WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer moderate sample

  1. PET/CT in cancer: moderate sample sizes may suffice to justify replacement of a regional gold standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Poulsen, Mads Hvid; Bouchelouche, Kirsten;

    2009-01-01

    /CT also performs well in adjacent areas, then sample sizes in accuracy studies can be reduced. PROCEDURES: Traditional standard power calculations for demonstrating sensitivities of both 80% and 90% are shown. The argument is then described in general terms and demonstrated by an ongoing study of...... metastasized prostate cancer. RESULTS: An added value in accuracy of PET/CT in adjacent areas can outweigh a downsized target level of accuracy in the gold standard region, justifying smaller sample sizes. CONCLUSIONS: If PET/CT provides an accuracy benefit in adjacent regions, then sample sizes can be reduced...

  2. Counselling framework for moderate-penetrance cancer-susceptibility mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Nadine; Domchek, Susan M; Stadler, Zsofia; Nathanson, Katherine L; Couch, Fergus; Garber, Judy E; Offit, Kenneth; Robson, Mark E

    2016-09-01

    The use of multigene panels for the assessment of cancer susceptibility is expanding rapidly in clinical practice, particularly in the USA, despite concerns regarding the uncertain clinical validity for some gene variants and the uncertain clinical utility of most multigene panels. So-called 'moderate-penetrance' gene mutations associated with cancer susceptibility are identified in approximately 2-5% of individuals referred for clinical testing; some of these mutations are potentially actionable. Nevertheless, the appropriate management of individuals harbouring such moderate-penetrance genetic variants is unclear. The cancer risks associated with mutations in moderate-penetrance genes are lower and different than those reported for high-penetrance gene mutations (such as mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, and those associated with Lynch syndrome). The extrapolation of guidelines for the management of individuals with high-penetrance variants of cancer-susceptibility genes to the clinical care of patients with moderate-penetrance gene mutations could result in substantial harm. Thus, we provide a framework for clinical decision-making pending the development of a sufficient evidence base to document the clinical utility of the interventions for individuals with inherited moderate-penetrance gene mutations associated with an increased risk of cancer. PMID:27296296

  3. Perceptions of Cancer Controllability and Cancer Risk Knowledge: The Moderating Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Acculturation

    OpenAIRE

    RAMÍREZ, A. SUSANA; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Oh, April; Vengoechea, Bryan Leyva; Moser, Richard P; Vanderpool, Robin C.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2013-01-01

    Literature suggests racial/ethnic minorities, particularly those who are less-acculturated, have stronger fatalistic attitudes toward cancer than do non-Latino Whites. Knowledge of cancer prevention is also lower among racial/ethnic minorities. Moreover, low knowledge about cancer risk factors is often associated with fatalistic beliefs. Our study examined fatalism and cancer knowledge by race/ethnicity and explored whether race/ethnicity moderate the association of fatalism with knowledge of...

  4. Neutron moderation in a bulk sample and its effects on PGNAA setup geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup, the neutron moderation in the bulk sample also plays a key role. This can even dominate the thermalization effects of the external moderator in some cases. In order to study the neutron moderation effect in the bulk sample, moderators with two different sizes of the sample were tested at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) PGNAA facility. In these tests, the thermal neutron relative intensity and prompt gamma ray yield from the two moderators were measured using nuclear track detectors (NTDs) and NaI detector, respectively. As predicted by Monte Carlo simulations, the measured intensity of thermal neutron inside the large sample cavity due to the external moderator was smaller than that from the smaller sample cavity. Due to its larger size, additional thermalization of neutrons will take place in the larger sample. In spite of smaller thermal neutron yield from the external moderator at the large sample location, higher yield of the prompt gamma ray was observed as compared to that from the smaller sample. This confirms the significance of neutron moderation effects in the bulk sample and can thereby affect the PGNAA geometry size. This allows larger samples in conjunction with smaller moderators in the PGNAA setup

  5. Neutron moderation in a bulk sample and its effects on PGNAA setup geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Naqvi, A.A.; Fazal-ur-Rehman,; Maselehuddin, M.; Abu-Jarad, F.; Raashid, M

    2003-06-01

    In a prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup, the neutron moderation in the bulk sample also plays a key role. This can even dominate the thermalization effects of the external moderator in some cases. In order to study the neutron moderation effect in the bulk sample, moderators with two different sizes of the sample were tested at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) PGNAA facility. In these tests, the thermal neutron relative intensity and prompt gamma ray yield from the two moderators were measured using nuclear track detectors (NTDs) and NaI detector, respectively. As predicted by Monte Carlo simulations, the measured intensity of thermal neutron inside the large sample cavity due to the external moderator was smaller than that from the smaller sample cavity. Due to its larger size, additional thermalization of neutrons will take place in the larger sample. In spite of smaller thermal neutron yield from the external moderator at the large sample location, higher yield of the prompt gamma ray was observed as compared to that from the smaller sample. This confirms the significance of neutron moderation effects in the bulk sample and can thereby affect the PGNAA geometry size. This allows larger samples in conjunction with smaller moderators in the PGNAA setup.

  6. Sample to moderator volume ratio effects in neutron yield from a PGNAA setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of a prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup depends upon thermal neutron yield at the PGNAA sample location. For a moderator, which encloses a sample, thermal neutron intensity depends upon the effective moderator volume excluding the void volume due to sample volume. A rectangular moderator assembly has been designed for the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) PGNAA setup. The thermal and fast neutron yield has been measured inside the sample cavity as a function of its front moderator thickness using alpha particle tracks density and recoil proton track density inside the CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs). The thermal/fast neutron yield ratio, obtained from the alpha particle tracks density to proton tracks density ratio in the NTDs, shows an inverse correlation with sample to moderator volume ratio. Comparison of the present results with the previously published results of smaller moderators of the KFUPM PGNAA setup confirms the observation

  7. Sample to moderator volume ratio effects in neutron yield from a PGNAA setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia); Nagadi, M.M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khateeb-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-02-15

    Performance of a prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup depends upon thermal neutron yield at the PGNAA sample location. For a moderator, which encloses a sample, thermal neutron intensity depends upon the effective moderator volume excluding the void volume due to sample volume. A rectangular moderator assembly has been designed for the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) PGNAA setup. The thermal and fast neutron yield has been measured inside the sample cavity as a function of its front moderator thickness using alpha particle tracks density and recoil proton track density inside the CR-39 nuclear track detectors (NTDs). The thermal/fast neutron yield ratio, obtained from the alpha particle tracks density to proton tracks density ratio in the NTDs, shows an inverse correlation with sample to moderator volume ratio. Comparison of the present results with the previously published results of smaller moderators of the KFUPM PGNAA setup confirms the observation.

  8. BRCA1 status in Pakistani breast cancer patients with moderate family history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine BRCA1 status in breast carcinoma patients of Pakistani origin. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Oncology Clinics of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, between May 2005 and December 2009. Methodology: Fifty three breast cancer patients based on clinical and laboratory diagnosis were recruited for this study. Moderate family history was defined as having a close relative (mother, daughter, sister) diagnosed with breast cancer under 45 years. Peripheral blood samples were collected from each patient in a 5 ml tube containing EDTA as anticoagulant. Subsequent to DNA extraction, mutational analysis of BRCA1 exons 2, 5, 6, 16, 20 and 22 was carried out using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) assay while protein truncation test (PTT) was used to examine mutations in exon 11. All BRCA1 sequence variants were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Results: Twenty-three patients were diagnosed with early onset breast cancer, 30 patients had moderate family history. At the time of diagnosis, the median age of enrolled patients was 39 years (range 24-65 years). Out of 53 patients, analyzed by SSCP assay, mobility shift was detected in exon 6, 16 and 20 of three patients, whereas one patient was tested positive for mutation in exon 11 by PTT assays. All patients with BRCA1 mutations were further confirmed by DNA sequencing analysis. In exon 16 c.4837A > G was confirmed, which is a common polymorphism reported in several populations including Asians. Moreover, mutations in exon 6 (c.271T > G), exon 20 (c.5231 del G) and exon 11 (c.1123 T > G) were reported first time in the Pakistani population. Several BRCA1 mutations were observed in Pakistani breast cancer patients with moderate family history. Therefore, mutation-based genetic counselling for patients with moderate family history can facilitate management, if one first or second degree relative or early onset disease is apparent. (author)

  9. Pancreatic cancer accompanied by a moderate-sized pseudocyst with extrapancreatic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer accompanied by a moderate-sized pseudocyst with extrapancreatic growth is extremely rare. Diagnosis of pancreatic cancer on preoperative imaging is difficult when the pancreatic parenchyma is compressed by a pseudocyst and becomes unclear. Despite advances in imaging techniques, accurate preoperative diagnosis of cystic lesions of the pancreas remains difficult. In this case, it was challenging to diagnose pancreatic cancer preoperatively as we could not accurately assess the pancreatic parenchyma, which had been compressed by a moderate-sized cystic lesion with extrapancreatic growth. A 63-year-old woman underwent investigations for epigastric abdominal pain. She had no history of pancreatitis. Although we suspected pancreatic ductal carcinoma with a pancreatic cyst, there was no mass lesion or low-density area suggestive of pancreatic cancer. We did not immediately suspect pancreatic cancer, as development of a moderate-sized cyst with extrapancreatic growth is extremely rare and known tumor markers were not elevated. Therefore, we initially suspected that a massive benign cyst (mucinous cyst neoplasm, serous cyst neoplasm, or intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm) resulted in stenosis of the main pancreatic duct. We were unable to reach a definitive diagnosis prior to the operation. We had planned a pancreaticoduodenectomy to reach a definitive diagnosis. However, we could not remove the tumor because of significant invasion of the surrounding tissue (portal vein, superior mesenteric vein, etc.). The fluid content of the cyst was serous, and aspiration cytology from the pancreatic cyst was Class III (no malignancy), but the surrounding white connective tissue samples were positive for pancreatic adenocarcinoma on pathological examination during surgery. We repeated imaging (CT, MRI, endoscopic ultrasound, etc.) postoperatively, but there were neither mass lesions nor a low-density area suggestive of pancreatic cancer. In retrospect, we think

  10. Sample Cancer Epidemiology Grant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute frequently receives questions from investigators for examples of successfully funded grant applications. Several investigators agreed to let the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program post excerpts of their grant applications online.

  11. Moderators of implicit and explicit drinking identity in a large US adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Gasser, Melissa L; Werntz, Alexandra; Namaky, Nauder; Baldwin, Scott A; Teachman, Bethany A

    2016-09-01

    Drinking identity (viewing oneself as a drinker) is a potential risk factor for problematic drinking in US undergraduate samples. Whether that risk extends to a broader, more general US sample is unknown. Additionally, there are critical, unanswered questions with respect to moderators of the drinking identity-problematic drinking relationship; an important issue for designing prevention efforts. Study aims were to assess the unique associations and interactive effects of implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity on problematic drinking, and to evaluate age and sex as potential moderators of the drinking identity-problematic drinking relationship. A sample of 11,320 adults aged 18-98 completed measures of implicit and explicit drinking identity and problematic drinking (the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test; AUDIT). Implicit and explicit drinking identity had positive, significant associations with AUDIT scores, as expected. Moderation analyses indicated small, but significant, interactions. There was an implicit by explicit identity interaction consistent with a synergistic effect: lower implicit and explicit identity was linked to a greater probability of being a non-drinker. Age moderated explicit but not implicit identity: lower drinking identity appeared to be more protective for younger individuals. Sex moderated implicit but not explicit identity: a weaker positive association with implicit identity and AUDIT scores was observed among men, potentially reflecting stigma against women's drinking. Findings suggest that drinking identity's potential as a risk factor for problematic drinking extends to a more general US sample and that both implicit and explicit identity should be targeted in prevention efforts. PMID:27156218

  12. Parent Discipline Practices in an International Sample: Associations with Child Behaviors and Moderation by Perceived Normativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Zelli, Arnaldo; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations of 11 discipline techniques with children's aggressive and anxious behaviors in an international sample of mothers and children from 6 countries and determined whether any significant associations were moderated by mothers' and children's perceived normativeness of the techniques. Participants included 292…

  13. Moderators of the effects of group-based physical exercise on cancer survivors' quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalter, Joeri; Buffart, Laurien M.; Korstjens, Irene; van Weert, Ellen; Brug, Johannes; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.; Mesters, Ilse; van den Borne, Bart; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Ros, Wynand J. G.; May, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored demographic, clinical, and psychological moderators of the effect of a group-based physical exercise intervention on global quality of life (QoL) among cancer survivors who completed treatment. Cancer survivors were assigned to a 12-week physical exercise (n = 147) or a wait-list

  14. Parent Discipline Practices in an International Sample: Associations With Child Behaviors and Moderation by Perceived Normativeness

    OpenAIRE

    Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Chang, Lei; Zelli, Arnaldo; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations of 11 discipline techniques with children's aggressive and anxious behaviors in an international sample of mothers and children from 6 countries and determined whether any significant associations were moderated by mothers’ and children's perceived normativeness of the techniques. Participants included 292 mothers and their 8- to 12-year-old children living in China, India, Italy, Kenya, Philippines, and Thailand. Parallel multilevel and fixed effects mode...

  15. A Closer Look at Social Support as a Moderator of Stress in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Cleora S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Explored effects of perceived social support from friends, family, and spouses on psychological adjustment of 135 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Initial data analyses revealed moderate correlations between greater psychological distress and lower levels of social support. When personality variable of social desirability was controlled…

  16. MODERATING EFFECT OF HYPNOTIZABILITY ON HYPNOSIS FOR HOT FLASHES IN BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS

    OpenAIRE

    Elkins, Gary; Fisher, William; Johnson, Aimee; Marcus, Joel; DOVE, JACQUELINE; PERFECT, MICHELLE; KEITH, TIMOTHY

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential role of hypnotizability as a moderator of effectiveness of a hypnosis intervention for reducing hot flashes in breast cancer survivors. Sixty women were randomized into either five weekly sessions of hypnosis or a wait list control condition. Nine of the participants dropped out of the study and 24 were randomized to the control condition. There were 27 participants who completed the hypnosis intervention and for whom hypnotizability wa...

  17. Moderate Physical Activity Mediates the Association between White Matter Lesion Volume and Memory Recall in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Gillian E; Wetter, Nathan C; Banducci, Sarah E; Mackenzie, Michael J; Zuniga, Krystle E; Awick, Elizabeth A; Roberts, Sarah A; Sutton, Brad P; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-01-01

    Increased survival rates among breast cancer patients have drawn significant attention to consequences of both the presence of cancer, and the subsequent treatment-related impact on the brain. The incidence of breast cancer and the effects of treatment often result in alterations in the microstructure of white matter and impaired cognitive functioning. However, physical activity is proving to be a successful modifiable lifestyle factor in many studies that could prove beneficial to breast cancer survivors. This study investigates the link between white matter lesion volume, moderate physical activity, and cognition in breast cancer survivors following treatment compared to non-cancer age-matched controls. Results revealed that brain structure significantly predicted cognitive function via mediation of physical activity in breast cancer survivors. Overall, the study provided preliminary evidence suggesting moderate physical activity may help reduce the treatment related risks associated with breast cancer, including changes to WM integrity and cognitive impairment. PMID:26915025

  18. Polygenic Scores Predict Alcohol Problems in an Independent Sample and Show Moderation by the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Salvatore

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol problems represent a classic example of a complex behavioral outcome that is likely influenced by many genes of small effect. A polygenic approach, which examines aggregate measured genetic effects, can have predictive power in cases where individual genes or genetic variants do not. In the current study, we first tested whether polygenic risk for alcohol problems—derived from genome-wide association estimates of an alcohol problems factor score from the age 18 assessment of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 4304 individuals of European descent; 57% female—predicted alcohol problems earlier in development (age 14 in an independent sample (FinnTwin12; n = 1162; 53% female. We then tested whether environmental factors (parental knowledge and peer deviance moderated polygenic risk to predict alcohol problems in the FinnTwin12 sample. We found evidence for both polygenic association and for additive polygene-environment interaction. Higher polygenic scores predicted a greater number of alcohol problems (range of Pearson partial correlations 0.07–0.08, all p-values ≤ 0.01. Moreover, genetic influences were significantly more pronounced under conditions of low parental knowledge or high peer deviance (unstandardized regression coefficients (b, p-values (p, and percent of variance (R2 accounted for by interaction terms: b = 1.54, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.33%; b = 0.94, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.30%, respectively. Supplementary set-based analyses indicated that the individual top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs contributing to the polygenic scores were not individually enriched for gene-environment interaction. Although the magnitude of the observed effects are small, this study illustrates the usefulness of polygenic approaches for understanding the pathways by which measured genetic predispositions come together with environmental factors to predict complex behavioral outcomes.

  19. Fast and scalable inference of multi-sample cancer lineages.

    KAUST Repository

    Popic, Victoria

    2015-05-06

    Somatic variants can be used as lineage markers for the phylogenetic reconstruction of cancer evolution. Since somatic phylogenetics is complicated by sample heterogeneity, novel specialized tree-building methods are required for cancer phylogeny reconstruction. We present LICHeE (Lineage Inference for Cancer Heterogeneity and Evolution), a novel method that automates the phylogenetic inference of cancer progression from multiple somatic samples. LICHeE uses variant allele frequencies of somatic single nucleotide variants obtained by deep sequencing to reconstruct multi-sample cell lineage trees and infer the subclonal composition of the samples. LICHeE is open source and available at http://viq854.github.io/lichee .

  20. Perceived threat and depression among patients with cancer: the moderating role of health locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldzweig, Gil; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Alon, Shirly; Shalit, Efrat

    2016-07-01

    Illness perception was found to be a better predictor of psychological outcome among cancer patients than the objective characteristics of illness. The current study explored the association between the perceived threat of illness (a major aspect of illness perception) and depression among cancer patients. We examined the hypothesis that this association will be higher for persons with low External (others) or internal (self) Health Locus of Control (HLC) than for those with high HLC. The study took an exploratory approach regarding the role that different sources of control (external and internal) may assume. Fifty-seven cancer patients completed self-report measures of Perceived Life Threat (PLT), HLC and Depression. The possible moderating role of HLC on the relationship between PLT and Depression was examined. A significant relationship between perceived threat and depression was found only among participants reporting low levels of internal locus of control. The results support the hypothesis that perception of cancer as life threatening is important factor in determining the level of depression among cancer patients. The results also support the differentiation between internal and external HLC and suggest that internal HLC may be more relevant than external HLC in managing perceived threat. Internal locus of control can be interpreted as having a sense of agency and mastery which is important in managing the cognitive perception of the threat of illness. Further research is needed in order to determine the role of external HLC in managing perceived or actual threats. PMID:26821193

  1. The moderating effects of sample type as evidence of the effects of faking on personality scale correlations and factor structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEVIN M. BRADLEY

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivational differences as a function of sample type (applicants versus incumbents have frequently been suspected of causing meaningful differences in the psychometric properties of personality inventories due to the effects of faking. In this quantitative review, correlations among the Big Five personality constructs were estimated and sample type was examined as a potential moderator of the personality construct inter-correlations. The resulting subgroup meta-analytic correlation matrices were factor-analyzed, and the second order factor solutions for job incumbents and job applicants were compared. Results of the meta-analyses indicate frequent, but small moderating effects. The second order factor analyses indicated that the observed moderation had little effect on the congruence of factor loadings. Together, the results are consistent with the position that faking is of little practical consequence in selection settings.

  2. Moderators of Informant Agreement in the Assessment of Adolescent Psychopathology: Extension to a Forensic Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Stephanie R.; Skilling, Tracey A.

    2012-01-01

    A well-documented finding in developmental psychopathology research is that different informants often provide discrepant ratings of a youth's internalizing and externalizing problems. The current study examines youth- and parent-based moderators (i.e., youth age, gender, and IQ; type of psychopathology; offense category; psychopathic traits;…

  3. Proteome profiling analysis of human ovarian cancer serum samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass Spectrometry represents a powerful tool in cancer research to discovery of potential bio markers through peak identification from serum profiling. By using high resolution MALDITOF and bioinformatic analysis almost 400 serum sample homogeneously distributed between biopsy confirmed ovarian cancer and high risk serum samples were analyzed. Each serum sample run in duplicate and whole serum sample preparation procedure has been performed by Hamilton Star Robot in order to reduce bias and the replicates with a low Pearson coefficient are removed. After automated reverse phase magnetic beads separation the samples were tested in MALDI-TOF

  4. Moderate swimming suppressed the growth and metastasis of the transplanted liver cancer in mice model: with reference to nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q-B; Zhang, B-H; Zhang, K-Z; Meng, X-T; Jia, Q-A; Zhang, Q-B; Bu, Y; Zhu, X-D; Ma, D-N; Ye, B-G; Zhang, N; Ren, Z-G; Sun, H-C; Tang, Z-Y

    2016-08-01

    Physical activity has been shown to suppress tumor initiation and progression. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) is closely related to movement and exhibits antitumor properties. However, whether the suppressive effects of physical activity on tumors was mediated by the nervous system via increased DA level remains unknowns. Here we show that regular moderate swimming (8 min/day, 9 weeks) raised DA levels in the prefrontal cortex, serum and tumor tissue, suppressed growth, reduced lung metastasis of transplanted liver cancer, and prolonged survival in a C57BL/6 mouse model, while overload swimming (16 and 32 min/day, 9 weeks) had the opposite effect. In nude mice that were orthotopically implanted with human liver cancer cell lines, DA treatment significantly suppressed growth and lung metastasis by acting on the D2 receptor (DR2). Furthermore, DR2 blockade attenuated the suppressive effect of moderate swimming on liver cancer. Both moderate swimming and DA treatment suppressed the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of transplanted liver cancer cells. At the molecular level, DR2 signaling inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and expression of TGF-β1 in vitro. Together, these findings demonstrated a novel mechanism by which the moderate exercise suppressed liver cancer through boosting DR2 activity, while overload exercise had the opposite effect, highlighting the possible importance of the dopaminergic system in tumor growth and metastasis of liver cancer. PMID:26686088

  5. Whole exome sequencing suggests much of non-BRCA1/BRCA2 familial breast cancer is due to moderate and low penetrance susceptibility alleles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Gracia-Aznarez

    Full Text Available The identification of the two most prevalent susceptibility genes in breast cancer, BRCA1 and BRCA2, was the beginning of a sustained effort to uncover new genes explaining the missing heritability in this disease. Today, additional high, moderate and low penetrance genes have been identified in breast cancer, such as P53, PTEN, STK11, PALB2 or ATM, globally accounting for around 35 percent of the familial cases. In the present study we used massively parallel sequencing to analyze 7 BRCA1/BRCA2 negative families, each having at least 6 affected women with breast cancer (between 6 and 10 diagnosed under the age of 60 across generations. After extensive filtering, Sanger sequencing validation and co-segregation studies, variants were prioritized through either control-population studies, including up to 750 healthy individuals, or case-control assays comprising approximately 5300 samples. As a result, a known moderate susceptibility indel variant (CHEK2 1100delC and a catalogue of 11 rare variants presenting signs of association with breast cancer were identified. All the affected genes are involved in important cellular mechanisms like DNA repair, cell proliferation and survival or cell cycle regulation. This study highlights the need to investigate the role of rare variants in familial cancer development by means of novel high throughput analysis strategies optimized for genetically heterogeneous scenarios. Even considering the intrinsic limitations of exome resequencing studies, our findings support the hypothesis that the majority of non-BRCA1/BRCA2 breast cancer families might be explained by the action of moderate and/or low penetrance susceptibility alleles.

  6. Examining Mediators and Moderators of Yoga for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Chelsea G; Milbury, Kathrin; Chandwani, Kavita D; Chaoul, Alejandro; Perkins, George; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Haddad, Robin; Nagendra, Hongasandra Ramarao; Raghuram, N V; Spelman, Amy; Arun, Banu; Wei, Qi; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2016-09-01

    Hypothesis This study examines moderators and mediators of a yoga intervention targeting quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes in women with breast cancer receiving radiotherapy.Methods Women undergoing 6 weeks of radiotherapy were randomized to a yoga (YG; n = 53) or stretching (ST; n = 56) intervention or a waitlist control group (WL; n = 54). Depressive symptoms and sleep disturbances were measured at baseline. Mediator (posttraumatic stress symptoms, benefit finding, and cortisol slope) and outcome (36-item Short Form [SF]-36 mental and physical component scales [MCS and PCS]) variables were assessed at baseline, end-of-treatment, and 1-, 3-, and 6-months posttreatment. Results Baseline depressive symptoms (P = .03) and sleep disturbances (P stress symptoms and cortisol slope did not mediate treatment effect on QOL. Conclusion Yoga may provide the greatest mental-health-related QOL benefits for those experiencing pre-radiotherapy sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms. Yoga may improve physical-health-related QOL by increasing ability to find benefit in the cancer experience. PMID:26867802

  7. Correlates and moderators of child pornography consumption in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, James V; Kimonis, Eva R; Seto, Michael C

    2014-12-01

    This study compares pornography users who report child pornography (CP) consumption with those who do not on demographic characteristics (age, ethnicity, and education level), psychological characteristics (e.g., loneliness, attachment style, anxiety, and sensation seeking), frequency of pornography use, and intentions to engage in contact sexual abuse. Participants were recruited on the Internet to complete an online anonymous survey about "problematic pornography use." Approximately, one fifth of the recruited male pornography users (21%, n = 37) reported consuming CP. The two groups were similar on all demographic and psychological characteristics. However, the probability of CP consumption was the greatest among men scoring high on a measure of sensation seeking who reported frequent pornography use (i.e., statistical moderation). CP consumers also reported a greater interest in engaging in sexual contact with a minor than non-CP consumers. PMID:24088812

  8. Context moderates illness-induced lifestyle disruptions across life domains: a test of the illness intrusiveness theoretical framework in six common cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devins, Gerald M; Bezjak, Andrea; Mah, Kenneth; Loblaw, D Andrew; Gotowiec, Andrew P

    2006-03-01

    The illness intrusiveness theoretical framework maintains that illness-induced lifestyle disruptions compromise quality of life in chronic life-threatening conditions and that this effect is moderated by social, psychological, and contextual factors. Considerable evidence indicates that lifestyle disruptions compromise quality of life in cancer and other diseases and that the effects differ across life domains. The hypothesis that contextual factors (e.g. age, education, income, stressful life events) moderate these effects has not been tested extensively. We investigated whether age, income, education, and/or recent stressful life events modify the experience of illness intrusiveness across three central life domains (Relationships and Personal Development, Intimacy, and Instrumental life) in six common cancers. A sample of 656 cancer outpatients with one of six common cancers (breast, prostate, lymphoma, lung, head and neck, and gastrointestinal, all n's>100) completed the Illness Intrusiveness Ratings Scale while awaiting follow-up appointments with an oncologist. Results indicated statistically significant (all p'scancer. The psychosocial impact of chronic life-threatening disease differs across life domains and depends on the context in which it is experienced. PMID:15996006

  9. A meta-analysis of prevalence rates and moderating factors for cancer-related post-traumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Abbey, Gareth; Thompson, Simon B N; Hickish, Tamas; Heathcote, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective Systematic reviews highlight a broad range of cancer-related post-traumatic stress disorder (CR-PTSD) prevalence estimates in cancer survivors. This meta-analysis was conducted to provide a prevalence estimate of significant CR-PTSD symptoms and full diagnoses to facilitate the psychological aftercare of cancer survivors. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted for studies using samples of cancer survivors by using validated clinical interviews and questionnaires to ass...

  10. Hanging drop cultures of human testis and testis cancer samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Young, J; Nielsen, J E;

    2014-01-01

    limited by the lack of experimental models. The aim of this study was to establish an experimental tissue culture model to maintain normal and malignant germ cells within their niche and allow investigation of treatment effects. METHODS: Human testis and testis cancer specimens from orchidectomies were...... and testis cancer samples can be employed to delineate mechanisms governing growth of normal, CIS and tumorigenic germ cells retained within their niche....

  11. Acute Inflammatory Response to Low-, Moderate-, and High-Load Resistance Exercise in Women With Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; Singh, Benjamin; Hayes, Sandi; Peake, Jonathan M; Galvão, Daniel A; Taaffe, Dennis R; Spry, Nigel; Nosaka, Kazunori; Cornish, Bruce; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Newton, Robert U

    2016-09-01

    Background Resistance exercise is emerging as a potential adjunct therapy to aid in the management of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). However, the mechanisms underlying the relationships between the acute and long-term benefits of resistance exercise on BCRL are not well understood. Purpose To examine the acute inflammatory response to upper-body resistance exercise in women with BCRL and to compare these effects between resistance exercises involving low, moderate, and high loads. The impact on lymphedema status and associated symptoms was also compared. Methods A total of 21 women, 62 ± 10 years old, with BCRL participated in the study. Participants completed low-load (15-20 repetition maximum [RM]), moderate-load (10-12 RM), and high-load (6-8 RM) exercise sessions consisting of 3 sets of 6 upper-body resistance exercises. Sessions were completed in a randomized order separated by a 7- to 10-day wash-out period. Venous blood samples were obtained to assess markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation. Lymphedema status was assessed using bioimpedance spectroscopy and arm circumferences, and associated symptoms were assessed using Visual Analogue Scales for pain, heaviness, and tightness. Measurements were conducted before and 24 hours after the exercise sessions. Results No significant changes in creatine kinase, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were observed following the 3 resistance exercise sessions. There were no significant changes in arm swelling or symptom severity scores across the 3 resistance exercise conditions. Conclusions The magnitude of acute exercise-induced inflammation following upper-body resistance exercise in women with BCRL does not vary between resistance exercise loads. PMID:26582633

  12. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A MODERATELY HALOPHILIC PROTEASE PRODUCING PSEUDOMONAS SP. FROM BRINE SAMPLES OF A COASTAL AREA SOLAR SALTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. LAKSHMI SREENIVAS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening of the brine samples of a solar saltern has yielded one moderately halophilic proteaseproducing bacteria. The bacterial isolate has been identified as a Pseudomonassp. and it producedan extracellular protease and an amylase. Maximal protease production was detected at the earlystationary phase. The enzyme showed the highest activity at 400C and pH 8.0 in 15% NaCl. Theenzyme was active over a range of salt (0-25%, pH (6.5-10.0 and temperature (200C-550C. Thesebroad ranges of tolerance of the enzyme indicate potential applications of this enzyme in fish saucefermentation and detergent formulations

  13. Study of gastric cancer samples using terahertz techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahaia, Faustino; Kasalynas, Irmantas; Seliuta, Dalius; Molis, Gediminas; Urbanowicz, Andrzej; Carvalho Silva, Catia D.; Carneiro, Fatima; Valusis, Gintaras; Granja, Pedro L.

    2014-08-01

    In the present work, samples of healthy and adenocarcinoma-affected human gastric tissue were analyzed using transmission time-domain THz spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and spectroscopic THz imaging at 201 and 590 GHz. The work shows that it is possible to distinguish between normal and cancerous regions in dried and paraffin-embedded samples. Plots of absorption coefficient α and refractive index n of normal and cancer affected tissues, as well as 2-D transmission THz images are presented and the conditions for discrimination between normal and affected tissues are discussed.

  14. Moderators of the response to a nurse-led psychosocial intervention to reduce depressive symptoms in head and neck cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    van der Meulen, Ingeborg C.; Anne M May; de Leeuw, J Rob J; Koole, Ron; Oosterom, Miriam; Hordijk, Gert-Jan; Ros, Wynand J.G

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the variables that moderate the response to psychosocial interventions to decrease depressive symptoms in cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to determine whether variables associated with depressive symptoms in cancer patients in general moderate the response to a nurse-led psychosocial intervention in patients with head and neck cancer. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of the nurse coun...

  15. Moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Long-term outcome using IMRT and volumetric IGRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guckenberger, M.; Lawrenz, I.; Flentje, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    To evaluate long-term outcome after dose-escalated, moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Since 2005, 150 consecutive patients were treated with primary radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using the simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique was practiced in all patients and doses of 73.9 Gy (n = 41) and 76.2 Gy (n = 109) were delivered in 32 and 33 fractions, respectively. The pelvic lymph nodes were treated in 41 high-risk patients. Treatment was delivered using cone-beam CT based image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Toxicity was assessed prospectively using CTCAE 3.0; biochemical failure was defined according to the Phoenix definition of nadir + 2 ng/ml. Median follow-up of living patients was 50 months. Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity was mild with > 80 % of the patients free from any GI toxicity during follow-up and no time trend to increased rates or to higher grade of GI toxicity. Two patients suffered from late grade 3 GI toxicity. Acute genitourinary (GU) toxicity grade 1-2 was observed in 85 % of the patients; most patients recovered quickly within 6 weeks after treatment. The rate of GU toxicity grade ≥ 2 was < 10 % at 6-12 month but increased continuously to 22.4 % at 60 months; grade 3 GU toxicity remained below 5 % during follow-up. The 5-year freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) was 82 % for all patients and 88, 80, and 78 % for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk disease. Favorable FFBF with simultaneously low rates of toxicity was observed after moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy with 2 Gy-equivalent doses ≥ 80 Gy. Conformal IMRT planning and accurate IGRT treatment delivery may have contributed to these results. (orig.) [German] Untersucht wurden die Langzeitergebnisse nach dosisintensivierter Strahlentherapie in moderater Hypofraktionierung beim lokal begrenzten Prostatakarzinom. Untersucht wurden 150 konsekutive Patienten, die seit 2005 unter Verwendung von IMRT

  16. Cost-effectiveness of surveillance programs for families at high and moderate risk of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose Olsen, Kim; Bojesen, Stig E; Gerdes, Anne-Marie M;

    2007-01-01

    moderate risk of HNPCC are offered surveillance from age 25 and age 45, respectively. The model includes costs for all families referred to genetic counseling, including genetic risk assessment, mutation analysis, and surveillance in relevant families with or without known mutation, plus the costs related...... the moderate risk group is evaluated genetically but not offered surveillance. Sensitivity analysis showed these findings to be robust, although cost-effectiveness can be improved in cases of more conservative referrals to genetic counseling. CONCLUSIONS: The result for high risk families confirms the......OBJECTIVES: Surveillance programs are recommended to both families at high risk (Amsterdam-positive families with known- and unknown mutation) and moderate risk (families not fulfilling all Amsterdam criteria) of colorectal cancer (CRC). Cost-effectiveness has so far only been estimated for the...

  17. Exposure to criminal environment and criminal social identity in a sample of adult prisoners: The moderating role of psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherretts, Nicole; Boduszek, Daniel; Debowska, Agata

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of period of incarceration, criminal friend index (a retrospective measure intended to quantify criminal associations before 1st incarceration), and 4 psychopathy factors (interpersonal manipulation, callous affect, erratic lifestyle, and antisocial behavior) in criminal social identity (CSI) while controlling for age and gender. Participants were a sample of 501 incarcerated offenders (male n = 293; female n = 208) from 3 prisons located in Pennsylvania State. Moderated regression analyses indicated no significant direct association between period of incarceration and CSI or between criminal friend index and Measure of Criminal Social Identity (MCSI). However, a significant moderating effect of interpersonal manipulation on the relationship between period of incarceration and MCSI was observed. Period of incarceration was significantly positively correlated with MCSI (particularly with the in-group ties subscale) for only those offenders who scored high (1 SD above the mean) on interpersonal manipulation and significantly negatively correlated for those who scored low (1 SD below the mean) on interpersonal manipulation. Also, criminal friend index was positively significantly associated with in-group ties for high levels (1 SD above the mean) of callous affect. The main findings provide evidence for the claim that prisoners are likely to simulate changes in identity through the formation of bonds with other offenders and that this can be achieved using interpersonal manipulation skills. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27054370

  18. Protein expression based multimarker analysis of breast cancer samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran Ayyappan K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue microarray (TMA data are commonly used to validate the prognostic accuracy of tumor markers. For example, breast cancer TMA data have led to the identification of several promising prognostic markers of survival time. Several studies have shown that TMA data can also be used to cluster patients into clinically distinct groups. Here we use breast cancer TMA data to cluster patients into distinct prognostic groups. Methods We apply weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA to TMA data consisting of 26 putative tumor biomarkers measured on 82 breast cancer patients. Based on this analysis we identify three groups of patients with low (5.4%, moderate (22% and high (50% mortality rates, respectively. We then develop a simple threshold rule using a subset of three markers (p53, Na-KATPase-β1, and TGF β receptor II that can approximately define these mortality groups. We compare the results of this correlation network analysis with results from a standard Cox regression analysis. Results We find that the rule-based grouping variable (referred to as WGCNA* is an independent predictor of survival time. While WGCNA* is based on protein measurements (TMA data, it validated in two independent Affymetrix microarray gene expression data (which measure mRNA abundance. We find that the WGCNA patient groups differed by 35% from mortality groups defined by a more conventional stepwise Cox regression analysis approach. Conclusions We show that correlation network methods, which are primarily used to analyze the relationships between gene products, are also useful for analyzing the relationships between patients and for defining distinct patient groups based on TMA data. We identify a rule based on three tumor markers for predicting breast cancer survival outcomes.

  19. Protein expression based multimarker analysis of breast cancer samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue microarray (TMA) data are commonly used to validate the prognostic accuracy of tumor markers. For example, breast cancer TMA data have led to the identification of several promising prognostic markers of survival time. Several studies have shown that TMA data can also be used to cluster patients into clinically distinct groups. Here we use breast cancer TMA data to cluster patients into distinct prognostic groups. We apply weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) to TMA data consisting of 26 putative tumor biomarkers measured on 82 breast cancer patients. Based on this analysis we identify three groups of patients with low (5.4%), moderate (22%) and high (50%) mortality rates, respectively. We then develop a simple threshold rule using a subset of three markers (p53, Na-KATPase-β1, and TGF β receptor II) that can approximately define these mortality groups. We compare the results of this correlation network analysis with results from a standard Cox regression analysis. We find that the rule-based grouping variable (referred to as WGCNA*) is an independent predictor of survival time. While WGCNA* is based on protein measurements (TMA data), it validated in two independent Affymetrix microarray gene expression data (which measure mRNA abundance). We find that the WGCNA patient groups differed by 35% from mortality groups defined by a more conventional stepwise Cox regression analysis approach. We show that correlation network methods, which are primarily used to analyze the relationships between gene products, are also useful for analyzing the relationships between patients and for defining distinct patient groups based on TMA data. We identify a rule based on three tumor markers for predicting breast cancer survival outcomes

  20. Analysis of breath samples for lung cancer survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Predictions of survival days for lung cancer patients. - Highlights: • Analyses of exhaled air offer a large diagnostic potential. • Patientswith diagnosed lung cancer were studied using an electronic nose. • Excellent predictions and stable models of survival day were obtained. • Consecutive measurements were very important. - Abstract: Analyses of exhaled air by means of electronic noses offer a large diagnostic potential. Such analyses are non-invasive; samples can also be easily obtained from severely ill patients and repeated within short intervals. Lung cancer is the most deadly malignant tumor worldwide, and monitoring of lung cancer progression is of great importance and may help to decide best therapy. In this report, twenty-two patients with diagnosed lung cancer and ten healthy volunteers were studied using breath samples collected several times at certain intervals and analysed by an electronic nose. The samples were divided into three sub-groups; group d for survivor less than one year, group s for survivor more than a year and group h for the healthy volunteers. Prediction models based on partial least square and artificial neural nets could not classify the collected groups d, s and h, but separated well group d from group h. Using artificial neural net, group d could be separated from group s. Excellent predictions and stable models of survival day for group d were obtained, both based on partial least square and artificial neural nets, with correlation coefficients 0.981 and 0.985, respectively. Finally, the importance of consecutive measurements was shown

  1. Analysis of breath samples for lung cancer survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmekel, Birgitta [Division of of Clinical Physiology, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping (Sweden); Clinical Physiology, Department of Medicine and Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping (Sweden); Winquist, Fredrik, E-mail: frw@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping SE-581 83 (Sweden); Vikström, Anders [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University hospital of Linköping, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-08-20

    Graphical abstract: Predictions of survival days for lung cancer patients. - Highlights: • Analyses of exhaled air offer a large diagnostic potential. • Patientswith diagnosed lung cancer were studied using an electronic nose. • Excellent predictions and stable models of survival day were obtained. • Consecutive measurements were very important. - Abstract: Analyses of exhaled air by means of electronic noses offer a large diagnostic potential. Such analyses are non-invasive; samples can also be easily obtained from severely ill patients and repeated within short intervals. Lung cancer is the most deadly malignant tumor worldwide, and monitoring of lung cancer progression is of great importance and may help to decide best therapy. In this report, twenty-two patients with diagnosed lung cancer and ten healthy volunteers were studied using breath samples collected several times at certain intervals and analysed by an electronic nose. The samples were divided into three sub-groups; group d for survivor less than one year, group s for survivor more than a year and group h for the healthy volunteers. Prediction models based on partial least square and artificial neural nets could not classify the collected groups d, s and h, but separated well group d from group h. Using artificial neural net, group d could be separated from group s. Excellent predictions and stable models of survival day for group d were obtained, both based on partial least square and artificial neural nets, with correlation coefficients 0.981 and 0.985, respectively. Finally, the importance of consecutive measurements was shown.

  2. Physician trust moderates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty and cancer worry interference among women with Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbit, Lindsey A; Albiani, Jenna J; Aronson, Melyssa; Holter, Spring; Semotiuk, Kara; Cohen, Zane; Hart, Tae L

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the extent to which intolerance of uncertainty was associated with cancer worry interference, anxiety and depression among women with Lynch syndrome (LS), and whether having greater trust in one's physician moderated those relationships. Women with confirmed LS (N = 128) were recruited from a high-risk of cancer registry and completed a one-time self-report questionnaire. Women who reported greater intolerance of uncertainty and more trust in their physician reported less cancer worry interference compared to women who had greater intolerance of uncertainty and less trust in their physician, who reported the highest worry interference, b = -1.39, t(99) = -2.27, p = .03. No moderation effect of trust in physician was found for anxiety or depression. Trust in one's physician buffered the impact of high intolerance of uncertainty on cancer worry interference, underscoring the need for supportive provider-patient relationships, particularly for LS patients. PMID:26762124

  3. Probability Sampling Method for a Hidden Population Using Respondent-Driven Sampling: Simulation for Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    When there is no sampling frame within a certain group or the group is concerned that making its population public would bring social stigma, we say the population is hidden. It is difficult to approach this kind of population survey-methodologically because the response rate is low and its members are not quite honest with their responses when probability sampling is used. The only alternative known to address the problems caused by previous methods such as snowball sampling is respondent-driven sampling (RDS), which was developed by Heckathorn and his colleagues. RDS is based on a Markov chain, and uses the social network information of the respondent. This characteristic allows for probability sampling when we survey a hidden population. We verified through computer simulation whether RDS can be used on a hidden population of cancer survivors. According to the simulation results of this thesis, the chain-referral sampling of RDS tends to minimize as the sample gets bigger, and it becomes stabilized as the wave progresses. Therefore, it shows that the final sample information can be completely independent from the initial seeds if a certain level of sample size is secured even if the initial seeds were selected through convenient sampling. Thus, RDS can be considered as an alternative which can improve upon both key informant sampling and ethnographic surveys, and it needs to be utilized for various cases domestically as well. PMID:26107223

  4. Moderate-intensity exercise reduces fatigue and improves mobility in cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Dennett

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Question: Is there a dose-response effect of exercise on inflammation, fatigue and activity in cancer survivors? Design: Systematic review with meta-regression analysis of randomised trials. Participants: Adults diagnosed with cancer, regardless of specific diagnosis or treatment. Intervention: Exercise interventions including aerobic and/or resistance as a key component. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measures were markers of inflammation (including C-reactive protein and interleukins and various measures of fatigue. The secondary outcomes were: measures of activity, as defined by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, including activities of daily living and measures of functional mobility (eg, 6-minute walk test, timed sit-to-stand and stair-climb tests. Risk of bias was evaluated using the PEDro scale, and overall quality of evidence was assessed using the Grades of Research, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach. Results: Forty-two trials involving 3816 participants were included. There was very low-quality to moderate-quality evidence that exercise results in significant reductions in fatigue (SMD 0.32, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.52 and increased walking endurance (SMD 0.77, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.28. A significant negative association was found between aerobic exercise intensity and fatigue reduction. A peak effect was found for moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for improving walking endurance. No dose-response relationship was found between exercise and markers of inflammation or exercise duration and outcomes. Rates of adherence were typically high and few adverse events were reported. Conclusions: Exercise is safe, reduces fatigue and increases endurance in cancer survivors. The results support the recommendation of prescribing moderate-intensity aerobic exercise to reduce fatigue and improve activity in people with cancer. Review registration: PROSPERO CRD

  5. Moderate stem-cell telomere shortening rate postpones cancer onset in a stochastic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbek, Simon; Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Juul, Jeppe

    2013-10-01

    Mammalian cells are restricted from proliferating indefinitely. Telomeres at the end of each chromosome are shortened at cell division and when they reach a critical length, the cell will enter permanent cell cycle arrest—a state known as senescence. This mechanism is thought to be tumor suppressing, as it helps prevent precancerous cells from dividing uncontrollably. Stem cells express the enzyme telomerase, which elongates the telomeres, thereby postponing senescence. However, unlike germ cells and most types of cancer cells, stem cells only express telomerase at levels insufficient to fully maintain the length of their telomeres, leading to a slow decline in proliferation potential. It is not yet fully understood how this decline influences the risk of cancer and the longevity of the organism. We here develop a stochastic model to explore the role of telomere dynamics in relation to both senescence and cancer. The model describes the accumulation of cancerous mutations in a multicellular organism and creates a coherent theoretical framework for interpreting the results of several recent experiments on telomerase regulation. We demonstrate that the longest average cancer-free lifespan before cancer onset is obtained when stem cells start with relatively long telomeres that are shortened at a steady rate at cell division. Furthermore, the risk of cancer early in life can be reduced by having a short initial telomere length. Finally, our model suggests that evolution will favor a shorter than optimal average cancer-free lifespan in order to postpone cancer onset until late in life.

  6. Herbal Compound Songyou Yin and Moderate Swimming Suppress Growth and Metastasis of Liver Cancer by Enhancing Immune Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan-Bao; Meng, Xiang-Ting; Jia, Qing-An; Bu, Yang; Ren, Zheng-Gang; Zhang, Bo-Heng; Tang, Zhao-You

    2016-09-01

    Objective Both the Chinese herbal compound Songyou Yin (SYY) and swimming exercise have been shown to have protective effects against liver cancer in animal models. In this study, we investigated whether SYY and moderate swimming (MS) have enhanced effect on suppressing progression of liver cancer by immunomodulation. Methods C57BL/6 mice were transplanted with Hepa1-6 murine liver cancer cell lines and received treatment with SYY alone or SYY combined with MS. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive metastatic foci in lungs were imaged with a stereoscopic fluorescence microscope. Flow cytometry was used to test the proportion of CD4 +, CD8 + T cells in peripheral blood and the proportions of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + Treg cells in peripheral blood, spleen, and tumor tissues. Cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 level in serum was detected by ELISA. Results SYY plus MS significantly suppressed the growth and lung metastasis of liver cancer and prolonged survival in tumor-burdened mice. SYY plus MS markedly raised the CD4 to CD8 ratio in peripheral blood and lowered the serum TGF-β1 level and the proportions of Treg cells in peripheral blood, spleen, and tumor tissue. The effects of the combined intervention were significantly superior to SYY or MS alone. Conclusion The combined application of SYY and MS exerted an enhanced effect on suppressing growth and metastasis of liver cancer by strengthening immunity. PMID:26699805

  7. Anxiety Sensitivity as a Moderator of Association between Smoking Status and Panic-related Processes in a Representative Sample of Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Zvolensky, Michael J.; Kotov, Roman; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Schmidt, Norman B.; Antipova, Anna V.

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated a moderational role of anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety and anxiety-related states; McNally, 2002) in the relation between smoking status and anxiety/depressive symptoms in a Russian epidemiological sample (n = 390; 197 females, Mean age = 43.55). Consistent with prediction, anxiety sensitivity moderated the association of smoking status with indices of anxiety and depressive symptoms; the effects were evident after controlling for the variance accounte...

  8. Sample size re-estimation in a breast cancer trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hade, Erinn; Jarjoura, David; Wei, Lai

    2016-01-01

    Background During the recruitment phase of a randomized breast cancer trial, investigating the time to recurrence, we found evidence that the failure probabilities used at the design stage were too high. Since most of the methodological research involving sample size re-estimation has focused on normal or binary outcomes, we developed a method which preserves blinding to re-estimate sample size in our time to event trial. Purpose A mistakenly high estimate of the failure rate at the design stage may reduce the power unacceptably for a clinically important hazard ratio. We describe an ongoing trial and an application of a sample size re-estimation method that combines current trial data with prior trial data or assumes a parametric model to re-estimate failure probabilities in a blinded fashion. Methods Using our current blinded trial data and additional information from prior studies, we re-estimate the failure probabilities to be used in sample size re-calculation. We employ bootstrap resampling to quantify uncertainty in the re-estimated sample sizes. Results At the time of re-estimation data from 278 patients was available, averaging 1.2 years of follow up. Using either method, we estimated an increase of 0 for the hazard ratio proposed at the design stage. We show that our method of blinded sample size re-estimation preserves the Type I error rate. We show that when the initial guess of the failure probabilities are correct; the median increase in sample size is zero. Limitations Either some prior knowledge of an appropriate survival distribution shape or prior data is needed for re-estimation. Conclusions In trials when the accrual period is lengthy, blinded sample size re-estimation near the end of the planned accrual period should be considered. In our examples, when assumptions about failure probabilities and HRs are correct the methods usually do not increase sample size or otherwise increase it by very little. PMID:20392786

  9. Proteomic analysis of tissue samples in translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Moreira, José; Gromova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, many proteomic technologies have been applied, with varying success, to the study of tissue samples of breast carcinoma for protein expression profiling in order to discover protein biomarkers/signatures suitable for: characterization and subtyping of tumors; early diagnosis, ...... translation of basic discoveries into the daily breast cancer clinical practice. In particular, we address major issues in experimental design by reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of current proteomic strategies in the context of the analysis of human breast tissue specimens....

  10. Moderating Effects of Genetic Polymorphisms on Improvements in Cognitive Impairment in Breast Cancer Survivors Participating in a 6-Week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengacher, Cecile A; Reich, Richard R; Kip, Kevin E; Paterson, Carly L; Park, Hyun Y; Ramesar, Sophia; Jim, Heather S L; Alinat, Carissa B; Park, Jong Y

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer (BC) survivors often report cognitive impairment, which may be influenced by single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The purpose of this study was to test whether particular SNPs were associated with changes in cognitive function in BC survivors and whether these polymorphisms moderated cognitive improvement resulting from the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Breast Cancer (MBSR[BC]) program. BC survivors recruited from Moffitt Cancer Center and the University of South Florida's Breast Health Program, who had completed adjuvant radiation and/or chemotherapy treatment, were randomized to either the 6-week MBSR(BC) program (n = 37) or usual care (UC; n = 35) group. Measures of cognitive function and demographic and clinical history data were attained at baseline and at 6 and 12 weeks. A total of 10 SNPs from eight genes known to be related to cognitive function were analyzed using blood samples. Results showed that SNPs in four genes (ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 [ANKK1], apolipoprotein E [APOE], methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase [MTHFR], and solute carrier family 6 member 4 [SLC6A4]) were associated with cognitive impairment. Further, rs1800497 in ANKK1 was significantly associated with improvements in cognitive impairment in response to MBSR(BC). These results may help to identify individuals who would be better served by MBSR(BC) or other interventions. PMID:25882604

  11. Lasting Prolonged-Release Tapentadol for Moderate/Severe Non-Cancer Musculoskeletal Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Samolsky Dekel, Boaz G.; Ghedini, Sivia; Gori, Alberto; Vasarri, Alessio; Di Nino, GianFranco; Melotti, Rita M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite opioids’ recognized role in the treatment of moderate/severe musculoskeletal chronic pain, their long-term benefits need investigation. We explored the lasting analgesic efficacy, tolerability, influence on life quality, and chronicity stage of the novel prolonged release (PR) opioid, tapentadol, in 30 outpatients. Methods We evaluated patients’ pain intensity and relief (Numerical Rating Scale; NRS), adverse effects, sleep quality, treatment satisfaction, health status (...

  12. Predictors and Moderators of Parent Training Efficacy in a Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Cristan; Lecavalier, Luc; Yu, Sunkyung; Arnold, L. Eugene; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Handen, Benjamin; Johnson, Cynthia R.; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Bearss, Karen; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Aman, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    The Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology—Autism Network reported additional benefit when adding parent training (PT) to antipsychotic medication in children with autism spectrum disorders and serious behavior problems. The intent-to-treat analyses were rerun with putative predictors and moderators. The Home Situations Questionnaire (HSQ) and the Hyperactivity/Noncompliance subscale of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist were used as outcome measures. Candidate predictors and moderators ...

  13. Metabolic phenotyping by 1H-NMR spectroscopy detects lung cancer via a simple blood sample

    OpenAIRE

    Louis,Evelyne; MESOTTEN, Liesbet; Thomeer, Michiel; Vandeurzen, Kurt; Darquennes, Karen; Vanhove, Karolien; Reekmans, Gunter; Adriaensens, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. There is an urgent need of effective methods to detect lung cancer. Accumulating evidence shows that the metabolism of cancer cells differs from that of normal cells. Disturbances in biochemical pathways which occur during the development of cancer provoke changes in the metabolic phenotype. Objective: To determine the metabolic phenotype of lung cancer by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Methods: Fasting venous blood samples of 78...

  14. Socioeconomic status (SES and children's intelligence (IQ: in a UK-representative sample SES moderates the environmental, not genetic, effect on IQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken B Hanscombe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The environment can moderate the effect of genes - a phenomenon called gene-environment (GxE interaction. Several studies have found that socioeconomic status (SES modifies the heritability of children's intelligence. Among low-SES families, genetic factors have been reported to explain less of the variance in intelligence; the reverse is found for high-SES families. The evidence however is inconsistent. Other studies have reported an effect in the opposite direction (higher heritability in lower SES, or no moderation of the genetic effect on intelligence. METHODS: Using 8716 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS, we attempted to replicate the reported moderating effect of SES on children's intelligence at ages 2, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10, 12 and 14: i.e., lower heritability in lower-SES families. We used a twin model that allowed for a main effect of SES on intelligence, as well as a moderating effect of SES on the genetic and environmental components of intelligence. RESULTS: We found greater variance in intelligence in low-SES families, but minimal evidence of GxE interaction across the eight ages. A power calculation indicated that a sample size of about 5000 twin pairs is required to detect moderation of the genetic component of intelligence as small as 0.25, with about 80% power - a difference of 11% to 53% in heritability, in low- (-2 standard deviations, SD and high-SES (+2 SD families. With samples at each age of about this size, the present study found no moderation of the genetic effect on intelligence. However, we found the greater variance in low-SES families is due to moderation of the environmental effect - an environment-environment interaction. CONCLUSIONS: In a UK-representative sample, the genetic effect on intelligence is similar in low- and high-SES families. Children's shared experiences appear to explain the greater variation in intelligence in lower SES.

  15. Admission criteria to the Danish Brain Cancer Program are moderately associated with magnetic resonance imaging findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Mie Kiszka; Nepper-Rasmussen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the Danish Brain Cancer Program by examining the criteria for admission to the program and the results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in 359 patients referred to the program at the Odense University Hospital during one year. The...

  16. A Meta-Analysis of Mathematics and Working Memory: Moderating Effects of Working Memory Domain, Type of Mathematics Skill, and Sample Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Namkung, Jessica; Barnes, Marcia; Sun, Congying

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the relation between mathematics and working memory (WM) and to identify possible moderators of this relation including domains of WM, types of mathematics skills, and sample type. A meta-analysis of 110 studies with 829 effect sizes found a significant medium correlation of mathematics and WM, r…

  17. The Association between Body Dissatisfaction and Depression: An Examination of the Moderating Effects of Gender, Age, and Weight Status in a Sample of Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gui; Guo, Guiping; Gong, Jingbo; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the moderating effects of gender, age, and weight status on the relationship between body dissatisfaction and depression among adolescents. Data were collected on body dissatisfaction, depression, and demographic characteristics from a convenience sample of 1,101 adolescents (505 girls, 596 boys). The relationship…

  18. Chronic family stress moderates the association between a TOMM40 variant and triglyceride levels in two independent Caucasian samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Rong; Brummett, Beverly H; Hauser, Elizabeth R;

    2013-01-01

    TOMM40 SNP rs157580 has been associated with triglyceride levels in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Chronic caregiving stress moderates the association between triglyceride levels and a nearby SNP rs439401 that is associated with triglyceride levels in GWAS. Here, we report data from two ...

  19. Predictors and Moderators of Parent Training Efficacy in a Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Cristan; Lecavalier, Luc; Yu, Sunkyung; Arnold, L. Eugene; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Handen, Benjamin; Johnson, Cynthia R.; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Bearss, Karen; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Aman, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    The Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology-Autism Network reported additional benefit when adding parent training (PT) to antipsychotic medication in children with autism spectrum disorders and serious behavior problems. The intent-to-treat analyses were rerun with putative predictors and moderators. The "Home Situations Questionnaire"…

  20. Does a parental history of cancer moderate the associations between impaired health status in parents and psychosocial problems in teenagers: a HUNT study.

