities will be also briefly discussed. The specific approaches presented here will include receptor-based and reporter gene imaging of natural and therapeutical angiogenesis

  12. Epidemiological bases and molecular mechanisms linking obesity, diabetes, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Salmerón, María; Chocarro-Calvo, Ana; García-Martínez, José Manuel; de la Vieja, Antonio; García-Jiménez, Custodia

    2017-02-01

    The association between diabetes and cancer was hypothesized almost one century ago. Today, a vast number of epidemiological studies support that obese and diabetic populations are more likely to experience tissue-specific cancers, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Obesity, diabetes, and cancer share many hormonal, immune, and metabolic changes that may account for the relationship between diabetes and cancer. In addition, antidiabetic treatments may have an impact on the occurrence and course of some cancers. Moreover, some anticancer treatments may induce diabetes. These observations aroused a great controversy because of the ethical implications and the associated commercial interests. We report an epidemiological update from a mechanistic perspective that suggests the existence of many common and differential individual mechanisms linking obesity and type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus to certain cancers. The challenge today is to identify the molecular links responsible for this association. Classification of cancers by their molecular signatures may facilitate future mechanistic and epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Stress and its molecular consequences in cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Surman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress, caused by psychological, physiological and physical factors has an adverse impact on human body homeostasis. There are two kind of stress: short-term and chronic. Cancer patients usually live under chronic stress, caused by diagnosis-related strong emotional experience and depression, resulting from various difficulties associated with disease progression and treatment. At the molecular level, stress factors induce production and secretion of stress-related hormones, such as catecholamines, glucocorticoids and dopamine (as a part of adaptational body response, which influence both normal and transformed cells through their specific receptors. The particular effects exerted by these molecules on cancer cells have been also observed in in vitro cultures and include changes in proliferation, apoptosis susceptibility and migration/invasion potential. As a result, it has been suggested that stress hormones may be responsible for progression of malignancy and thus accelerate the metastasis formation in cancer patients. However, the clinical data on correlation between stress and the patients survival, as well as the molecular analysis of stress hormone receptors expression and action in cancer cell, have not yet provided an unequivocal answer. For this reason, extensive studies, on molecular and clinical level are needed to fully determine stress impact on cancerprogression and on the effectiveness of anti-cancer treatment. Nowadays, it seems reasonable that the personalization of anti-cancer therapy should also focus on mental state of cancer patients, and provide them with psychological tools or techniques for stress management.

  14. A Molecularly Targeted Theranostic Probe for Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenxue; Bardhan, Rizia; Bartels, Marc; Perez-Torres, Carlos; Pautler, Robia G.; Halas, Naomi J.; Joshi, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family has been implicated in ovarian cancer because of its participation in signaling pathway regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival. Currently, effective diagnostic and therapeutic schemes are lacking for treating ovarian cancer and consequently ovarian cancer has a high mortality rate. While HER2 receptor expression does not usually affect the survival rates of ovarian cancer to the same extent as in breast cancer, it can be employed as a docking site for directed nanotherapies in cases with de novo or acquired chemotherapy resistance. In this study, we have exploited a novel gold nanoshell-based complex (nanocomplex) for targeting, dual modal imaging, and photothermal therapy of HER2 overexpressing and drug resistant ovarian cancer OVCAR3 cells in vitro. The nanocomplexes are engineered to simultaneously provide contrast as fluorescence optical imaging probe and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agent. Both immunofluorescence staining and MRI successfully demonstrate that nanocomplex-anti-HER2 conjugates specifically bind to OVCAR3 cells as opposed to the control, MDA-MB-231 cells, which have low HER2 expression. In addition, nanocomplexes targeted to OVCAR3 cells, when irradiated with near infrared (NIR) laser result in selective destruction of cancer cells through photothermal ablation. We also demonstrate that NIR light therapy and the nanocomplexes by themselves are non-cytotoxic in vitro. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a successful integration of dual modal bioimaging with photothermal cancer therapy for treatment of ovarian cancer. Based on their efficacy in vitro, these nanocomplexes are highly promising for image guided photo-thermal therapy of ovarian cancer as well as other HER2 overexpressing cancers. PMID:20371708

  15. Molecular Imaging of Ovarian Carcinoma Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    specifically taken up by several benign conditions such as inflammatory disease, pneumonia, brown fat, muscle, bowel uptake, and granulomatous disease...demonstrated in vivo imaging of vascular cell proliferation- associated states, whether focal, as in postangioplasty re- stenosis , or diffuse, as in pulmonary...limitations. The tracer can be nonspecifically taken up by several benign condi- tions such as inflammatory disease, pneumonia, brown fat, muscle

  16. Polymeric nanomedicine for cancer MR imaging and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemtong, Chalermchai; Kessinger, Chase W; Gao, Jinming

    2009-06-28

    Multifunctional nanomedicine is emerging as a highly integrated platform that allows for molecular diagnosis, targeted drug delivery, and simultaneous monitoring and treatment of cancer. Advances in polymer and materials science are critical for the successful development of these multi-component nanocomposites in one particulate system with such a small size confinement (nanoscopic therapeutic and diagnostic systems have been translated into clinical practice. In this feature article, we will provide an up-to-date review on the development and biomedical applications of nanocomposite materials for cancer diagnosis and therapy. An overview of each functional component, i.e. polymer carriers, MR imaging agents, and therapeutic drugs, will be presented. Integration of different functional components will be illustrated in several highlighted examples to demonstrate the synergy of the multifunctional nanomedicine design.

  17. Breast cancer lung metastasis: Molecular biology and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liting; Han, Bingchen; Siegel, Emily; Cui, Yukun; Giuliano, Armando; Cui, Xiaojiang

    2018-03-26

    Distant metastasis accounts for the vast majority of deaths in patients with cancer. Breast cancer exhibits a distinct metastatic pattern commonly involving bone, liver, lung, and brain. Breast cancer can be divided into different subtypes based on gene expression profiles, and different breast cancer subtypes show preference to distinct organ sites of metastasis. Luminal breast tumors tend to metastasize to bone while basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) displays a lung tropism of metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying this organ-specific pattern of metastasis still remain to be elucidated. In this review, we will summarize the recent advances regarding the molecular signaling pathways as well as the therapeutic strategies for treating breast cancer lung metastasis.

  18. Diffusion weighted imaging in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Cher Heng [The University of Texas, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore (Singapore); Wang, Jihong [The University of Texas, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Imaging Physics, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Kundra, Vikas [The University of Texas, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); The University of Texas, M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging has generated substantial interest in the hope that it can be developed into a robust technique to improve the accuracy of MRI for the evaluation of prostate cancer. This technique has the advantages of short acquisition times, no need for intravenous administration of contrast medium, and the ability to study diffusion of water molecules that indirectly reflects tissue cellularity. In this article, we review the existing literature on the utility of DWI in tumour detection, localisation, treatment response, limitations of the technique, how it compares with other imaging techniques, technical considerations and future directions. (orig.)

  19. Breast cancer imaging using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalm, Simone U.; Melis, Marleen; Emmering, Jasper; Kwekkeboom, Dik J.; Jong, Marion de

    2016-01-01

    Imaging and therapy using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues are methods successfully used in patients with somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-expressing neuroendocrine tumours. Since these techniques were first introduced, many improvements have been made. SSTR expression has also been reported on breast cancer (BC). Currently mammography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound are the most frequent methods used for BC imaging. Since SSTR expression on BC was demonstrated, clinical studies examining the feasibility of visualizing primary BC using SSTR radioligands have been performed. However, to date SSTR-mediated nuclear imaging is not used clinically in BC patients. The aim of this review is to assess whether recent improvements made within nuclear medicine may enable SSTR-mediated imaging to play a role in BC management. For this we critically analysed results of past studies and discussed the potential of the improvements made within nuclear medicine on SSTR-mediated nuclear imaging of BC. Seven databases were searched for publications on BC imaging with SSTR radioligands. The papers found were analysed by 3 individual observers to identify whether the studies met the pre-set inclusion criteria defined as studies in which nuclear imaging using radiolabelled SST analogues was performed in patients with breast lesions. Twenty-four papers were selected for this review including studies on SSTR-mediated nuclear imaging in BC, neuroendocrine BC and other breast lesions. The analysed studies were heterogeneous with respect to the imaging method, imaging protocol, patient groups and the radiolabelled SST analogues used. Despite the fact that the analysed studies were heterogeneous, sensitivity for primary BC ranged from 36–100%. In a subset of the studies LN lesions were visualized, but sensitivity was lower compared to that for primary tumours. A part of the studies included benign lesions and specificity ranged from 22–100%. Furthermore, false negatives and

  20. Molecular mechanisms of cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu H

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Haiyan Zhu, Hui Luo, Wenwen Zhang, Zhaojun Shen, Xiaoli Hu, Xueqiong Zhu Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer have poor prognosis, and their 1-year survival is only 10%–20%. Chemotherapy is considered as the standard treatment for patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer, and cisplatin appears to treat the disease effectively. However, resistance to cisplatin may develop, thus substantially compromising the efficacy of cisplatin to treat advanced or recurrent cervical cancer. In this article, we systematically review the recent literature and summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance in cervical cancer. Keywords: cisplatin, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, microRNA, molecular mechanism, resistance

  1. [Epidemiology, risk factors and molecular pathogenesis of primary liver cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagymási, Krisztina; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2008-03-23

    Primary liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide. Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for 85-90% of primary liver cancers. Distribution of hepatocellular carcinoma shows variations among geographic regions and ethnic groups. Males have higher liver cancer rates than females. Hepatocellular carcinoma occurs within an established background of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis (70-90%). Major causes (80%) of hepatocellular carcinoma are hepatitis B, C virus infection, and aflatoxin exposition. Its development is a multistep process. We have a growing understanding on the molecular pathogenesis. Genetic and epigenetic changes activate oncogenes, inhibit tumorsuppressor genes, which result in autonomous cell proliferation. The chromosomal instability caused by telomere dysfunction, the growth-retrained environment and the alterations of the micro- and macroenvironment help the expansion of the malignant cells. Understanding the molecular mechanisms could improve the screening of patients with chronic liver disease, or cirrhosis, and the prevention as well as treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noerenberg, Dominik [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); University of Munich - Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Ebersberger, Hans U. [Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Munich (Germany); Diederichs, Gerd; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Botnar, Rene M. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Makowski, Marcus R. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    Molecular imaging aims to improve the identification and characterization of pathological processes in vivo by visualizing the underlying biological mechanisms. Molecular imaging techniques are increasingly used to assess vascular inflammation, remodeling, cell migration, angioneogenesis and apoptosis. In cardiovascular diseases, molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers new insights into the in vivo biology of pathological vessel wall processes of the coronary and carotid arteries and the aorta. This includes detection of early vascular changes preceding plaque development, visualization of unstable plaques and assessment of response to therapy. The current review focuses on recent developments in the field of molecular MRI to characterise different stages of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease. A variety of molecular MR-probes have been developed to improve the non-invasive detection and characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. Specifically targeted molecular probes allow for the visualization of key biological steps in the cascade leading to the development of arterial vessel wall lesions. Early detection of processes which lead to the development of atherosclerosis and the identification of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques may enable the early assessment of response to therapy, improve therapy planning, foster the prevention of cardiovascular events and may open the door for the development of patient-specific treatment strategies. (orig.)

  3. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noerenberg, Dominik; Ebersberger, Hans U.; Diederichs, Gerd; Hamm, Bernd; Botnar, Rene M.; Makowski, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular imaging aims to improve the identification and characterization of pathological processes in vivo by visualizing the underlying biological mechanisms. Molecular imaging techniques are increasingly used to assess vascular inflammation, remodeling, cell migration, angioneogenesis and apoptosis. In cardiovascular diseases, molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers new insights into the in vivo biology of pathological vessel wall processes of the coronary and carotid arteries and the aorta. This includes detection of early vascular changes preceding plaque development, visualization of unstable plaques and assessment of response to therapy. The current review focuses on recent developments in the field of molecular MRI to characterise different stages of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease. A variety of molecular MR-probes have been developed to improve the non-invasive detection and characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. Specifically targeted molecular probes allow for the visualization of key biological steps in the cascade leading to the development of arterial vessel wall lesions. Early detection of processes which lead to the development of atherosclerosis and the identification of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques may enable the early assessment of response to therapy, improve therapy planning, foster the prevention of cardiovascular events and may open the door for the development of patient-specific treatment strategies. (orig.)

  4. Pathogenesis of Gastric Cancer: Genetics and Molecular Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Ceu; Camargo, M C; Leite, Marina; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M; Rabkin, Charles S; Machado, José C

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most incident and the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. Infection with Helicobacter pylori is the major risk factor for this disease. Gastric cancer is the final outcome of a cascade of events that takes decades to occur and results from the accumulation of multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. These changes are crucial for tumor cells to expedite and sustain the array of pathways involved in the cancer development, such as cell cycle, DNA repair, metabolism, cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and immune surveillance. Comprehensive molecular analyses of gastric cancer have disclosed the complex heterogeneity of this disease. In particular, these analyses have confirmed that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive gastric cancer is a distinct entity. The identification of gastric cancer subtypes characterized by recognizable molecular profiles may pave the way for a more personalized clinical management and to the identification of novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers for screening, prognosis, prediction of response to treatment, and monitoring of gastric cancer progression.

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Velichko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of breast imaging for 47200 women. Breast cancer was detected in 862 (1.9% patients, fibroadenoma in 1267 (2.7% patients and isolated breast cysts in 1162 (2.4% patients. Different types of fibrocystic breast disease (adenosis, diffuse fibrocystic changes, local fibrosis and others were observed in 60.1% of women. Problems of breast cancer visualization during mammography, characterized by the appearance of fibrocystic mastopathy (sclerosing adenosis, fibrous bands along the ducts have been analyzed. Data on the development of diagnostic algorithms including the modern techniques for ultrasound and interventional radiology aimed at detecting early breast cancer have been presented.  

  6. Bispecific Antibody Pretargeting for Improving Cancer Imaging and Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkey, Robert M.

    2005-02-04

    The main objective of this project was to evaluate pretargeting systems that use a bispecific antibody (bsMAb) to improve the detection and treatment of cancer. A bsMAb has specificity to a tumor antigen, which is used to bind the tumor, while the other specificity is to a peptide that can be radiolabeled. Pretargeting is the process by which the unlabeled bsMAb is given first, and after a sufficient time (1-2 days) is given for it to localize in the tumor and clear from the blood, a small molecular weight radiolabeled peptide is given. According to a dynamic imaging study using a 99mTc-labeled peptide, the radiolabeled peptide localizes in the tumor in less than 1 hour, with > 80% of it clearing from the blood and body within this same time. Tumor/nontumor targeting ratios that are nearly 50 times better than that with a directly radiolabeled Fab fragment have been observed (Sharkey et al., ''Signal amplification in molecular imaging by a multivalent bispecific nanobody'' submitted). The bsMAbs used in this project have been composed of 3 antibodies that will target antigens found in colorectal and pancreatic cancers (CEA, CSAp, and MUC1). For the ''peptide binding moiety'' of the bsMAb, we initially examined an antibody directed to DOTA, but subsequently focused on another antibody directed against a novel compound, HSG (histamine-succinyl-glycine).