    OpenAIRE

    Jeppesen, Elisabeth; Bjelland, Ingvar; Fosså, Sophie Dorothea; Loge, Jon Håvard; Sørebø, Øystein; Dahl, Alv A

    2014-01-01

    Severe disease in a parent is associated with increased psychosocial problems in their children. However, moderating factors of such associations are less studied. In this cross-sectional population-based controlled study we examined the moderating effects of a history of parental cancer on the association between impaired health status in parents and psychosocial problems among their teenagers. Among families with both parents responding to the adult Health Survey of Nord-Trøndelag County of...

  1. Long-term safety and efficacy of oxycodone/naloxone prolonged-release tablets in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic cancer pain

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmedzai, Sam H.; Leppert, Wojciech; Janecki, Marcin; Pakosz, Artur; Lomax, Mark; Duerr, Heike; Hopp, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of prolonged-release oxycodone/naloxone (OXN PR) and its impact on quality of life (QoL), in patients with moderate-to-severe cancer pain. Methods This was an open-label extension (OLE) of a 4 week, randomized, double-blind (DB) study in which patients with moderate-to-severe cancer pain had been randomized to OXN PR or oxycodone PR (OxyPR). During the OLE phase, patients were treated with OXN PR capsules (≤20/60 mg/day) for ≤24 weeks. Outcome...

  2. FKBP5 and CRHR1 polymorphisms moderate the stress-physical health association in a national sample

    OpenAIRE

    Lessard, J.; Holman, EA

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Stressful life events experienced during childhood and as an adult negatively impact mental and physical health over the life span. This study examined polymorphisms from 2 hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis-related genes previously associated with posttraumatic stress disorder-FKBP5 and CRHR1-as moderators of the impact of child abuse and adult stress on physical health. Method: A national, community-based subsample of non-Hispanic European American respondents (n = 527) from a p...

  3. Breast Cancer Risk Perceptions among Relatives of Women with Uninformative Negative BRCA1/2 Test Results: The Moderating Effect of the Amount of Shared Information

    OpenAIRE

    Himes, Deborah O.; Clayton, Margaret F.; Gary W. Donaldson; Ellington, Lee; Buys, Saundra S.; Kinney, Anita Y.

    2015-01-01

    The most common result of BRCA1/2 mutation testing when performed in a family without a previously identified mutation is an uninformative negative test result. Women in these families may have an increased risk for breast cancer because of mutations in non-BRCA breast cancer predisposition genes, including moderate- or low-risk genes, or shared environmental factors. Genetic counselors often encourage counselees to share information with family members, however it is unclear how much informa...

  4. Tapentadol prolonged release for patients with multiple myeloma suffering from moderate-to-severe cancer pain due to bone disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coluzzi F

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Flaminia Coluzzi,1,2 Robert B Raffa,3 Joseph Pergolizzi,4 Alessandra Rocco,1 Pamela Locarini,1 Natalia Cenfra,5 Giuseppe Cimino,5 Consalvo Mattia1,2 1Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Unit of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Therapy, Polo Pontino, Sapienza University of Rome, Latina, Italy; 2SIAARTI Study Group on Acute and Chronic Pain, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Temple University School of Pharmacy, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Department of Cellular Biotechnology and Hematology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Context: Myeloma bone disease (MBD is a devastating complication of multiple myeloma that leads to severe pain. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of tapentadol prolonged release (PR in the management of patients with MBD suffering from moderate-to-severe cancer pain. Methods: A 12-week prospective study was carried out in 25 opioid-naïve MBD patients. Patients initially received twice-daily doses of tapentadol PR 50 mg. Doses were then managed to maintain adequate relief or dose-limiting toxicity. The following parameters were recorded at weekly intervals for 4 weeks, and then at weeks 8 and 12: pain, opioid-related adverse effects, use of other analgesics, DN4 (Douleur Neuropathique 4 score. Quality of life (SF-36 [36-item short-form health survey] was measured at baseline and at final evaluation. Results: Of 25 patients, 22 completed the study. Pain intensity significantly decreased from baseline to all the week intervals (P<0.01. Quality of life significantly improved with respect to all SF-36 subscale parameters (P<0.01, and so did both the physical and mental status (P<0.01. Tapentadol PR significantly reduced DN4 mean value (P<0.01 and the number of patients with neuropathic component

  5. Self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety in a college sample: the moderating role of weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationships between self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety, as well as to examine the moderating role of weight between exogenous variables and social anxiety, 520 university students completed the self-report measures. Structural equation modeling revealed that individuals with low self-esteem, body-esteem, and emotional intelligence were more likely to report social anxiety. The findings indicated that obese and overweight individuals with low body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and self-esteem had higher social anxiety than others. Our results highlight the roles of body-esteem, self-esteem, and emotional intelligence as influencing factors for reducing social anxiety. PMID:25726711

  6. Survival and prognostic factors after moderately hypofractionated palliative thoracic radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Survival and prognostic variables in patients with advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) requiring thoracic palliative radiotherapy using a moderately hypofractionated regime (13-15 x 3 Gy) were evaluated. From March 2006 to April 2012, 120 patients with a physician estimated prognosis of 6-12 months were treated with this regime using CT-based 3D conformal radiotherapy. We collected data on patient characteristics, comorbidities, toxicity, and treatment parameters. Radiotherapy was completed as prescribed in 114 patients (95.0 %, premature termination 5.0 %). Acute grade 3 toxicity was seen in 6.4 % of patients. The median survival of all patients was 5.8 months. Nonmetastatic patients survived significantly longer than patients with metastatic disease (median 11.7 months vs 4.7 months, p = 0.0001) and 18.6 % of nonmetastatic patients survived longer than 2 years. In 12.7 % radiotherapy started less than 30 days before death and 14.2 % of patients received radiotherapy within 14 days before death. In the multivariate analysis, good general condition, nonmetastatic disease, and a stable or improved general condition at the end of radiotherapy were significant. The treatment parameters, age, and comorbidities were not statistically significant. Our data confirm considerable effectiveness of 13 x 3 Gy with conformal radiotherapy for patients with locally confined NSCLC not fit for radical treatment and raise doubt for this regimen in metastatic patients and ECOG ≥ 2 when burden, acute toxicity, and resources are considered. (orig.)

  7. Protein expression based multimarker analysis of breast cancer samples

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekaran Ayyappan K; Maresh Erin L; Alavi Mohammad; Mah Vei; Bagryanova Lora; Yoon Nam K; Presson Angela P; Goodglick Lee; Chia David; Horvath Steve

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Tissue microarray (TMA) data are commonly used to validate the prognostic accuracy of tumor markers. For example, breast cancer TMA data have led to the identification of several promising prognostic markers of survival time. Several studies have shown that TMA data can also be used to cluster patients into clinically distinct groups. Here we use breast cancer TMA data to cluster patients into distinct prognostic groups. Methods We apply weighted correlation network analys...

  8. 路盖克治疗中度癌痛的临床观察%OBSERVATION OF THE ANALGESIC EFFECT OF GALAKE IN TREATMENT OF MODERATE CANCER PAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁启廉; 徐轶

    1999-01-01

    目的:观察路盖克(双氢可待因/醋氨酚复方片)对中度癌痛的镇痛效果和不良反应。方法:路盖克每次2片,tid或qid,应用于150例中度癌痛患者。结果:路盖克治疗中度癌痛的显效率为84.7%,68.0%的患者提高了生活质量,不良反应低。结论:此药可作为中度癌痛患者常规使用镇痛药物之一。%OBJECTIVE: To observe the analgesic effect and side-effect of Galake (dihydrocodeine and paracetamol) in treatment of moderate cancer pain. METHODS: 150 patients with moderate cancer pain were treated with 3~4 daily dose of 2 tablets of Galake. RESULTS: The effective rate of Galake in relief of cancer pain was 84.7 % and the quality of life was improved in 68.0% patients. CONCLUSIONS: Galake may be used as a routine analgesic for treatment of moderate cancer pain.

  9. Magnetic method of full-scale sample-free control of the mechanical properties of ferromagnetic steel casing of water-moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possibility of nondestructive control of the basic metal and welded joints of the clad casing of water-moderated reactors is shown. A method of full-scale sample-free control is developed on the base of combined method of kinetic hardness and magnetic method. The results of studying the magnetic and mechanical properties of casing steels in different states following irradiation and heat treatment are presented. It is shown that magnetic properties (and coercivity in the first place) are sensitive to change in the material structure

  10. Regional hyperthermia and moderately dose-escalated salvage radiotherapy for recurrent prostate cancer. Protocol of a phase II trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current studies on salvage radiotherapy (sRT) investigate timing, dose-escalation and anti-hormonal treatment (ADT) for recurrent prostate cancer. These approaches could either be limited by radiation-related susceptibility of the anastomosis or by suspected side-effects of long-term ADT. A phase II protocol was developed to investigate the benefit and tolerability of regional hyperthermia with moderately dose-escalated radiotherapy. The study hypothesis is that radio-thermotherapy is a safe and feasible salvage treatment modality. The primary endpoint is safety measured by frequency of grade 3+ genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events (AE) according to Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) version 4. Feasibility is defined by number of hyperthermia treatments (n ≥ 7) and feasibility of radiotherapy according to protocol. Target volume delineation is performed according to the EORTC guidelines. Radiation treatment is administered with single doses of 2 Gy 5×/week to a total dose of 70 Gy. Regional hyperthermia is given 2×/week to a total of 10 treatments. European centres participate in the phase II trial using intensity modulated RT (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc technique (VMAT). The initiating centres were participants of the SAKK 09/10 study, where the same patient criteria and target volume definition (mandatory successful performed dummy run) were applied insuring a high standardisation of the study procedures. The introduced phase II study implements highly precise image-guided radiotherapy and regional hyperthermia. If the phase II study is found to be safe and feasible, a multicenter phase III study is planned to test whether the addition of regional hyperthermia to dose-intensified sRT improves biochemical control

  11. Post-sampling mortality and non-response patterns in the English Cancer Patient Experience Survey: Implications for epidemiological studies based on surveys of cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Abel, Gary A; Saunders, Catherine L; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surveys of the experience of cancer patients are increasingly being introduced in different countries and used in cancer epidemiology research. We examine how sampling processes, post-sampling mortality and survey non-response influence the representativeness of cancer patient surveys. METHODS: We examined predictors of post-sampling mortality and non-response among patients initially included in the sampling frame of the English Cancer Patient Experience Survey. We also comp...

  12. Individual differences in components of impulsivity and effortful control moderate the relation between borderline personality disorder traits and emotion recognition in a sample of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Emanuele; Richetin, Juliette; Suttora, Chiara; Pisani, Alberto

    2016-04-30

    Dysfunctions in social cognition characterize personality disorders. However, mixed results emerged from literature on emotion processing. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) traits are either associated with enhanced emotion recognition, impairments, or equal functioning compared to controls. These apparent contradictions might result from the complexity of emotion recognition tasks used and from individual differences in impulsivity and effortful control. We conducted a study in a sample of undergraduate students (n=80), assessing BPD traits, using an emotion recognition task that requires the processing of only visual information or both visual and acoustic information. We also measured individual differences in impulsivity and effortful control. Results demonstrated the moderating role of some components of impulsivity and effortful control on the capability of BPD traits in predicting anger and happiness recognition. We organized the discussion around the interaction between different components of regulatory functioning and task complexity for a better understanding of emotion recognition in BPD samples. PMID:27086219

  13. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in a sample of women with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Mariana; Carvalho, Cláudia Maria Constante Ferreira de; Bispo, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to examine the usage of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) on a sample of Portuguese women with history of breast cancer. A total of 107 women with history of breast cancer attending Movimento Vencer e Viver Lisboa responded to a questionnaire designed to assess the use of CAM, as well as other variables, such as satisfaction with conventional care, health perception, perceived control over cancer, and health status (body mass index [BMI], smokin...

  14. Ovarian cancer symptom awareness and anticipated delayed presentation in a population sample

    OpenAIRE

    Brain, Kate E; Smits, Stephanie; Simon, Alice E.; Forbes, Lindsay J.L.; Roberts, Chris; Robbé, Iain J; Steward, John; White, Ceri; Neal, Richard D.; Hanson, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background While ovarian cancer is recognised as having identifiable early symptoms, understanding of the key determinants of symptom awareness and early presentation is limited. A population-based survey of ovarian cancer awareness and anticipated delayed presentation with symptoms was conducted as part of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership (ICBP). Methods Women aged over 50 years were recruited using random probability sampling (n = 1043). Computer-assisted telephon...

  15. Correlates of suicide ideation in a population-based sample of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Karen L; Shenassa, Edmond

    2008-01-01

    National studies on suicide ideation in cancer patients are small in size, including only patients from select medical centers. Our purpose was to determine correlates of suicide ideation in a population-based sample of cancer patients. Data from the sixth National Mortality Followback Survey were analyzed using SAS and SUDAAN for 980 individuals with cancer present at time of death. Multiple logistic regression analyses included sociodemographics, health-related factors, and social support variables. Prevalence of suicide ideation was 17.7%. Suicidality was significantly more likely in cancer patients who were previously married, had a history of mental illness, died of lung, respiratory or oral cancer, had one or more chronic diseases and used multiple prescription drugs in the past year. Suicide ideation in cancer patients is not solely a manifestation of depression. Overall poor physical health influences patients' desires for hastened death. PMID:18285300

  16. Metabolic phenotyping by 1H-NMR spectroscopy to detect lung cancer via a simple blood sample

    OpenAIRE

    Louis,Evelyne; Adriaensens, Peter; MESOTTEN, Liesbet; Thomeer, Michiel; Reekmans, Gunter; Vanhove, Karolien; Vandeurzen, Kurt; Darquennes, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. There is an urgent need of effective methods to detect lung cancer. Accumulating evidence shows that the metabolism of cancer cells differs from that of normal cells. Disturbances in biochemical pathways which occur during the development of cancer provoke changes in the metabolic phenotype. Objective: To determine the metabolic phenotype of lung cancer by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Methods: Fasting venous blood samples of 78...

  17. Exploring the relationship between posttraumatic growth, cognitive processing, psychological distress, and social constraints in a sample of breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrouli, Natalia; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Griva, Fay; Gourounti, Kleanthi; Kolokotroni, Filippa; Efstathiou, Vasia; Mellon, Robert; Papastylianou, Dona; Niakas, Dimitris; Potamianos, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic growth (the perception of positive life changes after an encounter with a trauma) often occurs among breast cancer patients and can be influenced by certain demographic, medical, and psychosocial parameters. Social constraints on disclosure (the deprivation of the opportunity to express feelings and thoughts regarding the trauma) and the cognitive processing of the disease seem to be involved in the development of posttraumatic growth. Through the present study the authors aim to: investigate the levels of posttraumatic growth in a sample of 202 women with breast cancer in Greece, explore the relationships between posttraumatic growth and particular demographic, medical, and psychosocial variables according to a proposed model, and test the role of social constraints in the relationship between automatic and deliberate cognitive processing of the trauma. The results showed that posttraumatic growth was evident in the majority of the sample and was associated inversely with age at diagnosis (β = -0.174, p reflective rumination (β = 0.323, p = .001). Social constraints were found to moderate the relationship between intrusions and reflective rumination. Implications of the results and suggestions for future research and practice are outlined. PMID:26605785

  18. Enrichment of prostate cancer stem cells from primary prostate cancer cultures of biopsy samples

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shunqi; Huang, Shengsong; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Qimin; Wu, Min; Sun, Feng; Han, Gang; Wu, Denglong

    2013-01-01

    This study was to enrich prostate cancer stem cells (PrCSC) from primary prostate cancer cultures (PPrCC). Primary prostate cancer cells were amplified in keratinocyte serum-free medium with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and bovine pituitary extract (BPE), supplemented with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), stem cell factor (SCF) and cholera toxin. After amplification, cells were transferred into ultra-low attachment dishes with serum-free DMEM/F12 medium, supplemented with EGF, basic fibrobl...

  19. Does cancer survivors' health-related quality of life depend on cancer type? Findings from a large French national sample 2 years after cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corroller-Soriano, A-G; Bouhnik, A-D; Preau, M; Malavolti, L; Julian-Reynier, C; Auquier, P; Moatti, J-P

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether health-related quality of life (HRQL) depends on cancer type, after adjustment for demographic and medical variables. A French national population-based survey was conducted between November and December 2004 to assess surviving cancer patients' HRQL 2 years after diagnosis. HRQL was measured by the 36-Item Short Form Survey scale. The sample included 3900 persons. All cancer diagnoses were entered in the study. We demonstrated that medical and treatment variables have an impact on patients' physical HRQL but not on mental HRQL. Cancer type impacted on physical HRQL, with those suffering from upper aerodigestive tract /lung cancers and haematological malignancies being affected to a greater degree. Disturbing side effects impacted both HRQL domains. Socio-demographic variables had statistically significant effects but not clinically meaningful ones. Socio-economic variables led to potentially clinically meaningful differences for cancer patients' HRQL and represented a socio-economic gradient in HRQL among cancer survivors. From our results, we may assert that cancer survivors, 2 years after cancer diagnosis, share a similar pattern of psychological morbidity, independent of cancer type. Patients disproportionately affected by cancer, such as those with lower educational levels and income, need to be identified and targeted and interventions which address their unique needs and concerns need to be developed. PMID:20345457

  20. The effect of disgust-related side-effects on symptoms of depression and anxiety in people treated for cancer: a moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Philip A; Azlan, Haffiezhah A; Simpson, Jane; Overton, Paul G

    2016-08-01

    As maladaptive disgust responses are linked to mental health problems, and cancer patients may experience heightened disgust as a result of treatments they receive, we explored the associations between disgust-related side-effects and symptoms of depression and anxiety in people treated for cancer. One hundred and thirty two (83 women, M age = 57.48 years) participants answered questions about their treatments, side-effects, disgust responding, and mental health. Experiencing bowel and/or bladder problems, sickness and/or nausea (referred to here as "core" disgust-related side-effects) was significantly related to greater symptoms of depression and borderline increased anxiety. Further, these links were explained by a moderated mediation model, whereby the effects of core disgust side-effects on depression and anxiety were mediated by (physical and behavioural) self-directed disgust, and disgust propensity moderated the effect of core disgust side-effects on self-disgust. These findings stress the importance of emotional responses, like disgust, in psychological adaptation to the side-effects of cancer treatments. PMID:26951481

  1. Infrared spectroscopic approach for diagnosis of cancer via analysis of blood samples and chemometric data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Recently, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy has been employed to detect cancer tissues from normal ones. In most of these researches the infrared spectral characteristics have been analyzed by statistical tools to study variations in metabolites. An important analytical advantage of FT-IR is that no sample content modification is required before analysis. FTIR data can be used as molecular signatures for physiological status once the spectral patterns are correlated with biological properties. Studying the tissue samples has drawbacks such as difficult sampling, low speed sample preparation and very sensitive keeping conditions. Also sample contamination would affect the diagnosis results while the sampling procedure from human may help the malignancy to be more developed. Thus, it seems necessary to look after a substitute for tissue samples which would be easier in providing and analysis, while its results are reliable. According to our literature survey, there was no report to indicate the analysis of whole blood by spectroscopy for cancer diagnosis. In this work, first, we used whole blood sample instead of tissue because sample preparation procedure is very simple in blood study. It was tried to classify the blood samples in normal and cancer cases by chemometric techniques i.e. LDA, PCA and Cluster analysis. Initial results showed that the normal and malignant blood samples could be identified with 85% of accuracy. In order to specify our studies, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and breast cancer were selected. Of course the metastasis of BCC is seldom reported but observations in protein content of skin would be a useful mark in order to design a new diagnosis method based on blood analysis. Soft Independent Modeling Class Analogy (SIMCA) classification method was applied for pattern recognition of blood samples in order to obtain if they are normal or cancerous. Results showed about 90% of accuracy

  2. Survival and prognostic factors after moderately hypofractionated palliative thoracic radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oorschot, B. van; Assenbrunner, B.; Beckmann, G.; Flentje, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum Palliativmedizin, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Wuerzburg (Germany); Schuler, M. [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Abteilung fuer Medizinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie, Medizinische Soziologie und Rehabilitationswissenschaften, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Survival and prognostic variables in patients with advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) requiring thoracic palliative radiotherapy using a moderately hypofractionated regime (13-15 x 3 Gy) were evaluated. From March 2006 to April 2012, 120 patients with a physician estimated prognosis of 6-12 months were treated with this regime using CT-based 3D conformal radiotherapy. We collected data on patient characteristics, comorbidities, toxicity, and treatment parameters. Radiotherapy was completed as prescribed in 114 patients (95.0 %, premature termination 5.0 %). Acute grade 3 toxicity was seen in 6.4 % of patients. The median survival of all patients was 5.8 months. Nonmetastatic patients survived significantly longer than patients with metastatic disease (median 11.7 months vs 4.7 months, p = 0.0001) and 18.6 % of nonmetastatic patients survived longer than 2 years. In 12.7 % radiotherapy started less than 30 days before death and 14.2 % of patients received radiotherapy within 14 days before death. In the multivariate analysis, good general condition, nonmetastatic disease, and a stable or improved general condition at the end of radiotherapy were significant. The treatment parameters, age, and comorbidities were not statistically significant. Our data confirm considerable effectiveness of 13 x 3 Gy with conformal radiotherapy for patients with locally confined NSCLC not fit for radical treatment and raise doubt for this regimen in metastatic patients and ECOG ≥ 2 when burden, acute toxicity, and resources are considered. (orig.) [German] Analyse der Ueberlebenszeiten und prognoserelevanter Variablen von Patienten mit lokal fortgeschrittenem und metastasiertem nicht-kleinzelligen Lungenkrebs nach moderat hypofraktionierter Strahlentherapie (13- bis 15-mal 3 Gy). Zwischen Maerz 2006 und April 2012 wurden 120 Patienten mit aerztlich eingeschaetzter Lebenserwartung von 6-12 Monaten mit diesem Regime mittels CT-basierter 3-D

  3. Terahertz spectroscopy for the study of paraffin-embedded gastric cancer samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahaia, Faustino; Kasalynas, Irmantas; Seliuta, Dalius; Molis, Gediminas; Urbanowicz, Andrzej; Carvalho Silva, Catia D.; Carneiro, Fatima; Valusis, Gintaras; Granja, Pedro L.

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy constitute promising technique for biomedical applications as a complementary and powerful tool for diseases screening specially for early cancer diagnostic. The THz radiation is not harmful to biological tissues. As increased blood supply in cancer-affected tissues and consequent local increase in tissue water content makes THz technology a potentially attractive. In the present work, samples of healthy and adenocarcinoma-affected gastric tissue were analyzed using transmission time-domain THz spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The work shows the capability of the technique to distinguish between normal and cancerous regions in dried and paraffin-embedded samples. Plots of absorption coefficient α and refractive index n of normal and cancer affected tissues, are presented and the conditions for discrimination between normal and affected tissues are discussed.

  4. Radiation dose in mass screening for gastric cancer with high-concentration barium sulphate compared with moderate-concentration barium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recently, high-concentration barium sulfate has been developed and is used in many medical facilities. This study compared radiation dose using high-concentration and moderate-concentration barium sulfate. The dose was evaluated with an experimental method using a gastric phantom and with a clinical examination. In the former, the dose and X-ray tube load were measured on the phantom with two concentrations of barium sulfate. In the latter, the fluoroscopic dose-area product (DAP), the radiographic DAP and their sum, the total DAP, were investigated in 150 subjects (112 males, 38 females) treated with both concentrations of barium sulfate. The effective dose was calculated by the software of PCXMC in every case. The results of the experimental evaluation indicated that the effective dose and X-ray tube load were greater with high-concentration barium sulfate than with moderate-concentration barium sulfate (p < 0.05). The results of the clinical evaluation indicated that the fluoroscopic DAP was greater with moderate-concentration barium sulfate than with high-concentration barium sulfate (p < 0.05), but the radiographic DAP was quite the reverse, so the total DAP and effective dose were almost same with both concentrations of barium sulfate. We conclude that high-concentration barium sulfate does not increase radiation dose in mass screening for gastric cancer.

  5. Multiobjective Simulated Annealing-Based Clustering of Tissue Samples for Cancer Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sudipta; Saha, Sriparna; Thadisina, Yamini

    2016-03-01

    In the field of pattern recognition, the study of the gene expression profiles of different tissue samples over different experimental conditions has become feasible with the arrival of microarray-based technology. In cancer research, classification of tissue samples is necessary for cancer diagnosis, which can be done with the help of microarray technology. In this paper, we have presented a multiobjective optimization (MOO)-based clustering technique utilizing archived multiobjective simulated annealing(AMOSA) as the underlying optimization strategy for classification of tissue samples from cancer datasets. The presented clustering technique is evaluated for three open source benchmark cancer datasets [Brain tumor dataset, Adult Malignancy, and Small Round Blood Cell Tumors (SRBCT)]. In order to evaluate the quality or goodness of produced clusters, two cluster quality measures viz, adjusted rand index and classification accuracy ( % CoA) are calculated. Comparative results of the presented clustering algorithm with ten state-of-the-art existing clustering techniques are shown for three benchmark datasets. Also, we have conducted a statistical significance test called t-test to prove the superiority of our presented MOO-based clustering technique over other clustering techniques. Moreover, significant gene markers have been identified and demonstrated visually from the clustering solutions obtained. In the field of cancer subtype prediction, this study can have important impact. PMID:25706936

  6. Randomized controlled trial of the effects of high intensity and low-to-moderate intensity exercise on physical fitness and fatigue in cancer survivors: results of the Resistance and Endurance exercise After ChemoTherapy (REACT) study

    OpenAIRE

    Kampshoff, C.S.; Chinapaw, M.J.; Brug, J.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Schep, G.; Nijziel, M.R.; van Mechelen, W; Buffart, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International evidence-based guidelines recommend physical exercise to form part of standard care for all cancer survivors. However, at present, the optimum exercise intensity is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a high intensity (HI) and low-to-moderate intensity (LMI) resistance and endurance exercise program compared with a wait list control (WLC) group on physical fitness and fatigue in a mixed group of cancer survivors who completed primary cancer ...

  7. Risk Profile in a Sample of Patients with Breast Cancer from the Public Health Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina IRIMIE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer represents a major public health and economical burden in developed countries and has emerged as a major public health problem in developing countries, matching its effect in industrialized nations. Although there have been recent declines in breast cancer mortality rates in some European Union countries, breast cancer remains of key importance to public health in Europe. Now days there is increasing recognition of the causative role of lifestyle factors, as smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, or lake of physical activity. The present study aimed to appreciate the presence and magnitude of modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in a sample of patients diagnosed with the disease, and to outline a risk profile liable to be changed in the intention of reducing the global risk. Risk factors have been investigated in 65 patients diagnosed with breast cancer using a questionnaire for breast cancer risk factors evaluation. The high risk profile was identified as taking shape for urban environment, modulated by the impact of overweight-obesity, smoking, reproductive factors and environmental exposure to different chemical substances. From the public health perspective, the control of overweight and obesity comes out in the foreground of preventive activities. Public health approaches emphasize on inexpensive, practical methods and in this perspective the approach of obesity should focus on the alteration of environmental context, promoting healthy eating and increased physical activity which could have a positive, independent impact on breast cancer risk

  8. Assessments of Cancer Risk from Soil Samples in Gebeng Industrial Estate, Pahang and Amang Samples in Perak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial activities such as the tin tailings and rare earth processing contribute to radiological risk to human health and environment. Those activities can accumulate the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) with significant concentration in the environment. The aims of this study was to determine the activities concentration of Thorium-232 (232Th), Uranium-238 (238U) and Potassium-40 (40K) in soil samples around the Gebeng Industrial Estate, Pahang and in samples of ilmenite and monazite from three tin tailings processing plants in Perak using gamma ray spectrometry. The terrestrial gamma dose rate, the annual dose and cancer risk were also determined. The activities concentration of 232Th, 238U and 40K in the Gebeng soil samples were found in the range of 14.3 - 102.4, 23.8 - 81.3 and 73.3 - 451 Bq kg-1, respectively. While the activities concentration of 232Th, 238U and 40K for ilmenite and monazite samples were in the range of 259 - 166500, 194 - 28750 and 26.4 - 11991 Bq kg-1, respectively. The range terrestrial gamma dose rate at the Gebeng Industrial Estate was 22 - 108 nGy h-1 and the tin tailings processing plants was 390 - 6650 nGy h-1. Whereas the annual dose at the Gebeng Industrial Estate and tin tailings processing plants were 0.02 - 0.15 and 0.47 - 68 mSv y-1, respectively. The study showed that the cancer risk in the Gebeng industrial area were 4 peoples per million and 3702 peoples per million in the tin tailings processing plants. The activity concentration of soil from industrial area reported by UNSCEAR 2000 was in range of the Malaysia soil background. The activity concentration, the terrestrial gamma dose rate, the annual dose and the cancer risk were lower in the industrial area compared to tin tailings processing plants due to the high activity among the tin tailings processing area due to the high content of thorium in monazite. This study is recommended to monitor the environmental dose continuously in order to ensure the

  9. Influence of Spirituality and Modesty on Acceptance of Self-Sampling for Cervical Cancer Screening.

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    Eileen O Dareng

    Full Text Available Whereas systematic screening programs have reduced the incidence of cervical cancer in developed countries, the incidence remains high in developing countries. Among several barriers to uptake of cervical cancer screening, the roles of religious and cultural factors such as modesty have been poorly studied. Knowledge about these factors is important because of the potential to overcome them using strategies such as self-collection of cervico-vaginal samples. In this study we evaluate the influence of spirituality and modesty on the acceptance of self-sampling for cervical cancer screening.We enrolled 600 participants in Nigeria between August and October 2014 and collected information on spirituality and modesty using two scales. We used principal component analysis to extract scores for spirituality and modesty and logistic regression models to evaluate the association between spirituality, modesty and preference for self-sampling. All analyses were performed using STATA 12 (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas, USA.Some 581 (97% women had complete data for analysis. Most (69% were married, 50% were Christian and 44% were from the south western part of Nigeria. Overall, 19% (110/581 of the women preferred self-sampling to being sampled by a health care provider. Adjusting for age and socioeconomic status, spirituality, religious affiliation and geographic location were significantly associated with preference for self-sampling, while modesty was not significantly associated. The multivariable OR (95% CI, p-value for association with self-sampling were 0.88 (0.78-0.99, 0.03 for spirituality, 1.69 (1.09-2.64, 0.02 for religious affiliation and 0.96 (0.86-1.08, 0.51 for modesty.Our results show the importance of taking cultural and religious beliefs and practices into consideration in planning health interventions like cervical cancer screening. To succeed, public health interventions and the education to promote it must be related to the

  10. An examination of cancer-related fatigue through proposed diagnostic criteria in a sample of cancer patients in Taiwan

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    Su Wei-Ju

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue among cancer patients has often been reported in the literature; however, great variations have been documented, ranging from 15% to 90%, probably due to the lack of a widely accepted definition and established diagnostic criteria for cancer-related fatigue. The objective of this study was to evaluate the proposed International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (10th revision (ICD-10 criteria in a sample of cancer patients from a medical center and a regional teaching hospital in northern Taiwan. More accurate prevalence estimates of CRF may result in improved diagnoses and management of one of the most common symptoms associated with cancer and its treatment. Methods Since self-reporting from patients is the most effective and efficient method to measure fatigue, the ICD-10 criteria for fatigue were used. The ICD-10 criteria questionnaire was translated into Chinese and was approved by experts. Patients were recruited from outpatient palliative and oncology clinics and from palliative and oncology inpatient units. Results Of the 265 cancer patients that were interviewed between 21 October 2008 and 28 October 2009, 228 (86% reported having at least 2 weeks of fatigue in the past month, and further evaluation with the ICD-10 criteria showed that 132 (49.8% had cancer-related fatigue. Internal consistency was very good, which was indicated by a Cronbach alpha of 0.843. Conclusion The prevalence of diagnosable CRF in the patients in this sample, of whom most were under palliative treatment, was 49.8%, which was probably somewhat lower than in some of the previous reports that have used less-strict criteria. In addition, among the various criteria of the proposed diagnostic criteria, the most frequently reported symptoms in our sample populations were regarding sleep disturbance and physical factors. Although they will require further replication in other samples, these formal diagnostic

  11. Comparison of Nanostring nCounter® Data on FFPE Colon Cancer Samples and Affymetrix Microarray Data on Matched Frozen Tissues.

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    Xi Chen

    Full Text Available The prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC stage II and III patients remains a challenge due to the difficulties of finding robust biomarkers suitable for testing clinical samples. The majority of published gene signatures of CRC have been generated on fresh frozen colorectal tissues. Because collection of frozen tissue is not practical for routine surgical pathology practice, a clinical test that improves prognostic capabilities beyond standard pathological staging of colon cancer will need to be designed for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues. The NanoString nCounter® platform is a gene expression analysis tool developed for use with FFPE-derived samples. We designed a custom nCounter® codeset based on elements from multiple published fresh frozen tissue microarray-based prognostic gene signatures for colon cancer, and we used this platform to systematically compare gene expression data from FFPE with matched microarray array data from frozen tissues. Our results show moderate correlation of gene expression between two platforms and discovery of a small subset of genes as candidate biomarkers for colon cancer prognosis that are detectable and quantifiable in FFPE tissue sections.

  12. Study of Zn/Cu ratio and oligoelements in serum samples for cancer diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to study methods for cancer diagnosis based on trace element determination in serum blood samples. TXRF technique was selected for the analysis, due to its simultaneous and multi-elemental character, the very small amount of sample required and the high sensitivity. For the study, blood samples were collected from normal individuals (Blood donors and students), classified by age and sex in order to obtain reference normal values for the elements Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and additionally, Ca and K. Samples from cancer patients before treatment and under treatment were collected at the oncological Service (BADAN-Lara), and were also classified by age and sex. The TXRF procedure used was developed in a previous work and involves the direct analysis and the use of Compton peak as Internal Standard. All the samples were analyzed by the routine clinical test (blood chemistry). Elemental concentrations and clinical data were processed with the statistical package Minitab-Windows, in order to establish the respective correlation. Concerning to elemental concentrations, significant differences were found in Zn/Cu ratio between normal individuals group and the cancer patients group. (author)

  13. HMCan: A method for detecting chromatin modifications in cancer samples using ChIP-seq data

    KAUST Repository

    Ashoor, Haitham Maher Mahmoud

    2013-09-09

    Motivation: Cancer cells are often characterized by epigenetic changes, which include aberrant histone modifications. In particular, local or regional epigenetic silencing is a common mechanism in cancer for silencing expression of tumor suppressor genes. Though several tools have been created to enable detection of histone marks in ChIP-seq data from normal samples, it is unclear whether these tools can be efficiently applied to ChIP-seq data generated from cancer samples. Indeed, cancer genomes are often characterized by frequent copy number alterations: gains and losses of large regions of chromosomal material. Copy number alterations may create a substantial statistical bias in the evaluation of histone mark signal enrichment and result in underdetection of the signal in the regions of loss and overdetection of the signal in the regions of gain. Results: We present HMCan (Histone modifications in cancer), a tool specially designed to analyze histone modification ChIP-seq data produced from cancer genomes. HMCan corrects for the GC-content and copy number bias and then applies Hidden Markov Models to detect the signal from the corrected data. On simulated data, HMCan outperformed several commonly used tools developed to analyze histone modification data produced from genomes without copy number alterations. HMCan also showed superior results on a ChIP-seq dataset generated for the repressive histone mark H3K27me3 in a bladder cancer cell line. HMCan predictions matched well with experimental data (qPCR validated regions) and included, for example, the previously detected H3K27me3 mark in the promoter of the DLEC1 gene, missed by other tools we tested. The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of p53 gene mutations in bronchial biopsy samples of patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue. It is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for 1.2 million deaths annually. The goal of this study was to detect the p53 gene mutations in lung cancer, in local population of Lahore, Pakistan. These mutations were screened in the bronchial biopsy lung cancer tissue samples. For this purpose microtomed tissue sections were collected. Following DNA extraction from tissue sections, the p53 mutations were detected by amplifying Exon 7 (145 bp) and Exon 8 (152 bp) of the p53 gene. PCR then followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for screening the p53 gene mutations. This results of SSCP were visualized of silver staining. The results showed different banding pattern indicating the presence of mutation. Majority of the mutations were found in Exon 7. Exon 7 of p53 gene may be the mutation hotspot in lung cancer. In lung cancer, the most prevalent mutations of p53 gene are G -> T transversions; other types of insertions and deletions are also expected, however, the exact nature of mutations in presented work could be confirmed by direct sequencing. (author)

  15. Recruitment of representative samples for low incidence cancer populations: Do registries deliver?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanson-Fisher Rob

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruiting large and representative samples of adolescent and young adult (AYA cancer survivors is important for gaining accurate data regarding the prevalence of unmet needs in this population. This study aimed to describe recruitment rates for AYAs recruited through a cancer registry with particular focus on: active clinician consent protocols, reasons for clinicians not providing consent and the representativeness of the final sample. Methods Adolescents and young adults aged 14 to19 years inclusive and listed on the cancer registry from January 1 2002 to December 31 2007 were identified. An active clinician consent protocol was used whereby the registry sent a letter to AYAs primary treating clinicians requesting permission to contact the survivors. The registry then sent survivors who received their clinician's consent a letter seeking permission to forward their contact details to the research team. Consenting AYAs were sent a questionnaire which assessed their unmet needs. Results The overall consent rate for AYAs identified as eligible by the registry was 7.8%. Of the 411 potentially eligible survivors identified, just over half (n = 232, 56% received their clinician's consent to be contacted. Of those 232 AYAs, 65% were unable to be contacted. Only 18 AYAs (7.8% refused permission for their contact details to be passed on to the research team. Of the 64 young people who agreed to be contacted, 50% (n = 32 completed the questionnaire. Conclusions Cancer registries which employ active clinician consent protocols may not be appropriate for recruiting large, representative samples of AYAs diagnosed with cancer. Given that AYA cancer survivors are highly mobile, alternative methods such as treatment centre and clinic based recruitment may need to be considered.

  16. Representativeness of two sampling procedures for an internet intervention targeting cancer-related distress: a comparison of convenience and registry samples

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Jason E.; Bantum, Erin O'Carroll; Criswell, Kevin; Bazzo, Julie; Gorlick, Amanda; Stanton, Annette L.

    2013-01-01

    Internet interventions often rely on convenience sampling, yet convenience samples may differ in important ways from systematic recruitment approaches. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential demographic, medical, and psychosocial differences between Internet-recruited and registry-recruited cancer survivors in an Internet-based intervention. Participants were recruited from a cancer registry (n = 80) and via broad Internet outreach efforts (n = 160). Participants completed a set ...

  17. MicroRNA profiling of gastric cancer patients from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples

    OpenAIRE

    OSAWA, SOSHI; Shimada, Yutaka; Sekine, Shinichi; Okumura, Tomoyuki; NAGATA, TAKUYA; Fukuoka, Junya; Tsukada, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA that targets specific mRNA. Recent progress in the extraction of RNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues has facilitated miRNA profiling using samples stored in laboratories worldwide. In the present study, miRNA profiling of gastric cancer patients is determined using FFPE samples. First, criteria were established for determining evaluable RNA from the FFPE samples. miRNA profiling was then undertaken using miRNA oligo chips with 88...

  18. Evaluation of the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS scale for long-term cancer survivors in a sample of breast cancer survivors

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    Foley Kristie

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper evaluates psychometric properties of a recently developed measure focusing on the health-related quality of life (HRQL of long-term cancer survivors, the Quality of Life in Adult Survivors scale (QLACS, in a sample of breast cancer survivors. This represents an important area of study, given the large number of breast cancer patients surviving many years post diagnosis. Methods Analyses are based on an 8-year follow-up of a sample of breast cancer survivors who participated in an earlier study conducted in 1995. Participants were re-contacted in 2003 and those who were reachable and agreed to participate (n = 94 were surveyed using a variety of measures including the QLACS. Additional follow-up surveys were conducted 2 weeks and one year later. Psychometric tests of the QLACS included test-retest reliability, concurrent and retrospective validity, and responsiveness. Results The QLACS domain and summary scores showed good test-retest reliability (all test-retest correlations were above .7 and high internal consistency. The Generic Summary Score showed convergent validity with other measures designed to assess generic HRQL. The Cancer-Specific Summary score exhibited divergent validity with generic HRQL measures, but not a cancer-related specific measure. The QLACS Cancer-Specific Summary Score demonstrated satisfactory predictive validity for factors that were previously shown to be correlated with HRQL. The QLACS generally demonstrated a high level of responsiveness to life changes. Conclusion The QLACS may serve as a useful measure for assessing HRQL among long-term breast cancer survivors that are not otherwise captured by generic measures or those specifically designed for newly diagnosed patients.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA A10398G Mutation is not Associated with Breast Cancer Risk in a Sample of Iraqi Women

    OpenAIRE

    Rawaa A. Zahid; Hayba Q. Younan; Haneen M. Ismaeel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if there is a relationship between mtDNA polymorphism (A10398G) and breast cancer in a sample of 59 Iraqi women. Breast cancer is the second most common diagnosed cause of cancer death in the developed countries and accounts for 23% of the total cancers. Different studies reported that breast cancer accounts for 14% of all cancer deaths in females. It is well documented that the different factors such as genetics and environment factors are involved in...

  20. Pre-Intervention Distress Moderates the Efficacy of Psychosocial Treatment for Cancer Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Stefan; Moyer, Anne; Knapp-Oliver, Sarah; Sohl, Stephanie; Cannella, Dolores; Targhetta, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined whether effects of psychosocial interventions on psychological distress in cancer patients are conditional upon pre-intervention distress levels. Published articles and unpublished dissertations between 1980 and 2005 were searched for interventions reporting the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) or the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Multilevel mixed-effects modeling was used to meta-analyze effect-sizes separately for the HADS (27 tria...

  1. Will Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer Provide Biological Samples for Research Purposes?

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    Shelley A Harris

    Full Text Available Little is known about the response rates for biological sample donation and attitudes towards control recruitment, especially in younger women. The goals of this pilot study were to determine in women recently diagnosed with breast cancer, the proportion of cases willing to provide biological samples and for purposes of control recruitment, contact information for friends or colleagues.A population-based sample of breast cancer cases (n = 417, 25-74 years was recruited from the Ontario Cancer Registry in 2010 and self-administered questionnaires were completed to determine willingness to provide samples (spot or 24-hr urine, saliva, blood and contact information for friends/colleagues for control recruitment. Using Χ2 analyses of contingency tables we evaluated if these proportions varied by age group (<45 and 45+ and other factors such as ethnicity, education, income, body mass index (BMI, smoking status and alcohol consumption.Cases were willing to provide blood samples, by visiting a clinic (62% or by having a nurse visit the home (61%. Moreover, they would provide saliva (73%, and morning or 24-hr urine samples (66% and 52%. Younger cases (≤45 were 3 times (OR more likely more than older cases to agree to collect morning urine (95% CI: 1.15-8.35. Only 26% of cases indicated they would provide contact information of friends or work colleagues to act as controls. Educated cases were more likely to agree to provide samples, and cases who consumed alcohol were more willing to provide contact information. Ethnicity, income, BMI and smoking had little effect on response rates.Reasonable response rates for biological sample collection should be expected in future case controls studies in younger women, but other methods of control selection must be devised.

  2. DNA Methylation in Pre-Diagnostic Serum Samples of Breast Cancer Cases: Results of a Nested Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Jennifer D.; Cairns, Paul; Shore, Roy E.; Klein, Catherine B.; Wirgin, Isaac; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Promoter methylation of tumor-suppressor genes is a frequent and early event in breast carcinogenesis. Paired tumor tissue and serum samples from women with breast cancer show that promoter methylation is detectable in both sample types, with good concordance. This suggests the potential for these serum markers to be used for breast cancer detection.

  3. Breast Cancer Risk Perceptions among Relatives of Women with Uninformative Negative BRCA1/2 Test Results: The Moderating Effect of the Amount of Shared Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Deborah O; Clayton, Margaret F; Donaldson, Gary W; Ellington, Lee; Buys, Saundra S; Kinney, Anita Y

    2016-04-01

    The most common result of BRCA1/2 mutation testing when performed in a family without a previously identified mutation is an uninformative negative test result. Women in these families may have an increased risk for breast cancer because of mutations in non-BRCA breast cancer predisposition genes, including moderate- or low-risk genes, or shared environmental factors. Genetic counselors often encourage counselees to share information with family members, however it is unclear how much information counselees share and the impact that shared information may have on accuracy of risk perception in family members. We evaluated 85 sisters and daughters of women who received uninformative negative BRCA1/2 results. We measured accuracy of risk perception using a latent variable model where accuracy was represented as the correlation between perceived risk (indicators = verbal and quantitative measures) and calculated risk (indicators = Claus and BRCAPRO). Participants who reported more information was shared with them by their sister or mother about her genetic counseling session had greater accuracy of risk perception (0.707, p = 0.000) than those who reported little information was shared (0.326, p = 0.003). However, counselees shared very little information; nearly 20 % of family members reported their sister or mother shared nothing with them about her genetic counseling. Family members were generally not aware of the existence of a genetic counseling summary letter. Our findings underscore the need for effective strategies that facilitate counselees to share information about their genetic counseling sessions. Such communication may help their relatives better understand their cancer risks and enhance risk appropriate cancer prevention. PMID:26245632

  4. Feasibility Study of Moderately Accelerated Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Plus Concurrent Weekly Cisplatin After Induction Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced Head-and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of moderately accelerated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) along with weekly cisplatin, after induction chemotherapy, in patients with locally advanced unresectable head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: Patients with Stage III or IV locally advanced HNC, without progressive disease after three courses of induction chemotherapy, received concurrent chemo-IMRT (weekly cisplatin 30 mg/m2 plus simultaneous integrated boost IMRT). A total of 67.5 Gy in 30 fractions were delivered to primary tumor and involved nodes, 60 Gy in 30 fractions to high-risk nodal areas, and 55.5 Gy in 30 fractions to low-risk nodal areas. Results: In all, 36 patients (median age, 56 years) with International Union Against Cancer (UICC) Stage III (n = 5) and IV (n = 31) were included. Of the 36 patients, 17 had received CF (cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (CF) and 19 had received docetaxel cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (DCF). During concurrent chemoradiation, 11 of 36 patients (30.5%) experienced Grade III mucositis (CF, 47%; DCF, 15%; p < 0.04). Grade III pharyngeal-esophageal toxicity was observed in 5 of 19 patients (26.3%; CF, 0.0%; DCF, 26.3%; p = 0.02). Two patients died of complications (5.5%). After chemoradiation, the complete response rate was 63.8%. Two-year local control was 88.7%. Two-year progression free survival and overall survival were 74.5% and 60.9%, respectively. Conclusions: In our experience, a moderately accelerated chemo-IMRT was feasible after induction chemotherapy. However, a noteworthy early death rate of 5.5% was observed. Intensive supportive care strategies should be defined to better manage radiation-induced toxic effects. Longer follow-up is required to determine the incidence of late radiation toxicities and tumor control rates.

  5. Targeted or whole genome sequencing of formalin fixed tissue samples: potential applications in cancer genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munchel, Sarah; Hoang, Yen; Zhao, Yue; Cottrell, Joseph; Klotzle, Brandy; Godwin, Andrew K; Koestler, Devin; Beyerlein, Peter; Fan, Jian-Bing; Bibikova, Marina; Chien, Jeremy

    2015-09-22

    Current genomic studies are limited by the poor availability of fresh-frozen tissue samples. Although formalin-fixed diagnostic samples are in abundance, they are seldom used in current genomic studies because of the concern of formalin-fixation artifacts. Better characterization of these artifacts will allow the use of archived clinical specimens in translational and clinical research studies. To provide a systematic analysis of formalin-fixation artifacts on Illumina sequencing, we generated 26 DNA sequencing data sets from 13 pairs of matched formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) and fresh-frozen (FF) tissue samples. The results indicate high rate of concordant calls between matched FF/FFPE pairs at reference and variant positions in three commonly used sequencing approaches (whole genome, whole exome, and targeted exon sequencing). Global mismatch rates and C · G > T · A substitutions were comparable between matched FF/FFPE samples, and discordant rates were low (<0.26%) in all samples. Finally, low-pass whole genome sequencing produces similar pattern of copy number alterations between FF/FFPE pairs. The results from our studies suggest the potential use of diagnostic FFPE samples for cancer genomic studies to characterize and catalog variations in cancer genomes. PMID:26305677

  6. Decreased mitochondrial DNA content in blood samples of patients with stage I breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alterations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been implicated in carcinogenesis. We developed an accurate multiplex quantitative real-time PCR for synchronized determination of mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA). We sought to investigate whether mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients is associated with clinical and pathological parameters. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 60 patients with breast cancer and 51 age-matched healthy individuals as control. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood for the quantification of mtDNA and nDNA, using a one-step multiplex real-time PCR. A FAM labeled MGB probe and primers were used to amplify the mtDNA sequence of the ATP 8 gene, and a VIC labeled MGB probe and primers were employed to amplify the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase gene. mtDNA content was correlated with tumor stage, menstruation status, and age of patients as well as lymph node status and the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and Her-2/neu protein. The content of mtDNA in stage I breast cancer patients was significantly lower than in other stages (overall P = 0.023). Reduced mtDNA was found often in post menopausal cancer group (P = 0.024). No difference in mtDNA content, in regards to age (p = 0.564), lymph node involvement (p = 0.673), ER (p = 0.877), PR (p = 0.763), and Her-2/neu expression (p = 0.335), was observed. Early detection of breast cancer has proved difficult and current detection methods are inadequate. In the present study, decreased mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer was strongly associated with stage I. The use of mtDNA may have diagnostic value and further studies are required to validate it as a potential biomarker for early detection of breast cancer

  7. Health Status and Cancer Screening in Hispanic Women: A Sample from Cumberland County, North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Griffiths

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study examines self-reported breast and cervical cancer screening history among women aged 18 years and above in Cumberland County, NC. Cumberland County is a multi-ethnic, semi-urban, racially diverse community with a large Hispanic population. Cross-sectional, mixed methodology data collection took place in local Tiendas. The sample consists of women belonging to a variety of ethnic groups generally classified as “Hispanic.” The questionnaire and interview guide used in the study developed from the Center for Disease Control’s National Health Interview Survey, and measured breast examination, mammogram, Pap Smear, family cancer, and health insurance history, as well as self reported health status, socio-demographic, and cultural features of the respondents. We found that despite demographics from the 2010 Census showing a high incidence of breast and cervical cancers in the North Carolina Hispanic population, fewer Hispanic women in Cumberland County screened themselves for the presence of this cancer as compared to women at the national level. Education positively impacted both self rated health status as well as cancer screening behavior. Interview data suggested the lack of screening behavior in this population was due to a perceived lack of cultural sensitivity and a dearth of translators.

  8. Whole-exome sequencing and clinical interpretation of FFPE tumor samples to guide precision cancer medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Eliezer M. Van; Wagle, Nikhil; Stojanov, Petar; Perrin, Danielle L.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Marlow, Sara; Jane-Valbuena, Judit; Friedrich, Dennis C.; Kryukov, Gregory; Carter, Scott L.; McKenna, Aaron; Sivachenko, Andrey; Rosenberg, Mara; Kiezun, Adam; Voet, Douglas; Lawrence, Michael; Lichtenstein, Lee T.; Gentry, Jeff G.; Huang, Franklin W.; Fostel, Jennifer; Farlow, Deborah; Barbie, David; Gandhi, Leena; Lander, Eric S.; Gray, Stacy W.; Joffe, Steven; Janne, Pasi; Garber, Judy; MacConaill, Laura; Lindeman, Neal; Rollins, Barrett; Kantoff, Philip; Fisher, Sheila A.; Gabriel, Stacey; Getz, Gad; Garraway, Levi A.

    2013-01-01

    Translating whole exome sequencing (WES) for prospective clinical use may impact the care of cancer patients; however, multiple innovations are necessary for clinical implementation. These include: (1) rapid and robust WES from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue, (2) analytical output similar to data from frozen samples, and (3) clinical interpretation of WES data for prospective use. Here, we describe a prospective clinical WES platform for archival FFPE tumor samples. The platform employs computational methods for effective clinical analysis and interpretation of WES data. When applied retrospectively to 511 exomes, the interpretative framework revealed a “long tail” of somatic alterations in clinically important genes. Prospective application of this approach identified clinically relevant alterations in 15/16 patients. In one patient, previously undetected findings guided clinical trial enrollment leading to an objective clinical response. Overall, this methodology may inform the widespread implementation of precision cancer medicine. PMID:24836576

  9. A limited sampling procedure for estimating adriamycin pharmacokinetics in cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Launay, M. C.; Milano, G.; Iliadis, A.; Frenay, M.; Namer, N.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find a procedure allowing estimation of individual pharmacokinetic parameters for adriamycin with minimal cost and disturbance for the patient. Twenty-five patients with breast cancer were treated by short infusion of adriamycin at a dose of 12 mg m-2 week-1 (41 courses). Population characteristics were determined on 15 randomly chosen courses (10 patients, group I) in order to define two optimal sampling times (26 min and 24 h) and to perform Bayesian estimation ...

  10. The more frequent types of human papillomavirus in Cuban samples of cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervix cancer (UCC) is considered a sexually transmitted disease due to factors involved in its appearance and development and this infection is recognized as the main etiological agent of this entity. In Cuba this type of tumor is placed in 2nd category in incidence and in 4th place in mortality among the malignant disease affecting the female sex. The objective of present study is to determine the types of human virus papilloma (HVP) present in samples of cervix tumors in Cuban women, as well as to describe the behavior of different risk factors associated with this disease. Forty five samples of cervix cancer were analyzed and the presence of 20 types of HVP was determined by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers founding in them a 91,1% of positivity. Genotype 16 was the more prevalent, followed by the 18, 45, 31, 39, 51, 56, 59, PAP23A. The low risk type 6 and 11 weren't founded in samples. Promiscuity was the more interesting risk factor in our study. Knowledge of the viral types present in cervix cancer in our patients is very important when we approach the development and the use of prophylactic and therapeutical vaccines

  11. Staging of Prostate Cancer Using Automatic Feature Selection, Sampling and Dempster-Shafer Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Chandana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel technique of automatically selecting the best pairs of features and sampling techniques to predict the stage of prostate cancer is proposed in this study. The problem of class imbalance, which is prominent in most medical data sets is also addressed here. Three feature subsets obtained by the use of principal components analysis (PCA, genetic algorithm (GA and rough sets (RS based approaches were also used in the study. The performance of under-sampling, synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE and a combination of the two were also investigated and the performance of the obtained models was compared. To combine the classifier outputs, we used the Dempster-Shafer (DS theory, whereas the actual choice of combined models was made using a GA. We found that the best performance for the overall system resulted from the use of under sampled data combined with rough sets based features modeled as a support vector machine (SVM.

  12. Molecular sampling of prostate cancer: a dilemma for predicting disease progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mucci Lorelei A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current prostate cancer prognostic models are based on pre-treatment prostate specific antigen (PSA levels, biopsy Gleason score, and clinical staging but in practice are inadequate to accurately predict disease progression. Hence, we sought to develop a molecular panel for prostate cancer progression by reasoning that molecular profiles might further improve current clinical models. Methods We analyzed a Swedish Watchful Waiting cohort with up to 30 years of clinical follow up using a novel method for gene expression profiling. This cDNA-mediated annealing, selection, ligation, and extension (DASL method enabled the use of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded transurethral resection of prostate (TURP samples taken at the time of the initial diagnosis. We determined the expression profiles of 6100 genes for 281 men divided in two extreme groups: men who died of prostate cancer and men who survived more than 10 years without metastases (lethals and indolents, respectively. Several statistical and machine learning models using clinical and molecular features were evaluated for their ability to distinguish lethal from indolent cases. Results Surprisingly, none of the predictive models using molecular profiles significantly improved over models using clinical variables only. Additional computational analysis confirmed that molecular heterogeneity within both the lethal and indolent classes is widespread in prostate cancer as compared to other types of tumors. Conclusions The determination of the molecularly dominant tumor nodule may be limited by sampling at time of initial diagnosis, may not be present at time of initial diagnosis, or may occur as the disease progresses making the development of molecular biomarkers for prostate cancer progression challenging.

  13. Bacteria-human somatic cell lateral gene transfer is enriched in cancer samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Riley

    Full Text Available There are 10× more bacterial cells in our bodies from the microbiome than human cells. Viral DNA is known to integrate in the human genome, but the integration of bacterial DNA has not been described. Using publicly available sequence data from the human genome project, the 1000 Genomes Project, and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, we examined bacterial DNA integration into the human somatic genome. Here we present evidence that bacterial DNA integrates into the human somatic genome through an RNA intermediate, and that such integrations are detected more frequently in (a tumors than normal samples, (b RNA than DNA samples, and (c the mitochondrial genome than the nuclear genome. Hundreds of thousands of paired reads support random integration of Acinetobacter-like DNA in the human mitochondrial genome in acute myeloid leukemia samples. Numerous read pairs across multiple stomach adenocarcinoma samples support specific integration of Pseudomonas-like DNA in the 5'-UTR and 3'-UTR of four proto-oncogenes that are up-regulated in their transcription, consistent with conversion to an oncogene. These data support our hypothesis that bacterial integrations occur in the human somatic genome and may play a role in carcinogenesis. We anticipate that the application of our approach to additional cancer genome projects will lead to the more frequent detection of bacterial DNA integrations in tumors that are in close proximity to the human microbiome.

  14. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Quality of Life of Cancer Patients: Turkish Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Medet; Tavsanli, Nurgul Gungor; Ozcelik, Hanife

    2016-01-01

    A large proportion of cancer patients use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to extend their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of CAM use by patients undergoing cancer treatment. The study was conducted in Turkey at a large state university hospital and a government hospital between March and December 2013. The research sample consisted of a total of 147 cancer patients undergoing either chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Data collection was performed using a Patient Description Form and the EUROHIS (WHOQOL-8.Tr) quality-of-life scale through face-to-face interviews. The use of CAM, green tea (28.00 ± 4.24), and garlic (29.00 ± 0.00), as well as the use of a combination of plant products such as pomegranate juice, pollen, and herbal tea (31.25 ± 5.96), not feeling the need to inform the physician of the use of CAM, regular use of CAM, finding CAM use effective, and suggesting CAM use to others were found to have a statistically significant relationship to average quality-of-life scores (P < 0.05). This study could be used to develop holistic nursing interventions and CAM use by patients undergoing cancer treatment. PMID:26752220

  15. Diagnostic Classification of Normal Persons and Cancer Patients by Using Neural Network Based on Trace Metal Contents in Serum Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Artificial neural network with the back-propagation(BP-ANN) approach was applied to the classification of normal persons and various cancer patients based on the elemental contents in serum samples. This method was verified by the cross-validation method. The effects of the net work parameters were investigated and the related problems were discussed. The samples of 72, 42, and 52 for lung, liver, and stomach cancer patients and normal persons, respectively, were used for the classification study. About 95% of the samples can be classified correctly. There fore, the method can be used as an auxiliary means of the diagnosis of cancer.

  16. Controversies in using urine samples for prostate cancer detection: PSA and PCA3 expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fontenete

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Prostate cancer (PCa is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies in the world. Although PSA utilization as a serum marker has improved prostate cancer detection it still presents some limitations, mainly regarding its specificity. The expression of this marker, along with the detection of PCA3 mRNA in urine samples, has been suggested as a new approach for PCa detection. The goal of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of the urinary detection of PCA3 mRNA and PSA mRNA without performing the somewhat embarrassing prostate massage. It was also intended to optimize and implement a methodological protocol for this kind of sampling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urine samples from 57 patients with suspected prostate disease were collected, without undergoing prostate massage. Increased serum PSA levels were confirmed by medical records review. RNA was extracted by different methods and a preamplification step was included in order to improve gene detection by Real-Time PCR. RESULTS: An increase in RNA concentration with the use of TriPure Isolation Reagent. Despite this optimization, only 15.8% of the cases showed expression of PSA mRNA and only 3.8% of prostate cancer patients presented detectable levels of PCA3 mRNA. The use of a preamplification step revealed no improvement in the results obtained. CONCLUSION: This work confirms that prostate massage is important before urine collection for gene expression analysis. Since PSA and PCA3 are prostate specific, it is necessary to promote the passage of cells from prostate to urinary tract, in order to detect these genetic markers in urine samples.

  17. Expectant Mothers Maximizing Opportunities: Maternal Characteristics Moderate Multifactorial Prenatal Stress in the Prediction of Birth Weight in a Sample of Children Adopted at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Brotnow, Line; Reiss, David; Stover, Carla S.; Ganiban, Jody; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Stevens, Hanna E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mothers’ stress in pregnancy is considered an environmental risk factor in child development. Multiple stressors may combine to increase risk, and maternal personal characteristics may offset the effects of stress. This study aimed to test the effect of 1) multifactorial prenatal stress, integrating objective “stressors” and subjective “distress” and 2) the moderating effects of maternal characteristics (perceived social support, self-esteem and specific personality traits) on infa...

  18. Randomized controlled trial of the effects of high intensity and low-to-moderate intensity exercise on physical fitness and fatigue in cancer survivors: results of the Resistance and Endurance exercise After ChemoTherapy (REACT) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampshoff, C.S.; Chinapaw, M.J.; Brug, J.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Schep, G.; Nijziel, M.R.; Mechelen, W. van; Buffart, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International evidence-based guidelines recommend physical exercise to form part of standard care for all cancer survivors. However, at present, the optimum exercise intensity is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a high intensity (HI) and low-to-moderate inten

  19. Systemic Metabolomic Changes in Blood Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Identified by Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanne Miyamoto; Taylor, Sandra L.; Barupal, Dinesh K; Ayumu Taguchi; Gert Wohlgemuth; Wikoff, William R.; Yoneda, Ken Y.; Gandara, David R.; Samir M. Hanash; Kyoungmi Kim; Oliver Fiehn

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Metabolic alterations in tumor cells coupled with systemic indicators of the host response to tumor development have the potential to yield blood profiles with clinical utility for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. We report results from two separate studies using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS) to profile metabolites in human blood samples that significantly differ from non-small cell lung cancer ...

  20. Decreased mitochondrial DNA content in blood samples of patients with stage I breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fokas Emmanouil

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA have been implicated in carcinogenesis. We developed an accurate multiplex quantitative real-time PCR for synchronized determination of mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA. We sought to investigate whether mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients is associated with clinical and pathological parameters. Methods Peripheral blood samples were collected from 60 patients with breast cancer and 51 age-matched healthy individuals as control. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood for the quantification of mtDNA and nDNA, using a one-step multiplex real-time PCR. A FAM labeled MGB probe and primers were used to amplify the mtDNA sequence of the ATP 8 gene, and a VIC labeled MGB probe and primers were employed to amplify the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase gene. mtDNA content was correlated with tumor stage, menstruation status, and age of patients as well as lymph node status and the expression of estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR and Her-2/neu protein. Results The content of mtDNA in stage I breast cancer patients was significantly lower than in other stages (overall P = 0.023. Reduced mtDNA was found often in post menopausal cancer group (P = 0.024. No difference in mtDNA content, in regards to age (p = 0.564, lymph node involvement (p = 0.673, ER (p = 0.877, PR (p = 0.763, and Her-2/neu expression (p = 0.335, was observed. Conclusion Early detection of breast cancer has proved difficult and current detection methods are inadequate. In the present study, decreased mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer was strongly associated with stage I. The use of mtDNA may have diagnostic value and further studies are required to validate it as a potential biomarker for early detection of breast cancer.

  1. Detection of micrometastasis in peripheral blood by multi-sampling in patients with colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Wei Zhang; Hong-Yu Yang; Ping Fan; Li Yang; Guo-Yu Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the reverse transcriptase-PCR assay and multiple sampling for detection of cytokeratin-positive cells in peripheral blood of colorectal carcinoma patients and to investigate the clinical significance of micrometastasis in peripheral blood.METHODS: The expression of CK20 mRNA by RT-PCR was investigated in bone marrow, portal vein and peripheral blood in 58 colorectal cancer patients and 12 controls without known cancer. The peripheral blood was sampled twice at intervals of 3 d before operation. All the patients were followed up for one year.RESULTS: There was no positive expression of CK20mRNA in 12 volunteers. The positive expression of CK20mRNA was 77.6% (45/58) in bone marrow, and that in portal vein was 74.1% (43/58) of colorectal carcinoma patients.The positive expression of CK20mRNA cells in peripheral blood rose from 44.8% (26/58) to 69.0% (40/58) (P<0.01).The total positivity of CK20mRNA expression in peripheral blood was similar to the positivity of CK20mRNA in bone marrow and portal vein. The positive rates became higher in later clinical stages than in early stages. The CK20mRNA positive patients had a higher relapse rate within one year than the CK20mRNA negative patients.CONCLUSION: Multiple blood sampling can increase the detection of tumor cells in peripheral blood by RT-PCR for CK20mRNA in colorectal carcinoma patients and it is as sensitive and specific as that of bone marrow and portal vein. This technique may be reliable and convenient to diagnose micrometastasis of colorectal carcinoma and has an important significance in determining the prognosis of cancer patients.

  2. Perceived ethnic discrimination and cigarette smoking: examining the moderating effects of race/ethnicity and gender in a sample of Black and Latino urban adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Monge, Angela; Agosta, John; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Stanton, Cassandra; Schwartz, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination has been associated with cigarette smoking in US adults in the majority of studies, but gaps in understanding remain. It is unclear if the association of discrimination to smoking is a function of lifetime or recent exposure to discrimination. Some sociodemographic and mood-related risk factors may confound the relationship of discrimination to smoking. Gender and race/ethnicity differences in this relationship have been understudied. This study examines the relationship of lifetime and recent discrimination to smoking status and frequency, controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables and investigating the moderating role of race/ethnicity and gender. Participants included 518 Black and Latino(a) adults from New York, US. Lifetime and past week discrimination were measured with the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version. Ecological momentary assessment methods were used to collect data on smoking and mood every 20 min throughout one testing day using an electronic diary. Controlling for sociodemographic and mood-related variables, there was a significant association of recent (past week) discrimination exposure to current smoking. Lifetime discrimination was associated with smoking frequency, but not current smoking status. The association of recent discrimination to smoking status was moderated by race/ethnicity and gender, with positive associations emerging for both Black adults and for men. The association of lifetime discrimination on smoking frequency was not moderated by gender or race/ethnicity. Acute race/ethnicity-related stressors may be associated with the decision to smoke at all on a given day; whereas chronic stigmatization may reduce the barriers to smoking more frequently. PMID:26054448

  3. Age of smoking initiation and risk of breast cancer in a sample of Ontario women

    OpenAIRE

    Sloan Margaret; Leatherdale Scott; Young Erin; Kreiger Nancy; Barisic Andriana

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To examine the association between time of smoking initiation and both the independent and joint effects of active and passive tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of breast cancer in a sample of Ontario women. Methods Data from two large population-based case-control studies conducted among Ontario women aged 25–75 years were combined for analysis (n = 12,768). Results Women who had ever smoked and were exposed to passive smoke had a significant increased risk of breast ca...

  4. Simultaneous Determination of 30 Trace Elements in Cancerous and Noncancerous Human Tissue Samples with Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following trace elements were quantitatively determined by gamma-ray spectrometry in T samples of non-cancerous and 5 samples of cancerous human tissue: P, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Cs, La, Au, and Hg. In some of the samples the following elements were qualitatively determined: Ti+Sc, Ga, Sr, In, Ba, Ce, Hf, Os, Pt, and U. Most of the trace elements were found to be present in much higher concentrations in the non-cancerous than in the corresponding cancerous liver samples. In a typical run one sample each of cancerous and non-cancerous tissue was irradiated together with standards of the elements to be determined in a thermal flux of 2.1013 n/cm2/sec. for 24 hours. The radioactive trace elements were separated into 16, and in some cases 18, groups by means of a chemical group separation method. Subsequently, the gamma spectrometric measurements were performed. Two persons can manage the chemical separations and measure the different activities from a run in 1,5 days. A new method of comparing unknown samples with standards was developed

  5. Age of smoking initiation and risk of breast cancer in a sample of Ontario women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloan Margaret

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To examine the association between time of smoking initiation and both the independent and joint effects of active and passive tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of breast cancer in a sample of Ontario women. Methods Data from two large population-based case-control studies conducted among Ontario women aged 25–75 years were combined for analysis (n = 12,768. Results Women who had ever smoked and were exposed to passive smoke had a significant increased risk of breast cancer (OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.01–1.25. A significant increased risk was also observed among women who initiated smoking: at age 26 or older (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.03–1.55; more than five years from menarche (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.12–1.42; and, after their first live birth (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.02–1.52. Conclusion The results suggest that women who initiate smoking at an older age are at an increased risk of breast cancer.

  6. Metformin Is Associated With Slightly Reduced Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Moderate Survival Benefits in Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xing-Kang; Su, Ting-Ting; Si, Jian-Min; Sun, Lei-Min

    2016-02-01

    To systematically assess the effect of metformin on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library databases for relevant articles before August 2015. Two investigators identified and extracted data independently. We adopted adjusted estimates to calculate summary estimates with 95% confidence interval (CI) using either a fixed-effects or a random-effects model. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the robustness of the pooled results. The risk of publication bias was assessed by examining funnel plot asymmetry as well as Begg test and Egger test.Fifteen studies on CRC incidence and 6 studies on CRC survival were finally included in our meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) of observational studies illustrated that a slight 10% reduction of CRC incidence was associated with metformin use (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.85-0.96). Furthermore, the pooled hazard ratio (HR) revealed an improved survival outcome for metformin users in CRC patients compared to nonusers (HR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.58-081). There was no publication bias across studies.Our meta-analysis demonstrated that metformin therapy could slightly reduce CRC incidence and moderately improve the survival outcomes in patients with T2DM. More prospective studies are warranted to certify this protective association. PMID:26886616

  7. Effect of VATS Wedge Resection and Mediastinal Lymph Node Sampling 
in Eldly Patients with Early Peripheral Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua LOU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The treatment for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer is primarily surgical. However, the optimal extent of mediastinal lymph node resection remains to be determined. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of a pulmonary wedge resection on aged patients with lung cancer. Methods A total of 15 lung cancer patients aged over 70 years were treated via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS wedge resection and mediastinal lymph node sampling from June 2004 to February 2008. Mediastinal lymph node sampling included stations 2R, 4R, 8 and 9 for the right-sided cancers and stations 5, 6, 8 and 9 for the left-sided cancers. Results VATS wedge resection and mediastinal lymph node sampling for aged patients with peripheral lung cancer are minimally invasive treatments with a short operative time and low postoperative morbidity. The 1-year and 3-year survival rates were 100% and 86.6%, respectively. Conclusion VATS wedge resection and mediastinal lymph node sampling can be an alternative treatment for aged patients with early peripheral lung cancer.

  8. Piezoresistive Membrane Surface Stress Sensors for Characterization of Breath Samples of Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Hans Peter; Loizeau, Frédéric; Hiou-Feige, Agnès; Rivals, Jean-Paul; Romero, Pedro; Akiyama, Terunobu; Gerber, Christoph; Meyer, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    For many diseases, where a particular organ is affected, chemical by-products can be found in the patient's exhaled breath. Breath analysis is often done using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, but interpretation of results is difficult and time-consuming. We performed characterization of patients' exhaled breath samples by an electronic nose technique based on an array of nanomechanical membrane sensors. Each membrane is coated with a different thin polymer layer. By pumping the exhaled breath into a measurement chamber, volatile organic compounds present in patients' breath diffuse into the polymer layers and deform the membranes by changes in surface stress. The bending of the membranes is measured piezoresistively and the signals are converted into voltages. The sensor deflection pattern allows one to characterize the condition of the patient. In a clinical pilot study, we investigated breath samples from head and neck cancer patients and healthy control persons. Evaluation using principal component analysis (PCA) allowed a clear distinction between the two groups. As head and neck cancer can be completely removed by surgery, the breath of cured patients was investigated after surgery again and the results were similar to those of the healthy control group, indicating that surgery was successful. PMID:27455276

  9. Self- and Social Motivation to Interact with a Brand on Facebook: The Moderating Roles of Self-Expression and Brand Engagement in a Student Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taemin; Kim, Okhyun

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the roles of self- and social motivation in interacting with a brand on Facebook. An online survey was conducted using 11 familiar global brands randomly selected from Interbrand's 100 Best Global Brands. The result demonstrated that congruence between actual/ideal self and personality of a brand (i.e., self-motivation) positively influenced users' interaction with a brand on Facebook. In this relationship, self-expressive motivation and brand engagement emerged as moderators. Additionally, social identity as a social motivation positively affected users' interaction with a brand. Although not all components of social motivation influenced users' interaction with a brand, this study showed that two exclusive motivations, self and social, positively influenced users' interaction with a brand on Facebook. Managerial and practical implications were also proposed for marketing a brand on Facebook. PMID:27186898

  10. A papillomavirus DNA from a cervical carcinoma and its prevalence in cancer biopsy samples from different geographic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürst, M; Gissmann, L; Ikenberg, H; zur Hausen, H

    1983-01-01

    DNA from one biopsy sample of invasive cancer of the cervix contained sequences hybridizing with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11 DNA only under nonstringent conditions. This DNA was molecularly cloned in lambda phage. Under stringent conditions of hybridization it cross-hybridized to a minor extent (less than 0.1%) with HPV types 10, 14, and 15 and showed no homology with DNA of other human HPV types. We therefore propose to designate it tentatively as HPV 16. HPV 16 DNA was used as a probe to test additional cancer biopsy samples from cervical, vulval, and penile cancer, as well as benign genital warts (condylomata acuminata) and cervical dysplasias for the presence of homologous sequences. In 61.1% (11/18) of cervical cancer samples from German patients sequences were found hybridizing with HPV 16 DNA under conditions of high stringency. In contrast, only 34.8% (8/23) of cancer biopsy samples from Kenya and Brazil revealed this DNA. Vulval and penile cancer biopsy samples hybridized to 28.6% (2/7) or 25% (1/4), respectively. Only 2 out of 33 condylomata acuminata contained HPV 16 DNA. Both positive tumors harbored in addition HPV 6 or HPV 11 DNA. The data thus indicate that HPV 16 DNA prevails in malignant tumors, rendering an accidental contamination with papillomavirus DNA from adjacent papillomas rather unlikely. The rare presence in benign genital papillomas in addition to common genital papillomaviruses suggests a dependence of HPV 16 replication on helper virus. Images PMID:6304740

  11. Systemic Metabolomic Changes in Blood Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Identified by Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Miyamoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Metabolic alterations in tumor cells coupled with systemic indicators of the host response to tumor development have the potential to yield blood profiles with clinical utility for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. We report results from two separate studies using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS to profile metabolites in human blood samples that significantly differ from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC adenocarcinoma and other lung cancer cases. Metabolomic analysis of blood samples from the two studies yielded a total of 437 metabolites, of which 148 were identified as known compounds and 289 identified as unknown compounds. Differential analysis identified 15 known metabolites in one study and 18 in a second study that were statistically different (p-values <0.05. Levels of maltose, palmitic acid, glycerol, ethanolamine, glutamic acid, and lactic acid were increased in cancer samples while amino acids tryptophan, lysine and histidine decreased. Many of the metabolites were found to be significantly different in both studies, suggesting that metabolomics appears to be robust enough to find systemic changes from lung cancer, thus showing the potential of this type of analysis for lung cancer detection.

  12. The moderating role of parental smoking on their children's attitudes toward smoking among a predominantly minority sample: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorov Alexander V

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general having a parent who smokes or smoked is a strong and consistent predictor of smoking initiation among their children while authoritative parenting style, open communication that demonstrates mutual respect between child and parent, and parental expectations not to smoke are protective. It has been hypothesized that parental smoking affects their children's smoking initiation through both imitation of the behavior and effects on attitudes toward smoking. The goals of the current analysis were to examine these two potential mechanisms. Methods In 2003, 1,417 high school students in Houston, Texas, completed a cross-sectional survey as part of the evaluation of an interactive smoking prevention and cessation program delivered via CD-ROM. To assess the relationship between number of parents who currently smoke and children's smoking status, we completed an unconditional logistic regression. To determine whether the attitudes that children of smokers hold toward smoking are significantly more positive than the attitudes of children of non-smokers we examined whether the parents smoking status moderated the relationship between children's attitudes toward smoking and their ever smoking using unconditional logistic regressions. Results Compared to participants whose parents did not currently smoke, participants who reported one or both parents currently smoke, had increased odds of ever smoking (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.03–1.68; Wald χ2 = 4.78 (df = 1 p = 0.03 and OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.51–3.10; Wald χ2 = 17.80 (df = 1 p 2 = 54.71 (df = 1 p 2 = 26.45 (df = 1 p Conclusion Children of smokers were more likely to smoke and reported more favorable attitudes toward smoking compared to children of non-smokers. One interpretation of our findings is that parental smoking not only directly influences behavior; it also moderates their children's attitudes towards smoking and thereby impacts their children's behavior. Our results

  13. Coronary calcium score in 12-year breast cancer survivors after adjuvant radiotherapy with low to moderate heart exposure – Relationship to cardiac radiation dose and cardiovascular risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background/purpose: We explored the relation between coronary artery calcium (CAC) and cardiac radiation doses in breast cancer survivors (BCS) treated with radiotherapy (RT). Additionally, we examined the impact of other risk factors and biomarkers of coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and methods: 236 BCS (median age 51 years [range 30–70], median observation time 12 years [9.2–15.7]), treated with 4-field RT of 50GY, were included and examined in 2004 (T1), 2007 (T2) and 2011 (T3) with clinical examination, blood tests and questionnaires. At T3, cardiac computed tomography was performed with quantification of CAC using Agatston score (AS). For 106 patients cardiac dose volume histograms were available. Results: The cohort-based median of the mean cardiac dose was 2.5 (range 0.5–7.0) Gy. There was no correlation between measures of cardiac dose and AS. AS was correlated with high cholesterol at T1/T2 (p = 0.022), high proBNP at T1/T2 (p < 0.022) and T3 (p < 0.022) and high HbA1c at T3 (p = 0.022). In addition, a high AS was significantly associated with hypertension (p = 0.022). Age (p < 0.001) and cholesterol at T1/T2 (p = 0.001) retained significant associations in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Traditional, modifiable risk factors of CAD correlate with CAC and may be important for the long term risk of CAD after RT. With low to moderate cardiac radiation exposure, a contribution of radiation dose to CAC could not be demonstrated

  14. Study on chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer using MRS and pancreatic juice samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wang; Chao Ma; Zhuan Liao; Bing Tian; Jian-Ping Lu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the markers of pancreatic diseases and provide basic data and experimental methods for the diagnosis of pancreatic diseases. METHODS: There were 15 patients in the present study, among whom 10 had pancreatic cancer and 5, chronic pancreatitis. In all patients, pancreatic cancer or chronic pancreatitis was located on the head of the p-a-ncreas. Pathology data of all pa tients was confirmed by biopsy and surgery. Among the 10 patients with pancreatic cancer, 3 people had a medical history of longterm alcohol consumption. Of 5 patients with chronic pancreatitis, 4 men suffered from alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatic juice samples were obtained from patients by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Magnetic resonance spectroscopyn was performed on an 11.7-T scanner (Bruker DRX-500) using Call-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequences. The parameters were as follows: spectral width, 15 KHz; time domain, 64 K; number of scans, 512; and acquisition time, 2.128 s. RESULTS: The main component of pancreatic juice included leucine, iso-leucine, valine, lactate, alanine, acetate, aspartate, lysine, glycine, threonine, tyrosine, histidine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine. On performing 1D 1H and 2D total correlation spectroscopy, we found a triplet peak at the chemical shift of 1.19 ppm, which only appeared in the spectra of pancreatic juice obtained from patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. This triplet peak was considered the resonance of the methyl of ethoxy group, which may be associated with the metabolism of alcohol in the pancreas. CONCLUSION: The triplet peak, at the chemical shift of 1.19 ppm is likely to be the characteristic metabolite of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis.

  15. Cloning of HPV16 E2 Gene from a Biopsied Cervical Cancer Sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To clone HPV16 E2 gene from a biopsied cervical cancer sampleMaterials & Methods HPV 1 6 E2 gene was amplified from specimen derived from aHPV 16 positive patient, then cloned and sequenced. Results The full-length of HPV 16 E2 gene was successfully cloned. In comparisonwith the prototype accepted by GenBank, six point mutations in HPV 1 6 E2 nucleotideacid sequence were identified. Of them, three were missense, and one was in the over-lapping E4 gene and was synonymous to E4.Conclusion HPV 16 E2 gene was successfully cloned, and some nucleotide acids in itssequence were different from the prototype.

  16. Sample Preparation for Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Protein-Protein Interactions in Cancer Cell Lines and Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigbeder, Alice; Vélot, Lauriane; James, D Andrew; Bisson, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    A precisely controlled network of protein-protein interactions constitutes the basis for functional signaling pathways. This equilibrium is more often than not disrupted in cancer cells, by the aberrant expression or activation of oncogenic proteins. Therefore, the analysis of protein interaction networks in cancer cells has become crucial to expand our comprehension of the molecular underpinnings of tumor formation and progression. This protocol describes a sample preparation method for the analysis of signaling complexes by mass spectrometry (MS), following the affinity purification of a protein of interest from a cancer cell line or a solid tumor. In particular, we provide a spin tip-based protease digestion procedure that offers a more rapid and controlled alternative to other gel-based and gel-free methods. This sample preparation protocol represents a useful strategy to identify protein interactions and to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms that contribute to a given cancer phenotype. PMID:27581032

  17. GREVE: Genomic Recurrent Event ViEwer to assist the identification of patterns across individual cancer samples

    OpenAIRE

    Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Holmes, Chris C.; Broxholme, John

    2012-01-01

    Summary: GREVE has been developed to assist with the identification of recurrent genomic aberrations across cancer samples. The exact characterization of such aberrations remains a challenge despite the availability of increasing amount of data, from SNParray to next-generation sequencing. Furthermore, genomic aberrations in cancer are especially difficult to handle because they are, by nature, unique to the patients. However, their recurrence in specific regions of the genome has been shown ...

  18. Correlation of Arsenic Levels in Smokeless Tobacco Products and Biological Samples of Oral Cancer Patients and Control Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Talpur, Farah N; Kazi, Atif G; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Panhwar, Abdul H; Kamboh, Muhammad A

    2015-12-01

    It has been extensively reported that chewing of smokeless tobacco (SLT) can lead to cancers of oral cavity. In present study, the relationship between arsenic (As) exposure via chewing/inhaling different SLT products in oral cancer patients have or/not consumed SLT products was studied. The As in different types of SLT products (gutkha, mainpuri, and snuff) and biological (scalp hair and blood) samples of different types of oral cancer patients and controls were analyzed. Both controls and oral cancer patients have same age group (ranged 30-60 years), socio-economic status, localities, and dietary habits. The concentrations of As in SLT products and biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials. The resulted data of present study indicates that the concentration of As was significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of oral cancer patients than those of controls (p0.01). The intake of As via consuming different SLT may have synergistic effects, in addition to other risk factors associated with oral cancer. PMID:25975948

  19. Dominant B-cell epitopes from cancer/stem cell antigen SOX2 recognized by serum samples from cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Julia; Rahman, Munira; Luong, Quang T; Lomeli, Shirley H.; Riss, Joseph; Prins, Robert M.; Gure, Ali O.; Zeng, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Human sex determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) is an important transcriptional factor involved in the pluripotency and stemness of human embryonic stem cells. SOX2 plays important roles in maintaining cancer stem cell activities of melanoma and cancers of the brain, prostate, breast, and lung. SOX2 is also a lineage survival oncogene for squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and esophagus. Spontaneous cellular and humoral immune responses against SOX2 present in cancer patients classify it as a tu...

  20. Mitochondrial DNA A10398G Mutation is not Associated with Breast Cancer Risk in a Sample of Iraqi Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawaa A. Zahid

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate if there is a relationship between mtDNA polymorphism (A10398G and breast cancer in a sample of 59 Iraqi women. Breast cancer is the second most common diagnosed cause of cancer death in the developed countries and accounts for 23% of the total cancers. Different studies reported that breast cancer accounts for 14% of all cancer deaths in females. It is well documented that the different factors such as genetics and environment factors are involved in tumorigenesis. Mutations in the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region and somatic mutations are emerging as early genetic markers of cancer. Identification of such markers for breast cancer would prevent late detection and increase the chance of recovery and survival rate. In breast cancer different mtDNA alterations were reported. The A10398G mutation in NADH Dehyrogenase (ND3 a subunit of complex I of the Oxidative Phosphorylation process (OXPHOS is perhaps one of the most studied mutations with conflicting reports of its association with breast cancer. Genomic DNA was extracted from 21 unrelated women with malignant tumors, 22 women with benign tumors and 16 healthy women blood donors. Subsequently, PCR amplification was performed using specific primers, PCR products were subjected to a suitable restriction enzyme. No genetic variants were identified in mtDNA among malignant tumoral group and controls while 9% of benign tumor cases exhibited the variant. Our finding indicated that A10398G polymorphism cannot be used as a biomarker for breast cancer detection in Iraqi women.

  1. Potential utility of eGFP-expressing NOG mice (NOG-EGFP as a high purity cancer sampling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Kentaro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose It is still technically difficult to collect high purity cancer cells from tumor tissues, which contain noncancerous cells. We hypothesized that xenograft models of NOG mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP, referred to as NOG-EGFP mice, may be useful for obtaining such high purity cancer cells for detailed molecular and cellular analyses. Methods Pancreato-biliary cancer cell lines were implanted subcutaneously to compare the tumorigenicity between NOG-EGFP mice and nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID mice. To obtain high purity cancer cells, the subcutaneous tumors were harvested from the mice and enzymatically dissociated into single-cell suspensions. Then, the cells were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS for separation of the host cells and the cancer cells. Thereafter, the contamination rate of host cells in collected cancer cells was quantified by using FACS analysis. The viability of cancer cells after FACS sorting was evaluated by cell culture and subsequent subcutaneous reimplantation in NOG-EGFP mice. Results The tumorigenicity of NOG-EGFP mice was significantly better than that of NOD/SCID mice in all of the analyzed cell lines (p  Conclusions This method provides a novel cancer sampling system for molecular and cellular analysis with high accuracy and should contribute to the development of personalized medicine.

  2. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  3. Surgical Treatment Combined with Postoperative Adjuvant Chemotherapy Offer a Viable Option to the Cervical Cancer in Stage ⅠB ~ⅡA with Moderate and High-Risk Factor for Recurrence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ke; LIU Tongyu; HUANG Weiping; WEN Hongwu; LIAO Qinping

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of surgical therapy combined with postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for cervical cancer with moderate and high-risk factors.Methods:68 patients with cervical cancer in stage Ⅰ B ~ ⅡA were enrolled and initially treated with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy from January 1999 to December 2009.37 patients were assigned into moderate-risk group (stromal invasion > 50%,poor differentiation,max diameter of tumor ≥ 4 cm,positive LVSI,n =37),and 31patients assigned into high-risk group (positive surgical margin,parametrial invasion,lymph node involvement,n =31).In all cases,chemotherapy was administered adjuvantly:three to four courses of chemotherapy were administered adjuvantly to patients in moderate-risk group and four to six courses to patients in high-risk group.Chemotherapy regimen was BIP (Bleomycin + Ifosfamide + Cisplatin/Carboplatin)for squamous and adenosquamous cancer,and TP (Paclitaxel + Cisplatin/Carboplatin) for adenocarcinoma.Disease-free survival rates and complications of the combined therapy were recorded in follow-up.Results:Estimated 3-year disease-free survival rate was 93.1% for the patientsin moderate-risk group,and 85.4% for the patients in high-risk group (P > 0.05).The recurrence rate was 10.3% for the total 68 patients,and was 8.1% and 12.9% for the patients in moderate-risk group and high-risk group,respectively.The incidence of locoregional recurrence was 5.4% and 6.5% in the moderate-risk group and the high-risk group,respectively.Side effects of chemotherapy and complications of the combined therapy were limited,and no severe bleomycin-related pulmonary toxicity was observed.Conclusions:our results indicate that surgical therapy combined with postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy offers a viable option to the cervical cancer in stage Ⅰ B ~ Ⅱ A.Patients can tolerate the side effects of chemotherapy and get better efficacy.

  4. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enerly, Espen; Bonde, Jesper; Schee, Kristina; Pedersen, Helle; Lönnberg, Stefan; Nygård, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance. To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP), 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited to be part of the intervention group. Women in this group received one of two self-sampling devices, Evalyn Brush or Delphi Screener. To attend screening, women in the intervention group had the option of using the self-sampling device (self-sampling subgroup) or visiting their physician for a cervical smear. Self-sampled specimens were split and analyzed for the presence of high-risk (hr) HPV by the CLART® HPV2 test and the digene® Hybrid Capture (HC)2 test. The control group consisted of 2593 women who received a 2nd reminder letter according to the current guidelines of the NCCSP. The attendance rates were 33.4% in the intervention group and 23.2% in the control group, with similar attendance rates for both self-sampling devices. Women in the self-sampling subgroup responded favorably to both self-sampling devices and cited not remembering receiving a call for screening as the most dominant reason for previous non-attendance. Thirty-two of 34 (94.1%) hrHPV-positive women in the self-sampling subgroup attended follow-up. In conclusion, self-sampling increased attendance rates and was feasible and well received. This study lends further support to the proposal that self-sampling may be a valuable alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway. PMID:27073929

  5. Evaluation of oxidant-antioxidant status in tissue samples in oral cancer: A case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Kumar Chandan; Austin, Ravi David; Shrivastava, Deepti

    2016-01-01

    Background: Imbalances between the oxidant-antioxidant status have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in the tissue samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients of different clinical stages in comparison with the healthy controls. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was designed with 20 new histopathologically proven oral carcinoma patients and an equal number of age, sex, and tobacco chewing habit matched healthy subjects. Their tissue samples were subjected to evaluation of lipid peroxidation product and antioxidant enzymes, namely, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) using spectrophotometric methods. The data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. The statistical comparisons between the study groups were performed by independent Student's unpaired t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Post-hoc analysis was performed for within study group comparisons. Karl Pearson correlation was performed for the biochemical parameters within the group and between the groups. For statistically significant correlations, simple linear regression was performed using SPSS (α=0.05). Results: Significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001) SOD and CAT (P < 0.001) was observed in the tissue of OSCC patients as compared with the healthy controls. On the other hand, reduced GSH and GPx were significantly increased in tumor samples. Conclusion: Reduced lipid peroxidation and increased activity of reduced GSH and GPx provides the suitable environment for the local growth and invasion of the tumor and metastasis in the later stages. Among the antioxidant enzymes, GSH reductase appears to have a profound role in carcinogenesis and thus it can be considered as potential prognostic marker. PMID:27076834

  6. Personalized Estimate of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: Development and External Validation of a Nomogram in Cancer Patients Receiving Highly/Moderately Emetogenic Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhihuang; Liang, Wenhua; Yang, Yunpeng; Keefe, Dorothy; Ma, Yuxiang; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Xue, Cong; Huang, Yan; Zhao, Hongyun; Chen, Likun; Chan, Alexandre; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is presented in over 30% of cancer patients receiving highly/moderately emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC/MEC). The currently recommended antiemetic therapy is merely based on the emetogenic level of chemotherapy, regardless of patient's individual risk factors. It is, therefore, critical to develop an approach for personalized management of CINV in the era of precision medicine.A number of variables were involved in the development of CINV. In the present study, we pooled the data from 2 multi-institutional investigations of CINV due to HEC/MEC treatment in Asian countries. Demographic and clinical variables of 881 patients were prospectively collected as defined previously, and 862 of them had full documentation of variables of interest. The data of 548 patients from Chinese institutions were used to identify variables associated with CINV using multivariate logistic regression model, and then construct a personalized prediction model of nomogram; while the remaining 314 patients out of China (Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan) entered the external validation set. C-index was used to measure the discrimination ability of the model.The predictors in the final model included sex, age, alcohol consumption, history of vomiting pregnancy, history of motion sickness, body surface area, emetogenicity of chemotherapy, and antiemetic regimens. The C-index was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.62-0.72) for the training set and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.58-0.72) for the validation set. The C-index was higher than that of any single predictor, including the emetogenic level of chemotherapy according to current antiemetic guidelines. Calibration curves showed good agreement between prediction and actual occurrence of CINV.This easy-to-use prediction model was based on chemotherapeutic regimens as well as patient's individual risk factors. The prediction accuracy of CINV occurrence in this nomogram was well validated by an independent data set. It could

  7. Improving Cervical Cancer Prevention by HPV Self-sampling, Colposcopy and Biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Baars (Romy)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The worldwide incidence rate of cervical cancer is around 500 000 per year with a mortality rate of around 270 000 women per year. With these figures, it represents the third most common cancer among women worldwide, after breast and colorectal cancer. However, the inc

  8. [Sample Quality Control through the Depository and Distribution of Cancer-Related Human Materials: Experience of Kanagawa Cancer Research & Information Association (KCRIA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Yohei

    2015-01-01

    Kanagawa Prefecture and its department of hospital business established the Kanagawa Cancer Research and Information Association (KCRIA) in 2006, and the Kanagawa Cancer Center (KCC) and related institutes have started to collect and distribute patient-derived cancer-related biomaterials to researchers. The tumor tissue center of KCC is collecting frozen tumor tissues, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissues, serum of patients before treatment, and genomic DNA of peripheral white blood cells. Corresponding normal tissues are also collected if possible. Clinical information on patients is annotated in each sample as accurately as possible under linkable anonymization to follow the prognosis. We are evaluating the quality of tumor samples with two indices: the RNA Integrity Number (RIN) of extracted total RNAs from randomly chosen frozen tissues examined with the 2100 Bioanalyzer (Agilent Technologies, Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA), and the histopathological examination of parts of all frozen tissues prepared in the Optimal Cutting Temperature (OTC) compound and evaluation of the contents of tumor cells. Management of the sample quality is an important issue for any biomaterial repository. The quality of samples is influenced by the procedures of sample collection and storage, and also by the storage duration. The quality could be periodically examined by monitoring analyte stability and integrity, such as RIN of frozen cancer tissues. However, the best way to collect and store RNA might not always be the same for different analytes. Therefore, sample quality control at biomaterial repositories that are preparing samples for future studies on undefined analytes is a very difficult problem. At least the standard sample operation procedure (SOP) should be available for users. PMID:26524887

  9. Suppression of Cancer Stemness p21-regulating mRNA and microRNA Signatures in Recurrent Ovarian Cancer Patient Samples

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Michael F

    2012-01-19

    Abstract Background Malignant ovarian disease is characterised by high rates of mortality due to high rates of recurrent chemoresistant disease. Anecdotal evidence indicates this may be due to chemoresistant properties of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, our understanding of the role of CSCs in recurrent ovarian disease remains sparse. In this study we used gene microarrays and meta-analysis of our previously published microRNA (miRNA) data to assess the involvement of cancer stemness signatures in recurrent ovarian disease. Methods Microarray analysis was used to characterise early regulation events in an embryonal carcinoma (EC) model of cancer stemness. This was then compared to our previously published microarray data from a study of primary versus recurrent ovarian disease. In parallel, meta-analysis was used to identify cancer stemness miRNA signatures in tumor patient samples. Results Microarray analysis demonstrated a 90% difference between gene expression events involved in early regulation of differentiation in murine EC (mEC) and embryonic stem (mES) cells. This contrasts the known parallels between mEC and mES cells in the undifferentiated and well-differentiated states. Genelist comparisons identified a cancer stemness signature set of genes in primary versus recurrent data, a subset of which are known p53-p21 regulators. This signature is present in primary and recurrent or in primary alone but essentially never in recurrent tumors specifically. Meta-analysis of miRNA expression showed a much stronger cancer stemness signature within tumor samples. This miRNA signature again related to p53-p21 regulation and was expressed prominently in recurrent tumors. Our data indicate that the regulation of p53-p21 in ovarian cancer involves, at least partially, a cancer stemness component. Conclusion We present a p53-p21 cancer stemness signature model for ovarian cancer. We propose that this may, at least partially, differentially regulate the p53-p21

  10. Suppression of cancer stemness p21-regulating mRNA and microRNA signatures in recurrent ovarian cancer patient samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Michael F

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant ovarian disease is characterised by high rates of mortality due to high rates of recurrent chemoresistant disease. Anecdotal evidence indicates this may be due to chemoresistant properties of cancer stem cells (CSCs. However, our understanding of the role of CSCs in recurrent ovarian disease remains sparse. In this study we used gene microarrays and meta-analysis of our previously published microRNA (miRNA data to assess the involvement of cancer stemness signatures in recurrent ovarian disease. Methods Microarray analysis was used to characterise early regulation events in an embryonal carcinoma (EC model of cancer stemness. This was then compared to our previously published microarray data from a study of primary versus recurrent ovarian disease. In parallel, meta-analysis was used to identify cancer stemness miRNA signatures in tumor patient samples. Results Microarray analysis demonstrated a 90% difference between gene expression events involved in early regulation of differentiation in murine EC (mEC and embryonic stem (mES cells. This contrasts the known parallels between mEC and mES cells in the undifferentiated and well-differentiated states. Genelist comparisons identified a cancer stemness signature set of genes in primary versus recurrent data, a subset of which are known p53-p21 regulators. This signature is present in primary and recurrent or in primary alone but essentially never in recurrent tumors specifically. Meta-analysis of miRNA expression showed a much stronger cancer stemness signature within tumor samples. This miRNA signature again related to p53-p21 regulation and was expressed prominently in recurrent tumors. Our data indicate that the regulation of p53-p21 in ovarian cancer involves, at least partially, a cancer stemness component. Conclusion We present a p53-p21 cancer stemness signature model for ovarian cancer. We propose that this may, at least partially, differentially regulate the p

  11. Simulating an investigative study of clinical cancer samples: use of tissue slides and PCR-based promoter-hypermethylation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Yuan Yuan; Chin, Cheen Fei; Yeong, Foong May

    2015-01-01

    Topics on the molecular basis underlying cancer are quite popular among students. Also, excellent textbooks abound that provide interesting materials for discussion during lectures and tutorials about major events leading to cancer formation and progression. However, much less is available for students to conduct experiments for the analysis of cancer samples in undergraduate modules where there is a limited time-frame. Given the difficulty of working with cancer samples and the scarcity of good samples even in the clinical laboratories, it is impossible to run large-class practicals using patients' samples. Here, we describe the use of tissue slides in combination with polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) as a means of simulating an investigative approach to supplement students' learning of clinical research. By using tissue slides for histo-pathological examinations and specific budding yeast genomic DNA and primers adapted to demonstrate methylation-specific PCR, we designed an inquiry-based lab session to simulate the clinical investigation of a cohort of biopsies that students could analyze in a one-session practical. PMID:25395208

  12. Barriers to breast cancer screening among a sample of Egyptian females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M. Mamdouh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer (BC is usually diagnosed in late stages in countries with limited resources. Early detection of BC is likely to improve the outcome of the disease for women in these areas. Objective: The aim of this study was to understand the possible personal, economic, and systems barriers to BC screening in a sample of Egyptian women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in family health centers representing the seven districts of Alexandria governorate, Egypt. A total of 612 women were randomly selected from the chosen centers. Results: In this sample of Egyptian women, the most frequently identified potential barriers to BC screening were the following: 81.8% would not seek care until they were ill, 77% were unwilling to have a mammogram until it was recommended by the doctor, 71.4% blamed the, lack of privacy, 69.2% thought that medical checkups were not worthwhile, and 64.6% blamed the cost of services. The study further revealed that women of lower education, women in the lower income category, women who did not do paid work, those who had poor knowledge of the risks of BC, and women with no family history of BC were more likely to perceive different screening barriers compared with their counterparts. Conclusion: Many potential personal, economic, and health system barriers were identified. Addressing these barriers by increasing the awareness of BC and dealing with the misconceptions that the women have can help the policy makers to design more culturally relevant strategies to motivate women to utilize screening services.

  13. Small-Sample Behavior of Novel Phase I Cancer Trial Designs

    CERN Document Server

    Oron, Assaf P

    2012-01-01

    Novel dose-finding designs, using estimation to assign the best estimated maximum- tolerated-dose (MTD) at each point in the experiment, most commonly via Bayesian techniques, have recently entered large-scale implementation in Phase I cancer clinical trials. We examine the small-sample behavior of these "Bayesian Phase I" (BP1) designs, and also of non-Bayesian designs sharing the same main "long-memory" traits (hereafter: LMP1s). For all LMP1s examined, the number of cohorts treated at the true MTD (denoted here as n*) was highly variable between numerical runs drawn from the same toxicity-threshold distribution, especially when compared with "up-and-down" (U&D) short-memory designs. Further investigation using the same set of thresholds in permuted order, produced a nearly-identical magnitude of variability in n*. Therefore, this LMP1 behavior is driven by a strong sensitivity to the order in which toxicity thresholds appear in the experiment. We suggest that the sensitivity is related to LMP1's tenden...

  14. Stability of HE4 and CA125 in blood samples from patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Noreen; Karlsen, Mona A; Høgdall, Claus; Laursen, Inga A; Christensen, Ib J; Høgdall, Estrid V S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of handling and storage on HE4 and CA125 serum and EDTA plasma levels to clarify any important consequences for a clinical setting. METHODS: Blood samples from 13 ovarian cancer (OC) patients were collected and allowed to clot or sediment for up to 72 hours...... at 4 °C or 20 °C, then processed into serum and EDTA plasma. Furthermore, the effects of up to eight repetitive cycles of freeze/thaw were investigated. HE4 and CA125 were analyzed using a Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay on the Architect i2000sr System. RESULTS: No significant effect of...... processing time for HE4 could be shown. HE4 EDTA plasma levels were insignificantly lower (3%) than serum levels (p = 0.41). Similarly, no significant effect of processing time for CA125 could be demonstrated. CA125 levels at 4 °C were significantly reduced compared to levels at 20 °C (p = 0.024). No...

  15. Comparing paraffined and deparaffinized breast cancer tissue samples and an analysis of Raman spectroscopy and infrared methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depciuch, J.; Kaznowska, E.; Szmuc, K.; Zawlik, I.; Cholewa, M.; Heraud, P.; Cebulski, J.

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer makes up a quarter of all cancer in women, which is why research into new diagnostic methods and sample preparations need to be developed at an accelerated pace. Researchers are looking for diagnostic tools to detect when an individual has cancer cells and use that information to see what measurements and approaches can be used to take further diagnostic steps. The most common method of sample preparation is the imbibing of tumor tissue in paraffin, which can produce a background for spectroscopic measurements in the range of 500-3500 cm-1. In this study we demonstrated that proper preparation of paraffin-embedded specimens and the measurement methodology can eliminate paraffin vibration, as was done in the work Depciuch et al. 2015. Thanks to this spectroscopic technique there may become a reliable and accurate method of diagnosing breast cancer based on the evidence found from the prepared samples. The study compared the results obtained through Raman spectroscopy and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) measurements of healthy and cancerous breast tissues that were either embedded in paraffin or deparaffinized. The resulting spectrum and accurate analysis led to the conclusion that the appropriate measurement of the background and the elimination of peaks from the paraffin had the greatest impact on the reliability of results. Furthermore, after the accurate, detailed studies FTIR and Raman spectroscopy on samples of breast tissue that were deparaffinized or embedded in paraffin, including a complete analysis of the peak after transformation Kramers-Kröning (KK), it was found that sample preparation did not affect the result obtained by measuring the reflectance in the mid-infrared range, and that this only had a minimal effect relating to the intensity obtained by the measurement of the Raman peak. Only in special cases, when Raman spectroscopic methods are used for research to find the peculiarities of the spectra, are deparaffinization recommended

  16. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Wadhwa, Sham Kumar, E-mail: wadhwashamkumar@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Naveed, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Baig, Jamil Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kolachi, Nida Fatima [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics and Basic Sciences, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)

    2010-04-15

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  17. Interaction of cadmium and zinc in biological samples of smokers and chewing tobacco female mouth cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.

  18. A pilot study of sampling subcutaneous adipose tissue to examine biomarkers of cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Kristin L.; Makar, Karen W.; Kratz, Mario; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; McTiernan, Anne; Ulrich, Cornelia M.

    2009-01-01

    Examination of adipose tissue biology may provide important insight into mechanistic links for the observed association between higher body fat and risk of several types of cancer, in particular colorectal and breast cancer. We tested two different methods of obtaining adipose tissue from healthy individuals.

  19. Evaluation of novel assays for the detection of human papilloma virus in self-collected samples for cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q; Du, H; Zhang, R; Zhao, J H; Hu, Q C; Wang, C; Wang, G X; Tang, J L; Wu, R F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of three new high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) assays for primary cervical cancer screening, by using self-collected samples, and to identify an HPV assay that could overcome the major obstacles faced during large-scale population-based screening. Two hundred and ten women showing abnormal cervical cytology (and referred for a colposcopy) were recruited in this study. Self-collected samples obtained from all women were tested with the Cobas, Seq, and BioPerfectus Multiplex Real Time HPV assays; simultaneously, clinician-collected samples (from the same women) were tested with the gold-standard Cobas HPV assay. The results of all the assays were consistent. The sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ (CIN2+) and CIN3+ were comparable between the self-collected samples tested with the three new assays and the clinician-collected samples tested with the Cobas HPV assay (P > 0.05). The single-genotype HPV load per sample did not differ significantly between the self- and clinician-collected samples (P = 0.195). In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrated the applicability of the three new HPV assays for primary cervical cancer screening based on self-collection. PMID:27420961

  20. Clinical procedure for colon carcinoma tissue sampling directly affects the cancer marker-capacity of VEGF family members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    mRNA levels of members of the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor family (VEGF-A, -B, -C, -D, Placental Growth Factor/PlGF) have been investigated as tissue-based markers of colon cancer. These studies, which used specimens obtained by surgical resection or colonoscopic biopsy, yielded contradictory results. We studied the effect of the sampling method on the marker accuracy of VEGF family members. Comparative RT-qPCR analysis was performed on healthy colon and colon carcinoma samples obtained by biopsy (n = 38) or resection (n = 39) to measure mRNA expression levels of individual VEGF family members. mRNA levels of genes encoding the eicosanoid enzymes cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and of genes encoding the hypoxia markers glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) were included as markers for cellular stress and hypoxia. Expression levels of COX2, 5-LOX, GLUT-1 and CAIX revealed the occurrence in healthy colon resection samples of hypoxic cellular stress and a concurrent increment of basal expression levels of VEGF family members. This increment abolished differential expression of VEGF-B and VEGF-C in matched carcinoma resection samples and created a surgery-induced underexpression of VEGF-D. VEGF-A and PlGF showed strong overexpression in carcinoma samples regardless of the sampling method. Sampling-induced hypoxia in resection samples but not in biopsy samples affects the marker-reliability of VEGF family members. Therefore, biopsy samples provide a more accurate report on VEGF family mRNA levels. Furthermore, this limited expression analysis proposes VEGF-A and PlGF as reliable, sampling procedure insensitive mRNA-markers for molecular diagnosis of colon cancer

  1. Pancratistatin induces apoptosis in clinical leukemia samples with minimal effect on non-cancerous peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNulty James

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancratistatin, a natural compound extracted from Hymenocallis littoralis, can selectively induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. In this ex vivo study, we evaluated the effect of pancratistatin on peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 15 leukemia patients prior to clinical intervention of newly diagnosed patients, as well as others of different ages in relapse and at various disease progression states. Results Mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers and leukemia patients were exposed to 1 μM pancratistatin for up to 48 h. Irrespective of leukemia type, pancratistatin induced apoptosis in the leukemic samples, with minimal effects on non-cancerous peripheral blood mononuclear control cells. Conclusion Our results show that pancratistatin is an effective and selective anti-cancer agent with potential for advancement to clinical trials.

  2. Analysis of clinical characteristics of 310 patients with moderate to severe cancer pain%310例中重度癌痛患者临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵月娟; 王昆

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过对伴有中重度癌痛患者的临床特征进行前瞻、开放性横断面评估,旨在了解癌痛发病的总体特征、提高诊治水平。方法:选取2012年12月至2013年12月因中重度癌痛首次收治入院的恶性肿瘤患者,于入院当天评估疼痛强度、部位、性质、诱发缓解因素,并进行病理生理学分类。结果:310例患者完成疼痛评估,包括中度痛101例(32.58%),重度痛209例(67.42%)。肿瘤来源前5位依次为:肺癌102例(32.90%)、结直肠癌30例(9.68%)、胰腺癌27例(8.71%)、乳腺癌24例(7.74%)和胃癌20例(6.54%)。310例患者共报告533处疼痛,常见为腰部132例、上腹125例、胸部88例、下肢71例,其次颈肩上肢47例、盆腔33例、会阴区23例、头面部14例,胰腺癌疼痛部位中90.63%与原发肿瘤部位一致。病理生理学分类中骨痛145例(27.20%)、内脏痛138例(25.89%)、软组织痛126例(23.64%)和神经病理性疼痛124例(23.27%),胰腺癌患者内脏痛的发生率为92.59%。结论:中重度癌痛发生于各种常见恶性肿瘤,以肺癌来源最为多见,胰腺癌痛主要表现为与原发肿瘤部位一致的内脏痛,其他肿瘤疼痛特征没有明显特异性。%To study the general characteristics of cancer pain and to improve cancer pain diagnosis and treatment lev-el by prospective and open cross-sectional assessment of the clinical characteristics of patients with moderate to severe cancer pain. Methods:Patients with moderate to severe cancer pain were observed upon initial admission to the hospital from December 2012 to De-cember 2013. We assessed pain intensity, location, characteristics, and predisposing and mitigating factors and classified the pain by pathophysiology. Results:A total of 310 patients with moderate (101 cases, 32.58%) and severe (209 cases, 67.42%) pains were as-sessed. The top five cancers identified were lung cancer (102

  3. Access to communication technologies in a sample of cancer patients: an urban and rural survey

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins Anthony; Butler Donna; Kroenke Kurt; Theobald Dale E; Abdullah Ma'n; Edgerton Sara; Dugan William M

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a growing awareness among providers of the symptom burden experienced by cancer patients. Systematic symptom screening is difficult. Our plan was to evaluate a technology-based symptom screening process using touch-tone telephone and Internet in our rural outreach cancer program in Indiana. Would rural patients have adequate access to technologies for home-based symptom reporting? Objectives 1) To determine access to touch-tone telephone service and Internet for p...

  4. Cancer associated epigenetic transitions identified by genome-wide histone methylation binding profiles in human colorectal cancer samples and paired normal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite their well-established functional roles, histone modifications have received less attention than DNA methylation in the cancer field. In order to evaluate their importance in colorectal cancer (CRC), we generated the first genome-wide histone modification profiles in paired normal colon mucosa and tumor samples. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip) was used to identify promoters enriched for histone H3 trimethylated on lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in paired normal colon mucosa and tumor samples from two CRC patients and for the CRC cell line HT29. By comparing histone modification patterns in normal mucosa and tumors, we found that alterations predicted to have major functional consequences were quite rare. Furthermore, when normal or tumor tissue samples were compared to HT29, high similarities were observed for H3K4me3. However, the differences found for H3K27me3, which is important in determining cellular identity, indicates that cell lines do not represent optimal tissue models. Finally, using public expression data, we uncovered previously unknown changes in CRC expression patterns. Genes positive for H3K4me3 in normal and/or tumor samples, which are typically already active in normal mucosa, became hyperactivated in tumors, while genes with H3K27me3 in normal and/or tumor samples and which are expressed at low levels in normal mucosa, became hypersilenced in tumors. Genome wide histone modification profiles can be used to find epigenetic aberrations in genes associated with cancer. This strategy gives further insights into the epigenetic contribution to the oncogenic process and may identify new biomarkers

  5. Enhanced expression of polysialic acid correlates with malignant phenotype in breast cancer cell lines and clinical tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Xiang; Zeng, Ying-Nan; He, Fa; Yang, Xiao-Min; Guan, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Polysialic acid (PSA) is highly expressed during embryonic development, but barely expressed during postnatal development, and may be 're-expressed' in cancer tissues. In this study, motility and migration assays were performed to compare the changes in cell behavior between non-malignant and maligant cells. Next, the expression levels of PSA were evaluated in 4 human and mouse normal breast or breast cancer (BC) cell lines using 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxybenzene-labeling HPLC technology, as well as in human clinical BC tissue samples. PSA expression was significantly higher in malignant cells (where it appeared to facilitate cell migration and motility) than in non-malignant cells. Enhanced PSA expression levels were also observed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a leading cause of cancer cell metastasis, which was induced in the NMuMG and MCF10A cells by treatment with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). An increased PSA expression also correlated with the disease stage in the patients with BC (PPST) and polysialyltransferase ST8SiaII (STX), which are responsible for PSA synthesis, were differently expressed in the tested BC samples. However, PST, but not STX, was re-expressed in 14 out of 20 clinical BC samples. The findings of the present study indicate that the pathophysiology of BC involves the aberrant regulation of PSA expression and PST gene expression. PMID:26530860

  6. Interval-value Based Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm for cancer-type specific gene selection and sample classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramyachitra, D; Sofia, M; Manikandan, P

    2015-09-01

    Microarray technology allows simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of thousands of genes within a biological tissue sample. The fundamental power of microarrays lies within the ability to conduct parallel surveys of gene expression using microarray data. The classification of tissue samples based on gene expression data is an important problem in medical diagnosis of diseases such as cancer. In gene expression data, the number of genes is usually very high compared to the number of data samples. Thus the difficulty that lies with data are of high dimensionality and the sample size is small. This research work addresses the problem by classifying resultant dataset using the existing algorithms such as Support Vector Machine (SVM), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), Interval Valued Classification (IVC) and the improvised Interval Value based Particle Swarm Optimization (IVPSO) algorithm. Thus the results show that the IVPSO algorithm outperformed compared with other algorithms under several performance evaluation functions. PMID:26484222

  7. Risk factors for breast cancer: a systematic review of studies with female samples among the general population in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinho Valéria Fernandes de Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review of studies was conducted to determine the characteristics of epidemiological research on risk factors for breast cancer in female samples from the general population in Brazil. Of the 23 articles identified, only 14 were selected for review. Most of the studies were from Southeast Brazil. Three were cross-sectional, conducted in specific populations, and 11 used case-control designs. The sample sizes varied from 40 to 164,269 women. Twenty-nine risk factors were researched, and among these, 11 were investigated in four or more studies. Nulliparity was the most frequent factor, found in 12 of the studies. Prevalence of the factors varied widely among the samples, and since the samples were heterogeneous and the studies presented several methodological limitations, a summary mean was not calculated.