  7. Molecular profiling of childhood cancer: Biomarkers and novel therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletta, Federica; Wadham, Carol; Ziegler, David S; Marshall, Glenn M; Haber, Michelle; McCowage, Geoffrey; Norris, Murray D; Byrne, Jennifer A

    2014-06-01

    Technological advances including high-throughput sequencing have identified numerous tumor-specific genetic changes in pediatric and adolescent cancers that can be exploited as targets for novel therapies. This review provides a detailed overview of recent advances in the application of target-specific therapies for childhood cancers, either as single agents or in combination with other therapies. The review summarizes preclinical evidence on which clinical trials are based, early phase clinical trial results, and the incorporation of predictive biomarkers into clinical practice, according to cancer type. There is growing evidence that molecularly targeted therapies can valuably add to the arsenal available for treating childhood cancers, particularly when used in combination with other therapies. Nonetheless the introduction of molecularly targeted agents into practice remains challenging, due to the use of unselected populations in some clinical trials, inadequate methods to evaluate efficacy, and the need for improved preclinical models to both evaluate dosing and safety of combination therapies. The increasing recognition of the heterogeneity of molecular causes of cancer favors the continued development of molecularly targeted agents, and their transfer to pediatric and adolescent populations.

  8. Multimodality molecular imaging - from target description to clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schober, O.; Rahbar, K.; Riemann, B.

    2009-01-01

    This highlight lecture was presented at the closing session of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) in Munich on 15 October 2008. The Congress was a great success: there were more than 4,000 participants, and 1,597 abstracts were submitted. Of these, 1,387 were accepted for oral or poster presentation, with a rejection rate of 14%. In this article a choice was made from 100 of the 500 lectures which received the highest scores by the scientific review panel. This article outlines the major findings and trends at the EANM 2008, and is only a brief summary of the large number of outstanding abstracts presented. Among the great number of oral and poster presentations covering nearly all fields of nuclear medicine some headlines have to be defined highlighting the development of nuclear medicine in the 21st century. This review focuses on the increasing impact of molecular and multimodality imaging in the field of nuclear medicine. In addition, the question may be asked as to whether the whole spectrum of nuclear medicine is nothing other than molecular imaging and therapy. Furthermore, molecular imaging will and has to go ahead to multimodality imaging. In view of this background the review was structured according to the single steps of molecular imaging, i.e. from target description to clinical studies. The following topics are addressed: targets, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy, devices and computer science, animals and preclinical evaluations, and patients and clinical evaluations. (orig.)

  9. Ultrafast molecular imaging by laser-induced electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, M.; Nguyen-Dang, T. T.; Cornaggia, C.; Saugout, S.; Charron, E.; Keller, A.; Atabek, O.

    2011-01-01

    We address the feasibility of imaging geometric and orbital structures of a polyatomic molecule on an attosecond time scale using the laser-induced electron diffraction (LIED) technique. We present numerical results for the highest molecular orbitals of the CO 2 molecule excited by a near-infrared few-cycle laser pulse. The molecular geometry (bond lengths) is determined within 3% of accuracy from a diffraction pattern which also reflects the nodal properties of the initial molecular orbital. Robustness of the structure determination is discussed with respect to vibrational and rotational motions with a complete interpretation of the laser-induced mechanisms.

  10. Advances in study of molecular imaging reporte gene systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Tao; An Rui

    2010-01-01

    The use of molecular imaging reporter gene systems has allowed gene therapy to move from the laboratory to the clinical application, which provides methodology to monitor the expression of therapeutic gene noninvasively and achieve quantitative outcome in vivo. Recently, the radionuclide reporter gene still is the focus many studies, but MRI and optical reporter gene have gradually played a important part in reporter gene systems. On the basis of combination of multi-subject, for example applied chemistry and molecular biology, more and more new modified reporter genes and molecular probes have spread out. This paper mainly introduces the advantages and disadvantages of reporter gene system and development trends. (authors)

  11. Optical Molecular Imaging of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Expression to Improve Detection of Oral Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Nitin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of noninvasive molecular imaging approaches has the potential to improve management of cancer. Methods: In this study, we demonstrate the potential of noninvasive topical delivery of an epidermal growth factor-Alexa 647 (EGF-Alexa 647 conjugate to image changes in epidermal growth factor receptor expression associated with oral neoplasia. We report a series of preclinical analyses to evaluate the optical contrast achieved after topical delivery of EGF-Alexa 647 in a variety of model systems, including cells, three-dimensional tissue cultures, and intact human tissue specimens using wide-field and high-resolution fluorescence imaging. Data were collected from 17 different oral cancer patients: eight pairs of normal and abnormal biopsies and nine resected tumors were examined. Results: The EGF-dye conjugate can be uniformly delivered throughout the oral epithelium with a penetration depth exceeding 500 µm and incubation time of less than 30 minutes. After EGF-Alexa 647 incubation, the presence of oral neoplasia is associated with a 1.5- to 6.9-fold increase in fluorescence contrast compared with grossly normal mucosa from the same patient with both wide-field and high-resolution fluorescence imaging. Conclusions: Results illustrate the potential of EGF-targeted fluorescent agents for in vivo molecular imaging, a technique that may aid in the diagnosis and characterization of oral neoplasia and allow real-time detection of tumor margins.

  12. Development of molecular imaging in the European radiological community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, Nicolas; Sardanelli, Francesco; Becker, Christoph D.; Walecki, Jerzy; Sebag, Guy; Lomas, David John; Krestin, Gabriel P.

    2009-01-01

    The recent and concomitant advances in molecular biology and imaging for diagnosis and therapy will place in vivo imaging techniques at the centre of their clinical transfer. Before that, a wide range of multidisciplinary preclinical research is already taking place. The involvement of radiologists in this new field of imaging sciences is therefore absolutely mandatory during these two phases of development. Achievement of such objectives requires the refinement of strategy within the European radiological community and the European Society of Radiology (ESR) will have to drive a number of actions to stimulate the younger generation of radiologists and to facilitate their access to knowledge. For that purpose, a molecular imaging (MI) subcommittee of the ESR Research Committee based on a group of involved radiologists will be constituted to develop contacts with other constitutive committees and associated societies to provide proposals to our community. (orig.)

  13. Molecular Imaging: A Promising Tool to Monitor Islet Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of insulin production by pancreatic islet transplantation has great potential as a therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. At present, the lack of an effective approach to islet grafts assessment limits the success of this treatment. The development of molecular imaging techniques has the potential to fulfill the goal of real-time noninvasive monitoring of the functional status and viability of the islet grafts. We review the application of a variety of imaging modalities for detecting endogenous and transplanted beta-cell mass. The review also explores the various molecular imaging strategies for assessing islet delivery, the metabolic effects on the islet grafts as well as detection of immunorejection. Here, we highlight the use of combined imaging and therapeutic interventions in islet transplantation and the in vivo monitoring of stem cells differentiation into insulin-producing cells.

  14. Modeling of skin cancer dermatoscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iralieva, Malica B.; Myakinin, Oleg O.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Zakharov, Valery P.

    2018-04-01

    An early identified cancer is more likely to effective respond to treatment and has a less expensive treatment as well. Dermatoscopy is one of general diagnostic techniques for skin cancer early detection that allows us in vivo evaluation of colors and microstructures on skin lesions. Digital phantoms with known properties are required during new instrument developing to compare sample's features with data from the instrument. An algorithm for image modeling of skin cancer is proposed in the paper. Steps of the algorithm include setting shape, texture generation, adding texture and normal skin background setting. The Gaussian represents the shape, and then the texture generation based on a fractal noise algorithm is responsible for spatial chromophores distributions, while the colormap applied to the values corresponds to spectral properties. Finally, a normal skin image simulated by mixed Monte Carlo method using a special online tool is added as a background. Varying of Asymmetry, Borders, Colors and Diameter settings is shown to be fully matched to the ABCD clinical recognition algorithm. The asymmetry is specified by setting different standard deviation values of Gaussian in different parts of image. The noise amplitude is increased to set the irregular borders score. Standard deviation is changed to determine size of the lesion. Colors are set by colormap changing. The algorithm for simulating different structural elements is required to match with others recognition algorithms.

  15. Three-photon imaging of ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Amirsolaimani, Babak; Rice, Photini; Hatch, Kenneth; Kieu, Khanh

    2016-02-01

    Optical imaging methods have the potential to detect ovarian cancer at an early, curable stage. Optical imaging has the disadvantage that high resolution techniques require access to the tissue of interest, but miniature endoscopes that traverse the natural orifice of the reproductive tract, or access the ovaries and fallopian tubes through a small incision in the vagina wall, can provide a minimally-invasive solution. We have imaged both rodent and human ovaries and fallopian tubes with a variety of endoscope-compatible modalities. The recent development of fiber-coupled femtosecond lasers will enable endoscopic multiphoton microscopy (MPM). We demonstrated two- and three-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF, 3PEF), and second- and third-harmonic generation microscopy (SHG, THG) in human ovarian and fallopian tube tissue. A study was undertaken to understand the mechanisms of contrast in these images. Six patients (normal, cystadenoma, and ovarian adenocarcinoma) provided ovarian and fallopian tube biopsies. The tissue was imaged with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography, multiphoton microscopy, and frozen for histological sectioning. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and Sudan black. Approximately 1 μm resolution images were obtained with an excitation source at 1550 nm. 2PEF signal was absent. SHG signal was mainly from collagen. 3PEF and THG signal came from a variety of sources, including a strong signal from fatty connective tissue and red blood cells. Adenocarcinoma was characterized by loss of SHG signal, whereas cystic abnormalities showed strong SHG. There was limited overlap of two- and three- photon signals, suggesting that three-photon imaging can provide additional information for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  16. Simultaneous molecular and anatomical imaging of the mouse in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goertzen, Andrew L; Meadors, A Ken; Silverman, Robert W; Cherry, Simon R

    2002-01-01

    Non-invasive imaging technologies are opening up new windows into mouse biology. We have developed a mouse imaging system that integrates positron emission tomography (PET) with x-ray computed tomography (CT), allowing simultaneous anatomic and molecular imaging in vivo with the potential for precise registration of the two image volumes. The x-ray system consists of a compact mini-focal x-ray tube and an amorphous selenium flat panel x-ray detector with a low-noise CMOS readout. The PET system uses planar arrays of lutetium oxyorthosilicate scintillator coupled to position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. We describe the design of this dual-modality imaging system and show, for the first time, simultaneously acquired PET and CT images in a phantom and in mice

  17. Simultaneous molecular and anatomical imaging of the mouse in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goertzen, Andrew L [Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Meadors, A Ken [Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Silverman, Robert W [Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Cherry, Simon R [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2002-12-21

    Non-invasive imaging technologies are opening up new windows into mouse biology. We have developed a mouse imaging system that integrates positron emission tomography (PET) with x-ray computed tomography (CT), allowing simultaneous anatomic and molecular imaging in vivo with the potential for precise registration of the two image volumes. The x-ray system consists of a compact mini-focal x-ray tube and an amorphous selenium flat panel x-ray detector with a low-noise CMOS readout. The PET system uses planar arrays of lutetium oxyorthosilicate scintillator coupled to position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. We describe the design of this dual-modality imaging system and show, for the first time, simultaneously acquired PET and CT images in a phantom and in mice.

  18. Differential Expression of Chemokine Receptors and their Roles in Cancer Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimmagadda, Sridhar, E-mail: snimmag1@jhmi.edu [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-05-30

    Chemokine/chemokine receptor interactions play diverse roles in cell migration and homeostasis. Emerging evidence suggests that cancer cells co-opt chemokine networks for survival, proliferation, immune evasion, and metastasis. Most of the chemokine receptors are reported to be involved in tumor progression. Given their extensive implication in cancer progression, several chemokine receptor/ligand axes are considered as potential therapeutic targets. This review provides a survey of chemokine receptor expression in cancer and evaluates the potential of chemokine receptor imaging as a tool for molecular characterization of cancer.

  19. Differential Expression of Chemokine Receptors and their Roles in Cancer Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimmagadda, Sridhar

    2012-01-01

    Chemokine/chemokine receptor interactions play diverse roles in cell migration and homeostasis. Emerging evidence suggests that cancer cells co-opt chemokine networks for survival, proliferation, immune evasion, and metastasis. Most of the chemokine receptors are reported to be involved in tumor progression. Given their extensive implication in cancer progression, several chemokine receptor/ligand axes are considered as potential therapeutic targets. This review provides a survey of chemokine receptor expression in cancer and evaluates the potential of chemokine receptor imaging as a tool for molecular characterization of cancer.

  20. Molecular imaging of small animals with dedicated PET tomographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatziioannou, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Biological discovery has moved at an accelerated pace in recent years, with a considerable focus on the transition from in vitro to in vivo models. As a result, there has been a significant increase in the need to adapt clinical imaging methods, as well as for novel imaging technologies for biological research. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a clinical imaging modality that permits the use of positron-labeled molecular imaging probes for non-invasive assays of biochemical processes. The imaging procedure can be repeatedly performed before and after interventions, thereby allowing each animal to be used as its own control. Positron-labeled compounds that target a range of molecular targets have been and continue to be synthesized, with examples of biological processes ranging from receptors and synthesis of transmitters in cell communication, to metabolic processes and gene expression. In animal research, PET has been used extensively in the past for studies of non-human primates and other larger animals. New detector technology has improved spatial resolution, and has made possible PET scanning for the study of the most important modern molecular biology model, the laboratory mouse. This paper presents the challenges facing PET technology as applied to small animal imaging, provides a historical overview of the development of small animal PET systems, and discusses the current state of the art in small animal PET technology. (orig.)

  1. Radiopharmaceuticals: nanoparticles like multi-functional systems for the obtaining in vivo of molecular images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro F, G.; Ramirez de la Cruz, F. M.; Ocampo G, B. E.; Morales A, E.; Santos C, C. L.; Mendoza S, A. N.

    2010-01-01

    The techniques of obtaining direct or indirect molecular images detect and register the space-temporary distribution of molecular or cellular processes for biochemical, biological, diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The advanced techniques of image like the nuclear magnetic resonance, the single photon emission computed tomography, the positron emission tomography and the images of optic fluorescence have been used successfully to detect these processes. On the other hand, the utility of the nanoparticles for any application is dependent of the physicochemical properties that present, being possible to modify their surface when making them react with different biomolecules what allows the formation of conjugates with specific molecular recognition. The joint of various protein molecules, peptides or oligonucleotides to the surface of a nanoparticle produce a multi-functional system able to increase the multivalent joints from the nanoparticles-biomolecules to their receivers for the obtaining of molecular images in vivo. The peptides stimulate, regulate or inhibit numerous functions of the life, acting mainly as information transmitters and activity coordinators of several tissues in the organism. The receivers of regulator peptides are over represented in numerous types of cancer cells and they are protein structures. These receivers have been used as white molecular of marked peptides, to locate primary malignant tumors and their metastasis, using the diagnostic techniques of molecular image mentioned above, which consist basically on the radio peptides use and conjugated peptides to fluoro chromes, to metallic nanoparticles and nano crystals. A summary of the work is presented carried out by the personnel of the Radio-active Materials and Chemistry Departments of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares in this field. (Author)

  2. Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis by radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies: new imaging strategies to guide molecular therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malviya, G.; Dierckx, R.A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Conti, F. [Rheumatology Unit, I Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Chianelli, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Unit of Nuclear Medicine, Regina apostolorum Hospital, Albano, Rome (Italy); Scopinaro, F. [Nuclear Medicine Department, Sapienza University of Rome, St. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Signore, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Nuclear Medicine Department, Sapienza University of Rome, St. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    The closing of the last century opened a wide variety of approaches for inflammation imaging and treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The introduction of biological therapies for the management of RA started a revolution in the therapeutic armamentarium with the development of several novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which can be murine, chimeric, humanised and fully human antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies specifically bind to their target, which could be adhesion molecules, activation markers, antigens or receptors, to interfere with specific inflammation pathways at the molecular level, leading to immune-modulation of the underlying pathogenic process. These new generation of mAbs can also be radiolabelled by using direct or indirect method, with a variety of nuclides, depending upon the specific diagnostic application. For studying rheumatoid arthritis patients, several monoclonal antibodies and their fragments, including anti-TNF-{alpha}, anti-CD20, anti-CD3, anti-CD4 and anti-E-selectin antibody, have been radiolabelled mainly with {sup 99m}Tc or {sup 111}In. Scintigraphy with these radiolabelled antibodies may offer an exciting possibility for the study of RA patients and holds two types of information: (1) it allows better staging of the disease and diagnosis of the state of activity by early detection of inflamed joints that might be difficult to assess; (2) it might provide a possibility to perform 'evidence-based biological therapy' of arthritis with a view to assessing whether an antibody will localise in an inflamed joint before using the same unlabelled antibody therapeutically. This might prove particularly important for the selection of patients to be treated since biological therapies can be associated with severe side-effects and are considerably expensive. This article reviews the use of radiolabelled mAbs in the study of RA with particular emphasis on the use of different radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies for

  3. Molecular imaging of rheumatoid arthritis by radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies: new imaging strategies to guide molecular therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malviya, G.; Dierckx, R.A.; Conti, F.; Chianelli, M.; Scopinaro, F.; Signore, A.