  8. Interval-value Based Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm for cancer-type specific gene selection and sample classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ramyachitra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microarray technology allows simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of thousands of genes within a biological tissue sample. The fundamental power of microarrays lies within the ability to conduct parallel surveys of gene expression using microarray data. The classification of tissue samples based on gene expression data is an important problem in medical diagnosis of diseases such as cancer. In gene expression data, the number of genes is usually very high compared to the number of data samples. Thus the difficulty that lies with data are of high dimensionality and the sample size is small. This research work addresses the problem by classifying resultant dataset using the existing algorithms such as Support Vector Machine (SVM, K-nearest neighbor (KNN, Interval Valued Classification (IVC and the improvised Interval Value based Particle Swarm Optimization (IVPSO algorithm. Thus the results show that the IVPSO algorithm outperformed compared with other algorithms under several performance evaluation functions.

  9. 奥施康定治疗中重度癌性疼痛60例的临床观察%Clinical Observation of Oxycontin in the Treatment of 60 Cases with Moderate and Severe Cancer Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周行; 曾超; 谢华; 王理扬; 姚文秀

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察奥施康定通过剂量滴定治疗中重度癌性疼痛的疗效及不良反应.方法:在60例中重度癌性疼痛患者中,用剂量滴定的方法使用奥施康定进行止痛治疗.依据疼痛程度给与口服,初始剂量10mg/次~20mg/次,q12h,根据疼痛缓解程度调整剂量.连续用药至少2周,同时进行止痛效果、生活质量及不良反应的观察.结果:经剂量滴定后60例中重度癌性疼痛患者口服奥施康定剂量范围10mg/次~220mg/次,q12h.患者中疼痛完全缓解17例(28.3%),部分缓解42例(70.0%),轻微缓解1例(1.7%),总的疼痛缓解率98.3%,其中中度疼痛缓解率为100%,重度疼痛缓解率为90.9%.患者生活质量明显提高,不良反应轻微.主要不良反应为便秘,其次为恶心、呕吐、腹胀、头晕、嗜睡、厌食、瘙痒、排尿困难.结论:奥施康定通过剂量滴定的方法,不良反应较少,个体化给药可以更有效地控制中重度癌性疼痛,能显著地改善癌症患者的生活质量.%Objective: To observe the analgesic efficacy as well as adverse effects of oxycontin with dose titration therapy on moderate and severe cancer pain. Methods: Sixty patients with moderate and severe cancer pain were treated with oxycontin. Oxycon tin with dose titration therapy was administered at an initial dose of 10 ~20mg every 12 hours according to the degree of pain, and was titrated upwards according to the extent of pain relief. All patients were treated for at least 2 weeks, simultaneously the analgesic effica cy, quality of life and adverse effects were investigated. Results: Among the 60 patients with moderate and severe cancer pain,the do ses of oxycontin ranged from 10mg/12h to 220mg/12h after dose titration. Seventeen cases(28. 3% ) achieved complete remission,42 (70. 0% ) achieved partial remission and 1(1. 7% )achieved minor remission. Total pain relief was 98. 3% ,and it was 100% in pa tients with moderate cancer pain while 90. 9% in patients

  10. Expression profiling to predict outcome in breast cancer: the influence of sample selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gene expression profiling of tumors using DNA microarrays is a promising method for predicting prognosis and treatment response in cancer patients. It was recently reported that expression profiles of sporadic breast cancers could be used to predict disease recurrence better than currently available clinical and histopathological prognostic factors. Having observed an overlap in those data between the genes that predict outcome and those that predict estrogen receptor-α status, we examined their predictive power in an independent data set. We conclude that it may be important to define prognostic expression profiles separately for estrogen receptor-α-positive and estrogen receptor-α-negative tumors

  11. A low dimensional entropy-based descriptor of several tissues in skin cancer histopathology samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Pablo; Corredor, Germán.; García-Arteaga, Juan D.; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    The use of low-level visual features to assign high level labels in datasets of histopathology images is a possible solution to the problems derived from manual labeling by experts. However, in many cases, the visual cues are not enough. In this article we propose the use of features derived exclusively from the spatial distribution of the cell nuclei. These features are calculated using the weight of k-nn graphs constructed from the distances between cells. Results show that there are k values with enhanced discriminatory power, especially when comparing cancerous and non-cancerous tissue.

  12. Psychometric Evaluation of the PROMIS® Fatigue measure in an ethnically and racially diverse population-based sample of cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryce B. Reeve

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Fatigue is the most prevalent and distressing symptom related to cancer and its treatment affecting functioning and quality of life. In 2010, the National Cancer Institute’s Clinical Trials Planning Meeting on cancer-related fatigue adopted the PROMIS® Fatigue measure as the standard to use in clinical trials. This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the PROMIS Fatigue measure in an ethnically/racially diverse population-based sample of adult cancer patients. Methods: Patients were recruited from four US cancer registries with oversampling of minorities. Participants completed a paper survey 6 - 13 months post-diagnosis. The 14 fatigue items (5-point Likert-type scale; English-, Spanish-, and Chinese-versions were selected from the PROMIS Fatigue short forms and larger item bank. Item response theory and factor analyses were used to evaluate item- and scale-level performance. Differential item functioning (DIF was evaluated using the Wald test and ordinal logistic regression (OLR methods. OLR-identified items with DIF were evaluated further for their effect on the scale scores (threshold r2 > .13. Results: The sample included 5,507 patients (2,278 non-Hispanic Whites, 1,122 non-Hispanic Blacks, 1,053 Hispanics, and 917 Asians/ Pacific Islanders; 338 Hispanics were given the Spanish-language version of the survey and 134 Asians the Chinese version. One PROMIS item had poor discrimination as it was the only positively worded question in the fatigue measure. Among Hispanics, no DIF was found with the Wald test, while the OLR method identified five items with DIF comparing the English and Spanish versions; however, the effect of DIF on scores was negligible (r2 ranged from .006 - .015. For the English and Chinese translations, no single item was consistently identified by both DIF tests. Minimal or no impact was observed on the overall scale score comparisons among Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians using the English language

  13. Symptoms and problems in a nationally representative sample of advanced cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, A T; Groenvold, M; Pedersen, Lise;

    2009-01-01

    predictors. In total, 977 (60%) patients participated. The most frequent symptoms/problems were fatigue (57%; severe 22%) followed by reduced role function, insomnia and pain. Age, cancer stage, primary tumour, type of department, marital status and whether the patient had recently been hospitalized or not...

  14. Low Annexin A1 expression predicts benefit from induction chemotherapy in oral cancer patients with moderate or poor pathologic differentiation grade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The benefit of induction chemotherapy in locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains to be clearly defined. Induction chemotherapy is likely to be effective for biologically distinct subgroups of patients and biomarker development might lead to identification of the patients whose tumors are to respond to a particular treatment. Annexin A1 may serve as a biomarker for responsiveness to induction chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate Annexin A1 expression in pre-treatment biopsies from a cohort of OSCC patients treated with surgery and post-operative radiotherapy or docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF) induction chemotherapy followed by surgery and post-operative radiotherapy. Furthermore we sought to assess the utility of Annexin A1 as a prognostic or predictive biomarker. Immunohistochemical staining for Annexin A1 was performed in pre-treatment biopsies from 232 of 256 clinical stage III/IVA OSCC patients. Annexin A1 index was estimated as the proportion of tumor cells (low and high, <50% and ≥50% of stained cells, respectively) to Annexin A1 cellular membrane and cytoplasm staining. There was a significant correlation between Annexin A1 expression and pathologic differentiation grade (P=0.015) in OSCC patients. The proportion of patients with low Annexin A1 expression was significantly higher amongst those with moderate/poorly differentiated tumor (78/167) compared to those with well differentiated tumor (18/65). Multivariate Cox model analysis showed clinical stage (P=0.001) and Annexin A1 expression (P=0.038) as independent prognostic risk factors. Furthermore, a low Annexin A1 expression level was predictive of longer disease-free survival (P=0.036, HR=0.620) and locoregional recurrence-free survival (P=0.031, HR=0.607) compared to high Annexin A1 expression. Patients with moderate/poorly differentiated tumor and low Annexin A1 expression benefited from TPF induction chemotherapy as measured by distant metastasis

  15. Stage-specific analysis of plasma protein profiles in ovarian cancer: Difference in-gel electrophoresis analysis of pooled clinical samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Bailey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological cancer. Non-specific symptoms early in disease and the lack of specific biomarkers hinder early diagnosis. Multi-marker blood screening tests have shown promise for improving identification of early stage disease; however, available tests lack sensitivity, and specificity. Materials and Methods: In this study, pooled deeply-depleted plasma from women with Stage 1, 2 or 3 ovarian cancer and healthy controls were used to compare the 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE protein profiles and identify potential novel markers of ovarian cancer progression. Results/Discussion: Stage-specific variation in biomarker expression was observed. For example, apolipoprotein A1 expression is relatively low in control and Stage 1, but shows a substantial increase in Stage 2 and 3, thus, potential of utility for disease confirmation rather than early detection. A better marker for early stage disease was tropomyosin 4 (TPM4. The expression of TPM4 increased by 2-fold in Stage 2 before returning to "normal" levels in Stage 3 disease. Multiple isoforms were also identified for some proteins and in some cases, displayed stage-specific expression. An interesting example was fibrinogen alpha, for which 8 isoforms were identified. Four displayed a moderate increase at Stage 1 and a substantial increase for Stages 2 and 3 while the other 4 showed only moderate increases. Conclusion: Herein is provided an improved summary of blood protein profiles for women with ovarian cancer stratified by stage.

  16. Facilitators and barriers to help-seeking for breast and cervical cancer symptoms: a qualitative study with an ethnically diverse sample in London.

    OpenAIRE

    Marlow, L.A.; McGregor, L M; Nazroo, J. Y.; Wardle, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Earlier diagnosis of cancer has become a policy priority. There is evidence that minority ethnic groups are more likely to delay help-seeking for cancer symptoms, but few studies have explored reasons for delay in these groups. The present study explored facilitators and barriers to help-seeking for breast and cervical cancer in an ethnically diverse sample of women. Methods Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 54 healthy women from a range of ethnic backgrounds; Indian,...

  17. Clinical experience of oxycontin in treating 78 cases of patients with moderate-severe cancer pain%奥施康定治疗中重度癌痛患者78例的临床体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷学惠

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察奥施康定治疗中重度癌痛患者的临床效果与不良反应。方法:使用奥施康定治疗78例中重度癌痛患者,初始剂量5 mg/12 h,根据患者的疼痛程度来调整其给药剂量,连续用药4周,观察患者止痛效果、生活质量及不良反应。结果:78例患者总有效率93.59%,QOL得分(16.25±2.17)分,较治疗前的(9.17±1.68)分有所提高(P<0.05);用药后主要不良反应有便秘(16.67%)、恶心(6.41%)及厌食口干(3.85%)。结论:使用奥康施定通过个体化给药途径治疗中重度的癌痛患者,镇痛疗效显著、不良反应发生率低,患者生活质量得到明显改善。%Objective:To observe clinical effects and adverse reactions of oxycontin in treating patients with moderate-severe cancer pain.Methods:Using oxycontin through dose titration treated 78 cases of patients with moderate-severe cancer pain,the initial dose was 5 mg/12 h.The administration dosage was adjusted according to the pain degree of patients,continuous administration 4 weeks.The analgesic effect,life quality and adverse reactions of patients were observed.Results:The total effective rate of 78 patients was 93.59%;the QOL score was (16.25±2.17)scores,which increased when were compared with those before treatment (9.17±1.68) increased(P<0.05).The main adverse reaction after medication:constipation(16.67%),nausea(6.41%) and anorexia,dry mouth(3.85%).Conclusion:The analgesic effect of using oxycontin through individualized administration route treated patients with moderate-severe cancer pain is significantly.The incidence rate of adverse reaction is low.The life quality of the patients improves significantly.

  18. 3-Dimensional quantitative detection of nanoparticle content in biological tissue samples after local cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahn, Helene, E-mail: helene.rahn@gmail.com [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden 01069 (Germany); Alexiou, Christoph [ENT-Department, Section for Experimental Oncology and Nanomedicine (Else Kröner-Fresenius-Stiftungsprofessur), University Hospital Erlangen, Waldstraße 1, Erlangen 91054 (Germany); Trahms, Lutz [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestraße 2-12, Berlin 10587 (Germany); Odenbach, Stefan [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden 01069 (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography is nowadays used for a wide range of applications in medicine, science and technology. X-ray microcomputed tomography (XµCT) follows the same principles used for conventional medical CT scanners, but improves the spatial resolution to a few micrometers. We present an example of an application of X-ray microtomography, a study of 3-dimensional biodistribution, as along with the quantification of nanoparticle content in tumoral tissue after minimally invasive cancer therapy. One of these minimal invasive cancer treatments is magnetic drug targeting, where the magnetic nanoparticles are used as controllable drug carriers. The quantification is based on a calibration of the XµCT-equipment. The developed calibration procedure of the X-ray-µCT-equipment is based on a phantom system which allows the discrimination between the various gray values of the data set. These phantoms consist of a biological tissue substitute and magnetic nanoparticles. The phantoms have been studied with XµCT and have been examined magnetically. The obtained gray values and nanoparticle concentration lead to a calibration curve. This curve can be applied to tomographic data sets. Accordingly, this calibration enables a voxel-wise assignment of gray values in the digital tomographic data set to nanoparticle content. Thus, the calibration procedure enables a 3-dimensional study of nanoparticle distribution as well as concentration. - Highlights: • Local cancer treatments are promising in reducing negative side effects occurring during conventional chemotherapy. • The nanoparticles play an important role in delivering drugs to the designated area during local cancer treatments as magnetic drug targeting. • We study the nanoparticles distribution in tumor tissue after magnetic drug targeting with X-ray computed tomography. • We achieved a 3-dimensional quantification of the nanoparticles content in tumor tissue out of digital tomographic data.

  19. Ki67 proliferation in core biopsies versus surgical samples - a model for neo-adjuvant breast cancer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increasing number of neo-adjuvant breast cancer studies are being conducted and a novel model for tumor biological studies, the 'window-of-opportunity' model, has revealed several advantages. Change in tumor cell proliferation, estimated by Ki67-expression in pre-therapeutic core biopsies versus post-therapeutic surgical samples is often the primary end-point. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential differences in proliferation scores between core biopsies and surgical samples when patients have not received any intervening anti-cancer treatment. Also, a lack of consensus concerning Ki67 assessment may raise problems in the comparison of neo-adjuvant studies. Thus, the secondary aim was to present a novel model for Ki67 assessment. Fifty consecutive breast cancer cases with both a core biopsy and a surgical sample available, without intervening neo-adjuvant therapy, were collected and tumor proliferation (Ki67, MIB1 antibody) was assessed immunohistochemically. A theoretical model for the assessment of Ki67 was constructed based on sequential testing of the null hypothesis 20% Ki67-positive cells versus the two-sided alternative more or less than 20% positive cells.. Assessment of Ki67 in 200 tumor cells showed an absolute average proliferation difference of 3.9% between core biopsies and surgical samples (p = 0.046, paired t-test) with the core biopsies being the more proliferative sample type. A corresponding analysis on the log-scale showed the average relative decrease from the biopsy to the surgical specimen to be 19% (p = 0.063, paired t-test on the log-scale). The difference was significant when using the more robust Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test (p = 0.029). After dichotomization at 20%, 12 of the 50 sample pairs had discrepant proliferation status, 10 showed high Ki67 in the core biopsy compared to two in the surgical specimen (p = 0.039, McNemar's test). None of the corresponding results for 1000 tumor cells

  20. Access to communication technologies in a sample of cancer patients: an urban and rural survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkins Anthony

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing awareness among providers of the symptom burden experienced by cancer patients. Systematic symptom screening is difficult. Our plan was to evaluate a technology-based symptom screening process using touch-tone telephone and Internet in our rural outreach cancer program in Indiana. Would rural patients have adequate access to technologies for home-based symptom reporting? Objectives 1 To determine access to touch-tone telephone service and Internet for patients in urban and rural clinics; 2 to determine barriers to access; 3 to determine willingness to use technology for home-based symptom reporting. Methods Patients from representative clinics (seven rural and three urban in our network were surveyed. Inclusion criteria were age greater than 18, able to read, and diagnosis of malignancy. Results The response rate was 97%. Of 416 patients completing the survey (230 rural, 186 urban, 95% had access to touch-tone telephone service, while 46% had Internet access (56% of urban patients, 38% of rural patients. Higher rates of Internet access were related to younger patient age, current employment, and higher education and income. The primary barrier to Internet access was lack of interest. Use of the Internet for health related activities was less than 50%. The preferred means of symptom reporting in patients with internet access were the touch-tone telephone (70%, compared to reporting by the Internet (28%. Conclusion Access to communication technologies appears adequate for home-based symptom reporting. The use of touch-tone telephone and Internet reporting, based upon patient preference, has the potential of enhancing symptom detection among cancer patients that is not dependent solely upon clinic visits and clinician inquiry.

  1. Utilization of breast cancer screening methods in a developing nation: results from a nationally representative sample of Malaysian households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Richard A; Tan, Andrew K G

    2011-01-01

    As is the case in many developing nations, previous studies of breast cancer screening behavior in Malaysia have used relatively small samples that are not nationally representative, thereby limiting the generalizability of results. Therefore, this study uses nationally representative data from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1 to investigate the role of socio-economic status on breast cancer screening behavior in Malaysia, particularly differences in screening behaviour between ethnic groups. The decisions of 816 women above age 40 in Malaysia to screen for breast cancer using mammography, clinical breast exams (CBE), and breast self-exams (BSE) are modeled using logistic regression. Results indicate that after adjusting for differences in age, education, household income, marital status, and residential location, Malay women are less likely than Chinese and Indian women to utilize mammography, but more likely to perform BSE. Education level and urban residence are positively associated with utilization of each method, but these relationships vary across ethnicity. Higher education levels are strongly related to using each screening method among Chinese women, but have no statistically significant relationship to screening among Malays. PMID:21615819

  2. cDNA Microarray Analysis of Serially Sampled Cervical Cancer Specimens From Patients Treated With Thermochemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To elucidate changes in gene expression after treatment with regional thermochemoradiotherapy in locally advanced squamous cell cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Tru-Cut biopsy specimens were serially collected from 16 patients. Microarray gene expression levels before and 24 h after the first and second trimodality treatment sessions were compared. Pathway and network analyses were conducted by use of Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA; Ingenuity Systems, Redwood City, CA). Single gene expressions were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: We detected 53 annotated genes that were differentially expressed after trimodality treatment. Central in the three top networks detected by IPA were interferon alfa, interferon beta, and interferon gamma receptor; nuclear factor κB; and tumor necrosis factor, respectively. These genes encode proteins that are important in regulation cell signaling, proliferation, gene expression, and immune stimulation. Biological processes over-represented among the 53 genes were fibrosis, tumorigenesis, and immune response. Conclusions: Microarrays showed minor changes in gene expression after thermochemoradiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. We detected 53 differentially expressed genes, mainly involved in fibrosis, tumorigenesis, and immune response. A limitation with the use of serial biopsy specimens was low quality of ribonucleic acid from tumors that respond to highly effective therapy. Another 'key limitation' is timing of the post-treatment biopsy, because 24 h may be too late to adequately assess the impact of hyperthermia on gene expression.

  3. Neighborhood Satisfaction and Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Community Sample of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Melvin, Cathy; Briggs, Vanessa; Delmoor, Ernestine; Rice, LaShanta J; Lynch, Cheryl; Jefferson, Melanie; Johnson, Jerry C

    2016-02-01

    Social determinants are important to cancer screening among African Americans. To evaluate the association between social determinants (e.g., psychological characteristics, perceived social environment, cultural beliefs such as present temporal orientation) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African Americans. African American adults (n = 262) ages 50-75 completed a telephone interview. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors having significant independent associations with CRC screening. Only 57% of respondents reported having CRC screening. The likelihood of screening increased with greater neighborhood satisfaction (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.90, p = 0.04), older age (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.24, 2.48, p = 0.002), greater self-efficacy (OR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.40, 5.35, p = 0.003), and health care provider communication (OR = 10.78, 95% CI = 4.85, 29.94, p = 0.0001). Community resources are important precursors to CRC screening and outcomes among African Americans. In addition to addressing psychological factors and patient-provider communication, efforts to ensure the availability of quality health care facilities that provide CRC screening in the neighborhoods where African Americans live are needed. PMID:26184107

  4. Breast cancer molecular subtypes and survival in a hospital-based sample in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on the impact of hormone receptor status subtypes in breast cancer (BC) prognosis is still limited for Hispanics. We aimed to evaluate the association of BC molecular subtypes and other clinical factors with survival in a hospital-based female population of BC cases in Puerto Rico. We analyzed 663 cases of invasive BC diagnosed between 2002 and 2005. Information on HER-2/neu (HER-2) overexpression, estrogen (ER), and progesterone (PR) receptor status and clinical characteristics were retrieved from hospitals cancer registries and record review. Survival probabilities by covariates of interest were described using the Kaplan–Meier estimators. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to assess factors associated with risk of BC death. Overall, 17.3% of BC cases were triple-negative (TN), 61.8% were Luminal-A, 13.3% were Luminal-B, and 7.5% were HER-2 overexpressed. In the multivariate Cox model, among patients with localized stage, women with TN BC had higher risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29–5.12) as compared to those with Luminal-A status, after adjusting for age at diagnosis. In addition, among women with regional/distant stage at diagnosis, those with TN BC (HR: 5.48, 95% CI: 2.63–11.47) and those HER-2+, including HER-2 overexpressed and Luminal-B, (HR: 2.73, 95% CI:1.30–5.75) had a higher mortality. This is the most comprehensive epidemiological study to date on the impact of hormone receptor expression subtypes in BC survival in Puerto Rico. Consistent to results in other populations, the TN subtype and HER-2+ tumors were associated with decreased survival

  5. The Isis cold moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ISIS is a pulsed spallation neutron source where neutrons are produced by the interaction of a 160 kW proton beam of energy 800 MeV in a water-cooled Tantalum Target. The fast neutrons produced are thermalized in four moderators: two ambient water, one liquid methane operating at 100K and a liquid hydrogen moderator at 20 K. This paper gives a description of the construction of both cold moderator systems, details of the operating experience and a description of the current development program.

  6. Detection of Alpha-Methylacyl-CoA Racemase (AMACR, a Biomarker of Prostate Cancer, in Patient Blood Samples Using a Nanoparticle Electrochemical Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Chiun Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although still commonly used in clinical practice to screen and diagnose prostate cancer, there are numerous weaknesses of prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing, including lack of specificity and the inability to distinguish between aggressive and indolent cancers. A promising prostate cancer biomarker, alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR, has been previously demonstrated to distinguish cancer from healthy and benign prostate cells with high sensitivity and specificity. However, no accurate clinically useful assay has been developed. This study reports the development of a single use, disposable biosensor for AMACR detection. Human blood samples were used to verify its validity, reproducibility and reliability. Plasma samples from 9 healthy males, 10 patients with high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN, and 5 prostate cancer patients were measured for AMACR levels. The average AMACR levels in the prostate cancer patients was 10 fold higher (mean(SD = 0.077 (0.10 than either the controls (mean(SD = 0.005 (0.001 or HGPIN patients (mean(SD = 0.004 (0.0005. At a cutoff of between 0.08 and 0.9, we are able to achieve 100% accuracy in separating prostate cancer patients from controls. Our results provide strong evidence demonstrating that this biosensor can perform as a reliable assay for prostate cancer detection and diagnosis.

  7. Piezoresistive Membrane Surface Stress Sensors for Characterization of Breath Samples of Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Peter Lang; Frédéric Loizeau; Agnès Hiou-Feige; Jean-Paul Rivals; Pedro Romero; Terunobu Akiyama; Christoph Gerber; Ernst Meyer

    2016-01-01

    For many diseases, where a particular organ is affected, chemical by-products can be found in the patient’s exhaled breath. Breath analysis is often done using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, but interpretation of results is difficult and time-consuming. We performed characterization of patients’ exhaled breath samples by an electronic nose technique based on an array of nanomechanical membrane sensors. Each membrane is coated with a different thin polymer layer. By pumping the exha...

  8. Accounting for randomness in measurement and sampling in studying cancer cell population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Siavash; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Lahouti, Farshad; Ullah, Mukhtar; Linnebacher, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Knowing the expected temporal evolution of the proportion of different cell types in sample tissues gives an indication about the progression of the disease and its possible response to drugs. Such systems have been modelled using Markov processes. We here consider an experimentally realistic scenario in which transition probabilities are estimated from noisy cell population size measurements. Using aggregated data of FACS measurements, we develop MMSE and ML estimators and formulate two problems to find the minimum number of required samples and measurements to guarantee the accuracy of predicted population sizes. Our numerical results show that the convergence mechanism of transition probabilities and steady states differ widely from the real values if one uses the standard deterministic approach for noisy measurements. This provides support for our argument that for the analysis of FACS data one should consider the observed state as a random variable. The second problem we address is about the consequences of estimating the probability of a cell being in a particular state from measurements of small population of cells. We show how the uncertainty arising from small sample sizes can be captured by a distribution for the state probability. PMID:25257023

  9. Contractarianism and Moderate Morality

    OpenAIRE

    Baltzly, Vaughn Bryan

    2001-01-01

    In his book The Limits of Morality, Shelly Kagan claims that contractarian approaches to ethics are incompatible with our common, everyday, "moderate" morality. In this thesis I defend a version of contractarianism that I believe leads to both deontological constraints and options; i.e., to a genuinely moderate morality. On my account, the parties to the agreement are conceived of as being motivated not only to promote self-interest, but also to formulate a code of ethics that gives proper ...

  10. HIGH TEMPERATURE MODERATOR PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikido, T.

    1957-06-12

    The purpose of this memorandum is to outline the high temperature hydride moderator program proposed for the.Metallurgy Division. The objectives of this program are (1) to provide physical and mechanical property data required by the reactor designers, (2) to develop methods for fabricating moderator assemblies, and (3) to devise.and conduct tests to evaluate these· assemblies. The requirements in each of these areas and the work proposed to meet them are outlined.

  11. The impact of genetic heterogeneity on biomarker development in kidney cancer assessed by multiregional sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) genetic heterogeneity may lead to an underestimation of the mutational burden detected from a single site evaluation. We sought to characterize the extent of clonal branching involving key tumor suppressor mutations in primary ccRCC and determine if genetic heterogeneity could limit the mutation profiling from a single region assessment. Ex vivo core needle biopsies were obtained from three to five different regions of resected renal tumors at a single institution from 2012 to 2013. DNA was extracted and targeted sequencing was performed on five genes associated with ccRCC (von-Hippel Lindau [VHL], PBRM1, SETD2, BAP1, and KDM5C). We constructed phylogenetic trees by inferring clonal evolution based on the mutations present within each core and estimated the predictive power of detecting a mutation for each successive tumor region sampled. We obtained 47 ex vivo biopsy cores from 14 primary ccRCC's (median tumor size 4.5 cm, IQR 4.0–5.9 cm). Branching patterns of various complexities were observed in tumors with three or more mutations. A VHL mutation was detected in nine tumors (64%), each time being present ubiquitously throughout the tumor. Other genes had various degrees of regional mutational variation. Based on the mutations' prevalence we estimated that three different tumor regions should be sampled to detect mutations in PBRM1, SETD2, BAP1, and/or KDM5C with 90% certainty. The mutational burden of renal tumors varies by region sampled. Single site assessment of key tumor suppressor mutations in primary ccRCC may not adequately capture the genetic predictors of tumor behavior

  12. The impact of genetic heterogeneity on biomarker development in kidney cancer assessed by multiregional sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankin, Alexander; Hakimi, Abraham A; Mikkilineni, Nina; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Silk, Mikhail T; Liang, Yupu; Mano, Roy; Chevinsky, Michael; Motzer, Robert J; Solomon, Stephen B; Cheng, Emily H; Durack, Jeremy C; Coleman, Jonathan A; Russo, Paul; Hsieh, James J

    2014-12-01

    Primary clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) genetic heterogeneity may lead to an underestimation of the mutational burden detected from a single site evaluation. We sought to characterize the extent of clonal branching involving key tumor suppressor mutations in primary ccRCC and determine if genetic heterogeneity could limit the mutation profiling from a single region assessment. Ex vivo core needle biopsies were obtained from three to five different regions of resected renal tumors at a single institution from 2012 to 2013. DNA was extracted and targeted sequencing was performed on five genes associated with ccRCC (von-Hippel Lindau [VHL], PBRM1, SETD2, BAP1, and KDM5C). We constructed phylogenetic trees by inferring clonal evolution based on the mutations present within each core and estimated the predictive power of detecting a mutation for each successive tumor region sampled. We obtained 47 ex vivo biopsy cores from 14 primary ccRCC's (median tumor size 4.5 cm, IQR 4.0-5.9 cm). Branching patterns of various complexities were observed in tumors with three or more mutations. A VHL mutation was detected in nine tumors (64%), each time being present ubiquitously throughout the tumor. Other genes had various degrees of regional mutational variation. Based on the mutations' prevalence we estimated that three different tumor regions should be sampled to detect mutations in PBRM1, SETD2, BAP1, and/or KDM5C with 90% certainty. The mutational burden of renal tumors varies by region sampled. Single site assessment of key tumor suppressor mutations in primary ccRCC may not adequately capture the genetic predictors of tumor behavior. PMID:25124064

  13. A high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for determination of cisplatin in plasma, cancer cell, and tumor samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Flores, A; Jurado, R; Garcia-Lopez, P

    2005-01-01

    A method for determination of cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin) in ultrafiltered plasma, cell, and tumour samples is described. Cisplatin separation was carried out on a reversed-phase column using methanol-acetonitrile-water as the mobile phase. The flow rate was maintained constant at 1.6 mL/min and analysis was performed at 23 degrees C. Detection was carried out by absorbance at 254 nm. The method was linear in the range of 0.2-10 microg/mL, and the coefficients of variation were accumulation of cisplatin in cancer cells and in tumours of mice receiving treatment with cisplatin and evaluated the pharmacokinetics of cisplatin in nu/nu mice after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration. The method proved to be adequate for measuring cisplatin both in vitro and in vivo and could be suitable for studies of cisplatin pharmacokinetics in animal models. PMID:16112590

  14. Correlates of exercise motivation and behavior in a population-based sample of endometrial cancer survivors: an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Kristina H; Courneya, Kerry S; Campbell, Kristin L; Pearcey, Robert G; Dundas, George; Capstick, Valerie; Tonkin, Katia S

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite evidence of the benefits of exercise in cancer survivors, exercise participation rates tend to decline after treatments. Few studies have examined the determinants of exercise in less common cancer sites. In this study, we examined medical, demographic, and social cognitive correlates of exercise in endometrial cancer survivors using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Methods A mailed survey was completed by 354 endometrial cancer survivors (1 to 10 years postdiagnosis) residing in Alberta, Canada. The study was cross-sectional. Exercise behavior was assessed using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and the TPB constructs were assessed with standard self-report scales. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine the independent associations of the TPB constructs with intention and behavior. Results Chi-square analyses indicated that marital status (p = .003), income level (p = .013), and body mass index (BMI) (p = .020) were associated with exercise. The TPB explained 34.1% of the variance in exercise behavior with intention (β = .38, p TPB with self-efficacy (β = .34, p TPB mediated the associations of marital status and BMI with exercise but not income level. Age and BMI moderated the associations of the TPB with intention and behavior. Conclusion The TPB may be a useful framework for understanding exercise in endometrial cancer survivors. Exercise behavior change interventions based on the TPB should be tested in this growing population. PMID:17537255

  15. Analyzing large-scale samples confirms the association between the rs1051730 polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhijie; Jiang, Qinghua; Zhang, Tianjiao; Wu, Xiaoliang; Ma, Rui; Wang, Jixuan; Bai, Yang; Wang, Rongjie; Tan, Renjie; Wang, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    The early genome-wide association studies (GWAS) found a significant association between lung cancer and rs1051730 (15q25) polymorphism. However, the subsequent studies reported consistent and inconsistent results in different populations. Three meta-analysis studies were thus performed to reevaluate the association. But their results remain inconsistent. After that, some new GWAS studies reported conflicting results again. We think that the divergence of these results may be due to small-scale samples or heterogeneity among different populations. Therefore, we reevaluated the association by collecting more samples (N = 33,617 cases and 116,639 controls) from 31 studies, which incorporate 8 new studies and 23 previous studies used by one or more of the three meta-analysis studies. We observed a significant association between lung cancer and rs1051730 in pooled population by using allele (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.27–1.34, P  <  0.0001), dominant (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.29–1.55, P < 0.0001), recessive (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.42–1.65, P < 0.0001) and additive (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.61–1.90, P < 0.0001) models. Through the subgroup analysis, we observed a significant heterogeneity only in East Asian population (P = 0.006, I2 = 66.9%), and the association is significant in all subgroups (OR = 1.2976, 95% CI = 1.2622–1.3339 (European ancestry), OR = 1.5025, 95% CI = 1.2465–1.8110 (African), OR = 1.7818, 95% CI = 1.3915–2.2815 (East Asian), P < 0.0001). We believe that these results will contribute to understanding the genetic mechanism of lung cancer. PMID:26508385

  16. Aberrant sialylation of a prostate-specific antigen: Electrochemical label-free glycoprofiling in prostate cancer serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihikova, Dominika; Kasak, Peter; Kubanikova, Petra; Sokol, Roman; Tkac, Jan

    2016-08-31

    Electrochemical detection method allowing to detect prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker of prostate cancer (PCa), with PSA glycoprofiling was applied in an analysis of PCa serum samples for the first time. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as a label-free method with immobilized anti-PSA was applied for PSA detection and lectins to glycoprofile captured PSA on the same surface. A proper choice of blocking agent providing high selectivity of biosensor detection with the immobilized anti-PSA antibody was done. The biosensor could detect PSA down to 100 ag/mL with a linear concentration working range from 100 ag/mL up to 1 μg/mL, i.e. 10 orders of concentration magnitude and the sensitivity of (5.5 ± 0.2)%/decade. The results showed that a commercial carbo-free blocking solution was the best one, reducing non-specific binding 55-fold when compared to the immunosensor surface without any blocking agent applied, while allowing to detect PSA. The biosensor response obtained after addition of lectin (i.e. proportional to the amount of a particular glycan on PSA) divided by the biosensor response obtained after incubation with a sample (i.e. proportional to the PSA level in the sample) was applied to distinguish serum samples of PCa patients from those of healthy individuals. The results showed that Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA) recognizing α-2,3-terminal sialic acid can be applied to distinguish between these two sets of samples since the MAA/PSA response obtained from the analysis of the PCa samples was significantly higher (5.3-fold) compared to the MAA/PSA response obtained by the analysis of samples from healthy individuals. Thus, combined analysis of serological PSA levels together with PSA glycoprofiling of aberrant glycosylation of PSA (i.e. increase in the level of α-2,3-terminal sialic acid) has a potential to improve detection of PCa. PMID:27506346

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Moderate-dose Capecitabine in Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer%中等剂量卡培他滨单药治疗转移性乳腺癌的疗效及安全性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严颖; 任军; 林晓琳; 宛凤玲; 邸立军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine activity and safety of capecitabine at a moderate dose of 2000 mg/(m2 · d) for metastatic breast cancer. Methods In this retrospective trial, 43 metastatic breast cancer patients received first-line capecitabine 2 000 mg/m2 on days 1 —14 every 3 weeks. Results 43 metastatic breast cancer patients received mean 8 cycles of capecitabine therapy. Median PFS was 7. 1 months (95% CI:5.8~8.4). There were no difference among the first line,the second line and third line treatment 7. 1 months,6. 1 months, and 8. 1 months respectively (P = 0. 390). Patients pretreated with both anthracy-cline and taxane therapy had a significantly shorter PFS(6. lmonths vs. 7. 1 months, P = 0. 038) , but pa-tients>65 years achieved a significantly longer PFS(8. 1 months vs. 6. 1 months,P= 0. 045). Ninteen cases (44. 2%) had hand-foot syndrome, a main toxicity. Conclusion Capecitabine at a moderate dose of 2 000 mg/(m2 · d)is active and well-tolerated for metastatic breast cancer.%目的 观察中等剂量[2000mg/(m2·d)]卡培他滨治疗转移性乳腺癌的疗效和不良反应.方法 卡培他滨单药治疗43例转移性乳腺癌,2000mg/(m2·d),d1~14,每3周为1周期.结果 43例患者平均行8周期卡培他滨治疗,客观缓解率(CR+ PR)为18.6%,临床获益率(CR+ PR+ SD)为86.0%.整体的中位无进展生存期(PFS)为7.1月(95%CI:5.8~8.4),在一线治疗、二线治疗和三线及以上治疗亚组中差异无统计学意义,分别为7.1月、6.1月和8.1月(P=0.390).在蒽环类药物与紫杉类药物治疗均失败的患者中,PFS明显缩短(6.1月vs.7.1月,P=0.038).大于65岁的患者PFS显著延长(8.1月vs.6.1月,P=0.045).主要不良反应为手足综合征19例(44.2%).结论 中等剂量[2000 mg/(m2·d)]卡培他滨单药治疗转移性乳腺癌安全、有效.

  18. Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Insulin Sensitivity: Observations and Possible Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiologic studies, like our analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, suggest that moderate alcohol consumption is also associated with a reduced risk of

  19. Coupled moderator neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimizing the neutronic performance of a coupled-moderator system for a Long-Pulse Spallation Source is a new and challenging area for the spallation target-system designer. For optimal performance of a neutron source, it is essential to have good communication with instrument scientists to obtain proper design criteria and continued interaction with mechanical, thermal-hydraulic, and materials engineers to attain a practical design. A good comprehension of the basics of coupled-moderator neutronics will aid in the proper design of a target system for a Long-Pulse Spallation Source

  20. Comparative Profiling of N-Glycans Isolated from Serum Samples of Ovarian Cancer Patients and Analyzed by Microchip Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Indranil; Alley, William R.; Goetz, John A.; Vasseur, Jacqueline A.; Novotny, Milos V.; Jacobson, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related mortalities for women in the United States and the most lethal gynecological cancer. Aberrant glycosylation has been linked to several human diseases, including ovarian cancer, and accurate measurement of changes in glycosylation may provide relevant diagnostic and prognostic information. In this work, we used microchip electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection to determine quantitative differences among the N...

  1. Moderator Chemistry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation

  2. Moderator Chemistry Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department's moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  3. Moderator Chemistry Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewitt, L.V.; Gibbs, A.; Lambert, D.P.; Bohrer, S.R.; Fanning, R.L.; Houston, M.W.; Stinson, S.L.; Deible, R.W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1990-11-01

    Over the past fifteen months, the Systems Chemistry Group of the Reactor Engineering Department has undertaken a comprehensive study of the Department`s moderator chemistry program at Savannah River Site (SRS). An internal review was developed to formalize and document this program. Objectives were as outlined in a mission statement and action plan. In addition to the mission statement and action plan, nine separate task reports have been issued during the course of this study. Each of these task reports is included in this document as a chapter. This document is an organized compilation of the individual reports issued by the Systems Chemistry Group in assessment of SRS moderator chemistry to determine if there were significant gaps in the program as ft existed in October, 1989. While these reviews found no significant gaps in that mode of operation, or any items that adversely affected safety, items were identified that could be improved. Many of the items have already been dear with or are in the process of completion under this Moderator Chemistry Program and other Reactor Restart programs. A complete list of the items of improvement found under this assessment is found in Chapter 9, along with a proposed time table for correcting remaining items that can be improved for the chemistry program of SRS reactors. An additional external review of the moderator chemistry processes, recommendations, and responses to/from the Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee is included as Appendix to this compilation.

  4. Management of moderate lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumacker, H B

    1981-08-01

    Moderate chronic lymphedema generally requires a different program of management than mild or massive lymphedema. It responds well to a special management regimen based on home use of an intermittent limb compressor and utilization of proper compression support when the patient is not in the recumbent position. PMID:7259517

  5. DETECTION OF K-RAS AND P53 MUTATIONS IN SPUTUM SAMPLES OF LUNG CANCER PATIENTS USING LASER CAPTURE MICRODISSECTION MICROSCOPE AND MUTATION ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection of K-ras and p53 Mutations in Sputum Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Using Laser Capture Microdissection Microscope and Mutation AnalysisPhouthone Keohavong a,*, Wei-Min Gao a, Kui-Cheng Zheng a, Hussam Mady b, Qing Lan c, Mona Melhem b, and Judy Mumford d.<...

  6. Psychometric properties of the Greek version of the Social Constraints Scale in a sample of women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrouli, Natalia; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Tsikkinis, Annivas; Papastylianou, Dona; Lepore, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Greek version of the Social Constraints Scale, developed in English by Lepore and Ituarte (1999). The scale was culturally adapted in Greek and was then administered, along with measures of psychological distress and intrusions, to a sample of 202 women with breast cancer, recruited from July 2012 to October 2013. Although the scale has usually been treated as a unidimensional measure, exploratory factor analysis revealed three underlying factors in the Greek Social Constraints Scale: unsupportive behaviors, avoidant behaviors, and suggestions for pretense and distraction. The three-factor solution explained 55% of the total variance. Subscale reliability was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranging from 0.77 to 0.88). All subscales were significantly related to intrusions and psychological distress. Thus, the Greek Social Constraints Scale is a reliable and valid multidimensional instrument. The results of the present study show that, among all kinds of social constraints, unsupportive behaviors are the most highly correlated with distress, while distraction/pretense is most correlated with intrusiveness. Findings suggested that health professionals should aim to educate both the patient to claim her right to express feelings and thoughts and her social network to adopt disclosure-facilitating behaviors to compensate for intrusiveness and distress. PMID:26496047

  7. Is a prostate cancer screening anxiety measure invariant across two different samples of age-appropriate men?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Suzanne K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to explore the influence of anxiety on decision–making processes, valid anxiety measures are needed. We evaluated a prostate cancer screening (PCS anxiety scale that measures anxiety related to the prostate–specific antigen (PSA test, the digital rectal examination (DRE, and the decision to undergo PCS (PCS-D using two samples in different settings. Methods We assessed four psychometric properties of the scale using baseline data from a randomized, controlled decision aid trial (n = 301, private clinic; n = 149, public. Results The 3-factor measure had adequate internal consistency reliability, construct validity, and discriminant validity. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the 3–factor model did not have adequate fit. When subscales were considered separately, only the 6–item PCS-D anxiety measure had adequate fit and was invariant across clinics. Conclusions Our results support the use of a 6–item PCS-D anxiety measure with age-appropriate men in public and private settings. The development of unique anxiety items relating to the PSA test and DRE is still needed.

  8. Determination of nickel in blood and serum samples of oropharyngeal cancer patients consumed smokeless tobacco products by cloud point extraction coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Jamshed Bashir; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Atif Gul; Nasreen, Syeda; Brahman, Kapil Dev

    2014-10-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer is a significant public health issue in the world. The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer has been increased among people who have habit of chewing smokeless tobacco (SLT) in Pakistan. The aim of present study was to evaluate the concentration of nickel (Ni) in biological samples (whole blood, serum) of oral (n = 95) and pharyngeal (n = 84) male cancer patients. For comparison purposes, the biological samples of healthy age-matched referents (n = 150), who consumed and did not consumed SLT products, were also analyzed for Ni levels. As the Ni level is very low in biological samples, a preconcentration procedure has been developed, prior to analysis of analyte by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The Ni in acid-digested biological samples was complexed with ammonium pyrrolidinedithio carbamate (APDC), and a resulted complex was extracted in a surfactant Triton X-114. Acidic ethanol was added to the surfactant-rich phase prior to its analysis by FAAS. The chemical variables, such as pH, amounts of reagents (APDC, Triton X-114), temperature, incubation time, and sample volume were optimized. The resulted data indicated that concentration of Ni was higher in blood and serum samples of cancer patients as compared to that of referents who have or have not consumed different SLT products (p = 0.012-0.001). It was also observed that healthy referents who consumed SLT products have two to threefold higher levels of Ni in both biological samples as compared to those who were not chewing SLT products (p < 0.01). PMID:24920259

  9. Health risks of chronic moderate and heavy alcohol consumption: how much is too much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Bode, Christiane; Nixon, Sara Jo; de Bruin, Eveline A; Bode, J Christian; Seitz, Helmut K

    2005-07-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium held at the meeting of the International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism (ISBRA) in Mannheim, Germany, in October 2004. Most of what we know about the deleterious effects of alcohol in vivo has been gleaned from studies in sober alcoholics recruited from substance abuse treatment programs. Little is known about effects of chronic drinking in the moderate or heavy range encountered in a much larger fraction of modern society. Extrapolation of information on the adverse effects of chronic drinking on organ function from clinical samples to social drinkers in the general population has to be met with great skepticism, as it may lead to wrong conclusions about the chronic effects of alcohol in social drinkers. Several recent studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumption has certain beneficial health effects, whereas heavy social alcohol consumption has recently been associated with organ abnormalities and cognitive deficits. These social drinking effects have attracted great public interest; reports of benefits of moderate drinking have also inspired inappropriate publications by the media, including misleading advertisements by the alcohol producing and distributing industry. Although adverse effects of moderate to heavy drinking on heart, liver, and cancer development have attracted attention by clinicians and researchers for some time, its compromising effects on brain and cognition have only recently been studied. This symposium brought together researchers from different disciplines, who reviewed and presented new data on consequences of social drinking in the areas of clinical neuropsychology and behavior (Drs. Nixon and Meyerhoff), neurophysiology (Dr. Nixon, Ms. De Bruin), neuroimaging (Ms. de Bruin, Dr. Meyerhoff), hepatic disease (Dr. Bode), and cancer (Dr. Seitz). The symposium aimed to clarify both the potential health benefits of moderate alcohol consumption and risks of moderate and

  10. 中等剂量卡培他滨单药治疗老年转移性乳腺癌的临床观察%Moderate-dose Capecitabine Monotherapy in the Treatment of Elderly Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞慧; 杨晓; 聂芳芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective Toobservetheeffectandtoxicitiesofmoderate-dosecapecitabinemonotherapyinthe treatmentofelderlypatientswithmetastaticbreastcancer.Methods Thirty-nineelderlypatientswithmetastatic breast cancer were given with capecitabine:2000 mg·m-2 ,2 times a day,for 14 days,then rest 7 days,was repeat-edevery21days,untildiseaseprogression,upto6cycles.Results PRwasobservedinthe9patients,SDinthe25 patients,PD in the 5 patients,the total effective rate was 23. 1%,the tumor control rate was 87. 2%,the median time to tumor progression was 7. 6 months. The toxicities were:14 patients(35. 9%)ofⅠandⅡdegree hand-foot syndrome,9 patients(23. 1%)of Ⅰ andⅡdegree bone marrow suppression,2 patients(5. 1%)ofⅠdegree di-arrhea,onlyonepatients(2.6%)ofⅠdegreedigestivetractreaction.Conclusion Moderate-dosecapecitabine monotherapy is effective and safe in the treatment of elderly patients with metastatic breast cancer,which is worth clinical promotion widely.%目的:观察中等剂量卡培他滨单药治疗老年转移性乳腺癌的疗效和毒副反应。方法单药卡培他滨治疗39例老年转移性乳腺癌患者,每天2000 mg·m-2,分2次口服,连用14 d,休息7 d,每21 d为1周期,直到疾病进展,最多行6周期治疗。结果全组39例老年转移性乳腺癌患者中,PR 9例,SD 25例,PD 5例,总有效率23.1%,肿瘤控制率87.2%,中位肿瘤进展时间7.6个月。毒副反应有:Ⅰ、Ⅱ度手足综合征14例(35.9%),Ⅰ、Ⅱ度骨髓抑制9例(23.1%),Ⅰ度腹泻2例(5.1%),Ⅰ度消化道反应1例(2.6%)。结论中等剂量卡培他滨单药治疗老年转移性乳腺癌安全有效,值得临床广泛推广。

  11. Characterization of apolipoprotein and apolipoprotein precursors in pancreatic cancer serum samples via two-dimensional liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jianzhong; Anderson, Michelle; Misek, David E.; Simeone, Diane M.; Lubman, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Major advances in cancer control depend upon early detection, early diagnosis and efficacious treatment modalities. Current existing markers of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, generally incurable by available treatment modalities, are inadequate for early diagnosis or for distinguishing between pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis. We have used a proteomic approach to identify proteins that are differentially expressed in sera from pancreatic cancer patients, as compared to control. N...

  12. The Korean Version of the Body Image Scale-Reliability and Validity in a Sample of Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Khang, Dongwoo; Rim, Hyo-Deog; Woo, Jungmin

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Body Image Scale (BIS) developed in collaboration with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Study Group is a brief questionnaire for measuring body image concerns in patients with cancer. This study sought to assess the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Body Image Scale (K-BIS). Methods The participants consisted of 155 postoperative breast cancer patients (56 breast conserving surgery, 56 mastectomy, and 43 o...

  13. DNA Methylation in exon 1 of CDKN2A gene in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded colon cancer samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Faramarzi

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: The result of this study has been confirmed the role of CDKN2A gene promoter methylation of CpG sites of colorectal cancer as the leading cause of colorectal cancer. These data suggest that epigenetic silencing via aberrant methylation of the CDKN2A promoter plays a critical role in the inactivation of this tumor suppressor gene in colorectal cancer and can be used as a marker for early detection and identification of potential applications.

  14. The associations between objective numeracy and colorectal cancer screening knowledge, attitudes and defensive processing in a deprived community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samuel G; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Wolf, Michael S; Raine, Rosalind; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

    2016-08-01

    We examined associations between numeracy and sociocognitive factors associated with colorectal cancer screening uptake (n = 964). Nearly half (45.7%) of the respondents incorrectly answered a numeracy question (low numeracy). Low numeracy respondents were less knowledgeable about colorectal cancer (p processing of cancer information (p = .001). Sociocognitive factors fully mediated the relationship between numeracy and screening intention. Addressing numeracy issues may reduce inequalities in CRC screening participation, but communication strategies could be limited by the tendency process cancer information defensively. PMID:25512199

  15. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers) Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia) Chest ... the case with skin cancers , as well as cancers of the lung, breast, and colon. If the tumor has spread ...

  16. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  17. Diagnostic potential for gold nanoparticle-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to provide colorectal cancer screening using blood serum sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Duo; Feng, Shangyuan; Pan, Jianji; Chen, Yanping; Lin, Juqiang; Sun, Liqing; Chen, Rong

    2012-03-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a vibrational spectroscopic technique that is capable of probing the biomolecular changes associated with diseased transformation. The objective of our study was to explore gold nanoparticle based SERS to obtain blood serum biochemical information for non-invasive colorectal cancer detection. SERS measurements were performed on two groups of blood serum samples: one group from patients (n = 38) with pathologically confirmed colorectal cancer and the other group from healthy volunteers (control subjects, n = 45). Tentative assignments of the Raman bands in the measured SERS spectra suggested interesting cancer specific biomolecular changes, including an increase in the relative amounts of nucleic acid, a decrease in the percentage of saccharide and proteins contents in the blood serum of colorectal cancer patients as compared to that of healthy subjects. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the measured SERS spectra separated the spectral features of the two groups into two distinct clusters with little overlaps. Linear discriminate analysis (LDA) based on the PCA generated features differentiated the nasopharyngeal cancer SERS spectra from normal SERS spectra with high sensitivity (97.4%) and specificity (100%). The results from this exploratory study demonstrated that gold nanoparticle based SERS serum analysis combined with PCA-LDA has tremendous potential for the non-invasive detection of colorectal cancers.

  18. How are spousal depressed mood, distress and quality of life associated with risk of depressed mood in cancer survivors? Longitudinal findings from a national sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzelman, Kristin; Yabroff, K. Robin

    2015-01-01

    Background Spouses of cancer survivors experience both positive and negative effects from caregiving. However, it is less clear what role spousal well-being may have on cancer survivors. This study aimed to determine the impact of spousal psychosocial factors on survivor depressed mood and whether this association differed by gender. Methods We examined longitudinal data on cancer survivors and their spouses (n=910 dyads) from the 2004-2012 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey and a matched sample of cancer-free dyads. Subjects reported depressed mood, psychological distress, and mental and physical health-related quality of life (HRQoL) at two time points (T1/T2). Dyadic multilevel models evaluated the impact of psychosocial factors at T1 on depressed mood at T2, controlling for sociodemographics, cancer type, survivor treatment status, and depressed mood at T1. Results Cancer survivors whose spouses reported depressed mood at T1 were 4.27 times more likely to report depressed mood at T2 (95% CI=2.01-9.07); this was stronger for female survivors (OR=9.49; 95% CI=2.42-37.20). Better spousal mental and physical HRQoL at T1 were associated with a 30% decrease in survivor depressed mood risk at T2. Most spillover effects were not observed in comparison dyads. Conclusion Depressed mood and poor HRQoL in spouses may increase the risk of depressed mood in cancer survivors. The risk may be especially strong for female survivors. Impact Identifying and improving spousal mental health and HRQoL problems may reduce the risk of depressed mood in cancer survivors. Future research should examine whether incorporating spousal care into psycho-oncology and survivorship programs improves survivor outcomes. PMID:26033755

  19. Simulating an Investigative Study of Clinical Cancer Samples: Use of Tissue Slides and PCR-based Promoter-Hypermethylation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Yuan Yuan; Chin, Cheen Fei; Yeong, Foong May

    2015-01-01

    Topics on the molecular basis underlying cancer are quite popular among students. Also, excellent textbooks abound that provide interesting materials for discussion during lectures and tutorials about major events leading to cancer formation and progression. However, much less is available for students to conduct experiments for the analysis of…

  20. 盐酸羟考酮联合音乐疗法在中重度癌痛患者中的应用%Application of oxycodone hydrochloride combined with music therapy in patients with moderate to severe cancer pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田会斌; 杨常清; 吴大芝; 魏利军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of oxycodone hydrochloride combined the music therapy for im‐proving pain in the patients with cancer .Methods The patients with moderate to severe cancer pain admitted to our hospital were included in the study and randomly divided into two groups according to the order of admission .The two groups were respectively given different treatment methods .The group A was given oxycodone hydrochloride as the control group and the group B received the therapy of oxycodone hydrochloride combined with the music therapy as the experimental group .The clinical efficacy ,dosage ,KPS score ,QOL score and adverse drug reactions were ana‐lyzed statistically .Results The pain degree after treatment in the two groups was significantly reduced compared with before treatment ,the difference was statistically significant(P0 .05) .Conclusion In clinical treatment of the patients with moderate to severe cancer pain ,oxycodone hydrochloride combined with the music therapy has definite analgesic effect ,easy op‐eration ,few adverse reactions and high security in alleviating cancer pain ,can effectively improve the live quality of patients ,provides a new elective mode for the clinical tumor analgesia and deserves to be clinically promoted and ap‐plied .%目的:探讨盐酸羟考酮联合音乐疗法对改善癌症患者疼痛的疗效。方法将该院肿瘤科收治的中重度癌痛患者纳入研究范围,按入院先后顺序随机分为两组,分别给予不同的治疗方法,A组给予盐酸羟考酮作为对照组,B组给予盐酸羟考酮联合音乐疗法作为试验组,对其临床疗效、用药剂量、功能状态评分、生活质量评分、药物不良反应进行统计学分析。结果两组患者疼痛程度均较治疗前显著减轻,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);A组用药剂量大于B组,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组患者治疗后功能状态评分

  1. Using Model, Cover, Copy, Compare, a Token Economy Program, and Discrete Trail Match to Sample Training for Teaching Functional Life Skills for a 13-Year-Old Middle School Student with Moderate Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    KATHERINE J. HOOT; McLaughlin, T F; K. MARK DERBY; MARY “POLLY” DOLLIVER; REBECCA JOHNSON

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of model, cover, copy, compare (MCCC), token system, and match to sample for teaching basic functional life skills with a middle age single student with disabilities. MCCC is a student-managed strategy that teaches discrete skills through errorless correction. Match to sample is another strategy that teaches how to identify and discriminate based on a visual representation of the identical information. The effectiveness o...

  2. Circulating Total Testosterone and PSA Concentrations in a Nationally Representative Sample of Men Without a Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskoe, Sarah B.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Rohrmann, Sabine; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Nyante, Sarah J.; Bradwin, Gary; Dobs, Adrian S.; Kanarek, Norma; Nelson, William G.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between serum sex steroid hormones and PSA in a general population has not been described. Methods Included were 378 men aged 40-85 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2001-2004, who did not have a prostate cancer diagnosis, and had not had a recent biopsy, rectal examination, cystoscopy, or prostate infection or inflammation. Serum total PSA, total testosterone, androstanediol glucuronide (3α-diol-G), estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations were previously measured. Free testosterone was estimated by mass action. We applied sampling weights and calculated geometric mean PSA concentration by hormone quintiles adjusting for age and race/ethnicity, and also for body mass index, waist circumference, smoking, diabetes, and mutually for hormones. We estimated the OR of PSA ≥2.5 ng/mL per hormone quintile using logistic regression. Results Geometric mean PSA increased across testosterone quintiles after age and race/ethnicity (Q1: 0.80, Q5: 1.14 ng/mL; P-trend=0.002) and multivariable (Q1: 0.79, Q5: 1.16 ng/mL; P-trend=0.02) adjustment; patterns were similar for free testosterone and 3α-diol-G. SHBG was inversely associated with PSA only after multivariable adjustment (Q1: 1.32, Q5: 0.82 nmol/L; P-trend=0.01). Estradiol and PSA were not associated. The OR of PSA ≥2.5 ng/mL was 1.54 (95% CI 1.18-2.01) per testosterone quintile after age and race/ethnicity adjustment, and 1.78 (95% CI 1.16-2.73) after multivariable adjustment. Conclusions In this nationally representative sample, men with higher testosterone had higher PSA even after taking into account other hormones and modifiable factors. Men with higher SHBG had lower PSA, but only after multivariable adjustment. PMID:25919471

  3. Using Model, Cover, Copy, Compare, a Token Economy Program, and Discrete Trail Match to Sample Training for Teaching Functional Life Skills for a 13-Year-Old Middle School Student with Moderate Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATHERINE J. HOOT

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of model, cover, copy, compare (MCCC, token system, and match to sample for teaching basic functional life skills with a middle age single student with disabilities. MCCC is a student-managed strategy that teaches discrete skills through errorless correction. Match to sample is another strategy that teaches how to identify and discriminate based on a visual representation of the identical information. The effectiveness of MCCC and match to sample was evaluated using a multiple baseline design. The results indicated that MCCC and match to sample was effective in teaching a single middle age school student with disabilities his name, phone number, home address, and emergency contact name and phone number. Maintenance of the basic functional life skills was also found; except for the emergency contact name. However, even if maintenance was not conducted on the final set, emergency phone number was maintained; this is attributed to the length of teaching sessions on the final set. The MCCC and match to sample interventions were both easy to implement and employ in the special education middle school classroom.

  4. Performance tests of external moderators of a PGNAA setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance tests of external cylindrical moderators of an accelerator-based prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup have been carried out through thermal neutrons and prompt γ-ray yield measurements. The PGNAA setup is to be used for analysis of cement samples. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of geometry of cylindrical moderator on yield of thermal neutrons and prompt γ-rays for two different types of moderator assemblies. One of the moderators was to be used with a small sample and the other to be used with a large sample. Fast and thermal neutron yield was measured inside the sample volume as a function of the front moderator thickness as well as sample length. Neutron yield measurement was carried out at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 350 keV pulsed beam accelerator using nuclear track detectors. The pulsed 200 keV deuteron beam with 5 ns pulse width and 31.25 kHz frequency was used to produce 2.8 MeV neutrons via D(d,n) reaction. Neutron yield measurements showed that the large sample moderator has a smaller yield of thermal neutrons as compared to the small sample moderator, which is in complete agreement with the results of Monte Carlo yield calculations of the thermal and fast neutrons from both the moderators. Finally, the prompt γ-ray yield from a Portland cement sample was measured using the two moderators and was compared with each other. As predicted by Monte Carlo simulations, in spite of a smaller yield of thermal neutrons, the large sample moderator has a higher yield of prompt γ-rays

  5. Performance tests of external moderators of a PGNAA setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A. E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman,; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Abu-Jarad, F.; Maslehuddin, M

    2003-01-01

    Performance tests of external cylindrical moderators of an accelerator-based prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup have been carried out through thermal neutrons and prompt {gamma}-ray yield measurements. The PGNAA setup is to be used for analysis of cement samples. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of geometry of cylindrical moderator on yield of thermal neutrons and prompt {gamma}-rays for two different types of moderator assemblies. One of the moderators was to be used with a small sample and the other to be used with a large sample. Fast and thermal neutron yield was measured inside the sample volume as a function of the front moderator thickness as well as sample length. Neutron yield measurement was carried out at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 350 keV pulsed beam accelerator using nuclear track detectors. The pulsed 200 keV deuteron beam with 5 ns pulse width and 31.25 kHz frequency was used to produce 2.8 MeV neutrons via D(d,n) reaction. Neutron yield measurements showed that the large sample moderator has a smaller yield of thermal neutrons as compared to the small sample moderator, which is in complete agreement with the results of Monte Carlo yield calculations of the thermal and fast neutrons from both the moderators. Finally, the prompt {gamma}-ray yield from a Portland cement sample was measured using the two moderators and was compared with each other. As predicted by Monte Carlo simulations, in spite of a smaller yield of thermal neutrons, the large sample moderator has a higher yield of prompt {gamma}-rays.

  6. Performance tests of external moderators of a PGNAA setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A A; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Al-Jarallah, M I; Abu-Jarad, F; Maslehuddin, M

    2003-01-01

    Performance tests of external cylindrical moderators of an accelerator-based prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup have been carried out through thermal neutrons and prompt gamma-ray yield measurements. The PGNAA setup is to be used for analysis of cement samples. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of geometry of cylindrical moderator on yield of thermal neutrons and prompt gamma-rays for two different types of moderator assemblies. One of the moderators was to be used with a small sample and the other to be used with a large sample. Fast and thermal neutron yield was measured inside the sample volume as a function of the front moderator thickness as well as sample length. Neutron yield measurement was carried out at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 350 keV pulsed beam accelerator using nuclear track detectors. The pulsed 200 keV deuteron beam with 5 ns pulse width and 31.25 kHz frequency was used to produce 2.8 MeV neutrons via D(d,n) reaction. Neutron yield measurements showed that the large sample moderator has a smaller yield of thermal neutrons as compared to the small sample moderator, which is in complete agreement with the results of Monte Carlo yield calculations of the thermal and fast neutrons from both the moderators. Finally, the prompt gamma-ray yield from a Portland cement sample was measured using the two moderators and was compared with each other. As predicted by Monte Carlo simulations, in spite of a smaller yield of thermal neutrons, the large sample moderator has a higher yield of prompt gamma-rays. PMID:12485660

  7. [Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  8. Whole-exome sequencing and clinical interpretation of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples to guide precision cancer medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Allen, Eliezer M; Wagle, Nikhil; Stojanov, Petar; Perrin, Danielle L; Cibulskis, Kristian; Marlow, Sara; Jane-Valbuena, Judit; Friedrich, Dennis C; Kryukov, Gregory; Carter, Scott L; McKenna, Aaron; Sivachenko, Andrey; Rosenberg, Mara; Kiezun, Adam; Voet, Douglas; Lawrence, Michael; Lichtenstein, Lee T; Gentry, Jeff G; Huang, Franklin W; Fostel, Jennifer; Farlow, Deborah; Barbie, David; Gandhi, Leena; Lander, Eric S; Gray, Stacy W; Joffe, Steven; Janne, Pasi; Garber, Judy; MacConaill, Laura; Lindeman, Neal; Rollins, Barrett; Kantoff, Philip; Fisher, Sheila A; Gabriel, Stacey; Getz, Gad; Garraway, Levi A

    2014-06-01

    Translating whole-exome sequencing (WES) for prospective clinical use may have an impact on the care of patients with cancer; however, multiple innovations are necessary for clinical implementation. These include rapid and robust WES of DNA derived from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue, analytical output similar to data from frozen samples and clinical interpretation of WES data for prospective use. Here, we describe a prospective clinical WES platform for archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples. The platform employs computational methods for effective clinical analysis and interpretation of WES data. When applied retrospectively to 511 exomes, the interpretative framework revealed a 'long tail' of somatic alterations in clinically important genes. Prospective application of this approach identified clinically relevant alterations in 15 out of 16 patients. In one patient, previously undetected findings guided clinical trial enrollment, leading to an objective clinical response. Overall, this methodology may inform the widespread implementation of precision cancer medicine. PMID:24836576

  9. DNA Methylation in exon 1 of CDKN2A gene in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded colon cancer samples

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Faramarzi; Elham Moslemi; Amir Izadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The molecular studies indicate some of the genes in the promoter region itself, will undergo methylation. Methylation of CpG islands in the promoter region of that cause silence or reduced expression of genes involved in cell growth pathways, which are colorectal cancer causing agents. Detection of methylation status can be used as a marker for cancer diagnosis and prediction of disease. CDKN2A tumor suppressor gene encodes a protein, which inhibit CDK 4/6 and loss of retinoblasto...

  10. Radionuclides detected in lime samples that consumed with tobacco and betel nuts by people of Northeast India where head and neck squamous cells cancer (HNSCC) is prevalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) is a very predominant type of cancer amongst the population of northeastern states of India than the rest of the world. Epidemiological and other data suggest consumption of betel nuts with/without tobacco and lime or tobacco alone with lime is a probable cause of high cancer incidence. The fundamental question arises that why this particular cancer is induced more in this region while people follow the similar habits elsewhere. Here we report the results on analysis of lime samples, collected from 12 different locations spectrophotometrically by high-purity germanium detector. The calculated activity of radionuclides showed to an average of 2.68, 0.10 and 0.83 Bq/gm for 238U, 235U and 232Th series respectively for ten samples which are about 8 times higher than the normal background level of 0.37, 0.02 and 0.02 Bq/gm for 238U, 235U and 232Th series found in control samples, collected from outside of northeast. The results conclusively showed for the first time that the lime samples almost throughout the northeastern India contain high proportion of radionuclides of uranium, thorium and actinides series. Further, annual effective dose of gamma radiation calculations from these results of earth's crust in northeast showed that gamma rays emitted at an average dose of up to 2.5 mSv/year/consumer approximately. This dose calculation in the oral cavity is underestimated as short range radiations by decay of alpha, beta and electron-capture etc are not considered in the present study. Continuous exposure of such low dose radiations emitting from different radionuclides to the sensitive squamous cells of the oral cavity for a long twenty years or more amounting to a total minimum dose of at least 50 mSv evidently contributes towards excessive HNSCC to the people of northeast than other parts of India.

  11. The classification of secondary colorectal liver cancer in human biopsy samples using angular dispersive x-ray diffraction and multivariate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The motivation behind this study is to assess whether angular dispersive x-ray diffraction (ADXRD) data, processed using multivariate analysis techniques, can be used for classifying secondary colorectal liver cancer tissue and normal surrounding liver tissue in human liver biopsy samples. The ADXRD profiles from a total of 60 samples of normal liver tissue and colorectal liver metastases were measured using a synchrotron radiation source. The data were analysed for 56 samples using nonlinear peak-fitting software. Four peaks were fitted to all of the ADXRD profiles, and the amplitude, area, amplitude and area ratios for three of the four peaks were calculated and used for the statistical and multivariate analysis. The statistical analysis showed that there are significant differences between all the peak-fitting parameters and ratios between the normal and the diseased tissue groups. The technique of soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) was used to classify normal liver tissue and colorectal liver metastases resulting in 67% of the normal tissue samples and 60% of the secondary colorectal liver tissue samples being classified correctly. This study has shown that the ADXRD data of normal and secondary colorectal liver cancer are statistically different and x-ray diffraction data analysed using multivariate analysis have the potential to be used as a method of tissue classification.

  12. Na, Al, K, Mn, Mg, Br, Ca, And Cl Concentration Values in the whole Blood Samples of Human Cancer using Short Time Neutron Irradiation Facility of ETRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Cancer Institute of Egypt submit us with 18 blood samples (11 Breast),(2 Prostate),(2 Colon),(1 Pancreatic),(1 Ovarian) and one samples from random person to estimate the concentration values of Na, Al ,K , Mn , Mg ,Br and Cl. The pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS) built in the vertical thermal column of the ETRR-2 reactor is used for short time irradiation at constant power. Elemental concentrations were estimated from measurements of the gamma ray spectra of the product short lived isotopes in the samples. The thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio was calculated f (169) at irradiation position. The obtained concentration was calculated using kθ standardization method. Fortran and Axel programs were constructed for the determination of neutron fluxes and for elemental concentration values .For sake of comparisons the obtained results, the elemental concentrations of the random sample using (kθ - NAA) compared with the concentrations obtained by (ICP-MS) technique.

  13. A novel method for sample preparation of fresh lung cancer tissue for proteomics analysis by tumor cell enrichment and removal of blood contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orre Lotta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In-depth proteomics analyses of tumors are frequently biased by the presence of blood components and stromal contamination, which leads to large experimental variation and decreases the proteome coverage. We have established a reproducible method to prepare freshly collected lung tumors for proteomics analysis, aiming at tumor cell enrichment and reduction of plasma protein contamination. We obtained enriched tumor-cell suspensions (ETS from six lung cancer cases (two adenocarcinomas, two squamous-cell carcinomas, two large-cell carcinomas and from two normal lung samples. The cell content of resulting ETS was evaluated with immunocytological stainings and compared with the histologic pattern of the original specimens. By means of a quantitative mass spectrometry-based method we evaluated the reproducibility of the sample preparation protocol and we assessed the proteome coverage by comparing lysates from ETS samples with the direct lysate of corresponding fresh-frozen samples. Results Cytological analyses on cytospin specimens showed that the percentage of tumoral cells in the ETS samples ranged from 20% to 70%. In the normal lung samples the percentage of epithelial cells was less then 10%. The reproducibility of the sample preparation protocol was very good, with coefficient of variation at the peptide level and at the protein level of 13% and 7%, respectively. Proteomics analysis led to the identification of a significantly higher number of proteins in the ETS samples than in the FF samples (244 vs 109, respectively. Albumin and hemoglobin were among the top 5 most abundant proteins identified in the FF samples, showing a high contamination with blood and plasma proteins, whereas ubiquitin and the mitochondrial ATP synthase 5A1 where among the top 5 most abundant proteins in the ETS samples. Conclusion The method is feasible and reproducible. We could obtain a fair enrichment of cells but the major benefit of the method

  14. Diagnosis of moderate acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty patients with malignant lymphoma were given 60Co TLI. 21 cases received 6 Gy and 19 received 8 Gy. It was estimated that a single TLI of 6 and 8 Gy would correspond to TBI of 3.55 Gy and 4.25 Gy (average values) by analysing peripheral blood cell chromosome aberrations and 1.85-2.37 Gy by measuring red bone marrow stem cells clinically. Moderate acute radiation sickness with digestive tract reaction and hemopoietic and immunologic depression was observed. WBC and platelets decreased rapidly. Lymphocytes showed quantitative and qualitative changes even at early stage. All these indexes are significant for diagnosis. Besides, the degree of labial stimulation response, levels of C-reactive protein, corticoid, and urinal nucleoside and alkaloid base presented great changes both pre-and post-irradiation. Early diagnosis of moderate acute radiation sickness could be made in cancer patients subjected to 6-8 Gy TLI

  15. Estimation of lead in biological samples of oral cancer patients chewing smokeless tobacco products by ionic liquid-based microextraction in a single syringe system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Arain, Asma J; Afridi, Hassan I; Arain, Muhammad B; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Panhwar, Abdul H; Arain, Mariam S

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have reported that the chewing habit of smokeless tobacco (SLT) has been associated with oral cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the trace levels of lead (Pb) in biological samples (blood, scalp hair) of oral cancer patients and referents of the same age group (range 30-60 years). As the concentrations of Pb are very low in biological samples, so a simple and efficient ionic liquid-based microextraction in a single syringe system has been developed, as a prior step to determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. In this procedure, the hydrophobic chelates of Pb with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) were extracted into fine droplets of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C4MIM][PF6] within a syringe while using Triton X-114 as a dispersant. Factors influencing the microextraction efficiency and determination, such as pH of the sample, volume of [C4MIM][PF6] and Triton X-114, ligand concentration, and incubation time, were studied. To validate the proposed method, certified reference materials were analyzed and the results of Pb(2+) were in good agreement with certified values. At optimum experimental values of significant variables, detection limit and enhancement factor were found to be 0.412 μg/L and 80, respectively. The coexisting ions showed no obvious negative outcome on Pb preconcentration. The proposed method was applied satisfactorily for the preconcentration of Pb(2+) in acid-digested SLT and biological samples of the study population. It was observed that oral cancer patients who consumed different SLT products have 2-3-fold higher levels of Pb in scalp hair and blood samples as compared to healthy referents (p < 0.001). While 31.4-50.8% higher levels of Pb were observed in referents chewing different SLT products as compared to nonconsumers (p < 0.01). PMID:25903188

  16. Oral Bisphosphonates and Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer Risks in Asians with Osteoporosis: A Nested Case-Control Study Using National Retrospective Cohort Sample Data from Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Young Jung

    Full Text Available Bisphosphonate can irritate the gastrointestinal mucosa and increase the risk of esophageal or gastric cancer. The relatively high prevalence of upper gastrointestinal cancers and the widespread use of bisphosphonate in Korea call for further investigation. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the risk of esophageal or gastric cancer after exposure to oral bisphosphonates in Korean patients with osteoporosis.We used the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database of Korea from 2002 to 2013. Among osteoporotic patients (>40 years, cases were defined as incident diagnosis of esophageal or gastric cancer between 2006 and 2013. For each case, four controls were matched for age, sex, and income level by type of insurance. We categorized bisphosphonate use as non-user, recent user, past user, and past and recent user, depending on prescription in two periods (1 to 2 years and 2 to 4 years prior to the index date. We also assessed the duration of bisphosphonate use by measuring cumulative duration of exposure (CDE. To examine the association between oral bisphosphonates and esophageal or gastric cancer, we estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs using conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusting for concomitant diseases.A total of 1,708 cases and 6,832 controls were identified. The aORs (95% CIs of recent, past, and continuous bisphosphonate use compared to non-users were 1.18 (0.93-1.51, 1.04 (0.83-1.29, and 1.25 (0.95-1.58, respectively. In addition, no significant association was observed by CDE, even when different outcome definitions were applied.This study did not prove an increased risk of esophageal or gastric cancer risk associated with bisphosphonate use, with respect to both risk windows and duration of exposure, in an Asian population-based, real-world setting.

  17. Alcohol-related cancers and genetic susceptibility in Europe: the ARCAGE project: study samples and data collection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lagiou, Pagona

    2009-02-01

    Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) include those of the oral cavity, pharynx (other than nasopharynx), larynx, and esophagus. Tobacco smoking and consumption of alcoholic beverages are established causes of UADT cancers, whereas reduced intake of vegetables and fruits are likely causes. The role of genetic predisposition and possible interactions of genetic with exogenous factors, however, have not been adequately studied. Moreover, the role of pattern of smoking and drinking, as well as the exact nature of the implicated dietary variables, has not been clarified. To address these issues, the International Agency for Research on Cancer initiated in 2002 the alcohol-related cancers and genetic susceptibility (ARCAGE) in Europe project, with the participation of 15 centers in 11 European countries. Information and biological data from a total of 2304 cases and 2227 controls have been collected and will be used in a series of analyses. A total of 166 single nucleotide polymorphisms of 76 genes are being studied for genetic associations with UADT cancers. We report here the methodology of the ARCAGE project, main demographic and lifestyle characteristics of the cases and controls, as well as the distribution of cases by histology and subsite. About 80% of cases were males and fewer than 20% of all cases occurred before the age of 50 years. Overall, the most common subsite was larynx, followed by oral cavity, oropharynx, esophagus and hypopharynx. Close to 90% of UADT cancers were squamous cell carcinomas. A clear preponderance of smokers and alcohol drinkers among UADT cases compared with controls was observed.

  18. Identification and analysis of miRNAs in human breast cancer and teratoma samples using deep sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Jacobsen, Anders; Lindow, Morten;

    2009-01-01

    . METHODS: Here we describe the analysis of 454 pyrosequencing of small RNA from four different tissues: Breast cancer, normal adjacent breast, and two teratoma cell lines. We developed a pipeline for identifying new miRNAs, emphasizing extracting and retaining as much data as possible from even noisy...

  19. Levels of (1→3-β-D-glucan, Candida mannan and Candida DNA in serum samples of pediatric cancer patients colonized with Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Zia U

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveillance cultures may be helpful in identifying patients at increased risk of developing invasive candidiasis. However, only scant information exists on the effect of Candida colonization on serum levels of diagnostic biomarkers. This prospective surveillance study determined the extent of Candida colonization among pediatric cancer patients and its possible impact on serum levels of (1-3-β-D-glucan (BDG, Candida mannan and Candida DNA. Methods A total of 1075 swabs originating from oropharynx (n = 294, nostrils (n = 600, rectum (n = 28, groin (n = 50, ear (n = 54, and axilla (n = 49 of 63 pediatric cancer patients were cultured for the isolation of Candida spp. Patients yielding Candida spp. from any sites were considered as colonized. Serum samples were collected from patients at the time of first surveillance culture for detection of BDG by Fungitell kit and Candida mannan by Platelia Candida Ag. Candida DNA was detected by using panfungal primers and identification was carried out by using species-specific primers and DNA sequencing. Results Seventy-five (7.6% swab cultures from 35 (55.5% patients yielded Candida spp. These isolates included C. albicans (n = 62, C. dubliniensis (n = 8, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis (n = 2 each and C. krusei (n = 1. Eleven patients were colonized at three or more sites. Eight of 36 serum samples from 6 colonized patients yielded BDG values higher than the currently recommended cut-off value of ≥80 pg/ml. However, none of the serum samples yielded Candida mannan levels ≥0.5 ng/ml and PCR test for Candida DNA was also negative in all the serum samples of colonized patients. During the study period, only two colonized patients subsequently developed candidemia due to C. tropicalis. Besides positive blood cultures, C. tropicalis DNA, BDG and Candida mannan were also detected in serum samples of both the patients. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that while mucosal

  20. Rasch Analysis of the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF in an Iranian Sample of Prostate Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ying Lin

    Full Text Available Male sexual dysfunction is an increasing problem across a variety of general and clinical populations, such as cancer populations; especially among prostate cancer patients who tend to receive treatments that often result in erectile dysfunction (ED and/or premature ejaculation (PE. Therefore, in order to diagnose ED and PE in these populations, adequate and efficient instruments such as the International Index of Erectile Function 5-item version (IIEF-5 and the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT are needed. However, since this is an important topic additional evidence of psychometric properties of the IIEF-5 and the PEDT in such samples are required. Thus the aim of the present study was to use Rasch models to investigate the construct validity, local dependency, score order, and differential item functioning (DIF of both questionnaires in a sample of prostate cancer patients.Prostate cancer patients (n = 1058, mean±SD age = 64.07±6.84 years who visited urology clinics were invited to fill out the IIEF-5 and the PEDT. Construct validity was examined using infit and outfit mean square (MnSq and local dependency using correlations between each two residual Rasch scores. Score order was investigated using step and average measures of difficulty and DIF using DIF contrast.All IIEF-5 and PEDT items had acceptable infit and outfit MnSq. Step measures revealed that all but two items had disordered categories in terms of scores 1 to 3. Only one local dependency was found, and no items displayed DIF across age, educational level, and help seeking.The results showed that both the IIEF-5 and the PEDT had sound psychometric properties in the Rasch analyses, although some score disordering could be detected in both instruments. The results of no DIF items in both instruments suggest using them to compare ED and PE across age and educational level is adequate.

  1. Aberrant methylation of PCDH10 and RASSF1A genes in blood samples for non-invasive diagnosis and prognostic assessment of gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimson, Charinya; Pientong, Chamsai; Promthet, Supannee; Putthanachote, Nuntiput; Suwanrungruang, Krittika; Wiangnon, Surapon

    2016-01-01

    Background. Assessment of DNA methylation of specific genes is one approach to the diagnosis of cancer worldwide. Early stage detection is necessary to reduce the mortality rate of cancers, including those occurring in the stomach. For this purpose, tumor cells in circulating blood offer promising candidates for non-invasive diagnosis. Transcriptional inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, like PCDH10 and RASSF1A, by methylation is associated with progression of gastric cancer, and such methylation can therefore be utilized as a biomarker. Methods. The present research was conducted to evaluate DNA methylation in these two genes using blood samples of gastric cancer cases. Clinicopathological data were also analyzed and cumulative survival rates generated for comparison. Results. High frequencies of PCDH10 and RASSF1A methylations in the gastric cancer group were noted (94.1% and 83.2%, respectively, as compared to 2.97% and 5.45% in 202 matched controls). Most patients (53.4%) were in severe stage of the disease, with a median survival time of 8.4 months after diagnosis. Likewise, the patients with metastases, or RASSF1A and PCDH10 methylations, had median survival times of 7.3, 7.8, and 8.4 months, respectively. A Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that cumulative survival was significantly lower in those cases positive for methylation of RASSF1A than in their negative counterparts. Similarly, whereas almost 100% of patients positive for PCDH10 methylation had died after five years, none of the negative cases died over this period. Notably, the methylations of RASSF1A and PCDH10 were found to be higher in the late-stage patients and were also significantly correlated with metastasis and histology. Conclusions. PCDH10 and RASSF1A methylations in blood samples can serve as potential non-invasive diagnostic indicators in blood for gastric cancer. In addition to RASSF1A methylation, tumor stage proved to be a major prognostic factor in terms of survival rates.

  2. TOP1 gene copy number and TOP1/CEN-20 ratio in stage III colorectal cancer samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Maria Unni Koefoed; Nygård, Sune Boris; Christensen, Ib Jarle;

    fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) primary tumor tissue has been suggested as a predictive biomarker of the effect of irinotecan in the treatment of metastatic CRC. Quantification of TOP1 protein levels in FFPE tissue may be difficult and calls for alternative methods.We have recently reported on TOP1 FISH......AIM OF STUDY To investigate if TOP1 gene copy number and/or the TOP1/CEN-20 ratio in colorectal cancer (CRC) areassociated with prognosis. BACKGROUND TOP1, localized on chromosome 20, encodes topoisomerase I (TOP1), which is the sole molecular target of irinotecan. TOP1 immunoreactivity in formalin...... gene copy number/cell and OS exists. A continuous relationship between TOP1 gene copy number/cell and LR exists. A continuous relationship exists between TOP1/CEN-20 ratio and LR CONCLUSION Our data suggest that TOP1 and TOP1/CEN-20 ratio are associated with prognosis in colorectal cancer. Future...

  3. Pancratistatin induces apoptosis in clinical leukemia samples with minimal effect on non-cancerous peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    OpenAIRE

    McNulty James; Hamm Caroline; Griffin Carly; Pandey Siyaram

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Pancratistatin, a natural compound extracted from Hymenocallis littoralis, can selectively induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. In this ex vivo study, we evaluated the effect of pancratistatin on peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 15 leukemia patients prior to clinical intervention of newly diagnosed patients, as well as others of different ages in relapse and at various disease progression states. Results Mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers a...

  4. Direct detection of circulating free DNA extracted from serum samples of breast cancer using locked nucleic acid molecular beacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Zhen; Wang, Quanbo; Li, Jinchang; Zhu, Mingchen; Yu, Lili; Xun, Tang; Yan, Feng; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-07-01

    As an emerging noninvasive blood biomarker, circulating free DNA (cfDNA) can be utilized to assess diagnosis, progression and evaluate prognosis of cancer. However, cfDNAs are not "naked", they can be part of complexes, or are bound to the surface of the cells via proteins, which make the detection more challenging. Here, a simple method for the detection of Ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 1 (UHRF1) DNA exacted from serum of breast cancer (BC) has been developed using a novel locked nucleic acid molecular beacon (LNA-MB). In order to enhance the stability and detection efficiency of the probe in biofluids, we design a shared-stem molecular beacon containing a 27-mer loop and a 4-mer stem with DNA/LNA alternating bases. The fluorescence is released in the presence of target. The detection procedure is simple and can be completed within 1h. This method shows a sensitive response to UHRF1 DNA with a dynamic range of 3 orders of magnitude. The limit of detection is 11nM (S/N=3) with excellent selectivity. It can discriminate UHRF1 DNA from three-base mismatched DNA with a high specificity. More importantly, this method can distinguish the expression of serum UHRF1 DNA among 5 breast cancer patients and 5 healthy controls. The mentioned superiority may suggest that this assay can be served as a promising noninvasive detection tool for early BC diagnosis and monitoring. PMID:27154709

  5. Microsatellite instability in gastric cancer and pre-cancerous lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Liu; Xiao-Yong Zhang; Yun Shao; Dao-Fu Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the microsatellite instability (MSI) in cancer and pre-cancerous lesions of the stomach and its mechanisms underlying the development of gastric cancer.METHODS: Thirty-six gastric cancer samples were obtained from patients undergoing surgery. Forty-one gastric mucosa samples with dysplasia and 51 with intestinal metaplasia (IM) were obtained from patients with chronic gastritis undergoing gastro-endoscopy. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples. Silver staining single strand conformation polymorphis-polymerize chain reaction (SSCP-PCR) was used to screen MSI markers at 5 loci (Bat-25, Bat-26, D5S346, D17S250, and D2S123)in fresh tissues and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples and their corresponding normal gastric mucosa.RESULTS: The abnormal shifting of the single-strand DNA (MSI) was identified in 21 out of 36 (58.3%) gastric cancers.Seven cases showed high-level MSI (two or more loci altered) and 14 showed low-level MSI (one locus altered).Gastric cancer with MSI had a tendency to be located in the distal stomach. MSI was also detected in 11 out of 41(26.8%) dysplasia samples and in 9 of 51 (17.6%) IM samples respectively. Three cases of dysplasia and one case of IM showed high-level MSI. Eight cases of dysplasia and 8 cases of IM displayed low-level MSI. MIS in IM was found only in moderate or severe-grade IM. No association was detected between MSI and dysplasia grade.CONCLUSION: Accumulation of MSI in dysplasia and intestinal metaplasia of gastric mucosa may be an early molecular event during gastric carcinogenesis and may contribute to the acquisition of transformed cell phenotype and the development of gastric cancer.

  6. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Yangtze River Delta, China: Concentrations, distributions, and cancer risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) has been quickly industrialized and urbanized. Passive air sampling of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was carried out in the YRD in 2010–2011 to investigate their spatiotemporal distributions and estimate the risk of cancer from their inhalation. Annual concentrations were 151, 168, 18.8, 110, 17.9, and 35.0 pg m−3 for HCB, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs, ∑chlordane, mirex, and PCBs, respectively. The highest OCP and PCB concentrations were generally detected in the autumn and winter. The average concentrations of OCPs and PCBs for the different site groups followed the order urban ≈ urban–rural transition > rural. The lifetime excess cancer risks from the inhalation of OCPs and PCBs were −6. The predicted cancer cases per lifetime associated with the inhalation of OCPs and PCBs are 12, 7, and 4 per ten thousand people for urban, urban–rural transition, and rural areas, respectively. Highlights: •Organochlorine pollutants were measured in the air in the Yangtze River Delta area. •Air PCB concentration declined in recent years comparing with previous results. •HCB and DDEs predominated, with the highest values in winter and autumn, respectively. •OCPs and PCBs followed the order: urban ≈ urban–rural transition > rural. -- A detailed study of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air across the Yangtze River Delta area using passive air samplers

  7. Improved amplification efficiency on stool samples by addition of spermidine and its use for non-invasive detection of colorectal cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Roperch, Jean-Pierre

    2015-05-29

    Background Using quantitative methylation-specific PCR (QM-MSP) is a promising method for colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis from stool samples. Difficulty in eliminating PCR inhibitors of this body fluid has been extensively reported. Here, spermidine is presented as PCR facilitator for the detection of stool DNA methylation biomarkers using QM-MSP. We examined its effectiveness with NPY, PENK and WIF1, three biomarkers which we have previously shown to be of relevance to CRC. Results We determined an optimal window for the amplification of the albumin (Alb) gene (100 ng of bisulfite-treated stool DNA added of 1 mM spermidine) at which we report that spermidine acts as a PCR facilitator (AE = 1680%) for SG RT-PCR. We show that the amplification of methylated PENK, NPY and WIF1 is considerably facilitated by QM-MSP as measured by an increase of CMI (Cumulative Methylation Index, i.e. the sum of the three methylation values) by a factor of 1.5 to 23 fold in individual samples, and of 10 fold in a pool of five samples. Conclusions We contend that spermidine greatly reduces the problems of PCR inhibition in stool samples. This observed feature, after validation on a larger sampling, could be used in the development of stool-based CRC diagnosis tests.

  8. The use of purposeful sampling in a qualitative evidence synthesis: A worked example on sexual adjustment to a cancer trajectory

    OpenAIRE

    Benoot, Charlotte; Hannes, Karin; Bilsen, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of qualitative evidence syntheses papers are found in health care literature. Many of these syntheses use a strictly exhaustive search strategy to collect articles, mirroring the standard template developed by major review organizations such as the Cochrane and Campbell Collaboration. The hegemonic idea behind it is that non-comprehensive samples in systematic reviews may introduce selection bias. However, exhaustive sampling in a qualitative evidence synthe...

  9. In vivo sampling of Verteporfin uptake in pancreas cancer xenograft models: comparison of surface, oral, and interstitial measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle, Martin; O'Hara, Julia A.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Mosse, Sandy; Pereira, Stephen; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2010-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with Verteporfin is being investigated as a pancreatic cancer treatment in the cases for non-surgical candidates. Tissue response to PDT is based on a number of parameters including photosensitizer (PS) dose, light dose and time interval between light application and PS injection. In this study, PS uptake and distribution in animal leg muscle, oral cavity tissues, pancreas and tumor was measured in vivo using light-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) via an Aurora Optics Inc. PDT fluorescence dosimeter. An orthotopic pancreatic cancer model (AsPC-1) was implanted in SCID mice and treated with the PS. Probe measurements were made using a surface probe and an interstitial needle probe before and up to one hour after intravenous tail vein injection of the PS. The study demonstrated that it is possible to correlate in-vivo LIFS measurements of the PS uptake in the pancreas with measurements taken from the oral cavity indicating that light dosimetry of PDT of the pancreas can be ascertained from the LIFS measurements in the oral cavity. These results emphasize the importance of light dosimetry in improving the therapeutic outcome of PDT through light dose adaptation to the relative in situ tissue PS concentration.

  10. Expression profiling of blood samples from an SU5416 Phase III metastatic colorectal cancer clinical trial: a novel strategy for biomarker identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolich Beverly D

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray-based gene expression profiling is a powerful approach for the identification of molecular biomarkers of disease, particularly in human cancers. Utility of this approach to measure responses to therapy is less well established, in part due to challenges in obtaining serial biopsies. Identification of suitable surrogate tissues will help minimize limitations imposed by those challenges. This study describes an approach used to identify gene expression changes that might serve as surrogate biomarkers of drug activity. Methods Expression profiling using microarrays was applied to peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC samples obtained from patients with advanced colorectal cancer participating in a Phase III clinical trial. The PBMC samples were harvested pre-treatment and at the end of the first 6-week cycle from patients receiving standard of care chemotherapy or standard of care plus SU5416, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK inhibitor. Results from matched pairs of PBMC samples from 23 patients were queried for expression changes that consistently correlated with SU5416 administration. Results Thirteen transcripts met this selection criterion; six were further tested by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of 62 additional samples from this trial and a second SU5416 Phase III trial of similar design. This method confirmed four of these transcripts (CD24, lactoferrin, lipocalin 2, and MMP-9 as potential biomarkers of drug treatment. Discriminant analysis showed that expression profiles of these 4 transcripts could be used to classify patients by treatment arm in a predictive fashion. Conclusions These results establish a foundation for the further exploration of peripheral blood cells as a surrogate system for biomarker analyses in clinical oncology studies.

  11. Expression profiling of blood samples from an SU5416 Phase III metastatic colorectal cancer clinical trial: a novel strategy for biomarker identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microarray-based gene expression profiling is a powerful approach for the identification of molecular biomarkers of disease, particularly in human cancers. Utility of this approach to measure responses to therapy is less well established, in part due to challenges in obtaining serial biopsies. Identification of suitable surrogate tissues will help minimize limitations imposed by those challenges. This study describes an approach used to identify gene expression changes that might serve as surrogate biomarkers of drug activity. Expression profiling using microarrays was applied to peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples obtained from patients with advanced colorectal cancer participating in a Phase III clinical trial. The PBMC samples were harvested pre-treatment and at the end of the first 6-week cycle from patients receiving standard of care chemotherapy or standard of care plus SU5416, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor. Results from matched pairs of PBMC samples from 23 patients were queried for expression changes that consistently correlated with SU5416 administration. Thirteen transcripts met this selection criterion; six were further tested by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of 62 additional samples from this trial and a second SU5416 Phase III trial of similar design. This method confirmed four of these transcripts (CD24, lactoferrin, lipocalin 2, and MMP-9) as potential biomarkers of drug treatment. Discriminant analysis showed that expression profiles of these 4 transcripts could be used to classify patients by treatment arm in a predictive fashion. These results establish a foundation for the further exploration of peripheral blood cells as a surrogate system for biomarker analyses in clinical oncology studies

  12. Ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on dual signal amplification process for p16(INK4a) cervical cancer detection in clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangkaew, Pattasuda; Tapaneeyakorn, Satita; Apiwat, Chayachon; Dharakul, Tararaj; Laiwejpithaya, Somsak; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan

    2015-12-15

    The p16(INK4a) (p16) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which has been evaluated in several studies as a diagnostic marker of cervical cancer. Immunostaining using p16 specific antibody has confirmed an over-expression of p16 protein in cervical cancer cells and its association with disease progression. This article reports an ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor for specific detection of p16 and demonstrates its performance for detection of solubilized p16 protein in cell lysates obtained from patients. Sandwich-based immunoreaction couple with double signal amplification strategy based on catalytic enlargement of particle tag was used for high sensitivity and specificity. The conditions were optimized to create an immunoassay protocol. Disposable screen-printed electrode modified with capture antibodies (Ab1) was selected for further implementation towards point-of-care diagnostics. Small gold nanoparticles (15 nm diameter) conjugated with detection antibodies (Ab2) were found to better serve as a detection label due to limited interference with antigen-antibody interaction. Double signal enhancement was performed by sequential depositions of gold and silver layers. This gave the sensitivity of 1.78 μA mL(ng GST-p16)(-1) cm(-2) and detection limit of 1.3 ng mL(-1) for GST-p16 protein which is equivalent to 0.49 ng mL(-1) for p16 protein and 28 cells for HeLa cervical cancer cells. In addition to purified protein, the proposed immunosensor effectively detected elevated p16 level in cervical swab samples obtained from 10 patients with positive result from standard Pap smear test, indicating that an electrochemical immunosensors hold an excellent promise for detection of cervical cancer in clinical setting. PMID:26201985

  13. Doing statistical mediation and moderation

    CERN Document Server

    Jose, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    Written in a friendly, conversational style, this book offers a hands-on approach to statistical mediation and moderation for both beginning researchers and those familiar with modeling. Starting with a gentle review of regression-based analysis, Paul Jose covers basic mediation and moderation techniques before moving on to advanced topics in multilevel modeling, structural equation modeling, and hybrid combinations, such as moderated mediation. User-friendly features include numerous graphs and carefully worked-through examples; ""Helpful Suggestions"" about procedures and pitfalls; ""Knowled

  14. Cold moderators for spallation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moderators using liquid and solid methane and liquid hydrogen are currently in use at major spallation neutron sources. Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) is planning the use of liquid methane as part of a major update program planned in about three years time. This report presents a general overview of some of these devices and outlines the general engineering design of the proposed LANSCE moderator, including some suggested solutions to the radiation damage problems of methane. Also included is a brief overview of a possible combined H2/Ch4 moderator for high intensity proton beams. 15 figs

  15. Cold moderators for spallation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moderators using both liquid and solid methane and liquid hydrogen are currently in use at major spallation neutron sources. Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) is planning the use of liquid methane as part of a major update program planned in about three years time. This report presents an overview of some of these devices and outlines the general engineering design of the proposed LANSCE moderator, including some suggested solutions to the radiation damage problems of methane. Also included is a brief overview of a possible combined H2/CH4 moderator for high-intensity proton beams, which is covered in more detail in a separate paper. 15 figs

  16. 1300 nm and 890 nm OCT images of oral cancer tissue engineered models and biopsy samples offer complimentary performance (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadi, Joseph; Byers, Robert A.; Fernandes, Jon; Mittar, Shweta; Hearnden, Vanessa; Lu, Zenghai; MacNeil, Sheila; Thornhill, Martin; Murdoch, Craig; Hunter, Keith D.; McKechnie, Alasdair; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2016-02-01

    OCT has demonstrated great potential to non-invasively detect oral epithelial cancers, potentially guiding biopsy and surgical resection. On non-ophthalmic tissues the preferred illumination wavelength is 1300 nm. Previous studies on skin have shown that useful image data can also be obtained at shorter wavelengths, with systems at 1060 nm and 820 nm offering reduced depth penetration but higher contrast. Here we apply a similar comparison to tissue engineered models of oral cancer and also to human biopsy samples, generally finding a similar trend. 1300 nm multi-beam OCT (Michelson Diagnostics EX1301) visualises stromal structures and surface keratin more clearly, providing useful image contrast down to around 1 mm. This system was compared with an ultra-high resolution home-built system operating at 890 nm (2.5 micron resolution vs 7.5 micron axial resolution for the EX1301). The UHR system reveals epithelial features more clearly, especially in the DOK pre-invasive cell line model and the biopsy samples. The relative effects of center wavelength vs axial resolution in generating the differential, wavelength-dependent contrast are assessed and the OCT biopsy images are compared with contemporary histology.

  17. The performance of three-sample qualitative immunochemical fecal test to detect colorectal adenoma and cancer in gastrointestinal outpatients: an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repeated qualitative fecal immunochemical test (qlFIT is a clinical strategy widely used to detect lower gastrointestinal lesions, but its diagnostic power has not been assessed in opportunistic screening for colorectal neoplasia. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the performance of three-sample qlFIT in screening for colorectal cancer and its precursors in high-risk participants. METHODS: 513 gastrointestinal outpatients yielded three qlFITs before a standard colonoscopy. We evaluated the diagnostic value of one, two, and three positive qlFITs serving as the positivity threshold. The risk factors of colorectal neoplasia to yield positive qlFITs were also determined. RESULTS: 52 patients were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 70 with advanced adenomatous polyp. For colorectal cancer, the sensitivity and specificity of one positive qlFIT were 90.4% and 53.8%, of two were 80.8% and 75.1%, and of three were 53.9% and 88.5%, respectively. For advanced adenomatous polyp, the sensitivity and specificity of one positive qlFIT were 81.4% and 54.2%, of two were 50.0% and 72.5%, and of three were 28.6% and 86.2%. Left-sided location (OR 2.50, 95%CI 1.26-4.95 and advanced histology of tumors (OR 3.08, 95%CI 1.58-6.01 were independently associated with positive qlFITs. CONCLUSIONS: Three-sample qlFIT is a reasonably good method to detect colorectal neoplasia in high-risk population. Tumors in the left side or with advanced pathological features are more likely to produce positive qlFITs.

  18. Comparison of 3D MRI with high sampling efficiency and 2D multiplanar MRI for contouring in cervix cancer brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI sequences with short scanning times may improve accessibility of image guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) of cervix cancer. We assessed the value of 3D MRI for contouring by comparing it to 2D multi-planar MRI. In 14 patients, 2D and 3D pelvic MRI were obtained at IGABT. High risk clinical target volume (HR CTV) was delineated by 2 experienced radiation oncologists, using the conventional (2D MRI-based) and test (3D MRI-based) approach. The value of 3D MRI for contouring was evaluated by using the inter-approach and inter-observer analysis of volumetric and topographic contouring uncertainties. To assess the magnitude of deviation from the conventional approach when using the test approach, the inter-approach analysis of contouring uncertainties was carried out for both observers. In addition, to assess reliability of 3D MRI for contouring, the impact of contouring approach on the magnitude of inter-observer delineation uncertainties was analysed. No approach- or observer - specific differences in HR CTV sizes, volume overlap, or distances between contours were identified. When averaged over all delineated slices, the distances between contours in the inter-approach analysis were 2.6 (Standard deviation (SD) 0.4) mm and 2.8 (0.7) mm for observers 1 and 2, respectively. The magnitude of topographic and volumetric inter-observer contouring uncertainties, as obtained on the conventional approach, was maintained on the test approach. This variation was comparable to the inter-approach uncertainties with distances between contours of 3.1 (SD 0.8) and 3.0 (SD 0.7) mm on conventional and test approach, respectively. Variation was most pronounced at caudal HR CTV levels in both approaches and observers. 3D MRI could potentially replace multiplanar 2D MRI in cervix cancer IGABT, shortening the overall MRI scanning time and facilitating the contouring process, thus making this treatment method more widely employed

  19. Wage moderation and labour productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Free Huizinga; Peter Broer

    2004-01-01

    In the Dutch economic policy debate, wage moderation is widely considered as a key factor for achieving economic growth and low unemployment. However, some economists criticise the policy emphasis on wage moderation, claiming that high wages are needed to maintain structural labour productivity growth. This paper analyses the effects of a wage push on labour productivity within the framework of endogenous technological progress, endogenous technology adoption and insufficient competition. The...

  20. Breast cancer subtype predictors revisited: from consensus to concordance?

    OpenAIRE

    MJ. Sontrop, Herman; JT. Reinders, Marcel; D. Moerland, Perry

    2016-01-01

    Background At the molecular level breast cancer comprises a heterogeneous set of subtypes associated with clear differences in gene expression and clinical outcomes. Single sample predictors (SSPs) are built via a two-stage approach consisting of clustering and subtype predictor construction based on the cluster labels of individual cases. SSPs have been criticized because their subtype assignments for the same samples were only moderately concordant (Cohen’s κ0.8). Interestingly, for a given...

  1. CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kavoussi

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  2. MicroRNA-223 and microRNA-92a in stool and plasma samples act as complementary biomarkers to increase colorectal cancer detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pi-Yueh; Chen, Chia-Chun; Chang, Yu-Sun; Tsai, Wen-Sy; You, Jeng-Fu; Lin, Geng-Ping; Chen, Ting-Wen; Chen, Jinn-Shiun; Chan, Err-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant levels of circulating miRNAs are potential biomarkers for the early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, no previous systematic study has examined miRNAs in various specimen types from the same patient to evaluate their clinical utility. In this study, we compiled information from ∼450 articles published before 2012, and selected the 46 most frequently reported CRC-related miRNAs as candidates. We then established a 46-miRNA multiplex RT-qPCR method, and efficiently examined two clinically accessible samples: stool from fecal occult blood test and EDTA plasma. A total of 62 tissue, 447 stool, and 398 plasma samples were collected from CRC patients and healthy controls. Good correlations of detectable miRNAs were noticed in paired tumor tissues, stool, and plasma samples of 62 CRC patients. Using these 62 CRC patients and 62 matched healthy controls as the training set, 5 and 11 differentially expressed miRNAs achieved the area under the ROC curve (AUC) greater than 0.7 in stool and plasma samples, respectively. The selected miRNAs was subsequently validated using the remaining enrolled samples as the test cohort; 4 miRNAs in stool and 6 miRNAs in plasma were maintained discriminating powers for CRC patients. After examining the complementary effect, combined analysis of miR-223 and miR-92a, which were commonly present in stool and plasma samples, yielded the highest sensitivity of 96.8% and the specificity of 75% for CRC (AUC = 0.907). These results allowed us to establish a two-miRNA biosignature in two types of CRC clinical specimens with a high sensitivity for CRC detection. PMID:26848774

  3. Predicting Incongruence between Self-reported and Documented Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Sample of African American Medicare Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Mark; Burnett, Janice; Chapman, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates typically rely on self-reported screening data, which are often incongruent with medical records. We used multilevel models to examine health-related, socio-demographic and psychological predictors of incongruent self-reports for CRC screening among Medicare-insured African Americans (N = 3,740). Results indicated that living alone decreased, and income increased, the odds of congruently self-reporting endoscopic CRC screening. Being male and having greater number of comorbidities decreased, and having less than a high school education increased, the odds of congruently self-reported fecal occult blood tests. Living alone, age and income had the most robust effects across classifications into one of four mutually exclusive categories defined by screening status (screened/unscreened) and congruence of self-reports. The results underscore the clinical importance of gathering socio-demographic data via patient interviews, and the relevance of these data for judging the veracity of self-reported CRC screenings behaviors. PMID:25961362

  4. Role of a mixed type, moderate intensity exercise programme after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, S.; Davies, P.; Parker, T; Bashford, J; Green, A.; D. Jenkins

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation on functional capacity, and to determine the role of a mixed type, moderate intensity exercise programme in the recovery of patients after intensive cancer treatment.

  5. Density of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes in biopsy samples can be a predictor of pathological response to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although preoperative radiotherapy (RT) is widely used as the initial treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer (RC) in the neoadjuvant setting, factors determining clinical response have not been adequately defined. Radiosensitivity has recently been shown to be greatly affected by immune function of the host. In 48 cases of advanced RC, we retrospectively examined the density of tumor infiltrating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells using immunohistochemical staining of biopsy samples before CRT, and examined the correlation with tumor response. The numbers of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in pre-CRT biopsy samples were strongly correlated with tumor reduction ratio evaluated by barium enema. Moreover, the densities of CD4(+) and CD8(+) TIL were significantly associated with histological grade after CRT. The density of CD8(+) TIL was an independent prognostic factor for achieving complete response after CRT. In RC patients, T lymphocyte-mediated immune reactions play an important role in tumor response to CRT, and the quantitative measurement of TIL in biopsy samples before CRT can be used as a predictor of the clinical effectiveness of CRT for advanced RC

  6. Correlation of MLH1 and MGMT methylation levels between peripheral blood leukocytes and colorectal tissue DNA samples in colorectal cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, XIA; WANG, YIBAINA; ZHANG, ZUOMING; YAO, XIAOPING; GE, JIE; ZHAO, YASHUANG

    2013-01-01

    CpG island methylation in the promoter regions of the DNA mismatch repair gene mutator L homologue 1 (MLH1) and DNA repair gene O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) genes has been shown to occur in the leukocytes of peripheral blood and colorectal tissue. However, it is unclear whether the methylation levels in the blood leukocytes and colorectal tissue are correlated. The present study analyzed and compared the levels of MGMT and MLH1 gene methylation in the leukocytes of peripheral blood and colorectal tissues obtained from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The methylation levels of MGMT and MLH1 were examined using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis. A total of 44 patients with CRC were selected based on the MLH1 and MGMT gene methylation levels in the leukocytes of the peripheral blood. Corresponding colorectal tumor and normal tissues were obtained from each patient and the DNA methylation levels were determined. The correlation coefficients were evaluated using Spearman’s rank test. Agreement was determined by generalized κ-statistics. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients (r) for the methylation levels of the MGMT and MLH1 genes in the leukocytes of the peripheral blood and normal colorectal tissue were 0.475 and 0.362, respectively (P=0.001 and 0.016, respectively). The agreement of the MGMT and MLH1 gene methylation levels in the leukocytes of the peripheral blood and normal colorectal tissue were graded as fair and poor (κ=0.299 and 0.126, respectively). The methylation levels of MGMT and MLH1 were moderately and weakly correlated between the patient-matched leukocytes and the normal colorectal tissue, respectively. Blood-derived DNA methylation measurements may not always represent the levels of normal colorectal tissue methylation. PMID:24179526

  7. 盐酸吗啡缓释片直肠给药治疗晚期癌痛临床观察%The clinical observation of slow-released morphine tablets by rectum in the treatment of the patients with moderate to severe cancer pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of slow-released morphine tablets by rectum in treating the patients of moderate to severe cancer pain with server nausea and vomiting or dysphagia. Methods: 54 cases of cancer patients with server nausea and vomiting symptoms or dysphagia were treated with slow-released morphine tablets by rectum, 30-90 mg/time, once every 12 hours. The drug dose was titrated by degree of pain, and the effects and adverse effects were observed. Results:The total effective rate was 81.48%, complete response rate was 51.85% (28/54), and the partial response rate was 29.63%(16/54); there were no obvious toxicities, and the common adverse symptoms included nausea (16.7%) and vomiting (9.3%).Conclusion: The treatment of slow-released morphine tablet by rectum could effectively control cancer pain, the adverse effects were slight than that by mouth. It is safe and effective to be worthy of the adhibition in clinic.

  8. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH): a novel alternative in screening archival breast cancer tissue samples for HER-2/neu status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is emerging as a practical, cost-effective, and valid alternative to fluorescent in situ hybridization in testing for gene alteration, especially in centers primarily working with immunohistochemistry (IHC). We assessed Her-2/neu alteration using CISH on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary invasive ductal carcinoma tumors in which IHC (CB11 antibody) had previously been performed, and we compared the results with IHC. The 160 selected cases were equally stratified randomly into the four IHC categories (scores of 0, 1+, 2+, and 3+). We also compared age at diagnosis and tumor histologic grade with IHC and CISH Her-2/neu. We were able to perform and evaluate CISH successfully on all cases. The agreement between 3+ IHC and CISH-amplified cases as well as between all IHC and CISH Her-2/neu negative cases was 100%, and the concordance on all positive cases was 72.50%, with an overall agreement of 86.25%. All the discordant cases had 2+ IHC scores. Although we noted Her-2/neu positivity more in premenopausal women, the age at diagnosis was not significantly associated with IHC or CISH results. Similarly, although the small group of well-differentiated tumors was apparently Her-2/neu negative in both tests, no significant association was noted between any tumor histologic grade and either IHC or CISH results. CISH is easily integrated into routine testing in our laboratory. It is a necessary adjunct in determining the subset of non-amplified IHC-positive invasive tumors that will not benefit from trastuzumab therapy. Those cases with 2+ IHC results will be triaged and subjected to CISH. Her-2/neu testing should be done on all breast cancer cases regardless of age at presentation and tumor histologic grade

  9. Oncogenic HPV Types Infection in Adolescents and University Women from North Portugal: From Self-Sampling to Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the HPV infection status in adolescents and young university women in Portugal. The distribution of HPV genotypes was evaluated by PCR DNA genotyping after self-sampling collection from 435 women of exfoliated cervical cells using a commercial kit. We observed an overall frequency of HPV infection of 11.5%. Furthermore, HPV DNA prevalence was 16.6% in those young women that self-declared as sexually active. The more frequently detected HPV types were 31, 16, 53, and 61. Statistical analysis identified median age (OR=3.56; P=0.001, the number of lifetime sexual partners (OR=4.50; P<0.001, and years of sexual activity (OR=2.36; P=0.008 as risk factors for HPV acquisition. Hence, our study revealed that oncogenic HPV infection is common in young asymptomatic women Portuguese women, with a history of 2–5 sexual partners and over 2 year of sexual activity. Moreover, these results demonstrate that HPV detection performed in self-collected samples may be important to appraise better preventive strategies and to monitorize the influence of vaccination programmes within different populations.

  10. Graphite moderated (252)Cf source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Barros, Haydn; Greaves, Eduardo D; Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene

    2015-06-01

    The Thorium molten-salt reactor is an attractive and affordable nuclear power option for developing countries with insufficient infrastructure and limited technological capability. In the aim of personnel training and experience gathering at the Universidad Simon Bolivar there is in progress a project of developing a subcritical thorium liquid-fuel reactor. The neutron source to run this subcritical reactor is a (252)Cf source and the reactor will use high-purity graphite as moderator. Using the MCNP5 code the neutron spectra of the (252)Cf in the center of the graphite moderator has been estimated along the channel where the liquid thorium salt will be inserted; also the ambient dose equivalent due to the source has been determined around the moderator. PMID:25770393

  11. Graphite moderated 252Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thorium molten salt reactor is an attractive and affordable nuclear power option for developing countries with insufficient infrastructure and limited technological capability. In the aim of personnel training and experience gathering at the Universidad Simon Bolivar there is in progress a project of developing a subcritical thorium liquid fuel reactor. The neutron source to run this subcritical reactor is a 252Cf source and the reactor will use high-purity graphite as moderator. Using the MCNP5 code the neutron spectra of the 252Cf in the center of the graphite moderator has been estimated along the channel where the liquid thorium salt will be inserted; also the ambient dose equivalent due to the source has been determined around the moderator. (Author)

  12. Does the pretreatment tumor sampling location correspond with metabolic activity on 18F-FDG PET/CT in breast cancer patients scheduled for neoadjuvant chemotherapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koolen, Bas B., E-mail: b.koolen@nki.nl [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Elshof, Lotte E. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Loo, Claudette E. [Department of Radiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wesseling, Jelle [Department of Pathology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrancken Peeters, Marie-Jeanne T.F.D. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vogel, Wouter V. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rutgers, Emiel J.Th. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Valdés Olmos, Renato A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To define the correlation between the core biopsy location and the area with highest metabolic activity on 18F-FDG PET/CT in stage II–III breast cancer patients before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Also, we would like to select a subgroup of patients in which PET/CT information may optimize tumor sampling. Methods: A PET/CT in prone position was acquired in 199 patients with 203 tumors. The distance and relative difference in standardized uptake value (SUV) between core biopsy localization (indicated by a marker) and area with highest degree of FDG uptake were evaluated. A distance ≥2 cm and a relative difference in SUV ≥25% were considered clinically relevant and a combination of both was defined as non-correspondence. Non-correspondence for different tumor characteristics (TNM stage, lesion morphology on MRI and PET/CT, histology, subtype, grade, and Ki-67) was assessed. Results: Non-correspondence was found in 28 (14%) of 203 tumors. Non-correspondence was significantly associated with T-stage, lesion morphology on MRI and PET/CT, tumor diameter, and histologic type. It was more often seen in tumors with a higher T-stage (p = 0.028), diffuse (non-mass) and multifocal tumors on MRI (p = 0.001), diffuse and multifocal tumors on PET/CT (p < 0.001), tumors >3 cm (p < 0.001), and lobular carcinomas (p < 0.001). No association was found with other features. Conclusion: Non-correspondence between the core biopsy location and area with highest FDG uptake is regularly seen in stage II–III breast cancer patients. PET/CT information and possibly FDG-guided biopsies are most likely to improve pretreatment tumor sampling in tumors >3 cm, lobular carcinomas, and diffuse and multifocal tumors.