    2010-01-01

    The closing of the last century opened a wide variety of approaches for inflammation imaging and treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The introduction of biological therapies for the management of RA started a revolution in the therapeutic armamentarium with the development of several novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which can be murine, chimeric, humanised and fully human antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies specifically bind to their target, which could be adhesion molecules, activation markers, antigens or receptors, to interfere with specific inflammation pathways at the molecular level, leading to immune-modulation of the underlying pathogenic process. These new generation of mAbs can also be radiolabelled by using direct or indirect method, with a variety of nuclides, depending upon the specific diagnostic application. For studying rheumatoid arthritis patients, several monoclonal antibodies and their fragments, including anti-TNF-α, anti-CD20, anti-CD3, anti-CD4 and anti-E-selectin antibody, have been radiolabelled mainly with 99m Tc or 111 In. Scintigraphy with these radiolabelled antibodies may offer an exciting possibility for the study of RA patients and holds two types of information: (1) it allows better staging of the disease and diagnosis of the state of activity by early detection of inflamed joints that might be difficult to assess; (2) it might provide a possibility to perform 'evidence-based biological therapy' of arthritis with a view to assessing whether an antibody will localise in an inflamed joint before using the same unlabelled antibody therapeutically. This might prove particularly important for the selection of patients to be treated since biological therapies can be associated with severe side-effects and are considerably expensive. This article reviews the use of radiolabelled mAbs in the study of RA with particular emphasis on the use of different radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies for therapy decision-making and

  4. Molecular targets in serous gynecologic cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneweg, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we describe a series of studies assessing the effectiveness of targeted therapeutics that inhibit Notch signaling or the HER2 receptor in serous gynecologic cancers. In the first part of the thesis, we have confirmed previous data by showing expression of Notch1 and Notch3 in ovarian

  5. Endometrial cancer : from a molecular genetic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Smid-Koopman (Ellen)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe first observations indicative of a role of genetic factors in carcinogenesis were made as early as 1912, when Rous demonstrated that a filterable agent (i.e. virus) could induce cancer in chicken (Rous 1965). In 1914, Boveri postulated a "genetic" theory on carcinogenesis by

  6. MMP-13 In-Vivo Molecular Imaging Reveals Early Expression in Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Salaün

    Full Text Available Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are overexpressed in lung cancer and may serve as potential targets for the development of bioactivable probes for molecular imaging.To characterize and monitor the activity of MMPs during the progression of lung adenocarcinoma.K-rasLSL-G12D mice were imaged serially during the development of adenocarcinomas using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT and a probe specific for MMP-2, -3, -9 and -13. Lung tumors were identified using FMT and MRI co-registration, and the probe concentration in each tumor was assessed at each time-point. The expression of Mmp2, -3, -9, -13 was quantified by qRT-PCR using RNA isolated from microdissected tumor cells. Immunohistochemical staining of overexpressed MMPs in animals was assessed on human lung tumors.In mice, 7 adenomas and 5 adenocarcinomas showed an increase in fluorescent signal on successive FMT scans, starting between weeks 4 and 8. qRT-PCR assays revealed significant overexpression of only Mmp-13 in mice lung tumors. In human tumors, a high MMP-13 immunostaining index was found in tumor cells from invasive lesions (24/27, but in none of the non-invasive (0/4 (p=0.001.MMP-13 is detected in early pulmonary invasive adenocarcinomas and may be a potential target for molecular imaging of lung cancer.

  7. MMP-13 In-Vivo Molecular Imaging Reveals Early Expression in Lung Adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaün, Mathieu; Peng, Jing; Hensley, Harvey H.; Roder, Navid; Flieder, Douglas B.; Houlle-Crépin, Solène; Abramovici-Roels, Olivia; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Thiberville, Luc; Clapper, Margie L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are overexpressed in lung cancer and may serve as potential targets for the development of bioactivable probes for molecular imaging. Objective To characterize and monitor the activity of MMPs during the progression of lung adenocarcinoma. Methods K-rasLSL-G12D mice were imaged serially during the development of adenocarcinomas using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and a probe specific for MMP-2, -3, -9 and -13. Lung tumors were identified using FMT and MRI co-registration, and the probe concentration in each tumor was assessed at each time-point. The expression of Mmp2, -3, -9, -13 was quantified by qRT-PCR using RNA isolated from microdissected tumor cells. Immunohistochemical staining of overexpressed MMPs in animals was assessed on human lung tumors. Results In mice, 7 adenomas and 5 adenocarcinomas showed an increase in fluorescent signal on successive FMT scans, starting between weeks 4 and 8. qRT-PCR assays revealed significant overexpression of only Mmp-13 in mice lung tumors. In human tumors, a high MMP-13 immunostaining index was found in tumor cells from invasive lesions (24/27), but in none of the non-invasive (0/4) (p=0.001). Conclusion MMP-13 is detected in early pulmonary invasive adenocarcinomas and may be a potential target for molecular imaging of lung cancer. PMID:26193700

  8. Barrett's esophagus: cancer and molecular biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, Michael K.; Dhaliwal, Arashinder S.; Clemons, Nicholas J.; Phillips, Wayne A.; Dvorak, Katerina; Tong, Daniel; Law, Simon; Pirchi, E. Daniel; Räsänen, Jari; Krasna, Mark J.; Parikh, Kaushal; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.; Chen, Yu; Griffiths, Leonard; Colleypriest, Benjamin J.; Farrant, J. Mark; Tosh, David; Das, Kiron M.; Bajpai, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    The following paper on the molecular biology of Barrett's esophagus (BE) includes commentaries on signaling pathways central to the development of BE including Hh, NF-κB, and IL-6/STAT3; surgical approaches for esophagectomy and classification of lesions by appropriate therapy; the debate over the

  9. Pomegranate Extracts and Cancer Prevention: Molecular and Cellular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Deeba N.; Chamcheu, Jean-Christopher; Adhami, Vaqar M.; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    There is increased appreciation by the scientific community that dietary phytochemicals can be potential weapons in the fight against cancer. Emerging data has provided new insights into the molecular and cellular framework needed to establish novel mechanism-based strategies for cancer prevention by selective bioactive food components. The unique chemical composition of the pomegranate fruit, rich in antioxidant tannins and flavonoids has drawn the attention of many investigators. Polyphenol rich fractions derived from the pomegranate fruit have been studied for their potential chemopreventive and/or cancer therapeutic effects in several animal models. Although data from in vitro and in vivo studies look convincing, well designed clinical trials in humans are needed to ascertain whether pomegranate can become part of our armamentarium against cancer. This review summarizes the available literature on the effects of pomegranate against various cancers. PMID:23094914

  10. Optical tomographic imaging for breast cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wenxiang; Intes, Xavier; Wang, Ge

    2017-09-01

    Diffuse optical breast imaging utilizes near-infrared (NIR) light propagation through tissues to assess the optical properties of tissues for the identification of abnormal tissue. This optical imaging approach is sensitive, cost-effective, and does not involve any ionizing radiation. However, the image reconstruction of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a nonlinear inverse problem and suffers from severe illposedness due to data noise, NIR light scattering, and measurement incompleteness. An image reconstruction method is proposed for the detection of breast cancer. This method splits the image reconstruction problem into the localization of abnormal tissues and quantification of absorption variations. The localization of abnormal tissues is performed based on a well-posed optimization model, which can be solved via a differential evolution optimization method to achieve a stable reconstruction. The quantification of abnormal absorption is then determined in localized regions of relatively small extents, in which a potential tumor might be. Consequently, the number of unknown absorption variables can be greatly reduced to overcome the underdetermined nature of DOT. Numerical simulation experiments are performed to verify merits of the proposed method, and the results show that the image reconstruction method is stable and accurate for the identification of abnormal tissues, and robust against the measurement noise of data.

  11. Proceedings of II Molecular Imaging Symposium Cuba - Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In the Central Theater, University Hospital 'General Calixto Garcia' took place the II Symposium on Molecular Imaging Cuba Japan in the framework of the Scientific Convention for the 120th anniversary of the hospital. The event was organized by the hospital itself with the support of the Society of Medical Physics (medical physics section), CEADEN, the Embassy of Japan and the Theragnostic Compounds R&D Center Neuroscience Research Institute Gachon University, Incheon Korea. It was attended by 80 national scientific leaders and with the invaluable presence of Dr. Tatsuo IDO, Emeritus professor of Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan) who presented the results of the scientific papers presented this year in national and international events , referring to the new technologies of molecular imaging and the importance of medical physics in its development. During the meeting the importance of the new technologies of molecular imaging, its undisputed diagnosis intake and medical treatment and the value of human capital struggled to deal with the new technologies, the view that these are only used best when it is understood that they are multidisciplinary systems where each specialist and technical personnel plays an indispensable role. The challenge has medical physics to address these new technologies and the need for changes in the theoretical and practical training in the specialty. These analyzes will be given continuity in the next symposia molecular imaging. (author)

  12. PET-MRI: the likely future of molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiang; Zhao Jinhua; Zhao Jun

    2008-01-01

    PET-CT is a successful combination of functional and morphologic information, and it has already been shown to have great value both in clinics and in scientific research. MRI is another kind of morphologic imaging method, in contrast to CT, MRI can yield images with higher soft-tissue contrast and better spatial resolution. The combination of PET and MRI for simultaneous data acquisition should have far- reaching consequences for molecular imaging. This review will talk about the problems met in the development of PET-MRI and describe the progress to date and look forward to its potential application. (authors)

  13. Molecular Ultrasound Imaging for the Detection of Neural Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Kevin R.

    Molecular imaging is a form of nanotechnology that enables the noninvasive examination of biological processes in vivo. Radiopharmaceutical agents are used to selectively target biochemical markers, which permits their detection and evaluation. Early visualization of molecular variations indicative of pathophysiological processes can aid in patient diagnoses and management decisions. Molecular imaging is performed by introducing molecular probes into the body. Molecular probes are often contrast agents that have been nanoengineered to selectively target and tether to molecules, enabling their radiologic identification. Ultrasound contrast agents have been demonstrated as an effective method of detecting perfusion at the tissue level. Through a nanoengineering process, ultrasound contrast agents can be targeted to specific molecules, thereby extending ultrasound's capabilities from the tissue to molecular level. Molecular ultrasound, or targeted contrast enhanced ultrasound (TCEUS), has recently emerged as a popular molecular imaging technique due to its ability to provide real-time anatomical and functional information in the absence of ionizing radiation. However, molecular ultrasound represents a novel form of molecular imaging, and consequently remains largely preclinical. A review of the TCEUS literature revealed multiple preclinical studies demonstrating its success in detecting inflammation in a variety of tissues. Although, a gap was identified in the existing evidence, as TCEUS effectiveness for detection of neural inflammation in the spinal cord was unable to be uncovered. This gap in knowledge, coupled with the profound impacts that this TCEUS application could have clinically, provided rationale for its exploration, and use as contributory evidence for the molecular ultrasound body of literature. An animal model that underwent a contusive spinal cord injury was used to establish preclinical evidence of TCEUS to detect neural inflammation. Imaging was

  14. Validation of a radiosensitivity molecular signature in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Eschrich (Steven); C. Fulp (Carl); Y. Pawitan (Yudi); J.A. Foekens (John); M. Smid (Marcel); J.W.M. Martens (John); M. Echevarria (Michelle); P.S. Kamath (Patrick); J.-H. Lee (Ji-Hyun); E.E. Harris (Eleanor); J. Bergh (Jonas); J.F. Torres-Roca (Javier)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Previously, we developed a radiosensitivity molecular signature [radiosensitivity index (RSI)] that was clinically validated in 3 independent datasets (rectal, esophageal, and head and neck) in 118 patients. Here, we test RSI in radiotherapy (RT)-treated breast cancer patients.

  15. Guidance for laboratories performing molecular pathology for cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cree, Ian A.; Deans, Zandra; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.; Normanno, Nicola; Edsjo, Anders; Rouleau, Etienne; Sole, Francesc; Thunnissen, Erik; Timens, Wim; Schuuring, Ed; Dequeker, Elisabeth; Murray, Samuel; Dietel, Manfred; Groenen, Patricia; Van Krieken, J. Han

    2014-01-01

    Molecular testing is becoming an important part of the diagnosis of any patient with cancer. The challenge to laboratories is to meet this need, using reliable methods and processes to ensure that patients receive a timely and accurate report on which their treatment will be based. The aim of this

  16. Guidance for laboratories performing molecular pathology for cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cree, Ian A.; Deans, Zandra; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.; Normanno, Nicola; Edsjo, Anders; Rouleau, Etienne; Sole, Francesc; Thunnissen, Erik; Timens, Wim; Schuuring, Ed; Dequeker, Elisabeth; Murray, Samuel; Dietel, Manfred; Groenen, Patricia; Van Krieken, J. Han

    Molecular testing is becoming an important part of the diagnosis of any patient with cancer. The challenge to laboratories is to meet this need, using reliable methods and processes to ensure that patients receive a timely and accurate report on which their treatment will be based. The aim of this

  17. POLARIZATION IMAGING AND SCATTERING MODEL OF CANCEROUS LIVER TISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONGZHI LI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We apply different polarization imaging techniques for cancerous liver tissues, and compare the relative contrasts for difference polarization imaging (DPI, degree of polarization imaging (DOPI and rotating linear polarization imaging (RLPI. Experimental results show that a number of polarization imaging parameters are capable of differentiating cancerous cells in isotropic liver tissues. To analyze the contrast mechanism of the cancer-sensitive polarization imaging parameters, we propose a scattering model containing two types of spherical scatterers and carry on Monte Carlo simulations based on this bi-component model. Both the experimental and Monte Carlo simulated results show that the RLPI technique can provide a good imaging contrast of cancerous tissues. The bi-component scattering model provides a useful tool to analyze the contrast mechanism of polarization imaging of cancerous tissues.

  18. [New molecular classification of colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer and stomach cancer: Towards "à la carte" treatment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Chantal; Afchain, Pauline; Trouilloud, Isabelle; André, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    This review reports 3 of recently published molecular classifications of the 3 main gastro-intestinal cancers: gastric, pancreatic and colorectal adenocarcinoma. In colorectal adenocarcinoma, 6 independent classifications were combined to finally hold 4 molecular sub-groups, Consensus Molecular Subtypes (CMS 1-4), linked to various clinical, molecular and survival data. CMS1 (14% MSI with immune activation); CMS2 (37%: canonical with epithelial differentiation and activation of the WNT/MYC pathway); CMS3 (13% metabolic with epithelial differentiation and RAS mutation); CMS4 (23%: mesenchymal with activation of TGFβ pathway and angiogenesis with stromal invasion). In gastric adenocarcinoma, 4 groups were established: subtype "EBV" (9%, high frequency of PIK3CA mutations, hypermetylation and amplification of JAK2, PD-L1 and PD-L2), subtype "MSI" (22%, high rate of mutation), subtype "genomically stable tumor" (20%, diffuse histology type and mutations of RAS and genes encoding integrins and adhesion proteins including CDH1) and subtype "tumors with chromosomal instability" (50%, intestinal type, aneuploidy and receptor tyrosine kinase amplification). In pancreatic adenocarcinomas, a classification in four sub-groups has been proposed, stable subtype (20%, aneuploidy), locally rearranged subtype (30%, focal event on one or two chromosoms), scattered subtype (36%,200 structural variation events, defects in DNA maintenance). Although currently away from the care of patients, these classifications open the way to "à la carte" treatment depending on molecular biology. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular buckets: cyclodextrins for oral cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Calleja, P. (Patricia); Huarte, J. (Judit); Agüeros, M. (Maite); Ruiz-Gaton, L. (Luisa); Espuelas, S. (Socorro); Irache, J.M. (Juan Manuel)

    2012-01-01

    The oral route is preferred by patients for drug administration due to its convenience, resulting in improved compliance. Unfortunately, for a number of drugs (e.g., anticancer drugs), this route of administration remains a challenge. Oral chemotherapy may be an attractive option and especially appropriate for chronic treatment of cancer. However, this route of administration is particularly complicated for the administration of anticancer drugs ascribed to Class IV of the Biopharmaceutical C...

  20. Image based brachytherapy planning with special reference to gynaecological cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirisits, C.

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in India and one of the most frequent malignancies in Europe and in North America. In addition endometrium, vagina and vulva cancer are treated with brachytherapy. Especially for locally advanced cervix cancer the integration of image based brachytherapy planning into clinical routine is becoming a new standard for the future

  1. [Prognostic and predictive molecular markers for urologic cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, A; Schlomm, T; Bertz, S; Heinzelmann, J; Hölters, S; Simon, R; Stoehr, R; Junker, K

    2014-04-01

    Molecular prognostic factors and genetic alterations as predictive markers for cancer-specific targeted therapies are used today in the clinic for many malignancies. In recent years, many molecular markers for urogenital cancers have also been identified. However, these markers are not clinically used yet. In prostate cancer, novel next-generation sequencing methods revealed a detailed picture of the molecular changes. There is growing evidence that a combination of classical histopathological and validated molecular markers could lead to a more precise estimation of prognosis, thus, resulting in an increasing number of patients with active surveillance as a possible treatment option. In patients with urothelial carcinoma, histopathological factors but also the proliferation of the tumor, mutations in oncogenes leading to an increasing proliferation rate and changes in genes responsible for invasion and metastasis are important. In addition, gene expression profiles which could distinguish aggressive tumors with high risk of metastasis from nonmetastasizing tumors have been recently identified. In the future, this could potentially allow better selection of patients needing systemic perioperative treatment. In renal cell carcinoma, many molecular markers that are associated with metastasis and survival have been identified. Some of these markers were also validated as independent prognostic markers. Selection of patients with primarily organ-confined tumors and increased risk of metastasis for adjuvant systemic therapy could be clinically relevant in the future.

  2. Application of Proteomics to Cancer Molecular Diagnostics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sam HANASH

    2009-01-01

    @@ Strategies to achieve personalized medicine and improve public health encompass assessment of an individual's risk for disease, early detection and molecular classification of disease resulting in an informed choice of the most appropriate treatment instituted at an early stage of disease develop- ment. A major contribution of proteomics in this field is the development of blood based tests to achieve the goals of personalized medicine.

  3. PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiachuan; Zhang, Hong [Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang University, Medical PET Center, Hangzhou (China); Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Imaging of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou (China); Tian, Mei [University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Human neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis are caused by loss of different types of neurons and glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. At present, there are no effective therapies against these disorders. Discovery of the therapeutic potential of stem cells offers new strategies for the treatment of neurological diseases. Direct assessment of stem cells' survival, interaction with the host and impact on neuronal functions after transplantation requires advanced in vivo imaging techniques. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a potential molecular imaging modality to evaluate the viability and function of transplanted tissue or stem cells in the nervous system. This review focuses on PET molecular imaging in stem cell therapy for neurological diseases. (orig.)

  4. A Comprehensive Pan-Cancer Molecular Study of Gynecologic and Breast Cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, Ashton C.; Korkut, Anil; Kanchi, Rupa S.; Hegde, Apurva M.; Lenoir, Walter; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Yuexin; Fan, Huihui; Shen, Hui; Ravikumar, Visweswaran; Rao, Arvind; Schultz, Andre; Li, Xubin; Sumazin, Pavel; Williams, Cecilia; Mestdagh, Pieter; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Yau, Christina; Bowlby, Reanne; Robertson, A. Gordon; Tiezzi, Daniel G.; Wang, Chen; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Kuderer, Nicole M.; Rader, Janet S.; Zuna, Rosemary E.; Sood, Anil K.; Lazar, Alexander J.; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Adebamowo, Clement; Adebamowo, Sally N.; Baggerly, Keith A.; Chen, Ting Wen; Chiu, Hua Sheng; Lefever, Steve; Liu, Liang; MacKenzie, Karen; Orsulic, Sandra; Roszik, Jason; Shelley, Carl Simon; Song, Qianqian; Vellano, Christopher P.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Caesar-Johnson, Samantha J.; Demchok, John A.; Felau, Ina; Kasapi, Melpomeni; Ferguson, Martin L.; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean C.; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia; Lolla, Laxmi; Naresh, Rashi; Pihl, Todd; Sun, Qiang; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Cho, Juok; DeFreitas, Timothy; Frazer, Scott; Gehlenborg, Nils; Getz, Gad; Heiman, David I.; Kim, Jaegil; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lin, Pei; Meier, Sam; Noble, Michael S.; Saksena, Gordon; Voet, Doug; Zhang, Hailei; Bernard, Brady; Chambwe, Nyasha; Dhankani, Varsha; Knijnenburg, Theo; Kramer, Roger; Leinonen, Kalle; Liu, Yuexin; Miller, Michael; Reynolds, Sheila; Shmulevich, Ilya; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Zhang, Wei; Akbani, Rehan; Broom, Bradley M.; Hegde, Apurva M.; Ju, Zhenlin; Kanchi, Rupa S.; Korkut, Anil; Li, Jun; Liang, Han; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B.; Ng, Kwok Shing; Rao, Arvind; Ryan, Michael; Wang, Jing; Weinstein, John N.; Zhang, Jiexin; Abeshouse, Adam; Armenia, Joshua; Chakravarty, Debyani; Chatila, Walid K.; de Bruijn, Ino; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin E.; Heins, Zachary J.; Kundra, Ritika; La, Konnor; Ladanyi, Marc; Luna, Augustin; Nissan, Moriah G.; Ochoa, Angelica; Phillips, Sarah M.; Reznik, Ed; Sanchez-Vega, Francisco; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sheridan, Robert; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Taylor, Barry S.; Wang, Jioajiao; Zhang, Hongxin; Anur, Pavana; Peto, Myron; Spellman, Paul; Benz, Christopher; Stuart, Joshua M.; Wong, Christopher K.; Yau, Christina; Hayes, D. Neil; Parker, Joel S.; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Carlsen, Rebecca; Chuah, Eric; Dhalla, Noreen; Holt, Robert; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lee, Darlene; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Mungall, Karen; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sadeghi, Sara; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Tse, Kane; Wong, Tina; Berger, Ashton C.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cibulskis, Carrie; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gao, Galen F.; Ha, Gavin; Meyerson, Matthew; Schumacher, Steven E.; Shih, Juliann; Kucherlapati, Melanie H.; Kucherlapati, Raju S.; Baylin, Stephen; Cope, Leslie; Danilova, Ludmila; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Lai, Phillip H.; Maglinte, Dennis T.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Auman, J. Todd; Balu, Saianand; Bodenheimer, Tom; Fan, Cheng; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Meng, Shaowu; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Perou, Amy H.; Perou, Charles M.; Roach, Jeffrey; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V.; Skelly, Tara; Soloway, Matthew G.; Tan, Donghui; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Fan, Huihui; Hinoue, Toshinori; Laird, Peter W.; Shen, Hui; Zhou, Wanding; Bellair, Michelle; Chang, Kyle; Covington, Kyle; Creighton, Chad J.; Dinh, Huyen; Doddapaneni, Harsha Vardhan; Donehower, Lawrence A.; Drummond, Jennifer; Gibbs, Richard A.; Glenn, Robert; Hale, Walker; Han, Yi; Hu, Jianhong; Korchina, Viktoriya; Lee, Sandra; Lewis, Lora; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiuping; Morgan, Margaret; Morton, Donna; Muzny, Donna; Santibanez, Jireh; Sheth, Margi; Shinbrot, Eve; Wang, Linghua; Wang, Min; Wheeler, David A.; Xi, Liu; Zhao, Fengmei; Hess, Julian; Appelbaum, Elizabeth L.; Bailey, Matthew; Cordes, Matthew G.; Ding, Li; Fronick, Catrina C.; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Fulton, Robert S.; Kandoth, Cyriac; Mardis, Elaine R.; McLellan, Michael D.; Miller, Christopher A.; Schmidt, Heather K.; Wilson, Richard K.; Crain, Daniel; Curley, Erin; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Penny, Robert; Shelton, Candace; Shelton, Troy; Sherman, Mark; Thompson, Eric; Yena, Peggy; Bowen, Jay; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Gerken, Mark; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Corcoran, Niall; Costello, Tony; Hovens, Christopher; Carvalho, Andre L.; de Carvalho, Ana C.; Fregnani, José H.; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Reis, Rui M.; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Silveira, Henrique C.S.; Vidal, Daniel O.; Burnette, Andrew; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Hermes, Beth; Noss, Ardene; Singh, Rosy; Anderson, Matthew L.; Castro, Patricia D.; Ittmann, Michael; Huntsman, David; Kohl, Bernard; Le, Xuan; Thorp, Richard; Andry, Chris; Duffy, Elizabeth R.; Lyadov, Vladimir; Paklina, Oxana; Setdikova, Galiya; Shabunin, Alexey; Tavobilov, Mikhail; McPherson, Christopher; Warnick, Ronald; Berkowitz, Ross; Cramer, Daniel; Feltmate, Colleen; Horowitz, Neil; Kibel, Adam; Muto, Michael; Raut, Chandrajit P.; Malykh, Andrei; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Barrett, Wendi; Devine, Karen; Fulop, Jordonna; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Shimmel, Kristen; Wolinsky, Yingli; Sloan, Andrew E.; De Rose, Agostino; Giuliante, Felice; Goodman, Marc; Karlan, Beth Y.; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Eckman, John; Harr, Jodi; Myers, Jerome; Tucker, Kelinda; Zach, Leigh Anne; Deyarmin, Brenda; Hu, Hai; Kvecher, Leonid; Larson, Caroline; Mural, Richard J.; Somiari, Stella; Vicha, Ales; Zelinka, Tomas; Bennett, Joseph; Iacocca, Mary; Rabeno, Brenda; Swanson, Patricia; Latour, Mathieu; Lacombe, Louis; Têtu, Bernard; Bergeron, Alain; McGraw, Mary; Staugaitis, Susan M.; Chabot, John; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Sepulveda, Antonia; Su, Tao; Wang, Timothy; Potapova, Olga; Voronina, Olga; Desjardins, Laurence; Mariani, Odette; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Sastre, Xavier; Stern, Marc Henri; Cheng, Feixiong; Signoretti, Sabina; Berchuck, Andrew; Bigner, Darell; Lipp, Eric; Marks, Jeffrey; McCall, Shannon; McLendon, Roger; Secord, Angeles; Sharp, Alexis; Behera, Madhusmita; Brat, Daniel J.; Chen, Amy; Delman, Keith; Force, Seth; Khuri, Fadlo; Magliocca, Kelly; Maithel, Shishir; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Owonikoko, Taofeek; Pickens, Alan; Ramalingam, Suresh; Shin, Dong M.; Sica, Gabriel; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Zhang, Hongzheng; Eijckenboom, Wil; Gillis, Ad; Korpershoek, Esther; Looijenga, Leendert; Oosterhuis, Wolter; Stoop, Hans; van Kessel, Kim E.; Zwarthoff, Ellen C.; Calatozzolo, Chiara; Cuppini, Lucia; Cuzzubbo, Stefania; DiMeco, Francesco; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Mattei, Luca; Perin, Alessandro; Pollo, Bianca; Chen, Chu; Houck, John; Lohavanichbutr, Pawadee; Hartmann, Arndt; Stoehr, Christine; Stoehr, Robert; Taubert, Helge; Wach, Sven; Wullich, Bernd; Kycler, Witold; Murawa, Dawid; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Chung, Ki; Edenfield, W. Jeffrey; Martin, Julie; Baudin, Eric; Bubley, Glenn; Bueno, Raphael; De Rienzo, Assunta; Richards, William G.; Kalkanis, Steven; Mikkelsen, Tom; Noushmehr, Houtan; Scarpace, Lisa; Girard, Nicolas; Aymerich, Marta; Campo, Elias; Giné, Eva; Guillermo, Armando López; Van Bang, Nguyen; Hanh, Phan Thi; Phu, Bui Duc; Tang, Yufang; Colman, Howard; Evason, Kimberley; Dottino, Peter R.; Martignetti, John A.; Gabra, Hani; Juhl, Hartmut; Akeredolu, Teniola; Stepa, Serghei; Hoon, Dave; Ahn, Keunsoo; Kang, Koo Jeong; Beuschlein, Felix; Breggia, Anne; Birrer, Michael; Bell, Debra; Borad, Mitesh; Bryce, Alan H.; Castle, Erik; Chandan, Vishal; Cheville, John; Copland, John A.; Farnell, Michael; Flotte, Thomas; Giama, Nasra; Ho, Thai; Kendrick, Michael; Kocher, Jean Pierre; Kopp, Karla; Moser, Catherine; Nagorney, David; O'Brien, Daniel; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Patel, Tushar; Petersen, Gloria; Que, Florencia; Rivera, Michael; Roberts, Lewis; Smallridge, Robert; Smyrk, Thomas; Stanton, Melissa; Thompson, R. Houston; Torbenson, Michael; Yang, Ju Dong; Zhang, Lizhi; Brimo, Fadi; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Angulo Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Behrens, Carmen; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Broaddus, Russell; Czerniak, Bogdan; Esmaeli, Bita; Fujimoto, Junya; Gershenwald, Jeffrey; Guo, Charles; Lazar, Alexander J.; Logothetis, Christopher; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Moran, Cesar; Ramondetta, Lois; Rice, David; Sood, Anil; Tamboli, Pheroze; Thompson, Timothy; Troncoso, Patricia; Tsao, Anne; Wistuba, Ignacio; Carter, Candace; Haydu, Lauren; Hersey, Peter; Jakrot, Valerie; Kakavand, Hojabr; Kefford, Richard; Lee, Kenneth; Long, Georgina; Mann, Graham; Quinn, Michael; Saw, Robyn; Scolyer, Richard; Shannon, Kerwin; Spillane, Andrew; Stretch, Jonathan; Synott, Maria; Thompson, John; Wilmott, James; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Chan, Timothy A.; Ghossein, Ronald; Gopalan, Anuradha; Levine, Douglas A.; Reuter, Victor; Singer, Samuel; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Tien, Nguyen Viet; Broudy, Thomas; Mirsaidi, Cyrus; Nair, Praveen; Drwiega, Paul; Miller, Judy; Smith, Jennifer; Zaren, Howard; Park, Joong Won; Hung, Nguyen Phi; Kebebew, Electron; Linehan, W. Marston; Metwalli, Adam R.; Pacak, Karel; Pinto, Peter A.; Schiffman, Mark; Schmidt, Laura S.; Vocke, Cathy D.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Worrell, Robert; Yang, Hannah; Moncrieff, Marc; Goparaju, Chandra; Melamed, Jonathan; Pass, Harvey; Botnariuc, Natalia; Caraman, Irina; Cernat, Mircea; Chemencedji, Inga; Clipca, Adrian; Doruc, Serghei; Gorincioi, Ghenadie; Mura, Sergiu; Pirtac, Maria; Stancul, Irina; Tcaciuc, Diana; Albert, Monique; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Arnaout, Angel; Bartlett, John; Engel, Jay; Gilbert, Sebastien; Parfitt, Jeremy; Sekhon, Harman; Thomas, George; Rassl, Doris M.; Rintoul, Robert C.; Bifulco, Carlo; Tamakawa, Raina; Urba, Walter; Hayward, Nicholas; Timmers, Henri; Antenucci, Anna; Facciolo, Francesco; Grazi, Gianluca; Marino, Mirella; Merola, Roberta; de Krijger, Ronald; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne Paule; Piché, Alain; Chevalier, Simone; McKercher, Ginette; Birsoy, Kivanc; Barnett, Gene; Brewer, Cathy; Farver, Carol; Naska, Theresa; Pennell, Nathan A.; Raymond, Daniel; Schilero, Cathy; Smolenski, Kathy; Williams, Felicia; Morrison, Carl; Borgia, Jeffrey A.; Liptay, Michael J.; Pool, Mark; Seder, Christopher W.; Junker, Kerstin; Omberg, Larsson; Dinkin, Mikhail; Manikhas, George; Alvaro, Domenico; Bragazzi, Maria Consiglia; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Carpino, Guido; Gaudio, Eugenio; Chesla, David; Cottingham, Sandra; Dubina, Michael; Moiseenko, Fedor; Dhanasekaran, Renumathy; Becker, Karl Friedrich; Janssen, Klaus Peter; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H.; Aziz, Dina; Bell, Sue; Cebulla, Colleen M.; Davis, Amy; Duell, Rebecca; Elder, J. Bradley; Hilty, Joe; Kumar, Bahavna; Lang, James; Lehman, Norman L.; Mandt, Randy; Nguyen, Phuong; Pilarski, Robert; Rai, Karan; Schoenfield, Lynn; Senecal, Kelly; Wakely, Paul; Hansen, Paul; Lechan, Ronald; Powers, James; Tischler, Arthur; Grizzle, William E.; Sexton, Katherine C.; Kastl, Alison; Henderson, Joel; Porten, Sima; Waldmann, Jens; Fassnacht, Martin; Asa, Sylvia L.; Schadendorf, Dirk; Couce, Marta; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Sauter, Guido; Schlomm, Thorsten; Simon, Ronald; Tennstedt, Pierre; Olabode, Oluwole; Nelson, Mark; Bathe, Oliver; Carroll, Peter R.; Chan, June M.; Disaia, Philip; Glenn, Pat; Kelley, Robin K.; Landen, Charles N.; Phillips, Joanna; Prados, Michael; Simko, Jeffry; Smith-McCune, Karen; VandenBerg, Scott; Roggin, Kevin; Fehrenbach, Ashley; Kendler, Ady; Sifri, Suzanne; Steele, Ruth; Jimeno, Antonio; Carey, Francis; Forgie, Ian; Mannelli, Massimo; Carney, Michael; Hernandez, Brenda; Campos, Benito; Herold-Mende, Christel; Jungk, Christin; Unterberg, Andreas; von Deimling, Andreas; Bossler, Aaron; Galbraith, Joseph; Jacobus, Laura; Knudson, Michael; Knutson, Tina; Ma, Deqin; Milhem, Mohammed; Sigmund, Rita; Godwin, Andrew K.; Madan, Rashna; Rosenthal, Howard G.; Adebamowo, Clement; Adebamowo, Sally N.; Boussioutas, Alex; Beer, David; Giordano, Thomas; Mes-Masson, Anne Marie; Saad, Fred; Bocklage, Therese; Landrum, Lisa; Mannel, Robert; Moore, Kathleen; Moxley, Katherine; Postier, Russel; Walker, Joan; Zuna, Rosemary; Feldman, Michael; Valdivieso, Federico; Dhir, Rajiv; Luketich, James; Mora Pinero, Edna M.; Quintero-Aguilo, Mario; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Dos Santos, Jose Sebastião; Kemp, Rafael; Sankarankuty, Ajith; Tirapelli, Daniela; Catto, James; Agnew, Kathy; Swisher, Elizabeth; Creaney, Jenette; Robinson, Bruce; Shelley, Carl Simon; Godwin, Eryn M.; Kendall, Sara; Shipman, Cassaundra; Bradford, Carol; Carey, Thomas; Haddad, Andrea; Moyer, Jeffey; Peterson, Lisa; Prince, Mark; Rozek, Laura; Wolf, Gregory; Bowman, Rayleen; Fong, Kwun M.; Yang, Ian; Korst, Robert; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Fantacone-Campbell, J. Leigh; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Kovatich, Albert J.; Shriver, Craig D.; DiPersio, John; Drake, Bettina; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Heath, Sharon; Ley, Timothy; Van Tine, Brian; Westervelt, Peter; Rubin, Mark A.; Lee, Jung Il; Aredes, Natália D.; Mariamidze, Armaz; Weinstein, John N.; Mills, Gordon B.; Levine, Douglas A.; Akbani, Rehan