  13. Does the pretreatment tumor sampling location correspond with metabolic activity on 18F-FDG PET/CT in breast cancer patients scheduled for neoadjuvant chemotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To define the correlation between the core biopsy location and the area with highest metabolic activity on 18F-FDG PET/CT in stage II–III breast cancer patients before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Also, we would like to select a subgroup of patients in which PET/CT information may optimize tumor sampling. Methods: A PET/CT in prone position was acquired in 199 patients with 203 tumors. The distance and relative difference in standardized uptake value (SUV) between core biopsy localization (indicated by a marker) and area with highest degree of FDG uptake were evaluated. A distance ≥2 cm and a relative difference in SUV ≥25% were considered clinically relevant and a combination of both was defined as non-correspondence. Non-correspondence for different tumor characteristics (TNM stage, lesion morphology on MRI and PET/CT, histology, subtype, grade, and Ki-67) was assessed. Results: Non-correspondence was found in 28 (14%) of 203 tumors. Non-correspondence was significantly associated with T-stage, lesion morphology on MRI and PET/CT, tumor diameter, and histologic type. It was more often seen in tumors with a higher T-stage (p = 0.028), diffuse (non-mass) and multifocal tumors on MRI (p = 0.001), diffuse and multifocal tumors on PET/CT (p < 0.001), tumors >3 cm (p < 0.001), and lobular carcinomas (p < 0.001). No association was found with other features. Conclusion: Non-correspondence between the core biopsy location and area with highest FDG uptake is regularly seen in stage II–III breast cancer patients. PET/CT information and possibly FDG-guided biopsies are most likely to improve pretreatment tumor sampling in tumors >3 cm, lobular carcinomas, and diffuse and multifocal tumors

  14. Moderated ruthenium fischer-tropsch synthesis catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrevaya, Hayim

    1991-01-01

    The subject Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprises moderated ruthenium on an inorganic oxide support. The preferred moderator is silicon. Preferably the moderator is effectively positioned in relationship to ruthenium particles through simultaneous placement on the support using reverse micelle impregnation.

  15. Rasch analysis of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (mini-MAC among a heterogeneous sample of long-term cancer survivors: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zucca Alison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (mini-MAC is a well-recognised, popular measure of coping in psycho-oncology and assesses five cancer-specific coping strategies. It has been suggested that these five subscales could be grouped to form the over-arching adaptive and maladptive coping subscales to facilitate the interpretation and clinical application of the scale. Despite the popularity of the mini-MAC, few studies have examined its psychometric properties among long-term cancer survivors, and further validation of the mini-MAC is needed to substantiate its use with the growing population of survivors. Therefore, this study examined the psychometric properties and dimensionality of the mini-MAC in a sample of long-term cancer survivors using Rasch analysis. Methods RUMM 2030 was used to analyse the mini-MAC data (n=851. Separate Rasch analyses were conducted for each of the original mini-MAC subscales as well as the over-arching adaptive and maladaptive coping subscales to examine summary and individual model fit statistics, person separation index (PSI, response format, local dependency, targeting, item bias (or differential item functioning -DIF, and dimensionality. Results For the fighting spirit, fatalism, and helplessness-hopelessness subscales, a revised three-point response format seemed more optimal than the original four-point response. To achieve model fit, items were deleted from four of the five subscales – Anxious Preoccupation items 7, 25, and 29; Cognitive Avoidance items 11 and 17; Fighting Spirit item 18; and Helplessness-Hopelessness items 16 and 20. For those subscales with sufficient items, analyses supported unidimensionality. Combining items to form the adaptive and maladaptive subscales was partially supported. Conclusions The original five subscales required item deletion and/or rescaling to improve goodness of fit to the Rasch model. While evidence was found for overarching subscales of

  16. Highly sensitive optical detection of specific protein in breast cancer cells using microstructured fiber in extremely low sample volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Saraswathi; Shinoj, Vengalathunadakal K.; Murukeshan, Vadakke M.; Padmanabhan, Parasuraman

    2010-01-01

    A simple optical method using hollow-core photonic crystal fiber for protein detection has been described. In this study, estrogen receptor (ER) from a MCF-7 breast carcinoma cell lysates immobilized inside a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber was detected using anti-ER primary antibody with either Alexa™ Fluor 488 (green fluorescent dye) or 555 (red Fluorescent dye) labeled Goat anti-rabbit IgG as the secondary antibody. The fluorescence fingerprints of the ERα protein were observed under fluorescence microscope, and its optical characteristics were analyzed. The ERα protein detection by this proposed method is based on immuno binding from sample volume as low as 50 nL. This method is expected to offer great potential as a biosensor for medical diagnostics and therapeutics applications.

  17. Coffee Consumption and the Incidence of Colorectal Cancer in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J. Groessl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Higher coffee consumption has been associated with decreased incidence of colorectal cancer. Our objective was to examine the relationship of coffee intake to colorectal cancer incidence in a large observational cohort of postmenopausal US women. Methods. Data were collected for the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study providing a follow-up period of 12.9 years. The mean age of our sample (N=83,778 women was 63.5 years. Daily coffee intake was grouped into 3 categories: None, moderate (>0–<4 cups, and high (4+ cups. Proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between coffee intake and colorectal cancer. Results. There were 1,282 (1.53% new cases of colorectal cancer during follow-up. Compared to nondrinkers, moderate and high coffee drinkers had an increased incidence of colorectal cancer in multivariate analysis (HR 1.15, 1.02–1.29; HR 1.14, 0.93–1.38. Moderate drip brew coffee intake (HR 1.20, 1.05–1.36 and high nondrip brew coffee intake (HR 1.43, 1.01–2.02 were associated with increased odds. Conclusion. Our results suggesting increased incidence of colorectal cancer associated with higher coffee consumption contradict recent meta-analyses but agree with a number of other studies showing that coffee increases risk or has no effect. Brew method results are novel and warrant further research.

  18. Nuclear data generation for cryogenic moderators and high temperature moderators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commonly used processing codes for nuclear data only allow the generation of cross section data for a limited number of materials and physical conditions.At present, one of the most used computer codes for the generation of neutron cross sections is N J O Y, which is based on a phonon expansion of the scattering function starting from the frequency spectrum.Therefore, the information related to the system's density of states is crucial to produce the required data of interest. In this work the formalism of the Synthetic Model for Molecular Solids (S M M S) was implemented, which is in turn based on the Synthetic Frequency Spectrum (S F S) concept.The synthetic spectrum is central in the present work, and it is built from simple, relevant parameters of the moderator, thus conforming an alternative tool when no information on the actual frequency spectrum of the moderator material is available.S F S 's for several material of interest where produced in this work, for both cryogenic and high temperature moderators.We studied some materials of special interest, like solid methane, ice, methyl clathrate and two which are of special interest in the nuclear industry: graphite and beryllium.The libraries generated in the present work for the materials considered, in spite of their synthetic origin, are able to produce results that are even in better agreement with available information

  19. Blood Samples From Patients With Cancer Treated on a Clinical Trial to Control Nausea and Vomiting During Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-11

    Breast Cancer; Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Nausea and Vomiting; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  20. Folate Receptor-Beta Has Limited Value for Fluorescent Imaging in Ovarian, Breast and Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther de Boer

    Full Text Available Tumor-specific targeted imaging is rapidly evolving in cancer diagnosis. The folate receptor alpha (FR-α has already been identified as a suitable target for cancer therapy and imaging. FR-α is present on ~40% of human cancers. FR-β is known to be expressed on several hematologic malignancies and on activated macrophages, but little is known about FR-β expression in solid tumors. Additional or simultaneous expression of FR-β could help extend the indications for folate-based drugs and imaging agents. In this study, the expression pattern of FR-β is evaluated in ovarian, breast and colorectal cancer.FR-β expression was analyzed by semi-quantitative scoring of immunohistochemical staining on tissue microarrays (TMAs of 339 ovarian cancer patients, 418 breast cancer patients, on 20 slides of colorectal cancer samples and on 25 samples of diverticulitis.FR-β expression was seen in 21% of ovarian cancer samples, 9% of breast cancer samples, and 55% of colorectal cancer samples. Expression was weak or moderate. Of the diverticulitis samples, 80% were positive for FR-β expression in macrophages. FR-β status neither correlated to known disease-related variables, nor showed association with overall survival and progression free survival in ovarian and breast cancer. In breast cancer, negative axillary status was significantly correlated to FR-β expression (p=0.022.FR-β expression was low or absent in the majority of ovarian, breast and colorectal tumor samples. From the present study we conclude that the low FR-β expression in ovarian and breast tumor tissue indicates limited practical use of this receptor in diagnostic imaging and therapeutic purposes. Due to weak expression, FR-β is not regarded as a suitable target in colorectal cancer.

  1. Immunohistochemical analysis of Metadherin in proliferative and cancerous breast tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qinghui

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metadherin (MTDH has been reported to be associated with cancer progression in various types of human cancers including breast cancer. Whether MTDH contributes to carcinogenesis of breast cancer is still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the expression of MTDH in normal, UDH (usual ductal hyperplasia, ADH (atypical ductal hyperplasia, DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive cancer to explore the possible role of MTDH for breast cancer carcinogenesis. Methods Immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of surgical removed breast samples. Results The immunohistochemical results showed almost no staining in normal tissue, moderate staining in ADH and UDH, intense MTDH stains in DCIS and cancer. Statistical analysis demonstrated significant different MTDH expression between proliferative and cancerous breast lesions (p p = 0.028. In breast cancer, statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between MTDH expression with patients' age (p = 0.042, ER status (p = 0.018 and p53 status (p = 0.001. We also examined the effect of MTDH on cell proliferation in DCIS and cancer, and we found that MTDH overexpression was significantly correlated with high Ki67 index (p = 0.008 and p = 0.036, respectively. Conclusions MTDH overexpression could be identified in proliferative breast lesions and may contribute to breast cancer progression.

  2. Correlates of exercise motivation and behavior in a population-based sample of endometrial cancer survivors: an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Dundas George; Pearcey Robert G; Campbell Kristin L; Courneya Kerry S; Karvinen Kristina H; Capstick Valerie; Tonkin Katia S

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite evidence of the benefits of exercise in cancer survivors, exercise participation rates tend to decline after treatments. Few studies have examined the determinants of exercise in less common cancer sites. In this study, we examined medical, demographic, and social cognitive correlates of exercise in endometrial cancer survivors using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Methods A mailed survey was completed by 354 endometrial cancer survivors (1 to 10 years postdi...

  3. Serum protein profile study of clinical samples using high performance liquid chromatography-laser induced fluorescence: case of cervical and oral cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karemore, Gopal; Sujatha, .; Rai, Lavanya; Pai, Keerthilatha M.; Kartha, V. B.; Santhosh C., .

    2009-02-01

    The serum protein profiles of normal subjects, patients diagnosed with cervical cancer, and oral cancer were recorded using High Performance Liquid Chromatography combined with Laser Induced Fluorescence detection (HPLC-LIF). Serum protein profiles of the above three classes were tested for establishing the ability of HPLC-LIF protein profiling technique for discrimination, using hard clustering and Fuzzy clustering methods. The clustering algorithms have quite successfully classified the profiles as belonging to normal, cancer of cervix, and oral cancer conditions.

  4. Organizational determinants of wage moderation

    OpenAIRE

    Baccaro, Lucio; Simoni, Marco

    2010-01-01

    This article contributes to the political economic literature regarding the effects of industrial relations institutions on national economic outcomes. Based on an econometric analysis of the determinants of wage moderation in sixteen industrialized countries between 1974 and 2000, it argues that the organizational characteristics of trade unions have a significant impact on wage dynamics. Controlling for a number of institutional and economic factors, the countries in which trade union confe...

  5. China's Economy Registered Moderate Slowdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ The Chinese economy registered a moderate slowdown over the course of 2011, the World Bank said in its East Asia and Pacific Economic Update.During the first nine months of 2011, growth slowed from 10.6 percent in 2010 to 9.4 percent.The bank estimates that China's economic growth is expected at 9.1 percent in 2011, 8.4 percent in 2012 and roughly similar rates thereafter.

  6. Tajikistan : Moderated Growth, Heightened Risks

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    Tajikistan s economic growth moderated to 6.7 percent in the first half of 2014 from 7.5 percent a year earlier as activity slowed in almost all sectors. Weaker world economic growth and lower prices for cotton and aluminum adversely affected the major export-oriented industries, pushing total industrial growth below 3 percent from nearly 7 percent a year earlier. Lower inflows of remittan...

  7. Reflector-moderated critical assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments with reflector-moderated critical assemblies were part of the Rover Program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). These assemblies were characterized by thick D2O or beryllium reflectors surrounding large cavities that contained highly enriched uranium at low average densities. Because interest in this type of system has been revived by LASL Plasma Cavity Assembly studies, more detailed descriptions of the early assemblies than had been available in the unclassified literature are provided. (U.S.)

  8. After Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grains, and a moderate amount of low-fat meat and dairy products. Limit the fat and sugar in your diet. A healthy diet will help your body get better after cancer treatment. It's also important for you to get ...

  9. Moderate and extreme maternal obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abdelmaboud, M O

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity among an Irish obstetric population over a 10-year period, and to evaluate the obstetric features of such pregnancies. Of 31,869 women delivered during the years 2000-2009, there were 306 women in the study group, including 173 in the moderate or Class 2 obese category (BMI 35-39.9) and 133 in the extreme or Class 3 obese category (BMI > or = 40).The prevalence of obese women with BMI > or = 35 was 9.6 per 1000 (0.96%), with an upward trend observed from 2.1 per 1000 in the year 2000, to 11.8 per 1000 in the year 2009 (P = 0.001). There was an increase in emergency caesarean section (EMCS) risk for primigravida versus multigravid women, within both obese categories (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in EMCS rates observed between Class 2 and Class 3 obese women, when matched for parity. The prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity reported in this population is high, and appears to be increasing. The increased rates of abdominal delivery, and the levels of associated morbidity observed, have serious implications for such women embarking on pregnancy.

  10. The Use of FTIR-ATR Spectrometry for Evaluation of Surgical Resection Margin in Colorectal Cancer: A Pilot Study of 56 Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Hongwei Yao; Xueying Shi; Yuanfu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in human, and it is also one of the most leading causes of cancer-related death. Recently, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry is considered to develop into a new method for cancer diagnosis. In this study, colorectal cancer and mucosa 1 cm, 2 cm, and 5 cm away from tumor were measured by FTIR spectroscopy. FTIR spectra of colorectal cancer and mucosa 1 cm away from tumor were different from those of mucosa 2 cm and 5 cm away...

  11. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  12. Analysis of colorectal cancers for human cytomegalovirus presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menestrina Fabio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A possible association between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection and colorectal cancer progression has been inferred by the identification in tumour tissues of HCMV antigens and specific viral DNA or RNA sequences. To further investigate the relationship between HCMV and colorectal cancers we developed qualitative and quantitative PCR assay to detect HCMV DNA in 56 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue samples from patients belonging to 4 different histological phenotypes: adenoma; poorly, moderately and well differentiated adenocarcinomas. Results Of the 56 FFPE tested tissue samples, 6 (11% were positive for HCMV nested PCR amplification, and more precisely 1 (5% of 20 cases of adenoma and 5 (21% of 24 cases of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. No PCR positivity was obtained in samples from well and poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas. Conclusion Our observations suggest that there is no evidence of a direct association between HCMV and colorectal cancer. Moreover, the results obtained are not supportive of a causal role of HCMV in the processes of carcinogenesis and/or progression of colorectal cancer. However, the fact that the virus may present a "hit and run" like-mechanism and HCMV can thus only be detectable at a particular stage of a processing adenocarcinoma, suggests that a significant number of colorectal cancers might have been the subject of HCMV infection that could contribute to trigger the oncogenic differentiation. Our analysis does not exclude the possibility of HCMV infection subsequent viral clearance.

  13. Pain frequency moderates the relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjøgx, Heidi; Zachariae, Robert; Pfeiffer-Jensen, Mogens; Kasch, Helge; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Troels S.; Vase, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pain frequency has been shown to influence sensitization, psychological distress, and pain modulation. The present study examined if pain frequency moderates the relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain. Method: A non-clinical (247 students) and a clinical (223 pain patients) sample completed the Danish versions of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Beck Depression Inventory, and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and rated pain intensity, unpleasantness and frequency. Results: In both samples, high pain frequency was found to moderate the association between pain catastrophizing and pain intensity, whereas low pain frequency did not. The psychometric properties and the factor structure of the Danish version of the PCS were confirmed. Conclusions: This is the first study to validate the Danish version of the PCS and to show that pain frequency moderates the relationship between pain catastrophizing and reported pain in both non-clinical and clinical populations. PMID:25646089

  14. Pain frequency moderates the relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi eKjøgx

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Pain frequency has been shown to influence sensitization, psychological distress and pain modulation. The present study examined if pain frequency moderates the relationship between pain catastrophizing and pain. Method A non-clinical (247 students and a clinical (223 pain patients sample completed the Danish versions of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Beck Depression Inventory and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and rated pain intensity, unpleasantness and frequency Results In both samples, high pain frequency was found to moderate the association between pain catastrophizing and pain intensity, whereas low pain frequency did not. The psychometric properties and the factor structure of the Danish version of the PCS were confirmed.Conclusions This is the first study to validate the Danish version of the PCS and to show that pain frequency moderates the relationship between pain catastrophizing and reported pain in both non-clinical and clinical populations.

  15. Acute emesis: moderately emetogenic chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrstedt, Jørn; Rapoport, Bernardo; Warr, David;

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a review of the recommendations for the prophylaxis of acute emesis induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy as concluded at the third Perugia Consensus Conference, which took place in June 2009. The review will focus on new studies appearing since the Second consensus conference...... in April 2004. The following issues will be addressed: dose and schedule of antiemetics, different groups of antiemetics such as corticosteroids, serotonin(3) receptor antagonists, dopamine(2) receptor antagonists, and neurokinin(1) receptor antagonists. Furthermore, antiemetic prophylaxis in...

  16. Perfectionism Moderates Stereotype Threat Effects on STEM Majors' Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Lopez, Frederick G.; Richardson, Clarissa M. E.; Stinson, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Using a randomized, between-subjects experimental design, we tested hypotheses that self-critical perfectionism would moderate the effects of subtle stereotype threat (ST) for women and students in underrepresented racial/ethnic groups who are pursuing traditional degrees in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM). A diverse sample of…

  17. A Moderated Mediation Model of E-Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiRenzo, Marco S.; Linnehan, Frank; Shao, Ping; Rosenberg, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Based on a longitudinal sample of 1381, this study develops and tests a moderated mediation model of electronic mentoring (e-mentoring). Results show evidence that frequency of interaction between proteges and mentors mediates the relationships between program antecedents (the protege's previous internet experience and initial motivation to…

  18. Parenting Style as a Moderator for Students' Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Zahari; Low, Suet Fin; Lau, Poh Li

    2012-01-01

    Parenting styles have always been a crucial factor in influencing all aspects of a person's development. The purpose of this study is to test the structural equation model of academic achievement among the students using parenting styles as a moderator. The sample comprised 493 students from eight schools. Parenting styles are determined using the…

  19. Personality as a moderator of context effects on academic achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.A.J.; Kuyper, H.; Lubbers, M.J; Van der Werf, M.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether personality moderates group influence of classmates on academic achievement and whether these so-called context effects can be attributed to peer pressure. The sample consisted of 2498 students in their first year of Dutch secondary education. The data were analyzed by a two-

  20. Personality as a Moderator of Context Effects on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn; Kuyper, Hans; Lubbers, Miranda J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether personality moderates group influence of classmates on academic achievement and whether these so-called context effects can be attributed to peer pressure. The sample consisted of 2498 students in their first year of Dutch secondary education. The data were analyzed by a two-level (students within classes) analysis,…

  1. Playing Moderately Hard to Get

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Reysen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In two studies, we examined the effect of different degrees of attraction reciprocation on ratings of attraction toward a potential romantic partner. Undergraduate college student participants imagined a potential romantic partner who reciprocated a low (reciprocating attraction one day a week, moderate (reciprocating attraction three days a week, high (reciprocating attraction five days a week, or unspecified degree of attraction (no mention of reciprocation. Participants then rated their degree of attraction toward the potential partner. The results of Study 1 provided only partial support for Brehm’s emotion intensity theory. However, after revising the high reciprocation condition vignette in Study 2, supporting Brehm’s emotion intensity theory, results show that a potential partners’ display of reciprocation of attraction acted as a deterrent to participants’ intensity of experienced attraction to the potential partner. The results support the notion that playing moderately hard to get elicits more intense feelings of attraction from potential suitors than playing too easy or too hard to get. Discussion of previous research examining playing hard to get is also re-examined through an emotion intensity theory theoretical lens.

  2. Eficacia del escitalopram en el manejo de la depresión leve o moderada en el paciente con dolor crónico oncológico Efficacy of escitalopram in the management of mild or moderate depression in patients with chronic cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mendoza Rubio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: valorar la eficacia antidepresiva del escitalopram en los pacientes con dolor crónico oncológico que cursen con depresión leve o moderada. Material y método: se realizó un ensayo clínico, cuasi experimental, prospectivo en 46 pacientes con dolor crónico oncológico con depresión leve o moderada en el Servicio de Clínica del Dolor del Centro Médico Nacional "20 de Noviembre" del ISSSTE en el periodo del 15 julio al 15 de octubre del 2010. Se determinó el grado de depresión mediante el inventario de Beck y confirmado el cuadro depresivo se inició tratamiento con escitalopram 10 mg vía oral cada 24 horas. Se realizó la valoración previa al tratamiento, a las 2 semanas de iniciado y por último en un intervalo de cada 7 días durante 3 semanas. Además se evaluó la disminución de la EVA durante todas las fases del estudio. Resultados: se estudiaron 46 pacientes, de los cuales fueron 25 femeninos y 21 masculinos. La edad de los pacientes osciló entre 24 a 74 años, con media de 53,9 ± 12,1 años. Se encontró adecuada eficacia antidepresiva al comparar la intensidad según el inventario de Beck inicial con el último control (p Objective: to evaluate the antidepressant efficacy of escitalopram in patients with chronic cancer pain that is accompanied by mild or moderate depression. Material and method: conducted a clinical trial, quasi-experimental, prospective, in 46 patients with chronic cancer pain with mild or moderate depression in the Department of Pain Clinic, National Medical Center "20 de Noviembre" ISSSTE in the period from 15 July to 15 October 2010. We determined the degree of depression using the Beck Depression Inventory and confirmed the depressive symptoms began treatment with escitalopram 10 mg orally every 24 hours. Assessment was performed before treatment, at 2 weeks and finally started at an interval of every 7 days for 3 weeks. In addition to evaluating the reduction of the VAS during all phases of

  3. HUD Low and Moderate Income Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset and map service provides information on the U.S. Housing and Urban Development's (HUD) low to moderate income areas. The term Low to Moderate Income,...

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Moderate or Severe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Moderate or Severe Definition A TBI is classified as moderate or severe when a patient experiences ... skull and enters the brain Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center PATFIAE MN TI LSI ES Traumatic Brain ...

  5. Hormone-dependent effects of FGFR2 and MAP3K1 in breast cancer susceptibility in a population-based sample of post-menopausal African-American and European-American women

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy R Rebbeck; DeMichele, Angela; Tran, Teo V.; Panossian, Saarene; Bunin, Greta R.; Troxel, Andrea B.; Strom, Brian L

    2008-01-01

    FGFR2 and MAP3K1 are members of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK-signaling pathway and have been identified from genome-wide association studies to be breast cancer susceptibility genes. Potential interactions of these genes and their role with respect to tumor markers, hormonal factors and race on breast cancer risk have not been explored. We examined FGFR2 and MAP3K1 variants, breast tumor characteristics and hormone exposures in a population-based case–control sample of 1225 European-American (EA) and ...

  6. MODERES Java: Architecture and Core Packages

    OpenAIRE

    Festor, Olivier

    1997-01-01

    MODERES is an environment for the development of management information models. The initial release of the environment was developped in C++ and provided tools for the manipulation of information models specified using GDMO and GRM. This report presents the architecture and core packages of the MODERES Java environement. This environement is completely developped in Java and contains the initial MODERES tools as well as a new architecture for the use of the MODERES suite in an enterprise netw...

  7. Cold moderators for pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews cold moderators in pulsed sources and provides details of the performance of different cold moderator materials and configurations. Analytical forms are presented which describe wavelength spectra and emission time distributions. Several types of cooling arrangements used in pulsed moderators are described. Choices of materials are surveyed. The author examines some of the radiation damage effects in cold moderators, including the phenomenon of burping in irradiated cold solid methane

  8. Cold moderators for pulsed neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews cold moderators in pulsed neutron sources and provides details of the performance of different cold moderator materials and configurations. Analytical forms are presented which describe wavelength spectra and emission time distributions. Several types of cooling arrangements used in pulsed source moderators are described. Choices of materials are surveyed. The author examines some of the radiation damage effects in cold moderators, including the phenomenon of ''burping'' in irradiated cold solid methane. 9 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159781.html Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise Moderate physical activity can ease stress that impairs ... to memory problems among breast cancer survivors, but exercise can help, according to new research. "We found ...

  10. Molten fuel-moderator interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A critical review of the current understanding of vapor explosions was carried out. It was concluded that, on the basis of actual industrial accidents and large scale experiments, energetic high yield steam explosion cannot be regarded as an improbable event if large quantities of molten fuel and coolant are mixed together. This study also reviewed a hydrodynamic transient model proposed by Henry and Fauske Associates to assess a molten fuel-moderator interaction event. It was found that the proposed model negates a priori the possibility of a violent event, by introducing two assumptions: 1) fine fragmentation of the molten fuel, and ii) rapid heat transfer from the fine fragments to form steam. Using the Hicks and Menzies thermodynamic model, maximum work potential and pressure rise in the calandria were estimated. However, it is recommended that a more representative upper bound model based on an underwater explosion of a pressurized volume of steam be developed

  11. Plasma cell-free mitochondrial DNA declines in response to prolonged moderate aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockett, Penny E; Khanal, Januka; Sitaula, Alina; Oglesby, Christopher; Meachum, William A; Castracane, V Daniel; Kraemer, Robert R

    2016-01-01

    Increased plasma cell-free mitochondrial DNA (cf-mDNA), a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) produced by cellular injury, contributes to neutrophil activation/inflammation in trauma patients and arises in cancer and autoimmunity. To further understand relationships between cf-mDNA released by tissue injury, inflammation, and health benefits of exercise, we examined cf-mDNA response to prolonged moderate aerobic exercise. Seven healthy moderately trained young men (age = 22.4 ± 1.2) completed a treadmill exercise trial for 90 min at 60% VO2 max and a resting control trial. Blood was sampled immediately prior to exercise (0 min = baseline), during (+18, +54 min), immediately after (+90 min), and after recovery (R40). Plasma was analyzed for cf-mDNA, IL-6, and lactate. A significant difference in cf-mDNA response was observed between exercise and control trials, with cf-mDNA levels reduced during exercise at +54 and +90 (with or without plasma volume shift correction). Declines in cf-mDNA were accompanied by increased lactate and followed by an increase in IL-6, suggesting a temporal association with muscle stress and inflammatory processes. Our novel finding of cf-mDNA decline with prolonged moderate treadmill exercise provides evidence for increased clearance from or reduced release of cf-mDNA into the blood with prolonged exercise. These studies contrast with previous investigations involving exhaustive short-term treadmill exercise, in which no change in cf-mDNA levels were reported, and contribute to our understanding of differences between exercise- and trauma-induced inflammation. We propose that transient declines in cf-mDNA may induce health benefits, by reducing systemic inflammation. PMID:26755735

  12. Identification of Gene-Expression Signatures and Protein Markers for Breast Cancer Grading and Staging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yao

    Full Text Available The grade of a cancer is a measure of the cancer's malignancy level, and the stage of a cancer refers to the size and the extent that the cancer has spread. Here we present a computational method for prediction of gene signatures and blood/urine protein markers for breast cancer grades and stages based on RNA-seq data, which are retrieved from the TCGA breast cancer dataset and cover 111 pairs of disease and matching adjacent noncancerous tissues with pathologists-assigned stages and grades. By applying a differential expression and an SVM-based classification approach, we found that 324 and 227 genes in cancer have their expression levels consistently up-regulated vs. their matching controls in a grade- and stage-dependent manner, respectively. By using these genes, we predicted a 9-gene panel as a gene signature for distinguishing poorly differentiated from moderately and well differentiated breast cancers, and a 19-gene panel as a gene signature for discriminating between the moderately and well differentiated breast cancers. Similarly, a 30-gene panel and a 21-gene panel are predicted as gene signatures for distinguishing advanced stage (stages III-IV from early stage (stages I-II cancer samples and for distinguishing stage II from stage I samples, respectively. We expect these gene panels can be used as gene-expression signatures for cancer grade and stage classification. In addition, of the 324 grade-dependent genes, 188 and 66 encode proteins that are predicted to be blood-secretory and urine-excretory, respectively; and of the 227 stage-dependent genes, 123 and 51 encode proteins predicted to be blood-secretory and urine-excretory, respectively. We anticipate that some combinations of these blood and urine proteins could serve as markers for monitoring breast cancer at specific grades and stages through blood and urine tests.

  13. In-vitro micro-Raman study of tissue samples for detecting cervical and ovarian cancer with 785-nm laser excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. K.; Kamemoto, L. E.; Misra, A. K.; Goodman, M. T.; Luk, H. W.; Killeen, J. L.

    2010-04-01

    We present results of in vitro micro-Raman spectroscopy of normal and cancerous cervical and ovarian tissues excited with 785 nm near-infrared (NIR) laser. Micro- Raman spectra of squamous cervical cells of both cervix and ovarian tissues show significant differences in the spectra of normal and cancerous cells. In particular, several well-defined Raman peaks in the 775-975 cm-1 region are observed in the spectra of normal cervix squamous cells but are completely missing in the spectra of invasive cervical cancer cells. In the high-frequency 2800-3100 cm-1 region it is shown that the peak area under CH stretching band is much lower than the corresponding area in the spectra of normal cells. In the case of ovarian tissues, the micro-Raman spectra show noticeable spectral differences between normal cells and ovarian serous cancer cells. In particular, we observed the accumulation of β-carotene in ovarian serous cancer cells compared to normal ovarian cells from women with no ovarian cancer. The NIR micro-Raman spectroscopy offers a potential molecular technique for detecting cervical and ovarian cancer from the respective tissues.

  14. Plasma cell‐free mitochondrial DNA declines in response to prolonged moderate aerobic exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Shockett, Penny E.; Khanal, Januka; Sitaula, Alina; Oglesby, Christopher; Meachum, William A.; Castracane, V. Daniel; Kraemer, Robert R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Increased plasma cell‐free mitochondrial DNA (cf‐mDNA), a damage‐associated molecular pattern (DAMP) produced by cellular injury, contributes to neutrophil activation/inflammation in trauma patients and arises in cancer and autoimmunity. To further understand relationships between cf‐mDNA released by tissue injury, inflammation, and health benefits of exercise, we examined cf‐mDNA response to prolonged moderate aerobic exercise. Seven healthy moderately trained young men (age = 22.4 ...

  15. Novel Molecular Tumor Cell Markers in Regional Lymph Nodes and Blood Samples from Patients Undergoing Surgery for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Oddmund Nordgård; Gurpartap Singh; Steinar Solberg; Lars Jørgensen; Ann Rita Halvorsen; Rune Smaaland; Odd Terje Brustugun; Åslaug Helland

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recent evidence suggests that microscopic lymph node metastases and circulating tumor cells may have clinical importance in lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify new molecular markers for tumor cells in regional lymph nodes (LNs) and peripheral blood (PB) from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Candidate markers were selected based on digital transcript profiling and previous literature. KRT19, CEACAM5, EPCAM, DSG3, SFTPA, SFTPC and SFTPB...

  16. Maintaining Breast Cancer Specimen Integrity and Individual or Simultaneous Extraction of Quality DNA, RNA, and Proteins from Allprotect-Stabilized and Nonstabilized Tissue Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Paul; Donatello, Simona; Connolly, Elizabeth; Griffin, Mairead; Dunne, Barbara; Burke, Louise; Flavin, Richard; Rizkalla, Hala; Ryan, Ciara; Hayes, Brian; D'Adhemar, Charles; Banville, Niamh; Faheem, Nazia; Muldoon, Cian; Gaffney, Eoin F.

    2011-01-01

    The Saint James's Hospital Biobank was established in 2008, to develop a high-quality breast tissue BioResource, as a part of the breast cancer clinical care pathway. The aims of this work were: (1) to ascertain the quality of RNA, DNA, and protein in biobanked carcinomas and normal breast tissues, (2) to assess the efficacy of AllPrep® (Qiagen) in isolating RNA, DNA, and protein simultaneously, (3) to compare AllPrep with RNEasy® and QIAamp® (both Qiagen), and (4) to examine the effectiveness of Allprotect® (Qiagen), a new tissue stabilization medium in preserving DNA, RNA, and proteins. One hundred eleven frozen samples of carcinoma and normal breast tissue were analyzed. Tumor and normal tissue morphology were confirmed by frozen sections. Tissue type, tissue treatment (Allprotect vs. no Allprotect), extraction kit, and nucleic acid quantification were analyzed by utilizing a 4 factorial design (SPSS PASW 18 Statistics Software®). QIAamp (DNA isolation), AllPrep (DNA, RNA, and Protein isolation), and RNeasy (RNA isolation) kits were assessed and compared. Mean DNA yield and A260/280 values using QIAamp were 33.2 ng/μL and 1.86, respectively, and using AllPrep were 23.2 ng/μL and 1.94. Mean RNA yield and RNA Integrity Number (RIN) values with RNeasy were 73.4 ng/μL and 8.16, respectively, and with AllPrep were 74.8 ng/μL and 7.92. Allprotect-treated tissues produced higher RIN values of borderline significance (P=0.055). No discernible loss of RNA stability was detected after 6 h incubation of stabilized or nonstabilized tissues at room temperature or 4°C or in 9 freeze-thaw cycles. Allprotect requires further detailed evaluation, but we consider AllPrep to be an excellent option for the simultaneous extraction of RNA, DNA, and protein from tumor and normal breast tissues. The essential presampling procedures that maintain the diagnostic integrity of pathology specimens do not appear to compromise the quality of molecular isolates. PMID

  17. Maintaining Breast Cancer Specimen Integrity and Individual or Simultaneous Extraction of Quality DNA, RNA, and Proteins from Allprotect-Stabilized and Nonstabilized Tissue Samples

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mee, Blanaid C.

    2011-12-29

    The Saint James\\'s Hospital Biobank was established in 2008, to develop a high-quality breast tissue BioResource, as a part of the breast cancer clinical care pathway. The aims of this work were: (1) to ascertain the quality of RNA, DNA, and protein in biobanked carcinomas and normal breast tissues, (2) to assess the efficacy of AllPrep® (Qiagen) in isolating RNA, DNA, and protein simultaneously, (3) to compare AllPrep with RNEasy® and QIAamp® (both Qiagen), and (4) to examine the effectiveness of Allprotect® (Qiagen), a new tissue stabilization medium in preserving DNA, RNA, and proteins. One hundred eleven frozen samples of carcinoma and normal breast tissue were analyzed. Tumor and normal tissue morphology were confirmed by frozen sections. Tissue type, tissue treatment (Allprotect vs. no Allprotect), extraction kit, and nucleic acid quantification were analyzed by utilizing a 4 factorial design (SPSS PASW 18 Statistics Software®). QIAamp (DNA isolation), AllPrep (DNA, RNA, and Protein isolation), and RNeasy (RNA isolation) kits were assessed and compared. Mean DNA yield and A260\\/280 values using QIAamp were 33.2 ng\\/μL and 1.86, respectively, and using AllPrep were 23.2 ng\\/μL and 1.94. Mean RNA yield and RNA Integrity Number (RIN) values with RNeasy were 73.4 ng\\/μL and 8.16, respectively, and with AllPrep were 74.8 ng\\/μL and 7.92. Allprotect-treated tissues produced higher RIN values of borderline significance (P=0.055). No discernible loss of RNA stability was detected after 6 h incubation of stabilized or nonstabilized tissues at room temperature or 4°C or in 9 freeze-thaw cycles. Allprotect requires further detailed evaluation, but we consider AllPrep to be an excellent option for the simultaneous extraction of RNA, DNA, and protein from tumor and normal breast tissues. The essential presampling procedures that maintain the diagnostic integrity of pathology specimens do not appear to compromise the quality of molecular isolates.

  18. The moderating role of personality traits on emotional intelligence and conflict management styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann, Bao-Yi; Yang, Chun-Chi

    2012-06-01

    In a sample of 442 part-time MBA and undergraduate students, the relationships between emotional intelligence and the integrating style and between emotional intelligence and the dominating style of conflict management were moderated by extraversion. In addition, agreeableness moderated the relationships between emotional intelligence and compromising style and between emotional intelligence and dominating style. PMID:22897103

  19. Family Routine Moderates the Relation between Child Impulsivity and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Although child impulsivity is associated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, few studies have examined whether family processes moderate this association. To address this gap, we tested whether child-reported family routine moderated the relation between child hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) and ODD symptoms among a sample of…

  20. Work Volition, Career Decision Self-Efficacy, and Academic Satisfaction: An Examination of Mediators and Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadidian, Alex; Duffy, Ryan D.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the relation of work volition to career decision self-efficacy (CDSE) and academic satisfaction in a diverse sample of 447 undergraduate college students. Work volition was found to be moderately correlated with academic satisfaction and strongly correlated with CDSE. Potential mediators and moderators in the link of…

  1. USGS MODERATE RESOLUTION LAND IMAGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, J. L.; Willems, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    For the past 37 years, the Landsat series of satellites has provided continuous data of the Earth’s land masses, coastal boundaries, and coral reefs creating an unprecedented comprehensive record of landscape dynamics. Landsat 5 and 7 continue to capture hundreds of images of the Earth’s surface each day. In mid-December 2008, the USGS made the entire Landsat archive available to everyone, anywhere, at anytime via the Internet at no cost to the user. The opening of the Landsat archive, the longest record of the terrestrial environment, is a revolution that will affect the future of moderate resolution Earth observations, enabling scientists to address research questions and develop operational applications that were previously cost prohibitive. In addition, the time-series data richness of the archive allows for the development of essential climate variables used to monitor the causes and consequences of lands cover change as a function of climate variability and anthropogenic influences. Landsat is unique as a single source of systematic, global land observations in terms of the number of spectral bands, global collection capacity, image quality, and the proven fidelity of its calibrated sensors. Through the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992 and the Presidential Decision Direct/NSTC-3 (1994), as amended on October 16, 2000, the U.S Geological Survey (USGS) is charged to ensure the continuity of Landsat data. To accomplish this, the USGS, in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), is currently preparing for the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) in December 2012, the eighth satellite in the Landsat Program. The LDCM will ensure the continuation of the Landsat record and will consist of significant improvements in radiometric response and additional spectral bands, from which high quality data products will be generated and accessible to users at no cost.

  2. Correlates of exercise motivation and behavior in a population-based sample of endometrial cancer survivors: an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dundas George

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence of the benefits of exercise in cancer survivors, exercise participation rates tend to decline after treatments. Few studies have examined the determinants of exercise in less common cancer sites. In this study, we examined medical, demographic, and social cognitive correlates of exercise in endometrial cancer survivors using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. Methods A mailed survey was completed by 354 endometrial cancer survivors (1 to 10 years postdiagnosis residing in Alberta, Canada. The study was cross-sectional. Exercise behavior was assessed using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and the TPB constructs were assessed with standard self-report scales. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine the independent associations of the TPB constructs with intention and behavior. Results Chi-square analyses indicated that marital status (p = .003, income level (p = .013, and body mass index (BMI (p = .020 were associated with exercise. The TPB explained 34.1% of the variance in exercise behavior with intention (β = .38, p β = .18, p = .029 being independent correlates. For intention, 38.3% of the variance was explained by the TPB with self-efficacy (β = .34, p β = .30, p Conclusion The TPB may be a useful framework for understanding exercise in endometrial cancer survivors. Exercise behavior change interventions based on the TPB should be tested in this growing population.

  3. Moderators of Sexual Behavior in Gay Men

    OpenAIRE

    Moskowitz, David A.; Roloff, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated factors that might moderate the association between sexual behavior desires and sexual behavior enactments in gay men. Condom eschewal, number of STIs, HIV serostatus, age, and relationship status were each hypothesized to moderate this association. An Internet survey collected data from 219 self-identifying gay men. Results indicated that sexual behavior desires and enactments were highly correlated, and of the five moderators tested, four varied this association. Condom esch...

  4. Creativity of people with moderate intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Zabrič, Jasna

    2012-01-01

    This undergraduate thesis presents theoretical framework and practical implications that refer to the creativity of people with moderate intellectual disability. The thesis examines the fields of artistic and dance activity. The theoretical part of the thesis describes creativity, artistic assistance, dance and movement assistance, characteristics of people with moderate intellectual disability, and dance and artistic expression of people with moderate intellectual disability. The practical p...

  5. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) - Aqua

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset represents multiple products archived at the multiple archive centers for the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard...

  6. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) - Terra

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset represents multiple products archived at the multiple archive centers for the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard...

  7. Archival bone marrow samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Bendik; Najmi, Laeya A; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata;

    2015-01-01

    AB Archival samples represent a significant potential for genetic studies, particularly in severe diseases with risk of lethal outcome, such as in cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the usability of archival bone marrow smears and biopsies for DNA extraction and purification, whole...... with samples stored for 4 to 10 years. Acceptable call rates for SNPs were detected for 7 of 42 archival samples. In conclusion, archival bone marrow samples are suitable for DNA extraction and multiple marker analysis, but WGA was less successful, especially when longer fragments were analyzed. Multiple SNP...

  8. Rasch analysis of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (mini-MAC) among a heterogeneous sample of long-term cancer survivors: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Zucca Alison; Lambert Sylvie D; Boyes Allison W; Pallant Julie F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (mini-MAC) is a well-recognised, popular measure of coping in psycho-oncology and assesses five cancer-specific coping strategies. It has been suggested that these five subscales could be grouped to form the over-arching adaptive and maladptive coping subscales to facilitate the interpretation and clinical application of the scale. Despite the popularity of the mini-MAC, few studies have examined its psychometric properties among ...

  9. Bacteriology of moderate (chronic) periodontitis in mature adult humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, W E; Holdeman, L V; Cato, E P; Smibert, R M; Burmeister, J A; Ranney, R R

    1983-01-01

    A total of 171 taxa was represented among 1,900 bacterial isolates from 60 samples of sites affected with moderate periodontitis in 22 mature adult humans. The composition of the subgingival sulcus flora was statistically significantly different from that of the adjacent supragingival flora and the subgingival flora of 14 people with healthy gingiva, but was not significantly different from that of sulci affected with severe periodontitis in 21 young human adults. The sulcus floras of moderat...

  10. Parental Education Moderates Genetic Influences on Reading Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Friend, Angela; Defries, John C; Olson, Richard K.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental moderation of the level of genetic influence on children's reading disabilities (RD) was explored in a sample of 545 identical and fraternal twins (mean age = 11.5 years). Parents' years of education, which are correlated with a broad range of environmental factors related to reading development, were significantly related to the level of genetic influence on reading disability (t = 3.23, Prep = .99). Genetic influence was higher and environmental influence was lower among child...

  11. Elevated levels of 14-3-3 proteins, serotonin, gamma enolase and pyruvate kinase identified in clinical samples from patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dowling, P.; Hughes, D. J.; Larkin, A.M.; Meiller, J.; Henry, M.; Meleady, P.; Lynch, V.; Pardini, B.; Naccarati, A.; Levý, M.; Vodička, Pavel; Neary, P.; Clynes, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 441, feb. (2015), s. 133-141. ISSN 0009-8981 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : biomarkers * colorectal cancer * proteomics * mass spectrometry * 14-3-3 proteins * pyruvate kinase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.824, year: 2014

  12. Meta-analysis of efficacy and safety of oxycodone hydrochloride sustained-release tablets and immediate-re-lease morphine tablets in the titration therapy on moderate to severe cancer pain%羟考酮缓释片和吗啡即释片在中重度癌痛滴定中疗效及安全性比较的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇宋; 正波; 梁军; 樊碧发; 张力; 罗素霞; 张沂平; 王杰军

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of oxycodone hydrochloride sustained-release tablets and immediate-release morphine tablets in the titration of patients with moderate or severe cancer pain. Methods China national knowledge infrastruc-ture(CNKI) full-text database, Chinese science and technology journal full-text database (VIP) and digital journal full-text database of Wanfang were searched. Oxycodone hydrochloride sustained-release tablets and immediate-release morphine tablets were included into the prospective randomized controlled trial ( RCT) of moderate to severe cancer pain titration. Methodological assessment of bias risk of the included studies has been performed. The meta analysis of the included studies has been carried out. Results According to the inclusion criteria, 12 RCTs involving 1131 patients were included and subgroup analysis were performed. Meta-analysis results showed that:(1) As for the 1 h pain relief rate, oxycodone hydrochloride sustained-release tablets was significantly better than immediate-release morphine tablets(RR=3. 16, 95%CI:1. 64-6. 08, P=0. 0006);(2) As for the 4 h pain relief rate, oxycodone hydrochloride sustained-release tab-lets was significantly better than immediate-release morphine tablets(RR=2. 44, 95%CI:1. 49-3. 97, P=0. 0004);(3) As for the 24 h pain relief rate, oxycodone hydrochloride sustained-release tablets was significantly better than immediate-release morphine tablets( RR=1. 13, 95%CI:1. 04-1. 24, P = 0. 005 ); ( 4 ) As for the titration cycles, oxycodone hydrochloride sustained-release tablets was significantly shorter than immediate-release morphine tablets ( MD=-0. 77, 95%CI:-1. 14--0. 40, P0. 05) . Conclusion Oxycodone hydrochloride sustained-release tablets has significantly higher 1 h, 4 h and 24 h pain relief rates than immediate-release morphine tablets so that the titration can be completed faster. And it also has significantly shorter titration cy-cles and the time to onset. Oxycodone

  13. Interleukin-11 Receptor Is a Candidate Target for Ligand-Directed Therapy in Lung Cancer: Analysis of Clinical Samples and BMTP-11 Preclinical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardó-Vila, Marina; Marchiò, Serena; Sato, Masanori; Staquicini, Fernanda I; Smith, Tracey L; Bronk, Julianna K; Yin, Guosheng; Zurita, Amado J; Sun, Menghong; Behrens, Carmen; Sidman, Richard L; Lee, J Jack; Hong, Waun K; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2016-08-01

    We previously isolated an IL-11-mimic motif (CGRRAGGSC) that binds to IL-11 receptor (IL-11R) in vitro and accumulates in IL-11R-expressing tumors in vivo. This synthetic peptide ligand was used as a tumor-targeting moiety in the rational design of BMTP-11, which is a drug candidate in clinical trials. Here, we investigated the specificity and accessibility of IL-11R as a target and the efficacy of BMTP-11 as a ligand-targeted drug in lung cancer. We observed high IL-11R expression levels in a large cohort of patients (n = 368). In matching surgical specimens (i.e., paired tumors and nonmalignant tissues), the cytoplasmic levels of IL-11R in tumor areas were significantly higher than in nonmalignant tissues (n = 36; P = 0.003). Notably, marked overexpression of IL-11R was observed in both tumor epithelial and vascular endothelial cell membranes (n = 301; P < 0.0001). BMTP-11 induced in vitro cell death in a representative panel of human lung cancer cell lines. BMTP-11 treatment attenuated the growth of subcutaneous xenografts and reduced the number of pulmonary tumors after tail vein injection of human lung cancer cells in mice. Our findings validate BMTP-11 as a pharmacologic candidate drug in preclinical models of lung cancer and patient-derived tumors. Moreover, the high expression level in patients with non-small cell lung cancer is a promising feature for potential translational applications. PMID:27317903

  14. Sampling methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıç, Selim

    2013-01-01

    Most of the studies related to health are conducted with samples. Selection of sampling may be performed with random or nonrandom sampling methods. Sampling methods may vary with respect to some characteristics of study population, researchers’ aims and facilities. It is necessary to select samples by random sampling methods in order to provide the representativeness of the study population. The advantages and disadvantages of different sampling methods are presented in this manuscript which ...

  15. Boat sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes essential boat sampling activities: on site boat sampling process optimization and qualification; boat sampling of base material (beltline region); boat sampling of weld material (weld No. 4); problems accompanied with weld crown varieties, RPV shell inner radius tolerance, local corrosion pitting and water clarity. The equipment used for boat sampling is described too. 7 pictures

  16. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Cancer Pain: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanju Bao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Now with more and more published systematic reviews of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM on adult cancer pain, it is necessary to use the methods of overview of systematic review to summarize available evidence, appraise the evidence level, and give suggestions to future research and practice. Methods. A comprehensive search (the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and ISI Web of Knowledge was conducted to identify all systematic reviews or meta-analyses of CAM on adult cancer pain. And the evidence levels were evaluated using GRADE approach. Results. 27 systematic reviews were included. Based on available evidence, we could find that psychoeducational interventions, music interventions, acupuncture plus drug therapy, Chinese herbal medicine plus cancer therapy, compound kushen injection, reflexology, lycopene, TENS, qigong, cupping, cannabis, Reiki, homeopathy (Traumeel, and creative arts therapies might have beneficial effects on adult cancer pain. No benefits were found for acupuncture (versus drug therapy or shame acupuncture, and the results were inconsistent for massage therapy, transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS, and Viscum album L plus cancer treatment. However, the evidence levels for these interventions were low or moderate due to high risk of bias and/or small sample size of primary studies. Conclusion. CAM may be beneficial for alleviating cancer pain, but the evidence levels were found to be low or moderate. Future large and rigor randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm the benefits of CAM on adult cancer pain.

  17. Complementary and alternative medicine for cancer pain: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yanju; Kong, Xiangying; Yang, Liping; Liu, Rui; Shi, Zhan; Li, Weidong; Hua, Baojin; Hou, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective. Now with more and more published systematic reviews of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) on adult cancer pain, it is necessary to use the methods of overview of systematic review to summarize available evidence, appraise the evidence level, and give suggestions to future research and practice. Methods. A comprehensive search (the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and ISI Web of Knowledge) was conducted to identify all systematic reviews or meta-analyses of CAM on adult cancer pain. And the evidence levels were evaluated using GRADE approach. Results. 27 systematic reviews were included. Based on available evidence, we could find that psychoeducational interventions, music interventions, acupuncture plus drug therapy, Chinese herbal medicine plus cancer therapy, compound kushen injection, reflexology, lycopene, TENS, qigong, cupping, cannabis, Reiki, homeopathy (Traumeel), and creative arts therapies might have beneficial effects on adult cancer pain. No benefits were found for acupuncture (versus drug therapy or shame acupuncture), and the results were inconsistent for massage therapy, transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS), and Viscum album L plus cancer treatment. However, the evidence levels for these interventions were low or moderate due to high risk of bias and/or small sample size of primary studies. Conclusion. CAM may be beneficial for alleviating cancer pain, but the evidence levels were found to be low or moderate. Future large and rigor randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm the benefits of CAM on adult cancer pain. PMID:24817897

  18. Slice Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, Radford M.

    2000-01-01

    Markov chain sampling methods that automatically adapt to characteristics of the distribution being sampled can be constructed by exploiting the principle that one can sample from a distribution by sampling uniformly from the region under the plot of its density function. A Markov chain that converges to this uniform distribution can be constructed by alternating uniform sampling in the vertical direction with uniform sampling from the horizontal `slice' defined by the current vertical positi...

  19. Solid-methane moderator systems at KENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the target-moderator-reflector assembly (TMRA) systems at the Neutron Science Laboratory (KENS) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) is described together with the historical changes. Because of the optimized design of TMRA, the neutron-generation efficiency is very high. The characteristics of the cold moderator system, such as the absolute intensity, spectrum and radiation damage to it, are also described. There are a number of new neutron-scattering instruments which are being viewed at the moderator. A brief description of the proposed TMRA for our future project is also given. (auth)

  20. Solid-methane moderator systems at KENS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusaka, M.

    1997-09-01

    An overview of the target-moderator-reflector assembly (TMRA) systems at the Neutron Science Laboratory (KENS) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) is described together with the historical changes. Because of the optimized design of TMRA, the neutron-generation efficiency is very high. The characteristics of the cold moderator system, such as the absolute intensity, spectrum and radiation damage to it, are also described. There are a number of new neutron-scattering instruments which are being viewed at the moderator. A brief description of the proposed TMRA for our future project is also given. (auth)

  1. The integrity of CAGR moderator bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedures for assessing the integrity of moderator bricks in Advanced Gas Cooled Reactors is described together with experiments proposed to improve the graphite input data and verify the condition of bricks at the end of life. (author)

  2. TMD Evolution at Moderate Hard Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Ted [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Collins, John C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We summarize some of our recent work on non-perturbative transverse momentum dependent (TMD) evolution, emphasizing aspects that are necessary for dealing with moderately low scale processes like semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering.

  3. Improved false negative rate of axillary status using sentinel lymph node biopsy and ultrasound-suspicious lymph node sampling in patients with early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The false negative rate of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is 5-10%, and results in improper patient management. The study was to assess the value of ultrasound-suspicious axillary lymph node biopsy (USALNB) in patients with early breast cancer, and to compare SLNB combined with USALNB (SLNB + USALNB) with SLNB alone. From January 2010 to July 2013, 216 patients with early breast cancer were enrolled consecutively at the Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University. All patients underwent wire localization of the suspicious node by color Doppler ultrasonography, followed by SLNB 2–3 hours later, suspicious node lymphadenectomy, and level ≥ II axillary dissection (as the gold standard). The predictive values of node status between SLNB + USALNB and SLNB alone were compared. The success rate of SLNB was 99.1% (214/216). After axillary dissection, 71 patients were confirmed with axillary lymph node metastases by pathological examinations. Eight false negatives were observed using SLNB alone, resulting in sensitivity of 88.7%, specificity of 100%, false negative rate of 11.3%, and false positive rate of 0% in predicting the axillary node status. SLNB + USALNB resulted in sensitivity of 97.2%, specificity of 100%, false negative rate of 2.8%, and false positive rate of 0%. The false negative rate of SLNB + USALNB was significantly different from that of SLNB alone (P = 0.031). SLNB + USALNB seems to be a low-risk procedure that might be useful in reducing the false negative rate of SLNB, improving the accuracy of axillary nodes evaluation in early breast cancer

  4. IT Capability as Moderator Between IT Investment and Firm Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yongmei; LU Hongjian; HU Junhua

    2008-01-01

    Conflicting results from previous research relating information technology (IT) investments and firm performance suggest that there is no direct relationship between IT investments and firm performance. The resource-based view (RBV) of the firm is introduced as a research tool to examine how IT resources and capabilities affect firm performance. A theoretical rationale model is then used to investigate the relationship between IT investment and firm performance. The IT capability is assumed to be an important moderator variable rather than a mediator variable linking IT investments to firm performance, while the time period, the firm size, and the industry type, all recognized as factors influencing performance, are treated as control variables. The model and hypotheses are verified by sample data from leading IT firms in China. The data confirms the moderating effect of the IT capability.

  5. Job characteristics, flow, and performance: the moderating role of conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, Evangelia

    2006-07-01

    The present article aims to show the importance of positive work-related experiences within occupational health psychology by examining the relationship between flow at work (i.e., absorption, work enjoyment, and intrinsic work motivation) and job performance. On the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that (a) motivating job characteristics are positively related to flow at work and (b) conscientiousness moderates the relationship between flow and other ratings of (in-role and out-of-role) performance. The hypotheses were tested on a sample of 113 employees from several occupations. Results of moderated structural equation modeling analyses generally supported the hypotheses. Motivating job characteristics were predictive of flow, and flow predicted in-role and extra-role performance, for only conscientious employees. PMID:16834474

  6. PGNAA neutron source moderation setup optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jinzhao; Tuo, Xianguo

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to design a prompt {\\gamma}-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) thermal neutron output setup using MCNP5 computer code. In these simulations the moderator materials, reflective materials and structure of the PGNAA 252Cf neutrons of thermal neutron output setup were optimized. Results of the calcuations revealed that the thin layer paraffin and the thick layer of heavy water moderated effect is best for 252Cf neutrons spectrum. The new design compar...

  7. Social support moderates stress effects on depression

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xingmin; Cai, Lin; Qian, Jing; Peng, Jiaxi

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the moderator effect of social support on the relationship between stress and depression of university students. A total of 632 undergraduate students completed the measures of perceived stress, perceived social support, and depression. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that social support moderated the association between stress and depression. Undergraduate students with high stress reported higher scores in depression than those with low stress with low social sup...

  8. Moderate Deviations for Mean Field Particle Models

    CERN Document Server

    Del Moral, Pierre; Wu, Liming

    2012-01-01

    This article is concerned with moderate deviation principles of a general class of mean eld type interacting particle models. We discuss functional moderate deviations of the occupation measures for both the strong -topology on the space of fi nite and bounded measures as well as for the corresponding stochastic processes on some class of functions equipped with the uniform topology. Our approach is based on an original semigroup analysis combined with stochastic perturbation techniques and projective limit large deviation methods.