    2018-01-01

    We analyzed molecular data on 2,579 tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) of four gynecological types plus breast. Our aims were to identify shared and unique molecular features, clinically significant subtypes, and potential therapeutic targets. We found 61 somatic copy-number alterations

  5. New developments in medical imaging to detect breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    been the 'gold standard' for imaging the breast since the mid-1960s.2 In ... Breast cancer is still one of the most common cancers in women. ... Engineering, and his qualifications include a BSc (Hons) in applied mathematics and physics.

  6. Genetic Alterations in the Molecular Subtypes of Bladder Cancer: Illustration in the Cancer Genome Atlas Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woonyoung; Ochoa, Andrea; McConkey, David J; Aine, Mattias; Höglund, Mattias; Kim, William Y; Real, Francisco X; Kiltie, Anne E; Milsom, Ian; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Lerner, Seth P

    2017-09-01

    Recent whole genome mRNA expression profiling studies revealed that bladder cancers can be grouped into molecular subtypes, some of which share clinical properties and gene expression patterns with the intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer and the molecular subtypes found in other solid tumors. The molecular subtypes in other solid tumors are enriched with specific mutations and copy number aberrations that are thought to underlie their distinct progression patterns, and biological and clinical properties. The availability of comprehensive genomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and other large projects made it possible to correlate the presence of DNA alterations with tumor molecular subtype membership. Our overall goal was to determine whether specific DNA mutations and/or copy number variations are enriched in specific molecular subtypes. We used the complete TCGA RNA-seq dataset and three different published classifiers developed by our groups to assign TCGA's bladder cancers to molecular subtypes, and examined the prevalence of the most common DNA alterations within them. We interpreted the results against the background of what was known from the published literature about the prevalence of these alterations in nonmuscle-invasive and muscle-invasive bladder cancers. The results confirmed that alterations involving RB1 and NFE2L2 were enriched in basal cancers, whereas alterations involving FGFR3 and KDM6A were enriched in luminal tumors. The results further reinforce the conclusion that the molecular subtypes of bladder cancer are distinct disease entities with specific genetic alterations. Our observation showed that some of subtype-enriched mutations and copy number aberrations are clinically actionable, which has direct implications for the clinical management of patients with bladder cancer. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In vivo molecular and genomic imaging: new challenges for imaging physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Simon R

    2004-02-07

    The emerging and rapidly growing field of molecular and genomic imaging is providing new opportunities to directly visualize the biology of living organisms. By combining our growing knowledge regarding the role of specific genes and proteins in human health and disease, with novel ways to target these entities in a manner that produces an externally detectable signal, it is becoming increasingly possible to visualize and quantify specific biological processes in a non-invasive manner. All the major imaging modalities are contributing to this new field, each with its unique mechanisms for generating contrast and trade-offs in spatial resolution, temporal resolution and sensitivity with respect to the biological process of interest. Much of the development in molecular imaging is currently being carried out in animal models of disease, but as the field matures and with the development of more individualized medicine and the molecular targeting of new therapeutics, clinical translation is inevitable and will likely forever change our approach to diagnostic imaging. This review provides an introduction to the field of molecular imaging for readers who are not experts in the biological sciences and discusses the opportunities to apply a broad range of imaging technologies to better understand the biology of human health and disease. It also provides a brief review of the imaging technology (particularly for x-ray, nuclear and optical imaging) that is being developed to support this new field.

  8. In vivo molecular and genomic imaging: new challenges for imaging physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry, Simon R [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2004-02-07

    The emerging and rapidly growing field of molecular and genomic imaging is providing new opportunities to directly visualize the biology of living organisms. By combining our growing knowledge regarding the role of specific genes and proteins in human health and disease, with novel ways to target these entities in a manner that produces an externally detectable signal, it is becoming increasingly possible to visualize and quantify specific biological processes in a non-invasive manner. All the major imaging modalities are contributing to this new field, each with its unique mechanisms for generating contrast and trade-offs in spatial resolution, temporal resolution and sensitivity with respect to the biological process of interest. Much of the development in molecular imaging is currently being carried out in animal models of disease, but as the field matures and with the development of more individualized medicine and the molecular targeting of new therapeutics, clinical translation is inevitable and will likely forever change our approach to diagnostic imaging. This review provides an introduction to the field of molecular imaging for readers who are not experts in the biological sciences and discusses the opportunities to apply a broad range of imaging technologies to better understand the biology of human health and disease. It also provides a brief review of the imaging technology (particularly for x-ray, nuclear and optical imaging) that is being developed to support this new field. (topical review)

  9. In vivo molecular and genomic imaging: new challenges for imaging physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, Simon R

    2004-01-01

    The emerging and rapidly growing field of molecular and genomic imaging is providing new opportunities to directly visualize the biology of living organisms. By combining our growing knowledge regarding the role of specific genes and proteins in human health and disease, with novel ways to target these entities in a manner that produces an externally detectable signal, it is becoming increasingly possible to visualize and quantify specific biological processes in a non-invasive manner. All the major imaging modalities are contributing to this new field, each with its unique mechanisms for generating contrast and trade-offs in spatial resolution, temporal resolution and sensitivity with respect to the biological process of interest. Much of the development in molecular imaging is currently being carried out in animal models of disease, but as the field matures and with the development of more individualized medicine and the molecular targeting of new therapeutics, clinical translation is inevitable and will likely forever change our approach to diagnostic imaging. This review provides an introduction to the field of molecular imaging for readers who are not experts in the biological sciences and discusses the opportunities to apply a broad range of imaging technologies to better understand the biology of human health and disease. It also provides a brief review of the imaging technology (particularly for x-ray, nuclear and optical imaging) that is being developed to support this new field. (topical review)

  10. Appropriate Contrast Enhancement Measures for Brain and Breast Cancer Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneet Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging systems often produce images that require enhancement, such as improving the image contrast as they are poor in contrast. Therefore, they must be enhanced before they are examined by medical professionals. This is necessary for proper diagnosis and subsequent treatment. We do have various enhancement algorithms which enhance the medical images to different extents. We also have various quantitative metrics or measures which evaluate the quality of an image. This paper suggests the most appropriate measures for two of the medical images, namely, brain cancer images and breast cancer images.

  11. Advances in molecular biomarkers for gastric cancer: miRNAs as emerging novel cancer markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua-Hsi; Lin, Wen-chang; Tsai, Kuo-Wang

    2014-01-23

    Carcinoma of the stomach is one of the most prevalent cancer types in the world. Although the incidence of gastric cancer is declining, the outcomes of gastric cancer patients remain dismal because of the lack of effective biomarkers to detect early gastric cancer. Modern biomedical research has explored many potential gastric cancer biomarker genes by utilising serum protein antigens, oncogenic genes or gene families through improving molecular biological technologies, such as microarray, RNA-Seq and the like. Recently, the small noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) have been suggested to be critical regulators in the oncogenesis pathways and to serve as useful clinical biomarkers. This new class of biomarkers is emerging as a novel molecule for cancer diagnosis and prognosis, including gastric cancer. By translational suppression of target genes, miRNAs play a significant role in the gastric cancer cell physiology and tumour progression. There are potential implications of previously discovered gastric cancer molecular biomarkers and their expression modulations by respective miRNAs. Therefore, many miRNAs are found to play oncogenic roles or tumour-suppressing functions in human cancers. With the surprising stability of miRNAs in tissues, serum or other body fluids, miRNAs have emerged as a new type of cancer biomarker with immeasurable clinical potential.

  12. Multi-modality molecular imaging: pre-clinical laboratory configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanjun; Wellen, Jeremy W.; Sarkar, Susanta K.

    2006-02-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of in vivo molecular imaging applications has rapidly increased. Here we report on the construction of a multi-modality imaging facility in a pharmaceutical setting that is expected to further advance existing capabilities for in vivo imaging of drug distribution and the interaction with their target. The imaging instrumentation in our facility includes a microPET scanner, a four wavelength time-domain optical imaging scanner, a 9.4T/30cm MRI scanner and a SPECT/X-ray CT scanner. An electronics shop and a computer room dedicated to image analysis are additional features of the facility. The layout of the facility was designed with a central animal preparation room surrounded by separate laboratory rooms for each of the major imaging modalities to accommodate the work-flow of simultaneous in vivo imaging experiments. This report will focus on the design of and anticipated applications for our microPET and optical imaging laboratory spaces. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to maximize the daily throughput of animal scans through development of efficient experimental work-flows and the use of multiple animals in a single scanning session.

  13. Molecular Imaging of Transporters with Positron Emission Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Gunnar; Sörensen, Jens; Hall, Håkan

    Positron emission tomography (PET) visualization of brain components in vivo is a rapidly growing field. Molecular imaging with PET is also increasingly used in drug development, especially for the determination of drug receptor interaction for CNS-active drugs. This gives the opportunity to relate clinical efficacy to per cent receptor occupancy of a drug on a certain targeted receptor and to relate drug pharmacokinetics in plasma to interaction with target protein. In the present review we will focus on the study of transporters, such as the monoamine transporters, the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) transporter, the vesicular monoamine transporter type 2, and the glucose transporter using PET radioligands. Neurotransmitter transporters are presynaptically located and in vivo imaging using PET can therefore be used for the determination of the density of afferent neurons. Several promising PET ligands for the noradrenaline transporter (NET) have been labeled and evaluated in vivo including in man, but a really useful PET ligand for NET still remains to be identified. The most promising tracer to date is (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2. The in vivo visualization of the dopamine transporter (DAT) may give clues in the evaluation of conditions related to dopamine, such as Parkinson's disease and drug abuse. The first PET radioligands based on cocaine were not selective, but more recently several selective tracers such as [11C]PE2I have been characterized and shown to be suitable as PET radioligands. Although there are a large number of serotonin transporter inhibitors used today as SSRIs, it was not until very recently, when [11C]McN5652 was synthesized, that this transporter was studied using PET. New candidates as PET radioligands for the SERT have subsequently been developed and [11C]DASB and [11C]MADAM and their analogues are today the most promising ligands. The existing radioligands for Pgp transporters seem to be suitable tools for the study of both peripheral and central drug

  14. Barrett's esophagus: cancer and molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Michael K; Dhaliwal, Arashinder S; Clemons, Nicholas J; Phillips, Wayne A; Dvorak, Katerina; Tong, Daniel; Law, Simon; Pirchi, E Daniel; Räsänen, Jari; Krasna, Mark J; Parikh, Kaushal; Krishnadath, Kausilia K; Chen, Yu; Griffiths, Leonard; Colleypriest, Benjamin J; Farrant, J Mark; Tosh, David; Das, Kiron M; Bajpai, Manisha

    2013-10-01

    The following paper on the molecular biology of Barrett's esophagus (BE) includes commentaries on signaling pathways central to the development of BE including Hh, NF-κB, and IL-6/STAT3; surgical approaches for esophagectomy and classification of lesions by appropriate therapy; the debate over the merits of minimally invasive esophagectomy versus open surgery; outcomes for patients with pharyngolaryngoesophagectomy; the applications of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy; animal models examining the surgical models of BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma; the roles of various morphogens and Cdx2 in BE; and the use of in vitro BE models for chemoprevention studies. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Molecular imaging of brown adipose tissue in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauwens, Matthias; Wierts, Roel; Brans, Boudewijn; Royen, Bart van; Backes, Walter; Bucerius, Jan; Mottaghy, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has transformed from an interfering tissue in oncological 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to an independent imaging research field. This review takes the perspective from the imaging methodology on which human BAT research has come to rely on heavily. This review analyses relevant PubMed-indexed publications that discuss molecular imaging methods of BAT. In addition, reported links between BAT and human diseases such as obesity are discussed, and the possibilities for imaging in these fields are highlighted. Radiopharmaceuticals aiming at several different biological mechanisms of BAT are discussed and evaluated. Prospective, dedicated studies allow visualization of BAT function in a high percentage of human subjects. BAT dysfunction has been implicated in obesity, linked with diabetes and associated with cachexia and atherosclerosis. Presently, 18 F-FDG PET/CT is the most useful tool for evaluating therapies aiming at BAT activity. In addition to 18 F-FDG, other radiopharmaceuticals such as 99m Tc-sestamibi, 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), 18 F-fluorodopa and 18 F-14(R,S)-[ 18 F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) may have a potential for visualizing other aspects of BAT activity. MRI methods are under continuous development and provide the prospect of functional imaging without ionizing radiation. Molecular imaging of BAT can be used to quantitatively assess different aspects of BAT metabolic activity. (orig.)

  16. Molecular imaging of brown adipose tissue in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauwens, Matthias [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University, Research School NUTRIM, Maastricht (Netherlands); Wierts, Roel; Brans, Boudewijn [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Royen, Bart van; Backes, Walter [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Bucerius, Jan [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uniklinikum Aachen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University, Research School CARIM, Maastricht (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix [MUMC, Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Uniklinikum Aachen, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has transformed from an interfering tissue in oncological {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to an independent imaging research field. This review takes the perspective from the imaging methodology on which human BAT research has come to rely on heavily. This review analyses relevant PubMed-indexed publications that discuss molecular imaging methods of BAT. In addition, reported links between BAT and human diseases such as obesity are discussed, and the possibilities for imaging in these fields are highlighted. Radiopharmaceuticals aiming at several different biological mechanisms of BAT are discussed and evaluated. Prospective, dedicated studies allow visualization of BAT function in a high percentage of human subjects. BAT dysfunction has been implicated in obesity, linked with diabetes and associated with cachexia and atherosclerosis. Presently, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is the most useful tool for evaluating therapies aiming at BAT activity. In addition to {sup 18}F-FDG, other radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi, {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), {sup 18}F-fluorodopa and {sup 18}F-14(R,S)-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid (FTHA) may have a potential for visualizing other aspects of BAT activity. MRI methods are under continuous development and provide the prospect of functional imaging without ionizing radiation. Molecular imaging of BAT can be used to quantitatively assess different aspects of BAT metabolic activity. (orig.)

  17. Novel imaging strategies for upper gastrointestinal tract cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Michael Bau

    2015-01-01

    Accurate pretherapeutic imaging is the cornerstone of all cancer treatment. Unfortunately, modern imaging modalities have several unsolved problems and limitations. The differentiation between inflammation and cancer infiltration, false positive and false negative findings as well as lack...... of confirming biopsies in suspected metastases may have serious negative consequences in cancer patients. This review describes some of these problems and challenges the use of conventional imaging by suggesting new combined strategies that include selective use of confirming biopsies and complementary methods...

  18. Biomarker assessment and molecular testing for prognostication in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Zuzana; Dabbs, David J

    2016-01-01

    Current treatment of breast cancer incorporates clinical, pathological and molecular data. Oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) define prognosis and identify tumours for targeted therapy, and remain the sole established single-molecule biomarkers defining the minimum breast cancer pathology data set. Ki67 remains one of the most promising yet controversial biomarkers in breast cancer, implemented routinely in some, but not all, pathology departments. Beyond the single-molecule biomarkers, a host of multigene expression tests have been developed to interrogate the driver pathways and biology of individual breast cancers to predict clinical outcome more accurately. A minority of these assays have entered into clinical practice. This review focuses on the established biomarkers of ER, PR and HER2, the controversial but clinically implemented biomarker Ki67 and the currently marketed gene expression signatures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. DETECTION OF CANCEROUS LESION BY UTERINE CERVIX IMAGE SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Priya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper works at segmentation of lesion observed in cervical cancer, which is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. The purpose of segmentation is to determine the location for a biopsy to be taken for diagnosis. Cervix cancer is a disease in which cancer cells are found in the tissues of the cervix. The acetowhite region is a major indicator of abnormality in the cervix image. This project addresses the problem of segmenting uterine cervix image into different regions. We analyze two algorithms namely Watershed, K-means clustering algorithm, Expectation Maximization (EM Image Segmentation algorithm. These segmentations methods are carried over for the colposcopic uterine cervix image.

  20. Autofluorescence Imaging and Spectroscopy of Human Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyan Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers, with high mortality rate worldwide. Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy is a non-invasive, label-free, real-time technique for cancer detection. In this study, lung tissue sections excised from patients were detected by laser scan confocal microscopy and spectroscopy. The autofluorescence images demonstrated the cellular morphology and tissue structure, as well as the pathology of stained images. Based on the spectra study, it was found that the majority of the patients showed discriminating fluorescence in tumor tissues from normal tissues. Therefore, autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy may be a potential method for aiding the diagnosis of lung cancer.

  1. Hybrid gold nanoparticles in molecular imaging and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katti, K.V.; Kannan, R.; Katti, K.; Kattumuri, V.; Pandrapragada, R.; Rahing, V.; Cutler, C.; Boote, E.; Casteel, S.W.; Smith, C.J.; Robertson, J.D.; Jurrison, S.

    2006-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles, because of their size, chemical and physical properties, are particularly attractive as therapeutic probes in treating cancer. Central to any clinical advances in nanoparticulate based therapy will be to produce hybrid nanoparticles that can be targeted to vascular, extracellular or cell surface receptors. Development of hybrid nanoparticles that specifically target cancer vasculature has received considerable attention. Most cancers have leaky vasculature and the defective vascular architecture, created due to the rapid vascularisation necessary to serve fast growing cancers, in combination with poor lymphatic drainage allows increased permeation and retention effects. The leaky vasculature, because of higher porosity and permeability, serve as natural high affinity targets to metallic nanoparticles. Another attractive approach toward the application of nanotechnology to nanomedicine is the utility of nanoparticles that display inherent therapeutic properties. For example radioactive gold nanoparticles present attractive prospects in therapy of cancer. The radioactive properties of Au-198 (β(max) = 0.96 MeV; t(1/2) = 2.7 d) and Au-199 (β(max) 0.46 MeV; t(1/2) = 3.14 d) make them ideal candidates for use in radiotherapeutic applications. In addition, they both have imageable gamma emissions for dosimetry and pharmacokinetic studies and Au-199 can be made carrier-free by indirect methods. Gold nanoparticles are of interest for treatment of disease as they can deliver agents directly into cells and cellular components with a higher concentration of radioactivity, e.g. higher dose of radioactivity, to cancerous tumor cells

  2. Intravital imaging of CD8+ T cell function in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mempel, Thorsten R; Bauer, Christian A

    2009-01-01

    Recent technological advances in photonics are making intravital microscopy (IVM) an increasingly powerful approach for the mechanistic exploration of biological processes in the physiological context of complex native tissue environments. Direct, dynamic and multiparametric visualization of immune cell behavior in living animals at cellular and subcellular resolution has already proved its utility in auditing basic immunological concepts established through conventional approaches and has also generated new hypotheses that can conversely be complemented and refined by traditional experimental methods. The insight that outgrowing tumors must not necessarily have evaded recognition by the adaptive immune system, but can escape rejection by actively inducing a state of immunological tolerance calls for a detailed investigation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the anti-cancer response is subverted. Along with molecular imaging techniques that provide dynamic information at the population level, IVM can be expected to make a critical contribution to this effort by allowing the observation of immune cell behavior in vivo at single cell-resolution. We review here how IVM-based investigation can help to clarify the role of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in the immune response against cancer and identify the ways by which their function might be impaired through tolerogenic mechanisms.

  3. Molecular Signaling Pathways Mediating Osteoclastogenesis Induced by Prostate Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiei, Shahrzad; Komarova, Svetlana V

    2013-01-01

    Advanced prostate cancer commonly metastasizes to bone leading to osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions. Although an osteolytic component governed by activation of bone resorbing osteoclasts is prominent in prostate cancer metastasis, the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis are not well-understood. We studied the effect of soluble mediators released from human prostate carcinoma cells on osteoclast formation from mouse bone marrow and RAW 264.7 monocytes. Soluble factors released from human prostate carcinoma cells significantly increased viability of naïve bone marrow monocytes, as well as osteoclastogenesis from precursors primed with receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL). The prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis was not mediated by RANKL as it was not inhibited by osteoprotegerin (OPG). However inhibition of TGFβ receptor I (TβRI), or macrophage-colony stimulating factor (MCSF) resulted in attenuation of prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis. We characterized the signaling pathways induced in osteoclast precursors by soluble mediators released from human prostate carcinoma cells. Prostate cancer factors increased basal calcium levels and calcium fluctuations, induced nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated t-cells (NFAT)c1, and activated prolonged phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in RANKL-primed osteoclast precursors. Inhibition of calcium signaling, NFATc1 activation, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation significantly reduced the ability of prostate cancer mediators to stimulate osteoclastogenesis. This study reveals the molecular mechanisms underlying the direct osteoclastogenic effect of prostate cancer derived factors, which may be beneficial in developing novel osteoclast-targeting therapeutic approaches

  4. Challenging the Cancer Molecular Stratification Dogma: Intratumoral Heterogeneity Undermines Consensus Molecular Subtypes and Potential Diagnostic Value in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Philip D; McArt, Darragh G; Bradley, Conor A; O'Reilly, Paul G; Barrett, Helen L; Cummins, Robert; O'Grady, Tony; Arthur, Ken; Loughrey, Maurice B; Allen, Wendy L; McDade, Simon S; Waugh, David J; Hamilton, Peter W; Longley, Daniel B; Kay, Elaine W; Johnston, Patrick G; Lawler, Mark; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Van Schaeybroeck, Sandra

    2016-08-15

    A number of independent gene expression profiling studies have identified transcriptional subtypes in colorectal cancer with potential diagnostic utility, culminating in publication of a colorectal cancer Consensus Molecular Subtype classification. The worst prognostic subtype has been defined by genes associated with stem-like biology. Recently, it has been shown that the majority of genes associated with this poor prognostic group are stromal derived. We investigated the potential for tumor misclassification into multiple diagnostic subgroups based on tumoral region sampled. We performed multiregion tissue RNA extraction/transcriptomic analysis using colorectal-specific arrays on invasive front, central tumor, and lymph node regions selected from tissue samples from 25 colorectal cancer patients. We identified a consensus 30-gene list, which represents the intratumoral heterogeneity within a cohort of primary colorectal cancer tumors. Using a series of online datasets, we showed that this gene list displays prognostic potential HR = 2.914 (confidence interval 0.9286-9.162) in stage II/III colorectal cancer patients, but in addition, we demonstrated that these genes are stromal derived, challenging the assumption that poor prognosis tumors with stem-like biology have undergone a widespread epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Most importantly, we showed that patients can be simultaneously classified into multiple diagnostically relevant subgroups based purely on the tumoral region analyzed. Gene expression profiles derived from the nonmalignant stromal region can influence assignment of colorectal cancer transcriptional subtypes, questioning the current molecular classification dogma and highlighting the need to consider pathology sampling region and degree of stromal infiltration when employing transcription-based classifiers to underpin clinical decision making in colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 22(16); 4095-104. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Morris and

  5. The implications of breast cancer molecular phenotype for radiation oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin eSioshansi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification of distinct molecular subtypes of breast cancer has advanced the understanding and treatment of breast cancer by providing insight into prognosis, patterns of recurrence and effectiveness of therapy. The prognostic significance of molecular phenotype with regard to distant recurrences and overall survival are well established in the literature and has been readily incorporated into systemic therapy management decisions. However, despite the accumulating data suggesting similar prognostic significance for locoregional recurrence, integration of molecular phenotype into local management decision making has lagged. Although there are some conflicting reports, collectively the literature supports a low risk of local recurrence in the hormone receptor positive luminal subtypes compared to hormone receptor negative subtypes (triple negative and HER2-enriched. The development of targeted therapies, such as trastuzumab for the treatment of HER2-enriched subtype, has been shown to mitigate the increased risk of local recurrence. Unfortunately, no such remedy exists to address the increased risk of local recurrence for patients with triple negative tumors, making it a clinical challenge for radiation oncologists. In this review we discuss the correlation between molecular subtype and local recurrence following either breast conservation therapy or mastectomy. We also explore the possible mechanisms for increased local recurrence in triple negative breast cancer and radiotherapeutic implications for this population, such as the safety of breast conservation, consideration of dose escalation and the appropriateness of accelerated partial breast irradiation.

  6. The Implications of Breast Cancer Molecular Phenotype for Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sioshansi, Shirin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Warren Alpert School of Medicine at Brown University, Providence, RI (United States); Huber, Kathryn E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Wazer, David E., E-mail: dwazer@tuftsmedicalcenter.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Warren Alpert School of Medicine at Brown University, Providence, RI (United States)

    2011-06-28

    The identification of distinct molecular subtypes of breast cancer has advanced the understanding and treatment of breast cancer by providing insight into prognosis, patterns of recurrence, and effectiveness of therapy. The prognostic significance of molecular phenotype with regard to distant recurrences and overall survival are well established in the literature and has been readily incorporated into systemic therapy management decisions. However, despite the accumulating data suggesting similar prognostic significance for locoregional recurrence, integration of molecular phenotype into local management decision making has lagged. Although there are some conflicting reports, collectively the literature supports a low risk of local recurrence (LR) in the hormone receptor (HR) positive luminal subtypes compared to HR negative subtypes [triple negative (TN) and HER2-enriched]. The development of targeted therapies, such as trastuzumab for the treatment of HER2-enriched subtype, has been shown to mitigate the increased risk of LR. Unfortunately, no such remedy exists to address the increased risk of LR for patients with TN tumors, making it a clinical challenge for radiation oncologists. In this review we discuss the correlation between molecular subtype and LR following either breast conservation therapy or mastectomy. We also explore the possible mechanisms for increased LR in TN breast cancer and radiotherapeutic implications for this population, such as the safety of breast conservation, consideration of dose escalation, and the appropriateness of accelerated partial breast irradiation.