  9. Maintaining Breast Cancer Specimen Integrity and Individual or Simultaneous Extraction of Quality DNA, RNA, and Proteins from Allprotect-Stabilized and Nonstabilized Tissue Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Mee, Blanaid C.; Carroll, Paul; Donatello, Simona; Connolly, Elizabeth; Griffin, Mairead; Dunne, Barbara; Burke, Louise; Flavin, Richard; Rizkalla, Hala; Ryan, Ciara; Hayes, Brian; d'Adhemar, Charles; Banville, Niamh; Faheem, Nazia; Muldoon, Cian

    2011-01-01

    The Saint James's Hospital Biobank was established in 2008, to develop a high-quality breast tissue BioResource, as a part of the breast cancer clinical care pathway. The aims of this work were: (1) to ascertain the quality of RNA, DNA, and protein in biobanked carcinomas and normal breast tissues, (2) to assess the efficacy of AllPrep® (Qiagen) in isolating RNA, DNA, and protein simultaneously, (3) to compare AllPrep with RNEasy® and QIAamp® (both Qiagen), and (4) to examine the effectivenes...

  10. Factors Impact Customers Engagement in eWOM on SNSs of Non-Profit Organizations: The Moderating Role of Habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Q. Bataineh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate factors impact Jordanian customer engagement in electronic word of mouth eWOM on social networking sites SNSs of non-profit organizations NPOs. Through a thorough literature review, the researchers developed a framework to describe the relationships between the research independent, dependent and moderating variables. The research sample consisted of 367 respondents who only have running accounts on at least one of these SNSs (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Instagram; and who also have had in seeking or sharing for information about one or more of theseNPOs in Jordan (king Hussein cancer center, tkiyet um ali and injaz corporation. Accordingly, multiple regression analysis has been used; the research findings confirmed that perceived trust in contacts on SNSs, customer involvement in SNSs and perceived usefulness respectively impact customers engagement in eWOM on SNSs of NPOs. Moreover, the moderating role of habit was also supported. Thus, the conclusions of this research, recommendations and directions for other researchers within the same field also have been discussed.

  11. Real-time RT-PCR systems for CTC detection from blood samples of breast cancer and gynaecological tumour patients (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andergassen, Ulrich; Kölbl, Alexandra C; Mahner, Sven; Jeschke, Udo

    2016-04-01

    Cells, which detach from a primary epithelial tumour and migrate through lymphatic vessels and blood stream are called 'circulating tumour cells'. These cells are considered to be the main root of remote metastasis and are correlated to a worse prognosis concerning progression-free and overall survival of the patients. Therefore, the detection of the minimal residual disease is of great importance regarding therapeutic decisions. Many different detection strategies are already available, but only one method, the CellSearch® system, reached FDA approval. The present review focusses on the detection of circulating tumour cells by means of real-time PCR, a highly sensitive method based on differences in gene expression between normal and malignant cells. Strategies for an enrichment of tumour cells are mentioned, as well as a large panel of potential marker genes. Drawbacks and advantages of the technique are elucidated, whereas, the greatest advantage might be, that by selection of appropriate marker genes, also tumour cells, which have already undergone epithelial to mesenchymal transition can be detected. Finally, the application of real-time PCR in different gynaecological malignancies is described, with breast cancer being the most studied cancer entity. PMID:26848098

  12. Cancer Statistics: Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a third party. HPF: Did You Know? Endometrial Cancer Endometrial Cancer - Did you know that endometrial cancer ... mfhs0vbvWi8?rel=0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Endometrial Cancer Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ...

  13. Diabetes mellitus, hyperglycaemia and cancer. : Diabetes and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Dominique; Balkau, Beverley

    2010-01-01

    A moderate increase in cancer risk has been shown in diabetic patients and in individuals with abnormal glucose tolerance, mainly for digestive sites, independently of obesity, with in contrast, a protective effect for prostate cancer. Insulin-resistance with compensatory hyperinsulinemia, and elevated levels of circulating growth factors are usually considered to be the link between cancer and hyperglycaemia, through activated cell proliferation. Treatments inducing elevated plasma insulin s...

  14. RESEARCH SAMPLING

    OpenAIRE

    NISHA MD

    2012-01-01

    No aspect of the research plan is more critical for assuring the usefulness of a study than the sampling strategy. It will determine if the results of the study can be applied as evidence and contributes to the trustworthiness of the results. The sampling strategy is a critical part of research design. An appropriate sampling plan is vital for drawing the right conclusions from a study. Good sampling is critical for the confident application of the study findings to other people, settings, or...

  15. Bioleaching of marmatite using moderately thermophilic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong-bo; LIU Fei-fei; ZOU Ying-qin; ZENG Xiao-xi; QIU Guan-zhou

    2008-01-01

    The process of bioleaching marmatite using moderately thermophilic bacteria was studied by comparing marmatite leaching performance of mesophiles and moderate thermophiles and valuating the effect of venting capacity as well as pulp density on marmatite leaching performance of moderate thermophiles. The results show that moderate thermophiles have more advantages over mesophilies in bioleaching marmatite at 45℃ and the pulp density of 50g/L, and the zinc extraction efficiency reaches 93.1% in 20d. Aeration agitation can improve the transfer of O2 and CO2 in solution and promote the growth of bacteria and therefore, enhance the leaching efficiency. Under the venting levels of 50, 200 and 800mL/min, the zinc extraction efficiencies by moderate thermophiles are 57.8%, 92.5% and 96.0%, respectively. With the increase of pulp density, the total leaching amount of valuable metals increases, however, the extraction efficiency decreases due to many reasons, such as increasing shear force leading to poorly growth condition for bacteria, etc. The zinc extraction decreases remarkably to 58.9% while the pulp density mounts up 20%.

  16. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  17. CDC's Cervical Cancer Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Cancer Moonshot Stay Informed CDC’s Cervical Cancer Study Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... year. As part of CDC’s Cervical Cancer (Cx3) Study, we surveyed a sample of both health care ...

  18. Moderate exercise may attenuate some aspects of immunosenescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozdron Ewa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunosenescence is related to the deterioration of many immune functions, which may be manifested in increased susceptibility to infection, cancer, and autoimmunity. Lifestyle factors, such as diet or physical activity, may influence the senescence of the immune system. It is widely accepted that moderate physical activity may cause beneficial effects for physical and psychological health as well as for the immune system activity in aged people. Methods Thirty elderly women aged 62 to 86 were subjected to a two-years authorized physical activity program. Peripheral blood lymphocytes distribution and the production of cytokines involved in the immune response development and regulation (IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ were investigated. The same parameters were evaluated in two control groups of women: a sedentary group of 12 elderly women selected for the second round of the physical activity program and in a group of 20 sedentary young women. Flow cytometry methods were used for the examination of surface markers on peripheral blood lymphocytes and intracellular cytokines expression. Results The distribution of the main lymphocytes subpopulations in the peripheral blood of elderly women did not show changes after long-term moderate physical training. The percentage of lymphocytes expressing intracellular IL-2 was higher in the group of women attending 2-years physical activity program than in the control group of elderly sedentary women, and it was similar to the value estimated in the group of young sedentary women. There was no difference in the intracellular expression of IL-4 and IFN-γ between the active and elderly sedentary women. Conclusions Our results suggest that moderate, long-term physical activity in elderly women may increase the production of IL-2, an important regulator of the immune response. This may help ameliorate immunosenescence in these women.

  19. The impact of moderate wine consumption on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artero, Ana; Artero, Arturo; Tarín, Juan J; Cano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Wine is a traditional beverage that has been associated with both healthy and harmful effects. Conceptions like the so-called "French paradox" or the beneficial impact of the Mediterranean diet suggest benefit. Wine has a complex composition, which is affected by whether it is red or white or by other variables, like the variety of grapes or others. Alcohol and phenolic compounds have been attributed a participation in the benefits ascribed to wine. The case of alcohol has been extensively studied, but the key question is whether wine offers additional benefits. Resveratrol, a non-flavonoid compound, and quercetin, a flavonol, have received particular attention. There is much experimental work confirming a beneficial balance for both substances, particularly resveratrol, in various organs and systems. The pharmacological dosages used in many of those experiments have shed doubt, however, on the clinical translation of those findings. Clinical studies are limited by their observational nature as well as for the difficulties to abstract the benefits of wine from other confounders. Notwithstanding the doubts, there is reasonable unanimity in beneficial effects of moderate wine consumption in cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, maybe neurological diseases, and longevity. Observations are less enthusiastic in what refers to cancer. While considering these limitations, clinicians may spread the message that the balance of moderate wine consumption seems beneficial. PMID:25449821

  20. Parenting Style as a Moderator for Students' Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Zahari; Low, Suet Fin; Lau, Poh Li

    2012-08-01

    Parenting styles have always been a crucial factor in influencing all aspects of a person's development. The purpose of this study is to test the structural equation model of academic achievement among the students using parenting styles as a moderator. The sample comprised 493 students from eight schools. Parenting styles are determined using the Parental Authority Questionnaire (Buri in J Pers Assess 57:110-119, 1991). Academic achievement is measured based on the students' performance in the Lower Secondary Assessment. Data were analyzed using structural equation modelling. Results demonstrated that model of authoritative and model of authoritarian fit the data of this study well. Both authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles are the most common practice of the parents. Parenting styles have been found to be a moderator of this study. The results indicated that parenting styles moderated the effect of academic self-concept on academic achievement. The impact of academic self-concept on academic achievement is found to be greater for the authoritative than the authoritarian parenting style.

  1. Emotion regulation moderates the association between empathy and prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Patricia L; Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Viding, Essi

    2014-01-01

    Theory and evidence suggest that empathy is an important motivating factor for prosocial behaviour and that emotion regulation, i.e. the capacity to exert control over an emotional response, may moderate the degree to which empathy is associated with prosocial behaviour. However, studies to date have not simultaneously explored the associations between different empathic processes and prosocial behaviour, nor whether different types of emotion regulation strategies (e.g. cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) moderate associations between empathy and prosocial behaviour. One hundred-and-ten healthy adults completed questionnaire measures of empathy, emotion regulation and prosocial tendencies. In this sample, both affective and cognitive empathy predicted self-reported prosocial tendencies. In addition, cognitive reappraisal moderated the association between affective empathy and prosocial tendencies. Specifically, there was a significant positive association between empathy and prosocial tendencies for individuals with a low or average tendency to reappraise but not for those with a high tendency to reappraise. Our findings suggest that, in general, empathy is positively associated with prosocial behaviour. However, this association is not significant for individuals with a high tendency for cognitive reappraisal. PMID:24810604

  2. Emotion regulation moderates the association between empathy and prosocial behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Lockwood

    Full Text Available Theory and evidence suggest that empathy is an important motivating factor for prosocial behaviour and that emotion regulation, i.e. the capacity to exert control over an emotional response, may moderate the degree to which empathy is associated with prosocial behaviour. However, studies to date have not simultaneously explored the associations between different empathic processes and prosocial behaviour, nor whether different types of emotion regulation strategies (e.g. cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression moderate associations between empathy and prosocial behaviour. One hundred-and-ten healthy adults completed questionnaire measures of empathy, emotion regulation and prosocial tendencies. In this sample, both affective and cognitive empathy predicted self-reported prosocial tendencies. In addition, cognitive reappraisal moderated the association between affective empathy and prosocial tendencies. Specifically, there was a significant positive association between empathy and prosocial tendencies for individuals with a low or average tendency to reappraise but not for those with a high tendency to reappraise. Our findings suggest that, in general, empathy is positively associated with prosocial behaviour. However, this association is not significant for individuals with a high tendency for cognitive reappraisal.

  3. Effects of hypoxia on interval moderate exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TASOS ADAMOS, ZISIS PAPANIKOLAOU, VASILIOS VOUTSELAS,DIMITRIOS SOULAS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a controversy in the published scientific data whether extended training at altitude increases performance at sea level. The effect of hypoxia at rest and on the response to interval moderate exercise was determined in six healthy male individuals during an incremental 3×5min exercise cycle test (5min recovery at sea level and in a hypobaric chamber (10000 feet/3100m altitude. Ventilation rate (VE, breathing frequency (BF, heart rate (HR, cardiac output (Q, blood lactate (Labl and % of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 were measured. Blood samples were drawn at rest and at the end of each exercise bout. Hypoxia led to a significant increase in VE during exercise (81.7 vs. 62, 87 vs. 66, 89 vs. 64ml/l, for the three exercise bouts, respectively p<.05. There was also a significant increase in BF (11.3 vs. 10, 29 vs. 25, 32 vs. 24, 33 vs. 25, p<.05, HR (73 vs. 62, 153 vs. 138, 161 vs. 138, 166 vs. 137b/min, p<.05, Q (4.8 vs. 4, 13.1 vs. 12.5, 14.6 vs. 12.2, 15.5 vs. 12.8l/min, p<.05 and Labl (0.41 vs. 0.35, 3.8 vs. 2.6, 4.7 vs 3, 5.9 vs 2.9 mmol/l, p<.05 at rest and during exercise. Hypoxia lowered SaO2 at rest and exercise (99.3 vs 98.6, 98.1 vs 95.1, 98.5 vs 95.3, 98.3 vs 95.5%, p<.05. The results suggest that there is a hypoxic augmentation of the cardiorespiratory variables measured. Also we concluded that exercise potentiated the acute ventilatory response to hypoxia by increasing VE, breathing frequency, heart rate, cardiac output, blood lactate and decreasing SaO2.

  4. Growing up in Violent Communities: Do Family Conflict and Gender Moderate Impacts on Adolescents' Psychosocial Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; Casey, Patrick H.; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Barrett, Kathleen W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of family conflict and gender on the relationship between community violence and psychosocial development at age 18. The study sample consisted of 728 children and families who were part of the Infant Health and Development Program study of low-birth-weight, pre-term infants. In this sample, adolescent…

  5. Moderating effects of professional commitment on hospital nurses in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ching-I; Lotus Shyu, Yea-Ing; Chang, Hao-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the moderating effects of professional commitment on relationships among burnout, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. Two-hundred fifty-three nurses working in a single medical center in northern Taiwan were sampled and approached, and 238 questionnaires were used. All participants were female and aged turnover intention. First, burnout (in terms of reduced personal accomplishment and emotional exhaustion) predicted job satisfaction for high-commitment nurses, but not for low-commitment nurses. Second, job satisfaction predicted turnover intention for both high-commitment and low-commitment nurses. PMID:17292133

  6. The case for moderate gun control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrazia, David

    2014-03-01

    In addressing the shape of appropriate gun policy, this essay assumes for the sake of discussion that there is a legal and moral right to private gun ownership. My thesis is that, against the background of this right, the most defensible policy approach in the United States would feature moderate gun control. The first section summarizes the American gun control status quo and characterizes what I call "moderate gun control." The next section states and rebuts six leading arguments against this general approach to gun policy. The section that follows presents a positive case for moderate gun control that emphasizes safety in the home and society as well as rights whose enforcement entails some limits or qualifications on the right to bear arms. A final section shows how the recommended gun regulations address legitimate purposes, rather than imposing arbitrary restrictions on gun rights, and offers concluding reflections. PMID:24783322

  7. Premoderator optimization of decoupled hydrogen moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optimization study on the premoderator, the reflector material choice and a length of the linear is carried out for the design of high performance decoupled hydrogen moderator. NMTC/JAM and MCNP-4C are used for the neutronics calculation. The result indicates that, assuming premoderator dimensions and decoupling energy is controlled, the decoupled hydrogen moderator with a premoderator can provide better pulse characteristics than that without the premoderator for a Be reflector. On the selection of the reflector material, it is clearly shown that Pb and Hg reflectors give merits in using the premoderator for higher intensity and reduction of energy deposition in moderator. It is also shown that a H2O premoderator provides a short tail while a D2O premoderator provides the high peak intensity. Minimum liner length is evaluated to be 20 cm from the viewpoint of neutronics. (author)

  8. Graphite moderated {sup 252}Cf source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajo B, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Apdo. 89000, 1080A Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    The thorium molten salt reactor is an attractive and affordable nuclear power option for developing countries with insufficient infrastructure and limited technological capability. In the aim of personnel training and experience gathering at the Universidad Simon Bolivar there is in progress a project of developing a subcritical thorium liquid fuel reactor. The neutron source to run this subcritical reactor is a {sup 252}Cf source and the reactor will use high-purity graphite as moderator. Using the MCNP5 code the neutron spectra of the {sup 252}Cf in the center of the graphite moderator has been estimated along the channel where the liquid thorium salt will be inserted; also the ambient dose equivalent due to the source has been determined around the moderator. (Author)

  9. Effects of moderate beer consumption on health and disease: A consensus document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gaetano, G; Costanzo, S; Di Castelnuovo, A; Badimon, L; Bejko, D; Alkerwi, A; Chiva-Blanch, G; Estruch, R; La Vecchia, C; Panico, S; Pounis, G; Sofi, F; Stranges, S; Trevisan, M; Ursini, F; Cerletti, C; Donati, M B; Iacoviello, L

    2016-06-01

    A large evidence-based review on the effects of a moderate consumption of beer on human health has been conducted by an international panel of experts who reached a full consensus on the present document. Low-moderate (up to 1 drink per day in women, up to 2 in men), non-bingeing beer consumption, reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. This effect is similar to that of wine, at comparable alcohol amounts. Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate consumption of either beer or wine may confer greater cardiovascular protection than spirits. Although specific data on beer are not conclusive, observational studies seem to indicate that low-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of developing neurodegenerative disease. There is no evidence that beer drinking is different from other types of alcoholic beverages in respect to risk for some cancers. Evidence consistently suggests a J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption (including beer) and all-cause mortality, with lower risk for moderate alcohol consumers than for abstainers or heavy drinkers. Unless they are at high risk for alcohol-related cancers or alcohol dependency, there is no reason to discourage healthy adults who are already regular light-moderate beer consumers from continuing. Consumption of beer, at any dosage, is not recommended for children, adolescents, pregnant women, individuals at risk to develop alcoholism, those with cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, depression, liver and pancreatic diseases, or anyone engaged in actions that require concentration, skill or coordination. In conclusion, although heavy and excessive beer consumption exerts deleterious effects on the human body, with increased disease risks on many organs and is associated to significant social problems such as addiction, accidents, violence and crime, data reported in this document show evidence for no harm of moderate beer consumption for major chronic conditions and some benefit against

  10. The Moderating Effect of Parent and Peer Influences on Hedonistic Behavior among Undergraduate Students in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Raba’ah Hamzah; Steven Eric Krauss; Turiman Suandi; Azimi Hamzah; Ezhar Tamam

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the moderating influence of parental and peer attachment on hedonistic behavior among a sample of youth in Malaysia. Using Bronfenbrenner’s theory of human ecology and Armsden and Greenberg’s attachment model, this study examines the direct and indirect influence of religiosity and worldview on the development of hedonistic behavior as moderated through parental and peer attachment. Drawing on a quantitative survey of 408 Malaysian university students (M age = 21.0, SD = ....

  11. Level of impaired control predicts outcome of moderation-oriented treatment for alcohol problems

    OpenAIRE

    Heather, Nick; Dawe, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Aims To examine the ability of the Impaired Control Scale (ICS) to predict outcome of moderation-oriented treatment for alcohol problems and to compare this predictive ability directly with that of a widely used measure of alcohol dependence, the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ). Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Out-patient treatment centres. Participants A combined sample 154 problem drinkers taking part in two clinical trials of Moderation-oriented Cue Exposure...

  12. Attachment as a Moderator Between Intimate Partner Violence and PTSD Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Shelby; Babcock, Julia C.

    2009-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms have been linked to traumatic experiences, including intimate partner violence. However, not all battered women develop PTSD symptoms. The current study tests attachment style as a moderator in the abuse–trauma link among a community sample women in violent and non-violent relationships. Both attachment anxiety and dependency were found to moderate the relation between intimate partner violence and PTSD symptoms. However, attachment closeness did...

  13. Family Expressivity and Social Anxiety in Children: The Potential Mediating and Moderating Roles of Emotion Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Noguchi, Ryoichi J. P.

    2007-01-01

    Family Expressivity and Social Anxiety in Children: The Potential Mediating and Moderating Roles of Emotion Regulation Ryoichi J. P. Noguchi ABSTRACT The role of childrenâ s emotion regulation as a potential mediator or moderator in the relations between a familyâ s emotional expressiveness and their childâ s social anxiety was explored in a sample of clinic-referred children. For the mediational analyses, it was predicted that emotional expressivity in families would be associ...

  14. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSA tests. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 10 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  15. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advanced melanoma. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 12 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  16. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain people. Read More "6 Common Cancers" Articles Lung Cancer / Breast Cancer / Prostate Cancer / Colorectal Cancer / Skin Cancer / Gynecologic Cancers Spring 2007 Issue: Volume 2 Number 2 Page 11 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & ...

  17. On the Continuation of the Great Moderation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wenjuan

    2011-01-01

    This paper employs a Markov regime-switching approach to investigate whether the Great Moderation is over since the start of the late 2000s recession. The results con rm that the recent nancial crisis did cause a simultaneous high-volatility period among the G7 countries. However, the nancial crisis may not mark the end of the Great Moderation. There is strong evidence that each G7 country has again returned to the low-variance state since 2009 or the beginning of 2010.

  18. Moderate alcohol consumption and cognitive risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neafsey EJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Edward J Neafsey, Michael A CollinsDepartment of Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL, USAAbstract: We reviewed 143 papers that described the relationship between moderate drinking of alcohol and some aspect of cognition. Two types of papers were found: (1 those that provided ratios of risk between drinkers and nondrinkers (74 papers in total and (2 those that, although they did not provide such ratios, allowed cognition in drinkers to be rated as “better,” “no different,” or “worse” than cognition in nondrinkers (69 papers in total. The history of research on moderate drinking and cognition can be divided into two eras: 1977–1997 and 1998–present. Phase I (1977–1997 was the era of neuropsychological evaluation involving mostly young to middle-aged (18–50 years old subjects. Although initial studies indicated moderate drinking impaired cognition, many later studies failed to confirm this, instead finding no difference in cognition between drinkers and nondrinkers. Phase II (1998–present was and is the era of mental status exam evaluation involving mostly older (≥55 years old subjects. These studies overwhelmingly found that moderate drinking either reduced or had no effect on the risk of dementia or cognitive impairment. When all the ratios of risk from all the studies in phase II providing such ratios are entered into a comprehensive meta-analysis, the average ratio of risk for cognitive risk (dementia or cognitive impairment/decline associated with moderate “social” (not alcoholic drinking of alcohol is 0.77, with nondrinkers as the reference group. The benefit of moderate drinking applied to all forms of dementia (dementia unspecified, Alzheimer’s disease, and vascular dementia and to cognitive impairment (low test scores, but no significant benefit against cognitive decline (rate of decline in test scores was found. Both light and moderate

  19. Sampling Development

    OpenAIRE

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of the enterprise. This article discusses how to sample development in order to accurately discern the shape of developmental change. The ideal solutio...

  20. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of lung cancer. Before the treatment the histological samples allowing the diagnosis as well as its histological variety. The diagnosis include techniques such as bronchoscopy, ultrasound, tomography, puncture and endoscopic thoracotomy. The chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the main techniques used for the treatment

  1. Moderate takes key science role in Congress

    CERN Multimedia

    MacIlwain, C

    2001-01-01

    Sherry Boehlert has been named as chair of the Science committee in the US House of Representatives. Described as a moderate Republican with a keen interest in environmental and energy issues, it is seen as a good appointment by scientists (1/2 page)

  2. Moderate drinking : No impact on female fecundity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaadstra, B.M.; Looman, C.W.N.; Velde, E.R. te; Habbema, J.D.F.; Karbaat, J.

    1994-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of moderate alcohol intake on probability of conception. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Normal healthy women enrolled in an artificial donor insemination program. Patients: Women starting artificial donor insemination for the very first time were select

  3. Moderators of Youth Exercise Intention and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Rebecca; Kosma, Maria; Symons Downs, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    This study tested moderators of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) based on geographical region, gender, race, and income among adolescents in an exercise context using multigroup path analyses. Participants were eighth- and ninth-grade students from Louisiana (LA; N = 448, M[subscript age] = 14.37 years) and Pennsylvania (PA; N = 681,…

  4. Children's Appraisal of Moderately Stressful Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Brianne; Power, Thomas; Hill, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated 2 questions: (1) do children show consistent styles of appraisal across a range of moderately stressful events?, and (2) what are the adjustment and parenting correlates of individual differences in children's appraisal style? Ninety-nine 3rd though 5th grade children and their mothers participated. For each of 6 vignettes…

  5. From Stein Identities to Moderate Deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Louis H Y; Shao, Qi-Man

    2009-01-01

    Stein's method is applied to obtain a Cram\\'er type moderate deviation result for dependent random variables whose dependence is defined in terms of a Stein identity. The result is optimal when applied to the combinatorial central limit theorem, the binary expansion of a random integer, the anti-voter model on a complete graph, and the Curie-Weiss model.

  6. Versatile lipid profiling by liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry using all ion fragmentation and polarity switching. Preliminary application for serum samples phenotyping related to canine mammary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Lipidomics, high resolution mass spectrometry, polarity switching, serum, canine mammary cancer. -- Abstract: Lipids represent an extended class of substances characterized by such high variety and complexity that makes their unified analyses by liquid chromatography coupled to either high resolution or tandem mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS or LC–MS/MS) a real challenge. In the present study, a new versatile methodology associating ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–HRMS/MS) have been developed for a comprehensive analysis of lipids. The use of polarity switching and “all ion fragmentation” (AIF) have been two action levels particularly exploited to finally permit the detection and identification of a multi-class and multi-analyte extended range of lipids in a single run. For identification purposes, both higher energy collision dissociation (HCD) and in-source CID (collision induced dissociation) fragmentation were evaluated in order to obtain information about the precursor and product ions in the same spectra. This approach provides both class-specific and lipid-specific fragments, enhancing lipid identification. Finally, the developed method was applied for differential phenotyping of serum samples collected from pet dogs developing spontaneous malignant mammary tumors and health controls. A biological signature associated with the presence of cancer was then successfully revealed from this lipidome analysis, which required to be further investigated and confirmed at larger scale

  7. Versatile lipid profiling by liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry using all ion fragmentation and polarity switching. Preliminary application for serum samples phenotyping related to canine mammary cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallart-Ayala, H., E-mail: laberca@oniris-nantes.fr [LUNAM, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire, Agroalimentaire et de l’Alimentation Nantes Atlantique (Oniris), USC 1329 INRA Laboratoire d’Etude des résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Site de la Chantrerie – CS50707, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Courant, F.; Severe, S.; Antignac, J.-P. [LUNAM, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire, Agroalimentaire et de l’Alimentation Nantes Atlantique (Oniris), USC 1329 INRA Laboratoire d’Etude des résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Site de la Chantrerie – CS50707, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Morio, F.; Abadie, J. [LUNAM, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire, Agroalimentaire et de l’Alimentation Nantes Atlantique (Oniris), Cancers Animaux, Modèles pour la Recherche en Oncologie Comparée (AMaROC), Site de la Chantrerie–CS50707, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Le Bizec, B. [LUNAM, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire, Agroalimentaire et de l’Alimentation Nantes Atlantique (Oniris), USC 1329 INRA Laboratoire d’Etude des résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Site de la Chantrerie – CS50707, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2013-09-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Lipidomics, high resolution mass spectrometry, polarity switching, serum, canine mammary cancer. -- Abstract: Lipids represent an extended class of substances characterized by such high variety and complexity that makes their unified analyses by liquid chromatography coupled to either high resolution or tandem mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS or LC–MS/MS) a real challenge. In the present study, a new versatile methodology associating ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–HRMS/MS) have been developed for a comprehensive analysis of lipids. The use of polarity switching and “all ion fragmentation” (AIF) have been two action levels particularly exploited to finally permit the detection and identification of a multi-class and multi-analyte extended range of lipids in a single run. For identification purposes, both higher energy collision dissociation (HCD) and in-source CID (collision induced dissociation) fragmentation were evaluated in order to obtain information about the precursor and product ions in the same spectra. This approach provides both class-specific and lipid-specific fragments, enhancing lipid identification. Finally, the developed method was applied for differential phenotyping of serum samples collected from pet dogs developing spontaneous malignant mammary tumors and health controls. A biological signature associated with the presence of cancer was then successfully revealed from this lipidome analysis, which required to be further investigated and confirmed at larger scale.

  8. Determination of the HER2 amplification status by in situ fluorescent hybridization and concordance with immunohistochemistry for breast cancer samples in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Plata

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the status of the HER2 amplification in Breast cancer performed in peripheral laboratories in Colombia by immunohistochemistry and its comparison with central laboratories and the FISH status. Methods: Four thousand one hundred and five cases referred for the determination of the HER2 status by FISH and/or IHQ to the Department of Pathology of the Fundacion Santa Fe were studied. The analysis included correlation between the IHQ HER2 score submitted by the peripheral laboratory (PL, the HER2 score emitted in the LC and the FISH studies performed in the central laboratory (CL. Results: two thousand five hundred and eight HER2 IHQ studies were performed in the (CL, using the Dako Herceptest. With the following results: 68.2 % negative (0-1+; 16.4% indeterminate (2+; 15.3% 3+ and 2.3 % not adequate. 1360/ 1719 cases studied by FISH came from the (PL, and 329 (19.1% from the (Lc. Comparing the IHQ score emitted by the PL and the positive FISH status showed: 6/28 0+ were positive (21.4%; 7/31 1+ (22.5%; 397/1.240 2+ (32.8% and 74/91 3+ (81.3%. In the CL the results were 1/9 0+ (11.1%; 3/18 1+ (16.7%; 154/292 2+ (53.0%; and 9/9 3+ (100%. Only 1/4 negative cases (0/1+ was in house.Conclusion: The false negative rate (22.0%, and false positive results (18.7%, of the HER2 status performed by IHQ in peripheral laboratories in Colombia is unacceptable high as well as the inadequacy of tissue indicating that pre-analytical factors have to be improved in Colombia in order to get optimal results

  9. Sampling Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  10. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...

  11. Management of moderate wind energy coastal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Life cycle analysis reveals the viability of moderate wind fields utilization. → Wind turbine is the greenest electricity generator at a touristic site. → Wind parks should be collective applications of small hotel-apartments owners. -- Abstract: The feasibility of wind energy utilization at moderate wind fields was investigated for a typical touristic coastal site in Western Greece. Initially, the wind speed and direction as well as its availability, duration and diurnal variation were assessed. For an analysis period of eight years, the mean wind speed at ten meters was determined as 3.8 m s-1 with a small variation in monthly average wind speeds between 3.0 (January) and 4.4 m s-1 (October). The mean wind power density was less than 200 W m-2 at 10 m indicating the limiting suitability of the site for the usual renewable energy applications. However, life cycle analysis for wind turbine generators with lower cut-in, cut-out, and rated speeds revealed that the energy yield ratio can reach a value of six for a service life of 20 years while the energy pay-back period can be 3 years with 33 kt CO2-e of avoided greenhouse emissions. Therefore, the recent technological turbine improvements make wind power viable even at moderate wind fields. Moreover, the study of electricity supply of typical small hotel-apartments in the region of Western Greece indicated that the installation of 300 wind turbine generators in these moderate wind fields would cover the total consumption during the open touristic period with profits during the rest of the year. According to these results, wind turbine generators are the 'greenest' way of generating electricity in touristic coastal sites, even of moderate wind speeds.

  12. Drivers and moderators of business decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Pretorius

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Reports of business failure elicit various reactions, while research in this domain often appears to be limited by a lack of access to information about failure and by the negativity that surrounds it. Those who have experienced failure do not readily talk about it, or they disappear from the radar screen of researchers. Yet failure is preceded by decline which, when focused on strategically, can reduce eventual failures if early action is taken. The main purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework or typology of the drivers and moderators of business decline. Design/methodology/approach: After applying the "grounded theory" approach to the academic literature on decline and failure, a conceptual framework for the variables that drive and moderate business decline is proposed. Findings: The study proposes that decline has three core drivers, three peripheral drivers and four moderators. The core drivers identified are: resource munificence; leadership as origin; and causality (strategic versus operational origin of decline. The three peripheral drivers are: unique preconditions; continuous decisions impact; and extremes dichotomy. The study describes four moderators of the drivers: life cycle stage; stakeholder perspective; quantitative versus qualitative nature of signs and causes; and finally the age and size effects. Research limitations/implications: The proposed conceptual framework is based on literature only, although it has found support during discussions with practitioners. It is proposed to readers of this journal for scrutiny and validation. Practical implications: Strategists need to understand what drives decline in order to act timeously; practitioners who have an insight into the moderators with their impacts could make better decisions in response to decline in organisations and possibly avoid business failure. Originality/Value: Understanding business decline is still a huge theoretical challenge, which

  13. Management of moderate wind energy coastal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamanis, D., E-mail: dkaraman@cc.uoi.g [Department of Environmental and Natural Resources Management, University of Ioannina, 30100 Agrinio (Greece)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Life cycle analysis reveals the viability of moderate wind fields utilization. {yields} Wind turbine is the greenest electricity generator at a touristic site. {yields} Wind parks should be collective applications of small hotel-apartments owners. -- Abstract: The feasibility of wind energy utilization at moderate wind fields was investigated for a typical touristic coastal site in Western Greece. Initially, the wind speed and direction as well as its availability, duration and diurnal variation were assessed. For an analysis period of eight years, the mean wind speed at ten meters was determined as 3.8 m s{sup -1} with a small variation in monthly average wind speeds between 3.0 (January) and 4.4 m s{sup -1} (October). The mean wind power density was less than 200 W m{sup -2} at 10 m indicating the limiting suitability of the site for the usual renewable energy applications. However, life cycle analysis for wind turbine generators with lower cut-in, cut-out, and rated speeds revealed that the energy yield ratio can reach a value of six for a service life of 20 years while the energy pay-back period can be 3 years with 33 kt CO{sub 2}-e of avoided greenhouse emissions. Therefore, the recent technological turbine improvements make wind power viable even at moderate wind fields. Moreover, the study of electricity supply of typical small hotel-apartments in the region of Western Greece indicated that the installation of 300 wind turbine generators in these moderate wind fields would cover the total consumption during the open touristic period with profits during the rest of the year. According to these results, wind turbine generators are the 'greenest' way of generating electricity in touristic coastal sites, even of moderate wind speeds.

  14. Nutrition and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILLETT WALTER C

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from both animal and epidemiologic studies indicate that throughout life excessive energy intake in relation to requirements increases risk of human cancer. Rapid growth rates in childhood lead to earlier age at menarche, which in turn increases risk of breast cancer, and accumulation of body fat in adulthood in related to cancers of the colon, kidney, and endometrium as well as postmenopausal breast cancer. Higher intake of vegetables and fruits has been associated with lower risks of many cancers. The constituents responsible for these apparent protective effects remain uncertain, although evidence supports a contribution of folic acid. Recent evidence suggests that the percentage of energy from fat in the diet is not a major cause of cancers of the breast or colon. Higher intake of meat and dairy products has been associated with greater risk of prostate cancer, which may be related to their saturated fat content. Also, red meat consumption has been associated with risk of colon cancer in numerous studies, but this appears to be unrelated to its fat content. Excessive consumption of alcohol increases risks of upper gastrointestinal tract and even moderate intake appears to increase cancers of the breast and large bowel. Although many details remain to be learned, evidence is strong that remaining physically active and lean throughout life, consuming an abundance of fruits and vegetables, and avoiding high intakes of red meat, foods high in animal fat, and excessive alcohol will substantially reduce risk of human cancer.

  15. Environmental sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental Sampling (ES) is a technology option that can have application in transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The basic process is to take a sample from the environment, e.g., soil, water, vegetation, or dust and debris from a surface, and through very careful sample preparation and analysis, determine the types, elemental concentration, and isotopic composition of actinides in the sample. The sample is prepared and the analysis performed in a clean chemistry laboratory (CCL). This ES capability is part of the IAEA Strengthened Safeguards System. Such a Laboratory is planned to be built by JAERI at Tokai and will give Japan an intrinsic ES capability. This paper presents options for the use of ES as a transparency measure for nuclear nonproliferation

  16. Association between single nucleotide polymorphism in miR-499, miR-196a2, miR-146a and miR-149 and prostate cancer risk in a sample of Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Moradi, Nazanin; Ziaee, Seyed Amir Mohsen; Narouie, Behzad; Soltani, Mohammad Hosein; Rezaei, Maryam; Shahkar, Ghazaleh; Taheri, Mohsen

    2016-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and are involved in numerous physiological processes. Accumulating evidence suggests that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human miRNA genes may affect miRNA biogenesis pathway and influence the susceptibility to several diseases such as cancer. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of miR-499 rs3746444, miR-196a2 rs11614913, miR-149 rs2292832, and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphisms on prostate cancer (PCa) risk in a sample of Iranian population. This case-control study was done on 169 patients with pathologically confirmed PCa and 182 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The genotyping assays were done using T-ARMS-PCR or PCR-RFLP methods. The findings indicated that CC genotype of miR-499 rs3746444 polymorphism increased the risk of PCa (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.12-2.79, P = 0.019) compared to TT genotype. No statistically significant association was found between miR-196a2 rs11614913, miR-149 rs2292832, and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphisms and PCa risk. In summary, the findings indicated that miR-499 rs3746444 polymorphism increased the risk of PCa in an Iranian population. Further studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnicities are necessary to verify the findings of the present study. PMID:27222754

  17. HIGH BLOOD LEVELS PROCALCITONIN AS SYSTEMIC IMFLAMATORY RESPONSE SYNDROME PREDICTOR IN SEVERE AND MODERATE HEAD INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sinaga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNumerous studies have shown that procalcitonin (PCT was not related to degree of trauma. High PCT serum levels have been found in patients with bacterial or fungal infection and also in acute phase of trauma. Currently, there has been no research discussed about changes in serum levels of PCT in particular head injuries and severe head injuries. Moderate and severe head injuries were common trauma cases in Emergency Room (ER and had high mortality rate. Based on Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, moderate and severe head injuries were scored between 3 and 13. This research aim to determine whether high blood levels PCT can be used as a predictor of the occurrence of SIRS. Method: A cohort prospective study was applied in this research to determine high blood levels of PCT as a predictor for SIRS in moderate and severe head injury. This study was conducted from June 2013 - August 2013 at Sanglah General Hospital with 40 research subjects. Data was presented in tables and analyzed with Chi Square test at 95% CI and p <0.05% was considered significant. Results: From the 40 samples, there were 34 males (85% and 6 females (15%, 18 samples (45% had moderate head injury and 22 samples (65% had severe head injury. One sample (2.5 % was 0-10 years old, 15 samples (37.5% were 10-20 years old, 13 samples (32.5% were 20-40 years old, 7 samples (17.5% were 40-60 years old and 4 samples (10% were>60 years old. PCT levels in the blood obtained on day first were normal in 6 samples (15% and elevated in 34 samples (85%, SIRS (+ were found in 35 samples (87.5% and 5 samples (12.5% were SIRS (-. Using bivariate analysis between PCT levels and SIRS showed p = 0.000 (p < 0.05, and multivariate analysis of the control variables showed no significant correlation between variables with PCT levels. Conclusion: From 40 samples moderate head injury and severe head injury, there were 34 samples (85% with elevated PCT level on the first day, while 35 samples (87.5% had SIRS

  18. Gadolinium depletion event in a CANDU® moderator - causes and recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadolinium nitrate is added to the moderator of CANDU units to maintain the reactor in a guaranteed shutdown state (GSS). In April 2008, after being in stable GSS for over 30 hours, one of Ontario Power Generation's Pickering-B units showed a gradual depletion of the dissolved gadolinium, despite purification being isolated. Further additions of gadolinium stabilized the moderator gadolinium concentration, however, since the root cause of the depletion was not immediately identified, the unit was placed in the drained shutdown state, per established procedures. The cumulative gadolinium depletion amounted to about 3200 grams, the equivalent of about 12 ppm. Analysis showed the presence of oxalate in the moderator water. It is well-known that gadolinium forms a very insoluble oxalate (log Ksp = -29.1). Although sub-micron filtration of water samples did not show the presence of gadolinium particulate, the measured levels of oxalate, 1.2 to 2 ppm, were sufficient to react with 1.4 to 2.4 ppm of gadolinium. The source of oxalate was traced to radiolysis of dissolved CO2 species. This unit had been experiencing chronic low-level ingress of CO2 from the Annulus Gas System. Free oxalate ion is normally susceptible to radiolytic breakdown back to CO2, but Gd3+ provides a stable sink for radiogenic oxalate, 2 Gd3+ + 3 C2O42- → Gd2(C2O4)3. Subsequent testing confirmed that gadolinium oxalate is quite stable with respect to gamma irradiation. Inspections showed well-crystallized gadolinium oxalate deposited on moderator system surfaces. Estimates indicated that about 1200 grams of gadolinium could have deposited on in-core surfaces, including the outside of the calandria tubes. That amount of negative reactivity was a concern, since it would prevent re-start of the unit. OPG, with support from AECL-Chalk River and Kinectrics, embarked on a two-pronged chemistry recovery program aimed at 1) developing solvents for dissolution of the gadolinium oxalate deposits and 2

  19. Comparison between whole mount tissue preparations and virtual tissue microarray samples for measuring Ki-67 and apoptosis indices in human bladder cancer: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Hisashi; Czerniak, Bogdan A; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Tsuta, Koji; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Keyhani, Afsaneh; Dinney, Colin P; Nagai, Takeshi; Kamat, Ashish M

    2016-08-01

    Recent tissue microarray (TMA)-based studies have shown that cell proliferation- and apoptosis-related biomarkers are associated with clinical outcomes in patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma. However, little is known about the differences in these biomarker measurements between whole mount tissue preparations and TMAs. This study aimed to elucidate the discrepancy in the measurements of Ki-67 indices (KIs) and apoptosis indices (AIs) between whole mount tissue preparations and TMAs of bladder urothelial carcinoma samples.Whole mount tissue preparations for Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling were made from 30 patients who underwent transurethral resection of bladder urothelial carcinoma. Digital microscopy-assisted virtual TMAs, consisting of 3 small round areas (1 or 0.6 mm in diameter), were generated from the same whole mount tissue preparations. The measurement results in highly reactive areas of biomarkers were compared between the whole mount tissue preparation- and the TMA-based methods. Bland-Altman plot analysis, regression analysis, and Kendall τ were performed to investigate differences in the measurement results, systematic biases, and correlations between biomarkers.Although the Bland-Altman plot analysis demonstrated that almost all the plots were within the limits of agreement, fixed biases were detected in the 1- and 0.6-mm TMAs for the KI (0.181 and 0.222, respectively) and the AI (0.055 and 0.063, respectively). Proportional biases were also detected in the 1- and 0.6-mm TMAs for the AI (P KIs and AIs were observed in whole mount tissue preparations (r = 0.260, P = 0.044) and in the 1 mm TMAs (r = 0.375, P = 0.004); however, no such correlation was observed in the 0.6 mm TMAs.Our study suggests that the measurement results for certain biomarkers of bladder urothelial carcinoma obtained from TMA-based samples can be susceptible to systematic bias, and the lack

  20. Comparison between whole mount tissue preparations and virtual tissue microarray samples for measuring Ki-67 and apoptosis indices in human bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Hisashi; Czerniak, Bogdan A.; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Tsuta, Koji; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Keyhani, Afsaneh; Dinney, Colin P.; Nagai, Takeshi; Kamat, Ashish M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent tissue microarray (TMA)-based studies have shown that cell proliferation- and apoptosis-related biomarkers are associated with clinical outcomes in patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma. However, little is known about the differences in these biomarker measurements between whole mount tissue preparations and TMAs. This study aimed to elucidate the discrepancy in the measurements of Ki-67 indices (KIs) and apoptosis indices (AIs) between whole mount tissue preparations and TMAs of bladder urothelial carcinoma samples. Whole mount tissue preparations for Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling were made from 30 patients who underwent transurethral resection of bladder urothelial carcinoma. Digital microscopy-assisted virtual TMAs, consisting of 3 small round areas (1 or 0.6 mm in diameter), were generated from the same whole mount tissue preparations. The measurement results in highly reactive areas of biomarkers were compared between the whole mount tissue preparation- and the TMA-based methods. Bland–Altman plot analysis, regression analysis, and Kendall τ were performed to investigate differences in the measurement results, systematic biases, and correlations between biomarkers. Although the Bland–Altman plot analysis demonstrated that almost all the plots were within the limits of agreement, fixed biases were detected in the 1- and 0.6-mm TMAs for the KI (0.181 and 0.222, respectively) and the AI (0.055 and 0.063, respectively). Proportional biases were also detected in the 1- and 0.6-mm TMAs for the AI (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, positive correlations between KIs and AIs were observed in whole mount tissue preparations (r = 0.260, P = 0.044) and in the 1 mm TMAs (r = 0.375, P = 0.004); however, no such correlation was observed in the 0.6 mm TMAs. Our study suggests that the measurement results for certain biomarkers of bladder

  1. Hypericum perforatum versus fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a randomized double-blind trial in a Brazilian sample Hypericum perforatum versus fluoxetina no tratamento da depressão leve a moderada: estudo duplo-cego randomizado em uma amostra brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alberto Moreno

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: Hypericum perforatum has demonstrated antidepressant efficacy when compared to placebo, but comparisons with other antidepressants remain controversial. We assessed the efficacy and safety of Hypericum perforatum in comparison with fluoxetine, in a 8-week double-blind trial in patients with mild to moderate depression. METHOD: Seventy-two outpatients were randomly assigned to receive Hypericum perforatum 900 mg/day, fluoxetine 20 mg/day or placebo. Efficacy measures included the HAM-D21 scale, the Montgomery-Åsberg Rating Scale, and the Clinical Global Impression. Safety was assessed with the UKU Side Effect Rating Scale. RESULTS: Intention-to-treat analysis showed no differences between the mean scores of the three groups. In the analyses of observed cases, patients receiving Hypericum perforatum had the lowest remission rates (12%, p = 0.016 compared to fluoxetine (34.6% and placebo (45%. CONCLUSIONS: Hypericum perforatum was less efficacious than both fluoxetine and placebo. Both drugs were safe and well-tolerated. Larger trials are needed for definite conclusions.OBJETIVO: Hypericum perforatum demonstrou eficácia antidepressiva em comparação ao placebo, mas comparações com outros antidepressivos permanecem controversas. Avaliamos a eficácia e a tolerabilidade do Hypericum perforatum em comparação com fluoxetina e placebo, em um estudo duplo-cego de oito semanas em pacientes com depressão leve a moderada. MÉTODO: Setenta e dois pacientes ambulatoriais receberam aleatoriamente doses fixas de Hypericum perforatum 900 mg/dia, fluoxetina 20 mg/dia ou placebo. Medidas de eficácia incluíram a HAM-D21, Escala de Montgomery-Asberg e Impressão Clínica Global. A segurança foi avaliada por meio da Escala UKU de Efeitos Colaterais. RESULTADOS: A análise por intenção de tratar não demonstrou diferenças entre os três grupos. Na análise por casos observados, os pacientes que receberam Hypericum perforatum tiveram as menores

  2. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data for this...... study were drawn from a linkage between the census data for 15 million people from the five Nordic countries and their cancer registries for the period 1961-2005. SIR analyses were conducted with the cancer incidence rates for the entire national study populations used as reference rates. RESULTS: A...... total of 16 422 male firefighters were included in the final cohort. A moderate excess risk was seen for all cancer sites combined, (SIR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.11). There were statistically significant excesses in the age category of 30-49 years in prostate cancer (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 4.52) and...

  3. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  4. Vulva cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - vulva; Cancer - perineum; Cancer - vulvar; Genital warts - vulvar cancer; HPV - vulvar cancer ... cells. Other types of cancers found on the vulva are: Adenocarcinoma Basal cell carcinoma Melanoma Sarcoma Vulvar ...

  5. Do Personality Traits Moderate Relations Between Psychologically Controlling Parenting and Problem Behavior in Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabbe, Elien; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2016-06-01

    This research examined whether and how adolescents' personality traits moderate associations between psychologically controlling parenting and problem behaviors. On the basis of self-determination theory, we also examined the mediating role of psychological need frustration in the effects of psychologically controlling parenting. A cross-sectional study in two samples (N = 423 and 292; Mage = 12.43 and 15.74 years) was conducted. While in Sample 1 both mothers and adolescents provided reports of parenting and problem behavior, Sample 2 relied on adolescent-reported parenting and mother-reported problem behavior. Psychologically controlling parenting was related to internalizing and externalizing problems in both samples. Little systematic evidence was obtained for the moderating role of personality, with the exception of a moderating effect of Agreeableness. In both samples, psychological control was unrelated to externalizing problems among adolescents high on Agreeableness. Analyses of Sample 2 showed that associations between psychological control and problem behavior were mediated by psychological need frustration. Adolescent personality plays a modest role as a moderator of associations between psychologically controlling parenting and problem behavior. Frustration of adolescents' basic and universal psychological needs can account for the undermining effects of psychologically controlling parenting. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25676732

  6. The New Water Moderator of the IBR-2 Reactor with a Canyon on the Lateral Surface. Design and Physical Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Korneev, D A; Bodnarchuk, V I; Peresedov, V F; Rogov, A D; Shabalin, E P; Yaradaikin, S P

    2003-01-01

    An element of the new cold methane moderator of the reactor IBR-2, the water premoderator, serves as a thermal moderator for the 9th and 1st channels. Neutron radiation in the direction of the 9th channel comes from the lateral surface of the moderator. A specific feature of the reflectometer REFLEX located on the 9th channel is that it only "sees" neutrons emitted from a limited region of the moderator surface. This region is a rectangular extended along a vertical with a horizontal dimension of about 7 mm. To increase the flux on the sample, a groove-like pocket (canyon) with a depth of 80 mm by the width 15 mm and height 200 mm was cut in the premoderator on its lateral surface. The design of the moderator and the results of measurements of the neutron flux distribution on the lateral surface of the moderator are presented.

  7. PGNAA neutron source moderation setup optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jinzhao

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to design a prompt {\\gamma}-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) thermal neutron output setup using MCNP5 computer code. In these simulations the moderator materials, reflective materials and structure of the PGNAA 252Cf neutrons of thermal neutron output setup were optimized. Results of the calcuations revealed that the thin layer paraffin and the thick layer of heavy water moderated effect is best for 252Cf neutrons spectrum. The new design compared with the conventional neutron source design, the thermal neutron flux and rate were increased by 3.02 times and 3.27 times. Results indicate that the use of this design should increase the neutron flux of prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis significantly.

  8. Intra-tumoral Heterogeneity of KRAS and BRAF Mutation Status in Patients with Advanced Colorectal Cancer (aCRC and Cost-Effectiveness of Multiple Sample Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan D. Richman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available KRAS mutation status is established as a predictive biomarker of benefit from anti-EGFr therapies. Mutations are normally assessed using DNA extracted from one formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE tumor block. We assessed heterogeneity of KRAS and BRAF mutation status intra-tumorally (multiple blocks from the same primary tumor. We also investigated the utility and efficiency of genotyping a ‘DNA cocktail’ prepared from multiple blocks. We studied 68 consenting patients in two randomized clinical trials. DNA was extracted, from ≥2 primary tumor FFPE blocks per patient. DNA was genotyped by pyrosequencing for KRAS codons 12, 13 and 61 and BRAF codon 600. In patients with heterogeneous mutation status, DNA cocktails were prepared and genotyped. Among 69 primary tumors in 68 patients, 7 (10.1% showed intratumoral heterogeneity; 5 (7.2% at KRAS codons 12, 13 and 2 (2.9% at BRAF codon 600. In patients displaying heterogeneity, the relevant KRAS or BRAF mutation was also identified in ‘DNA cocktail’ samples when including DNA from mutant and wild-type blocks. Heterogeneity is uncommon but not insignificant. Testing DNA from a single block will wrongly assign wild-type status to 10% patients. Testing more than one block, or preferably preparation of a ‘DNA cocktail’ from two or more tumor blocks, improves mutation detection at minimal extra cost.

  9. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Prevention Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer ...

  11. Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  12. The Moderating Effect of Parent and Peer Influences on Hedonistic Behavior among Undergraduate Students in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Raba’ah Hamzah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the moderating influence of parental and peer attachment on hedonistic behavior among a sample of youth in Malaysia. Using Bronfenbrenner’s theory of human ecology and Armsden and Greenberg’s attachment model, this study examines the direct and indirect influence of religiosity and worldview on the development of hedonistic behavior as moderated through parental and peer attachment. Drawing on a quantitative survey of 408 Malaysian university students (M age = 21.0, SD = .40, structural equation modeling and path analysis findings reveal that peer attachment moderated the relationship between religiosity and worldview, and hedonistic behavior. The results further show the unique moderating effect of trust and alienation within peer attachment. The results are discussed in light of Malaysia’s unique socio-cultural setting. Implications from the findings are also discussed.

  13. Individual differences as moderators of the relationship between stress and health in university teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lousinha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the moderating role of certain individual differences, such as Emotional Sensitivity, Tolerance to Uncertainty, and Coping Styles, into the relationship between stress and health in university teachers. To do so, a sample of 211 teachers belonging to different public institutions of higher education from Caracas-Venezuela completed self-report instruments related to the studied variables. Data was subsequently analyzed using hierarchical regression equations to determine the moderating role of the mentioned individual differences. Results revealed that the Emotional Coping Style and the Negative Egocentric Sensitivity acted as moderators into the relationship between stress and perceived health of the participant teachers, specifically acting as risk factors of the process, and confirming the moderating model of these variables previously established in other studies.

  14. Therapy of moderate and severe psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Werfel, Thomas; von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias; Greiner, Wolfgang; Kulp, Werner; Claes, Christa

    2006-01-01

    Objective and methods: This health technology assessment (HTA) report synthesises systematically randomized controlled studies (RCT) on the therapy of moderate and severe psoriasis vulgaris which were published between 1999 and 2004; it includes some important clinical studies which have been published after 2004 and thus updates the English HTA report by Griffiths et al. [1]. The major objective is the evaluation of the medical effectiveness of different therapeutical approaches and the cost...

  15. Mechanism Design with Moderate Evidence Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Bull Jesse

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses how a moderate evidence disclosure cost can be incorporated into mechanism-design analysis. The paper shows that in public-action settings with transferable utility one can restrict attention to a class of three-stage dynamic mechanisms. Under complete information with two or more players, a version of this type of mechanism can be used to eliminate evidence production in equilibrium. The paper also provides conditions on the evidence environment under which the class of ...

  16. DRIVER MODERATOR METHOD FOR RETAIL SALES PREDICTION

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEN GÜR ALI

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new method for stock keeping unit (SKU)-store level sales prediction in the presence of promotions to support order quantity and promotion planning decisions for retail managers. The method leverages the marketing literature to generate features, and data mining techniques to train a model that provides accurate sales predictions for existing and new SKUs, as well as consistent, actionable insights into category, store and promotion dynamics. The proposed "Driver Moderator" met...

  17. Biology of Moderately Halophilic Aerobic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Nieto Gutiérrez, Joaquín José; Ventosa Ucero, Antonio; Oren, Aharon

    1998-01-01

    The moderately halophilic heterotrophic aerobic bacteria form a diverse group of microorganisms. The property of halophilism is widespread within the bacterial domain. Bacterial halophiles are abundant in environments such as salt lakes, saline soils, and salted food products. Most species keep their intracellular ionic concentrations at low levels while synthesizing or accumulating organic solutes to provide osmotic equilibrium of the cytoplasm with the surrounding medium. Complex mechanisms...