  7. The Implications of Breast Cancer Molecular Phenotype for Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioshansi, Shirin; Huber, Kathryn E.; Wazer, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of distinct molecular subtypes of breast cancer has advanced the understanding and treatment of breast cancer by providing insight into prognosis, patterns of recurrence, and effectiveness of therapy. The prognostic significance of molecular phenotype with regard to distant recurrences and overall survival are well established in the literature and has been readily incorporated into systemic therapy management decisions. However, despite the accumulating data suggesting similar prognostic significance for locoregional recurrence, integration of molecular phenotype into local management decision making has lagged. Although there are some conflicting reports, collectively the literature supports a low risk of local recurrence (LR) in the hormone receptor (HR) positive luminal subtypes compared to HR negative subtypes [triple negative (TN) and HER2-enriched]. The development of targeted therapies, such as trastuzumab for the treatment of HER2-enriched subtype, has been shown to mitigate the increased risk of LR. Unfortunately, no such remedy exists to address the increased risk of LR for patients with TN tumors, making it a clinical challenge for radiation oncologists. In this review we discuss the correlation between molecular subtype and LR following either breast conservation therapy or mastectomy. We also explore the possible mechanisms for increased LR in TN breast cancer and radiotherapeutic implications for this population, such as the safety of breast conservation, consideration of dose escalation, and the appropriateness of accelerated partial breast irradiation.

  8. Molecular Innovations Toward Theranostics of Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    PET/ MRI systems in diagnostic radiology, our molecular design of dual-modality agents possessing a “single pharmacological behavior” offers a...for magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ), microbubbles for ultrasound imaging (US), radioisotopes for positron emission tomography (PET) and single...feature depicted here is represented by a PAMAM−DTPA (Gd) system (G0−G9) that was developed for MRI contrast agents. Different dendrimer systems may

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging for clinical management of rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beets-Tan, Regina G H; Lambregts, Doenja M J; Maas, Monique

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To update the 2012 ESGAR consensus guidelines on the acquisition, interpretation and reporting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for clinical staging and restaging of rectal cancer. METHODS: Fourteen abdominal imaging experts from the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdomin...

  10. Molecular classification of gastric cancer: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manish A; Khanin, Raya; Tang, Laura; Janjigian, Yelena Y; Klimstra, David S; Gerdes, Hans; Kelsen, David P

    2011-05-01

    Gastric cancer may be subdivided into 3 distinct subtypes--proximal, diffuse, and distal gastric cancer--based on histopathologic and anatomic criteria. Each subtype is associated with unique epidemiology. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that these distinct gastric cancer subtypes may also be distinguished by gene expression analysis. Patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma being screened for a phase II preoperative clinical trial (National Cancer Institute, NCI #5917) underwent endoscopic biopsy for fresh tumor procurement. Four to 6 targeted biopsies of the primary tumor were obtained. Macrodissection was carried out to ensure more than 80% carcinoma in the sample. HG-U133A GeneChip (Affymetrix) was used for cDNA expression analysis, and all arrays were processed and analyzed using the Bioconductor R-package. Between November 2003 and January 2006, 57 patients were screened to identify 36 patients with localized gastric cancer who had adequate RNA for expression analysis. Using supervised analysis, we built a classifier to distinguish the 3 gastric cancer subtypes, successfully classifying each into tightly grouped clusters. Leave-one-out cross-validation error was 0.14, suggesting that more than 85% of samples were classified correctly. Gene set analysis with the false discovery rate set at 0.25 identified several pathways that were differentially regulated when comparing each gastric cancer subtype to adjacent normal stomach. Subtypes of gastric cancer that have epidemiologic and histologic distinctions are also distinguished by gene expression data. These preliminary data suggest a new classification of gastric cancer with implications for improving our understanding of disease biology and identification of unique molecular drivers for each gastric cancer subtype. ©2011 AACR.

  11. Molecular biology of breast cancer stem cells: potential clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nam P; Almeida, Fabio S; Chi, Alex; Nguyen, Ly M; Cohen, Deirdre; Karlsson, Ulf; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2010-10-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (CSC) have been postulated recently as responsible for failure of breast cancer treatment. The purpose of this study is to review breast CSCs molecular biology with respect to their mechanism of resistance to conventional therapy, and to develop treatment strategies that may improve survival of breast cancer patients. A literature search has identified in vitro and in vivo studies of breast CSCs. Breast CSCs overexpress breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) which allows cancer cells to transport actively chemotherapy agents out of the cells. Radioresistance is modulated through activation of Wnt signaling pathway and overexpression of genes coding for glutathione. Lapatinib can selectively target HER-2 positive breast CSCs and improves disease-free survival in these patients. Metformin may target basal type breast CSCs. Parthenolide and oncolytic viruses are promising targeting agents for breast CSCs. Future clinical trials for breast cancer should include anti-cancer stem cells targeting agents in addition to conventional chemotherapy. Hypofractionation radiotherapy may be indicated for residual disease post chemotherapy. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimisation in X-ray and Molecular Imaging 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baath, Magnus; Hoeschen, Christoph; Mattsson, Soeren; Mansson, Lars Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    This issue of Radiation Protection Dosimetry is based on contributions to Optimisation in X-ray and Molecular Imaging 2015 - the 4. Malmoe Conference on Medical Imaging (OXMI 2015). The conference was jointly organised by members of former and current research projects supported by the European Commission EURATOM Radiation Protection Research Programme, in cooperation with the Swedish Society for Radiation Physics. The conference brought together over 150 researchers and other professionals from hospitals, universities and industries with interests in different aspects of the optimisation of medical imaging. More than 100 presentations were given at this international gathering of medical physicists, radiologists, engineers, technicians, nurses and educational researchers. Additionally, invited talks were offered by world-renowned experts on radiation protection, spectral imaging and medical image perception, thus covering several important aspects of the generation and interpretation of medical images. The conference consisted of 13 oral sessions and a poster session, as reflected by the conference title connected by their focus on the optimisation of the use ionising radiation in medical imaging. The conference included technology-specific topics such as computed tomography and tomosynthesis, but also generic issues of interest for the optimisation of all medical imaging, such as image perception and quality assurance. Radiation protection was covered by e.g. sessions on patient dose benchmarking and occupational exposure. Technically-advanced topics such as modelling, Monte Carlo simulation, reconstruction, classification, and segmentation were seen taking advantage of recent developments of hardware and software, showing that the optimisation community is at the forefront of technology and adapts well to new requirements. These peer-reviewed proceedings, representing a continuation of a series of selected reports from meetings in the field of medical imaging

  13. Molecular imaging and the neuropathologies of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cumming, Paul; Borghammer, Per

    2012-01-01

    The main motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are linked to degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) fibers, especially those innervating the putamen. This degeneration can be assessed in molecular imaging studies with presynaptic tracers such as [(18)F]-fluoro-L-DOPA (FDOPA...... with denervation upregulation, but there is an accelerated rate of DA receptor loss as the disease advances. Animal studies and post mortem investigations reveal changes in brain opioid peptide systems, but these are poorly documented in imaging studies of PD. Relatively minor changes in the binding sites for GABA...

  14. Diagnosis and management of differentiated thyroid cancer using molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Robert L; Ferris, Robert L; Pribitkin, Edmund A; Sherman, Steven I; Steward, David L; Nikiforov, Yuri E

    2013-04-01

    To define molecular biology in clinical practice for diagnosis, surgical management, and prognostication of differentiated thyroid cancer. Ovid Medline 2006-2012 Manuscripts with clinical correlates. Papillary thyroid carcinomas harbor point mutations of the BRAF and RAS genes or RET/PTC rearrangements, all of which activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. These mutually exclusive mutations are found in 70% of PTC. BRAF mutation is found in 45% of papillary thyroid cancer and is highly specific. Follicular carcinomas are known to harbor RAS mutation or PAX8/PPARγ rearrangement. These mutations are also mutually exclusive and identified in 70% of follicular carcinomas. Molecular classifiers measure the expression of a large number of genes on a microarray chip providing a substantial negative predictive value pending further validation. 1) 20% to 30% of cytologically classified Follicular Neoplasms and Follicular Lesion of Undetermined Significance collectively are malignant on final pathology. Approximately 70% to 80% of thyroid lobectomies performed solely for diagnostic purposes are benign. Molecular alteration testing may reduce the number of unnecessary thyroid procedures, 2) may reduce the number of completion thyroidectomies, and 3) may lead to more individualized operative and postoperative management. Molecular testing for BRAF, RAS, RET/PTC, and PAX8/PPARγ for follicular lesion of undetermined significance and follicular neoplasm improve specificity, whereas molecular classifiers may add negative predictive value to fine needle aspiration diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Multispectral fluorescence imaging of human ovarian and Fallopian tube tissue for early stage cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Tyler; Baggett, Brenda; Rice, Photini; Watson, Jennifer; Orsinger, Gabe; Nymeyer, Ariel C.; Welge, Weston A.; Keenan, Molly; Saboda, Kathylynn; Roe, Denise J.; Hatch, Kenneth; Chambers, Setsuko; Black, John; Utzinger, Urs; Barton, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    With early detection, five year survival rates for ovarian cancer are over 90%, yet no effective early screening method exists. Emerging consensus suggests that perhaps over 50% of the most lethal form of the disease, high grade serous ovarian cancer, originates in the Fallopian tube. Cancer changes molecular concentrations of various endogenous fluorophores. Using specific excitation wavelengths and emissions bands on a Multispectral Fluorescence Imaging (MFI) system, spatial and spectral data over a wide field of view can be collected from endogenous fluorophores. Wavelength specific reflectance images provide additional information to normalize for tissue geometry and blood absorption. Ratiometric combination of the images may create high contrast between neighboring normal and abnormal tissue. Twenty-six women undergoing oophorectomy or debulking surgery consented the use of surgical discard tissue samples for MFI imaging. Forty-nine pieces of ovarian tissue and thirty-two pieces of Fallopian tube tissue were collected and imaged with excitation wavelengths between 280 nm and 550 nm. After imaging, each tissue sample was fixed, sectioned and HE stained for pathological evaluation. Comparison of mean intensity values between normal, benign, and cancerous tissue demonstrate a general trend of increased fluorescence of benign tissue and decreased fluorescence of cancerous tissue when compared to normal tissue. The predictive capabilities of the mean intensity measurements are tested using multinomial logistic regression and quadratic discriminant analysis. Adaption of the system for in vivo Fallopian tube and ovary endoscopic imaging is possible and is briefly described.

  16. The Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gitte M.; Jensen, Peter S.; Erritzoe, David

    2016-01-01

    We here describe a multimodality neuroimaging containing data from healthy volunteers and patients, acquired within the Lundbeck Foundation Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging (Cimbi) in Copenhagen, Denmark. The data is of particular relevance for neurobiological research questions rela...... currently contains blood and in some instances saliva samples from about 500 healthy volunteers and 300 patients with e.g., major depression, dementia, substance abuse, obesity, and impulsive aggression. Data continue to be added to the Cimbi database and biobank....

  17. Molecular imaging of retinal endothelial injury in diabetic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Frimmel

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Results indicate that molecular imaging can be used to detect subtle changes in the diabetic retina prior to the occurrence of irreversible pathology. Thus, ICAM-1 could serve as a diagnostic target in patients with diabetes. This study provides a proof of principle for non-invasive subclinical diagnosis in experimental diabetic retinopathy. Further development of this technology could improve management of diabetic complications.

  18. The use of molecular imaging of gene expression by radiotracers in gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard-Fiardo, P.; Franken, P.R.; Harrington, K.J.; Vassaux, G.; Cambien, B.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Progress with gene-based therapies has been hampered by difficulties in monitoring the biodistribution and kinetics of vector-mediated gene expression. Recent developments in non-invasive imaging have allowed researchers and clinicians to assess the location, magnitude and persistence of gene expression in animals and humans. Such advances should eventually lead to improvement in the efficacy and safety of current clinical protocols for future treatments. Areas Covered: The molecular imaging techniques for monitoring gene therapy in the living subject, with a specific highlight on the key reporter gene approaches that have been developed and validated in preclinical models using the latest imaging modalities. The applications of molecular imaging to biotherapy, with a particular emphasis on monitoring of gene and vector biodistribution and on image-guided radiotherapy. Expert Opinion: Among the reporter gene/probe combinations that have been described so far, one stands out, in our view, as the most versatile and easy to implement: the Na/I symporter. This strategy, exploiting more than 50 years of experience in the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinomas, has been validated in different types of experimental cancers and with different types of oncolytic viruses and is likely to become a key tool in the implementation of human gene therapy. (authors)

  19. Intelligent Design of Nano-Scale Molecular Imaging Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeaki Ozawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual representation and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels within living subjects are gaining great interest in life science to address frontier issues in pathology and physiology. As intact living subjects do not emit any optical signature, visual representation usually exploits nano-scale imaging agents as the source of image contrast. Many imaging agents have been developed for this purpose, some of which exert nonspecific, passive, and physical interaction with a target. Current research interest in molecular imaging has mainly shifted to fabrication of smartly integrated, specific, and versatile agents that emit fluorescence or luminescence as an optical readout. These agents include luminescent quantum dots (QDs, biofunctional antibodies, and multifunctional nanoparticles. Furthermore, genetically encoded nano-imaging agents embedding fluorescent proteins or luciferases are now gaining popularity. These agents are generated by integrative design of the components, such as luciferase, flexible linker, and receptor to exert a specific on–off switching in the complex context of living subjects. In the present review, we provide an overview of the basic concepts, smart design, and practical contribution of recent nano-scale imaging agents, especially with respect to genetically encoded imaging agents.

  20. Bioresponsive probes for molecular imaging:Concepts and in vivo applications

    OpenAIRE

    Duijnhoven, van, SMJ Sander; Robillard, MS Marc; Langereis, S Sander; Grüll, H Holger

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging is a powerful tool to visualize and characterize biological processes at the cellular and molecular level in vivo. In most molecular imaging approaches, probes are used to bind to disease-specific biomarkers highlighting disease target sites. In recent years, a new subset of molecular imaging probes, known as bioresponsive molecular probes, has been developed. These probes generally benefit from signal enhancement at the site of interaction with its target. There are mainly ...

  1. Featured Image: A Molecular Cloud Outside Our Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-06-01

    What do molecular clouds look like outside of our own galaxy? See for yourself in the images above and below of N55, a molecular cloud located in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). In a recent study led by Naslim Neelamkodan (Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taiwan), a team of scientists explore N55 to determine how its cloud properties differ from clouds within the Milky Way. The image above reveals the distribution of infrared-emitting gas and dust observed in three bands by the Spitzer Space Telescope. Overplotted in cyan are observations from the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment tracing the clumpy, warm molecular gas. Below, new observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) reveal the sub-parsec-scale molecular clumps in greater detail, showing the correlation of massive clumps with Spitzer-identified young stellar objects (crosses). The study presented here indicates that this cloud in the LMC is the site of massive star formation, with properties similar to equivalent clouds in the Milky Way. To learn more about the authors findings, check out the article linked below.CitationNaslim N. et al 2018 ApJ 853 175. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaa5b0

  2. Two dimensional molecular electronics spectroscopy for molecular fingerprinting, DNA sequencing, and cancerous DNA recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Arunkumar Chitteth; Rezapour, Mohammad Reza; Yun, Jeonghun; Cho, Yeonchoo; Cho, Woo Jong; Min, Seung Kyu; Lee, Geunsik; Kim, Kwang S

    2014-02-25

    Laser-driven molecular spectroscopy of low spatial resolution is widely used, while electronic current-driven molecular spectroscopy of atomic scale resolution has been limited because currents provide only minimal information. However, electron transmission of a graphene nanoribbon on which a molecule is adsorbed shows molecular fingerprints of Fano resonances, i.e., characteristic features of frontier orbitals and conformations of physisorbed molecules. Utilizing these resonance profiles, here we demonstrate two-dimensional molecular electronics spectroscopy (2D MES). The differential conductance with respect to bias and gate voltages not only distinguishes different types of nucleobases for DNA sequencing but also recognizes methylated nucleobases which could be related to cancerous cell growth. This 2D MES could open an exciting field to recognize single molecule signatures at atomic resolution. The advantages of the 2D MES over the one-dimensional (1D) current analysis can be comparable to those of 2D NMR over 1D NMR analysis.

  3. Optical and Functional Imaging in Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. van der Leest (Cor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the second most common cancer in men and women, and is the leading cause of cancer related death. In industrialized countries the mortality rate of lung cancer is higher than the mortality rate of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer combined 1. When lung cancer is

  4. Deep Sequencing of Urinary RNAs for Bladder Cancer Molecular Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Mandy L Y; Mach, Kathleen E; Sinha, Rahul; Wu, Fan; Trivedi, Dharati R; Altobelli, Emanuela; Jensen, Kristin C; Sahoo, Debashis; Lu, Ying; Liao, Joseph C

    2017-07-15

    Purpose: The majority of bladder cancer patients present with localized disease and are managed by transurethral resection. However, the high rate of recurrence necessitates lifetime cystoscopic surveillance. Developing a sensitive and specific urine-based test would significantly improve bladder cancer screening, detection, and surveillance. Experimental Design: RNA-seq was used for biomarker discovery to directly assess the gene expression profile of exfoliated urothelial cells in urine derived from bladder cancer patients ( n = 13) and controls ( n = 10). Eight bladder cancer specific and 3 reference genes identified by RNA-seq were quantitated by qPCR in a training cohort of 102 urine samples. A diagnostic model based on the training cohort was constructed using multiple logistic regression. The model was further validated in an independent cohort of 101 urines. Results: A total of 418 genes were found to be differentially expressed between bladder cancer and controls. Validation of a subset of these genes was used to construct an equation for computing a probability of bladder cancer score (P BC ) based on expression of three markers ( ROBO1, WNT5A , and CDC42BPB ). Setting P BC = 0.45 as the cutoff for a positive test, urine testing using the three-marker panel had overall 88% sensitivity and 92% specificity in the training cohort. The accuracy of the three-marker panel in the independent validation cohort yielded an AUC of 0.87 and overall 83% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Conclusions: Urine-based molecular diagnostics using this three-marker signature could provide a valuable adjunct to cystoscopy and may lead to a reduction of unnecessary procedures for bladder cancer diagnosis. Clin Cancer Res; 23(14); 3700-10. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Antibody or Antibody Fragments: Implications for Molecular Imaging and Targeted Therapy of Solid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina T. Xenaki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibody-based therapeutics has proven very promising for clinical applications in cancer patients, with multiple examples of antibodies and antibody–drug conjugates successfully applied for the treatment of solid tumors and lymphomas. Given reported recurrence rates, improvements are clearly still necessary. A major factor limiting the efficacy of antibody-targeted cancer therapies may be the incomplete penetration of the antibody or antibody–drug conjugate into the tumor. Incomplete tumor penetration also affects the outcome of molecular imaging, when using such targeting agents. From the injection site until they arrive inside the tumor, targeting molecules are faced with several barriers that impact intratumoral distribution. The primary means of antibody transport inside tumors is based on diffusion. The diffusive penetration inside the tumor is influenced by both antibody properties, such as size and binding affinity, as well as tumor properties, such as microenvironment, vascularization, and targeted antigen availability. Engineering smaller antibody fragments has shown to improve the rate of tumor uptake and intratumoral distribution. However, it is often accompanied by more rapid clearance from the body and in several cases also by inherent destabilization and reduction of the binding affinity of the antibody. In this perspective, we discuss different cancer targeting approaches based on antibodies or their fragments. We carefully consider how their size and binding properties influence their intratumoral uptake and distribution, and how this may affect cancer imaging and therapy of solid tumors.

  6. Identification of early cancerous lesion of esophagus with endoscopic images by hyperspectral image technique (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chen, Shih-Hua; Chen, Weichung; Wu, I.-Chen; Wu, Ming Tsang; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a method to identify early esophageal cancer within endoscope using hyperspectral imaging technology. The research samples are three kinds of endoscopic images including white light endoscopic, chromoendoscopic, and narrow-band endoscopic images with different stages of pathological changes (normal, dysplasia, dysplasia - esophageal cancer, and esophageal cancer). Research is divided into two parts: first, we analysis the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images with different stages to know the spectral responses by pathological changes. Second, we identified early cancerous lesion of esophagus by principal component analysis (PCA) of the reflectance spectra of endoscopic images. The results of this study show that the identification of early cancerous lesion is possible achieve from three kinds of images. In which the spectral characteristics of NBI endoscopy images of a gray area than those without the existence of the problem the first two, and the trend is very clear. Therefore, if simply to reflect differences in the degree of spectral identification, chromoendoscopic images are suitable samples. The best identification of early esophageal cancer is using the NBI endoscopic images. Based on the results, the use of hyperspectral imaging technology in the early endoscopic esophageal cancer lesion image recognition helps clinicians quickly diagnose. We hope for the future to have a relatively large amount of endoscopic image by establishing a hyperspectral imaging database system developed in this study, so the clinician can take this repository more efficiently preliminary diagnosis.

  7. Preclinical magnetic resonance imaging and systems biology in cancer research: current applications and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Chris; Rodriguez, Olga C; VanMeter, John; Fricke, Stanley T; Rood, Brian R; Lee, YiChien; Wang, Sean S; Madhavan, Subha; Gusev, Yuriy; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Wang, Yue

    2013-02-01

    Biologically accurate mouse models of human cancer have become important tools for the study of human disease. The anatomical location of various target organs, such as brain, pancreas, and prostate, makes determination of disease status difficult. Imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging, can greatly enhance diagnosis, and longitudinal imaging of tumor progression is an important source of experimental data. Even in models where the tumors arise in areas that permit visual determination of tumorigenesis, longitudinal anatomical and functional imaging can enhance the scope of studies by facilitating the assessment of biological alterations, (such as changes in angiogenesis, metabolism, cellular invasion) as well as tissue perfusion and diffusion. One of the challenges in preclinical imaging is the development of infrastructural platforms required for integrating in vivo imaging and therapeutic response data with ex vivo pathological and molecular data using a more systems-based multiscale modeling approach. Further challenges exist in integrating these data for computational modeling to better understand the pathobiology of cancer and to better affect its cure. We review the current applications of preclinical imaging and discuss the implications of applying functional imaging to visualize cancer progression and treatment. Finally, we provide new data from an ongoing preclinical drug study demonstrating how multiscale modeling can lead to a more comprehensive understanding of cancer biology and therapy. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular Subgroup of Primary Prostate Cancer Presenting with Metastatic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Steven M; Knight, Laura A; McCavigan, Andrena M; Logan, Gemma E; Berge, Viktor; Sherif, Amir; Pandha, Hardev; Warren, Anne Y; Davidson, Catherine; Uprichard, Adam; Blayney, Jaine K; Price, Bethanie; Jellema, Gera L; Steele, Christopher J; Svindland, Aud; McDade, Simon S; Eden, Christopher G; Foster, Chris; Mills, Ian G; Neal, David E; Mason, Malcolm D; Kay, Elaine W; Waugh, David J; Harkin, D Paul; Watson, R William; Clarke, Noel W; Kennedy, Richard D

    2017-10-01

    Approximately 4-25% of patients with early prostate cancer develop disease recurrence following radical prostatectomy. To identify a molecular subgroup of prostate cancers with metastatic potential at presentation resulting in a high risk of recurrence following radical prostatectomy. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering was performed using gene expression data from 70 primary resections, 31 metastatic lymph nodes, and 25 normal prostate samples. Independent assay validation was performed using 322 radical prostatectomy samples from four sites with a mean follow-up of 50.3 months. Molecular subgroups were identified using unsupervised hierarchical clustering. A partial least squares approach was used to generate a gene expression assay. Relationships with outcome (time to biochemical and metastatic recurrence) were analysed using multivariable Cox regression and log-rank analysis. A molecular subgroup of primary prostate cancer with biology similar to metastatic disease was identified. A 70-transcript signature (metastatic assay) was developed and independently validated in the radical prostatectomy samples. Metastatic assay positive patients had increased risk of biochemical recurrence (multivariable hazard ratio [HR] 1.62 [1.13-2.33]; p=0.0092) and metastatic recurrence (multivariable HR=3.20 [1.76-5.80]; p=0.0001). A combined model with Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment post surgical (CAPRA-S) identified patients at an increased risk of biochemical and metastatic recurrence superior to either model alone (HR=2.67 [1.90-3.75]; pmolecular subgroup of primary prostate cancers with metastatic potential. The metastatic assay may improve the ability to detect patients at risk of metastatic recurrence following radical prostatectomy. The impact of adjuvant therapies should be assessed in this higher-risk population. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Recent Developments in Active Tumor Targeted Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Combination Chemotherapy in Cancer Treatment and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Micah D. K.; Chougule, Mahavir B.

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology and combination therapy are two major fields that show great promise in the treatment of cancer. The delivery of drugs via nanoparticles helps to improve drug’s therapeutic effectiveness while reducing adverse side effects associated with high dosage by improving their pharmacokinetics. Taking advantage of molecular markers over-expressing on tumor tissues compared to normal cells, an “active” molecular marker targeted approach would be beneficial for cancer therapy. These actively targeted nanoparticles would increase drug concentration at the tumor site, improving efficacy while further reducing chemo-resistance. The multidisciplinary approach may help to improve the overall efficacy in cancer therapy. This review article summarizes recent developments of targeted multifunctional nanoparticles in the delivery of various drugs for a combinational chemotherapy approach to cancer treatment and imaging. PMID:26554150

  10. Molecular chess? Hallmarks of anti-cancer drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cree, Ian A; Charlton, Peter

    2017-01-05

    The development of resistance is a problem shared by both classical chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Patients may respond well at first, but relapse is inevitable for many cancer patients, despite many improvements in drugs and their use over the last 40 years. Resistance to anti-cancer drugs can be acquired by several mechanisms within neoplastic cells, defined as (1) alteration of drug targets, (2) expression of drug pumps, (3) expression of detoxification mechanisms, (4) reduced susceptibility to apoptosis, (5) increased ability to repair DNA damage, and (6) altered proliferation. It is clear, however, that changes in stroma and tumour microenvironment, and local immunity can also contribute to the development of resistance. Cancer cells can and do use several of these mechanisms at one time, and there is considerable heterogeneity between tumours, necessitating an individualised approach to cancer treatment. As tumours are heterogeneous, positive selection of a drug-resistant population could help drive resistance, although acquired resistance cannot simply be viewed as overgrowth of a resistant cancer cell population. The development of such resistance mechanisms can be predicted from pre-existing genomic and proteomic profiles, and there are increasingly sophisticated methods to measure and then tackle these mechanisms in patients. The oncologist is now required to be at least one step ahead of the cancer, a process that can be likened to 'molecular chess'. Thus, as well as an increasing role for predictive biomarkers to clinically stratify patients, it is becoming clear that personalised strategies are required to obtain best results.

  11. Cisplatin in cancer therapy: molecular mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Shaloam; Tchounwou, Paul Bernard

    2014-10-05

    Cisplatin, cisplatinum, or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II), is a well-known chemotherapeutic drug. It has been used for treatment of numerous human cancers including bladder, head and neck, lung, ovarian, and testicular cancers. It is effective against various types of cancers, including carcinomas, germ cell tumors, lymphomas, and sarcomas. Its mode of action has been linked to its ability to crosslink with the purine bases on the DNA; interfering with DNA repair mechanisms, causing DNA damage, and subsequently inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. However, because of drug resistance and numerous undesirable side effects such as severe kidney problems, allergic reactions, decrease immunity to infections, gastrointestinal disorders, hemorrhage, and hearing loss especially in younger patients, other platinum-containing anti-cancer drugs such as carboplatin, oxaliplatin and others, have also been used. Furthermore, combination therapies of cisplatin with other drugs have been highly considered to overcome drug-resistance and reduce toxicity. This comprehensive review highlights the physicochemical properties of cisplatin and related platinum-based drugs, and discusses its uses (either alone or in combination with other drugs) for the treatment of various human cancers. A special attention is paid to its molecular mechanisms of action, and its undesirable side effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cisplatin in cancer therapy: molecular mechanisms of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Shaloam; Tchounwou, Paul Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin, cisplatinum, or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II), is a well-known chemotherapeutic drug. It has been used for treatment of numerous human cancers including bladder, head and neck, lung, ovarian, and testicular cancers. It is effective against various types of cancers, including carcinomas, germ cell tumors, lymphomas, and sarcomas. Its mode of action has been linked to its ability to crosslink with the purine bases on the DNA; interfering with DNA repair mechanisms, causing DNA damage, and subsequently inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. However, because of drug resistance and numerous undesirable side effects such as severe kidney problems, allergic reactions, decrease immunity to infections, gastrointestinal disorders, hemorrhage, and hearing loss especially in younger patients, other platinum-containing anti-cancer drugs such as carboplatin, oxaliplatin and others, have also been used. Furthermore, combination therapies of cisplatin with other drugs have been highly considered to overcome drug-resistance and reduce toxicity. This comprehensive review highlights the physicochemical properties of cisplatin and related platinum-based drugs, and discusses its uses (either alone or in combination with other drugs) for the treatment of various human cancers. A special attention is given to its molecular mechanisms of action, and its undesirable side effects. PMID:25058905

  13. Diagnosis of skin cancer using image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Rosas, Esperanza; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué; Coronel-Beltrán, Ángel

    2014-10-01

    In this papera methodology for classifying skin cancerin images of dermatologie spots based on spectral analysis using the K-law Fourier non-lineartechnique is presented. The image is segmented and binarized to build the function that contains the interest area. The image is divided into their respective RGB channels to obtain the spectral properties of each channel. The green channel contains more information and therefore this channel is always chosen. This information is point to point multiplied by a binary mask and to this result a Fourier transform is applied written in nonlinear form. If the real part of this spectrum is positive, the spectral density takeunit values, otherwise are zero. Finally the ratio of the sum of the unit values of the spectral density with the sum of values of the binary mask are calculated. This ratio is called spectral index. When the value calculated is in the spectral index range three types of cancer can be detected. Values found out of this range are benign injure.

  14. Advancing Molecular Therapies through In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton McCaffrey

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective development of therapeutics that target the molecular basis of disease is dependent on testing new therapeutic moieties and delivery strategies in animal models of human disease. Accelerating the analyses of these models and improving their predictive value through whole animal imaging methods, which provide data in real time and are sensitive to the subtle changes, are crucial for rapid advancement of these approaches. Modalities based on optics are rapid, sensitive, and accessible methods for in vivo analyses with relatively low instrumentation costs. In vivo bioluminescent imaging (BLI is one of these optically based imaging methods that enable rapid in vivo analyses of a variety of cellular and molecular events with extreme sensitivity. BLI is based on the use of light-emitting enzymes as internal biological light sources that can be detected externally as biological indicators. BLI has been used to test spatio-temporal expression patterns of both target and therape