  18. Process calculations for a moderator detritiation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Plant is currently analyzing processes for the removal of tritium from the heavy water used as a moderator in SRP's nuclear reactors. An accompanying paper describes the background and need for this process. A computer-aided design program was used to simulate the distillation section of the detritiation process flowsheet. Simplified calculation techniques were performed to optimize the process parameters. Results obtained are being used to evaluate proposals from various vendors

  19. Graphite-moderated and heavy water-moderated spectral shift controlled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been studied the physical mechanisms related with the spectral shift control method and their general positive effects on economical and non-proliferant aspects (extension of the fuel cycle length and low proliferation index). This methods has been extended to non-hydrogenous fuel cells of high moderator/fuel ratio: heavy water cells have been con- trolled by graphite rods graphite-moderated and gas-cooled cells have been controlled by berylium rods and graphite-moderated and water-cooled cells have been controlled by a changing mixture of heavy and light water. It has been carried out neutron and thermal analysis on a pre design of these types of fuel cells. We have studied its neutron optimization and their fuel cycles, temperature coefficients and proliferation indices. Finally, we have carried out a comparative analysis of the fuel cycles of conventionally controlled PWRs and graphite-moderated, water-cooled and spectral shift controlled reactors. (Author) 71 refs

  20. Carbonic anhydrase XII expression is associated with histologic grade of cervical cancer and superior radiotherapy outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate whether expression of carbonic anhydrase XII (CA12) is associated with histologic grade of the tumors and radiotherapy outcomes of the patients with invasive cervical cancer. CA12 expression was examined by immunohistochemical stains in cervical cancer tissues from 183 radiotherapy patients. Histological grading was classified as well (WD), moderately (MD) or poorly differentiated (PD). Oligonucleotide microarray experiment was performed using seven cervical cancer samples to examine differentially expressed genes between WD and PD cervical cancers. The association between CA12 and histological grade was analyzed by chi-square test. CA12 and histological grades were analyzed individually and as combined CA12 and histologic grade categories for effects on survival outcome. Immunohistochemical expression of CA12 was highly associated with the histologic grade of cervical cancer. Lack of CA12 expression was associated with PD histology, with an odds ratio of 3.9 (P = 0.01). Microarray analysis showed a fourfold reduction in CA12 gene expression in PD tumors. CA12 expression was marginally associated with superior disease-free survival. Application of the new combined categories resulted in further discrimination of the prognosis of patients with moderate and poorly differentiated tumor grade. Our study indicates that CA12 may be used as a novel prognostic marker in combination with histologic grade of the tumors

  1. Carbonic anhydrase XII expression is associated with histologic grade of cervical cancer and superior radiotherapy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Su-Kyoung

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate whether expression of carbonic anhydrase XII (CA12 is associated with histologic grade of the tumors and radiotherapy outcomes of the patients with invasive cervical cancer. Methods CA12 expression was examined by immunohistochemical stains in cervical cancer tissues from 183 radiotherapy patients. Histological grading was classified as well (WD, moderately (MD or poorly differentiated (PD. Oligonucleotide microarray experiment was performed using seven cervical cancer samples to examine differentially expressed genes between WD and PD cervical cancers. The association between CA12 and histological grade was analyzed by chi-square test. CA12 and histological grades were analyzed individually and as combined CA12 and histologic grade categories for effects on survival outcome. Results Immunohistochemical expression of CA12 was highly associated with the histologic grade of cervical cancer. Lack of CA12 expression was associated with PD histology, with an odds ratio of 3.9 (P = 0.01. Microarray analysis showed a fourfold reduction in CA12 gene expression in PD tumors. CA12 expression was marginally associated with superior disease-free survival. Application of the new combined categories resulted in further discrimination of the prognosis of patients with moderate and poorly differentiated tumor grade. Conclusions Our study indicates that CA12 may be used as a novel prognostic marker in combination with histologic grade of the tumors.

  2. Identification of BRCA1-deficient ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Anne-Bine; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Rasmussen, Anders Aamann;

    2011-01-01

    . Design. BRCA1-immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and methylation analyses were performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ovarian cancer tissue. Sample: 54 ovarian cancers; 15 BRCA1 cancers, 4 BRCA2 cancers, 10 cancers from patients with a family history but no...

  3. Conceptual moderator studies for the Spallation Neutron Source short-pulse second target station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallmeier, F. X.; Lu, W.; Riemer, B. W.; Zhao, J. K.; Herwig, K. W.; Robertson, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Candidate moderator configurations for a short-pulse second target station (STS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have been identified using a global optimizer framework built around the MCNPX particle transport code. Neutron brightness metrics were selected as the figure-of-merit. We assumed that STS would use one out of six proton pulses produced by an SNS accelerator upgraded to operate at 1.3 GeV proton energy, 2.8 MW power and 60 Hz repetition rate. The simulations indicate that the peak brightness can be increased by a factor of 5 and 2.5 on a per proton pulse basis compared to the SNS first target station for both coupled and decoupled para-hydrogen moderators, respectively. Additional increases by factors of 3 and 2 were demonstrated for coupled and decoupled moderators, respectively, by reducing the area of neutron emission from 100 × 100 mm2 to 20 × 20 mm2. This increase in brightness has the potential to translate to an increase of beam intensity at the instruments' sample positions even though the total neutron emission of the smaller moderator is less than that of the larger. This is especially true for instruments with small samples (beam dimensions). The increased fluxes in the STS moderators come at accelerated poison and de-coupler burnout and higher radiation-induced material damage rates per unit power, which overall translate into lower moderator lifetimes. A first effort was undertaken to group decoupled moderators into a cluster collectively positioning them at the peak neutron production zone in the target and having a three-port neutron emission scheme that complements that of a cylindrical coupled moderator.

  4. 5. Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sampling is described for radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis. Aerosols are captured with various filter materials whose properties are summed up in the table. Fine dispersed solid and liquid particles and gaseous admixtures may be captured by bubbling air through a suitable absorption solution. The concentration of small amounts of impurities from large volumes of air is done by adsorbing impurities on surfactants, e.g., activated charcoal, silica gel, etc. Aerosols may be captured using an electrostatic precipitator and aerosol fractions may be separated with a cascade impactor. Water sampling differs by the water source, i.e., ground water, surface water, rain or waste water. Soil samples are taken by probes. (ES)

  5. Text Classification for Assisting Moderators in Online Health Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jina; Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha; Pratt, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Patients increasingly visit online health communities to get help on managing health. The large scale of these online communities makes it impossible for the moderators to engage in all conversations; yet, some conversations need their expertise. Our work explores low-cost text classification methods to this new domain of determining whether a thread in an online health forum needs moderators’ help. Methods We employed a binary classifier on WebMD’s online diabetes community data. To train the classifier, we considered three feature types: (1) word unigram, (2) sentiment analysis features, and (3) thread length. We applied feature selection methods based on χ2 statistics and under sampling to account for unbalanced data. We then performed a qualitative error analysis to investigate the appropriateness of the gold standard. Results Using sentiment analysis features, feature selection methods, and balanced training data increased the AUC value up to 0.75 and the F1-score up to 0.54 compared to the baseline of using word unigrams with no feature selection methods on unbalanced data (0.65 AUC and 0.40 F1-score). The error analysis uncovered additional reasons for why moderators respond to patients’ posts. Discussion We showed how feature selection methods and balanced training data can improve the overall classification performance. We present implications of weighing precision versus recall for assisting moderators of online health communities. Our error analysis uncovered social, legal, and ethical issues around addressing community members’ needs. We also note challenges in producing a gold standard, and discuss potential solutions for addressing these challenges. Conclusion Social media environments provide popular venues in which patients gain health-related information. Our work contributes to understanding scalable solutions for providing moderators’ expertise in these large-scale, social media environments. PMID:24025513

  6. Thyroid autoantibodies post moderate doses of iodized oil in adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we examined the effect of a single moderate doses of iodized oil(400 mg) on the production of thyroid autoantibodies, namely thyroid peroxidase(TPO), thyroglobulin(TG), and TSH - receptor(TRAB) antibodies.This is compared with daily dose of 100 mg of L-thyroxine for 6 months.A group of 87 adolescent school girls were selected from a moderately iodine deficient area, on the basis of having goitre grade Ib and above(WHO classification).Randomly the girls were divided into two groups: Group 1 received L-thyroxine (n =46).Group 2 received oral iodized oil (n =41).The prevalence of TPO Ab in the whole group before treatment was 3.4%.No significant level of TRAB was detected in any of the girls before or after treatment. All the patients who had TPO Ab or TG Ab at the start of the study were found to be in group 1, this happened by chance because all the samples were not tested until the end of the study.No patient in group 2 found to have any of the antibodies.By the end of the 14 months follow up period one patient from group 1, who had no TPO Ab or TG Ab, developed TG Ab, while 5 patients from group 2 developed either or both antibodies.The difference between the 2 groups was found not significant (P< 0.1). These findings suggest that introducing moderate dose of iodized oil early in life might have no major ill effect on thyroid immunology as reflected by the production of the main 3 autoantibodies. (Author)

  7. Oral cancer: population sample of the state of Alagoas at a reference hospital Câncer bucal: amostra populacional do estado de Alagoas em hospital de referência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Oliveira dos Santos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and mortality of oral cancer in Brazil remains high; the disease manifests varying features throughout the country. AIM: To analyze the epidemiology of oral cancer, including the prevalence, type and site of lesions, the distribution in the state of Alagoas, staging, treatment, and social and demographic aspects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive retrospective study was carried out. Data were gathered from records of a hospital in Alagoas from January 2000 to December 2006. RESULTS: Of 396 cases (100% of the sample, 62.70% were male and 37.30% female. Most tumors were on the tongue. The mean age was 61.95 years (SD=14.56 years, and 95.2% of the sample were aged over 40 years. Most of lesions were stage II (57.04%. Radiotherapy was the most common treatment. CONCLUSION: This study revealed the epidemiology of oral cancer patients at a reference hospital in the state of Alagoas. The results showed that oral cancer occurs mostly in males in the sixth decade of life; the most common site is the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth.O câncer bucal, no Brasil, ainda apresenta altos níveis de incidência e mortalidade, com diferentes características da doença no território nacional. OBJETIVO: Analisar o perfil epidemiológico do câncer bucal observando-se a prevalência, tipo e localização da lesão, distribuição no estado de Alagoas, estadiamento, tratamento ofertado pelos serviços e aspectos sócio-demográficos. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo, retrospectivo. Os dados foram obtidos dos registros de um hospital em Alagoas, de Janeiro de 2000 a Dezembro de 2006. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que do total de 396 casos registrados, 62,70% eram do sexo masculino e 37,30% do feminino, com maior concentração na região da língua. Do total, 95,2% da amostra situavam-se acima dos 40 anos de idade, cuja média foi de 61,95 anos (DP= 14,56. A maior parte das lesões estava no estádio II (57,04%, e o

  8. Therapy of moderate and severe psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werfel, Thomas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective and methods: This health technology assessment (HTA report synthesises systematically randomized controlled studies (RCT on the therapy of moderate and severe psoriasis vulgaris which were published between 1999 and 2004; it includes some important clinical studies which have been published after 2004 and thus updates the English HTA report by Griffiths et al. [1]. The major objective is the evaluation of the medical effectiveness of different therapeutical approaches and the cost effectiveness with relevance for Germany. Results: The major conclusions from the results of medical RCT on moderate and severe psoriasis vulgaris are: Oral fumarates are effective in the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis vulgaris. However, fumarates quiet frequently cause moderate side effects. Cyclosporine and methotrexate are both effective in the treatment of severe psoriasis vulgaris. Both substances have a different spectrum of side effects which may limit the individual applicability. Acetritin is only moderately effective in the treatment of severe psoriasis of the plaque type. Calcipotriol or UV-radiation used at the same time can increase the clinical effectiveness of acetritin. Systemic PUVA, balneo-PUVA and UVB therapy are all effective for the treatment of severe psoriasis. The combination of UV therapy with vitamin D3 analogues or with topical steroids is more effective than the treatment with UV radiation alone. Saltwater baths increase the effectiveness of UVB therapy. No RCT on the therapeutical effects of topical tar or of dithranol in combination with UV therapy have been published so far. A continuous therapy with PUVA should not be applied due to its proven photocarcinogenicity. Three substances from the group of biologicals (Efalizumab, Etanercept, and Infliximab are now available in Europe and a further substance (Alefacept is available in the USA for the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis. All biologicals have been

  9. Anal cytology in women with cervical intraepithelial or invasive cancer: interobserver agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Heráclio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Incidence rates of anal cancer have been rising worldwide in the last 20 years. Due to embryological, histological and immunohistochemical similarities between the anal canal and the cervix, routine screening with anal cytology for precursor lesions in high-risk groups has been adopted. Objective: To determine interobserver agreement for the diagnosis of anal neoplasia by anal cytology.Material and methods:A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 324 women with cervical intraepithelial or invasive cancers, for screening of anal cancer, from December 2008 to June 2009. Three hundred twenty-four cytological samples were analyzed by three cytopathologists. Cytological evaluation was based on the revised Bethesda terminology; samples were also classified into negative and positive for atypical cells. We calculated the kappa statistic with 95% confidence interval (95% CI to assess agreement among the three cytopathologists.Results:Interobserver agreement in the five categories of the Bethesda terminology was moderate (kappa for multiple raters: 0.6. Agreement among cytopathologists 1, 2 and 3 with a consensus diagnosis was strong (kappa: 0.71, 0.85 and 0.82, respectively.Conclusion:Interobserver agreement in anal cytology was moderate to strong, indicating that cervical cytomorphological criteria are reproducible also in anal samples.

  10. High level of ezrin expression in colorectal cancer tissues is closely related to tumor malignancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Jian Wang; Jin-Shui Zhu; Qiang Zhang; Qun Sun; Hua Guo

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the ezrin expression in normal colorectal mucosa and colorectal cancer tissues,and study the correlation between ezrin expression in colorectal cancer tissues and tumor invasion and metastasis.METHODS: Eighty paraffin-embedded cancer tissue samples were selected from primary colorectal adenocarcinoma. Twenty-eight patients had welldifferentiated,22 had moderately differentiated and 30had poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Forty-five patients and 35 patients had lymph node metastasis.Forty-five patients were of Dukes A to B stage, and 35were of C to D stage. Another 22 paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of normal colorectal epithelium (> 5 cm away from the edge of the tumor) were selected as the control group. All patients with colorectal cancer were treated surgically and diagnosed histologically, without preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The immunohistochemistry was used to detect the ezrin expression in paraffin-embedded normal colorectal mucosa tissues and colorectal cancer tissue samples.RESULTS: Ezrin expression in colorectal cancer was significantly higher than in normal colorectal mucosa (75.00% vs 9.09%, P < 0.01), and there was a close relationship between ezrin expression and the degree of tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis and Dukes stage (88.46% vs 50.00%, P < 0.01; 94.28%vs 51.11%, P < 0.01; 94.28% vs 51.11%, P < 0.01).

  11. Diabetes and cancer: Associations, mechanisms, and implications for medical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chun-Xiao; Zhu, Hong-Hong; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2014-01-01

    Both diabetes mellitus and cancer are prevalent diseases worldwide. It is evident that there is a substantial increase in cancer incidence in diabetic patients. Epidemiologic studies have indicated that diabetic patients are at significantly higher risk of common cancers including pancreatic, liver, breast, colorectal, urinary tract, gastric and female reproductive cancers. Mortality due to cancer is moderately increased among patients with diabetes compared with those without. There is incre...

  12. Posttraumatic stress disorder among bereaved relatives of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Reinholt, Nina; Nielsen, Louise Hjort; Blum, Alon; Lasgaard, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and predictors of PTSD in individuals who experienced the loss of a close relative to cancer. A total of 251 bereaved relatives ages 14 to 76 (M = 41.3, SD = 16.8) were recruited at a counseling service for cancer patients and their relatives. The prevalence of current probable PTSD was 40% in the bereaved sample. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis indicated that full-time employment, perceived control, and a secure attachment style moderated the risk for PTSD. Moreover, a long period of caretaking, high levels of somatization, and dissociation were all associated with an increased risk of PTSD. PMID:20623415

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder among bereaved relatives of cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, A.; Reinholt, Nina; Nielsen, Louise Hjort;

    2010-01-01

    and their relatives. The prevalence of current probable PTSD was 40% in the bereaved sample. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis indicated that full-time employment, perceived control, and a secure attachment style moderated the risk for PTSD. Moreover, a long period of caretaking, high levels......The aim of this study was to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and predictors of PTSD in individuals who experienced the loss of a close relative to cancer. A total of 251 bereaved relatives ages 14 to 76 (M = 41.3, SD = 16.8) were recruited at a counseling service for cancer patients...... of somatization, and dissociation were all associated with an increased risk of PTSD. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC....

  14. [Consequences of moderate hyperhomocysteinemia in internal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zák, A; Zeman, M

    2004-01-01

    Homocysteine is an intermediate product in the methionine metabolism, which is catalysed by several enzymes with B2, B6, B12 vitamins and folic acid as cofactors. Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia, defined as total homocysteine concentration between 12 to 30 micromol/l, represents an independent risk factor for heart disease, vascular brain disease, phlebothrombosis and thromboembolic complications. It is related to placental abruptions, spina bifida and some neuropsychiatric disorders. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a metabolic syndrome based on interaction between genetic factors (most frequently 677C/T polymorphism of methylentetrahydrofolate reductase), diseases and demographic factors (smoking, aging, hormonal and nutritional factors). Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia occurs in about 20 to 30% of patients with clinical complications of atherosclerosis. Prospective and genetic studies have shown, that moderate hyperhomocysteinemia in healthy persons is only a weak predictor of cardiovascular diseases. Contrary to it, in patients with ischaemic heart disease, renal failure or diabetes mellitus and in thromboembolic disease, hyperhomocysteinemia represents a strong predictor of vascular morbidity and mortality. Toxic effects of hyperhomocysteinemia on the vascular wall can be explained by a chemical modification of lipoproteins and vascular structure, oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, inadequate endothelial cell regeneration, smooth muscle cell proliferation or by an accumulation of functionally non sufficient connective tissue. Also thrombogenic effects or an increased expression of cholesterol level controlling proteins and fatty acids in the liver can be considered. Treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia is based on the administration of pharmacological doses of folic acid, B6 and B12 vitamins, which can decrease total homocysteine concentration by 25 to 30%. Such decrease, which is in average 3 micromol/l, results in the decrease of relative risk of ischaemic heart

  15. Developing food supplements for moderately malnourished children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briend, André; Akomo, Peter; Bahwere, Paluku;

    2015-01-01

    Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) are solid foods that were developed by changing the formulation of the existing liquid diet, F-100, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the rapid catch-up phase of the treatment of children suffering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM). The...... resulting products proved highly effective in promoting weight gain in both severely and moderately wasted children and adults, including those infected with HIV. The formulation of the existing RUTFs, however, has never been optimized to maximize linear growth, vitamin and mineral status, and functional...

  16. A MODERATED PRACTICE FOR STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Sorooshian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of strategies is a crucial part of the strategic management fundamental process. The main objective of this research is to develop a practical model for analyzing strategy implementation styles. Based on reviewed literature, authors have identified three major factors of strategy implementation, which include structure, leadership style and human resources. This study moderates TOPSIS, a multi attribute decision making tool, to analysis strategy implementation styles based on strategy implementation major factors. Furthermore, validity of the proposed practice of this study has been verified by conducting a case study.

  17. Approximate formulas for moderately small eikonal amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Kisselev, A V

    2015-01-01

    The eikonal approximation for moderately small scattering amplitudes is considered. With the purpose of using for their numerical estimations, the formulas are derived which contain no Bessel functions, and, hence, no rapidly oscillating integrands. To obtain these formulas, the improper integrals of the first kind which contain products of the Bessel functions J_0(z) are studied. The expression with four functions J_0(z) is generalized. The expressions for the integrals with the product of five and six Bessel functions J_0(z) are also found. The known formula for the improper integral with two functions J_nu(z) is generalized for non-integer nu.

  18. Moderator detritiation at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made of the technical and economic aspects of reducing tritium concentration in Savannah River Plant heavy-water moderator by 90%. A single detritiation plant would serve four operating reactors and the desired tritium reduction would be achieved in less than ten years. The process choice has narrowed to three processes. These involve a front-end extraction or preparation of molecular DT in a D2 stream, and a back-end fractional distillation of this stream followed by catalytic conversion to make 98% tritium T2

  19. Monitoring the response of breast cancer to radiotherapy and adjuvant therapy using breast cancer antigen CA 15-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study 35 breast cancer patients were followed during their treatment in Radiation and Isotope Center of Khartoum (RICK) using breast cancer antigen CA 15-3 as an indicator of tumor marker. They were classified into three categories of CA 15-3 concentration level as stated by Colomer and Genolla (1989) as follows: normal level less than 40 UI/ml, moderate level more than 40 UI/ml and less than 60 UI/ml, and high level, more than 60 UI/ml to 3000 UI/ml. A 5 ml of venous blood samples' were collected using sterile syringes from patients with different stage of breast cancer. The sample size were thirty-five cases, one of the cases is rejected because the patient discontinued the treatment. The blood samples were collected as follows: before starting the treatment course, at the mid time of treatment course, after completion the treatment course, and after one month of completion of the treatment course. The patients classified into two groups according to their treatment protocol. The first group received only external radiation therapy treatment and those were 18 patients out of 35, while the second group received combined therapy and those were 16 patients out of 35. For those whom received external radiation radiation therapy only, the results showed that the mean value of CA 15-3 concentration level decreased at the mid of the treatment as follows: 26±3 UI/ml, 24±3 UI/ml, 22±3 UI/ml respectively, while the mean value of CA 15-3 concentration level before starting the treatment was found to be 46±14 UI/ml. The number of the patients in the normal concentration level of CA 15-3 increased by 11% at the mid of external radiotherapy treatment and by 13% at the mid combined therapy, while the moderate level decreased by 6% for both external radiotherapy and combined therapy, while the number of patients within the high level decreased by 5% for external radiotherapy and 7% for combined therapy. After completion and after one month of completion of external

  20. Accuracy of Self-Reported Breast Cancer Information among Women from the Ontario Site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriana Barisic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining complete medical record information can be challenging and expensive in breast cancer studies. The current literature is limited with respect to the accuracy of self-report and factors that may influence this. We assessed the agreement between self-reported and medical record breast cancer information among women from the Ontario site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry. Women aged 20–69 years diagnosed with incident breast cancer 1996–1998 were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry, sampled on age and family history. We calculated kappa statistics, proportion correct, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values and conducted unconditional logistic regression to examine whether characteristics of the women influenced agreement. The proportions of women who correctly reported having received a broad category of therapy (hormone therapy, chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery as well as sensitivity and specificity were above 90%, and the kappa statistics were above 0.80. The specific type of hormonal or chemotherapy was reported with low-to-moderate agreement. Aside from recurrence, no factors were consistently associated with agreement. Thus, most women were able to accurately report broad categories of treatment but not necessarily specific treatment types. The finding of this study can aid researchers in the use and design of self-administered treatment questionnaires.

  1. Cancer risk assessments of Hong Kong soils contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Yu Bon [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin’an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Kang, Yuan [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Hong Sheng [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Department of Microbial and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lau, Winifred; Li, Hui; Sun, Xiao Lin [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Giesy, John P. [Department of Biology and Chemistry and State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Chow, Ka Lai [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Wong, Ming Hung, E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin’an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► High levels of soil organic matter in soils render PAHs more resistant to degradation. ► Open burning site contain high concentrations of PAHs in Hong Kong. ► Car dismantling workshop can increase potential cancer risk on human. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate soils from 12 different land use types on human cancer risks, with the main focus being on human cancer risks related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Fifty-five locations were selected to represent 12 different types of land use (electronic waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)); open burning site (OBS); car dismantling workshop (CDW) etc.). The total concentrations of 16 PAHs in terms of total burden and their bioaccessibility were analysed using GC/MS. The PAHs concentrations were subsequently used to establish cancer risks in humans via three exposure pathways, namely, accident ingestion of soil, dermal contact soil and inhalation of soil particles. When the 95th centile values of total PAH concentrations were used to derive ingestion and dermal cancer risk probabilities on humans, the CDW land use type indicated a moderate potential for cancerous development (244 × 10{sup −6} and 209 × 10{sup −6}, respectively). Bioaccessible PAHs content in soil samples from CDW (3.60 × 10{sup −6}) were also classified as low cancer risk. CDW soil possessed a higher carcinogenic risk based on PAH concentrations. Bioremediation is recommended to treat the contaminated soil.

  2. Cancer risk assessments of Hong Kong soils contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► High levels of soil organic matter in soils render PAHs more resistant to degradation. ► Open burning site contain high concentrations of PAHs in Hong Kong. ► Car dismantling workshop can increase potential cancer risk on human. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate soils from 12 different land use types on human cancer risks, with the main focus being on human cancer risks related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Fifty-five locations were selected to represent 12 different types of land use (electronic waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)); open burning site (OBS); car dismantling workshop (CDW) etc.). The total concentrations of 16 PAHs in terms of total burden and their bioaccessibility were analysed using GC/MS. The PAHs concentrations were subsequently used to establish cancer risks in humans via three exposure pathways, namely, accident ingestion of soil, dermal contact soil and inhalation of soil particles. When the 95th centile values of total PAH concentrations were used to derive ingestion and dermal cancer risk probabilities on humans, the CDW land use type indicated a moderate potential for cancerous development (244 × 10−6 and 209 × 10−6, respectively). Bioaccessible PAHs content in soil samples from CDW (3.60 × 10−6) were also classified as low cancer risk. CDW soil possessed a higher carcinogenic risk based on PAH concentrations. Bioremediation is recommended to treat the contaminated soil

  3. Neuroimaging in moderate MDMA use: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, F; Lenz, C; Steiner, M; Dolder, P C; Walter, M; Lang, U E; Liechti, M E; Borgwardt, S

    2016-03-01

    MDMA ("ecstasy") is widely used as a recreational drug, although there has been some debate about its neurotoxic effects in humans. However, most studies have investigated subjects with heavy use patterns, and the effects of transient MDMA use are unclear. In this review, we therefore focus on subjects with moderate use patterns, in order to assess the evidence for harmful effects. We searched for studies applying neuroimaging techniques in man. Studies were included if they provided at least one group with an average of MDMA use is associated with structural or functional brain alterations in neuroimaging measures. The lack of significant results was associated with high methodological heterogeneity in terms of dosages and co-consumption of other drugs, low quality of studies and small sample sizes. PMID:26746590

  4. Family functioning and adolescent alcohol use: A moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Flannery, Kaitlin M; Simpson, Emily; Russell, Beth S

    2016-06-01

    The primary goals of this longitudinal study were to examine the relationship between family functioning and adolescent alcohol use and to examine whether depressed mood mediates this relationship. An additional goal was to explore whether these relations were moderated by gender. The sample included 1031 high school students from the Mid-Atlantic United States. Participants completed surveys in school during the spring of 2007, 2008, and 2009. Path analysis results indicated that family functioning predicted alcohol use for girls. Moreover, depressed mood mediated this relationship. None of the direct paths between family functioning and adolescent alcohol use were significant for boys. However, similar to girls, depressed mood negatively predicted alcohol use for boys. Taken together, the findings highlight the need for prevention programs targeting adolescent substance use to consider gender-specific trajectories. PMID:26994346

  5. Perceived overqualification and its outcomes: the moderating role of empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Berrin; Bauer, Talya N

    2009-03-01

    Research shows that perceived overqualification is related to lower job attitudes and greater withdrawal behaviors but to higher supervisor ratings of performance. Drawing upon relative deprivation theory, the authors proposed and tested empowerment as a moderator of the relationship between perceived overqualification and job satisfaction, intentions to remain, voluntary turnover, and objective sales performance to examine if negative outcomes could be lessened while stimulating even higher performance. Hierarchical linear modeling results from a sample of 244 sales associates working in 25 stores of a Turkish retail chain show that empowerment ameliorated the negative effects of perceived overqualification on job satisfaction, intentions to remain, and voluntary turnover. Empowerment did not affect the positive relationship between perceived overqualification and objective sales performance. PMID:19271809

  6. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... Puts Someone at Risk? Possible Signs & Symptoms Early Detection About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of ...

  7. Colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... often lead to a complete cure. Almost all colon cancers start in the lining of the colon and ...

  8. Diabetes and Cancer: Is Diabetes Causally Related to Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Sunghwan Suh; Kwang-Won Kim

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious and growing health problem worldwide and is associated with severe acute and chronic complications. Moreover, epidemiologic evidence suggests that people with diabetes are at significantly higher risk for many forms of cancer. Several studies indicate an association between diabetes and the risk of liver, pancreas, endometrium, colon/rectum, breast, and bladder cancer. Mortality is also moderately increased in subjects with diabetes. Common risk factors such as ...

  9. Work Volition as a Critical Moderator in the Prediction of Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Webster, Gregory W.

    2013-01-01

    Building on the Psychology of Working Framework, the current study explored the extent to which work volition functioned as a moderator in the relation between positive affect, core self-evaluations, perceived organizational support (POS), and work self-efficacy to job satisfaction. In a diverse sample of 206 employed adults, work volition was…

  10. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Young Adolescent Girls: Moderators of the Distress-Function Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilt, Lori M.; Cha, Christine B.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study examined nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of young adolescent girls. Potential moderators of the relationships between different types of distress (internal and interpersonal) and particular functions of NSSI (emotion-regulation and interpersonal) were explored. Participants included 94 girls (49% Hispanic; 25%…

  11. Identification as Gifted and Implicit Beliefs about Intelligence: An Examination of Potential Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kate E.; Barger, Michael M.; Wormington, Stephanie V.; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated whether the developmental timing of a student's identification as gifted (i.e., when a student is first identified) was associated with later implicit beliefs about intelligence, and whether this relation is moderated by academic ability. A sample of 1,743 high-ability college students reported on whether and…

  12. Impact of Perceived Teachers' Competence on Students' Performance: Evidence for Mediating/ Moderating Role of Class Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sarwat; Shafi, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the impact of perceived teachers' competence on students' performance moderated by perceived class environment. The sample consisted of 500 students (250 male & 250 female) taken from public and private schools from the rural areas of Dokota Town, Tibba Sultan Pur, and Mailsi. Participants' age…

  13. Social Class as Moderator of the Relationship between (Dis)Empowering Processes and Psychological Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christens, Brian D.; Speer, Paul W.; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether social class moderated the relationship between empowering and disempowering processes and psychological empowerment (PE) in a sample of individuals from five community organizing initiatives (N=490). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test the relationship between community participation (CP) and alienation…

  14. Regulatory Self-Efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.; Giletta, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) ranging in age of 14 to 20 years (M = 16.1 years of…

  15. Eliciting a Distal Gesture via Dynamic Assessment among Students with Moderate to Severe Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katherine; Cascella, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    This study attempted to elicit distal gestures within dynamic assessment structured sampling events from six children with moderate to severe intellectual disability (ages 8-13). Using four communication temptations and a least-to-most prompting hierarchy across three sessions, three participants who had both pre-symbolic and preintentional…

  16. Do Private Religious Practices Moderate the Relation between Family Conflict and Preadolescents' Depression and Anxiety Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly A.; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    We extended past research that focused on the relation between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. In a sample of 160 11- to 12-year-olds, we examined whether private religious practices moderated the relations between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. Although preadolescents'…

  17. Moral Disengagement Moderates the Link between Psychopathic Traits and Aggressive Behavior among Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gini, Gianluca; Pozzoli, Tiziana; Bussey, Kay

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between three psychopathic dimensions (callousness/unemotionality, grandiosity/manipulation, and impulsivity/irresponsibility) and reactive and instrumental aggression in a community sample of early adolescents (N = 243, age M = 12.29, SD = 1.18). The moderating role of moral disengagement (MD) was also…

  18. Source-Specific Oppositional Defiant Disorder among Inner-City Children: Prospective Prediction and Moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Bubier, Jennifer; Chen, Diane; Price, Julia; Lanza, H. Isabella

    2011-01-01

    We examined prospective prediction from parent- and teacher-reported oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms to parent-reported ODD, conduct disorder (CD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and whether child executive functioning abilities moderated these relations among an urban, low-income sample of…

  19. Temperament as a moderator of the relation between neighborhood and children's adjustment☆

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, Nicole R.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Colder, Craig R.

    2010-01-01

    Although proposed by bioecological models, there has been minimal empirical examination of whether children's individual differences moderate neighborhood effects on development. We used an urban community sample (8–12 years, N = 316) to examine interactions among neighborhood characteristics (problems and social organization) and children's temperament (fear, irritability and impulsivity) in predicting psychosocial adjustment. The main effects of neighborhood and temperament on outcomes were...

  20. Parental Expressiveness as a Moderator of Coparenting and Marital Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Amy M.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2007-01-01

    Driven by theory and extant research on the communication of emotions within the family, the current investigation examined marital quality and parents' emotional expressiveness as determinants of coparenting in a sample of 57 couples with young children. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' expressiveness was examined as moderators of the…

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of the Moderately Halophilic Gammaproteobacterium Halomonas anticariensis FP35T

    OpenAIRE

    Tahrioui, Ali; Quesada, Emilia; Llamas, Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    Halomonas anticariensis strain FP35T is a moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from a soil sample taken from Fuente de Piedra, a saline wetland in the province of Málaga (Spain), which produces an exopolysaccharide and quorum-sensing signaling molecules of the type N-acylhomoserine lactone. We report here the draft genome sequence of this gammaproteobacterium.

  2. Does Self-Esteem Moderate the Relations among Perceived Stress, Coping, and Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbarth, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This study examined self-esteem as a moderator of the influence of perceived stress and coping on symptoms of depression in a sample of 713 college students. The results suggest that self-esteem may play an important role in the development of depressive symptoms in college students through interactions with perceived stress and coping. If an…

  3. Cape Verdean Immigrants' Career Development and School Engagement: Perceived Discrimination as a Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Maria Teresa; Blustein, David L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of perceptions of discrimination, career planning, and vocational identity to the school engagement experiences of first- and second-generation immigrants among a sample of 125 Cape Verdean high school students. Perceived ethnic discrimination was found to moderate the association between both vocational…

  4. Understanding Challenging Behaviour: Perspectives of Children and Adolescents with a Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Alison; Hennessy, Eilis

    2009-01-01

    Background: The present study examines understanding of challenging behaviour among a sample of children and adolescents with a moderate intellectual disability, and investigates their behavioural intentions towards peers with challenging behaviour. Methods: The study involved the collection of quantitative and qualitative data. In the…

  5. Moderate Physical Activity and Its Relationship to Select Measures of a Healthy Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Frank; Dunnagan, Tim; Haynes, George; Moore, Sylvia; Pelican, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    In rural communities, physical activity may influence and predict nutritional behaviors. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if an individual's stage of participation in moderate physical activity was related to select measures of a healthy diet. Data were collected using a mail-in survey from a random sample conducted in the…

  6. Supportive Relationships as a Moderator of the Effects of Parent and Peer Drinking on Adolescent Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urberg, Kathryn; Goldstein, Marilyn S.; Toro, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore whether supportiveness from a parent or a friend moderated the effects of the supportive person's drinking on the trajectory of adolescent alcohol abuse dependence symptoms. High-risk adolescents recruited from shelters and a matched sample of adolescents recruited from the sheltered adolescent's former…

  7. Personality and problem behaviours as predictors of adolescents’ social status: academic track and gender as moderators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubers, Mireille D.; Burk, William J.; Segers, Eliane; Kleinjan, Marloes; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Cillessen, Antonius H.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined adolescent personality and problem behaviours as predictors of two types of social status: social preference and popularity. Academic track (college preparatory and vocational) and gender were expected to moderate these associations. The sample included 693 students (49.0% female

  8. Stress Generation in Adolescent Depression: The Moderating Role of Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Kate L.; Lumley, Margaret N.; Truss, Alanna E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the role of childhood abuse and neglect and depression recurrence in moderating the generation of stressful life events in adolescent depression. Maltreatment history and stressful life events were assessed using two rigorous contextual interviews and rating systems. In a sample of 59 community depressed adolescents we…

  9. Depression as a Moderator of Sociocultural Influences on Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Females and Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…

  10. Parental Problem Drinking and Adolescent Psychological Problems: The Moderating Effect of Adolescent-Parent Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine whether adolescent-parent communication moderates the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescent psychological problems. Surveys were administered to a community sample of 1,001 adolescents in the spring of 2007. Results indicate that paternal problem drinking was associated with…

  11. Materialism and Well-Being: The Moderating Effects of Religiosity on Young Malaysian Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Kwai Fatt; Ong, Fon Sim; Moschis, George P.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a large-scale study of the relationship between materialism and well-being by examining the moderating role of religiosity. By confining the present study to a sample of young consumers drawn from Malaysia--a country of diverse subcultures who share similar cultural values (collectivistic), we attempt to…

  12. Teen Mothers Parenting their Own Teen Offspring: The Moderating Role of Parenting Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Laura; Holmbeck, Grayson; Paikoff, Roberta; Bryant, Fred B.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated whether parenting support moderated relations between age of mother at childbirth and parental responsiveness and monitoring. The sample included 212 African American families living in urban public housing; offspring were entering adolescence when data were collected. Parenting support was measured by assessing the…

  13. Learning Potential Among the Moderately and Severely Retarded. Studies in Learning Potential, Volume 3, Number 52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, James L.; Budoff, Milton

    The study investigated the feasibility of M. Budoff and M. Friedman's (1964) learning potential paradigm as an assessment approach with 40 moderately and severely mentally retarded persons (aged 12 to 22 years). Ss were tested three times: initially, after one week, and after one month with a match-to-sample block design test. Twenty of the Ss…

  14. Early Detection of Depression and Associated Risk Factors in Adults with Mild/Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, Jane A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presentation and risk factors for depression in adults with mild/moderate intellectual disability (ID). A sample of 151 adults (83 males and 68 females) participated in a semi-structured interview. According to results on the Beck Depression Inventory II, 39.1% of participants evinced symptoms of…

  15. Relationship between Anxiety and Burnout among Chinese Physicians: A Moderated Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Yang, Yanjie; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Pan, Hui; Ban, Bo; Qiao, Zhengxue; Wang, Lin; Wang, Wenbo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The main goal of this research was to investigate the complex relationships among coping styles, personality, burnout, and anxiety using a moderated mediation analysis. Methods A random cluster sampling procedure was used to select a total of 1274 physicians from two tertiary grade A hospitals in Heilongjiang Province, which is located in northeast China. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory (CMBI), Chinese version of the EPQ-revised Short Scale, and the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) were used to gather data. Moderated mediation analysis was used in this study; it was executed using the PROCESS macro so that the mediators and moderator could function together in the same model. Results The prevalence of anxiety symptoms among the physicians was 31%, and there were no differences between the sexes. The results showed that positive and negative coping styles partially mediated the association between burnout and anxiety symptoms in physicians. The mediated effect of positive coping styles was moderated by Eysenck’s Psychoticism traits. Conclusions Personality traits moderate the strength of the relationships between burnout and anxiety mediated by positive coping styles; however, personality traits do not moderate the strength of the relationships between burnout and anxiety mediated by negative coping styles. PMID:27479002

  16. SNS second target station moderator performance update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its first years of operations of its first target station, the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is working towards a facility upgrade by a megawatt-class second target station operated at 20 Hz repetition rate, which is intended to complement the existing ORNL neutron sources, the first SNS target station and the HFIR reactor, with high-intensity cold neutron beams.The first round of optimization calculations converged on larger-volume cylindrical para-hydrogen moderators placed in wing configuration on top and bottom of a flat mercury target, premoderated by layers of ambient water and surrounded by beryllium reflector. The metric of these optimization calculations was time-averaged and energy-integrated neutron brightness below 5 meV with the requirement to be able to serve 20 ports with neutrons. A summary of these calculations will be given including lessons learned from the variety of simulated configurations and detailed neutron performance characteristics like spectral intensities, emission time distributions, local variations of moderator brightness at the viewed areas, and sensitivity of the optimization metric to optimized parameters for the most promising configuration.

  17. Neutron moderation at very low temperatures (1691)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from Harwell experiment carried out inside a low-power reactor, we intended to maintain a liquid hydrogen cell in a channel of the EL3 reactor (at Saclay) whose thermal neutrons flux is 1014 neutrons/cm2/s. We tried to work out a device giving off an important beam of cold neutrons and able to operate in a way as automatic as possible during many consecutive day without a stop. Several circuits have already been achieved at very low temperatures but they brought out volumes and fluxes much lower than those we used this time. The difficulties we have met in carrying out such a device arose on the one hand from the very high energy release to which any kind of experiment is inevitably submitted when placed near the core of the reactor, on the other, hand from the very little room which is available in experimental channels of reactors. In such condition, it is necessary to use a moderator as effective as possible. This study is divided into three parts ; in the first part, we try to determine: a) conditions in which moderation takes place, hence the volume of the cell; b) materials likely to be used at low temperature and in pile; c) cooling system; hence we had to study fluid flow conditions at very low temperatures in very long ducts. The second part is devoted to the description of the device. The third part ventilates the results we have obtained. (author)

  18. Treatment of moderate and severe cancerpain by Lornoxicam: 32 cases report%氯诺昔康治疗中重度癌痛32例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗健; 王红; 王宏羽; 孙燕; 张和平

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study efficacy, safety, administration approaches of pellet of lornoxicam in treating pain caused by moderate and advanced cancers(import clinical verification) . METHOS: Multiple center, random, double blind, and sele-control method was used. Lornoxicam and positive control drug (tramadol) was randomly labeled as A and B. All qualified patients accepted A and B in turn. Purge drugs was given during interval. Number evaluation method was used to assay pain level and changes. Effective period, optimal relief time, and duration were computed. Level of adverse effects and its relation with drugs were evaluated. RESULTS: 32 patients were evaluated including 22 cases of moderate pain and 10 of advanced pain. When approaches of drug administered were stratified, there was no significant difference in efficacy between A and B considering single drug titration for drug administration according to need or time. Administration approaches included 2 pellets a time, twice a day(2#B1D); 1 pellet a time, three times a day(1#TID); 1 pellet a time, twice a day(1#BID) . When stratification was carried out according to pain severity, efficacy of A and B for moderate pain and severe pain variet between 74.2% - 92.3% , 55.0% - 92. 6% , respectively. There was no significant difference. Work time, optimal relief time, and duration for A and B were about 0. 8 hour, 1.5 hour, and 8. 2 hour. There was no statistical significance. Incidence of adverse effect for lornoxicam and tramadol was 20. 0% and 33.3% ,respectively( P < 0. 05). Superiority score for them was 7.6 :± 2.4 and 6. 1 ± 2. 1, respectivley( P < 0.05 ) . CONCLUSION: Lomoxicam had favorable effect on moderate and severe cancer pain, and is similar to drug of second rung such as tramadol. But its adverse reactions are slighter and less common compared with tramadol. Patients' content degree for lornoxicam is higher than that for tramsdol. 2#BID, 1#TID, 1#BID are more common. Considering small sample, its efficacy

  19. Cancergenetisk rådgivningsklinik. Erfaringer med genetisk udredning og rådgivning ved familiaer cancer mammae og familiaer cancer colorectalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, A M; Rasmussen, K; Graversen, H P;

    1998-01-01

    Five to ten percent of cases of breast cancer and colorectal cancer are familial. These families can be divided into high-risk families and moderate-risk families. Cancer in high-risk families can often be explained by dominant inheritance of a gene causing increased susceptibility to cancer. The...

  20. A novel antibody–antigen based impedimetric immunosensor for low level detection of HER2 in serum samples of breast cancer patients via modification of a gold nanoparticles decorated multiwall carbon nanotube-ionic liquid electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkan, Elham [Nano Drug Delivery Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saber, Reza [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, Ziba [Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-3697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamsipur, Mojtaba, E-mail: mshamsipur@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-18

    Highlights: • Design of a novel impedimetric immunosensor for detection of HER2 in serum samples. • Use of a multiwall carbon nanotube-ionic liquid electrode modified with AuNPs as a base. • Immobilization of monoclonal HER2 antibody on AuNPs/MWCILE using 1,6-hexanedithiol as a cross linker. • Achieving linear dynamic range and limit of detection of 10–110 ng mL{sup −1} and 7.4 ng mL{sup −1}, respectively. • Method development and validation and application to assay of HER2 in biological fluids. - Abstract: A highly sensitive impedimetric immunosensor based on a gold nanoparticles/multiwall carbon nanotube-ionic liquid electrode (AuNPs/MW-CILE) was developed for the determination of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Gold nanoparticles were used to enhance the extent of immobilization and to retain the immunoactivity of the antibody Herceptin on the electrode. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed for characterization of various layers coated onto the AuNPs/MW-CILE. The impedance measurements at different steps were based on the charge transfer kinetics of the [Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−/4−} redox pair. The immobilization of antibody and the corresponding antigen–antibody interaction at the electrode surface altered the interfacial electron transfer. The interactions of antibody with various concentrations of antigen were also monitored via the change of impedance response. The results showed that the charge transfer resistance increases linearly with increasing concentrations of HER2 antigen. The linear range and limit of detection were found as 10–110 ng mL{sup −1} and 7.4 ng mL{sup −1}, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the immunosensor were validated. The results showed that the prepared immunosensor is a useful tool for screening of trace amounts of HER2 in serum samples of breast cancer patients.

  1. A novel antibody–antigen based impedimetric immunosensor for low level detection of HER2 in serum samples of breast cancer patients via modification of a gold nanoparticles decorated multiwall carbon nanotube-ionic liquid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Design of a novel impedimetric immunosensor for detection of HER2 in serum samples. • Use of a multiwall carbon nanotube-ionic liquid electrode modified with AuNPs as a base. • Immobilization of monoclonal HER2 antibody on AuNPs/MWCILE using 1,6-hexanedithiol as a cross linker. • Achieving linear dynamic range and limit of detection of 10–110 ng mL−1 and 7.4 ng mL−1, respectively. • Method development and validation and application to assay of HER2 in biological fluids. - Abstract: A highly sensitive impedimetric immunosensor based on a gold nanoparticles/multiwall carbon nanotube-ionic liquid electrode (AuNPs/MW-CILE) was developed for the determination of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Gold nanoparticles were used to enhance the extent of immobilization and to retain the immunoactivity of the antibody Herceptin on the electrode. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed for characterization of various layers coated onto the AuNPs/MW-CILE. The impedance measurements at different steps were based on the charge transfer kinetics of the [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− redox pair. The immobilization of antibody and the corresponding antigen–antibody interaction at the electrode surface altered the interfacial electron transfer. The interactions of antibody with various concentrations of antigen were also monitored via the change of impedance response. The results showed that the charge transfer resistance increases linearly with increasing concentrations of HER2 antigen. The linear range and limit of detection were found as 10–110 ng mL−1 and 7.4 ng mL−1, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the immunosensor were validated. The results showed that the prepared immunosensor is a useful tool for screening of trace amounts of HER2 in serum samples of breast cancer patients

  2. Moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian S; Sobol, Nanna; Beyer, Nina;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise may modulate neuropathology and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This pilot study assessed the feasibility of conducting a study of moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise in home-dwelling patients with mild AD. METHODS: An uncontrolled preintervention...... parameters. RESULTS: Attendance (mean, range: 90 %, 70-100 %) and retention (seven out of eight) rates were very high. No serious adverse events were observed. In general, patients and caregivers were positive towards the intervention. CONCLUSION: This study shows that it is feasible to conduct moderate...

  3. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  4. Cardiovascular risks and benefits of moderate and heavy alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Solà, Joaquim

    2015-10-01

    The heart and vascular system are susceptible to the harmful effects of alcohol. Alcohol is an active toxin that undergoes widespread diffusion throughout the body, causing multiple synchronous and synergistic effects. Alcohol consumption decreases myocardial contractility and induces arrhythmias and dilated cardiomyopathy, resulting in progressive cardiovascular dysfunction and structural damage. Alcohol, whether at binge doses or a high cumulative lifetime consumption-both of which should be discouraged-is clearly deleterious for the cardiovascular system, increasing the incidence of total and cardiovascular mortality, coronary and peripheral artery disease, heart failure, stroke, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and diabetes mellitus. However, epidemiological, case-control studies and meta-analyses have shown a U-type bimodal relationship so that low-to-moderate alcohol consumption (particularly of wine or beer) is associated with a decrease in cardiovascular events and mortality, compared with abstention. Potential confounding influences-alcohol-dose quantification, tobacco use, diet, exercise, lifestyle, cancer risk, accidents, and dependence-can affect the results of studies of both low-dose and high-dose alcohol consumption. Mendelian methodological approaches have led to doubts regarding the beneficial cardiovascular effects of alcohol, and the overall balance of beneficial and detrimental effects should be considered when making individual and population-wide recommendations, as reductions in alcohol consumption should provide overall health benefits. PMID:26099843

  5. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  6. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... of colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  8. The eCALM Trial-eTherapy for cancer appLying mindfulness: online mindfulness-based cancer recovery program for underserved individuals living with cancer in Alberta: protocol development for a randomized wait-list controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zernicke Kristin A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated stress can exacerbate cancer symptom severity, and after completion of primary cancer treatments, many individuals continue to have significant distress. Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR is an 8-week group psychosocial intervention consisting of training in mindfulness meditation and yoga designed to mitigate stress, pain, and chronic illness. Efficacy research shows face-to-face (F2F MBCR programs have positive benefits for cancer patients; however barriers exist that impede participation in F2F groups. While online MBCR groups are available to the public, none have been evaluated. Primary objective: determine whether underserved patients are willing to participate in and complete an online MBCR program. Secondary objectives: determine whether online MBCR will mirror previous efficacy findings from F2F MBCR groups on patient-reported outcomes. Method/design The study includes cancer patients in Alberta, exhibiting moderate distress, who do not have access to F2F MBCR. Participants will be randomized to either online MBCR, or waiting for the next available group. An anticipated sample size of 64 participants will complete measures online pre and post treatment or waiting period. Feasibility will be tracked through monitoring numbers eligible and participating through each stage of the protocol. Discussion 47 have completed/completing the intervention. Data suggest it is possible to conduct a randomized waitlist controlled trial of online MBCR to reach underserved cancer survivors. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01476891

  9. Optimally moderated nuclear fission reactor and fuel source therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Terry, William K.; Gougar, Hans D.

    2008-07-22

    An improved nuclear fission reactor of the continuous fueling type involves determining an asymptotic equilibrium state for the nuclear fission reactor and providing the reactor with a moderator-to-fuel ratio that is optimally moderated for the asymptotic equilibrium state of the nuclear fission reactor; the fuel-to-moderator ratio allowing the nuclear fission reactor to be substantially continuously operated in an optimally moderated state.

  10. Neutron monitoring using moderating sphere detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three moderating sphere-detector systems are examined as a neutron area monitoring instruments. The thermal neutron detectors used are the (bare-Cd covered) Li6 (Eu) crystal scintillating detector, the U235-mica track detector and the partially Cd-covered R.M. film. The response of the 12 s sphere-detector systems to Pu-Be neutrons are found to be 0.22 counts/neutrons for the Li6I-system. 8x10-4 tracks per neutron for the track-detector system and 10 mR equivalent γ-ray exposure per 2x10-neutrons per cm- for the Cd-covered R.M. film system

  11. Solar cycle 25: another moderate cycle?

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Robert H; Schuessler, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Surface flux transport simulations for the descending phase of cycle 24 using random sources (emerging bipolar magnetic regions) with empirically determined scatter of their properties provide a prediction of the axial dipole moment during the upcoming activity minimum together with a realistic uncertainty range. The expectation value for the dipole moment around 2020 $(2.5\\pm1.1\\,$G) is comparable to that observed at the end of cycle 23 (about $2\\,$G). The empirical correlation between the dipole moment during solar minimum and the strength of the subsequent cycle thus suggests that cycle 25 will be of moderate amplitude, not much higher than that of the current cycle. However, the intrinsic uncertainty of such predictions resulting from the random scatter of the source properties is considerable and fundamentally limits the reliability with which such predictions can be made before activity minimum is reached.

  12. Solar Cycle 25: Another Moderate Cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, R. H.; Jiang, J.; Schüssler, M.

    2016-06-01

    Surface flux transport simulations for the descending phase of Cycle 24 using random sources (emerging bipolar magnetic regions) with empirically determined scatter of their properties provide a prediction of the axial dipole moment during the upcoming activity minimum together with a realistic uncertainty range. The expectation value for the dipole moment around 2020 (2.5 ± 1.1 G) is comparable to that observed at the end of Cycle 23 (about 2 G). The empirical correlation between the dipole moment during solar minimum and the strength of the subsequent cycle thus suggests that Cycle 25 will be of moderate amplitude, not much higher than that of the current cycle. However, the intrinsic uncertainty of such predictions resulting from the random scatter of the source properties is considerable and fundamentally limits the reliability with which such predictions can be made before activity minimum is reached.

  13. Moderate cognitive disorders as a multidisciplinary problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vladimirovich Zakharov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Moderate cognitive disorders (MCD are the acquired diminution of one or a few cognitive functions, which is outside the normal age values, but does not achieve the degree of dementia. Alzheimer's disease or cerebrovascular insufficiency is the most common causes of MCD. In most cases, MCD is a progressive condition and transforms into dementia with time. Therefore it is expedient to diagnose MCD and initiate its therapy as soon as possible. The management of patients with MDC should be individualized by taking into account the polyetiological nature of this pathological condition. It is mandatory to make a screening of systemic dysmetabolic disorders and neuroimaging, to detect and compensate for existing cardiovascular diseases, and to correct the patient's emotional status. It is also advisable to affect cerebral microcirculation and neurometabolic processes.

  14. Heavy water moderated gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    France has based its main effort for the production of nuclear energy on natural Uranium Graphite-moderated gas-cooled reactors, and has a long term programme for fast reactors, but this country is also engaged in the development of heavy water moderated gas-cooled reactors which appear to present the best middle term prospects. The economy of these reactors, as in the case of Graphite, arises from the use of natural or very slightly enriched Uranium; heavy water can take the best advantages of this fuel cycle and moreover offers considerable development potential because of better reactor performances. A prototype plant EL 4 (70 MW) is under construction and is described in detail in another paper. The present one deals with the programme devoted to the development of this reactor type in France. Reasons for selecting this reactor type are given in the first part: advantages and difficulties are underlined. After reviewing the main technological problems and the Research and Development carried out, results already obtained and points still to be confirmed are reported. The construction of EL 4 is an important step of this programme: it will be a significant demonstration of reactor performances and will afford many experimentation opportunities. Now the design of large power reactors is to be considered. Extension and improvements of the mechanical structures used for EL 4 are under study, as well as alternative concepts. The paper gives some data for a large reactor in the present state of technology, as a result from optimization studies. Technical improvements, especially in the field of materials could lead to even more interesting performances. Some prospects are mentioned for the long run. Investment costs and fuel cycles are discussed in the last part. (authors)

  15. Heavy water moderated reactors advances and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy is now considered a key contributor to world electricity production, with total installed capacity nearly equal to that of hydraulic power. Nevertheless, many important challenges lie ahead. Paramount among these is gaining public acceptance: this paper makes the basic assumption that public acceptance will improve if, and only if, nuclear power plants are operated safely and economically over an extended period of time. The first task, therefore, is to ensure that these prerequisites to public acceptance are met. Other issues relate to the many aspects of economics associated with nuclear power, include capital cost, operation cost, plant performance and the risk to the owner's investment. Financing is a further challenge to the expansion of nuclear power. While the ability to finance a project is strongly dependent on meeting public acceptance and economic challenges, substantial localisation of design and manufacture is often essential to acceptance by the purchaser. The neutron efficient heavy water moderated CANDU with its unique tube reactor is considered to be particularly well qualified to respond to these market challenges. Enhanced safety can be achieved through simplification of safety systems, design of the moderator and shield water systems to mitigate severe accident events, and the increased use of passive systems. Economics are improved through reduction in both capital and operating costs, achieved through the application of state-of-the-art technologies and economy of scale. Modular features of the design enhance the potential for local manufacture. Advanced fuel cycles offer reduction in both capital costs and fuelling costs. These cycles, including slightly enriched uranium and low grade fuels from reprocessing plants can serve to increase reactor output, reduce fuelling cost and reduce waste production, while extending resource utilisation. 1 ref., 1 tab

  16. Structural and Reliability Analysis of a Patient Satisfaction with Cancer-Related Care Measure: A Multi-Site Patient Navigation Research Program Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Pierre, Pascal; Fiscella, Kevin; Freund, Karen M; Clark, Jack; Darnell, Julie; Holden, Alan; Post, Doug; Patierno, Steven R; Winters, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Patient satisfaction (PS) is an important outcome measure of quality of cancer care and one of the four core study outcomes of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored Patient Navigation Research Program (PNRP) to reduce race/ethnicity-based disparities in cancer care. There is no existing PS measure that spans the spectrum of cancer-related care. Objective Develop a Patient Satisfaction with Cancer Care (PSCC) measure that is relevant to patients receiving diagnostic/therapeutic cancer-related care. Methods We developed a conceptual framework, an operational definition of PSCC, and an item pool based on literature review, expert feedback, group discussion and consensus. The 35-item PSCC measure was administered to 891 participants from the multi-site NCI-sponsored PNRP. Principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted for latent structure analysis. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach coefficient alpha (α). Divergent analysis was performed using correlation analyses between the PSCC, the Communication and Attitudinal Self-Efficacy (CASE-Cancer), and demographic variables. Results The PCA revealed a one-dimensional measure with items forming a coherent set explaining 62% of the variance in PS. Reliability assessment revealed high internal consistency (α ranging from 0.95 to 0.96). The PSCC demonstrated good face validity, convergent validity and divergent validity as indicated by moderate correlations with subscales of the CASE-Cancer (all ps 0.05). Conclusion The PSCC is a valid tool for assessing satisfaction for cancer-related care for this sample. PMID:20922802

  17. Appendix Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Appendix Cancer Appendix Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Appendix Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Appendix Cancer Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs ...

  18. Cancer Statistics: Pancreas Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... qnad9A-rfcw?rel=0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Pancreas Cancer Expand All Collapse All Statistics at a ... 5 Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Pancreas Cancer? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of ...

  19. Alcohol-attributable cancer: fact or fiction?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinder RM

    2011-01-01

    Roger M PinderInternational Journal of Wine Research, York, UKThe International Journal of Wine Research has published a number of articles related to wine and cancer, which have concluded that wine and its polyphenol components may have largely beneficial effects. Thus, a review of the role of wine in cancer concluded that regular and moderate wine consumption was associated with a decreased risk of mortality from certain cancers, and that the risk increased progressively with immoderate con...

  20. Adulthood lifetime physical activity and breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Peplonska, Beata; Lissowska, Jolanta; Hartman, Terryl J.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Blair, Aaron; Zatonski, Witold; Sherman, Mark E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Brinton, Louise A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown that breast cancer risk is reduced 30% to 40% in highly physically active compared with inactive women. However, the effects of moderate activities, timing of activities, and intervening effects of other risk factors remain less clear. METHODS: We analyzed data on physical activity patterns in 2176 incident breast cancer cases and 2326 controls in a population-based breast cancer case-control study in Poland conducted in 2000-2003. Using unconditio...